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Sample records for island downtown venice

  1. Venice, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.

    This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne

  2. Is the Venice Lagoon Noisy? First Passive Listening Monitoring of the Venice Lagoon: Possible Effects on the Typical Fish Community.

    PubMed

    Bolgan, Marta; Picciulin, Marta; Codarin, Antonio; Fiorin, Riccardo; Zucchetta, Matteo; Malavasi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Three passive listening surveys have been carried out in two of the three Venice lagoon tide inlets and inside the Venice island. The spectral content and the intensity level of the underwater noise as well as the presence or absence of Sciaena umbra and the distribution of its different sound patterns have been investigated in all the recording sites. The passive listening proved to be successful in detecting S. umbra drumming sounds in both Venice lagoon tide inlets. Our results indicate that the spectral content and the level of underwater noise pollution in the Venice lagoon could affect fish acoustic communication. PMID:26610947

  3. Discovering Diversity Downtown: Questioning Phoenix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmage, Craig A.; Dombrowski, Rosemarie; Pstross, Mikulas; Peterson, C. Bjørn; Knopf, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Applied community learning experiences for university students are promising endeavors in downtown urban environments. Past research is applied to help better comprehend a community engagement initiative conducted in downtown Phoenix, Arizona. The initiative aimed to illuminate the socio-cultural diversity of the downtown area utilizing…

  4. Natural versus anthropogenic subsidence of Venice.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Luigi; Teatini, Pietro; Strozzi, Tazio

    2013-01-01

    We detected land displacements of Venice by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry using ERS and ENVISAT C-band and TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed X-band acquisitions over the periods 1992-2010 and 2008-2011, respectively. By reason of the larger observation period, the C-band sensors was used to quantify the long-term movements, i.e. the subsidence component primarily ascribed to natural processes. The high resolution X-band satellites reveal a high effectiveness to monitor short-time movements as those induced by human activities. Interpolation of the two datasets and removal of the C-band from the X-band map allows discriminating between the natural and anthropogenic components of the subsidence. A certain variability characterizes the natural subsidence (0.9 ± 0.7 mm/yr), mainly because of the heterogeneous nature and age of the lagoon subsoil. The 2008 displacements show that man interventions are responsible for movements ranging from -10 to 2 mm/yr. These displacements are generally local and distributed along the margins of the city islands. PMID:24067871

  5. Natural versus anthropogenic subsidence of Venice

    PubMed Central

    Tosi, Luigi; Teatini, Pietro; Strozzi, Tazio

    2013-01-01

    We detected land displacements of Venice by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry using ERS and ENVISAT C-band and TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed X-band acquisitions over the periods 1992–2010 and 2008–2011, respectively. By reason of the larger observation period, the C-band sensors was used to quantify the long-term movements, i.e. the subsidence component primarily ascribed to natural processes. The high resolution X-band satellites reveal a high effectiveness to monitor short-time movements as those induced by human activities. Interpolation of the two datasets and removal of the C-band from the X-band map allows discriminating between the natural and anthropogenic components of the subsidence. A certain variability characterizes the natural subsidence (0.9 ± 0.7 mm/yr), mainly because of the heterogeneous nature and age of the lagoon subsoil. The 2008 displacements show that man interventions are responsible for movements ranging from −10 to 2 mm/yr. These displacements are generally local and distributed along the margins of the city islands. PMID:24067871

  6. Gypsies, Jews, and "The Merchant of Venice."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKendy, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Shows how looking at Shakespeare's prejudices and their roots, as seen in "The Merchant of Venice," can teach students not only about historical attitudes but also about their own unacknowledged assumptions and stereotypes. (MM)

  7. Downtown Learning Center. Profiles of Promise 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Sharryl

    As part of the Atlanta Public School System, the Downtown Learning Center (DLC) uses personalized learning contracts to thwart potential dropouts and classroom troublemakers. Voluntary admission, screening by a student/staff committee, and parental approval precede the general agreement which details school attendance and work commitments. In…

  8. Predictive simulation of the subsidence of venice.

    PubMed

    Gambolati, G; Gatto, P; Freeze, R A

    1974-03-01

    Land subsidence at Venice is the result of sediment compaction in the unconsolidated, aquifer-aquitard system that underlies the Venetian Lagoon. Compaction is caused by extensive groundwater withdrawals at the nearby industrial port of Marghera. The total subsidence at Venice for the period from 1930 through 1973 has been about 15 centimeters. Predictive simulations with a calibrated mathematical model were hampered by the sparseness of available data, but, as a first estimate, they suggest that, if withdrawals are kept constant in the future as they have been since 1969, about 3 centimeters of further subsidence can be expected. PMID:17780771

  9. Metals in downtown Washington, DC gardens.

    PubMed

    Preer, J R; Akintoye, J O; Martin, M L

    1984-02-01

    Soil samples from 95 gardens and leaf vegetables from 33 gardens in an approximately 3 km(2) area of downtown Washington, DC were analyzed for Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn. The mean soil Pb was 680 μg/g with a range of 40-5300 μg/g. Soil Pb values in this sample were considerably higher than those previously found for a sample of 70 gardens distributed throughout the city. In the downtown sample, 46% of the soil Pb values were above 500 μg/g and 17% were above 1000 μg/g. Soil Pb levels were found to be higher near the house than away from the house, a pattern that was also evident, though less pronounced, for Zn and Cd. Lead-based exterior paint was identified as the most likely source of soil Pb in several cases. The mean leaf vegetable Pb was 6.4 μg/g dry weight, a small but significant difference from the mean value of 4.5 μg/g obtained from the city-wide sample of 38 gardens. PMID:24263749

  10. From GI Joe to Workforce Learner: Revisiting the Downtown Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Susan Robinson

    1999-01-01

    Draws a parallel between the post-World War II custom of using buildings in central business districts to hold community college classes while campuses were being built, and holding classes in downtown locations today in order to better meet the demands of the workforce learner. Makes suggestions for operating a successful downtown center. (CAK)

  11. Land Subsidence International Symposium held in Venice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Third International Symposium on Land Subsidence was held March 18-25, 1984, in Venice, Italy. Sponsors were the Ground-Water Commission of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS), the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Italian National Research Council (CNR), the Italian Regions of Veneto and Emilia-Romagna, the Italian Municipalities of Venice, Ravenna, and Modena, the Venice Province, and the European Research Office. Cosponsors included the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMFE), and the Association of Geoscientists for International Development (AGID).Organized within the framework of UNESCO's International Hydrological Program, the symposium brought together over 200 international interdisciplinary specialists in the problems of land subsidence due to fluid and mineral withdrawal. Because man's continuing heavy development of groundwater, gas, oil, and minerals is changing the natural regime and thus causing more and more subsiding areas in the world, there had been sufficient new land subsidence occurrence, problems, research, and remedial measures since the 1976 Second International Symposium held in Anaheim, California, to develop a most interesting program of nearly 100 papers from about 30 countries. The program consisted of papers covering case histories of fluid and mineral withdrawal, engineering theory and analysis, karst “sink-hole”-type subsidence, subsidence due to dewatering of organic deposits or due to application of water (hydrocompaction), instrumentation, legal, socioeconomic, and environmental effects of land subsidence, and remedial works.

  12. Sedimentological, archeological and historical evidences of paleoclimatic changes during the holocene in the lagoon of Venice (Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Bonardi, M.; Canal, E.; Cavazzoni, S.

    1997-12-31

    Sedimentological investigations and archeological and historical information have allowed to correlate paleoenvironmental and coastline variations, in the Lagoon of Venice, to climatic changes during the Holocene. In particular, we report the results of a detailed study of Holocene sediments, from salt marshes and small islands, taken above and below a level with well dated archeological findings that gave a good indication of the mean sea level.

  13. Viaduct, looking west with downtown Harrisburg in background. Note ramp ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Viaduct, looking west with downtown Harrisburg in background. Note ramp descending from viaduct to Cameron Street at left. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  14. Downlight Demonstration Program: Hilton Columbus Downtown

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Robert G.; Perrin, Tess E.

    2014-05-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that there were about 700 million downlight luminaires installed in residential and commercial buildings in the U.S. as of 2012, with light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires representing less than 1% of this installed base. Downlight luminaires using conventional incandescent, halogen, and compact fluorescent lamps have lower efficacies and shorter expected lifetimes than comparable LED systems, but the lower initial cost of the conventional technology and the uncertainties associated with the newer LED technology have restricted widespread adoption of LED downlight luminaires. About 278 tBtu of energy could be saved annually if LED luminaires were to saturate the downlight market, equating to an annual energy cost savings of $2.6 billion. This report summarizes an evaluation of LED recessed downlight luminaires in the guest rooms at the Hilton Columbus Downtown hotel in Columbus, OH. The facility opened in October of 2012, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted a post-occupancy assessment of the facility in January–March of 2014. Each of the 484 guest rooms uses seven 15 W LED downlights: four downlights in the entry and bedroom and three downlights in the bathroom. The 48 suites use the seven 15 W LED downlights and additional fixtures depending on the space requirements, so that in total the facility has more than 3,700 LED downlights. The downlights are controlled through wall-mounted switches and dimmers. A ceiling-mounted vacancy sensor ensures that the bathroom luminaires are turned off when the room is not occupied.

  15. Deposition in St. Mark's Basilica of Venice.

    PubMed

    Morabito, E; Zendri, E; Piazza, R; Ganzerla, R; Montalbani, S; Marcoleoni, E; Bonetto, F; Scandella, A; Barbante, C; Gambaro, A

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric pollutants may cause damage to monuments and historical buildings. Besides air contaminants, soluble salts are also responsible for stone deterioration and decay in outdoor and indoor monuments. The problem of how to conserve works of arts thus requires a deep knowledge of contaminants' concentration and distribution inside buildings. In this work, water-soluble ions inside St. Mark's Basilica in Venice were studied, with the aim of understanding their principal source and distribution inside the building. With the aid of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis, the interaction between ions and surface's material was also investigated. Ion chromatographic analysis of depositions highlighted a large amount of "deteriorating agents" such as sulphates and chlorides. A possible source in the innermost area of the basilica has been found for formates and nitrates. On the contrary, a decrease of chloride, from the entrance to the innermost area, has been found, which indicates that the source is outside the building. It is emphasized that different contaminants behave differently on different material, and the effect of pollution inside churches and monuments is not easy to predict. Wood and brick seem to react differently than stone and mortar to the damaging action of salts and pollutants. The present work should be considered a useful tool for the future preservation of St. Mark's Basilica in Venice. PMID:22972617

  16. LITERATURE CURRICULUM III--TEST FOR "THE MERCHANT OF VENICE."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    THIS TEST--"THE MERCHANT OF VENICE"--WAS DESIGNED BY THE OREGON CURRICULUM STUDY CENTER FOR A NINTH-GRADE LITERATURE CURRICULUM. IT IS INTENDED TO ACCOMPANY CURRICULUM UNITS AVAILABLE AS ED 010 815 AND ED 010 816. (MM)

  17. Meeting of World Medical Association in Venice.

    PubMed

    1983-12-10

    Several changes in existing WMA declarations were adopted at the 1983 annual Assembly. The 1948 Declaration of Geneva was amended to indicate respect for human life from the "time of commencement" rather than the previous "time of conception." A determination of when life commences was left open. A new clause was added to the 1964 Declaration on Human Experimentation in General to cover protection of children. Wording emphasizing that the entire brain including the stem must have ceased functioning was added to the WMA position on determining death for purposes of organ transplantation. A document regarding euthanasia was approved and will be released as the Declaration of Venice, 1983. It considers euthanasia to be unacceptable even in cases of incurable illness; however, withholding treatment in order to reduce suffering is stated to be appropriate when the patient or next of kin consents. PMID:11644274

  18. Next Generation Luminaire (NGL) Downlight Demonstration Project, Hilton Columbus Downtown

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R. G.; Perrin, T. E.

    2014-09-30

    At the Hilton Columbus Downtown hotel in Ohio, DOE's Better Buildings Alliance conducted a demonstration of Next Generation Luminaires-winning downlights installed in all guest rooms and suites prior to the hotel's 2012 opening. After a post-occupancy assessment, the LED downlights not only provided the aesthetic appearance and dimming functionality desired, but also provided 50% energy savings relative to a comparable CFL downlight and enabled the lighting power to be more than 20% below that allowed by code.

  19. Using "The Merchant of Venice" in Teaching Monetary Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish-Goodling, Donna M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the use of Shakespeare's "The Merchant of Venice" in an undergraduate course in monetary economics, focusing on the usury theme origins of usury laws, scholastic arguments on paying interest for using money, civil usury laws, and modern theories of interest. It is argued that the play provides an interesting vehicle for an…

  20. Using "The Merchant of Venice" in Teaching Monetary Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish-Goodling, Donna M.

    1998-01-01

    Uses the theme of usury in Shakespeare's "The Merchant of Venice," and the history of Christian and Jewish beliefs concerning the charging of interest on loans to crystallize lending practices throughout history, particularly the medieval period and the transition to modern capitalism. Outlines themes addressed in the unit and assignments. (DSK)

  1. Case Studies in Censorship: Censoring "The Merchant of Venice."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews censorship of "The Merchant of Venice," which has been based on its portrayal of the Jewish character Shylock. Background information is followed by an annotated bibliography which includes 15 citations dealing with Shylock, 22 citations to articles that address the censorship of the play, and 64 works of literature that have been censored…

  2. A Teacher's Guide for "The Merchant of Venice" and "Othello."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    William Shakespeare has influenced most, if not all, Western playwrights. His techniques, themes, characters, and plots are contained in much of what is produced today, from television to Broadway. This teacher's guide provides summaries of the plays "The Merchant of Venice" and "Othello," essays, and corresponding student activities. The…

  3. Tycho Brahe and the Republic of Venice: a failed project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigatto, Luisa

    In 1592 the Senate of the Republic of Venice issued a decree by which awarded Tycho Brahe `300 coronati' for an astronomical mission to Alexandria in Egypt. The aim was to measure the pole elevation with meridian observations both of Sun and stars. Tycho writes about this project, never carried into execution, in his Astronomiae Instauratae Mechanica of 1598.

  4. Guest Room Lighting at the Hilton Columbus Downtown

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-30

    At the Hilton Columbus Downtown hotel in Ohio, DOE's Better Buildings Alliance conducted a demonstration of Next Generation Luminaires-winning downlights installed in all guest rooms and suites prior to the hotel's 2012 opening. After a post-occupancy assessment, the LED downlights not only provided the aesthetic appearance and dimming functionality desired, but also provided 50% energy savings relative to a comparable CFL downlight and enabled the lighting power to be more than 20% below that allowed by code. This document is a summary case study of the report.

  5. 76 FR 60113 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Masters of Venice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Paintings of Passion and Power from Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of... included in the exhibition ``Masters of Venice: Renaissance Paintings of Passion and Power...

  6. Potential inundation of Lisbon downtown by a 1755-like tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.; Omira, R.; Antunes, C.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we present 10 m resolution tsunami flooding maps for Lisbon downtown and the Tagus estuary. To compute these maps we use the present bathymetry and topographic maps and a reasonable estimate for the maximum credible tsunami scenario. Tsunami modeling was made with a non-linear shallow water model using four levels of nested grids. The tsunami flood is discussed in terms of flow depth, run-up height and maximum inundation area. The results show that, even today, in spite of the significant morphologic changes in the city river front after the 1755 earthquake, a similar event would cause tsunami flow depths larger than one meter in a large area along the Tagus estuary and Lisbon downtown. Other areas along the estuary with a high population density would also be strongly affected. The impact of the tide on the extent of tsunami inundation is discussed, due to the large amplitude range of the tide in Lisbon, and compared with the historical descriptions of the 1755 event. The results presented here can be used to identify the potential tsunami inundation areas in Lisbon; this identification comprises a key element of the Portuguese tsunami emergency management system.

  7. Is the 'mose' project to save Venice already obsolete?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirazzoli, P. A.; Umgiesser, G.

    2003-04-01

    Five meteorological and surge events that occurred during the last decades are analysed, simulating that a relative sea-level rise of 0.5 m (average IPCC prediction for the year 2100 + local subsidence) has taken place and that the "MOSE" gates (the planned mobile protection against flooding of Venice) could have been in operation during the events. In all cases considered, flooding would have occurred in the lowest parts of Venice, lasting for dozen hours, in spite of raising the street level to the +100 cm, or even to the +110 cm levels above the local datum. Problems would start for a sea-level rise of about 25--30 cm, or even of only 10 cm for a repetition of the 1966 event. This is both because the projected gates are not watertight, and rainfall and river discharge contribute to raise the average water level in the lagoon. Therefore, the "MOSE" would be inadequate to protect Venice in the case of the near-future sea-level rise predicted by climatic models for this century. This project might be useful to attenuate surge peaks, but would not prevent gradual floods when the closure durations implied by a sea-level rise will increase. Temporary "diffuse" interventions seem preferable to the "MOSE" gates because they would be safer for the environment and bring back the frequency of flooding to the very acceptable level of about one century ago, thus making possible to gain a few decades. This would give time to verify ongoing evolution and probably to narrow the large uncertainty ranges of present-day estimations. Only with a closer assessment of near-future sea-level rise will it be possible to decide which type of "hard" defence would be eventually necessary to save Venice and its lagoon. Anyway, a stricter control of water pollution should be a priority intervention.

  8. 76 FR 4651 - Venice Gathering System, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Venice Gathering System, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization January 19, 2010. Take notice that on January 7, 2011, Venice Gathering System, L.L.C....

  9. A new hydrogeologic model to predict anthropogenic uplift of Venice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, P.; Castelletto, N.; Ferronato, M.; Gambolati, G.; Tosi, L.

    2011-12-01

    Recent numerical studies based on a simplified lithostratigraphy of the Venice subsurface suggest that the city may be raised by pumping seawater into deep aquifers through 12 wells located on a 10 km diameter circle. Using an updated 3-D reconstruction of the Quaternary deposits, developed very recently from about 1050 km of multichannel seismic profiles and eight exploration wells, along with a more accurate representation of the injection boreholes, novel finite-element predictions are performed. The new model simulates the lithostratigraphy of the lagoon subsurface and allows for a reliable assessment of the water volumes injected into the geologic formations based on the actual bottom hole overpressure that can vary both in space and time. Pumping occurs into two Pleistocene sequences that are originated from the Alps and Apennine sedimentation and terminate just south and north of Venice, respectively, and the shelf portion of a Pliocene sequence that is rather continuous below the central lagoon with arenite layers to depths as much as 1000 m below mean sea level. With a proper tuning of the injection pressure the new hydrogeologic model allows for a prediction of a quite uniform 25-30 cm uplift over 10 years after the inception of injection. The gradient of the vertical displacement ξz does not exceed 5 × 10-5 and 1 × 10-5 in the whole lagoon and Venice, respectively, i.e., well below the most conservative bound recommended for the safety of the structures. If ad hoc calibrated injection overpressures are implemented in each single well, ξz may be reduced to as much as 0.1 × 10-5 throughout the city.

  10. Floating call boys and agile homosexuals: homophobia/Venice/history.

    PubMed

    Champagne, John

    2014-01-01

    Because works of nonfiction are always composed of literary tropes and metaphors, they have to be read critically for the ways in which their truth claims are potentially structured by ideologies and stereotypes. This essay reads passages from Richard Sennett's sociological analysis Flesh and Stone, The Body and the City in Western Civilization and Joseph Brodsky's memoir Watermark in order to demonstrate how these alleged works of nonfiction shore up some dishearteningly familiar literary stereotypes of male homosexuality and participate in a tradition, dating from the 19th century, of linking the city of Venice with homosexuality and death. PMID:24423004

  11. Vibrio Trends in the Ecology of the Venice Lagoon

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mohammad Shamsur; Cardazzo, Barbara; Facco, Pierantonio; Bordin, Paola; Mioni, Renzo; Novelli, Enrico; Fasolato, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio is a very diverse genus that is responsible for different human and animal diseases. The accurate identification of Vibrio at the species level is important to assess the risks related to public health and diseases caused by aquatic organisms. The ecology of Vibrio spp., together with their genetic background, represents an important key for species discrimination and evolution. Thus, analyses of population structure and ecology association are necessary for reliable characterization of bacteria and to investigate whether bacterial species are going through adaptation processes. In this study, a population of Vibrionaceae was isolated from shellfish of the Venice lagoon and analyzed in depth to study its structure and distribution in the environment. A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was developed on the basis of four housekeeping genes. Both molecular and biochemical approaches were used for species characterization, and the results were compared to assess the consistency of the two methods. In addition, strain ecology and the association between genetic information and environment were investigated through statistical models. The phylogenetic and population analyses achieved good species clustering, while biochemical identification was demonstrated to be imprecise. In addition, this study provided a fine-scale overview of the distribution of Vibrio spp. in the Venice lagoon, and the results highlighted a preferential association of the species toward specific ecological variables. These findings support the use of MLSA for taxonomic studies and demonstrate the need to consider environmental information to obtain broader and more accurate bacterial characterization. PMID:24487545

  12. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated sites in the Venice lagoon and conterminous areas (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Fontana, Silvia; Maleci, Laura

    2013-04-01

    The lagoon of Venice and the conterminous land are affected by heavy contamination of anthropogenic origin, and for this reason the whole area has been classified as site of national interest, and must be restored. Heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Sb, Se, Zn) and organic compounds (IPA, PCB, Dioxine) have been identified as the main contaminants at various sites, owing to agriculture and industrial wastes discharged on soils and convoyed to the lagoon. Five case studies of soil remediation are here reported. S. Giuliano is a former palustrine area reclaimed since the 60's with various human transported materials (HTM). In this area, hot spots overpassing the reference limits for residential and green areas have been recorded for Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and IPA. Campalto is a site bordering the Venice lagoon and subjected to oscillating water level, that enhances metal mobility; diffuse contamination by heavy metals, particularly Pb, has been recorded at this site, utilized since 30 years for military and sport (skate) activities. Marghera is dramatically famous for its numerous factories and for oil refineries that affected the lagoon sediments since the 50's. Sediments proved heavily contaminated by As (up to 137 mgkg-1), Cd (57 mgkg-1), Hg (30mgkg-1), Ni, Pb (700 mgkg-1), Zn (5818 mgkg-1). Murano is a small island where many glass factories (the most famous all over the world) are running since XIII century. Glass is stained with several metals and, moreover, some substances are used to regulate fusion temperature, purity, etc., and therefore the surrounding environment is heavily contaminated by these substances. Mean concentrations of As (429 mgkg-1), Cd (1452 mgkg-1), Pb (749 mgkg-1), Zn (1624 mgkg-1), Se (341 mgkg-1), Sb (74 mgkg-1) widely overpass the reference values for both residential and industrial areas in national guidelines. Molo Serbatoi is a former oil container currently under restoration in the port of Venice. Soil contamination by As, Hg, Zn and

  13. Macroalgae, nutrient cycles, and pollutants in the lagoon of Venice

    SciTech Connect

    Sfriso, A.; Pavoni, B.; Marcomini, A.; Orio, A.A. )

    1992-12-01

    The Lagoon of Venice is a wide, shallow coastal basin that extends for about 50 km along the northwest coast of the Adriatic Sea. The lagoon has been substantially modified through the actions of man over the last century through the artificial control of the hydraulic dynamics of the lagoon including the construction of channels to facilitate navigation. The lagoon is subjected to considerable pollutant loading through the drainage of land under cultivation, municipal sewage, and industrial effluents. In this paper are reported the results of observations designed to document recent changes in macroalgal species composition, seasonal cycles of primary producers and nutrient levels, and the effects of the macroalgal community on concentrations of organic and inorganic pollutants. The dominant macroalgae in the lagoon was Ulva rigida, and the levels of plant nutrients and pollutants were influenced by the seasonal cycles of the macroalgal community. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Statistical characterization of spatiotemporal sediment dynamics in the Venice lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniello, Luca; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Botter, Gianluca; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Characterizing the dynamics of suspended sediment is crucial when investigating the long-term evolution of tidal landscapes. Here we apply a widely tested mathematical model which describes the dynamics of cohesive and noncohesive sediments, driven by the combined effect of tidal currents and wind waves, using 1 year long time series of observed water levels and wind data from the Venice lagoon. The spatiotemporal evolution of the computed suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is analyzed on the basis of the "peak over threshold" theory. Our analysis suggests that events characterized by high SSC can be modeled as a marked Poisson process over most of the lagoon. The interarrival time between two consecutive over threshold events, the intensity of peak excesses, and the duration are found to be exponentially distributed random variables over most of tidal flats. Our study suggests that intensity and duration of over threshold events are temporally correlated, while almost no correlation exists between interarrival times and both durations and intensities. The benthic vegetation colonizing the central southern part of the Venice lagoon is found to exert a crucial role on sediment dynamics: vegetation locally decreases the frequency of significant resuspension events by affecting spatiotemporal patterns of SSCs also in adjacent areas. Spatial patterns of the mean interarrival of over threshold SSC events are found to be less heterogeneous than the corresponding patterns of mean interarrivals of over threshold bottom shear stress events because of the role of advection/dispersion processes in mixing suspended sediments within the lagoon. Implications for long-term morphodynamic modeling of tidal environments are discussed.

  15. Free amino acids in atmospheric particulate matter of Venice, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro, Elena; Zangrando, Roberta; Moret, Ivo; Barbante, Carlo; Cescon, Paolo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2011-09-01

    The concentrations of free amino acids were determined in atmospheric particulate matter from the city of Venice (Italy) in order to better understand their origin. The analysis of aerosol samples was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometric detector (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). The internal standard method was used and the analytical procedure was validated by evaluating the trueness, the precision, the recovery, the detection and the quantification limits. The particulate matter was collected using quartz fiber filters and extracted in methanol; after filtration the extract was directly analyzed. Forty samples were collected from April to October 2007 and the average concentrations of free amino acids in the aerosol were: alanine 35.6 pmol m -3, aspartic acid 31.1 pmol m -3, glycine 30.1 pmol m -3, glutamic acid 32.5 pmol m -3, isoleucine 2.4 pmol m -3, leucine 2.7 pmol m -3, methionine, cystine and 3-hydroxy-proline below the limit of detection, phenylalanine 2.8 pmol m -3, proline 43.3 pmol m -3, serine 8.6 pmol m -3, threonine 2.8 pmol m -3, tyrosine 1.7 pmolm -3, valine 3.8 pmol m -3, asparagine 70.2 pmol m -3, glutamine 38.0 pmol m -3, 4-hydroxy-proline 2.5 pmol m -3, methionine sulfoxide 1.1 pmol m -3, and methionine sulfone 0.1 pmol m -3. The total average concentration of these free amino acids in aerosol samples of Venice Lagoon was 334 pmol m -3. The temporal evolution and multivariate analysis indicated the photochemical origin of 4-hydroxy-proline and methionine sulfoxide and for other compounds an origin further away from the site of sampling, presumably reflecting transport from terrestrial sources.

  16. POPs in the Lagoon of Venice: budgets and pathways.

    PubMed

    Guerzoni, Stefano; Rossini, Paolo; Sarretta, Alessandro; Raccanelli, Stefano; Ferrari, Giorgio; Molinaroli, Emanuela

    2007-04-01

    Dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the ecosystem of the Lagoon of Venice were studied, in order to provide a general picture of conditions in the lagoon in terms of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). We present here novel data on atmospheric deposition, water, sediment and clam samples collected in the lagoon during the period January 2001-December 2004. Atmospheric deposition was sampled monthly at six sites located both close and far from large industrial and urban sources. Water samples were collected monthly from fifteen stations, and twenty-five samples of sediments and clams (Tapes philippinarum) were collected in four areas where clams are farmed and harvested inside the lagoon. All samples were analysed for PCDD/Fs, PCBs and HCB by HRGC/HRMS in the same laboratory. All samples examined (atmospheric deposition and water) substantially confirmed the spatial pattern reported in previously published data on sediments and atmospheric deposition: the zone surrounding the Porto Marghera petrochemical plant always had the highest levels of POPs (i.e., PCDD/Fs: atmosphere approximately 6 pg of 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents (I-TE) m(-2)d(-1); water 0.37 pg I-TEl(-1); sediment: 300 ng kg(-1); clam 2.8 pg I-TE g(-1)), and the minima were found at points on the margins of the lagoon (PCDD/Fs: atmosphere approximately 1 pg I-TEm(-2)d(-1); water 0.05 pg I-TEl(-1); sediment: approximately 5 ng kg(-1); clam approximately 0.2 pg I-TE g(-1)). Intermediate values were often encountered in the historical city centre of Venice and in the central part of the lagoon. To confirm this, new data on correlation between levels of PCDD/F in sediments and clams are reported, both for absolute values and for the PCDD/F "fingerprint". There is always a clear fingerprinting signature (PCDF/PCDD>1) for samples collected near Porto Marghera, and the opposite (PCDF/PCDD<1) in the rest of the lagoon. PMID:17215019

  17. Ship traffic and shoreline erosion in the Lagoon of Venice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Gian Marco; Zaggia, Luca; Lorenzetti, Giuliano; Manfè, Giorgia; Parnell, Kevin; Molinaroli, Emanuela; Rapaglia, John; Gionta, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    A study based on the analysis of a historical sequence of aerial photographs and satellite images combined with in situ measurements revealed an unprecedented shoreline regression on the side of a major waterway in the Venice Lagoon, Italy. The study considered long and short-term recession rates caused by ship-induced depression wakes in an area which was reclaimed at the end of the '60 for the expansion of the nearby Porto Marghera Industrial Zone and never used since then. The GIS analysis performed with the available imagery shows an average retreat of about 4 m yr-1 in the period between 1965 and 2015. Field measurements carried out between April 2014 and January 2015 also revealed that the shoreline's regression still proceed with a speed comparable to the long-term average regardless of the distance from the navigation channel and is not constant through time. Periods of high water levels determined by astronomical tide or storm surges, more common in the winter season, are characterized by faster regression rates. The retreat proceeds by collapse of slabs of the reclaimed muddy soil after erosion and removal of the underlying original salt marsh sediments and is a discontinuous process in time and space depending on morphology, intrinsic propertiesand vegetation cover of the artificial deposits. Digitalization of historical maps and new bathymetric surveys made in April 2015 allowed for the reconstruction of two digital terrain models for both past and present situations. The two models have been used to calculate the total volume of sediment lost during the period between 1970 and 2015. The results of this study shows as ship-channel interactions can dominate the morphodynamics of a waterway and its margins and permitted to better understand how this part of the Venice Lagoon reacted to the pressure of human activities in the post-industrial period. Evaluation of the temporal and spatial variation of shoreline position is also crucial to predict future

  18. Variability of atmospheric ammonia related to potential emission sources in downtown Toronto, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qingjing; Zhang, Leiming; Evans, Greg J.; Yao, Xiaohong

    2014-12-01

    The variability of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in downtown Toronto was investigated through the analysis of 24 hr integrated denuder NH3 samples collected at a site above a street canyon every third day from July 2003 to September 2011 (Dataset 1). The measured NH3 mixing ratios ranged from below the detection limit to 14.7 ppb during the eight-year period. Distinctive seasonal variations were observed with summer averages (±standard deviation) of 3.9 ± 1.6 ppb and winter averages of 1.1 ± 0.6 ppb. Two other datasets, weekly/biweekly passive samples of NH3 monitored at 74 agricultural and remote sites across southern Ontario during the period of June 2006 to March 2007 (Dataset 2) and semi-continuous measurements of NH3 and ammonium (pNH4+) in PM2.5 collected at a site inside a street canyon approximately 170 m away from the downtown site in December 2008 and February, March and May 2009 (Dataset 3), were further used to evaluate the potential NH3 sources in downtown Toronto. The NH3 mixing ratios at the downtown location were higher than those at the surrounding agricultural sites, and the mixing ratios within the street canyon were almost double those measured above it. These results suggested that the observed NH3 at the downtown location was mainly from local sources within the street canyon. Analysis of Dataset 3 showed that the diurnal cycles of NH3 at the downtown location cannot be simply explained by traffic and water consumption patterns. A green space inside the street canyon was identified as a potential important source contributing to the observed NH3 when T > 0 °C. However, the major NH3 emission sources at T ≤ 0 °C are yet to be investigated.

  19. New Acid Stimulation Treatment to Sustain Production - Los Angeles Downtown Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Richard C.

    2003-03-10

    Hydrochloric acid stimulation was successfully used on several wells in the Los Angeles Downtown Field, in the past. The decline rates after stimulation were relatively high and generally within six months to a year, production rates have returned to their prestimulation rates. The wells in Los Angeles Downtown Field have strong scale producing tendencies and many wells are treated for scale control. Four wells were carefully selected that are representative of wells that had a tendency to form calcium carbonate scale and had shown substantial decline over the last few years.

  20. Fragrances as new contaminants in the Venice lagoon.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, Marco; Cremonese, Simone; Gregoris, Elena; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    Fragrance Materials (FMs) are omnipresent components of household and Personal Care Products (PCPs). In spite of their widespread use, little is known about their environmental occurrence. We selected 17 among the longest-lasting and most stable fragrance ingredients that are commercially available, namely: Amberketal, Ambrofix, Amyl Salicylate, Benzyl Salicylate, Bourgeonal, Dupical, Hexyl Salicylate, Isobutavan, Lemonile, Mefranal, Myraldene, Okoumal, Oranger Crystals, Pelargene, Peonile, Tridecene-2-Nitrile, Ultravanil. A new analytical method was developed to quantify FMs in water samples and it was applied to perform the first study about the distribution of these compounds in the surface waters of the city of Venice and its lagoon. Total FMs concentrations range from about 30ngL(-1) to more than 10μgL(-1) in polluted canals during the low tide. Sewage discharges were supposed to be the main sources of the selected FMs in the environment. Salicylates, oestrogenic and allergenic compounds, were in general the most abundant and widespread components. This study reports for the first time the detection of most of the selected FMs in surface waters and represent the first step to understand their environmental fate. PMID:27267717

  1. 76 FR 19519 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Downtown San Francisco Ferry Terminal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Francisco Ferry Terminal Expansion Project in the City and County of San Francisco, CA AGENCY: Federal... Downtown San Francisco Ferry Terminal at the Port of San Francisco Ferry Building. The proposed project... document. Purpose and Need for the Project The purpose of the Downtown San Francisco Ferry...

  2. Demons, nature, or God? Witchcraft accusations and the French disease in early modern Venice.

    PubMed

    McGough, Laura J

    2006-01-01

    In early modern Venice, establishing the cause of a disease was critical to determining the appropriate cure: natural remedies for natural illnesses, spiritual solutions for supernatural or demonic ones. One common ailment was the French disease (syphilis), widely distributed throughout Venice's neighborhoods and social hierarchy, and evenly distributed between men and women. The disease was widely regarded as curable by the mid-sixteenth century, and cases that did not respond to natural remedies presented problems of interpretation to physicians and laypeople. Witchcraft was one possible explanation; using expert testimony from physicians, however, the Holy Office ruled out witchcraft as a cause of incurable cases and reinforced perceptions that the disease was of natural origin. Incurable cases were explained as the result of immoral behavior, thereby reinforcing the associated stigma. This article uses archival material from Venice's Inquisition records from 1580 to 1650, as well as mortality data. PMID:16809862

  3. Their Spirits Live within Us: Aboriginal Women in Downtown Eastside Vancouver Emerging into Visibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culhane, Dara

    2003-01-01

    The intersection of Main and Hastings streets--known locally as "Pain and Wastings"--marks the heart of Vancouver's inner-city neighborhood: the Downtown Eastside. Since 1997, when the City of Vancouver Health Department declared a public health emergency in response to reports that HIV infection rates among residents exceeded those anywhere else…

  4. Social Support and Social Network Ties among the Homeless in a Downtown Atlanta Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitzes, Donald C.; Crimmins, Timothy J.; Yarbrough, Johanna; Parker, Josie

    2011-01-01

    This study applies a typology of social support with 3 categories of social networks to investigate social ties and their benefits for homeless people. Data were derived from a 2-year long series of participant observations of homeless or precariously housed people who came regularly to a downtown Atlanta public park. The findings are as follows:…

  5. Downtown Learning Center Evaluation. Research and Development Report, Volume 8, Number 6, February 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Helen M.

    The Downtown Learning Center (DLC) is designed to develop a student's initiative, self-discipline, and orientation toward the future by providing an individually planned program for each student and a structure by which each student may set goals, design learning experiences, and appraise the results of the learning effort. To date, DLC has served…

  6. Sediment budget in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarretta, A.; Pillon, S.; Molinaroli, E.; Guerzoni, S.; Fontolan, G.

    2010-05-01

    A comparison of 1927, 1970 and 2002 bathymetric surveys in the Lagoon of Venice was used to reconstruct historical changes in sedimentation. A detailed GIS-based analysis of the charts revealed the timing and pattern of geomorphic changes and allowed calculation of sediment deposition and erosion for the entire lagoon and each of its four sub-basins: Treporti, Lido, Malamocco and Chioggia. Two main developments are discernible from comparative observation of the areal distribution of the main elevation ranges: the diminution in area of the saltmarshes, which decreased by more than 50%, from 68 km 2 in 1927 to 32 km 2 in 2002, and the progressive deepening of the lagoon, with a huge increase in the area of subtidal flats (between -0.75 and -2.00 m depth), from 88 to 206 km 2 during the same period. Generally, the lagoon showed a clear-cut change in the most frequent depths (modal depth) from a value of -0.62 m in 1927 to -0.88 m in 2002. The deepening of the lagoon affected mostly the lagoonal sub-basins south of the town of Venice, where modal depth increased from -0.65 to -1.12 m in Lido, from -0.64 to -1.75 m in Malamocco and from -0.39 to -0.88 m in Chioggia. Large changes in lagoonal morphology were caused by human-induced subsidence, the dredging of navigation channels between 1927 and 1970, and intense natural erosion enhanced by sediment re-suspension due to Manila clam fishing between 1970 and 2002. There was a net loss of about 110 Mm 3 of sediment from the lagoon, most of which (73 Mm 3, ca.70%) was in the earlier period. A significant amount was lost by dredging and direct disposal outside the system, either on land or at sea, and there was a net loss of 39 Mm 3 from the lagoon to the sea through the inlets, at an annual rate of 0.5 Mm 3. Comparison of erosion rates in the two periods revealed an alarming acceleration, from a net sediment loss of 0.3 Mm 3 yr -1 in the period 1927-1970 to 0.8 Mm 3 yr -1 in 1970-2002. Deterioration caused a shift from a

  7. Migration Rate Of Tidal Meanders: Inferences From The Venice Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finotello, A.; D'Alpaos, A.; Ghinassi, M.; Lanzoni, S.; Marani, M.; Rinaldo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Meandering channels are ubiquitous features of tidal landscapes. However, despite their fundamental role on the eco-morphodynamic evolution of these landscapes, tidal meanders have received less attention when compared to their fluvial counterparts. Improving current understanding of tidal meander migration, a largely-examined topic in fluvial landscapes, is a key step to highlight analogies and differences between tidal and fluvial cases. The migration of about 400 meander bends, belonging to 40 salt-marsh channels in the Northern Venice Lagoon (Italy), from 1968 to nowadays, has been investigated by means of both a classical method in fluvial frameworks and new procedure. Similarities with fluvial meanders occur, although important difference also emerge. Meanders cutting through the San Felice marsh follow the relationship between cartesian length and channel width, typical of meanders developed within different settings. However, meander migration rates proved to be smaller than those characterizing fluvial meanders. Indeed, the analysis of meander migration suggests a mean migration rate of about 0.10 m/year, consistent with the few data available in the literature. As for the fluvial case, the maximum-potential migration rate (i.e. the envelope curve of the relationship between migration rate and bend radius, both divided by channel width) reaches a maximum for radius-over-width ratio included between 2 and 3, regardless of the considered method. Nevertheless, the new-proposed method allows us to provide a more objective and continuous characterization. By using this new procedure, the channel curvature has finally been Fourier-analyzed, confirming the importance of even harmonics along the curvature spectrum. A correlation between migration rates and dominant harmonics seems to drive the evolution of tidal meanders and might represent a key-feature to distinguish them from their fluvial counterparts.

