Science.gov

Sample records for island glacier faster

  1. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.

    To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.

    Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack

  2. Pine Island Glacier

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange "carrot-like" features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In ...

  3. External forcing modulates Pine Island Glacier flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianson, K. A.; Bushuk, M.; Holland, D.; Dutrieux, P.; Joughin, I.; Parizek, B. R.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Heywood, K. J.; Jenkins, A.; Nicholls, K. W.; Webber, B.; Muto, A.; Stanton, T. P.

    2015-12-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, Mercer first suggested the Eemian sea-level high stand was a result of a collapse of the marine portions of the West Antarctic ice sheet. Recently, special attention has been paid to West Antarctica's Amundsen Sea Embayment due to its steeply sloping retrograde beds that are well below sea level, and observations of rapid grounding-line retreat, high ice-shelf basal-melt rates, and basin-wide glacier thinning and acceleration. Despite this focus, accurate assessments of the past and future behavior of this embayment remain elusive due to a lack of understanding of calving processes and ice-ocean interactions. Here we present a continuous two-year (2012-2014) time series of oceanographic, borehole, glaciological, and seismological observations of Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, its sub-ice ocean cavity, and the adjacent Amundsen Sea. With these data, we captured the ice shelf's response to a large fluctuation in the temperature of the water (~1 °C) entering the sub-ice-ocean cavity. Initially, the ice shelf slowed by 5%, but, by the end of 2014, it had nearly recovered its earlier speed. The generally smooth changes in ice flow were punctuated by rapid (2-3 week), high-amplitude (~2.5% of the background speed) speedups and slowdowns. Satellite and seismological observations indicate that rapid speedups are caused by reduction of lateral drag along the ice stream's shear margins as a large iceberg calves and that rapid slowdowns may be due to periodic regrounding on bed highs at low tide. Coupled ice-stream/ice-shelf/ocean-plume flowband modeling informed by these new data indicates that the more-gradual changes in speed are related to ocean temperature, ice-front position, and past ice-flow history. Our observations highlight an ice shelf's rapid response to external forcings and that past ice-flow behavior affects subsequent ice response to external forcing. Thus, long-term, multifaceted investigations are necessary to determine whether a

  4. Glacier surface velocity fields in South Shetland Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanoglu, B.; Giseke, H.; Navarro, F. J.; Rueckamp, M.; Falk, U.; Corcuera, M. I.; Braun, M.

    2011-12-01

    In this study surface velocity of glaciers in South Shetland Islands (Antarctic Peninsula) are calculated based on synthetic aperture radar data from ALOS PALSAR and TerraSAR-X as well as differential GPS measurements. The obtained glacier velocities will be used to calculate the total glacier mass budget and to better understand the contribution of the study areas to the sea level rise. Only recent studies have examined the region for mass balance and sea level rise estimates. However, larger scale mass budget computations are not yet available. Ice dynamics obtained from satellite data have only been derived in a few occasions, often due to lacking spatial resolution or temporal decorrelation. Hence, any spacebased information on ice dynamics can significantly improve estimates of calving fluxes and mass loss. In this study we analysed over 30 PALSAR and 30 TSX scenes acquired over the King George Island and Livingston Island, the two largest islands in the South Shetland Island group. In the study areas the glacier velocities are calculated using two independent data sets; namely satellite radar imagery and GPS. Feature-tracking methods are applied to the radar imagery to obtain glacier velocities using Gamma Interferometric SAR Processor and TU-Delft DORIS. Results from Gamma and Doris software packages are compared to each other as well as GPS measurements where available. For a subset of the study area tracking results from different acquisitions modes (stripmap and spotlight) and orbits are compared. Comparison of glacier velocities obtained by radar and GPS provide an estimate for the uncertainties in the measured rates. The results obtained from all data sets are then compiled to construct a map of glacier velocities for the entire island group.

  5. Inland thinning of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, A; Wingham, D J; Mansley, J A; Corr, H F

    2001-02-01

    The Pine Island Glacier (PIG) transports 69 cubic kilometers of ice each year from approximately 10% of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). It is possible that a retreat of the PIG may accelerate ice discharge from the WAIS interior. Satellite altimetry and interferometry show that the grounded PIG thinned by up to 1.6 meters per year between 1992 and 1999, affecting 150 kilometers of the inland glacier. The thinning cannot be explained by short-term variability in accumulation and must result from glacier dynamics. PMID:11157163

  6. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica, MISR Multi-angle Composite

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-17

    ... and the edge of Pine Island Glacier. It is believed the physical separation took place on or about July 10, 2013, however the iceberg ... Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  7. Stronger ocean circulation and increased melting under Pine Island Glacier ice shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Stanley S.; Jenkins, Adrian; Giulivi, Claudia F.; Dutrieux, Pierre

    2011-08-01

    In 1994, ocean measurements near Antarctica's Pine Island Glacier showed that the ice shelf buttressing the glacier was melting rapidly. This melting was attributed to the presence of relatively warm, deep water on the Amundsen Sea continental shelf. Heat, salt and ice budgets along with ocean modelling provided steady-state calving and melting rates. Subsequent satellite observations and modelling have indicated large system imbalances, including ice-shelf thinning and more intense melting, glacier acceleration and drainage basin drawdown. Here we combine our earlier data with measurements taken in 2009 to show that the temperature and volume of deep water in Pine Island Bay have increased. Ocean transport and tracer calculations near the ice shelf reveal a rise in meltwater production by about 50% since 1994. The faster melting seems to result mainly from stronger sub-ice-shelf circulation, as thinning ice has increased the gap above an underlying submarine bank on which the glacier was formerly grounded. We conclude that the basal melting has exceeded the increase in ice inflow, leading to the formation and enlargement of an inner cavity under the ice shelf within which sea water nearly 4°C above freezing can now more readily access the grounding zone.

  8. Rapid thinning of Pine Island Glacier in the early Holocene.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J S; Bentley, M J; Smith, J A; Finkel, R C; Rood, D H; Gohl, K; Balco, G; Larter, R D; Schaefer, J M

    2014-02-28

    Pine Island Glacier, a major outlet of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, has been undergoing rapid thinning and retreat for the past two decades. We demonstrate, using glacial-geological and geochronological data, that Pine Island Glacier (PIG) also experienced rapid thinning during the early Holocene, around 8000 years ago. Cosmogenic (10)Be concentrations in glacially transported rocks show that this thinning was sustained for decades to centuries at an average rate of more than 100 centimeters per year, which is comparable with contemporary thinning rates. The most likely mechanism was a reduction in ice shelf buttressing. Our findings reveal that PIG has experienced rapid thinning at least once in the past and that, once set in motion, rapid ice sheet changes in this region can persist for centuries. PMID:24557837