  8. The Taming of the Jew: "The Merchant of Venice" Is No Laughing Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    A new movie version of Shakespeare's classic troubling comedy, "The Merchant of Venice" (Brokaw, Cowan, Navidi, Piette, & Radford, 2004), has appeared, bringing up an ancient issue of the possible bigotry of the greatest writer in the English language. Shakespeare's plays about minority characters in the Venetian Republic have caused more and more…

  9. Understanding "The Merchant of Venice": A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halio, Jay L.

    "The Merchant of Venice," even in its own time, was considered William Shakespeare's most controversial play. Now, one of the most popular read and performed works, the play raises even more important issues for today, particularly anti-Semitism and the treatment of Jews. The analysis of the play in this casebook helps students interpret…

  10. Situation Venice: Towards a Performative "Ex-Planation" of a City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whybrow, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The article's main concern is to analyse theoretical and artistic factors influencing the attempt by a group of undergraduate students (at the University of Warwick, UK) to produce a "performative mapping" of the city of Venice. In other words, it asks what kind of performance-based strategies might usefully be applied in the process of…

  11. Sedimentation rates and erosion processes in the lagoon of Venice.

    PubMed

    Sfriso, Adriano; Adriano, Sfriso; Facca, Chiara; Chiara, Facca; Marcomini, Antonio; Antonio, Marcomini

    2005-09-01

    Since the early 1990s in the lagoon of Venice, especially in the central basin, the surface sediment underwent high re-suspension and sedimentation changes and water turbidity increased both because of the disappearance of the macroalgal coverage and the harvesting of the Manila clam Tapes philippinarum Adams and Reeve, which had rapidly colonised the bottom free of macrophytes. Clams are harvested with hydraulic and mechanical dredges which remove and re-suspend surface sediments causing the transport and loss of the finest materials. Sediment transport and re-deposition in the lagoon have been monitored with sediment traps placed onto the bottoms near the Malamocco mouth (st. A), the Lido watershed (st. B) and the mainland (sts. C and D). From 1989-1993 to 1998-1999 sedimentation rates increased significantly at st. A (from 41 to 228 kg DW m(-2) year(-1)), st. B (from 65 to 760 kg DW m(-2) year(-1)) and st. C (from 140 to 721 kg DW m(-2) year(-1)), while at st. D sedimentation rates increased only by ca. 20%. In parallel sediment grain-size changed with a loss of the finest fraction especially near the mainland. The erosion or sedimentation status, acquired by utilizing sedimentation devices placed onto the bottoms, showed that sts. B, C, D were affected by sediment losses, while st. A, populated by seagrasses and characterised by seasonal variations which depend on the shoot development, did not show any significant bathymetric change on an annual basis. The highest sediment erosion was recorded at st. D (ca. 3.6 cm year(-1)) whereas a loss of ca. 1.5 and 0.5 cm year(-1) was found at sts. C and B, respectively, which accounted for a mean loss in the central lagoon of ca. 1.2 million tonnes year(-1). Those data agree with the previous indirect estimation of sediment loss which was based on the number of fishing boats operating in the lagoon on an annual basis. PMID:16083960

  12. Risk, citizenship, and public discourse: coeval dialogues on war and health in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    This article is about September 11, 2001, and its narrated effects on the lives of nine street-involved women in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside. I outline the locations from which they spoke about war and health: as consumers and economic agents whose bodies are linked to transnational economic processes; as residents in a local community of shared knowledge and practices; and as marginalized citizens of a nation-state. I hope to emphasize the value of engaging research subjects in coeval dialogues that work against essentializing, state-sanctioned discourses narrated in the context of armed conflict and a public health crisis. To women drug users in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside, the "War against Terror" evokes particular sites of knowledge: the body, the local community, and transnational processes. Their repertoires of war stimulate questions about citizenship and perceptions of risk, challenging dominating medical and political discourses that tend to temporally and spatially localize their engagement with the world. PMID:17101508

  13. Safety and danger in downtown Vancouver: understandings of place among young people entrenched in an urban drug scene.

    PubMed

    Fast, Danya; Shoveller, Jean; Shannon, Kate; Kerr, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We undertook this qualitative study to examine young people's understandings of the physical and social landscape of the downtown drug scene in Vancouver, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with 38 young people ranging from 16 to 26 years of age. Using the concept of symbolic violence, we describe how one downtown neighborhood in particular powerfully symbolizes 'risk' among local youth, and how the idea of this neighborhood (and what happens when young people go there) informs experiences of marginalization in society's hierarchies. We also discuss the complex role played by social networks in transcending the geographical and conceptual boundaries between distinct downtown drug-using neighborhoods. Finally, we emphasize that young people's spatial tactics within this downtown landscape - the everyday movements they employ in order to maximize their safety - must be understood in the context of everyday violence and profound social suffering. PMID:19733496

  14. Safety and Danger in Downtown Vancouver: Understandings of Place among Young People Entrenched in an Urban Drug Scene

    PubMed Central

    Fast, Danya; Shoveller, Jean; Shannon, Kate; Kerr, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We undertook this qualitative study to examine young people's understandings of the physical and social landscape of the downtown drug scene in Vancouver, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with 38 young people ranging from 16 to 26 years of age. Using the concept of symbolic violence, we describe how one downtown neighborhood in particular powerfully symbolizes ‘risk’ among local youth, and how the idea of this neighborhood (and what happens when young people go there) informs experiences of marginalization in society's hierarchies. We also discuss the complex role played by social networks in transcending the geographical and conceptual boundaries between distinct downtown drug-using neighborhoods. Finally, we emphasize that young people's spatial tactics within this downtown landscape – the everyday movements they employ in order to maximize their safety – must be understood in the context of everyday violence and profound social suffering. PMID:19733496

  15. Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols at a pair of suburban and downtown sites in Nanjing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonaceous species in PM2.5 were measured in three seasons (except winter) in downtown and around a year in suburban in Nanjing. In particular, the OC and EC concentrations were continuously measured with 1-h interval at both sites. The mean concentrations of PM2.5, OC, EC were 85.9 μg/m3, 10.4 μg/m3, 4.2 μg/m3 and 63.4 μg/m3, 8.1 μg/m3, 5.3μg/m3 for downtown and suburban respectively. At the suburban site, compared to the lowest average concentration in spring, the relatively higher concentration of carbonaceous aerosol in summer was caused by biomass-burning activities. Significant increasing peaks of OC (up to 122.9 ug/m3) and EC (up to 35.8 ug/m3) in suburban were recorded in the June 10th night, and it is indicated using back trajectory that the air mass came through nearby agriculture areas. On the other hand, the OC and EC concentrations during the 2nd AYG (Asian Youth Games, Aug 16th - 24th in 2013) compared to that in rest days in August reduced by 21% and 10%, respectively, attributing to the effective control measures on reduction of industrial point sources, temporary control of motor vehicle and fugitive dusts. Rations of OC/EC in suburban were much lower than that in downtown. This might be due to the fact that the sampling point in suburban is quite close (in 400 meters) to a main highway. Both OC and EC concentrations in suburban were higher in nighttime than daytime, except OC in summer, indicating the existence of strong SOC and supported by high OC/EC and O3 at noon. The annual average SOC estimated by EC-tracer methods occupied 34.5% and 36.7% of the total OC for the downtown and suburban areas, respectively. OC/EC correlations in suburban were much weaker than those from downtown areas, which shows suburban areas is much more affected by long-range transport of pollution and/or complex sources including domestic coal combustion, biomass burning, industrial and transportation, especially in three other seasons except winter, which is

  16. 78 FR 39597 - Safety Zone; Hilton Fourth of July Fireworks, San Joaquin River, Venice Island, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Hilton Fourth of July Fireworks, San Joaquin River... Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is... notice, call or email Lieutenant Junior Grade William Hawn, U.S. Coast Guard Sector San...

  17. Transcriptomic resources for environmental risk assessment: a case study in the Venice lagoon.

    PubMed

    Milan, M; Pauletto, M; Boffo, L; Carrer, C; Sorrentino, F; Ferrari, G; Pavan, L; Patarnello, T; Bargelloni, L

    2015-02-01

    The development of new resources to evaluate the environmental status is becoming increasingly important representing a key challenge for ocean and coastal management. Recently, the employment of transcriptomics in aquatic toxicology has led to increasing initiatives proposing to integrate eco-toxicogenomics in the evaluation of marine ecosystem health. However, several technical issues need to be addressed before introducing genomics as a reliable tool in regulatory ecotoxicology. The Venice lagoon constitutes an excellent case, in which the assessment of environmental risks derived from the nearby industrial activities represents a crucial task. In this context, the potential role of genomics to assist environmental monitoring was investigated through the definition of reliable gene expression markers associated to chemical contamination in Manila clams, and their subsequent employment for the classification of Venice lagoon areas. Overall, the present study addresses key issues to evaluate the future outlooks of genomics in the environmental monitoring and risk assessment. PMID:25514060

  18. Dense downtown living more carbon intense due to higher consumption: a case study of Helsinki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Kyrö, Riikka; Junnila, Seppo

    2011-07-01

    Hindering urban sprawl is one of the main goals for contemporary urban planning. Urban density is considered crucial in climate change mitigation since it reduces automobile dependence and decreases unit sizes, for example. This letter analyzes the effect of density in a city context. In the study the Finnish capital Helsinki is divided into two areas of different urban densities: the high density downtown area and the more scarcely populated suburbs. The study is a continuation of a recently published study on the implications of urban structure on carbon emissions, and analyzes further the main finding of the first study—that higher urban density might have negligible or even reverse effect on the per capita carbon emissions. Similarly to the previous study, a consumption based tiered hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) approach is employed in order to produce a comprehensive assessment, free of territorial boundaries and system cutoffs typical of traditional LCAs. Based on the findings of the previous study, it is hypothesized that when assessing city level carbon dioxide emissions from a wider, consumer oriented LCA perspective, increased urban density may not necessarily reduce carbon emissions. Surprisingly, the study finds that carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions are substantially higher in the dense downtown area than in the surrounding suburbs, which is suggested to imply that the increased consumption due to the higher standard of living increases emissions more than the higher density is able to reduce them. The results demonstrate that, while increasing urban density can be justified from a number of ecological, social and economic viewpoints, density is not necessarily a key parameter in the particular case of climate change. In cities like Helsinki, where wealth is concentrated in the downtown area, climate policies should give higher priority to the energy consumption of buildings, to alternative energy production and distribution modes, as

  19. Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter in Venice air.

    PubMed

    Gregoris, Elena; Barbaro, Elena; Morabito, Elisa; Toscano, Giuseppa; Donateo, Antonio; Cesari, Daniela; Contini, Daniele; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Harbours are important hubs for economic growth in both tourism and commercial activities. They are also an environmental burden being a source of atmospheric pollution often localized near cities and industrial complexes. The aim of this study is to quantify the relative contribution of maritime traffic and harbour activities to atmospheric pollutant concentration in the Venice lagoon. The impact of ship traffic was quantified on various pollutants that are not directly included in the current European legislation for shipping emission reduction: (i) gaseous and particulate PAHs; (ii) metals in PM10; and (iii) PM10 and PM2.5. All contributions were correlated with the tonnage of ships during the sampling periods and results were used to evaluate the impact of the European Directive 2005/33/EC on air quality in Venice comparing measurements taken before and after the application of the Directive (year 2010). The outcomes suggest that legislation on ship traffic, which focused on the issue of the emissions of sulphur oxides, could be an efficient method also to reduce the impact of shipping on primary particulate matter concentration; on the other hand, we did not observe a significant reduction in the contribution of ship traffic and harbour activities to particulate PAHs and metals. Graphical abstract Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter and evaluation of the effect of an European Directive on air quality in Venice. PMID:26681325

  20. Regional and local land subsidence at the Venice coastland by TerraSAR-X PSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, L.; Strozzi, T.; Da Lio, C.; Teatini, P.

    2015-11-01

    Land subsidence occurred at the Venice coastland over the 2008-2011 period has been investigated by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) using a stack of 90 TerraSAR-X stripmap images with a 3 m resolution and a 11-day revisiting time. The regular X-band SAR acquisitions over more than three years coupled with the very-high image resolution has significantly improved the monitoring of ground displacements at regional and local scales, e.g., the entire lagoon, especially the historical palaces, the MoSE large structures under construction at the lagoon inlets to disconnect the lagoon from the Adriatic Sea during high tides, and single small structures scattered within the lagoon environments. Our results show that subsidence is characterized by a certain variability at the regional scale with superimposed important local displacements. The movements range from a gentle uplift to subsidence rates of up to 35 mm yr-1. For instance, settlements of 30-35 mm yr-1 have been detected at the three lagoon inlets in correspondence of the MoSE works, and local sinking bowls up to 10 mm yr-1 connected with the construction of new large buildings or restoration works have been measured in the Venice and Chioggia historical centers. Focusing on the city of Venice, the mean subsidence of 1.1 ± 1.0 mm yr-1 confirms the general stability of the historical center.

  1. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus at the hospital of Venice in 1863.

    PubMed

    Dall'Olio, G; Dorizzi, R M

    2000-07-01

    In 1674 Thomas Willis reported that the presence of urine 'as sweet as honey' was the pathognomonic sign of diabetes mellitus. In the 19th Century several reactions for the detection of glucose in urine were proposed and glucose measurement became common in the laboratories that were being set up in Europe. A case of diabetes mellitus, diagnosed by Namias, the head of the Women's Section of the Medicine Department of Venice Hospital, was reported in 1863 in the 'Giornale Veneto di Scienze Mediche' which contains clinical and laboratory information. A 34-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital for polydypsia, polyuria, bulimia and fatigue. Urine was weighed for 2 months (2-10 kgday(-1)) and the relative density ranged from 1.045 to 1.038. Glucose was measured in the urine using Moore, Trommer and Fehling reagents. A few days after admission a urine sample showed 7.69 parts/100 parts of urine and a blood sample showed 547 mg of glucose/100 g of serum. The assays were carried out in the Clinical Laboratory of Venice Hospital, founded in 1863, directed by Giovanni Bizio, one of the first chemists who graduated at Padua University. In 1863 chemical analyses were commonly carried out in Venice as in the other parts of Habsburg empire. PMID:10841905

  2. Simulation studies of STOL airplane operations in metropolitan downtown and airport air traffic control environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, R. H.; Mclaughlin, M. D.

    1974-01-01

    The operating problems and equipment requirements for STOL airplanes in terminal area operations in simulated air traffic control (ATC) environments were studied. These studies consisted of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) arrivals and departures in the New York area to and from a downtown STOL port, STOL runways at John F. Kennedy International Airport, or STOL runways at a hypothetical international airport. The studies were accomplished in real time by using a STOL airplane flight simulator. An experimental powered lift STOL airplane and two in-service airplanes having high aerodynamic lift (i.e., STOL) capability were used in the simulations.

  3. Characterization of a former dump site in the Lagoon of Venice contaminated by municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash, and estimation of possible environmental risk.

    PubMed

    Rigo, Chiarafrancesca; Zamengo, Luca; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Argese, Emanuele

    2009-10-01

    Bottom ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator on a former contaminated site, the island of Sacca San Biagio (Lagoon of Venice), was examined in order to evaluate levels of pollutants and their potential mobility and availability. Heavy metal concentrations were determined and the actual contamination of the site was compared with national legislation on polluted sites. The site was mainly contaminated by zinc, copper and lead. Physico-chemical characterization of bottom ash was carried out by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) with micro-analysis by EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) and XRD (X-ray Diffractometry), for information on newly formed minerals. SEM-EDS analysis revealed the presence of particles, compounds and clusters containing heavy metals and, in particular, the presence of barium sulfate, which was assumed to be a site-specific compound. Similarities between bottom ash and atmospheric PM10 collected on the adjacent island of Sacca Fisola were studied and a risk of aerodispersion of the fine fraction of ash was assumed. Lastly, in order to evaluate the potentially available fraction of metals (non-residual fraction) and the directly exchangeable fraction, two single extraction procedures with HCl and citric acid were carried out, respectively. Results showed a relatively low concentration of readily phyto-available metals, as well as the high concentrations found for some heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) in the potentially mobilizable fraction. PMID:19695669

  4. A STUDY ON THE DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF DOWNTOWN IN THE CASTLETOWN OF OSAKA AND EDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Takahiro; Shinohara, Osamu

    Castle towns in the modern era had unique urban fabric composed of well-developed infrastructure, such as streets, waterways and drainage. These elements have long interested researchers in the fields of urban history, architectural history and others. However, the principles of the design of the castle town have not been fully understood. Therefore, there has been a growing request to perform research on it in the field of history of civil engineering from the viewpoint of the infrastructure alignment of streets, waterways, drainage and others. The purpose of this study was to understand the design principles of downtown in the castle town of Osaka and Edo. In this study, first of all, the new methodology of the quantitative analysis to understand the design principles by using modern surveying maps has been shown. Then, based on the authors' previous research achievements, the design principles of downtown in Osaka and Edo have been reconsidered. Furthermore, characteristics of each design principles have been clarified by comparing Osaka with Edo.

  5. Study of water chlorophyl content in the Venice Lagoon through hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfagnoli, Francesca; Bizzaro, Beatrice; Moretti, Sandro

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of the HICO Project (http://hico.coas.oregonstate.edu/), a number of radiance and reflectance images of the Venice Lagoon were used to evaluate the possibility of performing quick and reliable mapping of water quality parameters. Sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO™) is the first spaceborne imaging spectrometer specifically designed to sample the coastal areas, with 128 spectral bands, a 90 m spatial resolution, full spectral coverage (380 to 960 nm sampled at 5.7 nm) and a very high signal-to-noise ratio to resolve the complexity of the coastal ocean. Eutrophication is one of the major causes of water quality deterioration. The concentration of chlorophyll-a found in water can be used to trace the abundance of planktonic algae in rivers, lakes or lagoons. The Venice Lagoon, famous worldwide, represents one of the most fragile and vulnerable ecosystems, which is being constantly threatened by factors of stress, both human and natural, such as erosion, presence of urban and agricultural sources of pollution, stress from fishing, pollution produced by the industrial area of Porto Marghera and by the city of Venice itself, downwash of sediments from the hinterland and eutrophication. Traditional methods of water quality estimation are often time consuming and involve periodical sampling and plenty of laboratory analyses. In this study the possibility of using imaging spectroscopy to rapidly obtain raster-based maps of chlorophyll concentration by comparing the results obtained through five different literature bio-optical models, which permit the retrieval of mathematical relations between the water's spectral properties and physicochemical parameters; pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and chlorophyll concentration. Evaluation of performances is achieved by comparing the hyperspectral based maps with maps of kriged concentration values, provided by the Magistrato delle Acque di Venezia (http

  6. "Weak-Center" Gentrification and the Contradictions of Containment: deconcentrating poverty in downtown Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Reese, Ellen; DeVerteuil, Geoffrey; Thach, Leanne

    2010-01-01

    This case study of recent efforts to deconcentrate poverty within the Skid Row area of Los Angeles examines processes of "weak-center" gentrification as it applies to a "service dependent ghetto," thus filling two key gaps in prior scholarship. We document the collaboration between the government, business and development interests, and certain non-profit agencies in this process and identify two key mechanisms of poverty deconcentration: housing/service displacement and the criminalization of low income residents. Following Harvey, we argue that these efforts are driven by pressures to find a "spatial fix" for capital accumulation through Downtown redevelopment. This process has been hotly contested, however, illustrating the strength of counter-pressures to gentrification/poverty deconcentration within "weak-center" urban areas. PMID:20827846

  7. Drug use patterns in the presence of crack in downtown Montréal

    PubMed Central

    E, Roy; N, Arruda; E, Vaillancourt; J-F, Boivin; C, Morissette; P, Leclerc; M, Alary; P, Bourgois

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Aims: A study was undertaken to verify reports of an increasing presence of crack in downtown Montréal, and to investigate the influence of crack availability on current drug use patterns among street-based cocaine users. Design and Methods: The study combined both qualitative and quantitative methods. These included long-term intensive participant-observation carried out by an ethnographer familiar with the field and a survey. The ethnographic component involved observations and unstructured interviews with 64 street-based cocaine users. Sampling was based on a combination of snowballing and purposeful recruitment methods. For the survey, structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 387 cocaine users attending HIV/HCV prevention programs, downtown Montréal. Results: A gradual shift has occurred in the last ten years, with the crack street market overtaking the powder cocaine street market. Although the data pointed to an increase in crack smoking, 54.5% of survey participants both smoked and injected cocaine. Drug market forces were major contributing factors to the observed modes of cocaine consumption. While the study focused primarily on cocaine users, it became apparent from the ethnographic fieldwork that prescription opioids (POs) were very present on the streets. According to the survey, 52.7% of participants consumed opioids, essentially POs, with 88% of them injecting these drugs. Discussion and Conclusions: Despite the increased availability of crack, injection is still present among cocaine users due at least in part to the concurrent increasing popularity of POs. PMID:21426421

  8. A Vision of Venice in the next Fin-de-Siècle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliapietra, Davide

    2014-05-01

    The IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report projections of sea level rise are larger than in the previous one. In the Adriatic a sea level rise higher than 60 cm is considered possible and rise of one meter cannot be excluded. An end-of-century a scenario in which the mobile barrier at the inlets will not be sufficient to protect the City of Venice from permanent floods is realistic and the closure of the lagoon will become inevitable. The possibility of converting the lagoon of Venice in an enclosed non-tidal basin is discussed. The aim is to protect the City preserving as much as possible the features of a healthy brackish ecosystem able to provide many of the ecosystem services it provides at present. This involves technological challenges, a deeper understanding of the ecological functioning of enclosed coastal basins, and last but not least, a shift in the educational and cultural paradigms. There is the need to endorse a coordinated and large-scale research effort to understand what will be the new hydrology and ecohydrology of the lagoon. The relationship between ecosystem metabolism and hydrology should be approached in the conceptual framework of lagoonal saprobity. Ad hoc research programs with experimental studies and observational monitoring should be implemented to improve our understanding of new ecological scenarios. Among the new opportunities arising from an heavy hydrological management there is the possibility to keep the water at an optimum level for the fruition of the City as it was a few centuries ago. It is likely that the sea level rise would change the entire geographical context. Brackish and freshwater wetlands surrounding the lagoon of Venice, reclaimed during the last century, will be probably ingressed by the sea. An attentive adaptive policy of wetland re-creation could supply both the ecological functions and the ecosystem services lost by the lagoon of Venice. The rapid adoption of a long-term strategy is therefore needed. Strategies should

  9. Downtown Elementary School (DES): The Unique School That Juxtaposes Both Magnet and Professional Development School (PDS) Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alenuma, Sidonia

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explore the operation of magnet and professional development school (PDS) programs in a real life situation using an ethnographic study of Downtown Elementary School (DES--a pseudonym) that simultaneously operates as a PDS and a magnet school. The author spent almost three years at DES, located in the Southern…

  10. Geochemical characterization of PM10 emitted by glass factories in Murano, Venice (Italy).

    PubMed

    Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Masiol, Mauro; Visin, Flavia; Rampado, Egisto; Pavoni, Bruno

    2008-05-01

    The atmosphere in Venice, like in other European cities, is influenced by complex PM(10) multi-emission sources with a net tendency to exceed the limits fixed by the directive 99/30/EC. This study investigated the composition of an ensemble of similar industrial sources, the Murano Glassmaking Factories (MGFs), and their influence on the Venice air quality, using a modelling approach, statistical analysis and geochemical considerations. Preliminary modelling simulations were conducted to select three sampling sites along the way of preferential transport of pollutants from source between February and April 2003. Subsequently, a sampling campaign was carried out in the same period of simulations. Concentrations of PM(10), eight major elements (Al, Ti, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn), 20 minor and trace elements (Li, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ru, Rh, Cd, Sb, Ba, Ce, Pt, Pb) and four PAHs (BaA, BbF, BkF, BaP) were quantified. The analytical results were statistically processed for exploring the relationships between inorganic elements and organic compounds, and results were interpreted using geochemical considerations. Results show a MGF component of PM(10) characterised by two different fingerprints: the first linked to glass raw material composition and the second mainly related to glass additives. Particularly, Cd, Se, As and Li preserve their ratios in all study area, and are interpreted as principal components of the MGF emissions. Other fingerprints can be traced to urban sources from the Venetian mainland. PMID:18328529

  11. The application of profile imaging for monitoring organic and metal pollution in the Venice lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Bona, F.; Maffiotti, A.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1993 the technique of Sediment Profile Imaging (SPI) has been applied in monitoring the Venice Lagoon. The purposes of the monitoring were several, ranging from an initial baseline survey of sediment quality, to the control of Ulva rigida proliferation, to sediment quality assessment for dredging and capping activities in restricted areas of the lagoon. Data resulting from each computer image analysis have been summarized in one index which takes into consideration the mutual interactions between the physical and chemical conditions and the benthic community. In this way a spatial and seasonal gradient in the quality Venice Lagoon sediments has been established and the key roles of the organic enrichment and of the ecosystem hydrodynamics have been confirmed. The underwater camera and image analysis have also been an effective screening tool to address further investigations in those areas of particular concern for sediment contamination. On the basis of the SPI indices a selection of stations has been made in order to sample and perform sediment toxicity tests and chemical analyses to assess contamination levels.

  12. Organic micropollutants in wet and dry depositions in the Venice Lagoon.

    PubMed

    Gambaro, Andrea; Radaelli, Marta; Piazza, Rossano; Stortini, Angela Maria; Contini, Daniele; Belosi, Franco; Zangrando, Roberta; Cescon, Paolo

    2009-08-01

    Atmospheric transport is an important route by which pollutants are conveyed from the continents to both coastal and open sea. The role of aerosol deposition in the transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and polybromodiphenyls ethers (PBDEs) to water and soil systems has been evaluated by measuring their concentrations in wet and dry depositions to the Venice Lagoon. The organic micropollutant flux data indicate that they contribute to the total deposition flux in different ways through wet and dry deposition, showing that the prevalent contribution derives from wet deposition. The fluxes calculated for PBDEs, showed the prevalence of 47, 99, 100 and 183 congeners, both in dry and wet fluxes. With regard to PCBs, the flux of summation operatorPCB for wet deposition is in the same order of magnitude of the diffusive flux at the air-water interface. The PAH fluxes obtained in the present study are similar to those obtained in previous studies on the atmospheric bulk deposition to the Venice Lagoon. The ratios between Phe/Ant and Fl/Py indicate that the pollutants sources are pyrolytic, deriving from combustion fuels. PMID:19524283

  13. Wind-induced Resuspension Events in the Venice Lagoon: evidence from the Past and Trends for the Future.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alpaos, A.; Carniello, L.; D'Alpaos, L.; Rinaldo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Wind waves promote the erosion and degradation of ubiquitous geomorphic features of tidal landscapes, such as subtidal platforms, tidal flats and salt marshes. Both in the vertical and in the horizontal planes, wind-wave induced erosion is one of the chief processes controlling the morphodynamic evolution of shallow tidal basins. Wind-wave induced bottom shear stresses can promote the disruption of the polymeric microphytobenthic biofilm and lead to the erosion of tidal-flat surfaces and to the increase in suspended sediment concentration which in turn affects the stability of intertidal ecosystems. As an example, the Venice Lagoon has experienced strong erosion processes in the last two centuries, which progressively deepened the lagoonal bottoms, promoted the loss of fine cohesive sediments through the inlets after storms, and lead to the loss of extensive salt-marsh areas. Towards the goal of developing a synthetic theoretical framework to represent wind wave-induced resuspension events and account for their erosional effects on the long-term biomorphodynamic evolution of tidal systems, we employed a full-fledged finite element model accounting for the role of wind waves and tidal currents on the hydrodynamic circulation in shallow basins. Our analyses of the spatial and temporal characteristics of wind-induced erosion events for the actual configuration of the Venice Lagoon and for a few configurations of the last two centuries, allow us to reconstruct erosive trends typical of past Venice Lagoon configurations and to provide predictions on future scenarios for the Venice Lagoon.

  14. The eSurge-Venice project: altimeter and scatterometer satellite data to improve the storm surge forecasting in the city of Venice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zecchetto, Stefano; De Biasio, Francesco; Umgiesser, Georg; Bajo, Marco; Vignudelli, Stefano; Papa, Alvise; Donlon, Craig; Bellafiore, Debora

    2013-04-01

    On the framework of the Data User Element (DUE) program, the European Space Agency is funding a project to use altimeter Total Water Level Envelope (TWLE) and scatterometer wind data to improve the storm surge forecasting in the Adriatic Sea and in the city of Venice. The project will: a) Select a number of Storm Surge Events occurred in the Venice lagoon in the period 1999-present day b) Provide the available satellite Earth Observation (EO) data related to the Storm Surge Events, mainly satellite winds and altimeter data, as well as all the available in-situ data and model forecasts c) Provide a demonstration Near Real Time service of EO data products and services in support of operational and experimental forecasting and warning services d) Run a number of re-analysis cases, both for historical and contemporary storm surge events, to demonstrate the usefulness of EO data The re-analysis experiments, based on hindcasts performed by the finite element 2-D oceanographic model SHYFEM (https://sites.google.com/site/shyfem/), will 1. use different forcing wind fields (calibrated and not calibrated with satellite wind data) 2. use Storm Surge Model initial conditions determined from altimeter TWLE data. The experience gained working with scatterometer and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) winds in the Adriatic Sea tells us that the bias NWP-Scatt wind is negative and spatially and temporally not uniform. In particular, a well established point is that the bias is higher close to coasts then offshore. Therefore, NWP wind speed calibration will be carried out on each single grid point in the Adriatic Sea domain over the period of a Storm Surge Event, taking into account of existing published methods. Point #2 considers two different methodologies to be used in re-analysis tests. One is based on the use of the TWLE values from altimeter data in the Storm Surge Model (SSM), applying data assimilation methodologies and trying to optimize the initial conditions of the

  15. Opportunities to learn and barriers to change: crack cocaine use in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Susan; Johnson, Joy L; Moffat, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, a team comprised of researchers and service providers launched the Safer Crack Use, Outreach, Research and Education (SCORE) project in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The project was aimed at developing a better understanding of the harms associated with crack cocaine smoking and determining the feasibility of introducing specific harm reduction strategies. Specifically, in partnership with the community, we constructed and distributed kits that contained harm reduction materials. We were particularly interested in understanding what people thought of these kits and how the kits contents were used. To obtain this information, we conducted 27 interviews with women and men who used crack cocaine and received safer crack kits. Four broad themes were generated from the data: 1) the context of crack use practices; 2) learning/transmission of harm reducon education; 3) changing practice; 4) barriers to change. This project suggests that harm reduction education is most successful when it is informed by current practices with crack use. In addition it is most effectively delivered through informal interactions with people who use crack and includes repeated demonstrations of harm reduction equipment by peers and outreach workers. This paper also suggests that barriers to harm reduction are systemic: lack of safe housing and private space shape crack use practices. PMID:19014696

  16. Correlations between zooplankton assemblages and environmental factors in the downtown rivers of Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Na; Li, Erchao; Feng, Dexiang; Xiao, Baicai; Wei, Chaoqun; Zhang, Meiling; Chen, Liqiao

    2014-11-01

    Most urban rivers play an important role in urban flood control and drainage in China, but pollution is fast becoming an issue of greater importance in water management. In this study, 63 zooplankton species were recorded in four downtown rivers in Shanghai between November 2007 and October 2008. Of these, 44 species belonged to the Rotifera, 13 to Cladocera, and six to Copepoda. The three most frequently occurring zooplankton ( Brachionus calyciflorus, Microcyclops leuckarti, and Asplanchna priodonta) accounted for 80.00%, 76.84%, and 53.68%, respectively. Rotifera were found to be dominant, comprising 86.26% of total zooplankton, while cladoceran and copepod abundance amounted to 5.08% and 8.67%, respectively. Water temperature, salinity, electrical conductivity, and total nitrogen were of the greatest significance in the occurrence of zooplankton. Two species ( Schmackeria forbesi and Lepadella ovalis) were notably more sensitive to environmental factors such as salinity and electrical conductivity than other species. The population size and community were inversely correlated with the increasing nutrient levels of the four rivers, suggesting that the water quality of the four rivers had been gradually recovering from a severe eutrophic state and that water conditions of the rivers had been gradually improved.

  17. Anthropogenic and Biogenic Features of Long-Term Measured CO Flux in North Downtown Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Park, Changhyoun; Schade, Gunnar W

    2016-01-01

    Long-term urban carbon cycle studies remain rare despite the importance of carbon for energy, air quality, and climate change. To study spatial and temporal variations of energy and carbon fluxes in a subtropical urban environment, eddy covariance flux measurements were conducted north of downtown Houston, TX, using a tall radio-tower installation. The results of the first 2 yr of measurements show that both concentrations and fluxes of CO display typical seasonal and diurnal variations in urban areas. The seasonal variation of net CO flux is driven by steady anthropogenic emissions dominated by car traffic and human respiration, moderated by the local deciduous tree foliage. Weekday-weekend differences were observed in carbon fluxes, but not concentrations, while diurnal changes were dominated by rush-hour peaks from traffic and vegetation influences. Interestingly, CO and CO concentrations, but not CO flux, exhibited long-term declines, especially comparing pre- and post-Hurricane Ike periods. A directional analysis of CO fluxes revealed that the highest fluxes typically occurred from northwest directions, most likely due to emissions from small industrial sources. Car traffic as carbon source was revealed via correlations of CO with CO during the morning rush hours, and of CO flux with traffic counts during winter time. The influence of urban vegetation on net CO fluxes was identified via correlations with daytime photosynthetically active radiation due to photosynthesis, and with nighttime temperatures due to ecosystem respiration. The study site is a net source of CO throughout all seasons. PMID:26828181

  18. Global change and relative sea level rise at Venice: what impact in term of flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbognin, Laura; Teatini, Pietro; Tomasin, Alberto; Tosi, Luigi

    2010-11-01

    Relative sea level rise (RSLR) due to climate change and geodynamics represents the main threat for the survival of Venice, emerging today only 90 cm above the Northern Adriatic mean sea level (msl). The 25 cm RSLR occurred over the 20th century, consisting of about 12 cm of land subsidence and 13 cm of sea level rise, has increased the flood frequency by more than seven times with severe damages to the urban heritage. Reasonable forecasts of the RSLR expected to the century end must be investigated to assess the suitability of the Mo.S.E. project planned for the city safeguarding, i.e., the closure of the lagoon inlets by mobile barriers. Here we consider three RSLR scenarios as resulting from the past sea level rise recorded in the Northern Adriatic Sea, the IPCC mid-range A1B scenario, and the expected land subsidence. Available sea level measurements show that more than 5 decades are required to compute a meaningful eustatic trend, due to pseudo-cyclic 7-8 year long fluctuations. The period from 1890 to 2007 is characterized by an average rate of 0.12 ± 0.01 cm/year. We demonstrate that linear regression is the most suitable model to represent the eustatic process over these 117 year. Concerning subsidence, at present Venice is sinking due to natural causes at 0.05 cm/year. The RSLR is expected to range between 17 and 53 cm by 2100, and its repercussions in terms of flooding frequency are associated here to each scenario. In particular, the frequency of tides higher than 110 cm, i.e., the value above which the gates would close the lagoon to the sea, will increase from the nowadays 4 times per year to a range between 20 and 250. These projections provide a large spread of possible conditions concerning the survival of Venice, from a moderate nuisance to an intolerable aggression. Hence, complementary solutions to Mo.S.E. may well be investigated.

  19. On the Lateral Retreat of Salt Marshes: Field Monitoring in the Venice Lagoon (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solari, L.; Bendoni, M.; Mel, R.; Oumeraci, H.; Francalanci, S.; Lanzoni, S.

    2014-12-01

    Salt marshes are geomorphic structures located in ecotone environments such as lagoon and estuaries, providing lot of ecosystem services to local population. In the last decades they are disappearing due to several factors such as sea level rise, subsidence and edge erosion due to surface waves. The latter is likely the chief mechanism modeling marsh boundaries and leading to the loss of wide marsh areas. In the case of the Venice Lagoon, from the beginning of the last century, the whole salt marsh surface has more than halved and trends indicate that the salt marshes might completely disappear over the next 50 years. Here, we present a field monitoring activity that we are currently carrying out on a retreating salt marsh located in the north part of the Lagoon of Venice (Italy). The marsh is subject to North-East (Bora) wind. Marsh area loss during the last decades has been documented through the comparison of georeferenced aerial photographs showing a retreat rate of the order of 1 m/year. Field measurements started by the end of November 2013 and consist of: salt marsh bank geometry at different cross-sections and wave climate in the lagoon about 30 m in front of the salt marsh. Erosion data are obtained by means of erosion pins located horizontally on the marsh scarp; at higher banks (about 0.9 m), two pins are located along the same vertical direction, for lower banks (about 0.4m), only one pin is employed. Significant wave height has been measured during three storm surges by means of pressure transducers (Pts). The measured wave climate in front of the bank was then put into relationship with the offshore wave climate estimated using wind data (intensity and direction) and bathymetric data. Wind intensity and direction is measured hourly by several measurement stations located in the Lagoon of Venice. In this way, it is possible to extrapolate wave climate hourly at the monitored marsh and calculate the wave power that acted on the bank in a given time

  20. On the Lateral Retreat of Salt Marshes: Field Monitoring in the Venice Lagoon (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solari, L.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marshes are geomorphic structures located in ecotone environments such as lagoon and estuaries, providing lot of ecosystem services to local population. In the last decades they are disappearing due to several factors such as sea level rise, subsidence and edge erosion due to surface waves. The latter is likely the chief mechanism modeling marsh boundaries and leading to the loss of wide marsh areas. In the case of the Venice Lagoon, from the beginning of the last century, the whole salt marsh surface has more than halved and trends indicate that the salt marshes might completely disappear over the next 50 years. Here, we present a field monitoring activity on a retreating salt marsh located in the north part of the Lagoon of Venice (Italy). The marsh is subject to North-East (Bora) wind. Marsh area loss during the last decades has been documented through the comparison of georeferenced aerial photographs showing a retreat rate of the order of 1 m/year. Field measurements started by the end of November 2013 and consist of: salt marsh bank geometry at different cross-sections and wave climate in the lagoon about 30 m in front of the salt marsh. Erosion data are obtained by means of erosion pins located horizontally on the marsh scarp; at higher banks (about 0.9 m), two pins are located along the same vertical direction, for lower banks (about 0.4 m), only one pin is employed. Significant wave height has been measured during three storm surges by means of pressure transducers. The measured wave climate in front of the bank was then put into relationship with the offshore wave climate estimated using wind data (intensity and direction) and bathymetric data. Wind intensity and direction is measured hourly by several measurement stations located in the Lagoon of Venice. In this way, it is possible to extrapolate wave climate hourly at the monitored marsh and calculate the wave power that acted on the bank in a given time interval. Field survey revealed that the

  1. Masterplan to safeguard Venice and to restore the lagoon and conterminous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Gallo, Alba; Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    Venice and its lagoon constitute a complex system, well known all over the world for the peculiarity of the town and for the fragility of the lagoon ecosystem with its delicate equilibrium. The whole system has been, and is currently, affected by human activities (industry, agriculture, settlements, tourism) that impact severely the ecosystem. Discharge from the agricultural drainage basin affects particularly the area North of the city of Venice; the central and southern areas, instead, receive important pollutant inputs from the industrial zone of Porto Marghera since the early'50s. Additional sources of pollution are domestic sewage and waste disposal from the urban area, that is visited by more than 10M people every year. As a consequence of the increasing land contamination, significant amounts of contaminants (both organic and inorganic) are accumulated in soils of the borderline, in water and in lagoon sediments, which constitute a potential source of secondary pollution. Results of surveys carried out in recent years in the whole area show that contaminants concentration increased from the beginning of the industrial activities until the '90s, when Porto Marghera declined. Most of contaminants have concentrations above the background levels. The highest metal levels were found in an area between Porto Marghera and the city of Venice, where both industrial and urban sewage are discharged, provoking environmental and human health hazard. In order to safeguard the city of Venice, and to restore its lagoon and conterminous areas, a Master Plan of intervention has been developed since the early 2000s. The land currently interested by environmental analysis and/or restoration covers approximately 1350ha; 78% of these (1100ha) proved variously contaminated, with 85% of sites overcoming the National Reference Values. Contamination, besides being diffused, is quite complex, involving the co-existence of several contaminant families (PAH, PCB, dioxin, heavy metals

  2. Dynamics of ship-induced solitary wave troughs in Venice Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnell, Kevin E.; Soomere, Tarmo; Zaggia, Luca; Rodin, Artem

    2015-04-01

    Based on experiments in the industrial channel of the Venice Lagoon, we demonstrate that ship-induced depressions (Bernoulli wakes) may propagate as long-living strongly nonlinear Riemann waves of depression into shallow water adjacent to navigation channels. Ships of moderate size (blocking coefficient 0.07-0.14) and sailing at low depth Froude numbers (0.37-0.5) produce depressions with a depth up to 2.5 m. The waves of depression decrease in height away from the channel before increasing in very shallow water. As the waves propagate into and through shallow water surrounding the navigation channel, they become strongly asymmetric with the rear of the depression wave becoming extremely steep, similar to a bore, and may be associated with very high water velocities.