  9. Revisited Inventory of Glaciers on Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, L.; Osinski, G.

    2009-05-01

    As documented in the IPCC's Climate Change 2007 report, the high latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere are experiencing the highest rates of warming. Given that 35% of the global glacial ice exists within the Arctic Archipelago, this region provides an excellent laboratory for monitoring the anticipated degree of glacial recession [1]. Evidence of arctic warming through negative mass balance trends has been detected in several studies already [e.g., 2]. Here, we show the importance and value of historical records in the task of monitoring glacial retreat. A highly detailed inventory developed by S. Ommanney in 1969 [3], has been revisited and transformed into digital format for the purposes of integration with modern inventories. The Ommanney inventory covers the entirety of Axel Heiberg Island , NU, and includes details often lacking in present day inventories, including orientations (accumulation and ablation zones), elevations (highest, lowest, elevation of the snowline, and the mean elevations of both the accumulation and ablation areas), length (of the ablation area, exposed ice, and of the total glacier including debris cover), area (of the ablation area, exposed ice, and of the total glacier), accumulation area ratio (AAR), depth, volume, and a six digit code which gives qualitative details on glacier attributes. This report is one of the most thorough and comprehensive glacier inventory report ever published in Canada. More recent inventories used for comparison include the glacier extents created by the National Topographic System based on photography from 1980-1987, as well as extents developed by Dr. Luke Copland for the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) database using 1999-2000 satellite imagery. Our preliminary results show that approximately 90% of ice bodies under 0.2km on Axel Heiberg Island have disappeared entirely in the 40 year period of interest. The issue of glacier definition will be discussed as a possible cause of these

  10. Timing of recent accelerations of Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joughin, I.; Rignot, E.; Rosanova, C.E.; Lucchitta, B.K.; Bohlander, J.

    2003-01-01

    We have used Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and sequential Landsat imagery to identify and temporally constrain two acceleration events on Pine Island Glacier (PIG). These two events are separated by a period of at least seven years (1987 - 1994). The change in discharge between two flux gates indicates that the majority of the increase in discharge associated with the second acceleration originates well inland (>80 km) from the grounding line. An analysis indicates that changes in driving stress consistent with observed thinning rates are sufficient in magnitude to explain much of the acceleration.

  11. Ocean mixing beneath Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Satoshi; Dutrieux, Pierre; Jenkins, Adrian; Forryan, Alexander; Naveira Garabato, Alberto; Firing, Yvonne

    2016-04-01

    Ice shelves around Antarctica are vulnerable to increase in ocean-driven melting, with the melt rate depending on ocean temperature and strength of sub-ice-shelf-cavity circulations. We present repeated measurements of velocity, temperature, salinity, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate and thermal variance dissipation rate beneath Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf, collected by CTD, ADCP and turbulence sensors mounted on an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The turbulence quantities measured by the AUV outside the ice shelf are in good agreement with ship-based measurements. The highest rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation is found near the grounding line, while its temporal fluctuation over seabed ridge within the cavity corresponds to the tidal fluctuation predicted in the Pine Island Bay to the west. The highest thermal variance dissipation rate is found when the AUV was 0.5 m away from the ice, and the thermal variance dissipation generally increases with decreasing distance between the AUV and ice.

  12. Earth system consequences of a Pine Island Glacier collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Mattias; Schmittner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    An intermediate complexity climate model is used to simulate the impact of an accelerated Pine Island Glacier mass loss on the large-scale ocean circulation and climate. Simulations are performed for pre-industrial conditions using hosing levels consistent with present day observation of 3,000 m3 s‑1, at an accelerated rate of 6,000 m3 s‑1, and at a total collapse rate of 100,000 m3 s‑1, and in all experiments the hosing lasted 100 years. It is shown that even a modest input of meltwater from the glacier can introduce an initial cooling over the upper part of the Southern Ocean due to increased stratification and ice cover leading to a reduced upward heat flux from Circumpolar Deep Water. This causes global ocean heat content to increase and global surface air temperatures to decrease. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) increases, presumably due to changes in the density difference between Antarctic Intermediate Water and North Atlantic Deep Water. Simulations with a simultaneous hosing and increases of atmospheric CO2 concentrations show smaller effects of the hosing on global surface air temperature and ocean heat content, which we attribute to the melting of Southern Ocean sea ice. The sensitivity of the AMOC to the hosing is also reduced as the warming by the atmosphere completely dominates the perturbations. Further consequences for oceanic biogeochemical cycles in realistic future warming scenarios are discussed.

  13. Operation IceBridge: Fly Through of Pine Island Glacier Crack

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation provides a fly through of the major rift in the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica. This crack, which extends at least 18 miles and is 50 meters deep, could produce an iceberg...

  14. Dynamics and GPR stratigraphy of a polar rock glacier on James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, Kotaro; Sone, Toshio; Strelin, Jorge A.; Torielli, Cesar A.; Mori, Junko; Fujii, Yoshiyuki

    We describe field measurements (ground-penetrating radar (GPR), geodetic survey and ice-core drilling) to provide new information on the movement mechanism and internal structure of a polar rock glacier on James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula. We collected GPR data along longitudinal and transverse profiles. The longitudinal GPR profiles identify inter-bedded debris-rich layers that dip up-glacier, similar to the thrust structures in the compression zone of a valley glacier. The transverse GPR profiles indicate a syncline structure inclined towards the central part of the rock glacier, resembling the transverse foliation of a valley glacier. The stratigraphy of two boreholes shows that the rock glacier consists primarily of bubbly ice with thin debris-rich layers, an internal structure similar to the `nested spoons' structure common in the interior of valley glaciers. These results indicate that the glacier motion is controlled by shear movement, common in valley glaciers. The geodetic survey confirms that flow velocities decrease towards the lower part of the rock glacier. Such heterogeneous movement causes longitudinal compression and forms thrusts which then create the debris-rich layer by uplifting basal ice and debris. Pushing of the upstream ice against the downstream ice bends the surface layers, forming transverse ridges on the rock glacier surface.

  15. Velocities of Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers, West Antarctica, from ERS-1 SAR images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucchitta, B.K.; Rosanova, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    Average velocities of Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers were measured for the time periods between 1992 and 1994 by tracking ice-surface patterns. Velocities of the central flow of the Pine Island Glacier range from 1.5 km/yr above the grounding line (separating the grounded from the floating parts of a glacier) to 2.8 km/yr near the terminus; velocities of the central Thwaites Glacier range from 2.2 km/yr above the grounding line to 3.4 km/yr at the limit of measurements on the tongue. Both glaciers show an increase in velocity of about 1 km/yr where they cross their grounding lines. The velocities derived from ERS-1 images are higher than those previously derived from Landsat images, perhaps reflecting acceleration of the glaciers. Both glaciers are exceptionally fast. The high velocities may be due to high precipitation rates over West Antarctica and the lack of a major buttressing ice shelf.

  16. Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambrey, Michael; Alean, Jürg

    2004-12-01

    Glaciers are among the most beautiful natural wonders on Earth, as well as the least known and understood, for most of us. Michael Hambrey describes how glaciers grow and decay, move and influence human civilization. Currently covering a tenth of the Earth's surface, glacier ice has shaped the landscape over millions of years by scouring away rocks and transporting and depositing debris far from its source. Glacier meltwater drives turbines and irrigates deserts, and yields mineral-rich soils as well as a wealth of valuable sand and gravel. However, glaciers also threaten human property and life. Our future is indirectly connected with the fate of glaciers and their influence on global climate and sea level. Including over 200 stunning photographs, the book takes the reader from the High-Arctic through North America, Europe, Asia, Africa, New Zealand and South America to the Antarctic. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for the first edition of Glaciers (Cambridge, 1995). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994). JÜrg Alean is Professor of Geography at the Kantonsschule ZÜrcher Unterland in BÜlach, Switzerland.

  17. Basal debris entrainment and transport in glaciers of southwestern Bylot Island, Canadian Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zdanowicz, C.M.; Michel, F.A.; Shilts, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    Glaciers on southwestern Bylot Island in the Canadian Arctic flow from an alpine setting in high-grade crystalline Archean terrane, on to coastal lowlands underlain by clastic sedimentary strata of Cretaceous to Tertiary age. We have used the contrasting mineralogy of the substrate as a tool to study subglacial entrainment and transport of debris in two large piedmont glaciers on Bylot Island. High chlorite/ and mica-illite/smectite ratios indicate that most basal debris is derived from crystalline rocks underlying the upper reaches of the glaciers. The subglacial accretion of Cretaceous-Tertiary sediments appears restricted to the lowermost part of the basal zone and is most noticeable near the glaciers' termini. Ice associated with discrete silty-sandy debris layers is characterized by an isotopic signature indicative of refreezing of meltwater at the glacier sole. The compositional, textural and isotopic characteristics of basal sediment and ice lead us to conclude that subglacial entrainment through basal ice accretion occurs in both the upper and marginal parts of the glaciers.

  18. Holocene glacier activity on Kerguelen Island: preliminary results from a novel proglacial lake sediment record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Støren, Eivind; Bakke, Jostein; Arnaud, Fabien; Poulenard, Jérôme; Fanget, Bernard; Malet, Emmanuel; Sabatier, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The Polar-regions are changing rapidly as greenhouse warming is continuing with huge impact on e.g. sea ice extent and snow cover. This change triggers teleconnections to low latitude areas challenging societies and human activity. We have, however, very little quantitative information of past climate in the Polar-regions that can be used to evaluate the potential responses and the response patterns to forcing changes and changes in boundary conditions. Whatever anthropogenic changes may occur in the future, they will be superimposed on, and interact with, natural climate variations due to all the forcing we are aware of. This means we need to better document past climate/environmental variability of the Polar-regions. Especially in the Southern Ocean there are few time series recording past climate due to few suitable land areas and the few Sub-Antarctic Islands is remote and has cumbersome logistics. Continuous terrestrial records from this region are therefore urgently needed for constraining future scenarios from earth system models. Glaciers and ice caps are still ubiquitous in the Polar-regions, although they are rapidly shrinking due to the on-going warming. The continuous sedimentary records produced by glaciers, which are stored in downstream lakes, represent supreme archives of past variability wherefrom quantitative information of key climate system components can be extracted. Kerguelen Island is located within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Southern Westerly wind belt and contains several glaciers and smaller ice caps. Terrestrial archives recording past history of the glaciers at Kerguelen thus have a unique potential to record past changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns from southern mid-latitudes. Here we present preliminary results from the first distal glacier-fed lake that is sampled from Kerguelen Island. A 2.8 m long sediment core was obtained from Lac Guynemer (121masl.) located at the Peninsule Loranchet at the

  19. Channelized ice melting in the ocean boundary layer beneath Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Stanton, T P; Shaw, W J; Truffer, M; Corr, H F J; Peters, L E; Riverman, K L; Bindschadler, R; Holland, D M; Anandakrishnan, S

    2013-09-13

    Ice shelves play a key role in the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheets by buttressing their seaward-flowing outlet glaciers; however, they are exposed to the underlying ocean and may weaken if ocean thermal forcing increases. An expedition to the ice shelf of the remote Pine Island Glacier, a major outlet of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet that has rapidly thinned and accelerated in recent decades, has been completed. Observations from geophysical surveys and long-term oceanographic instruments deployed down bore holes into the ocean cavity reveal a buoyancy-driven boundary layer within a basal channel that melts the channel apex by 0.06 meter per day, with near-zero melt rates along the flanks of the channel. A complex pattern of such channels is visible throughout the Pine Island Glacier shelf. PMID:24031016

  20. The spatial and temporal evolution of the thinning of Pine Island Glacier 1995 - 2006.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingham, D. J.; Wallis, D. W.; Shepherd, A.

    2009-04-01

    We have derived the acceleration in elevation change over Pine Island Glacier drainage basin from ERS-2 and Envisat radar altimetry. Each time-series is individually cross calibrated between the two satellites to produce continuous time-series from 1995 to 2006. The region of lightly grounded ice above the grounding line is extending upstream. The thinning rate in the largest tributary to Pine Island Glacier increased 17 times between 1995 and 2006. Thinning is now contributing to a mass loss equivalent to a ~ 16 % imbalance. Accelerated thinning is spatially correlated with InSAR ice flow velocity measurements in the main trunk and in the tributaries to the South of the main trunk of the glacier. If the acceleration continues at its present rate, which is of course uncertain, the main trunk of PIG will be afloat within 200 years.

  1. Glacier velocities and dynamic ice discharge from the Queen Elizabeth Islands, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Wychen, Wesley; Burgess, David O.; Gray, Laurence; Copland, Luke; Sharp, Martin; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Benham, Toby J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate an increase in glacier mass loss from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago as a result of warmer summer air temperatures. However, no complete assessment of dynamic ice discharge from this region exists. We present the first complete surface velocity mapping of all ice masses in the Queen Elizabeth Islands and show that these ice masses discharged ~2.6 ± 0.8 Gt a-1 of ice to the oceans in winter 2012. Approximately 50% of the dynamic discharge was channeled through non surge-type Trinity and Wykeham Glaciers alone. Dynamic discharge of the surge-type Mittie Glacier varied from 0.90 ± 0.09 Gt a-1 during its 2003 surge to 0.02 ± 0.02 Gt a-1 during quiescence in 2012, highlighting the importance of surge-type glaciers for interannual variability in regional mass loss. Queen Elizabeth Islands glaciers currently account for ~7.5% of reported dynamic discharge from Arctic ice masses outside Greenland.

  2. Recent changes detected on two glaciers at the northern part of James Ross Island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nývlt, Daniel; Kopačková, Veronika; Láska, Kamil; Engel, Zbyněk.