  3. Harmful Algae Records in Venice Lagoon and in Po River Delta (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Bilaničovà, Dagmar; Marcomini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A detailed review of harmful algal blooms (HAB) in northern Adriatic Sea lagoons (Po River Delta and Venice lagoon) is presented to provide “updated reference conditions” for future research and monitoring activities. In the study areas, the high mollusc production requires the necessity to identify better methods able to prevent risks for human health and socioeconomical interests. So, an integrated approach for the identification and quantification of algal toxins is presented by combining microscopy techniques with Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-HR-TOF-MS). The method efficiency was first tested on some samples from the mentioned coastal areas, where Dinophysis spp. occurred during summer in the sites directly affected by seawaters. Although cell abundance was always <200 cells/L, the presence of Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), detected by HPLC-HR-TOF-MS, indicated the potential release of detectable amounts of toxins even at low cell abundance. PMID:24683360

  4. Surface water-groundwater exchange in transitional coastal environments by airborne electromagnetics: The Venice Lagoon example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viezzoli, A.; Tosi, L.; Teatini, P.; Silvestri, S.

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the mixing between salt/fresh surficial water and groundwater in transitional environments is an issue of paramount importance considering the ecological, cultural, and socio-economic relevance of coastal zones. Acquiring information, which can improve the process understanding, is often logistically challenging, and generally expensive and slow in these areas. Here we investigate the capability of airborne electromagnetics (AEM) at the margin of the Venice Lagoon, Italy. The quasi-3D interpretation of the AEM outcome by the spatially constrained inversion (SCI) methodology allows us to accurately distinguish several hydrogeological features down to a depth of about 200 m. For example, the extent of the saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers and the transition between the upper salt saturated and the underlying fresher sediments below the lagoon bottom are detected. The research highlights the AEM capability to improve the hydrogeological characterization of subsurface processes in worldwide lagoons, wetlands, deltas.

  5. Interannual heavy element and nutrient concentration trends in the top sediments of Venice Lagoon (Italy).

    PubMed

    Masiol, Mauro; Facca, Chiara; Visin, Flavia; Sfriso, Adriano; Pavoni, Bruno

    2014-12-15

    The elemental composition of surficial sediments of Venice Lagoon (Italy) in 1987, 1993, 1998 and 2003 were investigated. Zn and Cr concentrations resulted in higher than background levels, but only Cd and Hg were higher than legal quality standards (Italian Decree 2010/260 and Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC). Contaminants with similar spatial distribution are sorted into three groups by means of correlation analysis: (i) As, Co, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn; (ii) Ni, Cr; (iii) Hg. Interannual concentrations are compared by applying a factor analysis to the matrix of differences between subsequent samplings. A general decrease of heavy metal levels is observed from 1987 to 1993, whereas particularly high concentrations of Ni and Cr are recorded in 1998 as a consequence of intense clam fishing, subsequently mitigated by better prevention of illegal harvesting. Due to the major role played by anthropogenic sediment resuspension, bathymetric variations are also considered. PMID:25455371

  6. Storm surge forecasting for operating the Venice Flood Barrier with minimal impact on port activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    The operation of the Venice storm barrier, due to enter into operation by the end of 2017 , is particularly demanding in terms of the required accuracy of the forecast of the max water level for the time lead of 3-6 hours. With present sea level and safeguard level established at 1.1 m a.s.l. of 1895 the barrier is expected to be operated 10 times a year to cope with an average of 5 storms with around 15 redirections of the navigation through the locks. The 5 extra closures and the 10 extra interferences with navigation are needed for compensating the present forecast uncertainty of 10 cm in the maximum storm high for the required time lead of three hours, the time needed to stop navigation before the closures of the lagoon inlets. A decision support system based on these rules have been tested along the last four year with satisfactory results in term of reliability easy of operations. The forecast is presently based on a statistical model associated with a deterministic local model; the main source of uncertainty is related to the prediction of the local wind. Due to delays in the completion of Venice local protection till 1.1 m it is expected that the population will urge a reduction of the safeguard level from 1.1m to 0.9m with an exponential increase in the number of closures with greater impact on navigation. The present acceleration in sea level rise will also contribute to the increase in the number of closures. To reduce the impact on port activity, better forecast accuracy is required together with experimenting new operational closures : e.g. activating only the northern barriers. The paper evaluate the problem and the possible solutions in terms of improving storm surge forecast and developing new schemes for partial operation of the barriers for predicted limited floods not requiring complete closures.

  7. Toxic metals in Venics lagoon sediments: Model, observation, an possible removal

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, A.; Molinaroli, E.

    1994-11-01

    We have modeled the distribution of nine toxic metals in the surface sediments from 163 stations in the Venice lagoon using published data. Three entrances from the Adriatic Sea control the circulation in the lagoon and divide it into three basins. We assume, for purposes of modeling, that Porto Marghera at the head of the Industrial Zone area is the single source of toxic metals in the Venice lagoon. In a standing body of lagoon water, concentration of pollutants at distance x from the source (C{sub 0}) may be given by C=C{sub 0}e{sup -kx} where k is the rate constant of dispersal. We calculated k empirically using concentrations at the source, and those farthest from it, that is the end points of the lagoon. Average k values (ppm/km) in the lagoon are: Zn 0.165, Cd 0.116, Hg 0.110, Cu 0.105, Co 0.072, Pb 0.058, Ni 0.008, Cr (0.011) and Fe (0.018 percent/km), and they have complex distributions. Given the k values, concentration at source (C{sub 0}), and the distance x of any point in the lagoon from the source, we have calculated the model concentrations of the nine metals at each sampling station. Tides, currents, floor morphology, additional sources, and continued dumping perturb model distributions causing anomalies (observed minus model concentrations). Positive anomalies are found near the source, where continued dumping perturbs initial boundary conditions, and in areas of sluggish circulation. Negative anomalies are found in areas with strong currents that may flush sediments out of the lagoon. We have thus identified areas in the lagoon where higher rate of sediment removal and exchange may lesson pollution. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Radiological impact of phosphogypsum discharged into the Venice lagoon: 222Rn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantaluppi, C.; Ceccotto, F.; Cianchi, A.; Fasson, A.; Degetto, S.

    2012-04-01

    For about 20 years, between the 60 's and the 80 's of the last century, in the Passo a Campalto area (Lagoon of Venice - Italy) about 400,000 m3 of phosphogypsum (PG) were deposited at the border of the lagoon and next to urban areas without any environmental control. These materials are a by-product formed during the wet processing of phosphate rocks by sulphuric acid and have a significant environmental impact due to their abundance and their chemical-physical and radiochemical characteristics. The PG contains both chemical elements, which are considered dangerous for the ecosystems and natural radionuclides whose concentrations are much higher if compared to those typical for the Earth's crust. These discarded materials caused for many years the dispersion of radionuclides in the environment due to the tidal erosion, the re-suspension of radioactive inhalable dusts, the uncontrolled radon exhalation and the bioaccumulation of some radionuclides in the lagoon environment. After a decision of the appointed authorities, the Venice Water Authority (Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport), planned a permanent safety control of the site resulting in the complete isolation of the entire volume of contaminated materials from the environmental system. The entire project was specific for the particular features of the site and it required the improvement of analytical, sampling and measurement techniques in order to verify the effectiveness of the safety action. The radon assessment, in particular the check of the effectiveness of the inhibition of radon exhalation, is part of a more complex study, covering many other aspects of the management of a permanent disposal; they will be the object of further notes. The ultimate results of this study prove the efficacy of the intervention: radon concentrations in air and exhalation values from the restored area, measured during surveys, have been proved to be well in agreement with those of non contaminated soils.

  9. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the City of North Las Vegas (Downtown) and the Motor Speedway

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek

    2007-12-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey on December 11-12, 2007, with the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. The survey covered 19.4 square miles (9.2 square miles over the downtown area of the City of North Las Vegas and 10.2 square miles over the Las Vegas Motor Speedway [LVMS]). The flight lines over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1 and 2. A total of four 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 ft of flight line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system-REDAR V using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data in the form of gamma energy spectra were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes sources. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service with the approval of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, RSL-Nellis is providing this summary to the office of the Mayor of City of North Las Vegas and LVMS security along with the gross counts-based exposure rate and man-made counts maps.

  10. Potential use of safer injecting facilities among injection drug users in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan; Small, Dan; Palepu, Anita; Tyndall, Mark W.

    2003-01-01

    Background The Vancouver Coastal Health Authority will initiate North America's first sanctioned safer injecting facility, as a pilot project, on Sept. 15, 2003. The analyses presented here were conducted to estimate the potential use of safer injecting facilities by local illicit injection drug users (IDUs) and to evaluate the potential impact of newly established Health Canada restrictions and current police activities on the use of the proposed facility. Methods During April and May 2003, we recruited active IDUs in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside to participate in a feasibility study. We used descriptive and univariate statistics to determine potential use of a safer injecting facility and to explore factors associated with willingness to use such a facility with and without federal restrictions and police presence. Results Overall, 458 street-recruited IDUs completed an interviewer-administered survey, of whom 422 (92%) reported a willingness to use a safer injecting facility. Those expressing willingness were more likely to inject in public (odds ratio [OR] 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9–8.0). When the restrictions in the Health Canada guidelines were considered, only 144 (31%) participants were willing to use a safer injecting facility. IDUs who inject alone were more likely (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0–3.1) and women were less likely (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4–0.9) to be willing to use a safer injecting facility operating under these restrictions. Only 103 (22%) of the participants said they would be willing to use a safer injecting facility if police were stationed near the entrance. Interpretation Most IDUs participating in this study expressed a willingness to use a safer injecting facility. However, willingness declined substantially when the IDUs were asked about using a facility operating under selected Health Canada restrictions and in the event that police were stationed near the entrance. PMID:14557313

  11. Thermal pollution and settlement of new tropical alien species: The case of Grateloupia yinggehaiensis (Rhodophyta) in the Venice Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, M. A.; Sfriso, A.; Moro, I.

    2014-06-01

    The Venice Lagoon has become increasingly affected by the introduction of allochthonous macroalgae mainly coming from the Indo-Pacific area. In consequence to the recent climate changes and temperature increase, such species could simply find numerous habitats suitable for their growth. One local process that contributes to water temperature changes is thermal pollution. In this study we used the DNA barcoding method to identify a new alien macroalgal species, Grateloupia yinggehaiensis Wang et Luan (Rhodophyta), found near the industrial area of Porto Marghera (Venice, Italy) hosting the Fusina thermoelectric power plant. The microclimate of this area has enabled the spread of this species native of the tropical area of the Hainan Province (China) and probably introduced in the Mediterranean Sea via shellfish transfers.

  12. Geophysical techniques in the historical center of Venice (Italy): preliminary results from HVSR and multichannel analysis of surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevisani, Sebastiano; Rocca, Michele; Boaga, Jacopo

    2014-05-01

    This presentation aims to outline the preliminary findings related to an extensive seismic survey conducted in the historical center of Venice, Italy. The survey was conducted via noninvasive and low-cost seismic techniques based on surface waves analysis and microtremor methods, mainly using single station horizontal to vertical spectral ratio techninques (HVSR) and multichannel analysis of surface waves in passive (ReMI) and active (MASW) configurations. The importance and the fragility of the cultural heritage of Venice, coupled with its peculiar geological and geotechnical characteristics, stress the importance of a good knowledge of its geological architecture and seismic characteristics as an opportunity to improve restoration and conservation planning. Even if Venice is located in a relatively low seismic hazard zone, a local characterization of soil resonance frequencies and surficial shear waves velocities could improve the planning of engineering interventions, furnishing important information on possible local effects related to seismic amplification and possible coupling within buildings and soil resonance frequencies. In the specific we collected more than 50 HVSR single station noise measurements and several passive and active multichannel analysis of surface waves located in the historical center. In this work we report the characteristics of the conducted seismic surveys (instrumentation, sampling geometry, etc.) and the preliminary findings of our analysis. Moreover, we discuss briefly the practical issues, mainly of logistic nature, of conducting this kind of surveys in a peculiar and crowed historical center as represented by Venice urban contest. Acknowledgments Instrumentation acquired in relation to the project co-financed by Regione Veneto, POR-CRO, FESR, 2007-2013, action 1.1.1. "Supporto ad attività di ricerca, processi e reti di innovazione e alla creazione di imprese in settori a elevato contenuto tecnologico"

  13. Assessing short- and long-time displacements in the Venice coastland by synthetic aperture radar interferometric point target analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, Pietro; Strozzi, Tazio; Tosi, Luigi; Wegmüller, Urs; Werner, Charles; Carbognin, Laura

    2007-03-01

    The Venice Lagoon in Italy is a unique environment vulnerable to loss in surface elevation relative to the mean sea level. We present detailed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometric analyses on persistent point targets for the historical center of Venice, the tourist area of Sottomarina, and the Zennare farmland close to the southern lagoon edge. The selected areas are characterized by different degrees of development and our analyses show the remarkable capability of SAR Interferometric Point Target Analysis (IPTA) to map land displacement rates in densely urbanized zones and to detect movement information on isolated structures with a mm/year accuracy. A detailed analysis of the time series from 1992 to 2000 provided by IPTA shows that the vertical component of the measured displacements are the superposition of a short timescale, generally seasonal, movement on the order of 1 cm that is likely related to the fluctuation of environmental variables (temperature, piezometric head in the aquifer system underlying the lagoon, sea/lagoon water level) and a long-term ground deformation associated with building construction, the geomorphology of the area, and the human development of natural resources. If Venice is confirmed to be generally stable, significant long-term subsidence on the order of 4 mm/year is detected at the Sottomarina coastland. The highest displacement rates, of up to 8-10 mm/year, are recorded in the farmland bounding the lagoon margin where the movements are found to be highly site-specific.

  14. Natural versus anthropogenic subsidence of Venice: investigation of the present occurrence by PSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, Luigi; Strozzi, Tazio; Teatini, Pietro

    2014-05-01

    We detected land displacements of Venice by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) using ERS and ENVISAT C-band and TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed X-band acquisitions over the periods 1992-2010 and 2008-2011, respectively. PSI provides the cumulative land displacements (natural plus anthropogenic) of the investigated area independently of the radar band. The natural subsidence rate depends on the reference period and, due to the present elevation of Venice with respect to the sea level, it is much more interesting for the city to evaluate the natural displacement over the last few decades, i.e. the present natural land subsidence, than that averaged over geological periods. Concerning anthropogenic land subsidence the contribution due to activities characterized by large scale and long term effects, e.g., that caused by groundwater withdrawals, ended a few decades ago. Today, the anthropogenic component of the land subsidence is only due to local, short-time interventions such as restoration works and inherent deformations of historical structures. By reason of the larger observation period, the C-band sensors were used to quantify the long-term movements, i.e. the subsidence component primarily ascribed to natural processes. The high resolution, short revisiting time X-band satellites reveal a high effectiveness to monitor short-time movements as those induced by human activities. The statistical analysis of the displacement distributions measured by PSI points out that the average rates, i.e. the natural component of the subsidence, are almost equal with the C-band and X-band satellites. Conversely, the standard deviation with X-band acquisitions (1.6 mm/yr) is characterized by a value significantly larger than that detected with C-band images (0.7 mm/yr). The larger X-band variability superposes to a background velocity similar to that given by ERS/ENVISAT. It is reasonable to assume that the difference between the movements provided by ERS/ENVISAT and Terra

  15. Risk of land degradation due to saltwater intrusion along the Venice coastland, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, P.; Manoli, G.; Scudiero, E.; Deiana, R.; Perri, M.; Braga, F.; Tosi, L.; Putti, M.; Morari, F.

    2012-12-01

    The southern portion of the Venice coastland includes a very precarious environment. Due to an elevation down to 4 m below msl, the Venice Lagoon and Adriatic Sea proximity, and the encroachment of seawater from the mouth of the river network up to 20 km inland, salt contamination of land and groundwater is a severe problem that is seriously impacting the farmland productivity. An interdisciplinary multi-scale research is ongoing with the aim of understanding the contamination process, quantifying the effect of the saltwater intrusion of the crop production, and proposing possible mitigation strategies. A 25 ha basin cultivated with maize crop and representative of the area has been deeply monitored at various scales ranging from a few square meter plots up to the whole basin. Geophysical surveys, lab testing on soil and water samples, continuous measurements of hydrological parameters, physiological crop parameters, proximal sensing and multi-spectral remote sensing acquisitions, together with precise crop yield distribution were performed and acquired from 2010 to 2012. Geomorphological investigations, seismic and geo-electrical surveys combined with salt concentration measurements in the surficial waterbodies and groundwater (down to 10 m deep) are used to delineate the major pathways of seawater intrusion. Relationships existing between soil, water, crop factors and crop yield were identified, helping to assess plant stress at both the canopy and landscape level. The dataset is now used to set-up a three-dimensional numerical model of saturated/unsaturated water dynamics coupled with a crop-growth model. The model is applied at the basin scale to investigate the effects of water stress and soil contamination on the crop production. Once calibrated on hydrological records (e.g., groundwater levels, capillary pressure, etc.), crop growth, and yield production, the model will be applied to investigate expected scenarios related with the change of natural

  16. Benthic macrofauna changes in areas of Venice lagoon populated by seagrasses or seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Sfriso, A; Birkemeyer, T; Ghetti, P F

    2001-10-01

    Two areas of the Venice lagoon populated by seagrasses (three stations covered by Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Asherson, Zostera marina Linnaeus, Zostera noltii Hornemann) or seaweeds (two stations: one covered by Ulva rigida C. Agardh and another at present without seaweed biomass) were monitored by means of six surveys over a year in order to study macrofaunal composition and seasonal changes. The seagrass stations showed a mean species richness (28-30 S m(-2)), individual abundance (1854-4018 N m(-2)) and biomass (22.3-37.7 g m(-2) ash-free-dry-weight, AFDW) ca. 3-8 times higher than those populated by seaweeds (10-15 S m(-2), 494-1395 N m(-2) and 5.6-13.7 g m(-2) AFDW). Differences among seagrass or seaweed stations were much lower. The Ulva-dominated station showed a macrofauna completely different both from the other stations and the communities recorded ca. 30 years ago, before the prolific growth of Ulva. In this station, frequent biomass decompositions and anoxic crises created critical conditions for life favouring organisms with reduced life cycles, younger individuals and the epifaunal species instead of the infaunal ones. In particular, Ulva grazers and scrapers such as Gammarus aequicauda Stock and Gibbula adriatica Philippi were found to be by far the most abundant species, whereas the taxa characteristic of the associations found in the past, in the presence of seagrasses or seaweeds and typical of low eutrophicated environments, appear strongly reduced. Marked differences in the macrophyte dominance and in the bio-physico-chemical variables which characterise the main environmental conditions of the Venice lagoon support the different distribution and composition of macrofaunal communities. Seaweed stations appear mainly governed by the seasonal cycles of these un-rooted macrophytes which, by alternating periods of production and decomposition, are responsible for the drastic reduction of macrofauna biodiversity and biomass. Conversely, seagrass

  17. Radar-driven High-resolution Hydrometeorological Forecasts of the 26 September 2007 Venice flash flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massimo Rossa, Andrea; Laudanna Del Guerra, Franco; Borga, Marco; Zanon, Francesco; Settin, Tommaso; Leuenberger, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Space and time scales of flash floods are such that flash flood forecasting and warning systems depend upon the accurate real-time provision of rainfall information, high-resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts and the use of hydrological models. Currently available high-resolution NWP model models can potentially provide warning forecasters information on the future evolution of storms and their internal structure, thereby increasing convective-scale warning lead times. However, it is essential that the model be started with a very accurate representation of on-going convection, which calls for assimilation of high-resolution rainfall data. This study aims to assess the feasibility of using carefully checked radar-derived quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) for assimilation into NWP and hydrological models. The hydrometeorological modeling chain includes the convection-permitting NWP model COSMO-2 and a hydrologic-hydraulic models built upon the concept of geomorphological transport. Radar rainfall observations are assimilated into the NWP model via the latent heat nudging method. The study is focused on 26 September 2007 extreme flash flood event which impacted the coastal area of north-eastern Italy around Venice. The hydro-meteorological modeling system is implemented over the Dese river, a 90 km2 catchment flowing to the Venice lagoon. The radar rainfall observations are carefully checked for artifacts, including beam attenuation, by means of physics-based correction procedures and comparison with a dense network of raingauges. The impact of the radar QPE in the assimilation cycle of the NWP model is very significant, in that the main individual organized convective systems were successfully introduced into the model state, both in terms of timing and localization. Also, incorrectly localized precipitation in the model reference run without rainfall assimilation was correctly reduced to about the observed levels. On the other hand, the

  18. Saltwater contamination in the Venice Lagoon margin. Effects on soil productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, P.; Scudiero, E.; Braga, F.; Piragnolo, D.; Deiana, R.; Manoli, G.; Berti, A.; Morari, F.

    2011-12-01

    The Venice watershed includes a very precarious coastal environment subject to both natural and anthropogenic changes with a significant and economically important fraction of the coastal farmland presently below mean sea level. In the hydrogeological context of the Venice coastland, a large risk of saltwater contamination characterizes the southernmost area because of the geomorphological setting of the coastal plain. Salt contamination is influenced also by the activity of several pumping stations used to keep drained the area, groundwater withdrawals, irrigation and freshwater releases during summer dry months. The impact of salt intrusion from the salty water bodies on soil productivity has been studied in the years 2010-2011. In a 25 ha basin cultivated with maize crop, soil salinity (electrical conductivity 1:2) and the main physical-chemical properties of the soil (e.g. texture, pH, organic carbon and CSC) were measured along the 1.5 m soil profile in 120 positions. Maps of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) at three different investigation depths (0 - 0.75 m; 0-1.50 m; 0- 6.00 m) were also obtained in April 2010 and April 2011 with a CMD electromagnetic conductivity meter (GF Instruments) associated to a DGPS. During the 2-year period some physiological crop parameters, in particular leaf reflectance (i.e. Spectrascan, Photoresearch) and leaf ions content were monitored across the study area. Moreover, maps of NDVI were obtained by proximal sensing (three dates each year) using an active spectral radiometer (Crop Circle, Holland Scientific) and remote sensing acquiring WorldView-2 satellite images at the end of July 2010 and beginning of July 2011. Finally, maps of the crop yield were obtained at the end of the growing seasons by a yield mapping system mounted on a combine harvester. Relationships existing between soil, crop factors and crop yield were identified applying a multivariate spatial model, helping to assess plant stress at both the canopy

  19. Temporal distribution of intertidal macrozoobenthic assemblages in a Nanozostera noltii-dominated area (Lagoon of Venice).

    PubMed

    Tagliapietra, D; Pessa, G; Cornello, M; Zitelli, A; Magni, P

    2016-03-01

    We describe the temporal distribution of intertidal macrozoobenthic assemblages in a small marsh pond of the Lagoon of Venice colonized by the seagrass Nanozostera noltii (Hornemman) Tomlinson et Posluzny. Three stations ranging in the degree of N. noltii cover were selected about 100 m apart and sampled 9 times at regular intervals from March 1996 to March 1997. We applied the concepts of resistance and resilience to "natural stress" (e.g. extent of protection from seagrass meadows, exposure of macrozoobenthic assemblages to high temperatures in summer) with the aim to assess the stability of a community along a gradient of seagrass coverage. Results showed that the most structured and taxa-rich macrozoobenthic assemblage occurred at the station covered by a continuous stand of N. noltii, where permanent taxa (i.e. found in 100% of samples) were almost double than those found at the other stations. During the annual cycle, the macrozoobenthic assemblages showed a cyclical pattern, with temporal fluctuations increasing as they moved further away from the seagrass beds. We propose the role of N. noltii offering structural complexity and stability as the more probable explanation to the observed differences between stations in the intertidal assemblages. PMID:26748407

  20. Understanding the association of Escherichia coli with diverse macroalgae in the lagoon of Venice

    PubMed Central

    Quero, Grazia M.; Fasolato, Luca; Vignaroli, Carla; Luna, Gian Marco

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies provided evidence that the macroalga Cladopohora in lakes hosts associated Escherichia coli, with consequences on the environmental and human health. We expanded these investigations to other macroalgae (Ulva spp., Sargassum muticum and Undaria pinnatifida) widespread in the lagoon of Venice (Italy). Attached E. coli were abundant, accounting up to 3,250 CFU gram−1 of alga. Macroalgal-associated isolates belonged to all E. coli phylogroups, including pathogenic ones, and to Escherichia cryptic clades. Attached E. coli showed potential to grow even at in situ temperature on macroalgal extracts as only source of carbon and nutrients, and ability to produce biofilm in vitro. The genotypic diversity of the attached isolates was high, with significant differences between algae and the overlying water. Our evidences suggest that attached populations consist of both resident and transient strains, likely resulting from the heterogeneous input of fecal bacteria from the city. We report that cosmopolitan and invasive macroalgae may serve as source of E. coli, including pathogenic genotypes, and that this habitat can potentially support their growth. Considering the global diffusion of the macroalgae here studied, this phenomenon is likely occurring in other coastal cities worldwide and deserves further investigations from either the sanitary and ecological perspectives. PMID:26043415

  1. A proposed integrated bioindex for the macrofouling biocoenosis of hard substrata in the lagoon of Venice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cima, Francesca; Ballarin, Loriano

    2013-09-01

    Bioindices are often employed to evaluate the ecological status of an unstable habitat such as a lagoon. However, no bioindex to date has considered the macrofouling biocoenosis of hard substrata, which is characterised by a higher biodiversity than that of the benthic communities of soft substrata. We analysed the progression of the hard-substratum biocoenosis at two stations located in the southern basin of the lagoon of Venice using data collected monthly from artificial panels that were immersed continually for a period of one year. Our goal was to develop an integrated specific bioindex, according to the objectives of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in Europe, that is easy to calculate and provides a useful and immediate value for the ecological status on a logarithmic scale from 1 to 10. The bioindex proposed here takes into account species richness, covering area, and the Q-values of important physico-chemical parameters (e.g., pH, salinity, temperature). To validate the bioindex, our sampling campaign was repeated for an additional year at the two previous stations and a third station in the central basin that had different hydrodynamic features and was subject to greater anthropogenic impact. The ecological status of the third station was "poor-to-moderate", in contrast to the "good" status of the two stations in the southern basin. Seasonal changes in the bioindex values provide useful information on environmental changes because they indicate the moment of an ecological crisis as well as its causes and long-term effects.

  2. Understanding the association of Escherichia coli with diverse macroalgae in the lagoon of Venice.

    PubMed

    Quero, Grazia M; Fasolato, Luca; Vignaroli, Carla; Luna, Gian Marco

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies provided evidence that the macroalga Cladopohora in lakes hosts associated Escherichia coli, with consequences on the environmental and human health. We expanded these investigations to other macroalgae (Ulva spp., Sargassum muticum and Undaria pinnatifida) widespread in the lagoon of Venice (Italy). Attached E. coli were abundant, accounting up to 3,250 CFU gram(-1) of alga. Macroalgal-associated isolates belonged to all E. coli phylogroups, including pathogenic ones, and to Escherichia cryptic clades. Attached E. coli showed potential to grow even at in situ temperature on macroalgal extracts as only source of carbon and nutrients, and ability to produce biofilm in vitro. The genotypic diversity of the attached isolates was high, with significant differences between algae and the overlying water. Our evidences suggest that attached populations consist of both resident and transient strains, likely resulting from the heterogeneous input of fecal bacteria from the city. We report that cosmopolitan and invasive macroalgae may serve as source of E. coli, including pathogenic genotypes, and that this habitat can potentially support their growth. Considering the global diffusion of the macroalgae here studied, this phenomenon is likely occurring in other coastal cities worldwide and deserves further investigations from either the sanitary and ecological perspectives. PMID:26043415

  3. Understanding the association of Escherichia coli with diverse macroalgae in the lagoon of Venice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quero, Grazia M.; Fasolato, Luca; Vignaroli, Carla; Luna, Gian Marco

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies provided evidence that the macroalga Cladopohora in lakes hosts associated Escherichia coli, with consequences on the environmental and human health. We expanded these investigations to other macroalgae (Ulva spp., Sargassum muticum and Undaria pinnatifida) widespread in the lagoon of Venice (Italy). Attached E. coli were abundant, accounting up to 3,250 CFU gram-1 of alga. Macroalgal-associated isolates belonged to all E. coli phylogroups, including pathogenic ones, and to Escherichia cryptic clades. Attached E. coli showed potential to grow even at in situ temperature on macroalgal extracts as only source of carbon and nutrients, and ability to produce biofilm in vitro. The genotypic diversity of the attached isolates was high, with significant differences between algae and the overlying water. Our evidences suggest that attached populations consist of both resident and transient strains, likely resulting from the heterogeneous input of fecal bacteria from the city. We report that cosmopolitan and invasive macroalgae may serve as source of E. coli, including pathogenic genotypes, and that this habitat can potentially support their growth. Considering the global diffusion of the macroalgae here studied, this phenomenon is likely occurring in other coastal cities worldwide and deserves further investigations from either the sanitary and ecological perspectives.

  4. Road Asphalt Pavements Analyzed by Airborne Thermal Remote Sensing: Preliminary Results of the Venice Highway

    PubMed Central

    Pascucci, Simone; Bassani, Cristiana; Palombo, Angelo; Poscolieri, Maurizio; Cavalli, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a fast procedure for evaluating asphalt pavement surface defects using airborne emissivity data. To develop this procedure, we used airborne multispectral emissivity data covering an urban test area close to Venice (Italy).For this study, we first identify and select the roads' asphalt pavements on Multispectral Infrared Visible Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS) imagery using a segmentation procedure. Next, since in asphalt pavements the surface defects are strictly related to the decrease of oily components that cause an increase of the abundance of surfacing limestone, the diagnostic absorption emissivity peak at 11.2μm of the limestone was used for retrieving from MIVIS emissivity data the areas exhibiting defects on asphalt pavements surface.The results showed that MIVIS emissivity allows establishing a threshold that points out those asphalt road sites on which a check for a maintenance intervention is required. Therefore, this technique can supply local government authorities an efficient, rapid and repeatable road mapping procedure providing the location of the asphalt pavements to be checked.

  5. Mind the Costs: Rescaling and Multi-Level Environmental Governance in Venice Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggero, Matteo; Fritsch, Oliver

    2010-07-01

    Competences over environmental matters are distributed across agencies at different scales on a national-to-local continuum. This article adopts a transaction costs economics perspective in order to explore the question whether, in the light of a particular problem, the scale at which a certain competence is attributed can be reconsidered. Specifically, it tests whether a presumption of least-cost operation concerning an agency at a given scale can hold. By doing so, it investigates whether the rescaling of certain tasks, aiming at solving a scale-related problem, is likely to produce an increase in costs for day-to-day agency operations as compared to the status quo. The article explores such a perspective for the case of Venice Lagoon. The negative aspects of the present arrangement concerning fishery management and morphological remediation are directly linked to the scale of the agencies involved. The analysis suggests that scales have been chosen correctly, at least from the point of view of the costs incurred to the agencies involved. Consequently, a rescaling of those agencies does not represent a viable option.

  6. Postmortem interval (PMI) determined by study sarcophagous biocenoses: three cases from the province of Venice (Italy).

    PubMed

    Turchetto, M; Lafisca, S; Costantini, G

    2001-08-15

    This paper presents and discusses three cases of cadavers found, unburied, in the province of Venice, Northern Italy. In each case, all insect species playing some role in carrion decay processes, both sarcophagous and their predators, found on or in the bodies, were collected and determined. In one case, many larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) were found and are reported, for the first time in Italy, as necrophagous. Experimental breeding of some fly species was also carried out in controlled temperature and humidity conditions. In particular, it was of interest to know how the Neotropical black soldier fly modified its life-cycle to adapt to a temperate climate. It was thus possible to establish the rate of larval growth and timing of pupation, emergence, oviposition and hatching in various external conditions. The postmortem interval (PMI) established by identifying the life-cycle stages of dipterofauna were later confirmed in all cases through police investigations and the results of forensic analyses. PMID:11457605

  7. Histopathology and stress biomarkers in the clam Venerupis philippinarum from the Venice Lagoon (Italy).

    PubMed

    Boscolo Papo, Michele; Bertotto, Daniela; Quaglio, Francesco; Vascellari, Marta; Pascoli, Francesco; Negrato, Elena; Binato, Giovanni; Radaelli, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the histomorphology and the stress response in the bivalve Venerupis philippinarum sampled in four differently polluted sites of the Venice Lagoon (Palude del Monte, Marghera, Ca' Roman and Val di Brenta). This species is often used as bioindicator of environmental pollution since it can bioaccumulate a large variety of pollutants because of its filter feeding. Chemical analyses for heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed on whole soft tissues of V. philippinarum. The histological evaluation of clams revealed the presence of Perkinsus sp. infection in animals from all sites, although a very high prevalence of parasites was evidenced in clams from Ca' Roman. Perkinsus sp. were systemically distributed in the mantle, in the intestine and digestive gland, in gonads and gills. The trophozoites of Perkinsus sp. were found isolated or in cluster surrounded by a heavy hemocitical response. Haemocytes always exhibited an immunopositivity to cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and nitrotyrosine (NT) antibodies. The digestive gland of animals from Palude del Monte showed the highest malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, whereas clams from Ca' Roman exhibited the highest quantity of metallothioneins. PMID:24795081

  8. Observations in Nonurban Heat Islands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, A. W.; Ferrick, M. G.

    1998-02-01

    The urban heat island is a well-known and well-described temperature anomaly, but other types of heat islands are also infrequently reported. A 10 km × 30 km data field containing more than 100 individual winter morning air temperature measurement points was examined for areas characteristically warmer than surrounding areas. The very small `downtown' of Hanover, New Hampshire, was found to be 1°-2°C warmer than nearby open areas at the same elevation. The same technique was applied to examine the morning air temperature within a nearby hamlet consisting of about 60 wooden buildings within an area less than 0.3 km2. The bulk of observations and observations stratified by snow and sky cover showed no systematic difference between hamlet air temperatures and those obtained in surrounding terrain. Morning air temperatures along a freezing river were measured and found to be systematically warmer than nearby air temperatures for several days, until a significant snowfall diminished the ice growth rate. A thorough examination of temperature profiles near the river showed that the increase in air temperature beneath the overnight inversion during this freezing period was proportional to the heat release resulting from river ice growth.

  9. Measuring the economic value of alternative clam fishing management practices in the Venice Lagoon: results from a conjoint valuation application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Rossetto, Luca; de Blaeij, Arianne

    2004-11-01

    This article focuses on the economic valuation of alternative clam management practices in the Venice Lagoon. The proposed valuation method is characterized by the design of a survey questionnaire applied to the fishermen population. In each questionnaire, two fishing alternatives are described. The respondent is asked to choose one of them. This valuation method, referred in the article as conjoint valuation, gives sufficient flexibility to set, alter, and combine the valuation of different clam management practices. Furthermore, this approach presents an important advantage to the well-known contingent valuation method since it makes the monetary valuation of each management attribute possible. Estimation results show that all three attributes used in the questionnaire to describe and value different clam management practices—price of the annual permit and fishing technological system—are statistically robust, indicating that fishermen bear a utility change whenever these attributes change. In particular, fishermen's willingness to pay for a larger clam fishing area ranges between 568 and 811 € per year. In addition, an individual's willingness to pay for a fishing practice exclusively based on the vibrant rake system ranges between 1005 and 2456 €. Finally, the adoption of a clam fish management practice in the Venice Lagoon that is exclusively based on the use of manual rakes, which is associated with the lowest damage to the lagoon ecosystem, will represent a welfare loss of 5904 € per fisherman per year. Combining such a value estimate with the total number of fishermen currently operating in the Lagoon of Venice, the welfare loss associated with the adoption of this type of clam management policy amounts to 11.8 € million per year. This figure can be regarded as an upper bound to the cost of implementation of a clam fishing system anchored in the use of manual, ecosystem friendly rakes.

  10. The land subsidence of the Venice historical center: twenty years of monitoring by SAR-based interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, L.; Strozzi, T.; Teatini, P.

    2012-12-01

    The subsidence of Venice, one of the most beautiful and famous cities in the world, is well known not by reason of the magnitude of the ground movement, which amounts to less than 15 cm over the last century, but because it has seriously compromised the ground safety level of the city in relation of its small elevation above the sea. The lowering of Venice is still today a subject of debates with large rumours on press releases every time a scientific paper is published on the topic. Over the last two decades, satellites instrumented with SAR sensors provided excellent data for detecting land displacements by inteferometric processing. In particular, the accuracy achieved by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) and the impressive number of detected measurement points have progressively reduced the use of in situ traditional measurements, i.e. leveling survey, for monitoring land displacements of Venice. In fact, the intensive urban development makes the historical center an optimal site for PSI. On the other hand, the correct interpretation of the PSI outcomes, which provide the relative movement of single churches, palaces, bridges with millimetric precision and metric spatial resolution, require a deep knowledge of the city and its subsoil due to the peculiarity of this urban area developed over the centuries within the sea. We investigate the movements of Venice by Interferometric Point Target Analysis (IPTA) over the last 20 years using SAR acquisitions of the ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, TerraSAR-X, and Cosmo-SkyMed satellites. The density of detected scatterers is one order of magnitude larger with the newest very high resolution X-band sensors from TerraSAR-X and Cosmo-SkyMed, but by reason of the larger observation period the accuracy of the mean displacement rate of the C-band ERS and ENVISAT is higher. IPTA results have been calibrated using leveling and permanent GPS stations to correct the so-called flattening problem, i.e. the slight phase tilt resulting by

  11. Remote sensing retrieval of water constituents in shallow coastal waters with applications to the Venice lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Marani, M.; Albertson, J. D.; Silvestri, S.

    2013-12-01

    Lagoons and estuaries worldwide are experiencing accelerated ecosystem degradation due to increased direct and indirect anthropogenic pressure. Monitoring the environmental state and trends in such environment would benefit from the use of remote sensing techniques, which can access a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. However, most remote sensors are not suitable for monitoring shallow and optically-complex waters, because of their low spatial and spectral-resolution and of the uncertainties associated with the contribution of the bottom sediment to the observed remote sensing signal. We apply here a remote sensing-based approach to mapping suspended sediment and chlorophyll concentrations in the shallow Venice lagoon, which integrates hyperspectral remote sensing data, a simplified radiative transfer model, and in-situ water quality measurements. First, we calibrate and validate the key parameters of the model, such as bottom albedo and absorption/backscattering coefficients of sediment, by comparing remote sensing derived water constituent concentrations with in-situ data. We then determine the statistics of those parameters, and the associated estimation uncertainty, by applying a bootstrapping technique. Finally, the lagoon-wide distribution of water constituent concentrations, and of the estimation uncertainty, is derived by inverting the model. The estimates are consistent with measured concentrations and their known optical properties, particularly for the suspended sediment concentrations, while chlorophyll concentration estimates remain more uncertain. Our analyses show that remote sensing methods can provide reliable water constituent concentrations at the system scale and that uncertainties become overwhelming only in particularly shallow areas (water depths indicatively lower than 1 m in the present application). Importantly, the joint use of radiative transfer models, in situ observations, and statistical techniques allows the production of

  12. The mechanistic basis for psoriasis immunopathogenesis: translating genotype to phenotype. Report of a workshop, Venice, 2012.