    2010-05-01

    Antarctic Peninsula is one of the regions, which have been exposed to the most rapid warming of the Earth since 1950. Consequences of climate changes are clearly documented by recent disintegration of ice shelves on both sides of the Antarctic Peninsula as well as by the retreat of land-based glaciers. James Ross Island, located close to the northernmost tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, represents an excellent place to study changes in the glacier mass-balance and their sensitivity to a regional warming trend. Two different types of glaciers of the Ulu Peninsula, the Whisky Glacier and the Davies Dome have been studied. Multi-temporal remote sensing data (aerial photographs, Landsat MSS, TM and ETM+ and Aster satellite optical and thermal multispectral data) and field survey allowed detecting changes in extent (2-D) as well as calculating glacier mass-balance changes (3-D) for these two glaciers from 1977 to 2009. The Whisky Glacier is a well-delimited valley glacier located mostly below the local Equilibrium line altitude (ELA). The glacier with high-flow velocities is fed by an intensive snow accumulation caused by prevailing southwestern winds. The Whisky Glacier covers an area of 2.3 km2 and its altitude varies from 215 to 475 m a.s.l. The Davies Dome is a flat-bottom dome glacier. Significant parts of its surface are located above the ELA and limited flow velocities are characteristic for the most parts of its body. However, the Davies Dome has a single 500-700 m wide southwestern outlet flowing towards the Whisky Bay. The Davies Dome extends an area of 6.7 km2 and its altitude ranges from 0 to 514 m a.s.l. Both glaciers experienced massive extension of their ice tongues towards the Brandy Bay during the mid Holocene. Lateral moraines located in front of the both glaciers heading down to the left coast of the Brandy Bay document this event. According to the remote sensing data and field investigations both glaciers have retreated since 1977. Between 2006 and

  3. Fifty years of meteo-glaciological change in Toll Glacier, Bennett Island, De Long Islands, Siberian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konya, Keiko; Kadota, Tsutomu; Yabuki, Hironori; Ohata, Tetsuo

    2014-06-01

    Rapid environmental change has been observed in the De Long Islands, Siberian Arctic, where warming has extensively occurred over the area. To quantitatively evaluate glaciological changes since the 1980s, the climate, mass balance, and the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of Toll Glacier on Bennett Island were analyzed. Air temperature has increased and solid precipitation has decreased since the 1960s, especially after 2000. The cumulative mass balance of Toll Glacier has had a negative trend since the 1960s and reached approximately -20 m water equivalent (w.e.) in 2000, which is one of the largest changes in the Arctic. These changes are much larger than those in the west Russian Arctic. The warming trend is also correlated with the sea ice distribution in the Siberian Arctic and may lead to feedback effects that cause further Arctic warming.

  4. Monitoring of land-based glaciers on James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laska, Kamil; Nyvlt, Daniel; Engel, Zbynek; Stachon, Zdenek

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic Peninsula has been considered one of the most rapidly warming parts of our planet during the second half of the 20th century. Therefore, James Ross Island located near the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, represents a unique place to study the sensitivity of glacier systems to regional atmospheric warming. Since 2006, an integrated multidisciplinary study of glaciers and terrestrial ecosystems has been carried out in the northern part of Ulu Peninsula, James Ross Island. In this contribution, glacier monitoring network consisting of four dominant land-based glaciers at the Ulu Peninsula is presented. Davies Dome (DD) is an ice dome, which originates on the surface of a flat volcanic mesa at >400 m a.s.l. and terminates as a single 700 m wide outlet in Whisky Bay. In 2006, Davies Dome had an area of 6.5 km2 and lay in the altitude range 0-514 m a.s.l. Whisky Glacier (WG) is a cold-based land-terminating valley glacier, which is surrounded by an extensive area of debris-covered ice. WG covered an area of 2.4 km2 and ranged from 215 to 520 m a.s.l. Triangular Glacier (TG) is a southwest-facing land-terminating glacier with an area of 0.6 km2 ranging from 302 to 107 m a.s.l. with well-developed ice-cored terminal moraine. San Jose Glacier (SJG) is a south-facing land-terminating piedmont glacier rejuvenated from the above lying Lachman Crags Dome (~640 m a.s.l.). SJG covers an area of 0.6 km2 and extends between 138 and 310 m a.s.l. Moreover, monitoring network consists of five automatic weather stations (AWS) placed in the central and marginal parts of the selected glaciers. Each AWS was equipped with the EMS33 air temperature and humidity probes placed inside the radiation shields. Apart from that, additional instruments, e.g. albedometer, propeller anemometer, snow depth sensors were installed on the central part of DD and WG. Since 2009, annual mass balance measurements have been realized on the DD, WG and TG glaciers. In 2010, ice thickness and

  5. Detailed basal topography of the floating portion of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrieux, Pierre; Jenkins, Adrian; Stewart, Craig; Corr, Hugh

    2013-04-01

    In January 2009 the underside of Pine Island glacier's floating ice shelf, in West Antarctica, was imaged along three 30 km tracks using an upward-looking multi-beam echo-sounder mounted on an autonomous underwater vehicle. At 4-m resolution with a 300-m wide swath, these observations reveal with unprecedented detail the presence of channels oriented along and across the direction of ice flow. Many of these channels are characterized by basal crevasses above their apex and successive 200-500 m wide, 10-20m high terraces on their flanks. A near coincident, high resolution airborne radar survey confirm the widespread nature of these features. The oceanographic and glaciological conditions of Pine Island glacier are discussed to shed light on the processes leading to their formation and maintenance. For comparison, observations of terraces in a different setting, but in a similar oceanographic context in Greenland are also presented.

  6. Permafrost distribution in marine terraces and glacier margins in the Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, António; Oliva, Marc; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús

    2015-04-01

    Geophysical surveying has been proven to be an effective method to unveil the distribution of permafrost conditions in polar environments. In the South Shetland Islands permafrost is considered to be marginal to discontinuous until elevations of 20-40 m asl changing to continuous at higher altitudes. However, there is no specific data about the distribution of permafrost in the recently deglaciated areas in the Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, Antarctica), the largest ice-free area in the South Shetland Islands. With the purpose of better understanding the existence or inexistence of permanent frozen conditions in this area, we have conducted a field season focusing on the geophysical surveying along two transects: from the coast to the highest marine terraces and from the glacier to the central plateau. The snowy conditions during the cold season in 2014 in the Byers Peninsula have conditioned a late melting of snow, which must be taken into account when interpreting the data related to frozen conditions inferred from the geophysical surveying. The results provide insights about the time required for permafrost to form in the lowest areas of the peninsula, as well as the possible existence of permafrost near the glacier front which may be indicative of the thermal properties of the base of the glacier (cold-warm). This research was financially supported by the HOLOANTAR project (Portuguese Science Foundation) and the AXA Research Fund.