    PubMed

    Bachelez, H; Viguier, M; Tebbey, P W; Lowes, M; Suárez-Fariñas, M; Costanzo, A; Nestle, F O

    2013-08-01

    The International Psoriasis Council, a global nonprofit organization dedicated to advancing psoriasis research and treatment, led an initiative to better define the pathogenic mechanisms that constitute psoriasis. In September 2012, a workshop was held at the 42nd Annual European Society for Dermatological Research in Venice, Italy. By assembling a panel of global dermatology and immunology experts, the objective was to evaluate the current status of the science explaining the mechanism of disease in psoriasis, e.g. dysregulation of the skin immune system and perturbations of epidermal homeostasis. The workshop consisted of four oral presentations, which addressed key topics in psoriasis, delivered by Hervé Bachelez (Paris, France), Antonio Costanzo (Rome, Italy), Michelle Lowes (New York, NY, U.S.A.) and Frank Nestle (London, U.K.). A global expert panel was assembled to stimulate dialogue and debate: Kevin Cooper (Cleveland, OH, U.S.A.), Michel Gilliet (Lausanne, Switzerland), Joerg Prinz (Munich, Germany), Martin Röcken (Tubingen, Germany), Jens Schroeder (Kiel, Germany), Manuelle Viguier (Paris, France), Mayte Suárez-Fariñas (New York, NY, U.S.A.) and Cristina Zielinski (Berlin, Germany). Collectively, the presentations demonstrated the significant advances in understanding immune regulation that have occurred over the past decade by virtue of the study of psoriasis subtypes, phenotypic manifestations and genetic associations. Elucidating the pathogenic and genetic basis of psoriasis holds the promise of a complete understanding of disease mechanisms, predictors of treatment response, novel drug development strategies and customized therapeutic regimens for the individual patient. PMID:23941252

  13. Historical changes in the structure and functioning of the benthic community in the lagoon of Venice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranovi, Fabio; Da Ponte, Filippo; Torricelli, Patrizia

    2008-03-01

    One of the main challenges in environmental management is how to manage the dynamics of natural environments. In this context, having information about historical changes of the structure of the biological communities could represent a useful tool to improve management strategies, contributing to refine the policy objectives, since it gives reference states with which to compare the present. The Venice lagoon represents an interesting case study, since it is a highly dynamic, but sensitive, environment which requires the adoption of prudent management. In its recent history the lagoon ecosystem has been exposed to different kinds of disturbance, from the discharge of pollutants and nutrients, to the invasion of alien species and the exploitation of its biological resources by using highly impacting fishing gears. The analysis of available data about the macro-benthic community, from 1935 to 2004, allows the description of changes of the community structure over almost 70 years, showing a sharp decrease in its diversity. In order to obtain information about its functioning, it is necessary to know how these changes have affected processes at the community and system level. In shallow water ecosystems, as the control is mainly due to the benthic compartment, variations in the structure of the benthic community can induce modifications in processes at different hierarchical levels. The trophic structure analysis has revealed major changes during the period; from a well-assorted structure in 1935, to an herbivore-detritivore dominated one in the 1990s, and finally to a filter feeder dominated structure during the last decade. This has produced variations in the secondary production and it has induced modifications in the type of the ecosystem control. These changes are discussed in the light of the dynamics of the main driving forces.

  14. Understanding relationships between morphology and ecosystem structure in a shallow tidal basins of Venice lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuseppina Persichillo, Maria; Taramelli, Andrea; Valentini, Emiliana; Filipponi, Federico; Meisina, Claudia; Zucca, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Coastal wetlands represent complex ecosystems prone to continue fluctuation of their internal equilibrium. They are valuable natural resources characterized by the continue interactions between geomorphological and biological components. Their adaptation to changing conditions is highly dependent on the rate and extent of spatial and temporal processes and their responses are still poorly understood. According to this, the vulnerability assessment to natural and human made hazard have became fundamental to analyse the resilience of these areas, their ability to cope with the impacts from externally driven forces or the efforts needed to minimize the impacts (Gitay et al., 2011). The objective of this research is to develop a comprehensive and replicable method through the application of Multi-Source data analysis, based on the integration of Earth Observation data and field survey, to analyse a shallow tidal basin of salt marshes, located in the northern part of the Venice lagoon. The study site is characterised by relatively elevated areas colonized by halophytic vegetation, and tidal flats, with not vegetated areas, characterized by lower elevations. Sub-pixel processing techniques (Spectral Mixing Analysis - SMA) were used to analyse the spatial distribution of both vegetation and sediments typology. Furthermore the classifications were assayed in terms of spatial (Power law) and temporal (Empirical Orthogonal Functions) patterns, in order to find the main characteristics of the aforementioned spatial trends and their variation over time. The principal aim is to study the spatio-temporal evolution of this coastal wetland area, in order to indentify tipping points, namely thresholds, beyond which the system reaches critical state and the main climatic, hydrodynamic and morphological variables that may influence and increase this behaviour. This research represents a new approach to study the geomorphological processes and to improve the management and

  15. The Growing Popularity of Prescription Opioid Injection in Downtown Montréal: New Challenges for Harm Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Élise; Arruda, Nelson; Bourgois, Phillipe

    2011-01-01

    Starting in 2007, a 2-year study based on ethnographic methodology was carried out downtown Montréal, Canada. A thematic analysis of observational and interview-based notes was conducted. Illicit prescription opioid (PO) use was widespread among street-based participants. Injection was the main mode of PO administration observed among users. Some injection practices such as “doing a wash” could pose new challenges in terms of prevention of infections. More research is needed to examine the role of illicit PO use in the development of opiate addiction and to better understand drug-using contexts that put PO users at risk of infections. The study’s limitations are noted. PMID:21370963

  16. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  17. Regulation of the fishing activities in the lagoon of Venice, Italy: Results from a socio-economic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Silvestri, Silvia; Pellizzato, Michele; Boatto, Vasco

    2008-10-01

    In the last years, the overall fish industry in the lagoon of Venice has shown a gradual decline. In order to better understand this process, we carry out a socio-economic questionnaire next to the fisherman population. Questionnaire contains significant qualitative and quantitative data that allow us to evaluate the social and the cultural profile of the respondents, including information with respect to the different technological fishing characteristics involved, type and amount of the species harvested as well as the overall productivity of the activity. Furthermore, the questionnaire contains an economic valuation exercise so as to assess in monetary terms the preferences of the fishermen with respect to different alternative policy options that may characterize a future regulation of this economic activity. Estimation results show that fishermen welcome any regulation initiative that is characterized by: (1) banning all fishing activities during the night, (2) allocating fishing concessions areas to each fishermen in a way that minimize the distance between the fishing area and the harbor, and (3) by introducing of a labeling mechanism that certifies the origin of the product. Moreover, the underlying economic valuation mechanism reveals to sensitive to respondent's motivational profile, including the overall trust and confidence that fisherman community places on the current institutional bodies. This result reveals to be of particular significance when attempting the design of an efficient, widely supported regulation of the fishing activity in the lagoon of Venice.

  18. Annual growth and environmental relationships of the invasive species Sargassum muticum and Undaria pinnatifida in the lagoon of Venice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfriso, A.; Facca, C.

    2013-09-01

    The growth and autoecology of two alien invasive species: Sargassum muticum and Undaria pinnatifida spreading in the Venice Lagoon were studied monthly, during one year, in two sites of different depth. S. muticum was present year-round and reached its largest size (485 cm) and maximum growth (8.33 cm d-1) at the deepest station. U. pinnatifida was present only from November to May, reaching the highest size (130 cm) in March-April in the shallow station with growth peaks of 2.32 cm d-1. The growth of both species was mainly regulated by water temperature, nutrient concentration, especially nitrogen, and water turbidity. The study highlights the different ecological role already observed for the two species: U. pinnatifida prefers eutrophic areas and is not present along the sea-coastline. Its total standing crop does not exceed 0.2 ktonnes fwt for all the Venice Lagoon. Conversely, S. muticum colonizes areas with a lower eutrophication level, such as the lagoon inlets, reaching a total lagoon standing crop of 4-6 ktonnes fwt.

  19. Microbial deterioration of artistic tiles from the façade of the Grande Albergo Ausonia & Hungaria (Venice, Italy).

    PubMed

    Giacomucci, Lucia; Bertoncello, Renzo; Salvadori, Ornella; Martini, Ilaria; Favaro, Monica; Villa, Federica; Sorlini, Claudia; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2011-08-01

    The Grande Albergo Ausonia & Hungaria (Venice Lido, Italy) has an Art Nouveau polychrome ceramic coating on its façade, which was restored in 2007. Soon after the conservation treatment, many tiles of the façade decoration showed coloured alterations putatively attributed to the presence of microbial communities. To confirm the presence of the biological deposit and the stratigraphy of the Hungaria tiles, stereomicroscope, optical and environmental scanning electron microscope observations were made. The characterisation of the microbial community was performed using a PCR-DGGE approach. This study reported the first use of a culture-independent approach to identify the total community present in biodeteriorated artistic tiles. The case study examined here reveals that the coloured alterations on the tiles were mainly due to the presence of cryptoendolithic cyanobacteria. In addition, we proved that the microflora present on the tiles was generally greatly influenced by the environment of the Hungaria hotel. We found several microorganisms related to the alkaline environment, which is in the range of the tile pH, and related to the aquatic environment, the presence of the acrylic resin Paraloid B72® used during the 2007 treatment and the pollutants of the Venice lagoon. PMID:21286701

  20. A chironomid (Diptera: Chironomidae) midge population study and laboratory evaluation of larvicides against midges inhabiting the lagoon of Venice, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ali, A; Majori, G; Ceretti, G; D'Andrea, F; Scattolin, M; Ferrarese, U

    1985-03-01

    Chironomid larval densities in the saltwater lagoon of Venice, Italy, were assessed in the spring of 1984. Four organophosphates; chlorpyrifos, temephos, fenthion and fenitrothion, and three pyrethroids; cypermethrin, permethrin and deltamethrin, were tested in the laboratory against field-collected larvae. Three industrial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (B.t.i.) were also tested as midge larvicides. Only Chironomus salinarius occurred in the benthic samples taken from different sections of the lagoon. The densities of this species ranged from 0 to 38,976 larvae/m2. The highest mean larval density of 15,673/m2 was encountered in a section of the lagoon adjacent to Venice airport and receiving large quantities of raw sewage. The lowest mean density (less than 1 larva/m2) existed in another area of the lagoon receiving discharge from chemical industry. Cypermethrin and permethrin were 21-233X more active against the larvae than the four organophosphates. Chlorpyrifos was the most active organophosphate. Formulations of B.t.i. were economically ineffective against the larvae. PMID:3880214

  1. Benthic foraminifera and trace element distribution: a case-study from the heavily polluted lagoon of Venice (Italy).

    PubMed

    Coccioni, Rodolfo; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Marsili, Andrea; Mana, Davide

    2009-01-01

    Living benthic foraminiferal assemblages were studied in surface samples collected from the lagoon of Venice (Italy) in order to investigate the relationship between these sensitive microorganisms and trace element pollution. Geochemical analysis of sediments shows that the lagoon is affected by trace element pollution (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg) with the highest concentrations in its inner part, which corresponds to the Porto Marghera industrial area. The biocenosis are largely dominated by Ammonia tepida, Haynesina germanica and Cribroelphidium oceanensis and, subordinately, by Aubignyna perlucida, Ammonia parkinsoniana and Bolivina striatula. Biotic and abiotic factors were statistically analyzed with multivariate technique of cluster analysis and principal component analysis. The statistical analysis reveals a strong relationship between trace elements (in particular Mn, Pb and Hg) and the occurrence of abnormalities in foraminiferal tests. Remarkably, greater proportions of abnormal specimens are usually found at stations located close to the heaviest polluted industrial zone of Porto Marghera. This paper shows that benthic foraminifera can be used as useful and relatively speedy and inexpensive bio-indicators in monitoring the health quality of the lagoon of Venice. It also provides a basis for future investigations aimed at unraveling the benthic foraminiferal response to human-induced pollution in marine and transitional marine environments. PMID:19733368

  2. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  3. Ecological stages of the Venice Lagoon analysed using landing time series data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libralato, Simone; Pranovi, Fabio; Raicevich, Saša; Da Ponte, Filippo; Giovanardi, Otello; Pastres, Roberto; Torricelli, Patrizia; Mainardi, Danilo

    2004-11-01

    The time series of landings in the Venice Lagoon from 1945 to 2001 were analysed with the aim of explaining the ecosystem changes occurred. The comparative analysis of the total landings and mean Trophic Level (mTL) time series allowed to identify four different stages in the lagoon ecosystem. The first period, from 1945 to 1973, was characterised by increasing trends in the landings and their mTL. The second one, from 1974 to 1989, showed a decrease in the landings but still an increase in the mTL. The third period, from 1990 to 1998, had again a positive trend in the landings, but the mTL showed a sharp decline. After 1998, a slight decreasing trend in both mTL and landings was observed: the analyses of the artisanal fishery landings only date back to 1995 this effect. The presence of four distinct periods was also confirmed by the analysis of the trends of other indices estimated using landings data: the Fishing in Balance index (FiB), the Trophic Efficiency (TE) and the Pelagic on Demersal landings ratio (P/D). In the first period, the increasing fishing pressure, along with no evidence of ecosystem crisis, suggested that an increased nutrient discharge was supporting it; analogously, the bottom-up effects had driven the dynamics of the ecosystem also in the second period, when the decrease in nutrient loads caused a shift of the primary producers from planktonic to macrobenthic. The spreading of the Manila clam, a non-native species, and the development of its massive mechanical exploitation have been the main forces driving the ecosystem during the third period, for which, however, no signs of crises were detected. The fourth period showed evidence of the "fishing down the food web" effect. Possible causes of such an effect were investigated and allowed us to conclude that not overfishing, but the effects of mechanical harvesting of the Manila clam had caused relevant impacts on habitat and benthic communities, concluding that the present level of

  4. Long term peatland subsidence: Experimental study and modeling scenarios in the Venice coastland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanello, Francesca; Teatini, Pietro; Putti, Mario; Gambolati, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    Land subsidence in drained cultivated peatlands is responsible for a number of serious environmental concerns and economical problems at both the local and the global scale. In low-lying coastal areas it enhances the risk of flooding, the saltwater contamination of shallow aquifers, and the maintenance costs of the systems that help keep the farmland drained. Since the subsidence is a major consequence of the bio-oxidation of the soil organic fraction in the upper aerated zone, cropped peatlands in temperate and tropic regions are important sources of CO2 into the atmosphere. A 4-year long experimental study has been performed in a drained peatland located south of the Venice Lagoon, Italy, to help calibrate a land subsidence model developed to predict the expected behavior of the ground surface elevation. Continuous monitoring of the hydrological regime and land displacements shows that the vertical movement of the peat surface consists of the superimposition of daily/seasonal time-scale reversible deformations related to soil moisture, depth to the water table, and temperature fluctuations, and long term irreversible subsidence due to peat oxidation. A novel two-step modeling approach to separate the two contributions from the available observations is presented. First, the elastic component is computed by integrating the peat vertical deformations evaluated by a constitutive relationship describing the porosity variation with the moisture content and pore pressure changes implemented into a variably saturated flow equation-based numerical code. The observed trend is then filtered from the computed reversible displacement and is used to calibrate an empirical relationship relating land subsidence rate to drainage depth and soil temperature. The results show that in recent years the subsidence rate ranged from 3 to 15 mm a-1. The large variability is due to the different climate conditions underlying the monitoring period, in particular a wet 2002 and a very dry

  5. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  6. Farmland productivity under stress conditions: a field scale monitoring and modeling study on the Venice coastland, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoli, Gabriele; Scudiero, Elia; Putti, Mario; Morari, Francesco; Teatini, Pietro

    2014-05-01

    The Venice coastland, Italy, is a precarious environment jeopardized by both natural and anthropogenic factors. Due to a land elevation below sea level and the presence of sandy paleo-channels, salinization of soil and shallow groundwater is posing a serious threat to the agricultural productivity of the region. In order to identify and quantify the impacts of the saltwater contamination on crop productivity an integrated monitoring and modeling approach is used. A representative 21 ha basin cultivated with maize crop has been extensively studied by soil sampling, geophysical surveys, continuous hydrological monitoring and crop yield distribution. Based on field observations a field-scale model of soil moisture dynamics coupled with plant transpiration, photosynthesis and growth has been developed and applied at the site.

  7. Modelling the impact of land subsidence on urban pluvial flooding: A case study of downtown Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Yu, Dapeng; Wilby, Rob

    2016-02-15

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of pluvial flooding to evaluate the impact of land subsidence on flood risks in urban contexts using a hydraulic model (FloodMap-HydroInundation2D). The pluvial flood event of August 2011 in Shanghai, China is used for model calibration and simulation. Evolving patterns of inundation (area and depth) are assessed over four time periods (1991, 1996, 2001 and 2011) for the downtown area, given local changes in topography and rates of land subsidence of up to 27 mm/yr. The results show that land subsidence can lead to non-linear response of flood characteristics. However, the impact on flood depths is generally minor (<5 cm) and limited to areas with lowest-lying topographies because of relatively uniform patterns of subsidence and micro-topographic variations at the local scale. Nonetheless, the modelling approach tested here may be applied to other cities where there are more marked rates of subsidence and/or greater heterogeneity in the depressed urban surface. In these cases, any identified hot-spots of subsidence and focusing of pluvial flooding may be targeted for adaptation interventions. PMID:26674703

  8. Measurement of organic and elemental carbon in downtown Rome and background area: physical behavior and chemical speciation.

    PubMed

    Avino, Pasquale; Manigrasso, Maurizio; Rosada, Alberto; Dodaro, Alessandro

    2015-02-01

    A significant portion of the particulate matter is the total carbonaceous fraction (or total carbon, TC), composed of two main fractions, elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC), which shows a large variety of organic compounds, e.g. aliphatic, aromatic compounds, alcohols, acids, etc. In this paper, TC, EC and OC concentrations determined in a downtown Rome urban area are discussed considering the influence of meteorological conditions on the temporal-spatial aerosol distribution. Similar measurements were performed at ENEA Casaccia, an area outside Rome, which is considered as the ome background. Since 2000, TC, EC and OC measurements have been performed by means of an Ambient Carbon Particulate Monitor equipped with a NDIR detector. The EC and OC concentrations trends are compared with benzene and CO trends, which are specific indicators of autovehicular traffic, for identifying the primary EC and OC contributions and the secondary OC fraction origin. Further, a chemical investigation is reported for investigating how the main organic (i.e., n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and nitro-polyaromatic hydrocarbons) and inorganic (i.e., metals, ions) fractions vary their levels during the investigated period in relationship to new regulations and/or technological innovations. PMID:25341186

  9. Distribution of Escherichia coli in a coastal lagoon (Venice, Italy): Temporal patterns, genetic diversity and the role of tidal forcing.

    PubMed

    Perini, L; Quero, G M; García, E Serrano; Luna, G M

    2015-12-15

    Despite its worldwide importance as fecal indicator in aquatic systems, little is known about the diversity of Escherichia coli in the environment and the factors driving its spatial distribution. The city of Venice (Italy), lying at the forefront of a large European lagoon, is an ideal site to study the mechanisms driving the fate of fecal bacteria, due to the huge fluxes of tourists, the city's unique architecture (causing poor efficiency of sewages treatment), and the long branching network of canals crossing the city. We summarize the results of a multi-year investigation to study the temporal dynamics of E. coli around the city, describe the population structure (by assigning isolates to their phylogenetic group) and the genotypic diversity, and explore the role of environmental factors in determining its variability. E. coli abundance in water was highly variable, ranging from being undetectable up to 10(4) Colony Forming Units (CFU) per 100 ml. Abundance did not display significant relationships with the water physico-chemical variables. The analysis of the population structure showed the presence of all known phylogroups, including extra-intestinal and potentially pathogenic ones. The genotypic diversity was very high, as likely consequence of the heterogeneous input of fecal bacteria from the city, and showed site-specific patterns. Intensive sampling during the tidal fluctuations highlighted the prominent role of tides, rather than environmental variables, as source of spatial variation, with a more evident influence in water than sediments. These results, the first providing information on the genetic properties, spatial heterogeneity and influence of tides on E. coli populations around Venice, have implications to manage the fecal pollution, and the associated waterborne disease risks, in coastal cities lying in front of lagoons and semi-enclosed basins. PMID:26402879

  10. Radar-driven high-resolution hydro-meteorological forecasts of the 26 September 2007 Venice flash flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossa, Andrea M.; Laudanna Del Guerra, Franco; Borga, Marco; Zanon, Francesco; Settin, Tommaso; Leuenberger, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    SummaryThis study aims to assess the feasibility of assimilating carefully checked radar rainfall estimates into a numerical weather prediction (NWP) to extend the forecasting lead time for an extreme flash flood. The hydro-meteorological modeling chain includes the convection-permitting NWP model COSMO-2 and a coupled hydrological-hydraulic model. Radar rainfall estimates are assimilated into the NWP model via the latent heat nudging method. The study is focused on 26 September 2007 extreme flash flood which impacted the coastal area of North-eastern Italy around Venice. The hydro-meteorological modeling system is implemented over the 90 km2 Dese river basin draining to the Venice Lagoon. The radar rainfall observations are carefully checked for artifacts, including rain-induced signal attenuation, by means of physics-based correction procedures and comparison with a dense network of raingauges. The impact of the radar rainfall estimates in the assimilation cycle of the NWP model is very significant. The main individual organized convective systems are successfully introduced into the model state, both in terms of timing and localization. Also, high-intensity incorrectly localized precipitation is correctly reduced to about the observed levels. On the other hand, the highest rainfall intensities computed after assimilation underestimate the observed values by 20% and 50% at a scale of 20 km and 5 km, respectively. The positive impact of assimilating radar rainfall estimates is carried over into the free forecast for about 2-5 h, depending on when the forecast was started. The positive impact is larger when the main mesoscale convective system is present in the initial conditions. The improvements in the precipitation forecasts are propagated to the river flow simulations, with an extension of the forecasting lead time up to 3 h.

  11. Eight years of groundwater monitoring at the building site of the MOSE system for the safeguard of Venice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasso, Alessandro; Sethi, Rajandrea; Di Molfetta, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The survival of Venice is threatened by the continuous increase of frequency and intensity of tidal floods. To prevent these events, a safeguarding system known as MOSE is under construction at the inlets of the Lagoon of Venice. Four arrays of mobile barriers will be lifted in the case of exceptionally high tides (>1.10 m) to insulate the Lagoon. The prefabrication of the mobile barriers required a large construction area close to the final installation sites. Given the lack of space in the inlets of Lido and Chioggia, two basins of the future navigation locks were used for this purpose, and a system of water pumps and wells was therefore installed in each site to ensure the accessibility and safety of the construction areas. The impact of dewatering on the aquifers on the mainland in Punta Sabbioni (inlet of Lido) was monitored by means of continuous hydraulic head measurements in a network 25 piezometers, 11 screened in the phreatic aquifer and 14 in the shallowest confined aquifer. These aquifers are separated by a 5 m thick clayey aquiclude, and a 30 m thick impervious layer isolates them from the underlying confined aquifers, which were therefore not monitored. Each monitoring well was equipped with an automatic water pressure transducer and the hourly recorded hydraulic heads were compensated with the barometric pressure. The time series were compared with the natural driving forces (tides, rainfall, evapotranspiration) and the anthropogenic impact sources (dewatering pumping, slurry walls, land reclamation channels). The dynamics of seawater intrusion were also studied through monthly measurements of the vertical profiles of the electrical conductivity (EC) of groundwater. The monitoring activity was successful in assessing the impacts of the construction works. A drawdown was observed in the confined aquifer due to the dewatering pumping, with a maximum displacement of some 5 m on the mainland and an extension of some 1000 m from the dewatered basin. By

  12. Eight years of groundwater monitoring at the building site of the MOSE system for the safeguard of Venice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasso, Alessandro; Sethi, Rajandrea; Di Molfetta, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The survival of Venice is threatened by the continuous increase of frequency and intensity of tidal floods. To prevent these events, a safeguarding system known as MOSE is under construction at the inlets of the Lagoon of Venice. Four arrays of mobile barriers will be lifted in the case of exceptionally high tides (>1.10 m) to insulate the Lagoon. The prefabrication of the mobile barriers required a large construction area close to the final installation sites. Given the lack of space in the inlets of Lido and Chioggia, two basins of the future navigation locks were used for this purpose, and a system of water pumps and wells was therefore installed in each site to ensure the accessibility and safety of the construction areas. The impact of dewatering on the aquifers on the mainland in Punta Sabbioni (inlet of Lido) was monitored by means of continuous hydraulic head measurements in a network 25 piezometers, 11 screened in the phreatic aquifer and 14 in the shallowest confined aquifer. These aquifers are separated by a 5 m thick clayey aquiclude, and a 30 m thick impervious layer isolates them from the underlying confined aquifers, which were therefore not monitored. Each monitoring well was equipped with an automatic water pressure transducer and the hourly recorded hydraulic heads were compensated with the barometric pressure. The time series were compared with the natural driving forces (tides, rainfall, evapotranspiration) and the anthropogenic impact sources (dewatering pumping, slurry walls, land reclamation channels). The dynamics of seawater intrusion were also studied through monthly measurements of the vertical profiles of the electrical conductivity (EC) of groundwater. The monitoring activity was successful in assessing the impacts of the construction works. A drawdown was observed in the confined aquifer due to the dewatering pumping, with a maximum displacement of some 5 m on the mainland and an extension of some 1000 m from the dewatered basin. By

  13. Siberian Islands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia     View Larger Image ... clouds from snow and ice. The central portion of Russia's East Siberian Sea, including one of the New Siberian Islands, Novaya ...

  14. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  15. Examining the Impact of Case Management in Vancouver’s Downtown Community Court: A Quasi-Experimental Design

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Julian M.; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Rezansoff, Stefanie N.; Patterson, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Problem solving courts (PSC) have been implemented internationally, with a common objective to prevent reoffending by addressing criminogenic needs and strengthening social determinants of health. There has been no empirical research on the effectiveness of community courts, which are a form of PSC designed to harness community resources and inter-disciplinary expertise to reduce recidivism in a geographic catchment area. Method We used the propensity score matching method to examine the effectiveness of Vancouver’s Downtown Community Court (DCC). We focused on the subset of DCC participants who were identified as having the highest criminogenic risk and were assigned to a case management team (CMT). A comparison group was derived using one-to-one matching on a large array variables including static and dynamic criminogenic factors, geography, and time. Reductions in offences (one year pre minus one year post) were compared between CMT and comparison groups. Results Compared to other DCC offenders, those triaged to CMT (9.5% of the DCC population) had significantly higher levels of healthcare, social service use, and justice system involvement over the ten years prior to the index offence. Compared to matched offenders who received traditional court outcomes, those assigned to CMT (n = 249) exhibited significantly greater reductions in overall offending (p<0.001), primarily comprised of significant reductions in property offences (p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings indicate that CMT achieved significantly greater reductions in recidivism than traditional court among offenders with complex needs and high numbers of previous offences. Limitations of this research include a non-experimental design and one year follow up. Strengths include a robust matching process and extensive client level data spanning multiple sectors. Further research is needed to replicate the observed outcomes, to investigate the extension of community courts to settings with

  16. Intercomparison of an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) with ambient fine aerosol measurements in downtown Atlanta, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budisulistiorini, S. H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Croteau, P. L.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E. S.; Kollman, M. S.; Ng, N. L.; Verma, V.; Shaw, S. L.; Knipping, E. M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jayne, J. T.; Weber, R. J.; Surratt, J. D.

    2014-07-01

    Currently, there are a limited number of field studies that evaluate the long-term performance of the Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) against established monitoring networks. In this study, we present seasonal intercomparisons of the ACSM with collocated fine aerosol (PM2.5) measurements at the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) Jefferson Street (JST) site near downtown Atlanta, GA, during 2011-2012. Intercomparison of two collocated ACSMs resulted in strong correlations (r2 > 0.8) for all chemical species, except chloride (r2 = 0.21) indicating that ACSM instruments are capable of stable and reproducible operation. In general, speciated ACSM mass concentrations correlate well (r2 > 0.7) with the filter-adjusted continuous measurements from JST, although the correlation for nitrate is weaker (r2 = 0.55) in summer. Correlations of the ACSM NR-PM1 (non-refractory particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 1 μm) plus elemental carbon (EC) with tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) PM2.5 and Federal Reference Method (FRM) PM1 mass are strong with r2 > 0.7 and r2 > 0.8, respectively. Discrepancies might be attributed to evaporative losses of semi-volatile species from the filter measurements used to adjust the collocated continuous measurements. This suggests that adjusting the ambient aerosol continuous measurements with results from filter analysis introduced additional bias to the measurements. We also recommend to calibrate the ambient aerosol monitoring instruments using aerosol standards rather than gas-phase standards. The fitting approach for ACSM relative ionization for sulfate was shown to improve the comparisons between ACSM and collocated measurements in the absence of calibrated values, suggesting the importance of adding sulfate calibration into the ACSM calibration routine.

  17. [Vampires in the village Žrnovo on the island of Korčula: following an archival document from the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Coralic, Lovorka; Dugac, Zeljko; Sardelic, Sani

    2011-01-01

    The main interest of this essay is the analysis of the document from the State Archive in Venice (file: Capi del Consiglio de' Dieci: Lettere di Rettori e di altre cariche) which is connected with the episode from 1748 when the inhabitants of the village žrnove on the island of Korčula in Croatia opened tombs on the local cemetery in the fear of the vampires treating. This essay try to show some social circumstances connected with this event as well as a local vernacular tradition concerning superstitions. PMID:22047480

  18. Landing A Man Downtown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, W. G., II

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes the urban transport problems in comparison with those involved in a journey to the Moon. Indicates that the problem of enabling man to travel through the inner space of conurbations may prove to be more difficult than the transport problem of space travel. (CC)

  19. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... equipment and technology that may be deployed during a human mission to Mars. One of the many objectives of the project scientists is to ... Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's ...

  20. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  1. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... Snorkelers around this island are likely to encounter the fish Achilles Tang and the Moorish Idol (Acanthurus achilles and Zanclus ... Terra circles the Earth in the same orbit as Landsat 7, flying at an altitude of about 700 kilometers above the Earth's surface. ...

  2. The washing effect of precipitation on particulate matter and the pollution dynamics of rainwater in downtown Beijing.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Guo, Bobo; Cai, Guanqing; Li, Qing; Han, Sheng; Liu, Bin; Liu, Xingang

    2015-02-01

    The particulate matter (PM) pollution of Beijing fluctuated significantly before and after precipitation events during the rainy period. The rainwater samples were continually collected at five-minute intervals on the roof of a building in downtown Beijing. The PM₂.₅ was also monitored at same temporal scale. The pH and concentrations of ammonia-N, nitrate-N, phosphorus, sulfur, and heavy metals (Cd, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Cu) in the rainwater samples were measured, and the values were used to assess the effect of washing on PM₂.₅ and determine the characteristics of the rainwater pollutants. The PM₂.₅ was negatively correlated to the quantity of accumulated rainfall (R(2) value ranged from 0.668 to 0.974), which identified the function of the washing process on PM₂.₅ pollution. The washing process of rainfall strongly affects PM₂.₅, which decreased to 10-30 μg m(-3) with 5mm of rainfall. The analysis of the temporal patterns of ten pollutants in rainwater demonstrated that most of the pollution load was contributed by the first 5 to 10 min of the washing process. The event mean concentration (EMC) of nine inorganic pollutants was used to evaluate the pollution load and identify sources of particle pollution. Sulfur was the primary inorganic element detected in PM, and the average EMC of twelve rainfall events was 8.92 mg L(-1). The EMC of ammonia-N, nitrate-N, and phosphorus after significant PM₂.₅ pollution was 11.57 mg L(-1), 1.72 mg L(-1), and 0.019 mg L(-1), respectively. The total pollution load of the rainwater collecting area during the rainy reason was also calculated, and the largest heavy metal load of 3.11 mg was attributed to Zn. The pollution loads of heavy metals and the stable relationship between the pollutants indicate the potential urban environmental management policies in Beijing. PMID:25461032

  3. Source apportionment of PM2.5 at multiple sites in Venice (Italy): Spatial variability and the role of weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiol, Mauro; Squizzato, Stefania; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Pavoni, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the chemical speciation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected at three sites in the Venice area, eastern Po Valley (Italy). This area is one of the few hot spots left in Europe where levels of PM2.5 frequently breach EU target values and cause a serious risk for public health. Elemental composition, inorganic ions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were quantified in 448 PM2.5 samples and the multiple-site PMF receptor model was based on the elemental and inorganic ion data. Six factors associated with potential sources were quantified, namely, secondary sulfate, ammonium nitrate and combustions, fossil fuels, traffic, industrial and glassmaking. Source apportionment results were further processed using a series of chemometric tools for returning additional information about the seasonal and spatial changes of factors extracted by the PMF analysis. In addition, PMF results were also studied in combination with weather conditions and PAH concentrations revealing that sources of secondary nitrate and sulfate are homogeneously distributed throughout the area, while remaining pollutant sources may have a distinct origin. PMF results were cluster analyzed to sort out samples with similar source profiles and then the wind roses of grouped samples were examined to assess the role of wind speed and direction on PM2.5 pollution and chemistry. The tested tools and the results obtained can be used for air quality assessment studies and air pollution reduction strategies.

  4. Sediment dynamics in shallow tidal basins: In situ observations, satellite retrievals, and numerical modeling in the Venice Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniello, L.; Silvestri, S.; Marani, M.; D'Alpaos, A.; Volpe, V.; Defina, A.

    2014-04-01

    The morphological evolution of shallow tidal systems strongly depends on gradients in transport that control sediment erosion and deposition. A spatially refined quantitative description of suspended sediment patterns and dynamics is therefore a key requirement to address issues connected with dynamical trends, responses, and conservation of these systems. Here we use a combination of numerical models of sediment transport dynamics, high temporal resolution point observations, and high spatial resolution remote sensing data to overcome the intrinsic limitations of traditional monitoring approaches and to establish the robustness of numerical models in reproducing space-time suspended sediment concentration (SSC) patterns. The comparison of SSC distributions in the Venice Lagoon (Italy) computed with a numerical model with SSC retrievals from remote sensing data allows us to define the ability of the model to properly describe spatial patterns and gradients in the SSC fields. The use of point observations similarly allows us to constrain the model temporally, thus leading to a complete space-time evaluation of model abilities. Our results highlight the fundamental control exerted on sediment transport intensity and patterns by the sheltering effect associated with artificial and natural intertidal landforms. Furthermore, we show how the stabilizing effect of benthic vegetation is a main control of sediment dynamics at the system scale, confirming a notion previously established in the laboratory or at small field scales.

  5. Environmental and traffic-related parameters affecting road dust composition: A multi-technique approach applied to Venice area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valotto, Gabrio; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Visin, Flavia; Gonella, Francesco; Cattaruzza, Elti; Glisenti, Antonella; Formenton, Gianni; Tieppo, Paulo

    2015-12-01

    Road dust is a non-exhaust source of atmospheric particulate by re-suspension. It is composed of particles originating from natural sources as well as other non-exhaust source such as tire, brake and asphalt wear. The discrimination between atmospheric particles directly emitted from abrasion process and those related to re-suspension is therefore an open issue, as far as the percentage contribution of non-exhaust emissions is becoming more considerable due also to the recent policy actions and the technological upgrades in the automotive field, focused on the reduction of exhaust emissions. In this paper, road dust collected along the bridge that connects Venice (Italy) to the mainland is characterized with a multi-technique approach in order to determine its composition depending on environmental as well as traffic-related conditions. Six pollutant sources of road dust particles were identified by cluster analysis: brake, railway, tire, asphalt, soil + marine, and mixed combustions. Considering the lack of information on this matrix in this area, this study is intended to provide useful information for future identification of road dust re-suspension source in atmospheric particulate.

  6. Natural Recovery and Planned Intervention in Coastal Wetlands: Venice Lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy) as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Ceoldo, Sonia; Pellegrino, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The goals of conservation and sustainable use of environmental ecosystems have increased the need for detailed knowledge of ecological evolution and responses to both anthropogenic pressures and recovery measures. The present study shows the effects of natural processes and planned intervention in terms of reducing nutrient inputs in a highly exploited coastal lagoon, describing its evolution over a 16-year period from the late 1980s (when eutrophication was at its peak) until 2003. Changes in nutrient and carbon concentrations in the top layer of sediments were investigated in parallel with macroalgal and seagrass biomass in the most anthropized basin of Venice Lagoon in four surveys conducted in accordance with the same protocols in 1987, 1993, 1998, and 2003. A pronounced reduction in trophic state (mainly total nitrogen, organic phosphorus, and organic carbon concentrations) and macroalgal biomass was recorded, together with the progressive expansion of seagrass meadows. General considerations are also made on the effects of Manila clam farming and the shift from illegal to managed clam farming. PMID:25126611

  7. Plant-soil interactions in salt marsh environments: Experimental evidence from electrical resistivity tomography in the Venice Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boaga, Jacopo; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Cassiani, Giorgio; Marani, Marco; Putti, Mario

    2014-09-01

    The role of root water uptake in regulating soil water saturation in salt marshes is controversial. Modeling studies suggest that soil aeration is improved by transpiration, with implications for the distribution of vegetation species and of the associated topographic features controlling the hydraulic regime of the marshland and eventually its survival. Marsh vegetation plays a key role in the preservation of such critical environment, which represents unique marker for climatic change and impact studies. However, the direct quantification of space-time aeration patterns has remained elusive, in part, because of the limitations posed by high salinity to conventional observation techniques such as time or frequency domain reflectometry. Here we show that time-lapse microscale electrical resistivity tomography, coupled with tensiometric observations, allows the identification of variably saturated zones and the characterization of space-time soil moisture dynamics in a salt marsh in the Venice Lagoon (Italy). This is the first quantitative observational experiment which confirms that periodically flooded plants are capable of producing a persistently aerated layer below the flooded surface when transpiration proceeds at a sufficiently high rate. The experimental results are compared against previously published model predictions.

  8. Natural recovery and planned intervention in coastal wetlands: Venice Lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea, Italy) as a case study.

    PubMed

    Facca, Chiara; Ceoldo, Sonia; Pellegrino, Nicola; Sfriso, Adriano

    2014-01-01

    The goals of conservation and sustainable use of environmental ecosystems have increased the need for detailed knowledge of ecological evolution and responses to both anthropogenic pressures and recovery measures. The present study shows the effects of natural processes and planned intervention in terms of reducing nutrient inputs in a highly exploited coastal lagoon, describing its evolution over a 16-year period from the late 1980s (when eutrophication was at its peak) until 2003. Changes in nutrient and carbon concentrations in the top layer of sediments were investigated in parallel with macroalgal and seagrass biomass in the most anthropized basin of Venice Lagoon in four surveys conducted in accordance with the same protocols in 1987, 1993, 1998, and 2003. A pronounced reduction in trophic state (mainly total nitrogen, organic phosphorus, and organic carbon concentrations) and macroalgal biomass was recorded, together with the progressive expansion of seagrass meadows. General considerations are also made on the effects of Manila clam farming and the shift from illegal to managed clam farming. PMID:25126611

  9. From Point Cloud to Digital Fabrication: a Tangible Reconstruction of Ca' Venier Dei Leoni, the Guggenheim Museum in Venice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balletti, C.; D'Agnano, F.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2016-06-01

    The paper describes how new digital methodologies can be used within the field of Cultural Heritage, not only with the aim of documenting the actual state of an architecture but to review the past transformations it has undergone, conserving and representing these histories as well. The premise to conservation and enhancement of our Heritage is a deep study in terms of position, shape, colour, and also of the historical and artistic features. Survey methods have acquired data acquisition techniques in line with technological progress: today's electronic and IT technologies, that are the tools of modern Geomatics, allow the effective survey and representation of 3D objects, from architectural structures to sculptures or archaeological finds. Over the last few years, the methodologies of acquisition and integrated representation for 3D patrimony documentation have developed and consolidated considerably: the possibilities of the digital realm can augment the understanding and the valorisation of a monument. The specific case offered in the present paper, Ca' Venier dei Leoni, the palace where is the Guggenheim Museum in Venice, is a significant example. It suggests not only the theme of the "no longer existing", or better never built, but also the opportunity to formulate hypotheses regarding its implementation and the impact that the palace would have had in the Venetian contest.

  10. Saltwater contamination in the managed low-lying farmland of the Venice coast, Italy: An assessment of vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Da Lio, Cristina; Carol, Eleonora; Kruse, Eduardo; Teatini, Pietro; Tosi, Luigi

    2015-11-15

    The original morphology and hydrogeology of many low-lying coastlands worldwide have been significantly modified over the last century through river diversion, embankment built-up, and large-scale land reclamation projects. This led to a progressive shifting of the groundwater-surficial water exchanges from naturally to anthropogenically driven. In this human-influenced hydrologic landscape, the saltwater contamination usually jeopardizes the soil productivity. In the coastland south of Venice (Italy), several well log measurements, chemical and isotope analyses have been performed over the last decade to characterize the occurrence of the salt contamination. The processing of this huge dataset highlights a permanent variously-shaped saline contamination up to 20km inland, with different conditions in relation with the various geomorphological features of the area. The results point out the important role of the land reclamation in shaping the present-day salt contamination and reveal the contribution of precipitation, river discharge, lagoon and sea water to the shallow groundwater in the various coastal sectors. Moreover, an original vulnerability map to salt contamination in relation to the farmland productivity has been developed taking into account the electrical conductivity of the upper aquifer in the worst condition, the ground elevation, and the distance from salt and fresh surface water sources. Finally, the study allows highlighting the limit of traditional investigations in monitoring saltwater contamination at the regional scale in managed Holocene coastal environments. Possible improvements are outlined. PMID:26172603

  11. Biomarkers and trace metals in the digestive gland of indigenous and transplanted mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, in Venice Lagoon, Italy.