  7. Deep Bed in the Vicinity of the Grounding Line of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morlighem, M.; Goldberg, D. N.; Cornford, S. L.; Rignot, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    Pine Island glacier is one of the major ice streams of the Antarctic Ice Sheet and has been experiencing dramatic changes for the past four decades. Its grounding line has been retreating at a rate of 1 km/a since 1992. It has been suggested that this retreat would not stop and that the entire basin would unground because of the geometry of its bed. The bed topography indeed controls to a large extent the behavior of the grounding line because of its reverse shape, which makes Pine Island susceptible to the Marine Ice Sheet Instability. Using three model-based approaches, we analyze the bed topography of Pine Island, and any potential errors inherent in its representation. While all three approaches are based on the conservation of mass and momentum, they differ both in terms of the glaciological flow model used, and their estimation methodology. Nevertheless, all three produce similar bed corrections that suggest that the bed is several hundreds of meters below the most recent bed compilation of Bedmap-2, and has a flatter shape. We attribute the inconsistency with Bedmap-2 to noise and ambiguity in radar echograms due to the presence of crevasses, as well as large cross-over errors and sparse flight-line data in this region. This new description of the bed topography of Pine Island Glacier has vast implications for the modeling of its evolution in the coming decades. Models of the glacier are likely to exhibit more subtle amplification of retreat rate, since the bed is less steep, but may also begin to retreat more readily, since the present day discharge is greater and the ice surface elevation closer to floatation. Our results also provide guidelines for future mission deployments.

  8. The Last Glacial Maximum in the central North Island, New Zealand: palaeoclimate inferences from glacier modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaves, Shaun R.; Mackintosh, Andrew N.; Anderson, Brian M.; Doughty, Alice M.; Townsend, Dougal B.; Conway, Chris E.; Winckler, Gisela; Schaefer, Joerg M.; Leonard, Graham S.; Calvert, Andrew T.

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative palaeoclimate reconstructions provide data for evaluating the mechanisms of past, natural climate variability. Geometries of former mountain glaciers, constrained by moraine mapping, afford the opportunity to reconstruct palaeoclimate, due to the close relationship between ice extent and local climate. In this study, we present results from a series of experiments using a 2-D coupled energy balance-ice flow model that investigate the palaeoclimate significance of Last Glacial Maximum moraines within nine catchments in the central North Island, New Zealand. We find that the former ice limits can be simulated when present-day temperatures are reduced by between 4 and 7 °C, if precipitation remains unchanged from present. The spread in the results between the nine catchments is likely to represent the combination of chronological and model uncertainties. The majority of catchments targeted require temperature decreases of 5.1 to 6.3 °C to simulate the former glaciers, which represents our best estimate of the temperature anomaly in the central North Island, New Zealand, during the Last Glacial Maximum. A decrease in precipitation of up to 25 % from present, as suggested by proxy evidence and climate models, increases the magnitude of the required temperature changes by up to 0.8 °C. Glacier model experiments using reconstructed topographies that exclude the volume of post-glacial ( < 15 ka) volcanism generally increased the magnitude of cooling required to simulate the former ice limits by up to 0.5 °C. Our palaeotemperature estimates expand the spatial coverage of proxy-based quantitative palaeoclimate reconstructions in New Zealand. Our results are also consistent with independent, proximal temperature reconstructions from fossil groundwater and pollen assemblages, as well as similar glacier modelling reconstructions from the central Southern Alps, which suggest air temperatures were ca. 6 °C lower than present across New Zealand during the Last

  9. Rifting, heat flux, and water availability beneath the catchment of Pine Island Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. A.; Ferraccioli, F.; Hindmarsh, R. C.

    2012-04-01

    The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) is a major rift system that developed in the Cretaceous and Cenozoic. It forms the lithsopheric cradle for the marine-based, and potentially unstable West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Determining the geological boundary conditions beneath the WAIS and in particular geothermal heat flux may help model its response to external climatic forcing. However, in the Amundsen Sea Embayment sector of WAIS, where major glaciers such as Pine Island and Thwaites are rapidly changing today, fundamental properties such as geothermal heat flux to the base of the ice sheet have remained poorly constrained due to sparse geophysical data coverage and the lack of drilling sites. New crustal thickness estimates derived from airborne gravity data (Jordan et al., 2010, GSA Bul.), are interpreted to show a continuation of the WARS beneath Pine Island Glacier, and suggest two phases of continental rifting affected this region. Here we explore the impact of continental rifting on geothermal heat flux variations and basal water availability beneath Pine Island Glacier. Using 1D thermal models of rift evolution, we assess geothermal heat flux configurations resulting from either single or two-phase rifting and explore the dependency on the age of rifting and pre-rift setting. Additionally, 1D glaciological models were implemented to predict the changes in subglacial water distribution created by different rifting models. Our modelling reveals that geothermal heat-flux beneath the WAIS is critically sensitive to rift age and evolution and has the potential to significantly alter basal conditions if it continued to be active in the Neogene as some recent geological interpretations suggest.

  10. Deception island, Antarctica: a terrestrial analogue for the study and understanding of the martian permafrost and subsurface glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez de Pablo, M. A.; Ramos, M.; Vieira, G.; Gilichinsky, D.; Gómez, F.; Molina, A.; Segovia, R.

    2009-04-01

    The existence of permafrost on Mars was widely studied since Viking era and its presence is fundamental in the understanding of the water-cycle, the geological history of Mars, and the evolution of the martian hydrosphere. Viking, MOC, THEMIS, HRSC and HiRISE images allowed increase our knowledge about the role of ice on the martian landscapes. Polygonal terrains, glacial-like features, "basketball terrain" or pingos are some of the landforms that reveal the existence of frozen ice near the surface and in the ground forming the martian permafrost on present, recent or ancient times. The field observations and analyses done by Phoenix mission seem to confirm the existence of the martian permafrost hypothesized by the analyses of the images acquired by the previous missions to Mars. Moreover, the recent interpretations of the (RADAR) sensor on board of MRO mission also revealed that the surface of Mars seems to cover an important volume of ice forming glaciers covered by different materials. Here we propose the study of the glaciers and permafrost of Deception Island (Antarctica) such as a terrestrial analogue of the glaciers and permafrost of Mars. This active volcanic island is an exceptional site to study the permafrost since the climatic conditions maintain the surface covered by the ice and snow during the main part of the year. This characteristic allows the existence of an important permafrost layer also during the summer, and permanent glaciers in the higher part of the island. In addition, Deception Island is an active volcano. Some of the glaciers are covered by the ash and tephra what made difficult to distinguish between the covered glacier and the permafrost. The eruptive volcanic materials could have similar characteristics than some martian regolith by lithology, granulometry and texture. In this way, the study of the permafrost and glaciers in Deception Island could help to understand the martian permafrost and glaciers at present. On the other hand

  11. Spatial and temporal evolution of Pine Island Glacier thinning, 1995-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingham, D. J.; Wallis, D. W.; Shepherd, A.