    PubMed

    Da Ros, L; Nasci, C; Marigomez, I; Soto, M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular and biochemical response of mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, transplanted from a relatively pristine site to a polluted one and vice versa in the Lagoon of Venice (northeast of Italy) and to apply auto-metallography, a rapid and sensitive histochemical technique, to determine the bio-available fraction of heavy metals accumulated in the body tissues of organisms. Animal digestive glands have been used for morphological analyses (lysosomal volume, surface and numerical density, mean epithelial thickness, mean diverticular and luminar radius), autometallographical black silver deposits quantification and biochemical assays (superoxide dismutase and catalase activity). Furthermore, heavy metal content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) using standard procedures. The overall results indicate a direct influence of the environment in the thinning of the digestive cells and in the increasing number of lysosomes in mussels from the more polluted site. These data are in agreement with the metal content in digestive cell lysosomes as determined by autometallography, whereas AAS measurements show less significant differences. PMID:11460729

  12. Microplastic particles in sediments of Lagoon of Venice, Italy: First observations on occurrence, spatial patterns and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, A.; Boldrin, A.; Guerriero, P.; Moschino, V.; Rella, R.; Sturaro, A.; Da Ros, L.

    2013-09-01

    In order to improve knowledge of the identification, distribution and abundances of microplastic particles of 1 mm or less (S-MPPs) in the coastal area of the Mediterranean region, a preliminary monitoring survey was carried out in a transitional environment along the north-eastern Italian coasts, the Lagoon of Venice. S-MPPs were evaluated in sediments collected from 10 sites chosen in shallow areas variously affected by natural conditions and anthropogenic influences (i.e., landward stations influenced by freshwater inputs, seaward areas near sea inlets, and sites influenced by the presence of aquaculture farms, industry and city centers). S-MPPs, extracted from bulk sediments by density separation, were counted and identified by Fourier-Transform Infrared Micro-spectroscopy (μFT-IR). The μFT-IR process included automatic surface chemical mapping and references to an infrared library database to identify the compositional spectra of particles. S-MPPs were recovered from all samples - a fact which emphasizes their extensive distribution throughout the Lagoon. Total abundances varied from 2175 to 672 S-MPPs kg-1 d.w., higher concentrations generally being observed in landward sites. Of the ten polymer types identified, the most abundant, accounting for more than 82% of total S-MPPs, were polyethylene and polypropylene. The most frequent size (93% of observed microplastics) was in the range 30-500 μm. Total S-MPP values were significantly correlated with the finer sediment fraction and with the metal pollution index.

  13. Hyperspectral Sensor Data Capability for Retrieving Complex Urban Land Cover in Comparison with Multispectral Data: Venice City Case Study (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Pascucci, Simone; Pignatti, Stefano; Santini, Federico

    2008-01-01

    This study aims at comparing the capability of different sensors to detect land cover materials within an historical urban center. The main objective is to evaluate the added value of hyperspectral sensors in mapping a complex urban context. In this study we used: (a) the ALI and Hyperion satellite data, (b) the LANDSAT ETM+ satellite data, (c) MIVIS airborne data and (d) the high spatial resolution IKONOS imagery as reference. The Venice city center shows a complex urban land cover and therefore was chosen for testing the spectral and spatial characteristics of different sensors in mapping the urban tissue. For this purpose, an object-oriented approach and different common classification methods were used. Moreover, spectra of the main anthropogenic surfaces (i.e. roofing and paving materials) were collected during the field campaigns conducted on the study area. They were exploited for applying band-depth and sub-pixel analyses to subsets of Hyperion and MIVIS hyperspectral imagery. The results show that satellite data with a 30m spatial resolution (ALI, LANDSAT ETM+ and HYPERION) are able to identify only the main urban land cover materials.

  14. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  15. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  16. Intercomparison of an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) with ambient fine aerosol measurements in Downtown Atlanta, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budisulistiorini, S. H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Croteau, P. L.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E. S.; Kollman, M. S.; Ng, N. L.; Verma, V.; Shaw, S. L.; Knipping, E. M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jayne, J. T.; Weber, R. J.; Surratt, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) was recently developed to provide long-term real-time continuous measurements of ambient non-refractory (i.e., organic, sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, and chloride) submicron particulate matter (NR-PM1). Currently, there are a limited number of field studies that evaluate the long-term performance of the ACSM against established monitoring networks. In this study, we present seasonal intercomparisons of the ACSM with collocated fine aerosol (PM2.5) measurements at the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) Jefferson Street (JST) site near downtown Atlanta, GA, during 2011-2012. The collocated measurements included a second ACSM, continuous and integrated sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium measurements, as well as a semi-continuous Sunset organic carbon/elemental carbon (OC/EC) analyzer, continuous tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM), 24 h integrated Federal Reference Method (FRM) filters, and continuous scanning electrical mobility system-mixing condensation particle counter (SEMS-MCPC). Intercomparison of the two collocated ACSMs resulted in strong correlations (r2 > 0.8) for all chemical species, except chloride (r2 = 0.21); mass concentration for all chemical species agreed within ±27%, indicating that ACSM instruments are capable of stable and reproducible operation. Chemical constituents measured by the ACSM are also compared with those obtained from the continuous measurements from JST. Since the continuous measurement concentrations are adjusted to match the integrated filter measurements, these comparisons reflect the combined uncertainties of the ACSM, continuous, and filter measurements. In general, speciated ACSM mass concentrations correlate well (r2 > 0.7) with the continuous measurements from JST, although the correlation for nitrate is weaker (r2 = 0.55) in summer. Differences between ACSM mass concentrations and the filter-adjusted JST continuous data are 5-27%, 4

  17. Assessment of cumulative evidence for the association between glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms and lung cancer: application of the Venice interim guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Langevin, Scott M.; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Vineis, Paolo; Taioli, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    There is an overwhelming abundance of genetic association studies available in the literature, which often can be collectively difficult to interpret. To address this issue, the Venice interim guidelines were established for determining the credibility of the cumulative evidence. The objective of this report is to evaluate the literature on the association of common GST variants (GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null and GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism) and lung cancer, and to assess the credibility of the associations using the newly proposed cumulative evidence guidelines. Information from the literature was enriched with an updated meta-analysis and a pooled analysis using data from the Genetic Susceptibility to Environmental Carcinogens (GSEC) database. There was a significant association between GSTM1 null and lung cancer for the meta- (meta OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.10–1.25) and pooled analysis (adjusted OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.04–1.16), although substantial heterogeneity was present. No overall association between lung cancer and GSTT1 null or GSTP1 Ile105Val was found. When the Venice criteria was applied, cumulative evidence for all associations were considered “weak”, with the exception of East Asian carriers of the G allele of GSTP1 Ile105Val, which was graded as “moderate” evidence. In spite of large amounts of studies, and several statistically significant summary estimates produced by meta-analyses, the application of the Venice criteria suggests extensive heterogeneity and susceptibility to bias for the studies on association of common genetic polymorphisms, such as with GST variants and lung cancer. PMID:20729793

  18. Temporal changes and spatial variation of soil oxygen consumption, nitrification and denitrification rates in a tidal salt marsh of the Lagoon of Venice, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, P. G.; Svensson, J. M.; Carrer, G. M.

    2003-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal and spatial patterns of soil oxygen consumption, nitrification, denitrification and fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in a tidal salt marsh of the Lagoon of Venice, Italy. In the salt marsh, intact soil cores including overlying water were collected monthly at high tide from April to October in salt marsh creeks and in areas covered by the dominant vegetation, Limonium serotinum. In May, cores were also collected in areas with vegetation dominated by Juncus maritimus and Halimione portulacoides. In laboratory incubations at in situ temperature in the dark, flux rates of oxygen and DIN were monitored in the overlying water of the intact cores. 15N-nitrate was added to the overlying water and nitrification and denitrification were measured using isotope-dilution and -pairing techniques. The results show that highest soil oxygen consumption coincided with the highest water temperature in June and July. The highest denitrification rates were recorded in spring and autumn coinciding with the highest nitrate concentrations. Soil oxygen consumption and nitrification rates differed between sampling sites, but denitrification rates were similar among the different vegetation types. The highest rates were recorded in areas covered with L. serotinum. Burrowing soil macrofauna enhanced oxygen consumption, nitrification and denitrification in April and May. The data presented in this study indicate high temporal as well as spatial variations in the flux of oxygen and DIN, and nitrogen transformations in the tidal salt marshes of the Venice lagoon during the growth season. The results identify the salt marshes of the Venice lagoon as being metabolically very active ecosystems with a high capacity to process nitrogen.

  19. The effects of clam fishing on the properties of surface sediments in the lagoon of Venice, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspen, R. J.; Vardy, S.; Perkins, R. G.; Davidson, I. R.; Bates, R.; Paterson, D. M.

    Harvesting of clams(Tapes philippinarum) has important socio-economic and environmental implications for the Venice lagoon area, Italy. Clam harvesting disrupts the structure of benthic communities but the effects upon sediment stability and surface structure remain unclear. The effect of clam fishing on the sediment properties of the lagoon bed was investigated at two different sites, a heavily fished site (San Angelo) and an infrequently fished site (San Giaccomo). Both sites were assessed for immediate impacts of fishing, using indicators of biogenic sediment stabilisation. Samples were taken at three points along three 100 m linear transects at each site prior to and post fishing. Paired samples were also taken parallel to each transect at a distance of 5m, to allow for temporal variation. Sediment stability, measured with a cohesive strength meter (CSM), was significantly higher at the less impacted site (F1,34 = 6.23, p < 0.018), was correlated with indicators of biogenic sediment stabilisation and decreased by approximately 50% following the trawling event. Concomitant decreases in chlorophyll a (chl a), colloidal-S carbohydrate and dry bulk density were observed on the transect after fishing but not adjacent to the fishing path. At the heavily impacted site, clam fishing by trawling had, in general, no significant effect on the biological and physical properties (although chl a did decrease significantly after fishing). The lack of a significant impact from fishing at the impacted site was attributed to the higher frequency of fishing occurring in this area. Hence, frequent fishing of the lagoon prevents establishment of biotic communities, preventing biostabilisation and thus reduces the stability of the surface sediment.

  20. Variability of cannabis potency in the Venice area (Italy): a survey over the period 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Bettin, Chiara; Sciarrone, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance globally, with an estimated annual prevalence in 2010 of 2.6-5.0% of the adult population. Concerns have been expressed about increases in the potency of cannabis products. A high tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content can increase anxiety, depression, and psychotic symptoms, and can increase the risk of dependence and adverse effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems in regular users. The aim of this study was to report statistical data about the potency of cannabis products seized in the north-east of Italy, in a geographical area centred in Venice and extending for more than 10,000  km(2) with a population of more than two million, by investigating the variability observed in THC levels of about 4000 samples of cannabis products analyzed over the period 2010-2012. Overall median THC content showed an increasing trend over the study period from about 6.0% to 8.1% (6.2-8.9% for cannabis resin, 5.1-7.6% for herbal cannabis). The variation in the THC content of individual samples was very large, ranging from 0.3% to 31% for cannabis resin and from 0.1 to 19% for herbal cannabis. Median CBN:THC ratios showed a slightly decreasing trend over the study period, from 0.09 (2010) to 0.03 (2012), suggesting an increasing freshness of submitted materials. Median CBD:THC ratios also showed a decreasing trend over the study from about 0.52 (2010) to 0.18 (2012), likely due to the increase in submissions of materials from indoor and domestic cultivation with improved breeding methods. PMID:23868754

  1. Source apportionment of wide range particle size spectra and black carbon collected at the airport of Venice (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiol, Mauro; Vu, Tuan V.; Beddows, David C. S.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric particles are of high concern due to their toxic properties and effects on climate, and large airports are known as significant sources of particles. This study investigates the contribution of the Airport of Venice (Italy) to black carbon (BC), total particle number concentrations (PNC) and particle number size distributions (PNSD) over a large range (14 nm-20 μm). Continuous measurements were conducted between April and June 2014 at a site located 110 m from the main taxiway and 300 m from the runway. Results revealed no significantly elevated levels of BC and PNC, but exhibited characteristic diurnal profiles. PNSD were then analysed using both k-means cluster analysis and positive matrix factorization. Five clusters were extracted and identified as midday nucleation events, road traffic, aircraft, airport and nighttime pollution. Six factors were apportioned and identified as probable sources according to the size profiles, directional association, diurnal variation, road and airport traffic volumes and their relationships to micrometeorology and common air pollutants. Photochemical nucleation accounted for ∼44% of total number, followed by road + shipping traffic (26%). Airport-related emissions accounted for ∼20% of total PNC and showed a main mode at 80 nm and a second mode beyond the lower limit of the SMPS (<14 nm). The remaining factors accounted for less than 10% of number counts, but were relevant for total volume concentrations: nighttime nitrate, regional pollution and local resuspension. An analysis of BC levels over different wind sectors revealed no especially significant contributions from specific directions associated with the main local sources, but a potentially significant role of diurnal dynamics of the mixing layer on BC levels. The approaches adopted in this study have identified and apportioned the main sources of particles and BC at an international airport located in area affected by a complex emission scenario. The

  2. Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    1988-06-01

    The Solomon Islands, which form an archipelago in the Southwest Pacific about 1900 km northeast of Australia, are described. Included are brief descriptions about such points as geography, people, history, type of government, political conditions, economy, and foreign relations. In 1987 the population was 301,180 (49% under age 14); the annual growth rate was 3.67%. The infant mortality rate is 46/1000; the life expectancy, 54 years. Health conditions in the Solomons generally are adequate, and the country does not suffer from serious endemic diseases other than malaria, in both the vivax and falsiparum strains. Hospitals and pharmacies are limited to population centers and missions. PMID:12177986

  3. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  4. Measuring visual exposure to smoking behaviours: a viewshed analysis of smoking at outdoor bars and cafés across a capital city’s downtown area

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The influence of visual exposure to health-related behaviours, such as smoking, is increasingly acknowledged in the public health literature. Social contagion or normalisation is thought to operate through the visibility of those behaviours. There has been a lack of systematic and comprehensive approaches to quantifying visual exposure to these behaviours over a relatively large geographic area. We describe the novel application of a geographic tool, viewshed analysis, to estimate visual exposure to smoking outside bars/cafés across a downtown area. Methods Smoking was observed for different times and days of the week at 14 outdoor areas of bars/cafés throughout downtown Wellington, New Zealand. We used these data to extrapolate to other bars/cafés with outdoor seating. We then conducted viewshed analyses to estimate visual exposure to smoking at bars/cafés for all public outdoor spaces. Results We observed a smoking point prevalence of 16%. Visibility analyses indicated that estimated visible smoking was highest in the evenings (7-8 pm), where the average values across Wednesday and Friday ranged from zero up to 92 visible smokers (mean = 1.44). Estimated visible smoking at midday ranged from zero to 13 (mean = 0.27). Values were also higher at the end of the week compared with midweek in the evening. Maps indicate that streets with high levels of retail shops and hospitality areas had high values of estimated visible smokers, particularly in the evening where numbers were consistently above 50. Conclusions This paper highlights a useful method for measuring the extent of visual exposure to smoking behaviours across relatively large areas using a geospatial approach. Applying this method in other locations would require consideration of place-specific characteristics which impact on visibility and could be improved through more sophisticated extrapolation of observational data across the study area. The findings of this and similar research could

  5. Youth and Work: The Incidence of the Economic Situation on the Access of Young People to Education, Culture and Work. Report, Recommendations and Documents of a European Regional Meeting, Venice, 7-11 November, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This document contains materials from a Unesco European regional meeting held in Venice (November 7-11, 1977) to discuss the problem of youth unemployment. The final report of the meeting is composed of (1) a summary of the discussions on background and nature of the problem, remedies, action, education and training, creating jobs, quality of…

  6. An Assessment of Employment Opportunities for High School Graduates in Downtown Manhattan. A Study to Aid the Planning of a New Commercial High School, Including Assessment of Certain Community Resources Likely to be Available to the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Donald E.; And Others

    Characteristics of the entry-level job market in lower Manhattan, or "Downtown," for new high school graduates were assessed. Questionnaire-guided interviews with representatives of principal industries and occupations were conducted within five major employment groups: banking, insurance, securities, communications and transportation, and…

  7. A 3-month long operational implementation of an ensemble prediction system of storm surge for the city of Venice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mel, Riccardo; Lionello, Piero

    2014-05-01

    Advantages of an ensemble prediction forecast (EPF) technique that has been used for sea level (SL) prediction at the Northern Adriatic coast are investigated. The aims is to explore whether EPF is more precise than the traditional Deterministic Forecast (DF) and the value of the added information, mainly on forecast uncertainty. Improving the SL forecast for the city of Venice is of paramount importance for the management and maintenance of this historical city and for operating the movable barriers that are presently being built for its protection. The operational practice is simulated for three months from 1st October to 31st December 2010. The EPF is based on the HYPSE model, which is a standard single-layer nonlinear shallow water model, whose equations are derived from the depth averaged momentum equations and predicts the SL. A description of the model is available in the scientific literature. Forcing of HYPSE are provided by three different sets of 3-hourly ECMWF 10m-wind and MSLP fields: the high resolution meteorological forecast (which is used for the deterministic SL forecast, DF), the control run forecast (CRF, that differs from the DF forecast only for it lower meteorological fields resolution) and the 50 ensemble members of the ECMWF EPS (which are used for the SL-EPS. The resolution of DF fields is T1279 and resolution of both CRF and ECMWF EPS fields is T639 resolution. The 10m wind and MSLP fields have been downloaded at 0.125degs (DF) and 0.25degs(CRF and EPS) and linearly interpolated to the HYPSE grid (which is the same for all simulations). The version of HYPSE used in the SR EPS uses a rectangular mesh grid of variable size, which has the minimum grid step (0.03 degrees) in the northern part of the Adriatic Sea, from where grid step increases with a 1.01 factor in both latitude and longitude (In practice, resolution varies in the range from 3.3 to 7km). Results are analyzed considering the EPS spread, the rms of the simulations, the Brier

  8. Assessment of sediment toxicity in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy) using a multi-species set of bioassays.

    PubMed

    Picone, Marco; Bergamin, Martina; Losso, Chiara; Delaney, Eugenia; Arizzi Novelli, Alessandra; Ghirardini, Annamaria Volpi

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of a Weight of Evidence (WoE) approach, a set of four toxicity bioassays involving the amphipod Corophium volutator (10 d lethality test on whole sediment), the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (fertilization and embryo toxicity tests on elutriate) and the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (embryo toxicity test on elutriate) was applied to sediments from 10 sampling sites of the Venice Lagoon (Italy). Sediments were collected during three campaigns carried out in May 2004 (spring campaign), October 2004 (autumn campaign) and February 2005 (winter campaign). Toxicity tests were performed on all sediment samples. Sediment grain-size and chemistry were measured during spring and autumn campaigns. This research investigated (i) the ability of toxicity tests in discriminating among sites with different contamination level, (ii) the occurrence of a gradient of effect among sampling sites, (iii) the possible correlation among toxicity tests, sediment chemistry, grain size and organic carbon, and (iv) the possible occurrence of toxicity seasonal variability. Sediment contamination levels were from low to moderate. No acute toxicity toward amphipods was observed, while sea urchin fertilization was affected only in few sites in just a single campaign. Short-term effects on larval development of sea urchin and oyster evidenced a clear spatial trend among sites, with increasing effects along the axis connecting the sea-inlets with the industrial area. The set of bioassays allowed the identification of a spatial gradient of effect, with decreasing toxicity from the industrial area toward the sea-inlets. Multivariate data analysis showed that the malformations of oyster embryos were significantly correlated to the industrial contamination (metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls), while sea urchin development to sediment concentrations of As, Cr and organic carbon. Both embryo toxicity tests were

  9. Concentration and speciation of plutonium, americium, uranium, thorium, potassium and 137Cs in a venice canal sediment sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Guerra, F.; Meli, M. A.; Roselli, C.; Degetto, S.

    1999-01-01

    A sequential extraction method consisting of six operationally-defined fractions has been developed for determining the geochemical partitioning of natural (U, Th, 40K) and antropogenic (Pu, Am, 137Cs) radionuclides in a 40 50 cm deep sediment sample collected in a Venice canal. Extraction chromatography with Microthene-TOPO (U, Th), Microthene-TNOA (Pu) and Microthene-HDEHP (Am) column was used for the chemical separation of a single radionuclide; the final recoveries were calculated by adding 236U, 229Th, 242Pu and 243Am as the yield tracers. After electrodeposition the alpha spectrometry was carried out. 137Cs and 40K were measured by gamma spectrometry. The total concentrations in the wet sample (Bq/kgd), obtained by a complete disgregation of the matrix by wet and dry treatment, were the following: 239+240Pu=1.03±0.07, 238Pu=0.022±0.005, 241Am=0.337±0.027, 137Cs=9.78±0.78, 238U=28.84±1.62, 232Th=21.42±1.93, 40K=376.05±12.78. The mean ratio 238Pu/239+240Pu (0.02) shows a contamination due essentially to fall-out and U and Th alpha spectra indicate the natural origin of two elements. The absence of 134Cs in the sample proves that at 40 50 cm depth the sediment was not affected by the Chernobyl fall-out. As far as the speciation is concerned the following fractions were considered: water soluble, carbonates, Fe-Mn oxides, organic matter, acid soluble, residue. Pu (˜67%) an Am (˜95%) were present principally in the carbonate fraction; U was more distributed and about 30% and 45% appeared in the carbonate fraction and in the residue respectively; the majority of Th was present in the residue (˜60%); 40K was totally present in the residue; finally 137Cs was found mostly in the acid soluble fraction (˜53%) and in the residue (˜47%). Some stable elements (Fe, Mn, Al, Ti, Ca, Pb, Ba) were also determined in the different fractions to get more information about the chemical association of the single radionuclides.

  10. Concentration and speciation of plutonium, americium, uranium, thorium, potassium and 137Cs in a venice canal sediment sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Guerra, F.; Meli, M. A.; Roselli, C.; Degetto, S.

    1999-01-01

    A sequential extraction method consisting of six operationally-defined fractions has been developed for determining the geochemical partitioning of natural (U, Th, 40K) and antropogenic (Pu, Am, 137Cs) radionuclides in a 40-50 cm deep sediment sample collected in a Venice canal. Extraction chromatography with Microthene-TOPO (U, Th), Microthene-TNOA (Pu) and Microthene-HDEHP (Am) column was used for the chemical separation of a single radionuclide; the final recoveries were calculated by adding 236U, 229Th, 242Pu and 243Am as the yield tracers. After electrodeposition the alpha spectrometry was carried out. 137Cs and 40K were measured by gamma spectrometry. The total concentrations in the wet sample (Bq/kgd), obtained by a complete disgregation of the matrix by wet and dry treatment, were the following: 239+240Pu=1.03±0.07, 238Pu=0.022±0.005, 241Am=0.337±0.027, 137Cs=9.78±0.78, 238U=28.84±1.62, 232Th=21.42±1.93, 40K=376.05±12.78. The mean ratio 238Pu/239+240Pu (0.02) shows a contamination due essentially to fall-out and U and Th alpha spectra indicate the natural origin of two elements. The absence of 134Cs in the sample proves that at 40-50 cm depth the sediment was not affected by the Chernobyl fall-out. As far as the speciation is concerned the following fractions were considered: water soluble, carbonates, Fe-Mn oxides, organic matter, acid soluble, residue. Pu (˜67%) an Am (˜95%) were present principally in the carbonate fraction; U was more distributed and about 30% and 45% appeared in the carbonate fraction and in the residue respectively; the majority of Th was present in the residue (˜60%); 40K was totally present in the residue; finally 137Cs was found mostly in the acid soluble fraction (˜53%) and in the residue (˜47%). Some stable elements (Fe, Mn, Al, Ti, Ca, Pb, Ba) were also determined in the different fractions to get more information about the chemical association of the single radionuclides.

  11. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  12. Morphodynamic evolution and stratal architecture of tidal meander bends through geophysical investigations and numerical modelling: inferences from the Venice Lagoon (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brivio, Lara; Ghinassi, Massimilano; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Finotello, Alvise; Carniello, Luca; Marani, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: tidal meanders, stratal architecture, morphodynamics, mathematical modeling, Venice Lagoon. Although meanders are ubiquitous features of the tidal landscape, very few papers have analyzed their morphodynamic evolution or internal architecture, which is commonly analyzed basing on facies models developed for fluvial meander bend deposits. Towards the goal of providing new insight into the morphodynamic evolution of tidal meanders, together with high-resolution facies models, we analyzed a tidal point bar located in the Northern part of the Venice Lagoon (Italy), the largest Mediterranean brackish water body, characterized by an area of about 550 km2 and subjected to a semidiurnal tidal regime with an average tidal range of about 1 m and peak tidal amplitudes of about 0.75 m. High-resolution spatial data were acquired through the use of a sub-bottom profiler along a meander bend in the Northern part of the Venice lagoon. Sub-bottom profiles were collected along transects oriented both parallel and transverse to the main channel axis, and interpreted through a specific 3D modeling software. In the study segment, the channel is 100 m wide and 3 - 5 m deep and defines a bend with a curvature radius of about 200 m. Geophysical data highlight the presence of two laterally extensive key surfaces, which divide the channel deposits into three sedimentary units (up to 6.0, 4.0 and 3.5 m thick, respectively), associated with three main depositional stages of meander bend evolution. All these stages emphasize the occurrence of an ebb - dominated transport, especially in the first and in the second ones. The first stage is associated with development of point-bar deposits and is characterized by lateral accreting beds dipping toward the channel thalweg at about 10-20°. The second stage is associated with deposition in the landward side of the meander bend, where both aggradation and lateral accretion are documented. The third stage is characterized by accumulation of

  13. Migration to the Downtown Eastside neighbourhood of Vancouver and changes in service use in a cohort of mentally ill homeless adults: a 10-year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Julian M; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Rezansoff, Stefanie N

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little research has investigated the role of migration as a potential contributor to the spatial concentration of homeless people with complex health and social needs. In addition, little is known concerning the relationship between possible migration and changes in levels of service use over time. We hypothesised that homeless, mentally ill individuals living in a concentrated urban setting had migrated from elsewhere over a 10-year period, in association with significant increases in the use of public services. Setting Recruitment was concentrated in the Downtown Eastside neighbourhood of Vancouver, Canada. Participants Participants (n=433) met criteria for chronic homelessness and serious mental illness, and provided consent to access administrative data. Methods Linked administrative data were used to retrospectively examine geographic relocation as well as rates of health, justice, and social welfare service utilisation in each of the 10 years prior to recruitment. Generalised estimating equations were used to estimate the effect of migration on service use. Results Over a 10-year period there was significant movement into Vancouver's Downtown Eastside neighbourhood (from 17% to 52% of the cohort). During the same period, there were significant annual increases in community medical services (adjusted rate ratio (ARR) per year=1.08; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.10), hospital admissions (ARR=1.08; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.11), criminal convictions (ARR=1.08; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.13), and financial assistance payments (ARR=1.04; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.06). Migration was significantly associated with financial assistance, but not with other types of services. Conclusions Significant increases in service use over a 10-year period coincided with significant migration into an urban area where relevant services were concentrated. These results highlight opportunities for early intervention in spatially diverse neighbourhoods to interrupt trajectories marked by worsening health and

  14. The size distribution of chemical elements of atmospheric aerosol at a semi-rural coastal site in Venice (Italy). The role of atmospheric circulation.

    PubMed

    Masiol, Mauro; Squizzato, Stefania; Ceccato, Daniele; Pavoni, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of selected elemental tracers were determined in the aerosol of a semi-rural coastal site near Venice (Italy). Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected using an 8-stage cascade impactor set at 15m above ground, during the cold season (late autumn and winter), when high levels of many pollutants are known to cause risks for human health. From the experimental data, information was extracted on potential pollutant sources by investigating the relationships between elements in the different size fractions. Moreover, an approach to highlight the importance of local atmospheric circulation and air mass origin in influencing the PM composition and fractional distribution is proposed. Anthropogenic elements are strongly inter-correlated in the submicrometric (<1 μm) (S, K, Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn) and intermediate mode (1-4 μm) (Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni) and their relationships highlight the presence of several sources (combustions, secondary aerosol, road traffic). In the intermediate mode, associations having geochemical significance exist between marine (Na, Cl and Mg) and crustal (Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Ti and K) elements. In the coarse mode (>4 μm) Fe and Zn are well correlated and are probably linked to tire and brake wear emissions. Regarding atmospheric circulation, results show increasing levels of elements related to pollution sources (S, K, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn) when air masses come from Central and Eastern Europe direction and on the ground wind blows from NWN-N-NE (from mainland Venice). Low wind speed and high percentage of wind calm hours favor element accumulation in the submicrometric and intermediate modes. Furthermore, strong winds favor the formation of sea-spray and the increase of Si in the coarse mode due to the resuspension of sand fine particles. PMID:25063963

  15. Modelling ecological and human exposure to POPs in Venice lagoon - Part II: Quantitative uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in coupled exposure models.

    PubMed

    Radomyski, Artur; Giubilato, Elisa; Ciffroy, Philippe; Critto, Andrea; Brochot, Céline; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    The study is focused on applying uncertainty and sensitivity analysis to support the application and evaluation of large exposure models where a significant number of parameters and complex exposure scenarios might be involved. The recently developed MERLIN-Expo exposure modelling tool was applied to probabilistically assess the ecological and human exposure to PCB 126 and 2,3,7,8-TCDD in the Venice lagoon (Italy). The 'Phytoplankton', 'Aquatic Invertebrate', 'Fish', 'Human intake' and PBPK models available in MERLIN-Expo library were integrated to create a specific food web to dynamically simulate bioaccumulation in various aquatic species and in the human body over individual lifetimes from 1932 until 1998. MERLIN-Expo is a high tier exposure modelling tool allowing propagation of uncertainty on the model predictions through Monte Carlo simulation. Uncertainty in model output can be further apportioned between parameters by applying built-in sensitivity analysis tools. In this study, uncertainty has been extensively addressed in the distribution functions to describe the data input and the effect on model results by applying sensitivity analysis techniques (screening Morris method, regression analysis, and variance-based method EFAST). In the exposure scenario developed for the Lagoon of Venice, the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and PCB 126 in human blood turned out to be mainly influenced by a combination of parameters (half-lives of the chemicals, body weight variability, lipid fraction, food assimilation efficiency), physiological processes (uptake/elimination rates), environmental exposure concentrations (sediment, water, food) and eating behaviours (amount of food eaten). In conclusion, this case study demonstrated feasibility of MERLIN-Expo to be successfully employed in integrated, high tier exposure assessment. PMID:27432731

  16. A multi-disciplinary approach to evaluate vulnerability and risks of pluvial floods under changing climate: the case study of the municipality of Venice (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperotto, Anna; Torresan, Silvia; Gallina, Valentina; Coppola, Erika; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect the intensity and frequency of extreme events (e.g. heat waves, drought, heavy precipitations events) leading to increasing natural disasters and damaging events (e.g. storms, pluvial floods and coastal flooding) worldwide. Especially in urban areas, disasters risks can be exacerbated by changes in exposure and vulnerability patterns (i.e. urbanization, population growth) and should be addressed by adopting a multi-disciplinary approach. A Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology integrating climate and environmental sciences with bottom-up participative processes was developed and applied to the urban territory of the municipality of Venice in order to evaluate the potential consequences of climate change on pluvial flood risk in urban areas. Based on the consecutive analysis of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risks, the RRA methodology is a screening risk tool to identify and prioritize major elements at risk (e.g. residential, commercial areas and infrastructures) and to localize sub-areas that are more likely to be affected by flood risk due to heavy precipitation events, in the future scenario (2041-2050). From the early stages of its development and application, the RRA followed a bottom-up approach to select and score site-specific vulnerability factors (e.g. slope, permeability of the soil, past flooded areas) and to consider the requests and perspectives of local stakeholders of the North Adriatic region, by means of interactive workshops, surveys and discussions. The main outputs of the assessment are risk and vulnerability maps and statistics aimed at increasing awareness about the potential effect of climate change on pluvial flood risks and at identifying hot-spot areas where future adaptation actions should be required to decrease physical-environmental vulnerabilities or building resilience and coping capacity of human society to climate change. The overall risk assessment methodology and the results

  17. Inter-annual trend of the primary contribution of ship emissions to PM2.5 concentrations in Venice (Italy): Efficiency of emissions mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contini, Daniele; Gambaro, Andrea; Donateo, Antonio; Cescon, Paolo; Cesari, Daniela; Merico, Eva; Belosi, Franco; Citron, Marta

    2015-02-01

    Ships and harbour emissions are currently increasing, due to the increase of tourism and trade, with potential impact on global air pollution and climate. At local scale, in-port ship emissions influence air quality in coastal areas impacting on health of coastal communities. International legislations to reduce ship emissions, both at Worldwide and European levels, are mainly based on the use of low-sulphur content fuel. In this work an analysis of the inter-annual trends of primary contribution, ε, of tourist shipping to the atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations in the urban area of Venice has been performed. Measurements have been taken in the summer periods of 2007, 2009 and 2012. Results show a decrease of ε from 7% (±1%) in 2007 to 5% (±1%) in 2009 and to 3.5% (±1%) in 2012. The meteorological and micrometeorological conditions of the campaigns were similar. Tourist ship traffic during measurement campaigns increased, in terms of gross tonnage, of about 25.4% from 2007 to 2009 and of 17.6% from 2009 to 2012. The decrease of ε was associated to the effect of a voluntary agreement (Venice Blue Flag) for the use of low-sulphur content fuel enforced in the area between 2007 and 2009 and to the implementation of the 2005/33/CE Directive in 2010. Results show that the use of low-sulphur fuel could effectively reduce the impact of shipping to atmospheric primary particles at local scale. Further, voluntary agreement could also be effective in reducing the impact of shipping on local air quality in coastal areas.

  18. Can ecological history influence response to pollutants? Transcriptomic analysis of Manila clam collected in different Venice lagoon areas and exposed to heavy metal.

    PubMed

    Milan, Massimo; Matozzo, Valerio; Pauletto, Marianna; Di Camillo, Barbara; Giacomazzo, Matteo; Boffo, Luciano; Binato, Giovanni; Marin, Maria Gabriella; Patarnello, Tomaso; Bargelloni, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Chronic exposure to environmental pollutants can exert strong selective pressures on natural populations, favoring the transmission over generations of traits that enable individuals to survive and thrive in highly impacted environments. The lagoon of Venice is an ecosystem subject to heavy anthropogenic impact, mainly due to the industrial activities of Porto Marghera (PM), which led to a severe chemical contamination of soil, groundwater, and sediments. Gene expression analysis on wild Manila clams collected in different Venice lagoon areas enabled to identify differences in gene expression profiles between clams collected in PM and those sampled in clean areas, and the definition of molecular signatures of chemical stress. However, it remains largely unexplored to which extent modifications of gene expression patterns persists after removing the source of contamination. It is also relatively unknown whether chronic exposure to xenobiotics affects the response to other chemical pollutants. To start exploring such issues, in the present study a common-garden experiment was coupled with transcriptomic analysis, to compare gene expression profiles of PM clams with those of clams collected in the less impacted area of Chioggia (CH) during a period under the same control conditions. Part of the two experimental groups were also exposed to copper for seven days to assess whether different "ecological history" does influence response to such pollutant. The results obtained suggest that the chronic exposure to chemical pollution generated a response at the transcriptional level that persists after removal for the contaminated site. These transcriptional changes are centered on key biological processes, such as defense against either oxidative stress or tissue/protein damage, and detoxification, suggesting an adaptive strategy for surviving in the deeply impacted environment of Porto Marghera. On the other hand, CH clams appeared to respond more effectively to copper

  19. Spatial variation of salt-marsh organic and inorganic deposition and organic carbon accumulation: Inferences from the Venice lagoon, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roner, M.; D'Alpaos, A.; Ghinassi, M.; Marani, M.; Silvestri, S.; Franceschinis, E.; Realdon, N.

    2016-07-01

    Salt marshes are ubiquitous features of the tidal landscape governed by mutual feedbacks among processes of physical and biological nature. Improving our understanding of these feedbacks and of their effects on tidal geomorphological and ecological dynamics is a critical step to address issues related to salt-marsh conservation and response to changes in the environmental forcing. In particular, the spatial variation of organic and inorganic soil production processes at the marsh scale, a key piece of information to understand marsh responses to a changing climate, remains virtually unexplored. In order to characterize the relative importance of organic vs. inorganic deposition as a function of space, we collected 33 shallow soil sediment samples along three transects in the San Felice and Rigà salt marshes located in the Venice lagoon, Italy. The amount of organic matter in each sample was evaluated using Loss On Ignition (LOI), a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment, and a sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) treatment following the H2O2 treatment. The grain size distribution of the inorganic fraction was determined using laser diffraction techniques. Our study marshes exhibit a weakly concave-up profile, with maximum elevations and coarser inorganic grains along their edges. The amount of organic and inorganic matter content in the samples varies with the distance from the marsh edge and is very sensitive to the specific analysis method adopted. The use of a H2O2+NaClO treatment yields an organic matter density value which is more than double the value obtained from LOI. Overall, inorganic contributions to soil formation are greatest near the marsh edges, whereas organic soil production is the main contributor to soil accretion in the inner marsh. We interpret this pattern by considering that while plant biomass productivity is generally lower in the inner part of the marsh, organic soil decomposition rates are highest in the better aerated edge soils. Hence the higher

  20. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  1. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  2. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  3. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. CFD simulation of near-field pollutant dispersion on a high-resolution grid: A case study by LES and RANS for a building group in downtown Montreal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gousseau, P.; Blocken, B.; Stathopoulos, T.; van Heijst, G. J. F.

    2011-01-01

    Turbulence modeling and validation by experiments are key issues in the simulation of micro-scale atmospheric dispersion. This study evaluates the performance of two different modeling approaches (RANS standard k-ɛ and LES) applied to pollutant dispersion in an actual urban environment: downtown Montreal. The focus of the study is on near-field dispersion, i.e. both on the prediction of pollutant concentrations in the surrounding streets (for pedestrian outdoor air quality) and on building surfaces (for ventilation system inlets and indoor air quality). The high-resolution CFD simulations are performed for neutral atmospheric conditions and are validated by detailed wind-tunnel experiments. A suitable resolution of the computational grid is determined by grid-sensitivity analysis. It is shown that the performance of the standard k-ɛ model strongly depends on the turbulent Schmidt number, whose optimum value is case-dependent and a priori unknown. In contrast, LES with the dynamic subgrid-scale model shows a better performance without requiring any parameter input to solve the dispersion equation.

  5. Evaluation of seabed mapping methods for fine-scale classification of extremely shallow benthic habitats - Application to the Venice Lagoon, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montereale Gavazzi, G.; Madricardo, F.; Janowski, L.; Kruss, A.; Blondel, P.; Sigovini, M.; Foglini, F.

    2016-03-01

    Recent technological developments of multibeam echosounder systems (MBES) allow mapping of benthic habitats with unprecedented detail. MBES can now be employed in extremely shallow waters, challenging data acquisition (as these instruments were often designed for deeper waters) and data interpretation (honed on datasets with resolution sometimes orders of magnitude lower). With extremely high-resolution bathymetry and co-located backscatter data, it is now possible to map the spatial distribution of fine scale benthic habitats, even identifying the acoustic signatures of single sponges. In this context, it is necessary to understand which of the commonly used segmentation methods is best suited to account for such level of detail. At the same time, new sampling protocols for precisely geo-referenced ground truth data need to be developed to validate the benthic environmental classification. This study focuses on a dataset collected in a shallow (2-10 m deep) tidal channel of the Lagoon of Venice, Italy. Using 0.05-m and 0.2-m raster grids, we compared a range of classifications, both pixel-based and object-based approaches, including manual, Maximum Likelihood Classifier, Jenks Optimization clustering, textural analysis and Object Based Image Analysis. Through a comprehensive and accurately geo-referenced ground truth dataset, we were able to identify five different classes of the substrate composition, including sponges, mixed submerged aquatic vegetation, mixed detritic bottom (fine and coarse) and unconsolidated bare sediment. We computed estimates of accuracy (namely Overall, User, Producer Accuracies and the Kappa statistic) by cross tabulating predicted and reference instances. Overall, pixel based segmentations produced the highest accuracies and the accuracy assessment is strongly dependent on the number of classes chosen for the thematic output. Tidal channels in the Venice Lagoon are extremely important in terms of habitats and sediment distribution

  6. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  7. Summary of the 1st Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference oral sessions, Venice, Italy, June 21-25, 2008: the rapporteur reports.