    2009-09-01

    We use ERS-2 and ENVISAT satellite radar altimetry to examine spatial and temporal changes in the rate of thinning of the Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, during the period 1995 to 2006. We show that the pattern of thinning has both accelerated and spread inland to encompass tributaries flowing into the central trunk of the glacier. Within the 5,400 km2 central trunk, the average rate of volume loss quadrupled from 2.6 ± 0.3 km3 yr-1 in 1995 to 10.1 ± 0.3 km3 yr-1 in 2006. The region of lightly grounded ice at the glacier terminus is extending upstream, and the changes inland are consistent with the effects of a prolonged disturbance to the ice flow, such as the effects of ocean-driven melting. If the acceleration continues at its present rate, the main trunk of PIG will be afloat within some 100 years, six times sooner than anticipated.

  12. A new glacier inventory on southern Baffin Island, Canada, from ASTER data: I. Methods, challenges and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, F.; Paul, F.

    2009-04-01

    According to recent climate scenarios, the Arctic regions will experience a particular strong increase in temperature in the coming decades. Thus, the strongly glacierized Canadian Arctic could then greatly contribute to global sea level rise. For a quantitative assessment of overall changes a glacier inventory based on vector outlines is required. This is lacking in many remote areas, or, in the case of Baffin Island, it has been made but the data have not been forwarded to the world data centres. Within the framework of the GLIMS initiative and the GlobGlacier project we used multispectral satellite data in combination with DEM information to map and inventory glaciers and icecaps for the southern part of Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island (Canada), with automated techniques. In this study two ASTER scenes from August 2000 are used for DEM generation and mapping of recent glacier outlines and LIA trimlines to generate detailed glacier inventory data. Additionally a change assessment with the freely available Landsat MSS (1975) and TM (1990) scenes from the GLCF has been made. The study is separated in two parts: In the first part the applied methods and the encountered challenges are described and discussed. The results of the new inventory, the change assessment and application of the obtained data are presented in part II. A major aim of both contributions is also to discuss common standards for glacier mapping and inventory data creation. In part I the extraction of the DEM from ASTER, its accuracy, regions of error, fields of application and possible corrections are discussed. We further describe the mapping of glacier outlines from MSS, TM and ASTER which have varying resolution and spectral bands. The required manual correction of the generated glacier outlines (debris, water, snow and shadow) and the challenges that have to be considered in this region are presented as well. A major and at the same time critical part is the delineation of glacier basins

  13. Constraining the recent mass balance of Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers, West Antarctica, with airborne observations of snow accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medley, B.; Joughin, I.; Smith, B. E.; Das, S. B.; Steig, E. J.; Conway, H.; Gogineni, S.; Lewis, C.; Criscitiello, A. S.; McConnell, J. R.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Bromwich, D. H.; Nicolas, J. P.; Leuschen, C.

    2014-07-01

    In Antarctica, uncertainties in mass input and output translate directly into uncertainty in glacier mass balance and thus in sea level impact. While remotely sensed observations of ice velocity and thickness over the major outlet glaciers have improved our understanding of ice loss to the ocean, snow accumulation over the vast Antarctic interior remains largely unmeasured. Here, we show that an airborne radar system, combined with ice-core glaciochemical analysis, provide the means necessary to measure the accumulation rate at the catchment-scale along the Amundsen Sea coast of West Antarctica. We used along-track radar-derived accumulation to generate a 1985-2009 average accumulation grid that resolves moderate- to large-scale features (>25 km) over the Pine Island-Thwaites glacier drainage system. Comparisons with estimates from atmospheric models and gridded climatologies generally show our results as having less accumulation in the lower-elevation coastal zone but greater accumulation in the interior. Ice discharge, measured over discrete time intervals between 1994 and 2012, combined with our catchment-wide accumulation rates provide an 18-year mass balance history for the sector. While Thwaites Glacier lost the most ice in the mid-1990s, Pine Island Glacier's losses increased substantially by 2006, overtaking Thwaites as the largest regional contributor to sea-level rise. The trend of increasing discharge for both glaciers, however, appears to have leveled off since 2008.

  14. Constraining the recent mass balance of Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers, West Antarctica with airborne observations of snow accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medley, B.; Joughin, I.; Smith, B. E.; Das, S. B.; Steig, E. J.; Conway, H.; Gogineni, S.; Lewis, C.; Criscitiello, A. S.; McConnell, J. R.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Bromwich, D. H.; Nicolas, J. P.; Leuschen, C.

    2014-02-01

    In Antarctica, uncertainties in mass input and output translate directly into uncertainty in glacier mass balance and thus in sea level impact. While remotely sensed observations of ice velocity and thickness over the major outlet glaciers have improved our understanding of ice loss to the ocean, snow accumulation over the vast Antarctic interior remains largely unmeasured. Here, we show that an airborne radar system, combined with ice-core glaciochemical analysis, provide the means necessary to measure the accumulation rate at the catchment-scale along the Amundsen Sea Coast of West Antarctica. We used along-track radar-derived accumulation to generate a 1985-2009 average accumulation grid that resolves moderate- to large-scale features (> 25 km) over the Pine Island-Thwaites glacier drainage system. Comparisons with estimates from atmospheric models and gridded climatologies generally show our results as having less accumulation in lower-elevation coastal zone but greater accumulation in the interior. Ice discharge, measured over discrete time intervals between 1994 and 2012, combined with our catchment-wide accumulation rates provide an 18 yr mass balance history for the sector. While Thwaites Glacier lost the most ice in the mid-1990s, Pine Island Glacier's losses increased substantially by 2006, overtaking Thwaites as the largest regional contributor to sea-level rise. The trend of increasing discharge for both glaciers, however, appears to have leveled off since 2008.

  15. Modeling the response of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, to external forcings for the next 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seroussi, H. L.; Morlighem, M.; Larour, E. Y.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.; Khazendar, A.

    2012-12-01

    Pine Island Glacier experienced spectacular changes over the past decades. This glacier has been thinning and accelerating since the 1970's at least and its grounding line has been retreating inland at a rate of about 1 km/yr. Initiation of these changes is usually attributed to warmer ocean waters in the Amundsen Sea affecting the floating part of Pine Island. By buttressing grounded ice flow and controlling the discharge of inland ice to the ocean, the ice shelf of Pine Island plays a major role in the stability of the glacier. Interactions between the ice shelf and ice stream remain poorly understood, which limits the ability to predict the future evolution of major outlet glaciers and ice streams and their contribution to sea level rise. We use the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) and a three-dimensional higher-order model to simulate the evolution of the glacier for the next fifty years and assess the effect of changes in several climate forcings and model parameters, namely basal melting under the floating part, ice front position, atmospheric conditions and grounding line retreat. Simulation results show the dominant effect of basal melting and of grounding line retreat. Results also show that changes are not limited to the ice shelf and the grounding line area but propagate far inland, almost to the ice divide. We find that enhanced basal melting or grounding line retreat are each associated with a distinct pattern of ice thinning and acceleration. We compare the simulation results with remote sensing observations of velocity changes and grounding line evolution to elucidate which forcing is more likely to have caused the recent acceleration of Pine Island Glacier. In general, our simulations indicate that Pine Island Glacier has much potential to continue changing over the coming years. This work was performed at the University of California Irvine and the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National

  16. Sensitivity of 21st century sea level to ocean-induced thinning of Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joughin, Ian; Smith, Benjamin E.; Holland, David M.