    PubMed

    Abubaker, Roohi; Alaerts, Maaike; Allman, Ava-Ann; Barnett, Jennifer; Belujon, Pauline; Bittner, Robert A; Burne, Thomas H J; Cahn, Wiepke; Chance, Steven; Cherkerzian, Sara; deSouza, Renan; Di Forti, Marta; du Bois, Teresa; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Green, Melissa; Halperin, Demian; Halpern, Demian; John, John P; Kemp, Aaron; Koelkebeck, Katja; Lee, Jimmy; Lodge, Daniel J; Michalopoulou, Panayiota; Mompremier, LaNina; Nelson, Barnaby; Perälä, Jonna; Rotarska-Jagiela, Anna; Schoeman, Renata; Thakkar, Katharine N; Valuri, Giuletta; Varambally, Shivarama; Zai, Clement; DeLisi, Lynn E

    2008-10-01

    The Schizophrenia International Research Society held its first scientific conference in Venice, Italy, June 21 to 25th, 2008. A wide range of controversial topics were presented in overlapping and plenary oral sessions. These included new genetic studies, controversies about early detection of schizophrenia and the prodrome, treatment issues, clinical characteristics, cognition, neuropathology and neurophysiology, other etiological considerations, substance abuse co-morbidity, and animal models for investigating disease etiology and for use as targets in drug studies. Young investigators in the field were awarded travel grants to participate in the congress and one of their roles was to summarize the oral sessions and subsequent discussions. The reports that follow are the culmination of this work produced by 30 young investigators who attended the congress. It is hoped that these summaries will be useful synopses of what actually occurred at the congress for those who did not attend each session or were unable to be present. The abstracts of all presentations, as submitted by the authors a few months prior, were previously published as supplement 2 to volume 102/1-3, June 2008. PMID:18819775

  8. Evidence of climatic variations in upper Pleistocene and Holocene sediments from the lagoon of Venice (Italy and the Bohai Sea (China))

    SciTech Connect

    Bonardi, M.; Carbognin, L.; Tosi, L.; Marabini, F.

    1996-12-31

    An accurate forecasting of environmental impact on sea level and shoreline changes due to global warming, requires a detailed investigation and interpretation of the events that occurred during the past 20,000 years. This time interval in fact corresponds to two significant climatic global changes: the last Wuermian glaciation, during the Upper Pleistocene, and the warming during the Holocene. Examples of the climatic variation impact on paleoenvironments are here evidenced by sedimentological studies, radiocarbon dating, paleobotanic, paleontological, mineralogical and geochemical investigations of two stratigraphic columns that are geographically far apart: the Lagoon of Venice, Italy, and the Bohai Sea, China. The study focuses first on a general overview of the regional paleoclimatic history of these two core locations and their correlation with the sedimentological variations; second on some depositional events, such clay layers and beachrock formations, that carry the imprints of the climatic conditions. The results of this investigation may contribute to a better understanding of diagenetic processes, still not sufficiently described, caused by the climatic changes. Furthermore the study provided information that may be useful to a more complete overview of the environmental impact caused by natural global warming before the anthropogenic input.

  9. Channel Islands rare plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, K.

    1999-01-01

    Database contains information on 65 rare plant taxa on six islands from archive searches and field surveys, including population location, size and extent 1920-1999, population and habitat conditions, census data, phenological information, associated species. USGS-BRD, Channel Islands Field Station, Ventura, CA.

  10. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     View ... iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica (75°S latitude, 102°W longitude) sometime ...

  11. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  12. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  13. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  14. Island Natural Science School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

    Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

  15. Characterizing the Urban Heat Island with a Dense Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, P. K.; Twine, T. E.; Smoliak, B. V.; Mykleby, P.; Hertel, W. F.

    2014-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience temperatures that are elevated relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in the fraction of gray and green infrastructure. Traditional methods of characterizing UHIs rely on the comparison of near-surface air temperature measurements between few sites in an urban area with those in a nearby rural area. This methodology assumes (1) that the UHI can be characterized by the difference in air temperature from a small number of points, and (2) that these few points represent the urban and rural signatures of the region. While this methodology makes it possible to compare the UHI of cities around the globe, it ignores the rich information that could be gained from measurements across the urban to rural transect. This transect could traverse elevations, water bodies, vegetation fraction, and other land surface properties. We deployed a network of ~200 temperature sensors across the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) beginning in July 2011 and continuing to the present. Our network covers a 5000-km2 area encompassing the cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul as well as suburban and rural areas within the seven-county region. The TCMA includes ~3.4 million people, nearly 900 lakes, and two major interstate highways and a beltway system. We employed a cokriging method to interpolate sensor measurements onto a continuous grid using satellite-based impervious surface fraction data. Our results show consistent warm anomalies, when compared with a background rural temperature, over the two downtown cores and along major highways and dense suburban areas. Anomalies switch between positive and negative values (i.e., warmer or cooler than the rural, respectively) depending on season over large lakes. The warm season (May - October) average TCMA UHI (all urban areas - all rural areas) peaks at night at 1.5 °C, while the cold season (November - April) UHI is ~1 °C and is less variable over

  16. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  17. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

  18. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old.

    The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. Lost island found

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An abandoned ll-by-5-km kidney-shaped chunk of freshwater ice, used as a research station for 25 years, was rediscovered after the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) lost track of the island for 6 months. The recent find may foreshadow another loss, however: The island is drifting through the Greenland Sea and into the North Atlantic where it should melt within several months and d u m p its cargo of oil drums, equipment, and a wrecked plane into the ocean.Known as Fletcher's Ice Island—after Joseph O. Fletcher, a member of the first team of researchers to inhabit the island and a recently retired NOAA climate researcher—the ice chunk has already melted to a third of its original 49 m thickness. A pilot flying over the area to measure annual pollution buildup in the Arctic located the drifting island 242 km from the North Pole near the International Date Line.

  20. The Island Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Peter C.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes the study of islands to develop a method of integrating sustainable development with sound resource management that can be extrapolated to more complex, highly populated continental coastal areas. (MDH)

  1. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  2. Small islands adrift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  3. Drainage-return, surface-water withdrawal, and land-use data for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, with emphasis on Twitchell Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templin, William E.; Cherry, Daniel E.

    1997-01-01

    Partial data on drainage returns and surface-water withdrawals are presented for areas of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, for March 1994 through February 1996. These areas cover most of the delta. Data are also presented for all drainage returns and some surface-water withdrawals for Twitchell Island, which is in the western part of the delta. Changes in land use between 1968 and 1991 are also presented for the delta. Measurements of monthly drainage returns and surface-water withdrawals were made using flowmeters installed in siphons and drain pipes on Twitchell Island. Estimates of monthly returns throughout the delta were made using electric power-consumption data with pump-efficiency-test data. For Twitchell Island, monthly measured drainage returns for the 1995 calendar year totaled about 11,200 acre-feet, whereas drainage returns estimated from power-consumption data totaled 5 percent less at about 10,600 acre-feet. Monthly surface-water withdrawals onto Twitchell Island through 12 of the 21 siphons totaled about 2,400 acre-feet for 1995. For most of the delta, the monthly estimated drainage returns for 1995 totaled about 430,000 acre-feet. The area consisting of Bouldin, Brannan, Staten, Tyler, and Venice Islands had the largest estimated drainage returns for calendar year 1995. Between 1968 and 1991, native vegetation in the delta decreased by 25 percent (about 40,000 acres), and grain and hay crops increased by 340 percent (about 71,000 acres). For Twitchell Island, native vegetation decreased about 77 percent (about 850 acres), while field crop acreage increased by about 44 percent (about 780 acres).

  4. Application of meteorology-based methods to determine local and external contributions to particulate matter pollution: A case study in Venice (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squizzato, Stefania; Masiol, Mauro

    2015-10-01

    The air quality is influenced by the potential effects of meteorology at meso- and synoptic scales. While local weather and mixing layer dynamics mainly drive the dispersion of sources at small scales, long-range transports affect the movements of air masses over regional, transboundary and even continental scales. Long-range transport may advect polluted air masses from hot-spots by increasing the levels of pollution at nearby or remote locations or may further raise air pollution levels where external air masses originate from other hot-spots. Therefore, the knowledge of ground-wind circulation and potential long-range transports is fundamental not only to evaluate how local or external sources may affect the air quality at a receptor site but also to quantify it. This review is focussed on establishing the relationships among PM2.5 sources, meteorological condition and air mass origin in the Po Valley, which is one of the most polluted areas in Europe. We have chosen the results from a recent study carried out in Venice (Eastern Po Valley) and have analysed them using different statistical approaches to understand the influence of external and local contribution of PM2.5 sources. External contributions were evaluated by applying Trajectory Statistical Methods (TSMs) based on back-trajectory analysis including (i) back-trajectories cluster analysis, (ii) potential source contribution function (PSCF) and (iii) concentration weighted trajectory (CWT). Furthermore, the relationships between the source contributions and ground-wind circulation patterns were investigated by using (iv) cluster analysis on wind data and (v) conditional probability function (CPF). Finally, local source contribution have been estimated by applying the Lenschow' approach. In summary, the integrated approach of different techniques has successfully identified both local and external sources of particulate matter pollution in a European hot-spot affected by the worst air quality.

  5. Automated detection of sedimentary features using wavelet analysis and neural networks on single beam echosounder data: A case study from the Venice Lagoon, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madricardo, Fantina; Tęgowski, Jarosław; Donnici, Sandra

    2012-07-01

    Acoustic methods are well established and widely used for the exploration of the seafloor and the sub-bottom sediments. However, the mapping and reconstruction of the sedimentary features revealed by acoustics can require a very long time because often large acoustic datasets need to be described and interpreted. To reduce the time of the geophysical visual interpretation, we implemented a new procedure for facies classification based on wavelet analysis and neural networks applied to the acoustic profiles. The optimized algorithm applied to a data set of the very shallow Lagoon of Venice classifies automatically the echo shape parameters to identify and map the main lagoon sedimentary features, such as palaeochannels and palaeosurfaces. The classification algorithm contains a set of wavelet transformation parameters as inputs to a neural network analysis based on the self-organizing map (SOM). The analysis was applied on 580 km of acoustic profiles acquired in a very shallow (less than 1 m) and turbid area of the lagoon with a sub-bottom penetration of about 6-7 m under the bottom. Without any special pre-requirement on the data, the algorithm was successfully tested against the results of the visual interpretation and allowed an automated and more efficient full 2D mapping of the sedimentary features of the area. We could distinguish and map different types of palaeochannels, buried creeks, palaeosurfaces as well as areas characterized by homogeneous mudflat facies. The results were validated by comparison with 5 cores sampled in the survey area corresponding with the main sedimentary features revealed by the acoustics.

  6. Cellular alterations in Mytilus galloprovincialis (LMK) and Tapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeve, 1850) as biomarkers of environmental stress: field studies in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy).

    PubMed

    Da Ros, L; Nesto, N

    2005-09-01

    A long-term biomonitoring study was carried out in the Lagoon of Venice (North-East Italy) with the aim of evaluating variations in biological responses to environmental stress in estuarine bivalves. Two different species, the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the clam Tapes philippinarum, both widespread in the Lagoon, were studied in several sites. Two cellular biomarkers: lysosomal membrane stability in digestive cells and thickness of digestive epithelia, were evaluated in native organisms (on a seasonal basis), and in organisms which have been transferred from a reference site to several differently influenced ones. Results indicate that, to some extent, both test and organisms were able to highlight site-specific differences, but the effects of pollution were generally more easily detected by reduction in lysosomal stability than by reduction in digestive tubule epithelium. Further findings show that the inherent variability of a number of natural parameters, particularly in the reference sites, produced less effective results when biological responses in the reference organisms were compared with the polluted ones. The assessment of the two conditions was most valuable when they referred to the 25-75% range of values comprised within the seasonal medians, recorded respectively in control and polluted sites. Impaired from steady states were most effectively distinguished when the control values were medians from two reference locations. Lately, the overall results indicate that both biomarkers are more suitably deployed through the translocation approach, revealing it to be more sensitive than traditional biomonitoring, at least in the sense that it may overcome problems related to the adaptation of native organisms to sub lethal chronic pollution levels. PMID:16083961

  7. A multi-disciplinary approach to evaluate pluvial floods risk under changing climate: The case study of the municipality of Venice (Italy).

    PubMed

    Sperotto, A; Torresan, S; Gallina, V; Coppola, E; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2016-08-15

    Global climate change is likely to pose increasing threats in nearly all sectors and across all sub-regions worldwide (IPCC, 2014). Particularly, extreme weather events (e.g. heavy precipitations), together with changing exposure and vulnerability patterns, are expected to increase the damaging effect of storms, pluvial floods and coastal flooding. Developing climate and adaptation services for local planners and decision makers is becoming essential to transfer and communicate sound scientific knowledge about climate related risks and foster the development of national, regional and local adaptation strategies. In order to analyze the effect of climate change on pluvial flood risk and advice adaptation planning, a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed and applied to the urban territory of the municipality of Venice. Based on the integrated analysis of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk, RRA allows identifying and prioritizing targets and sub-areas that are more likely to be affected by pluvial flood risk due to heavy precipitation events in the future scenario 2041-2050. From the early stages of its development and application, the RRA followed a bottom-up approach taking into account the requests, knowledge and perspectives of local stakeholders of the North Adriatic region by means of interactive workshops, surveys and discussions. Results of the analysis showed that all targets (i.e. residential, commercial-industrial areas and infrastructures) are vulnerable to pluvial floods due to the high impermeability and low slope of the topography. The spatial pattern of risk mostly reflects the distribution of the hazard and the districts with the higher percentage of receptors' surface in the higher risk classes (i.e. very high, high and medium) are Lido-Pellestrina and Marghera. The paper discusses how risk-based maps and statistics integrate scientific and local knowledge with the final aim to mainstream climate adaptation in the development

  8. Melville Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  9. Climate Change, Pacific Ocean and Land Use Influences on Los Angeles' Urban Heat Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamelin, B.; Hsu, F.; LaDochy, S.; Ramirez, P. C.; Ye, H.; Sequera, P.; Gonzalez, J.; McDonald, K.; Patzert, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Los Angeles urban heat island (UHI) is a complex entity that is changing in time, space and intensity. The major influences on its characteristics appear to be population, landuse, and Pacific Ocean variability. Since 1950, the city of Los Angeles has nearly tripled in population from 1,333,300 to 3,792,621 in 2010. The downtown skyline has also changed as more high-rises replace lower density buildings and parking lots. Downtown average temperatures have increased rapidly, rising over 3oC in the last century. Tmin values have increased faster than Tmax similar to other UHI cities. However the Los Angeles UHI is unique among most cities, with its complex terrain and dominant land/sea breeze circulations. Also, the city is part of a regional megalopolis, where the surrounding rural areas are distant and ill-defined, in contrast to most UHIs. Our study looks at the diurnal and seasonal patterns in the urban thermal regime and how they have changed over recent decades. Temporal changes in land use, particularly vegetation, coastal sea surface temperatures, Pacific climatic indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and coastal upwelling all seem to contribute to the changes in city temperatures. The PDO especially correlates well with Los Angeles temperatures. The spatial changes in an UHI are described combining surface met data and aircraft remote sensing, using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) sensors at spatial resolutions of 30 and 50 m, respectively. In our study recent sea breeze enhancement will be investigated in its influence on coastal cooling. Implications of the role of the intensifying UHI in the increases in Los Angeles heat waves will also be discussed.

  10. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  11. Maintenance of biodiversity on islands.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P

    2016-04-27

    MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called 'small-island effect' and an overall biphasic species-area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization-extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated). PMID:27122558

  12. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  13. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Military Geology Branch

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  14. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  15. Controlling summer heat islands: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, K.; Akbari, H.; Martien, P.

    1989-11-01

    A workshop was held on the energy and pollution implications of summertime urban heat islands and the potential to control them. The presentations, papers, and discussions fell into four broad categories: (1) the potential to conserve energy, reduce atmospheric pollution, and slow global warming by reducing summer heat islands; (2) the use of computer models to understand and simulate the heat island phenomenon; (3) measurements of heat islands; and (4) the design and implementation of heat island mitigation strategies. On the afternoon of the second day of the workshop, the participants divided into three workgroups. Group 1 discussed research needs to better quantify the effect of heat island mitigation on energy use. Group 2 discussed future research on the characterization and modeling of heat islands. And Group 3 discussed the development of a manual that would present to policy makers our current knowledge of techniques to mitigate heat islands and thereby save energy. This Proceedings documents the presentations and outcome of the Workshop.

  16. HEAT ISLAND REDUCTION STRATEGIES GUIDEBOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: “What is a heat island?” “What are its impacts?" "What ar...

  17. Island Ecology in Bermuda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulff, Barry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reports on an island ecology course offered by Eastern Connecticut State College providing opportunities for students to study the ecology and natural history of organisms found in a variety of subtropical habitats in Bermuda. Explains student selection criteria, trip preparation, evaluation criteria, daily programs, and habitats studied on the…

  18. Christmas Island birds returning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  19. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  20. Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  1. The Flores Island tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Harry; Imamura, Fumihiko; Synolakis, Costas; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Liu, Philip; Shi, Shaozhong

    On December 12, 1992, at 5:30 A.M. GMT, an earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.5 struck the eastern region of Flores Island, Indonesia (Figure 1), a volcanic island located just at the transition between the Sunda and Banda Island arc systems. The local newspaper reported that 25-m high tsunamis struck the town of Maumere, causing substantial casualties and property damage. On December 16, television reports broadcast in Japan via satellite reported that 1000 people had been killed in Maumere and twothirds of the population of Babi Island had been swept away by the tsunamis.The current toll of the Flores earthquake is 2080 deaths and 2144 injuries, approximately 50% of which are attributed to the tsunamis. A tsunami survey plan was initiated within 3 days of the earthquake, and a cooperative international survey team was formed with four scientists from Indonesia, nine from Japan, three from the United States, one from the United Kingdom, and one from Korea.

  2. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  3. Magnetic island induced bootstrap current on island dynamics in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Spong, D.A.

    2006-02-15

    When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)]. Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter {delta}{sup '} for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.

  4. Magnetic Island Induced Bootstrap Current on Island Dynamics in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A; Shaing, K. C.

    2006-02-01

    When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)] . Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter |{Delta}{prime}| for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.

  5. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Register on August 14, 2007 (72 FR 45444), announcing our intent to complete a CCP/EA and inviting public... Fish and Wildlife Service Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan, Skagit, and Whatcom Counties, WA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior....

  6. LOUISIANA BARRIER ISLAND EROSION STUDY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H., Jr.; Penland, Shea; Williams, S. Jeffress; Suter, John R.

    1987-01-01

    During 1986, the U. S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey began a five-year cooperative study focused on the processes which cause erosion of barrier islands. These processes must be understood in order to predict future erosion and to better manage our coastal resources. The study area includes the Louisiana barrier islands which serve to protect 41% of the nation's wetlands. These islands are eroding faster than any other barrier islands in the United States, in places greater than 20 m/yr. The study is divided into three parts: geological development of barrier islands, quantitative processes of barrier island erosion and applications of results. The study focuses on barrier islands in Louisiana although many of the results are applicable nationwide.

  7. [Applicability of traditional landscape metrics in evaluating urban heat island effect].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ai-Lian; Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding

    2012-08-01

    By using 24 landscape metrics, this paper evaluated the urban heat island effect in parts of Beijing downtown area. QuickBird (QB) images were used to extract the landscape type information, and the thermal bands from Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images were used to extract the land surface temperature (LST) in four seasons of the same year. The 24 landscape pattern metrics were calculated at landscape and class levels in a fixed window with 120 mx 120 m in size, with the applicability of these traditional landscape metrics in evaluating the urban heat island effect examined. Among the 24 landscape metrics, only the percentage composition of landscape (PLAND), patch density (PD), largest patch index (LPI), coefficient of Euclidean nearest-neighbor distance variance (ENN_CV), and landscape division index (DIVISION) at landscape level were significantly correlated with the LST in March, May, and November, and the PLAND, LPI, DIVISION, percentage of like adjacencies, and interspersion and juxtaposition index at class level showed significant correlations with the LST in March, May, July, and December, especially in July. Some metrics such as PD, edge density, clumpiness index, patch cohesion index, effective mesh size, splitting index, aggregation index, and normalized landscape shape index showed varying correlations with the LST at different class levels. The traditional landscape metrics could not be appropriate in evaluating the effects of river on LST, while some of the metrics could be useful in characterizing urban LST and analyzing the urban heat island effect, but screening and examining should be made on the metrics. PMID:23189682

  8. FLANDERS FIELDS MEMORIAL IN TRAFFIC ISLAND ON EAST DRIVE. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLANDERS FIELDS MEMORIAL IN TRAFFIC ISLAND ON EAST DRIVE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  9. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  10. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  11. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  12. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  13. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  14. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  15. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  16. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have ... being told they had asthma, 2014 Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Non-Hispanic White Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander/ ...

  17. Adaptation and diversification on islands.

    PubMed

    Losos, Jonathan B; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2009-02-12

    Charles Darwin's travels on HMS Beagle taught him that islands are an important source of evidence for evolution. Because many islands are young and have relatively few species, evolutionary adaptation and species proliferation are obvious and easy to study. In addition, the geographical isolation of many islands has allowed evolution to take its own course, free of influence from other areas, resulting in unusual faunas and floras, often unlike those found anywhere else. For these reasons, island research provides valuable insights into speciation and adaptive radiation, and into the relative importance of contingency and determinism in evolutionary diversification. PMID:19212401

  18. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations. PMID:25254475

  19. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2012-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments. We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.* PMID:22661792

  20. The Cottage Lake Aeromagnetic Lineament: A Possible Onshore Extension of the Southern Whidbey Island Fault, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Wells, Ray E.; Weaver, Craig S.; McCormack, David H.; Troost, Kathy G.; Haugerud, Ralph A.

    2004-01-01

    The northwest-striking southern Whidbey Island fault zone (SWIF) was mapped previously using borehole data and potential-field anomalies on Whidbey Island and marine seismic surveys beneath surrounding waterways. Abrupt subsidence at a coastal marsh on south-central Whidbey Island suggests that the SWIF experienced a MW 6.5 to 7.0 earthquake about 3000 years ago. Southeast of Whidbey Island, a hypothesized southeastward projection of the SWIF would make landfall between the cities of Seattle and Everett. As part of systematic, ongoing studies by the U.S. Geological Survey, University of Washington, and other earth science organizations to evaluate potentially active faults and other earth hazards throughout the Puget Lowland, we test this hypothesis using aeromagnetic, lidar, and borehole data. Linear, northwest-striking magnetic anomalies traversing the mainland region project southeastward toward the communities of Woodinville and Maltby, Washington. All of these magnetic anomalies are low in amplitude and best illuminated in residual magnetic fields. The most prominent of the residual magnetic anomalies extends at least 16 km, lies approximately on strike with the SWIF on Whidbey Island, and passes near Crystal and Cottage Lakes, about 27 km southeast of downtown Everett. In places, this magnetic anomaly is associated with topographic lineaments, but spectral analysis indicates that the source of the anomaly extends to depths greater than 2 km and cannot be explained entirely by topographic effects. The Alderwood #1 oil exploration well located on strike with the Cottage Lake aeromagnetic lineament shows evidence of deformation over a total depth range of 3000 m; some beds within this interval exhibit intense fracturing and shearing, although deformation within the well can only be constrained as post-early Oligocene and pre-Pleistocene. Boreholes acquired as part of a wastewater tunnel project show evidence of soil disturbance at locations where some

  1. Reunion Island Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  2. 19. New York Connecting Railroad: Randalls Island Viaduct. Randalls Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. New York Connecting Railroad: Randalls Island Viaduct. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  3. 15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.65. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  4. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input. PMID:26913017

  5. IslandViewer update: Improved genomic island discovery and visualization.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Bhavjinder K; Chiu, Terry A; Laird, Matthew R; Langille, Morgan G I; Brinkman, Fiona S L

    2013-07-01

    IslandViewer (http://pathogenomics.sfu.ca/islandviewer) is a web-accessible application for the computational prediction and analysis of genomic islands (GIs) in bacterial and archaeal genomes. GIs are clusters of genes of probable horizontal origin and are of high interest because they disproportionately encode virulence factors and other adaptations of medical, environmental and industrial interest. Many computational tools exist for the prediction of GIs, but three of the most accurate methods are available in integrated form via IslandViewer: IslandPath-DIMOB, SIGI-HMM and IslandPick. IslandViewer GI predictions are precomputed for all complete microbial genomes from National Center for Biotechnology Information, with an option to upload other genomes and/or perform customized analyses using different settings. Here, we report recent changes to the IslandViewer framework that have vastly improved its efficiency in handling an increasing number of users, plus better facilitate custom genome analyses. Users may also now overlay additional annotations such as virulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes and pathogen-associated genes on top of current GI predictions. Comparisons of GIs between user-selected genomes are now facilitated through a highly requested side-by-side viewer. IslandViewer improvements aim to provide a more flexible interface, coupled with additional highly relevant annotation information, to aid analysis of GIs in diverse microbial species. PMID:23677610

  6. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input. PMID:26913017

  7. Urban heat island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  8. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.

    To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.

    Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack

  9. Fire Island National Seashore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayagandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd

    2007-01-01

    These lidar-derived topographic maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. The aims of the partnership that created this product are to develop advanced survey techniques for mapping barrier island geomorphology and habitats, and to enable the monitoring of ecological and geological change within National Seashores. This product is based on data from an innovative airborne lidar instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL).

  10. Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (Map of the US with the states that have significant Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander populations according to the Census Bureau) HI - ...

  11. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of infant mortality. Asian/Pacific Islanders women generally have lower infant mortality rates ...

  12. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American adults are less likely ... Disease Death Rates per 100,000 (2013) Asians/Pacific Islanders Non-Hispanic White Asians/Pacific Islanders /Non- ...

  13. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander adults are 10% less likely to ever ... to non-Hispanic white adults. In 2014, Asian/Pacific Islander adults aged 65 years and older were ...

  14. Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Diabetes Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Asian Americans, in general, have the same ... However, there are differences within the Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander population. From a national survey, Native Hawaiians/ ...

  15. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top.

    The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual.

    The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image.

    The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  16. Volcanic Island Appears Near Tonga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-11-01

    A volcano known as Home Reef is now believed to be the source of a small island that appeared recently in Tonga, accordingto scientists from the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program who had initially placed the location of the eruption and resulting island at nearby Metis Shoal. Mariners onboard the yacht Maiken

  17. An Island Effect in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Norvin

    2000-01-01

    Develops an argument for a pied-piping approach to the apparent absence of island effects in Japanese, along the lines of Nishigauchi (1986, 1990). Investigates the nature of pied-piping, developing a theory that accounts for the fact that wh-islands cannot be pied-piped. (Author/VWL)

  18. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL POWER PLANT LOCATED AT TERMINAL ISLAND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    William W. Glauz

    2004-09-01

    The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has developed one of the most recognized fuel cell demonstration programs in the United States. In addition to their high efficiencies and superior environmental performance, fuel cells and other generating technologies that can be located at or near the load, offers several electric utility benefits. Fuel cells can help further reduce costs by reducing peak electricity demand, thereby deferring or avoiding expenses for additional electric utility infrastructure. By locating generators near the load, higher reliability of service is possible and the losses that occur during delivery of electricity from remote generators are avoided. The potential to use renewable and locally available fuels, such as landfill or sewage treatment waste gases, provides another attractive outlook. In Los Angeles, there are also many oil producing areas where the gas by-product can be utilized. In June 2000, the LADWP contracted with FCE to install and commission the precommercial 250kW MCFC power plant. The plant was delivered, installed, and began power production at the JFB in August 2001. The plant underwent manufacturer's field trials up for 18 months and was replace with a commercial plant in January 2003. In January 2001, the LADWP contracted with FCE to provide two additional 250kW MCFC power plants. These commercial plants began operations during mid-2003. The locations of these plants are at the Terminal Island Sewage Treatment Plant at the Los Angeles Harbor (for eventual operation on digester gas) and at the LADWP Main Street Service Center east of downtown Los Angeles. All three carbonate fuel cell plants received partial funding through the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. This report covers the technical evaluation and benefit-cost evaluation of the Terminal Island 250kW MCFC power plant during its first year of operation from June 2003 to July 2004.

  19. A study of the Oklahoma City urban heat island using ground measurements and remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M. J.; Ivey, A.; McPherson, T. N.; Boswell, D.; Pardyjak, E. R.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Oklahoma City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Joint URBAN 2003 Tracer Field Experiment conducted in Oklahoma City from June 29, 2003 to July 30, 2003 (Allwine et al., 2004). The instrumented van was driven over four primary routes that included legs from the downtown core to four different 'rural' areas. Each route went through residential areas and most often went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2004) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 20 to 40 minutes to complete. Based on seven nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 0.5-6.5 C between the urban core and nearby 'rural' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the Joint URBAN 2003 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Oklahoma City, and to test new urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes (e.g., Chin et al., 2000; Holt and Shi, 2004). In addition to the ground measurements, skin temperature measurements were also analyzed from remotely sensed images taken from the Earth Observing System's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). A surface kinetic temperature thermal infrared image captured by the ASTER of the Oklahoma City area on July 21, 2001 was analyzed within ESRI's ArcGIS 8.3 to correlate variations in temperature with land use type. Analysis of this imagery suggests distinct variations in temperature across different land use categories. Through the use of remotely sensed imagery we hope to

  20. Urban heat island by means of city clusters: a statistical assessment of size influence and seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Rybski, Diego; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades, influence factors of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect have been intensively investigated and further broadened through a variety of studies around the world. Briefly, compared to non-built surroundings, built-up areas of cities differ considerably in albedo, thermal capacity, roughness, etc. which can significantly modify the surface energy budget and make downtown areas of cities hotter than their vicinities. Most previous studies were built upon a limited number of cities, and suffered from inconsistency and instability with regard to the urban-rural definition, which hinders the inter-comparison between results. To overcome this limitation in the number of considered cities, we perform a systematic study of all cities in Europe to assess the Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) intensity by means of land surface temperature data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. After defining cities as spatial clusters of urban land cover based on CORINE data, we determine a boundary around the urban cluster of approximately equal area to the cluster area. SUHI intensity is thus defined as the difference between the mean temperature in the cluster and that of the surroundings. We investigate the relationships of the SUHI intensity, respectively with the cluster size and with the temperature of the surroundings. Our results show that in Europe, the SUHI intensity in summer has a strong correlation with the cluster size, which can be well fitted by an empirical sigmoid model. Furthermore, we find a pronounced seasonality of the SUHI intensity for individual clusters in the form of hysteresis-like curves. Characterizing the shape by means of Fourier series approximation and consequential work of clustering, we identify apparent regional patterns which suggest a climatological basis for the heterogeneity of UHI.

  1. 2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  2. Plant communities of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Ronilee A.; Halvorson, William L.; Sawdo, Andell A.; Danielsen, Karen C.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the plant communities on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, was conducted from January through July 1988.  Vegetation data were collected at 296 sites using a releve technique.  The plant communities described include: grassland, coastal marsh, caliche scrub, coastal sage scrub, lupine scrub, baccharis scrub, coastal bluff scrub, coastal dune scrub, mixed chaparral, mixed woodland, torrey pine woodland, closed-cone pine woodland, island oak woodland, riparian woodland, and riparian herbaceous vegetation. The areal extent of each community was mapper on USGS 7.5' topographic maps, and digitized for GIS manipulation.

  3. Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In the early hours of February 7, ASTER captured this nighttime thermal infrared image of an eruption of Anatahan Volcano in the central Mariana Islands. The summit of the volcano is bright indicating there is a very hot area there. Streaming to the west is an ash plume, visible by the red color indicating the presence of silicate-rich particles. Dark grey areas are clouds that appear colder than the ocean. Anatahan is a stratovolcano that started erupting in May 2003, forming a new crater.

    The image covers an area of 56.3 x 41.8 km, and is located 16 degrees north latitude and 145.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

    This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar

  5. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on August 1, 2013, pursuant to Rule...

  6. Global Collembola on Deception Island.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  7. GIPSy: Genomic island prediction software.

    PubMed

    Soares, Siomar C; Geyik, Hakan; Ramos, Rommel T J; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Barbosa, Eudes G V; Baumbach, Jan; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Miyoshi, Anderson; Tauch, Andreas; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2016-08-20

    Bacteria are highly diverse organisms that are able to adapt to a broad range of environments and hosts due to their high genomic plasticity. Horizontal gene transfer plays a pivotal role in this genome plasticity and in evolution by leaps through the incorporation of large blocks of genome sequences, ordinarily known as genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs may harbor genes encoding virulence, metabolism, antibiotic resistance and symbiosis-related functions, namely pathogenicity islands (PAIs), metabolic islands (MIs), resistance islands (RIs) and symbiotic islands (SIs). Although many software for the prediction of GEIs exist, they only focus on PAI prediction and present other limitations, such as complicated installation and inconvenient user interfaces. Here, we present GIPSy, the genomic island prediction software, a standalone and user-friendly software for the prediction of GEIs, built on our previously developed pathogenicity island prediction software (PIPS). We also present four application cases in which we crosslink data from literature to PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs predicted by GIPSy. Briefly, GIPSy correctly predicted the following previously described GEIs: 13 PAIs larger than 30kb in Escherichia coli CFT073; 1 MI for Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243, which seems to be a miscellaneous island; 1 RI of Acinetobacter baumannii AYE, named AbaR1; and, 1 SI of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 presenting a mosaic structure. GIPSy is the first life-style-specific genomic island prediction software to perform analyses of PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs, opening a door for a better understanding of bacterial genome plasticity and the adaptation to new traits. PMID:26376473

  8. The Cambrian of Bennett Island (New Siberian Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danukalova, M. K.; Kuzmichev, A. B.; Korovnikov, I. V.

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents new data on the Cambrian stratigraphy of Bennett Island, one of the least explored East Arctic islands. The section, about 500 m of total thickness, comprises four lithological units that store a record of the deposition history: (1) clastic sediments including storm sandstones; (2) shallow-marine mudstone; (3) lagoonal variegated mudstone and limestone; (4) black shale. It is suggested to classify the units as formations with their proper names. The section spans all epoches of the Cambrian stratigraphy constrained by trilobite fossils. In the Cambrian, territory of the island belonged to Siberia rather than to some exotic terrane, judging by abundant endemic Siberian trilobite species in the Bennett section. This inference is supported by synchronicity in recorded deposition events of Bennett Island and northeastern Siberia (Kharaulakh Mountains). The Cambrian sediments of the two areas were deposited in different parts of a single shallow sea which extended as far as Taimyr.

  9. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  10. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  11. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  12. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  13. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  14. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were four times more likely than non- ... a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander adults have developed several of the high ...

  15. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  16. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  17. Synthesizing knowledge of ocean islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferson, Anne J.; Lees, Jonathan M.; McClinton, Tim

    2011-11-01

    AGU Chapman Conference on the Galápagos as a Laboratory for the Earth Sciences; Puerto Ayora, Galápagos, Ecuador, 25-30 July 2011 An inspiration for Darwin's theory of evolution, the Galápagos Islands and surrounding waters are a natural laboratory for a wide range of Earth science topics. The Galápagos are perfectly situated for geophysical and geochemical investigations of deep-Earth processes at a hot spot, and proximity to a spreading center allows exploration of hot spot-ridge interactions. Several highly active volcanoes show rapid deformation facilitating investigation of melt transport paths and volcanic structure. The islands exhibit a range of ages, eruptive styles, and climatic zones that allow analysis of hydrogeologic and geomorphic processes. The Galápagos Islands are a World Heritage Site and are an ideal setting for developing an integrated biological and geological understanding of ocean island evolution.

  18. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows the western end of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution.

    Black areas near the top of the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface at the top of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 14.02 deg. North lat., 171.52 deg. West Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: August 10, 2000

  19. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows most of the northern coast of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the line of circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution. The capital of Western Samoa, Apia, is in the lower left of the image.

    Angular black areas in the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface , along the left side of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 63 km (37.3 miles) Location: 14.16 deg. North lat., 171.75 deg. West Orientation: North towards

  20. Glacial migrations of plants: island biogeographical evidence.

    PubMed

    Simpson, B B

    1974-08-23

    Analyses of the floras of the high north Andean habitat islands (paramos) and the Galápagos Islands show that plant species diversity conforms to the MacArthur and Wilson model of island biogeography but that immigration occurred primarily during glacial periods. Modern plant species diversity is more significantly correlated with area and distance measures of the glacial forms of the islands than with similar measures of the present-day islands. PMID:17736375

  1. Magnetic island formation in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1989-04-01

    The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs.

  2. Circulation around a "skirted" island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacono, R.; Napolitano, E.; Pedlosky, J.; Helfrich, K.

    2009-04-01

    Assessing the role of planetary scale islands in the dynamics of the ocean circulation is both of intrinsic fluid mechanical interest and of practical importance. Until now, investigations of this problem have idealized the island as an interior "hole" in the oceanic basin whose boundaries are vertical walls. Here we take up the question of the effect of topography in the region bounding the island. We represent topography as a simple continental slope "skirt" in which the depth of the ocean linearly varies from zero at the island to the full (and constant) ocean depth at some distance both east and west of the island, which we otherwise idealize as a thin linear barrier oriented north-south. In addition to providing a possibly more realistic representation of the island topography, the presence of the skirt also introduces fundamental changes in the dynamics. When the depth change is strong enough the isolines of potential vorticity will tend to wrap around the island and close on themselves. When this closure happens a free geostrophic mode is possible in which the motion can freely circulate along the closed potential vorticity contours and the nature of the circulation alters dramatically. We study the circulation around the "skirted" island with a forced, dissipative shallow water numerical model, whose results are compared to those of laboratory experiments made with the sliced-cylinder device. We also develop an approximate analytic theory, in the linear limit, that to a large measure clarifies and explains key features of the numerical experiments with weak and moderate forcing. We conclude with a survey of results from strongly nonlinear experiments that exhibit rich time-dependent dynamics.

  3. Invasive rodent eradication on islands.

    PubMed

    Howald, Gregg; Donlan, C Josh; Galván, Juan Pablo; Russell, James C; Parkes, John; Samaniego, Araceli; Wang, Yiwei; Veitch, Dick; Genovesi, Piero; Pascal, Michel; Saunders, Alan; Tershy, Bernie

    2007-10-01

    Invasive mammals are the greatest threat to island biodiversity and invasive rodents are likely responsible for the greatest number of extinctions and ecosystem changes. Techniques for eradicating rodents from islands were developed over 2 decades ago. Since that time there has been a significant development and application of this conservation tool. We reviewed the literature on invasive rodent eradications to assess its current state and identify actions to make it more effective. Worldwide, 332 successful rodent eradications have been undertaken; we identified 35 failed eradications and 20 campaigns of unknown result. Invasive rodents have been eradicated from 284 islands (47,628 ha). With the exception of two small islands, rodenticides were used in all eradication campaigns. Brodifacoum was used in 71% of campaigns and 91% of the total area treated. The most frequent rodenticide distribution methods (from most to least) are bait stations, hand broadcasting, and aerial broadcasting. Nevertheless, campaigns using aerial broadcast made up 76% of the total area treated. Mortality of native vertebrates due to nontarget poisoning has been documented, but affected species quickly recover to pre-eradication population levels or higher. A variety of methods have been developed to mitigate nontarget impacts, and applied research can further aid in minimizing impacts. Land managers should routinely remove invasive rodents from islands <100 ha that lack vertebrates susceptible to nontarget poisoning. For larger islands and those that require nontarget mitigation, expert consultation and greater planning effort are needed. With the exception of house mice (Mus musculus), island size may no longer be the limiting factor for rodent eradications; rather, social acceptance and funding may be the main challenges. To be successful, large-scale rodent campaigns should be integrated with programs to improve the livelihoods of residents, island biosecurity, and reinvasion response

  4. Radiometric evidence for involvement of floating islands in the formation of Florida Everglades tree islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, Patrick J.; Piepgras, Donald; Stone, Peter A.; Stipp, Jerry

    1980-04-01

    Inversions of radiocarbon dates were determined on samples from the peat profiles of two small extant tree islands in the northeastern Everglades, Florida. These reversals were predicted from the theory that such tree islands developed on laterally displaced floating islands.

  5. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1′ W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  6. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1′ W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  7. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1′ W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  8. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1′ W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  9. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1′ W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  10. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little... extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A...

  11. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  12. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  13. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  14. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  15. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  16. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  17. Down Home, Downtown: Urban Appalachians Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obermiller, Phillip J., Ed.

    This book contains selected presentations from a conference on urban Appalachians held in Cincinnati, Ohio, in September 1995. The papers present diverse perspectives on the migration from rural Appalachia to industrial centers, questions of Appalachian culture and identity, community development in Appalachian neighborhoods, and rural Appalachian…

  18. Historic Downtown Preservation and Access Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Leahy, Patrick J. [D-VT

    2013-08-01

    08/01/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S6215) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. CHP at Post Street in Downtown Seattle

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Stan

    2012-04-12

    The Post Street project had four (4), 7.960 MW, Solar Taurus-70-10801S natural gas combustion turbines. Each turbine equipped with a 40,000 lb/hr heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The dual-fuel HRSGs was capable of generating steam using gas turbine exhaust heat or surplus electric power. The generation capacity was nominally rated at 29.2 MW. The project as proposed had a fuel rate chargeable to power of 4,900 - 5,880 Btu/kWh dependent on time of year. The CHP plant, when operating at 29.2 MW, can recycle turbine exhaust into supply 145 kpph of steam to SSC per hour. The actual SSC steam loads will vary based on weather, building occupation, plus additions / reductions of customer load served. SSC produces up to 80 kpph of steam from a biomass boiler, which is currently base loaded all year.

  20. Seismic investigations in downtown Copenhagen, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, K.; Mendoza, J. A.; Olsen, H.

    2009-12-01

    Near surface geophysics are gaining widespread use in major infrastructure projects with respect to geotechnical and engineering applications. The development of data acquisition, processing tools and interpretation methods have optimized survey production, reduced logistics costs and increase results reliability of seismic surveys during the last decades. However, the use of geophysical methods under urban environments continues to face challenges due to multiple noise sources and obstacles inherent to cities. A seismic investigation was conducted in Copenhagen aiming to produce information needed for hydrological, geotechnical and groundwater modeling assessments related to the planned Cityringen underground metro project. The particular objectives were a) map variations in subsurface Quaternary and limestone properties b) to map for near surface structural features. The geological setting in the Copenhagen region is characterized by several interlaced layers of glacial till and meltwater sand deposits. These layers, which are found unevenly distributed throughout the city and present in varying thicknesses, overlie limestone of different generations. There are common occurrences of incised valley structures containing localized instances of weathered or fractured limestone. The surveys consisted of combined seismic reflection and refraction profiles accounting for approximately 13 km along sections of the projected metro line. The data acquisition was carried out using standard 192 channels arrays, receiver groups with 5 m spacing and a Vibroseis as a source at 5 m spacing. In order to improve the resolution of the data, 29 Walkaway-Vertical Seismic Profiles were performed at selected wells along the surface seismic lines. The refraction data was processed with travel-time tomography and the reflection data underwent standard interpretation. The refraction data inversion was performed twofold; a surface refraction alone and combined with the VSP data. Three general velocity layers were observed; 800-1250 m/s, 1250-1700 m/s and a high velocity layer 1700-2500 m/s with localized zones of greater velocities. The variations in the higher velocity layer provide information on limestone properties relevant for tunneling design. The Walkaway-VSP proved to be a useful tool for identifying the velocity fields corresponding to the shallow sediments and the deep sequences of limestone, thus aiding the interpretation of the surface refraction imaging. Data acquisition was planned overnight to reduce external noise impact and optimise production, and urban challenges (e.g. traffic, pipelines) were overcome. Further integrated geophysical interpretation will be done together with hydrogeological analyses, geotechnical evaluations and geological modelling. The authors acknowledge Metroselskabet I/S for permission to present these results, and the Cityringen Joint Venture partners COWI, Arup and Systra.

  1. Finding Active Faults in a Glaciated and Forested Landscape: the Southern Whidbey Island Fault, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, R. J.; Sherrod, B. L.; Wells, R. E.; Weaver, C. S.

    2004-12-01

    about 27 km of downtown Everett. Glacial deposits are slightly magnetic, and, in places, the magnetic anomaly is associated with topographic lineaments. Spectral analysis indicates, however, that the source of the anomaly extends to depths greater than 2 km and into Eocene sedimentary strata. Subtle scarps on Pleistocene surfaces are visible on high-resolution lidar topography at a number of locations along the aeromagnetic lineament. Collectively, the scarps are coincident with the aeromagnetic lineament and extend a total distance of 18 km. In the field, scarps exhibit 1 to 5 m of northeast-side-up offset. Two trenches were excavated across one of the lidar scarps during the summer of 2004. Both trenches showed evidence for folding, presumably above a buried reverse/oblique fault tip with at least 2 m of vertical offset. One trench also exposed a normal fault, although it was not possible to determine whether slip was caused by glacial or tectonic processes. The radiocarbon age of a folded, buried soil indicates that the earthquake occurred after 12 ka. Thus, the SWIF has produced at least two slip events in the Holocene, one occurring ˜3 ka on Whidbey Island and the other ˜12 ka on the Washington mainland.

  2. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  3. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

  4. The Cottage Lake Lineament, Washington: Onshore Extension of the Southern Whidbey Island Fault?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, R. J.; Weaver, C. S.; Sherrod, B. L.; Troost, K. G.; Haugerud, R. A.; Wells, R. E.; McCormack, D. H.

    2003-12-01

    The northwest-striking southern Whidbey Island fault zone (SWIF) is reasonably well expressed by borehole data, marine seismic surveys, and potential-field anomalies on Whidbey Island and beneath surrounding waterways. Johnson et al. (1996) described evidence for Quaternary movement on the SWIF, suggested the fault zone is capable of a M 7 earthquake, and projected three fault strands onto the mainland between the cities of Seattle and Everett. Evidence for this onshore projection is scant, however, and the exact location of the SWIF in this populated region is unknown. Four linear, northwest-striking magnetic anomalies on the mainland may help address this issue. All of the anomalies are low in amplitude and best illuminated in residual magnetic fields. The most prominent of the magnetic anomalies extends at least 15 km, is on strike with the SWIF on Whidbey Island, and passes near Cottage Lake, about 15 km south of downtown Everett. The magnetic anomaly is associated with linear topography along its entire length, but spectral analysis indicates that the source of the anomaly lies principally beneath the topographic surface and extends to depths greater than 2 km. The anomalies are likely created by northwest-trending, faulted and folded Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Cascade foothills, which rise from beneath the Quaternary lowland fill to the southeast of the SWIF. High-resolution Lidar topography provided by King County shows subtle scarps cutting the latest Pleistocene glaciated surface at two locations along the magnetic anomaly; scarps are parallel to the anomaly trend. In the field, one scarp has 2 to 3 m of north-side-up offset; paleoseismic trench excavations are planned for Fall 2003 to determine their nature and history. Preliminary examination of boreholes, recently acquired as part of an ongoing sewer tunnel project, show anomalous stratigraphic and structural disturbances in the area of the magnetic anomalies. Analyses are underway

  5. Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in Urban Heat Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem

    2007-07-01

    World energy use is the main contributor to atmospheric CO2. In 2002, about 7.0 giga metric tons of carbon (GtC) were emitted internationally by combustion of gas, liquid, and solid fuels (CDIAC, 2006), 2 to 5 times the amount contributed by deforestation (Brown et al., 1988). The share of atmospheric carbon emissions for the United States from fossil fuel combustion was 1.6 GtC. Increasing use of fossil fuel and deforestation together have raised atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration some 25% over the last 150 years. According to global climate models and preliminary measurements, these changes in the composition of the atmosphere have already begun raising the Earth's average temperature. If current energy trends continue, these changes could drastically alter the Earth's temperature, with unknown but potentially catastrophic physical and political consequences. During the last three decades, increased energy awareness has led to conservation efforts and leveling of energy consumption in the industrialized countries. An important byproduct of this reduced energy use is the lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions. Of all electricity generated in the United States, about one-sixth is used to air-condition buildings. The air-conditioning use is about 400 tera-watt-hours (TWh), equivalent to about 80 million metric tons of carbon (MtC) emissions, and translating to about $40 billion (B) per year. Of this $40 B/year, about half is used in cities that have pronounced 'heat islands'. The contribution of the urban heat island to the air-conditioning demand has increased over the last 40 years and it is currently at about 10%. Metropolitan areas in the United States (e.g., Los Angeles, Phoenix, Houston, Atlanta, and New York City) have typically pronounced heat islands that warrant special attention by anyone concerned with broad-scale energy efficiency (HIG, 2006). The ambient air is primarily heated through three processes: direct absorption of solar radiation, convection of heat

  6. Is heterostyly rare on oceanic islands?

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenta; Sugawara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Heterostyly has been considered rare or absent on oceanic islands. However, there has been no comprehensive review on this issue. Is heterostyly truly rare on oceanic islands? What makes heterostyly rare on such islands? To answer these questions, we review the reproductive studies on heterostyly on oceanic islands, with special emphasis on the heterostylous genus Psychotria in the Pacific Ocean as a model system. Overall, not many reproductive studies have been performed on heterostylous species on oceanic islands. In Hawaiian Psychotria, all 11 species are thought to have evolved dioecy from distyly. In the West Pacific, three species on the oceanic Bonin and Lanyu Islands are distylous (Psychotria homalosperma, P. boninensis and P. cephalophora), whereas three species on the continental Ryukyu Islands show various breeding systems, such as distyly (P. serpens), dioecy (P. rubra) and monoecy (P. manillensis). On some other Pacific oceanic islands, possibilities of monomorphy have been reported. For many Psychotria species, breeding systems are unknown, although recent studies indicate that heterostylous species may occur on some oceanic islands. A shift from heterostyly to other sexual systems may occur on some oceanic islands. This tendency may also contribute to the rarity of heterostyly, in addition to the difficulty in colonization/autochthonous evolution of heterostylous species on oceanic islands. Further investigation of reproductive systems of Psychotria on oceanic islands using robust phylogenetic frameworks would provide new insights into plant reproduction on oceanic islands. PMID:26199401

  7. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. In a fusion device, a magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Further modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturated island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. An additional destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.

  8. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics. PMID:27027291

  9. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-24

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. A magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration is evident in a fusion device. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Furthermore, modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturated island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. In addition destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.

  10. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-15

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. In a fusion device, a magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Further modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturated island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. An additional destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.

  11. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    DOE PAGESBeta

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-24

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. A magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration is evident in a fusion device. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Furthermore, modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturatedmore » island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. In addition destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.« less

  12. Yaws in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Fegan, D; Glennon, M; Macbride-Stewart, G; Moore, T

    1990-02-01

    Yaws is a chronic, relapsing, non-venereally transmitted disease caused by Treponema pertenue. As a result of the WHO mass treatment campaign of the late 1950s, the prevalence in the Solomon Islands fell dramatically. Here the disease was thought to have been eradicated until an outbreak occurred in 1981. In 1984 a mass treatment survey following modified WHO guidelines was carried out. Subsequent to this campaign, yaws recurred and in 1987 a further treatment survey was required. Two observations were made as a result of our recent experience in controlling yaws in the Solomon Islands. (1) The disease appears to be attenuated. (2) WHO control policy may now be an inappropriate method for dealing with yaws in the Solomon Islands and should be replaced by a method which is integrated into the existing primary health care (PHC) structure. PMID:2304133

  13. Dust Storm Hits Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A thick pall of sand and dust blew out from the Sahara Desert over the Atlantic Ocean yesterday (January 6, 2002), engulfing the Canary Islands in what has become one of the worst sand storms ever recorded there. In this scene, notice how the dust appears particularly thick in the downwind wake of Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands. Perhaps the turbulence generated by the air currents flowing past the island's volcanic peaks is churning the dust back up into the atmosphere, rather than allowing it to settle toward the surface. This true-color image was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on January 7, 2002. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  14. Recharge Data for Hawaii Island

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Recharge data for Hawaii Island in shapefile format. The data are from the following sources: Whittier, R.B and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human Health and Environmental Risk Ranking of On-Site Sewage Disposal systems for the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final, Prepared for Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics. Oki, D. S. 1999. Geohydrology and Numerical Simulation of the Ground-Water Flow System of Kona, Island of Hawaii. U.S. Water-Resources Investigation Report: 99-4073. Oki, D. S. 2002. Reassessment of Ground-water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation report 02-4006.

  15. Hawaii Island Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for Hawaii Island. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume II – Island of Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.

  16. The Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

  17. WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST WITH PHOTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST WITH PHOTO SCALE CENTERED ON BUILDING (12/30/2008) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  18. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR AFTER REMODELING INTO OFFICE SPACE. DATED FEBRUARY 13, 1943. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 67, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  19. 3. Light tower, view northwest, south side Ram Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Light tower, view northwest, south side - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  20. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. LOOKING NORTH AFTER ADDITION OF CONICAL ROOF. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 53, North Avenue North of Midpoint, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  1. 3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 61, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  2. 8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATON IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 68, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  3. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 109, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  4. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. DATED OCTOBER 2, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 138, Second Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  5. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED APRIL 18, 1941. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  6. 11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. BASEMENT, SHOWING ORIGINAL OPEN INTERIOR PLAN. DATED APRIL 7, 1942. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  7. 7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 62, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  8. 3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 103, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  9. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 280, Sylvan Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  10. 9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  11. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 108, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  12. Critical island-size, stability and island morphology in nanoparticle island self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amar, Jacques; Hubartt, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The critical island-size, stability, and morphology of 2D colloidal Au nanoparticle (NP) islands formed at the toluene-air interface during drop-drying are studied using molecular dynamics and energetics calculations. Our calculations were carried out using an empirical potential which takes into account interactions between the dodecanethiol ligands and the toluene solvent, ligand-ligand interactions, and the van der Waals interaction between the Au cores. Good agreement with experimental results is obtained for the dependence of the critical island-size on NP diameter. Our results for the critical length-scale for smoothing via edge-diffusion are also consistent with the limited facet size and island-relaxation observed in experiments. The relatively high rate of NP diffusion on an island obtained in our simulations as well as the low calculated activation barrier for interlayer diffusion are also consistent with experimental observations that second-layer growth does not occur until after the first layer is complete. Supported by NSF CHE-1012896 and DMR-1410840

  13. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized

  14. STM imaging of electrically floating islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Realpe, H.; Shamir, N.; Mintz, M. H.; Manassen, Y.

    2006-07-01

    Appearances and disappearances of Gd islands grown on top of a W(1 1 0) substrate were observed in time scales of hours after exposing the surface to a few Langmuirs of hydrogen. The phenomenon is presented and explained in terms of (temporary) creation of electrically floating islands, due to electrical decoupling of the island and substrate by the hydrogen that diffuses into the island/substrate interface. The disappearance of such an island is explained by forming a double barrier junction consisting of two tunneling barriers in series, causing, by charging, the potential of the island to become equal to that of the tip. The island then becomes "invisible" and the tip follows the corrugation of the surface under the substrate. The reappearance follows hydrogen mobility that retains the electrical conductivity of the island-substrate interface.

  15. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  16. Diabetes and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profiles > Asian American > Diabetes Diabetes and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian Americans are 20 percent less likely ... Diagnosed with Diabetes Ratio vs. General Population Asians/Pacific Islanders 7.8 1.1 U.S. General Public ...

  17. Cancer and Asians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Asian American > Cancer Cancer and Asians/Pacific Islanders Asian Americans generally have lower cancer rates ... At a glance - Top Cancer Sites for Asian/Pacific Islander (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  18. Bidding the CpG island goodbye

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Experiments on seven vertebrates suggest that identifying the locations of islands of non-methylated DNA provides more insights into evolutionarily-conserved epigenetic regulatory elements than studies of CpG islands. PMID:23467495

  19. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank...

  20. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank...

  1. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank...

  2. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the easternmost tip of Folley Island to the... 10 across Stono River to the shoreline of Sandy Point. (c) A line drawn from the southernmost... Island. (f) A line drawn from the westernmost extremity of Bull Point on Capers Island to Port...

  3. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the easternmost tip of Folley Island to the... 10 across Stono River to the shoreline of Sandy Point. (c) A line drawn from the southernmost... Island. (f) A line drawn from the westernmost extremity of Bull Point on Capers Island to Port...

  4. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the easternmost tip of Folley Island to the... 10 across Stono River to the shoreline of Sandy Point. (c) A line drawn from the southernmost... Island. (f) A line drawn from the westernmost extremity of Bull Point on Capers Island to Port...

  5. 76 FR 2572 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... part 71 by amending Class E airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI (75 FR 61993... Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI, as published in the Federal ] Register on October 7, 2010, FR Doc. 2010-25220, (75 FR 61933) on page 61994, column 1, is corrected as follows: Sec. 71.1 Paragraph...

  6. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  7. Pearl and Hermes Reef, Hawaiian Island Chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Pearl and Hermes Reef (28.0N, 176.0W) in the Hawaiian Island Chain, are seen with several small sandy islands, forming an atoll that caps a seamount on the long chain that extends some 1,500 miles northwestward from the more familiar Hawaiian Islands proper. Pearl and Hermes Reef lies about 100 miles southeast of Midway island. A reticulate network of coral patch reefs separates the lagoon into more or less isolated pools.

  8. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the... Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are quarantined....

  9. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized

  10. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...

  11. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...

  12. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...

  13. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...

  14. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...

  15. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS...

  16. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt...

  17. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt...

  18. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356... Islands. Virgin Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards Cannot be classified Better than national standards Virgin Islands AQCR: St. Croix (southern) 1...

  19. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS...

  20. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt...

  1. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt...

  2. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS...

  3. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS...

  4. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS...

  5. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356... Islands. Virgin Islands—1971 Sulfur Dioxide NAAQS (Primary and Secondary) Designated area Does not meet... Virgin Islands AQCR: St. Croix (southern) 1 X Remainder of AQCR X 1 EPA designation replaces...

  6. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt...

  7. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.170 Long Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.”...

  8. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.170 Long Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.”...

  9. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.170 Long Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.”...

  10. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.170 Long Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.”...

  11. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.170 Long Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.”...

  12. Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2006-08-08

    This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

  13. Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

  14. MARINE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES OF BLOCK ISLAND WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sea has long been an integral part of Block Island's natural history, beginning when the rising sea surrounded the high spot on a Pleistocene terminal moraine that became Block Island. The southern New England continental shelf, which lies around Block Island, and the Great S...

  15. Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benz, Richard

    This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme but are designed to help…

  16. Maria Island Resource Package [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasmanian Education Dept., Hobart (Australia).

    This document presents a package of resources for planning a field trip to Maria Island, an island near Tasmania, Australia. A teacher's guide offers tips on organizing the school visit (bookings, accomodations, transport, what to bring to the island), pre-visit activities, on-site activities, and follow-up activities. Photographs, maps, a brief…

  17. HISTORIC WETLANDS OF PRUDENCE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten wetland sites around Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island have been selected for a multidisciplinary study. These wetland sites are being studied to develop indicators of "wetland health." The study includes assessing the ecological conditions of the wetlands in the past, and the c...

  18. UV - VIRGIN ISLANDS NATIONAL PARK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brewer 144 is located in Virgin Islands NP, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instruments, I...

  19. Birds are islands for parasites

    PubMed Central

    Koop, Jennifer A. H.; DeMatteo, Karen E.; Parker, Patricia G.; Whiteman, Noah K.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms driving the extraordinary diversification of parasites is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Co-speciation, one proposed mechanism that could contribute to this diversity is hypothesized to result from allopatric co-divergence of host–parasite populations. We found that island populations of the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis) and a parasitic feather louse species (Degeeriella regalis) exhibit patterns of co-divergence across variable temporal and spatial scales. Hawks and lice showed nearly identical population genetic structure across the Galápagos Islands. Hawk population genetic structure is explained by isolation by distance among islands. Louse population structure is best explained by hawk population structure, rather than isolation by distance per se, suggesting that lice tightly track the recent population histories of their hosts. Among hawk individuals, louse populations were also highly structured, suggesting that hosts serve as islands for parasites from an evolutionary perspective. Altogether, we found that host and parasite populations may have responded in the same manner to geographical isolation across spatial scales. Allopatric co-divergence is likely one important mechanism driving the diversification of parasites. PMID:25099959

  20. The Manitoulin Island Space Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Dianna

    1991-01-01

    Describes a space education program in rural Manitoulin Island, Ontario. Reports that gifted and talented students examined space exploration, built models, met with astronauts, and designed multimedia presentations. Explains that the students also hosted a one-day conference on space for students, teachers, and parents and later visited…

  1. Birds are islands for parasites.

    PubMed

    Koop, Jennifer A H; DeMatteo, Karen E; Parker, Patricia G; Whiteman, Noah K

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the mechanisms driving the extraordinary diversification of parasites is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Co-speciation, one proposed mechanism that could contribute to this diversity is hypothesized to result from allopatric co-divergence of host-parasite populations. We found that island populations of the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis) and a parasitic feather louse species (Degeeriella regalis) exhibit patterns of co-divergence across variable temporal and spatial scales. Hawks and lice showed nearly identical population genetic structure across the Galápagos Islands. Hawk population genetic structure is explained by isolation by distance among islands. Louse population structure is best explained by hawk population structure, rather than isolation by distance per se, suggesting that lice tightly track the recent population histories of their hosts. Among hawk individuals, louse populations were also highly structured, suggesting that hosts serve as islands for parasites from an evolutionary perspective. Altogether, we found that host and parasite populations may have responded in the same manner to geographical isolation across spatial scales. Allopatric co-divergence is likely one important mechanism driving the diversification of parasites. PMID:25099959

  2. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted...

  3. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Caribbean Island/Island Group Management..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management... St. Thomas/St. John island group to Point C C 18°13′59.0606″ 65°05′33.058″ D 18°01′16.9636″...

  4. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Caribbean Island/Island Group Management..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management... St. Thomas/St. John island group to Point C C 18°13′59.0606″ 65°05′33.058″ D 18°01′16.9636″...

  5. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the... drawn from Wassaw Island in approximate position latitude 31°52.5′ N. longitude 80°58.5′ W. to...

  6. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the... drawn from Wassaw Island in approximate position latitude 31°52.5′ N. longitude 80°58.5′ W. to...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  12. Barrier island bistability induced by biophysical interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán Vinent, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.

    2015-02-01

    Barrier islands represent about 10% of the world’s coastline, sustain rich ecosystems, host valuable infrastructure and protect mainland coasts from storms. Future climate-change-induced increases in the intensity and frequency of major hurricanes and accelerations in sea-level rise will have a significant impact on barrier islands--leading to increased coastal hazards and flooding--yet our understanding of island response to external drivers remains limited. Here, we find that island response is intrinsically bistable and controlled by previously unrecognized dynamics: the competing, and quantifiable, effects of storm erosion, sea-level rise, and the aeolian and biological processes that enable and drive dune recovery. When the biophysical processes driving dune recovery dominate, islands tend to be high in elevation and vulnerability to storms is minimized. Alternatively, when the effects of storm erosion dominate, islands may become trapped in a perpetual state of low elevation and maximum vulnerability to storms, even under mild storm conditions. When sea-level rise dominates, islands become unstable and face possible disintegration. This quantification of barrier island dynamics is supported by data from the Virginia Barrier Islands, USA and provides a broader context for considering island response to climate change and the likelihood of potentially abrupt transitions in island state.

  13. Differences between satellite- and ground-based urban heat island effect - Case study for the Budapest agglomeration area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongracz, R.; Bartholy, J.; Lelovics, E.; Dezso, Z. S.; Dobi, I.

    2012-04-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) is defined as the positive temperature anomaly occurring between built-in areas and their surroundings. For detailed analysis of UHI in a particular area, different approaches can be used. Here, two different techniques (ground-based and satellite-based) are applied to the Budapest agglomeration area and the results are compared. (1) Hourly recorded air temperature observations are available from six automatically operating climatological stations of the Hungarian Meteorological Service. Two stations are located in the downtown of Budapest (Kitaibel Pál street and Lágymányos); two stations can be found in the suburbs (Újpest and Pestszentlőrinc); and two stations are in the rural region (Penc - located to the northeast from the capital, and Kakucs - to the southeast from Budapest). These ground-based observations at the Budapest weather stations provide air temperature data at standard 2 m height above surface. However, due to the limited station number, this approach is not suitable for detailed evaluation of spatial UHI distribution. (2) Remotely sensed surface temperature values are available from seven thermal infrared channel measurements of the multi-spectral radiometer sensor called MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), which is one of the sensors on-board satellites Terra and Aqua. They were launched to polar orbit as part of the NASA's Earth Observing System in December 1999, and in May 2002, respectively. Satellite Terra (Aqua) provides surface temperature fields around 09-10 UTC (12-13 UTC) and 20-21 UTC (02-03 UTC) with 1 km spatial resolution. The whole agglomeration has been divided into urban and rural pixels using the MODIS Land Cover Product categories, distance from the city centre, satellite images of the Google Earth, and GTOPO-30 global digital elevation model. However, the main disadvantage of this method is that for UHI analysis, data can be used only in case of clear sky conditions, which occurs

  14. The island rule: made to be broken?

    PubMed Central

    Meiri, Shai; Cooper, Natalie; Purvis, Andy

    2007-01-01

    The island rule is a hypothesis whereby small mammals evolve larger size on islands while large insular mammals dwarf. The rule is believed to emanate from small mammals growing larger to control more resources and enhance metabolic efficiency, while large mammals evolve smaller size to reduce resource requirements and increase reproductive output. We show that there is no evidence for the existence of the island rule when phylogenetic comparative methods are applied to a large, high-quality dataset. Rather, there are just a few clade-specific patterns: carnivores; heteromyid rodents; and artiodactyls typically evolve smaller size on islands whereas murid rodents usually grow larger. The island rule is probably an artefact of comparing distantly related groups showing clade-specific responses to insularity. Instead of a rule, size evolution on islands is likely to be governed by the biotic and abiotic characteristics of different islands, the biology of the species in question and contingency. PMID:17986433

  15. Alternative energy technologies for the Caribbean islands

    SciTech Connect

    Pytlinski, J.T. )

    1992-01-01

    All islands in the Caribbean except Puerto Rico can be classified as developing islands. Of these islands, all except Trinidad and Tobago are oil importers. Uncertainties concerning uninterrupted oil supply and increasing oil prices causes economic, social and political instability and jeopardizes further development of these islands. The paper discusses the energy situation of the Caribbean islands and presents alternative energy options. Several alternative energy projects financed by local, federal and international organizations are presented. Present and future uses of alternative energy technologies are described in different islands. Barrier which handicap developing and implementing alternative energy sources in the Caribbean are discussed. The potential and possible applications of alternative energy technologies such as: solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, wind energy, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), ocean currents and tides energy, biomass, peat energy, municipal solid wastes, bioconversion, hydropower, geothermal energy, nuclear energy and energy conservation are discussed in detail as means to alleviate the energy situation in the Caribbean islands.

  16. Shaded Relief Mosaic of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a shaded relief mosaic of Umnak Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    It was created with Airsar data that was geocoded and combined into this mosaic as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Tsunami damage along the Andaman Islands coasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Among the first places to be affected by the massive tidal wave that ripped across the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004, were the Andaman Islands. Located approximately 850 kilometers north of the epicenter of the earthquake that triggered the tsunami, the islands were not only among the first land masses to be swept under the wave, they have also been rattled by a series of aftershocks. Administrated by the Indian government, about 300,000 people live on the remote island chain, including several indigenous tribes. As of January 3, over 6,000 were confirmed dead or missing in the Andaman Islands. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the Andaman Islands on January 3, 2005. Compared to previous images of the islands, the beaches along the west side of the islands have been stripped bare, leaving a strip of bright tan land along the coast. The change is most notable on North Sentinel Island, home of the Sentinelese aboriginals, and on Interview Island, where the formerly green coastline has been replaced with an abnormally bright ring of bare sand. The large image reveals additional damage along all the islands of the Andaman chain.

  18. Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kelly Porter

    2013-10-01

    Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

  19. Island biology: looking towards the future.

    PubMed

    Kueffer, Christoph; Drake, Donald R; Fernández-Palacios, José María

    2014-10-01

    Oceanic islands are renowned for the profound scientific insights that their fascinating biotas have provided to biologists during the past two centuries. Research presented at Island Biology 2014-an international conference, held in Honolulu, Hawaii (7-11 July 2014), which attracted 253 presenters and 430 participants from at least 35 countries(1)-demonstrated that islands are reclaiming a leading role in ecology and evolution, especially for synthetic studies at the intersections of macroecology, evolution, community ecology and applied ecology. New dynamics in island biology are stimulated by four major developments. We are experiencing the emergence of a truly global and comprehensive island research community incorporating previously neglected islands and taxa. Macroecology and big-data analyses yield a wealth of global-scale synthetic studies and detailed multi-island comparisons, while other modern research approaches such as genomics, phylogenetic and functional ecology, and palaeoecology, are also dispersing to islands. And, increasingly tight collaborations between basic research and conservation management make islands places where new conservation solutions for the twenty-first century are being tested. Islands are home to a disproportionate share of the world's rare (and extinct) species, and there is an urgent need to develop increasingly collaborative and innovative research to address their conservation requirements. PMID:25339655

  20. Island biology: looking towards the future

    PubMed Central

    Kueffer, Christoph; Drake, Donald R.; Fernández-Palacios, José María

    2014-01-01

    Oceanic islands are renowned for the profound scientific insights that their fascinating biotas have provided to biologists during the past two centuries. Research presented at Island Biology 2014—an international conference, held in Honolulu, Hawaii (7–11 July 2014), which attracted 253 presenters and 430 participants from at least 35 countries1—demonstrated that islands are reclaiming a leading role in ecology and evolution, especially for synthetic studies at the intersections of macroecology, evolution, community ecology and applied ecology. New dynamics in island biology are stimulated by four major developments. We are experiencing the emergence of a truly global and comprehensive island research community incorporating previously neglected islands and taxa. Macroecology and big-data analyses yield a wealth of global-scale synthetic studies and detailed multi-island comparisons, while other modern research approaches such as genomics, phylogenetic and functional ecology, and palaeoecology, are also dispersing to islands. And, increasingly tight collaborations between basic research and conservation management make islands places where new conservation solutions for the twenty-first century are being tested. Islands are home to a disproportionate share of the world's rare (and extinct) species, and there is an urgent need to develop increasingly collaborative and innovative research to address their conservation requirements. PMID:25339655

  1. Processes of barrier island erosion

    SciTech Connect

    Sallenger, A.H. Jr. ); Williams, S.J. )

    1989-09-01

    During 1986, the US Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the processes causing the extreme rates (up to 20 m/year) of erosion of Louisiana's barrier islands. These processes must be better understood in order to predict future erosion and to assess management and erosion mitigation plans. The study is divided into three parts: the geologic development of barrier islands, the critical processes leading to erosion, and applications of results. This paper provides an overview of the part of the study on critical processes. The process part includes modeling erosion of the barrier islands due to sea level rise, the net loss of sand offshore, gradients in longshore transport, and overwash. Evidence indicates that the low-lying barrier beaches on much of the Louisiana coast do not approach an equilibrium configuration. These beaches, which, in many places, are not protected by dunes, are overwashed even during moderate storms and apparently are not evolving to a configuration that limits overwash. As a result, even with stable sea level, the beaches will continue to overwash and migrate landward during storms. Commonly used methods of modeling beach response to rising sea level assume beaches approach an equilibrium configuration, hence applying these methods to coastal Louisiana is problematical.

  2. Generalized model of island biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Kessler, David A; Shnerb, Nadav M

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of a local community of competing species with weak immigration from a static regional pool is studied. Implementing the generalized competitive Lotka-Volterra model with demographic noise, a rich dynamics with four qualitatively distinct phases is unfolded. When the overall interspecies competition is weak, the island species recapitulate the mainland species. For higher values of the competition parameter, the system still admits an equilibrium community, but now some of the mainland species are absent on the island. Further increase in competition leads to an intermittent "disordered" phase, where the dynamics is controlled by invadable combinations of species and the turnover rate is governed by the migration. Finally, the strong competition phase is glasslike, dominated by uninvadable states and noise-induced transitions. Our model contains, as a special case, the celebrated neutral island theories of Wilson-MacArthur and Hubbell. Moreover, we show that slight deviations from perfect neutrality may lead to each of the phases, as the Hubbell point appears to be quadracritical. PMID:25974525

  3. Generalized model of island biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, David A.; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of a local community of competing species with weak immigration from a static regional pool is studied. Implementing the generalized competitive Lotka-Volterra model with demographic noise, a rich dynamics with four qualitatively distinct phases is unfolded. When the overall interspecies competition is weak, the island species recapitulate the mainland species. For higher values of the competition parameter, the system still admits an equilibrium community, but now some of the mainland species are absent on the island. Further increase in competition leads to an intermittent "disordered" phase, where the dynamics is controlled by invadable combinations of species and the turnover rate is governed by the migration. Finally, the strong competition phase is glasslike, dominated by uninvadable states and noise-induced transitions. Our model contains, as a special case, the celebrated neutral island theories of Wilson-MacArthur and Hubbell. Moreover, we show that slight deviations from perfect neutrality may lead to each of the phases, as the Hubbell point appears to be quadracritical.

  4. Storm impact for barrier islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    A new scale is proposed that categorizes impacts to natural barrier islands resulting from tropical and extra-tropical storms. The proposed scale is fundamentally different than existing storm-related scales in that the coupling between forcing processes and the geometry of the coast is explicitly included. Four regimes, representing different levels of impact, are defined. Within each regime, patterns and relative magnitudes of net erosion and accretion are argued to be unique. The borders between regimes represent thresholds defining where processes and magnitudes of impacts change dramatically. Impact level 1 is the 'swash' regime describing a storm where runup is confined to the foreshore. The foreshore typically erodes during the storm and recovers following the storm; hence, there is no net change. Impact level 2 is the 'collision' regime describing a storm where the wave runup exceeds the threshold of the base of the foredune ridge. Swash impacts the dune forcing net erosion. Impact level 3 is the 'overwash' regime describing a storm where wave runup overtops the berm or, if present, the foredune ridge. The associated net landward sand transport contributes to net migration of the barrier landward. Impact level 4 is the 'inundation' regime describing a storm where the storm surge is sufficient to completely and continuously submerge the barrier island. Sand undergoes net landward transport over the barrier island; limited evidence suggests the quantities and distance of transport are much greater than what occurs during the 'overwash' regime.

  5. A global analysis of island pyrogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauernicht, C.; Murphy, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Islands have provided insight into the ecological role of fire worldwide through research on the positive feedbacks between fire and nonnative grasses, particularly in the Hawaiian Islands. However, the global extent and frequency of fire on islands as an ecological disturbance has received little attention, possibly because 'natural fires' on islands are typically limited to infrequent dry lightning strikes and isolated volcanic events. But because most contemporary fires on islands are anthropogenic, islands provide ideal systems with which to understand the linkages between socio-economic development, shifting fire regimes, and ecological change. Here we use the density of satellite-derived (MODIS) active fire detections for the years 2000-2014 and global data sets of vegetation, climate, population density, and road development to examine the drivers of fire activity on islands at the global scale, and compare these results to existing pyrogeographic models derived from continental data sets. We also use the Hawaiian Islands as a case study to understand the extent to which novel fire regimes can pervade island ecosystems. The global analysis indicates that fire is a frequent disturbance across islands worldwide, strongly affected by human activities, indicating people can more readily override climatic drivers than on continental land masses. The extent of fire activity derived from local records in the Hawaiian Islands reveals that our global analysis likely underestimates the prevalence of fire among island systems and that the combined effects of human activity and invasion by nonnative grasses can create conditions for frequent and relatively large-scale fires. Understanding the extent of these novel fire regimes, and mitigating their impacts, is critical to reducing the current and rapid degradation of native island ecosystems worldwide.

  6. A signature for turbulence driven magnetic islands

    SciTech Connect

    Agullo, O.; Muraglia, M.; Benkadda, S.; Poyé, A.; Yagi, M.; Garbet, X.; Sen, A.

    2014-09-15

    We investigate the properties of magnetic islands arising from tearing instabilities that are driven by an interchange turbulence. We find that such islands possess a specific signature that permits an identification of their origin. We demonstrate that the persistence of a small scale turbulence maintains a mean pressure profile, whose characteristics makes it possible to discriminate between turbulence driven islands from those arising due to an unfavourable plasma current density gradient. We also find that the island poloidal turnover time, in the steady state, is independent of the levels of the interchange and tearing energy sources. Finally, we show that a mixing length approach is adequate to make theoretical predictions concerning island flattening in the island rotation frame.

  7. Adaptive Decision Modeling in Wisconsin River Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyawali, R.; Greb, S. R.; Watkins, D. W., Jr.; Block, P.

    2014-12-01

    River islands in Wisconsin are of high ecological significance. Understanding of climate change impacts and appropriate management alternatives in these islands are of great interest to all stakeholders, including the State of Wisconsin and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) who have jurisdiction of these islands in WI. We use historical areal imagery to describe island dynamics and river morphometry, such as changes in island shape and size. Relationships of related changes are explored with concurrent changes in river flow regimes. In an effort to integrate climate change uncertainties into decision making, we demonstrate an application of a multistage adaptive decision making framework to Wisconsin River islands, with a particular emphasis on flood management and planning. The framework is comprised of hydro-climatic ensemble projections generated from CMIP5 climate model outputs and multiple hydrologic models, including statistical and physically based approaches.

  8. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  9. 32 CFR 935.60 - Wake Island Judicial Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wake Island Judicial Authority. 935.60 Section... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.60 Wake Island Judicial Authority. (a) The judicial authority under this part is vested in the Wake Island Court and the Wake Island Court of Appeals. (b)...

  10. 32 CFR 935.60 - Wake Island Judicial Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wake Island Judicial Authority. 935.60 Section... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.60 Wake Island Judicial Authority. (a) The judicial authority under this part is vested in the Wake Island Court and the Wake Island Court of Appeals. (b)...

  11. 32 CFR 935.60 - Wake Island Judicial Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wake Island Judicial Authority. 935.60 Section... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.60 Wake Island Judicial Authority. (a) The judicial authority under this part is vested in the Wake Island Court and the Wake Island Court of Appeals. (b)...

  12. 32 CFR 935.60 - Wake Island Judicial Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wake Island Judicial Authority. 935.60 Section... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.60 Wake Island Judicial Authority. (a) The judicial authority under this part is vested in the Wake Island Court and the Wake Island Court of Appeals. (b)...

  13. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS, BEFORE REMOVAL OF CHIMNEY, FINIALS, GINGERBREAD, AND VARIEGATED SLATE ROOFING. DATED C. 1876. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 321, Rodman Avenue & Rock Island Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  14. 32 CFR 935.60 - Wake Island Judicial Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wake Island Judicial Authority. 935.60 Section... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.60 Wake Island Judicial Authority. (a) The judicial authority under this part is vested in the Wake Island Court and the Wake Island Court of Appeals. (b)...

  15. Water resources of the Palau Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van der Brug, Otto

    1984-01-01

    The Palau Islands are a group of 350 islands, ranging in size from a few hundred square feet to the 153-square-mile island of Babelthuap. Babelthuap is the second largest island in the Western Pacific and comprises more than 80 percent of the total land area of the Palau Islands. Most of the islands are uninhabited limestone ridges covered with dense vegetation. These islands have no freshwater resources and are not included in this report. The island of Koror with an area of 3.6 square miles is the administrative, commercial, and population center of Palau and has an annual average rainfall of 148 inches. Short-term rainfall records at other locations in the islands indicate little variation in annual rainfall throughout the Palau Islands. Runoff-to-rainfall ratios for streams on Babelthuap show that about 70 percent of the rain falling on the island runs off to the ocean. The uniformity of rainfall and basin characteristics is shown by the excellent correlation between mean annual rainfall on Koror and streamflow on Babelthuap and by the close correlations between discharge at gaging stations and partial-record sites. Surface water quality is generally very good as shown by 55 chemical analyses of water from 18 sources. The dissolved solids concentration of water samples did not exceed 66 milligrams per liter. This report summarizes in one volume hydrologic data collection in a 14-year period of study and provides interpretations of the data than can be used by planners and public works officials as a basis for making decisions on the development and management of the islands ' water resources.