    2010-10-01

    Pine Island Glacier (PIG), Antarctica, is rapidly losing mass, supporting arguments that it may play a major role in 21st century sea-level rise. Yet this glacier's quantitative contribution to sea level based on theoretical and computational models is poorly known. We have developed a basin-scale glaciological model to examine the sensitivity of PIG to a range of environmental forcings. While oceanic melt likely played the leading role in recent thinning and retreat, we find that the particular grounding-line geometry with an extended ice plain in the 1990s made it susceptible to such forcing. Our model further indicates that while the rate of grounding-line retreat should diminish soon, the glacier's mass loss may continue at rates similar to, or moderately elevated from, the present. While substantial, our model-derived maximum rate of 2.7 cm/century is considerably smaller than previous heuristically-derived bounds on the sea-level contribution.

  17. Hydrology, microbiology and carbon cycling at a high Arctic polythermal glacier, (John Evans Glacier, Ellesmere Island, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, Mark Leslie

    Analysis of the hydrology, hydrochemistry and microbiology at polythermal John Evans Glacier and geochemical and isotopic data from Haut Glacier d'Arolla demonstrates that certain subglacial chemical weathering processes are microbially mediated. Subglacial drainage is likely an annual occurrence beneath John Evans Glacier and solute rich subglacial waters indicate over winter storage at the glacier bed. Subglacial microbial populations are also present, and are viable under simulated near in situ conditions at 0.3°C. This suggests that temperate subglacial environments at a polythermal glacier, which are isolated by cold ice above and around them, provide a viable habitat for life where basal water and organic carbon are present throughout the year. Thus, a subglacial microbial ecosystem based upon legacy carbon, (from old soils or surface inputs) rather than primary production may exist, where redox processes are a key component, and seasonal anoxia may occur. The existence of anoxic environments is supported by the presence of strictly anaerobic bacteria (sulphate reducing bacteria and methanogens) in the basal sediments---which are viable in culture at 4°C---and also argues that these bacteria are not washed in with oxygenated surface meltwaters, but are present in the subglacial environment. During the summer meltseason there is a large input of surficial waters to the subglacial system and water residence times are drastically reduced. Hence, kinetic weathering processes dominate, resulting in light delta 13C-DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) in glacial runoff, as verified by experimental work on CaCO3 and John Evans Glacier sediments. The experiments demonstrate kinetic bedrock fractionation (KBF) during carbonate hydrolysis and that kinetic fractionation of CO2 (KFC) is proportional to the rate of CO2 draw down during the carbonation of carbonates. This results in significantly depleted delta13C-DIC values (≤-16 ‰) relative to the bedrock carbonate

  18. The influence of air temperature inversions on snowmelt and glacier mass-balance simulations, Ammassalik island, SE Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Liston, Glen

    2009-01-01

    In many applications, a realistic description of air temperature inversions is essential for accurate snow and glacier ice melt, and glacier mass-balance simulations. A physically based snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) was used to simulate eight years (1998/99 to 2005/06) of snow accumulation and snow and glacier ice ablation from numerous small coastal marginal glaciers on the SW-part of Ammassalik Island in SE Greenland. These glaciers are regularly influenced by inversions and sea breezes associated with the adjacent relatively low temperature and frequently ice-choked fjords and ocean. To account for the influence of these inversions on the spatiotemporal variation of air temperature and snow and glacier melt rates, temperature inversion routines were added to MircoMet, the meteorological distribution sub-model used in SnowModel. The inversions were observed and modeled to occur during 84% of the simulation period. Modeled inversions were defined not to occur during days with strong winds and high precipitation rates due to the potential of inversion break-up. Field observations showed inversions to extend from sea level to approximately 300 m a.s.l., and this inversion level was prescribed in the model simulations. Simulations with and without the inversion routines were compared. The inversion model produced air temperature distributions with warmer lower elevation areas and cooler higher elevation areas than without inversion routines due to the use of cold sea-breeze base temperature data from underneath the inversion. This yielded an up to 2 weeks earlier snowmelt in the lower areas and up to 1 to 3 weeks later snowmelt in the higher elevation areas of the simulation domain. Averaged mean annual modeled surface mass-balance for all glaciers (mainly located above the inversion layer) was -720 {+-} 620 mm w.eq. y{sup -1} for inversion simulations, and -880 {+-} 620 mm w.eq. y{sup -1} without the inversion routines, a difference of 160 mm w.eq. y

  19. Mounting evidence for intense ocean interaction with the Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindschadler, R.; Holland, D.; Vaughan, D.; Vornberger, P.

    2008-12-01

    The spatial signature of thinning and acceleration of the Pine Island Glacier has led to the inference that these changes originate at the seaward end of the glacier, possibly within or under the ice shelf (Payne et al., 2004; Shepherd et al., 2004). We present new analyses resulting from both new and archived satellite imagery of the ice shelf that supports this inference and provides new insights into strong seasonal and intra- annual characters of ocean-ice shelf interaction. Strong longitudinal variations in both thickness and surface elevation measured by British Antarctic Survey airborne radars (Vaughan et al., 2006) have wavelengths that correspond roughly to the annual motion of the ice shelf. These could be caused by seasonal variations in flow speed, but such variations of flow speed have never been reported and are not seen in the most recent continuous GPS observations of the ice shelf. We suggest that these strong variations in ice thickness, as large as 200 meters in an average thickness of 600 meters, are caused by seasonal variations in the properties of the water circulating underneath the ice shelf. One likely explanation is that the dominant water mass reaching the deepest parts of the ice shelf alternates between cold High Salinity Shelf Water in the winter and warm Circumpolar Deep Water in the summer. Evidence for recent strengthening of the sub- shelf circulation is the sudden occurrence of three persistent polynyas immediately adjacent to the ice front. These are located in precisely the locations expected from modeled sub-shelf circulation (Payne et al., 2007). This mode was never observed in any satellite imagery prior to the 1999-2000 austral summer (data of 7 summers since 1973 were available), but has occurred in 7 of the 9 summers since and persists throughout the summer. Payne, A.J., A. Vieli, A.P. Shepherd, D.J. Wingham and E. Rignot, 2004. Recent dramatic thinning of largest West Antarctic ice stream triggered by oceans, Geophysical

  20. Variability of Basal Melt Beneath the Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf, West Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert; Vaughan, David G.; Vornberger, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Observations from satellite and airborne platforms are combined with model calculations to infer the nature and efficiency of basal melting of the Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, West Antarctica, by ocean waters. Satellite imagery shows surface features that suggest ice-shelf-wide changes to the ocean s influence on the ice shelf as the grounding line retreated. Longitudinal profiles of ice surface and bottom elevations are analyzed to reveal a spatially dependent pattern of basal melt with an annual melt flux of 40.5 Gt/a. One profile captures a persistent set of surface waves that correlates with quasi-annual variations of atmospheric forcing of Amundsen Sea circulation patterns, establishing a direct connection between atmospheric variability and sub-ice-shelf melting. Ice surface troughs are hydrostatically compensated by ice-bottom voids up to 150m deep. Voids form dynamically at the grounding line, triggered by enhanced melting when warmer-than-average water arrives. Subsequent enlargement of the voids is thermally inefficient (4% or less) compared with an overall melting efficiency beneath the ice shelf of 22%. Residual warm water is believed to cause three persistent polynyas at the ice-shelf front seen in Landsat imagery. Landsat thermal imagery confirms the occurrence of warm water at the same locations.

  1. Dropping aircraft-deployable GPS stations on Scar Inlet and Pine Island Glacier.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmar Gudmundsson, G.; Jones, David

    2013-04-01

    There remains areas of scientific interest that heavy crevassing makes difficult or impossible to reach by ground via overland treks or an aircraft landing. We have developed an alternative strategy for instrumenting these regions: a sensor probe that can be dropped from an aircraft, partially bury itself in the snow whilst keeping its antennas protruding high above the surface to ensure a long operating life. Our probe has a 2.5m, 10kg missile-shaped design and can be deployed through a standard sonar-buoy launch tube. In order to achieve a consistent impact depth in different snow densities the case is fitted with fold-out fins one metre from the nose cone. This ensures a large step-change in impact surface area when the device is embedded to the correct depth. A small disk-gap-band parachute improves the angle of impact while damping any probe oscillations. We are now able to achieve near-vertical impact angles and a consistent snow penetration depth of one metre. The sensor is cheap to make (approximately £1000) and has a minimal environmental impact. This year we have used a large network of these sensors to instrument previously inaccessible parts of Scar Inlet and Pine Island Glacier.

  2. Coupled ice shelf-ocean modeling and complex grounding line retreat for Pine Island Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rydt, Jan; Gudmundsson, Hilmar

    2016-04-01

    Recent observations and modeling work have shown a complex mechanical coupling between Antarctica's floating ice shelves and the adjacent grounded ice sheet. A prime example is Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, which has a strong negative mass balance caused by a recent increase in ocean-induced melting of its ice shelf. The mass loss coincides with the retreat of the grounding line from a seabed ridge, on which it was at least partly grounded until the 1970s. At present, it is unclear what has caused the onset of this retreat, and how feedback mechanisms between the ocean and iceshelf geometry have influenced the ice dynamics. To address these questions, we present results from an offline coupling between a state-of-the-art shallow-ice flow model with grounding line resolving capabilities, and a three-dimensional ocean general circulation model with a static implementation of the ice shelf. A series of idealized experiments simulate the retreat from a seabed ridge in response to changes in the ocean forcing, and we show that the retreat becomes irreversible after 20 years of warm ocean conditions. A comparison to experiments with a simple depth-dependent meltrate parameterisation demonstrates that such parameterizations are unable to capture the details of the retreat process, and they overestimate mass loss by more than 40% over a 50-year timescale.

  3. Impact of local winter cooling on the melt of Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Laurent, P.; Klinck, J. M.; Dinniman, M. S.

    2015-10-01

    The rapid thinning of the ice shelves in the Amundsen Sea is generally attributed to basal melt driven by warm water originating from the continental slope. We examine the hypothesis that processes taking place on the continental shelf contribute significantly to the interannual variability of the ocean heat content and ice shelf melt rates. A numerical model is used to simulate the circulation of ocean heat and the melt of the ice shelves over the period 2006-2013. The fine model grid (grid spacing 1.5 km) explicitly resolves the coastal polynyas and mesoscale processes. The ocean heat content of the eastern continental shelf exhibits recurrent decreases around September with a magnitude that varies from year to year. The heat loss is primarily caused by surface heat fluxes along the eastern shore in areas of low ice concentration (polynyas). The cold winter water intrudes underneath the ice shelves and reduces the basal melt rates. Ocean temperatures upstream (i.e., at the shelf break) are largely constant over the year and cannot account for the cold events. The cooling is particularly marked in 2012 and its effect on the ocean heat content remains visible over the following years. The study suggests that ocean-atmosphere interactions in coastal polynyas contribute to the interannual variability of the melt of Pine Island Glacier.

  4. Age and significance of former low-altitude corrie glaciers on Hoy, Orkney Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballantyne, C.K.; Hall, A.M.; Phillips, W.; Binnie, S.; Kubik, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    Geomorphological mapping provides evidence for two former low-level corrie glaciers on Hoy, both defined by end moraines. Five 10Be exposure ages obtained from sandstone boulders on moraine crests fall within the range 12.4??1.5 ka to 10.4??1.7 ka (weighted mean 11.7??0.6 ka), confirming that these glaciers developed during the Loch Lomond (Younger Dryas) Stade (LLS) of 12.9-11.5 cal. ka BP, and demonstrate the feasibility of using this approach to establish the age of LLS glacier limits. The equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of one of the glaciers (99 m) is the lowest recorded for any LLS glacier, and the area-weighted mean ELA for both (141 m) is consistent with a general northward ELA decrease along the west coast of Britain. The size of moraines fronting these small (???0.75 km2) glaciers implies that glacier termini remained at or close to their limits for a prolonged period. The apparent restriction of LLS glaciers to only two sites on Hoy probably reflects topographic favourability, and particularly the extent of snow-contributing areas.

  5. New surface-based observations of the environment beneath Pine Island Glacier ice shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindschadler, Robert; Truffer, Martin; Stanton, Tim; Peters, Leo; Shortt, Mike; Pomraning, Dale; Stockel, Jim; Shaw, Bill; Steinarson, Einar; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Wilson, Kiya; Holland, David; Bushuk, Mitch; Behar, Alberto; Cocaud, Cedric; Stam, Christina

    2013-04-01

    Extensive surface, sub-shelf cavity and seabed observations of the Pine Island Glacier (PIG) ice shelf environment were collected by a surface field team during the 2012-13 austral summer. Three sites aligned along a central, flow-aligned surface valley were occupied for about one week each during which two hot-water holes were drilled at each site. In one hole, a mast-