  16. Molecular Evolutionary Consequences of Island Colonization

    PubMed Central

    James, Jennifer E.; Lanfear, Robert; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Island endemics are expected to have low effective population sizes (Ne), first because some may experience population bottlenecks when they are founded, and second because they have restricted ranges. Therefore, we expect island species to have reduced genetic diversity, inefficient selection, and reduced adaptive potential compared with their mainland counterparts. We used both polymorphism and substitution data to address these predictions, improving on the approach of recent studies that only used substitution data. This allowed us to directly test the assumption that island species have small values of Ne. We found that island species had significantly less genetic diversity than mainland species; however, this pattern could be attributed to a subset of island species that appeared to have undergone a recent population bottleneck. When these species were excluded from the analysis, island and mainland species had similar levels of genetic diversity, despite island species occupying considerably smaller areas than their mainland counterparts. We also found no overall difference between island and mainland species in terms of the effectiveness of selection or the mutation rate. Our evidence suggests that island colonization has no lasting impact on molecular evolution. This surprising result highlights gaps in our knowledge of the relationship between census and effective population size. PMID:27358424

  17. Formation of fractal islands on nonlattice substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Meng-Bo; Ye, Gao-Xiang; Xia, A.-Gen; Jin, Jin-Sheng; Yang, Bo; Xu, Jian-Min

    1999-01-01

    A Monte Carlo study on the formation of fractal islands on nonlattice substrates is presented. The islands, including disc aggregates and single discs, perform two-dimensional diffusion along four directions with different diffusion step lengths and rigid rotation about their centers of mass on a nonlattice square with periodic boundary conditions. It is found that the fractal dimension of the ramified islands is almost independent of the diffusion step length, rigid rotation angle, and disc size. However, the fractal dimension increases linearly with the surface coverage. Our simulation results are in good agreement with the previous experimental findings of the aggregation of the silver atomic islands on silicone oil surfaces.

  18. Molecular Evolutionary Consequences of Island Colonization.

    PubMed

    James, Jennifer E; Lanfear, Robert; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Island endemics are expected to have low effective population sizes (Ne), first because some may experience population bottlenecks when they are founded, and second because they have restricted ranges. Therefore, we expect island species to have reduced genetic diversity, inefficient selection, and reduced adaptive potential compared with their mainland counterparts. We used both polymorphism and substitution data to address these predictions, improving on the approach of recent studies that only used substitution data. This allowed us to directly test the assumption that island species have small values of Ne We found that island species had significantly less genetic diversity than mainland species; however, this pattern could be attributed to a subset of island species that appeared to have undergone a recent population bottleneck. When these species were excluded from the analysis, island and mainland species had similar levels of genetic diversity, despite island species occupying considerably smaller areas than their mainland counterparts. We also found no overall difference between island and mainland species in terms of the effectiveness of selection or the mutation rate. Our evidence suggests that island colonization has no lasting impact on molecular evolution. This surprising result highlights gaps in our knowledge of the relationship between census and effective population size. PMID:27358424

  19. Nauru Island Effect Detection Data Set

    DOE Data Explorer

    Long, Chuck

    2010-07-15

    During Nauru99 it was noted that the island was producing small clouds that advected over the ARM site. The Nauru Island Effect Study was run for 1.5 years and the methodology developed to detect the occurrence. Nauru ACRF downwelling SW, wind direction, and air temperature data are used, along with downwelling SW data from Licor radiometers located on the southern end of the island near the airport landing strip. A statistical analysis and comparison of data from the two locations is used to detect the likely occurrence of an island influence on the Nauru ACRF site data

  20. The evolution of birdsong on islands

    PubMed Central

    Morinay, Jennifer; Cardoso, Gonçalo C; Doutrelant, Claire; Covas, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Islands are simplified, isolated ecosystems, providing an ideal set-up to study evolution. Among several traits that are expected to change on islands, an interesting but poorly understood example concerns signals used in animal communication. Islands are typified by reduced species diversity, increased population density, and reduced mate competition, all of which could affect communication signals. We used birdsong to investigate whether there are systematic changes in communication signals on islands, by undertaking a broad comparison based on pairs of closely related island-mainland species across the globe. We studied song traits related to complexity (number of different syllables, frequency bandwidth), to vocal performance (syllable delivery rate, song duration), and also three particular song elements (rattles, buzzes, and trills) generally implicated in aggressive communication. We also investigated whether song complexity was related to the number of similar sympatric species. We found that island species were less likely to produce broadband and likely aggressive song elements (rattles and buzzes). By contrast, various aspects of song complexity and performance did not differ between island and mainland species. Species with fewer same-family sympatric species used wider frequency bandwidths, as predicted by the character release hypothesis, both on continents and on islands. Our study supports the hypothesis of a reduction in aggressive behavior on islands and suggests that discrimination against closely related species is an important factor influencing birdsong evolution. PMID:24455143

  1. The geomorphology of the Chandeleur Island Wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Westphal, K. ); Handley, L. ); Michot, T. ); Reed, D.; Seal, R.

    1990-09-01

    The Chandeleur Islands represent the largest and oldest transgressive barrier island arc in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Generated by the transgressive submergence of the St. Bernard delta complex, the Chandeleur Islands form the protective geologic framework for one of the richest areas of salt marsh and seagrass flats in Louisiana. The Chandeleur barrier island arc is 60 km long and consists of five individual islands backed by a linear, multiple bar system enclosing a shallow basin floored by extensive seagrass flats. The northern part of the Chandeleur chain is the highest in relief, elevation, width, and habitat diversity. Nonstorm morphology is predominantly a combination of continuous dunes and dune terraces. Numerous washover channels and large washover fans extend into the backbarrier environment. Further south, the island width decreases and washover flats and terraces dominate the shoreline morphology In the southernmost section, the island arc is fragmented into a series of small islands and shoals separated by tidal inlets. Between 1984 and 1989, aerial videotape, aerial photographic, and bathymetric surveys were used to map and monitor the geomorphic changes occurring along the shoreline and in backbarrier areas. The aerial videotape mapping surveys focused on the impacts of hurricanes Danny, Elena, and Juan on the geomorphology of the islands. Videotape imagery was acquired in July 1984 and in July (prestorm), August (post-Danny), September (post-Elena), and November (post-Juan) 1985. A coastal geomorphic classification was developed to map the spatial and temporal landscape changes between surveys.

  2. Climate change: Effects on reef island resources

    SciTech Connect

    Oberdorfer, J.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1988-06-27

    The salinity, depth, quantity, and reliability of fresh groundwater resources on coral reef islands and coastlines are environmentally important parameters. Groundwater influences or controls the terrestrial flora, salinity, and nutrient levels in the near-shore benthic environment, the rate and nature of sediment diagenesis, and the density of human habitation. Data from a number of Indo-Pacific reef islands suggest that freshwater inventory is a function of rainfall and island dimensions. A numerical model (SUTRA) has been used to simulate the responses of atoll island groundwater to changes in recharge (precipitation), sea level, and loss of island area due to flooding. The model has been calibrated for Enjebi Island, Enewetak Atoll, where a moderately permeable, water-table aquifer overlies a high-permeability formation. Total freshwater inventory is a monotonic but nonlinear function of recharge. If recharge and island area are constant, rising sea level increases the inventory of fresh water by increasing the useful volume of the aquifer above the high-permeability zone. Flooding of land area reduces the total freshwater inventory approximately in proportion to the loss of recharge area. The most significant results of the model simulation, however, are the findings that the inventory of low-salinity water (and by extrapolation, potable water) is disproportionately sensitive to changes in recharge, island dimensions, or recharge. Island freshwater resources may therefore be unexpectedly vulnerable to climate change.

  3. Dendrochronology of Strain-Relaxed Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Merdzhanova, T.; Kiravittaya, S.; Rastelli, A.; Stoffel, M.; Denker, U.; Schmidt, O.G.

    2006-06-09

    We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes.

  4. Dendrochronology of strain-relaxed islands.

    PubMed

    Merdzhanova, T; Kiravittaya, S; Rastelli, A; Stoffel, M; Denker, U; Schmidt, O G

    2006-06-01

    We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes. PMID:16803325

  5. 77 FR 71531 - Special Local Regulation; Kelley's Island Swim, Lake Erie; Kelley's Island, Lakeside, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... Regulation; Kelley's Island Swim, Lake Erie; Kelley's Island, Lakeside, OH in the Federal Register (77 FR... Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final Rule A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Kelley's Island Swim,...

  6. Imagery and Imaginary of Islander Identity: Older People and Migration in Irish Small-Island Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burholt, Vanessa; Scharf, Thomas; Walsh, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the imagery and imaginaries of islander identity and makes an original contribution to the fields of gerontology and nissology. Drawing on data collected through in-depth interviews with 19 older residents of two small-island communities located off the island of Ireland, we address the central roles played by older people in…

  7. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.720 St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank...

  8. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.720 St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank...

  9. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  10. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  11. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  12. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  13. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  14. The Bruny Island Radio Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, W. C.

    1997-11-01

    A radio spectrometer has been built on Bruny Island, south of Hobart, for the study of solar bursts in the rarely observed frequency range from 3 to 20 MHz. This spectrometer is an adaptive device that employs digital techniques to avoid most of the strong terrestrial interference prevalent in this frequency range. The residual interference that cannot be avoided is excised during off-line processing. As a result, successful observations are made down to the minimum frequency that can propagate through the ionosphere to the antenna. This minimum frequency depends upon the zenith distance of the Sun and it is usually between 4 and 8 MHz.

  15. Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This single photo covers almost all of the big island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5E) in the Hawaiian Archipelago. The active Kilauea Volcano and lava flow is under clouds and hardly visible at the lower right edge but the Mauna Loa volcano crater and its older lava flow is at the bottom center. The Kona Coast, that produces the only coffee grown in the United States, is to the left. Mauna Kea is the extinct volcano and lava flow in the right center.

  16. Atmospheric Vortices near Guadalupe Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These MISR images from June 11, 2000 (Terra orbit 2569) demonstrate a turbulent atmospheric flow pattern known as the von Karman vortex street. This phenomenon is named after aerodynamicist Theodore von Karman, who theoretically derived the conditions under which it occurs. The alternating double row of vortices can form in the wake of an obstacle, in this instance the eastern Pacific island of Guadalupe. The rugged terrain of this volcanic Mexican island reaches a maximum elevation of 1.3 kilometers. The island is about 35 kilometers long and is located 260 kilometers west of Baja California.

    The vortex pattern is made visible by the marine stratocumulus clouds around Guadalupe Island. The upper image is a color view obtained by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. North is toward the left. The orientation of the vortex street indicates that the wind direction is from lower left to upper right (northwest to southeast). The areas within the vortex centers tend to be clear because the rotating motions induce a vertical wind component that can break up the cloud deck.

    The lower view is a stereo picture generated from data acquired by MISR's fore- and aft-viewing 70-degree cameras. A 3-D effect is obtained by viewing the image with red/blue glasses and placing the red filter over your left eye. Note how the downwelling atmospheric motion (change in elevation from high to low) is accompanied by a clearing in the center of the first vortex. As the vortices propagate downstream, their rotational velocities weaken. As a consequence, the induced vertical motion and cloud-clearing effect weakens as well.

    Theodore von Karman was a Professor of Aeronautics at Caltech and Director of Caltech's Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory from 1930-1949. He was one of the principal founders of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  17. The magmatic evolution of young island arc crust observed in gabbroic to tonalitic xenoliths from Raoul Island, Kermadec Island Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, Karsten M.; Lima, Selma; Krumm, Stefan; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2014-12-01

    We provide new geochemical and O isotope data for minerals and whole rocks of a suite of gabbroic to tonalitic xenoliths from Raoul Island in the Kermadec island arc. The plagioclase, olivine and clinopyroxene compositions are similar to those observed in the Raoul Island lavas supporting a close relationship of the plutonic and volcanic rocks by crystal fractionation. Plagioclase in gabbros is significantly more An-rich than in similar rocks from oceanic spreading axes reflecting higher water contents in the island arc magmas. Incompatible element and O isotope data suggest that the gabbroic rocks formed from accumulation of minerals of the ascending magmas whereas the tonalites represent highly evolved magmas after extreme fractional crystallization. Temperatures of the magmas calculated from O isotope equilibria and pyroxene thermometers range from about 1200 °C in the mafic to 800 °C in felsic rocks. Barometry of the rocks suggests that gabbros formed between 12 and 18 km depth and tonalites shallower which is in agreement with seismic models of island arc crustal layering. The xenolith data from Raoul Island support seismic studies indicating that some portions of the Tonga-Kermadec island arc show similar layering of felsic and mafic rocks to the Izu-Bonin and the fossil Talkeetna island arcs.

  18. Submarine landslides around the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krastel, Sebastian; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; Jacobs, Colin L.; Rihm, Roland; Le Bas, Timothy P.; AlibéS, BáRbara

    2001-01-01

    The morphology and structure of the submarine flanks of the Canary Islands were mapped using the GLORIA long-range side-scan sonar system, bathymetric multibeam systems, and sediment echosounders. Twelve young (<2 Ma) giant landslides have been identified on the submarine flanks of the Canary Islands up to now. Older landslide events are long buried under a thick sediment cover due to high sedimentation rates around the Canary Islands. Most slides were found on the flanks of the youngest and most active islands of La Palma, El Hierro, and Tenerife, but young giant landslides were also identified on the flanks of the older (15-20 Ma) but still active eastern islands. Large-scale mass wasting is an important process during all periods of major magmatic activity. The long-lived volcanic constructive history of the islands of the Canary Archipelago is balanced by a correspondingly long history of destruction, resulting in a higher landslide frequency for the Canary Islands compared to the Hawaiian Islands, where giant landslides only occur late in the period of active shield growth. The lower stability of the flanks of the Canaries is probably due to the much steeper slopes of the islands, a result of the abundance of highly evolved intrusive and extrusive rocks. Another reason for the enhanced slope instability is the abundance of pyroclastic deposits on Canary Islands resulting from frequent explosive eruptions due to the elevated volatile contents in the highly alkalic magmas. Dike-induced rifting is most likely the main trigger mechanism for destabilization of the flanks. Flank collapses are a major geological hazard for the Canary Islands due to the sector collapses themselves as well as triggering of tsunamis. In at least one case, a giant lateral blast occurred when an active magmatic or hydrothermal system became unroofed during flank collapse.

  19. 6. Keeper's house, southeast parlor, looking northwest Pumpkin Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Keeper's house, southeast parlor, looking northwest - Pumpkin Island Light Station, Pumpkin Island, at northern end of Eggemoggin Beach, off northwest end of Little Deer Island, Eggemoggin, Hancock County, ME

  20. Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders were seven times ... At a glance – Cancer Rates for Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Liver & IBD Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  1. Minority Women's Health: Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Islanders Minority Women's Health Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders Related information How to Talk to Your ... Health conditions common in Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander women Accidents Alcoholism and drug abuse Asthma ...

  2. 82. Map of Analostan Island from Map of the City ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. Map of Analostan Island from Map of the City of Washington by Robert King Plate No. 1 - General John Mason House, Analostan Island or Theodore Roosevelt Island, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Grenada (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Grenada - a small island nation consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands in the southeastern Caribbean Sea - three of which are inhabited: Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique.

  4. 26. 'CITY HOSPITAL, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND.' (Source: New York City Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. 'CITY HOSPITAL, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND.' (Source: New York City Department of Public Finance, Real Estate Owned by the City of New York under Jurisdiction of the Department of Public Charities, 1909.) - Island Hospital, Roosevelt Island, New York County, NY

  5. Palaeotsunamis in the Pacific Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goff, J.; Chague-Goff, C.; Dominey-Howes, D.; McAdoo, B.; Cronin, S.; Bonte-Grapetin, Michael, M.; Nichol, S.; Horrocks, M.; Cisternas, M.; Lamarche, G.; Pelletier, B.; Jaffe, B.; Dudley, W.

    2011-01-01

    The recent 29 September 2009 South Pacific and 27 February 2010 Chilean events are a graphic reminder that the tsunami hazard and risk for the Pacific Ocean region should not be forgotten. Pacific Islands Countries (PICs) generally have short (<150 years) historic records, which means that to understand their tsunami hazard and risk researchers must study evidence for prehistoric events. However, our current state of knowledge of palaeotsunamis in PICs as opposed to their circum-Pacific counterparts is minimal at best. We briefly outline the limited extent of our current knowledge and propose an innovative methodology for future research in the Pacific. Each PIC represents a point source of information in the Pacific Ocean and this would allow their palaeotsunami records to be treated akin to palaeo-DART?? (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) buoys. Contemporaneous palaeotsunamis from local, regional and distant sources could be identified by using the spatial distribution of island records throughout the Pacific Ocean in conjunction with robust event chronologies. This would be highly innovative and, more importantly, would help provide the building blocks necessary to achieve more meaningful disaster risk reduction for PICs. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Hydrogeology of the Hawaiian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic-rock aquifers are the most extensive and productive aquifers in the Hawaiian Islands. These aquifers contain different types of groundwater systems depending on the geologic setting in which they occur. The most common groundwater systems include coastal freshwater-lens systems in the dike-free flanks of the volcanoes and dike-impounded systems within the dike-intruded areas of the volcanoes. In some areas, a thick (hundreds of meters) freshwater lens may develop because of the presence of a coastal confining unit, or caprock, that impedes the discharge of groundwater from the volcanic-rock aquifer, or because the permeability of the volcanic rocks forming the aquifer is low. In other areas with low groundwater-recharge rates and that lack a caprock, the freshwater lens may be thin or brackish water may exist immediately below the water table. Dike-impounded groundwater systems commonly have high water levels (hundreds of meters above sea level) and contribute to the base flow of streams where the water table intersects the stream. Recent numerical modeling studies have enhanced the conceptual understanding of groundwater systems in the Hawaiian Islands.

  7. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands' (Polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top.

    This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

    The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual.

    The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image.

    The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  8. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands' (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

    The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual.

    The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image.

    The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  9. Pathogenicity Islands in Bacterial Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Herbert; Hensel, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this review, we focus on a group of mobile genetic elements designated pathogenicity islands (PAI). These elements play a pivotal role in the virulence of bacterial pathogens of humans and are also essential for virulence in pathogens of animals and plants. Characteristic molecular features of PAI of important human pathogens and their role in pathogenesis are described. The availability of a large number of genome sequences of pathogenic bacteria and their benign relatives currently offers a unique opportunity for the identification of novel pathogen-specific genomic islands. However, this knowledge has to be complemented by improved model systems for the analysis of virulence functions of bacterial pathogens. PAI apparently have been acquired during the speciation of pathogens from their nonpathogenic or environmental ancestors. The acquisition of PAI not only is an ancient evolutionary event that led to the appearance of bacterial pathogens on a timescale of millions of years but also may represent a mechanism that contributes to the appearance of new pathogens within a human life span. The acquisition of knowledge about PAI, their structure, their mobility, and the pathogenicity factors they encode not only is helpful in gaining a better understanding of bacterial evolution and interactions of pathogens with eukaryotic host cells but also may have important practical implications such as providing delivery systems for vaccination, tools for cell biology, and tools for the development of new strategies for therapy of bacterial infections. PMID:14726454

  10. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, John

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary The purpose of this paper is to review the literature pertaining to the bat faunas of the western Indian Ocean islands, particularly in light of the identification of many new species on Madagascar and the taxonomic reassignment of others, and to summarise details of their general biology, feeding ecology, reproduction and conservation. Abstract The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species. PMID:26486500

  11. Cyclic Linearization and Island Repair in Sluicing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Chunan

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic Linearization is adopted to account for the island repair of Sluicing in English. The extraction of wh-phrase out of certain islands undergoes non-successive-cyclic movement, which yields conflicting ordering statements. The derivation can be rescued by deleting all ordering statements in IP, including those conflicting ones. Two arguments…

  12. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary...

  13. Early hominin biogeography in Island Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Larick, Roy; Ciochon, Russell L

    2015-01-01

    Island Southeast Asia covers Eurasia's tropical expanse of continental shelf and active subduction zones. Cutting between island landmasses, Wallace's Line separates Sunda and the Eastern Island Arc (the Arc) into distinct tectonic and faunal provinces. West of the line, on Sunda, Java Island yields many fossils of Homo erectus. East of the line, on the Arc, Flores Island provides one skeleton and isolated remains of Homo floresiensis. Luzon Island in the Philippines has another fossil hominin. Sulawesi preserves early hominin archeology. This insular divergence sets up a unique regional context for early hominin dispersal, isolation, and extinction. The evidence is reviewed across three Pleistocene climate periods. Patterns are discussed in relation to the pulse of global sea-level shifts, as well as regional geo-tectonics, catastrophes, stegodon dispersal, and paleogenomics. Several patterns imply evolutionary processes typical of oceanic islands. Early hominins apparently responded to changing island conditions for a million-and-a-half years, likely becoming extinct during the period in which Homo sapiens colonized the region. PMID:26478140

  14. We, the Asian and Pacific Islander Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dwight L.; And Others

    Demographic data are presented about the people who have immigrated to the United States from Asia and the Pacific Islands. Twelve figures (pie charts, bar graphs, and maps), and eight tables provide detailed, statistical information on such things as (1) distribution of Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States, (2) states with the…

  15. Rhode Island Public Library Trustees Handbook. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacono, Frank P., Comp.

    2006-01-01

    Since the Office of Library and Information Services published the first Rhode Island trustees manual in 1980, Rhode Island public libraries have continued to respond to an ever increasing demand for service. In so doing, they consistently have taken advantage of new opportunities to provide this service more efficiently and effectively via…

  16. DICKINSON BAY ISLANDS RESTORATION PROJECT MX964016

    EPA Science Inventory

    The restoration of three islands in Dickinson Bay will be accomplished by transporting clean clay to the designated sites. The islands will then be sculpted to the prescribed slopes and elevations. Vegetation will be transplanted along slopes and in the intertidal zones of each...

  17. Long Island Sound Curricular Resource Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Diana, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Long Island Sound is an estuary of national significance and provides important economic, recreational, and aesthetic value to the citizens of Connecticut and New York. Investigations have been conducted regarding living marine resources and nutrient loading. However, Long Island Sound is often overlooked as an educational resource. This guide is…

  18. Educational Challenge to the Island States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saemala, Francis J.

    1973-01-01

    Argues that educational developments in the South Pacific island communities have been such that education itself has become a war against the people's cultural enrichment, and proposes a possible strategy as an initial step towards reorienting them; the discussion focuses specifically on the Solomon Islands scene. (Author/JM)

  19. Tin diselenide quantum-sized island films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushkhov, A. R.; Gaev, D. S.; Rabinovich, O. I.; Stolyarov, A. G.

    2012-03-01

    Island films based on the intermediate phases forming in Ge-Se and Sn-Se systems are prepared by the incongruent evaporation of film structures of a Sn1 - x Se x composition. The surface morphology of these structures is studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of growth conditions on the size distribution of islands is established.

  20. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    PubMed Central

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    Introduction/Background: US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Objective: The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods: In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. Results: More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990–1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion: The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.) PMID:25353012

  1. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  2. Andrew shortens lifetime of Louisiana Barrier Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    Because the Isles Dernieres, a series of four barrier islands off the coast of Louisiana, have one of the most rapidly eroding shorelines in the world, geologists at the U.S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey have been monitoring erosion activity over the last several years, said Jeff Williams of the USGS in Reston, Va. Hurricane Andrew, which struck the state on August 26, caused severe erosional damage to these islands that has shortened their lifetimes.Before Andrew struck, geologists projected that Raccoon Island would disappear below sea level by the year 2001 and that Whiskey Island would disappear by 2016. Now, due to the severe erosion from Hurricane Andrew, the scientists claim that the islands may disappear before the turn of the century, and the other islands in the Dernieres chain are expected to follow suit within 2 decades. Raccoon, Whiskey, Trinity, and East islands make up the Isles Dernieres, which existed as one island, known as the Isle Derniere, before an 1856 hurricane and subsequent erosion.

  3. LONG ISLAND SOUND STUDY 2002 CCMP IR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Long Island Sound Study Implementation Review (IR) summarizes the progress and challenges ahead for the for the Long Island Sound Study (LISS) through examination of it activities in relation to the CCMP. The LISS CCMP identified six major areas requiring management action: 1...

  4. Barrier island vulnerability to breaching: a case study on Dauphin Island, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Mark; Sallenger, Asbury H.

    2007-01-01

    Breaching of barrier islands can adversely impact society by severing infrastructure, destroying private properties, and altering water quality in back bays and estuaries. This study provides a scheme that assesses the relative vulnerability of a barrier island to breach during storms. Dauphin Island, Alabama was selected for this study because it has a well documented history of island breaches and extensive geological and geomorphic data. To assess the vulnerability of the island, we defined several variables contributing to the risk of breaching: island geology, breaching history, and island topography and geomorphology. These variables were combined to form a breaching index (BI) value for cross island computational bins, each bin every 50 m in the alongshore direction. Results suggest the eastern section of Dauphin Island has the lowest risk of breaching with the remaining portion of the island having a moderate to high risk of breaching. Two reaches in the western section of the island were found to be particularly vulnerable due primarily to their minimal cross-sectional dimensions.

  5. Effects of magnetic islands on drift wave instability

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, P.; Lin, Z. Holod, I.; Xiao, C.

    2014-12-15

    Magnetic islands have been implemented in the gyrokinetic toroidal code to study the effects of the islands on microturbulence. The pressure profile flattening is verified in the simulation with the islands. Simulations of ion temperature gradient instability find that different toroidal modes are linearly coupled together and that toroidal spectra become broader when the island width increases. The real frequencies and growth rates of different toroidal modes approach each other with the averaged value independent of the island width. The linear mode structures are enhanced at the island separatrices and weakened at the island centers, consistent with the flattening of the pressure profile inside the islands.

  6. SeaWinds - South Georgia Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Winds are blocked by an island mountain barrier that produces a long 'shadow' of low winds on the downwind side of the island stretching for hundreds of kilometers (about 500 miles long) in this image produced from data from NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the QuikScat satellite.

    South Georgia Island, in the South Atlantic Ocean (approximately 1,500 kilometers, or miles, east of the Falkland/Malvinas Islands, is only 170 kilometers long (about 106 miles) and 30 kilometers (about 19 miles)wide, but contains 13 peaks exceeding 2,000 meters (more than 6,500 feet) in height. The island thus acts as a significant barrier to the surface winds in this forbidding part of the world oceans.

    Mountainous islands and steep coastal topography can modify the surface wind field for many hundreds of kilometers seaward. The detailed air-sea-land interaction processes involved are not well understood, largely because of a lack of accurate, high-resolution, extensive wind speed and direction measurements. The broad-swath, all-weather SeaWinds instrument on NASA's QuikScat satellite is providing unique measurements of ocean winds, revealing previously unknown wind patterns caused by island topography and allowing development of improved models for coastal ocean winds.

    This image shows QuikScat measurements of wind speed and direction during a single pass over South Georgia Island on September 13, 1999. The island itself is shown as black (for heights less than 750 meters(less than half a mile), green (for heights between 750 and 1,500 meters (less than half a mile to about one mile), and red (for regions greater than 1,500 meters, or about one mile in altitude). The white area surrounding the island represents the region where land contamination does not allow wind measurements to be made. The horizontal and vertical coordinates are in kilometers, with origin on the island at latitude 54.5 degrees south, longitude 30 degrees east.

    This large-scale view shows regions of

  7. Island nucleation and growth with anomalous diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amar, Jacques G.; Semaan, Mikhael

    2016-06-01

    While most studies of submonolayer island nucleation and growth have been based on the assumption of ordinary monomer diffusion corresponding to diffusion exponent μ =1 , in some cases either subdiffusive (μ <1 ) or superdiffusive (μ >1 ) behavior may occur. Here we present general expressions for the exponents describing the flux dependence of the island and monomer densities as a function of the critical island size i , substrate dimension d , island fractal dimension df, and diffusion exponent μ , where 0 ≤μ ≤2 . Our results are compared with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations for the case of irreversible island growth (i =1 ) with 0 ≤μ ≤2 and d =2 as well as simulation results for d =1 , 3, and 4, and excellent agreement is found.

  8. Towards an Ontology for Reef Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duce, Stephanie

    Reef islands are complex, dynamic and vulnerable environments with a diverse range of stake holders. Communication and data sharing between these different groups of stake holders is often difficult. An ontology for the reef island domain would improve the understanding of reef island geomorphology and improve communication between stake holders as well as forming a platform from which to move towards interoperability and the application of Information Technology to forecast and monitor these environments. This paper develops a small, prototypical reef island domain ontology, based on informal, natural language relations, aligned to the DOLCE upper-level ontology, for 20 fundamental terms within the domain. A subset of these terms and their relations are discussed in detail. This approach reveals and discusses challenges which must be overcome in the creation of a reef island domain ontology and which could be relevant to other ontologies in dynamic geospatial domains.

  9. Electron energization during magnetic island coalescence

    SciTech Connect

    Le, A.; Egedal, J.; Karimabadi, H.; Roytershteyn, V.; Daughton, W.

    2012-07-15

    Radio emission from colliding coronal mass ejection flux ropes in the interplanetary medium suggested the local generation of superthermal electrons. Inspired by those observations, a fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulation of magnetic island coalescence models the magnetic reconnection between islands as a source of energetic electrons. When the islands merge, stored magnetic energy is converted into electron kinetic energy. The simulation demonstrates that a mechanism for electron energization originally applied to open field line reconnection geometries also operates near the reconnection site of merging magnetic islands. The electron heating is highly anisotropic, and it results mainly from an electric field surrounding the reconnection site that accelerates electrons parallel to the magnetic field. A detailed theory predicts the maximum electron energies and how they depend on the plasma parameters. In addition, the global motion of the magnetic islands launches low-frequency waves in the surrounding plasma, which induce large-amplitude, anisotropic fluctuations in the electron temperature.

  10. Radar Image of Galapagos Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image showing part of Isla Isabella in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar on the 40th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees.

    The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles) west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been over 60 recorded eruptions of these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image.

    The Galapagos Islands are one of the SIR-C/X-SAR supersites and data of this area will be taken several times during the flight to allow scientists to conduct topographic change studies and to search for different lava flow types, ash deposits and fault lines.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes

  11. De Long Islands: sedimentary history and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershova, Victoria; Prokopiev, Andrei; Khudoley, Andrei; Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Eugeniy

    2014-05-01

    The De Long Islands are an archipelago located in the East Siberian Sea, represent one of the few exposures of the Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic rocks in this part of the Arctic Ocean, and therefore are a very important area for study. It consists of 5 islands: Jeannette, Henrietta, Bennett, Vil'kitsky and Zhokhov. Vil'kitsky and Zhokhov Islands are covered by Cenozoic basalts, therefore are not considered here, whilst the Paleozoic rocks of interest for this study outcrop on Jeannette, Henrietta and Bennett islands. Jeannette Island is the smallest, containing exposures of a highly deformed and tectonized sedimentary succession. This succession is represented by siltstones and argillites, with beds of gravel to cobble conglomerates. The defining characteristic of these deposits is the abundance of tuffaceous beds, along with volcanic pebbles within the conglomerates. On Henrietta Island, four different units have been identified. The oldest one is very similar to the rocks which outcrop across Jeannette Island. The second unit consists of sandstones with lenses and layers of polymictic conglomerates. The third unit is represented by red-colored sandstones, whilst the youngest unit comprises basalt flows of an assumed Middle Paleozoic age. Accordingly detrital zircons data the age of sedimentary succession of Henrietta and Jeannette islands is the Neoproterozoic. On Bennett Island, Cambrian and Ordovician strata mainly consist of carbonates with minor interbedded clastics. We determined U-Pb ages for detrital zircons from 4 samples, from Jeannette and Henrietta Islands. Three samples have similar age populations, although there are some variations in the abundance of each population. The samples are dominated by Neoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic grains with distinct peaks at ca. 550, 660, 1000, 1150, 1450, 1665 Ma. The youngest sedimentary unit on Henrietta Island has a very different detrital zircon distribution. The 550 Ma zircon population prevails (60

  12. Crystalline islands of semiconductor films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmievskaya, G. I.; Bondareva, A. L.

    2011-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) nucleation in the form of powder in a discharge plasma and the formation of thin film islands on a Si(100) substrate in the course of gas-phase epitaxy are simulated numerically. Models of plasma-like media and nonequilibrium processes accompanying phase transitions of the first kind (such as condensation and crystallization) in the initial fast (fluctuation) stage are described. The nonstationary evolution of nuclei size distribution functions is modeled by solving kinetic equations in partial derivatives and stochastic Ito-Stratonovich analog equations. This makes it possible to refine the formation mechanisms of microcrystalline state polytypes and calculate the nucleation rate and the initial roughness of a SiC coating.

  13. SRTM Stereo Pair: Fiji Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

    This stereoscopic view was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Also, colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to pink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters (4300 feet) of total relief. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shading and colors back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. The 3-D perception is achieved by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the

  14. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands' (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11854 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11854

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top.

    This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left.

    The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual.

    The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image.

    The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  15. Amchitka Island, Alaska, special sampling project 1997

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-28

    This 1997 special sampling project represents a special radiobiological sampling effort to augment the 1996 Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP) for Amchitka Island in Alaska. Lying in the western portion of the Aleutian Islands arc, near the International Date Line, Amchitka Island is one of the southernmost islands of the Rat Island Chain. Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission conducted three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. In 1996, Greenpeace collected biota samples and speculated that several long-lived, man-made radionuclides detected (i.e., americium-241, plutonium-239 and -240, beryllium-7, and cesium-137) leaked into the surface environment from underground cavities created during the testing. The nuclides of interest are detected at extremely low concentrations throughout the environment. The objectives of this special sampling project were to scientifically refute the Greenpeace conclusions that the underground cavities were leaking contaminants to the surface. This was achieved by first confirming the presence of these radionuclides in the Amchitka Island surface environment and, second, if the radionuclides were present, determining if the source is the underground cavity or worldwide fallout. This special sampling and analysis determined that the only nonfallout-related radionuclide detected was a low level of tritium from the Long Shot test, which had been previously documented. The tritium contamination is monitored and continues a decreasing trend due to radioactive decay and dilution.

  16. Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to

  17. Eleuthera Island, Bahamas seen from STS-66

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The striking views provided by the Bahama Islands lend insights into the important problems of limestone (CaCO3) production and transport. This photograph includes the southern part of Eleuthera Island in the northern Bahamas. The hook-shaped island encloses a relatively shallow platform (light blue) which is surrounded by deep water (dark blue). The feathery pattern along the western edge of Eleuthera's platform are sand bars and sand channels created by tidal currents sweeping on and off the platform. The channels serve to funnel large amounts of CaCO3 off the platform and into the deeper water.

  18. In Brief: Tsunami hits the Solomon Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-04-01

    A magnitude 8.1 earthquake shook the Solomon Islands on 1 April at approximately 7:40 A.M. local time. The earthquake generated a tsunami several meters high that struck many of the islands. The earthquake occurred along the boundary of the Pacific plate where the Australia, Woodlark, and Solomon Sea plates subduct beneath it, according to the U.S. Geological Survey's Earthquake Hazards Program. At least 34 people were killed by the tsunami and several dozen more are still missing, according to the National Disaster Council in the Solomon Islands. The NDC estimates that 900-2500 homes were destroyed by the tsunami, displacing about 5500 people.

  19. [Biodemographical study in the Island of Pascua].

    PubMed

    Lazo, B; Campusano, C; Figueroa, H

    1993-06-01

    The aim of this study was to know the degree of miscegenation in the Easter Island population. One hundred two weddings carried out between 1987 and 1991 were recorded and the proportion of marriages between islanders and immigrants was analyzed. Also, ABO and Rh blood groups of all deliveries occurred between 1988 and 1991 were compiled. There was a particular tendency of islanders to marry with immigrants and the proportion of miscegenation was 75.5%. Additionally a decline in the frequency of A blood group is observed, comparing results from studies performed since 1932 up to date. PMID:8278694

  20. Birds of Wallops Island, Virginia, 1970 - 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum provides extensive data on birdlife at Wallops Island, a mid-Atlantic barrier island, and home to NASA Wallops Flight Facility's launch range. Variation in the distribution and abundance of many species is considerable in this region, which is centered along the north-south axis of the Delmarva Peninsula. Data (date of occurrence and general abundance) and analysis of the Island's diverse habitat structure are provided. A total of 244 species of birds are recorded; a summary of the records are given in the Species Accounts and the Appendix.

  1. Case study: Bioremediation in the Aleutian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, K.J.; Laford, H.D.

    1995-12-31

    This case study describes the design, construction, and operation of a bioremediation pile on Adak Island, which is located in the Aleutian Island chain. Approximately 1,900 m{sup 3} of petroleum-contaminated soil were placed in the bioremediation pile. The natural bioremediation process was enhanced by an oxygen and nutrient addition system to stimulate microbial activity. Despite the harsh weather on the island, after the first 6 months of operation, laboratory analyses of soil samples indicated a significant (80%) reduction in diesel concentrations.

  2. Habitat islands and the equilibrium theory of island biogeography: testing some predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, M.; Dinsmore, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Species-area data from a study of marsh birds are used to test five predictions generated by the equilibrium theory of island biogeography. Three predictions are supported: we found a significant species-area relationship, a non-zero level of turnover, and a variance-mean ratio of 0.5. One prediction is rejected: the extinction rates were not greater on small islands. The results of one test are equivocal: the number of species on each island was not always the same. As Gilbert (1980) suggests, a strong species-area relationship alone does not validate the theory. The avian communities we studied were on habitat islands, not true islands, and underwent complete extinction annually. Thus caution must be used before applying the theory to these and other habitat islands.

  3. Leadership in Context: Observations from Two Island Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billot, Jennie

    2005-01-01

    This article refers to just one example of specificity of context, the small island community. Islands can be viewed as well-bounded communities, often with an identity that seeks to be one step removed from being the politically dependent neighbour. Two islands serve to exemplify the significance of context: The Island of Jersey (Channel…

  4. 24. Aerial photograph dated 22 April 1942, showing Gould Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Aerial photograph dated 22 April 1942, showing Gould Island from the northeast. Complex under construction includes shop building (large rectangle at north end of island, and firing pier (at far right). Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  5. 14 CFR 61.100 - Pilots based on small islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilots based on small islands. 61.100....100 Pilots based on small islands. (a) An applicant located on an island from which the flight..., “Passenger carrying prohibited on flights more than 10 nautical miles from (the appropriate island).”...

  6. 14 CFR 61.100 - Pilots based on small islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pilots based on small islands. 61.100....100 Pilots based on small islands. (a) An applicant located on an island from which the flight..., “Passenger carrying prohibited on flights more than 10 nautical miles from (the appropriate island).”...

  7. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor...

  8. 14 CFR 61.100 - Pilots based on small islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pilots based on small islands. 61.100....100 Pilots based on small islands. (a) An applicant located on an island from which the flight..., “Passenger carrying prohibited on flights more than 10 nautical miles from (the appropriate island).”...

  9. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor...

  10. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor...

  11. 50 CFR 216.85 - Walrus and Otter Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Walrus and Otter Islands. 216.85 Section... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.85 Walrus and Otter Islands. By Executive Order 1044, dated February 27, 1909, Walrus and Otter Islands were set aside as bird reservations. All persons are...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor...

  14. 14 CFR 61.100 - Pilots based on small islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pilots based on small islands. 61.100....100 Pilots based on small islands. (a) An applicant located on an island from which the flight..., “Passenger carrying prohibited on flights more than 10 nautical miles from (the appropriate island).”...

  15. 9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SECOND FLOOR, EAST WING. MOTORIZED MACHINING EQUIPMENT USED IN MANUFACTURE OF MACHINE GUN PARTS. SHOWN IN THE FOREGROUND IS A PRATT & WHITNEY VERTICAL MILLING MACHINE. DATED JANUARY 21, 1943. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 68, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  16. 14. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. CENTER CRANEWAY, SHOWING MACHINING OF BREECH MECHANISM FOR 155MM ARTILLERY GUN. DATED JUNE 12, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 250, Gillespie Avenue between Ramsey Street & South Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  17. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS BEFORE REMODELING OF PARAPET AND AFTER REMOVAL OF SMOKESTACK FROM SOUTH ELEVATION. DATED APRIL 7, 1941. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 133, Gillespie Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  18. 12. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS AFTER REMODELING OF FRONT PORCH. DATED AUGUST 19, 1919. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 3, Terrace Drive between Gillespie & East Avenues, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  19. 11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS BEFORE REMODELING OF FRONT PORCH. DATED C. 1875. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 3, Terrace Drive between Gillespie & East Avenues, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  20. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION BEFORE REMODELING OF FRONT PORCH. PROBABLY TAKEN IN THE 1870S. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 4, Terrace Avenue between Gillespie & East Avenues, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL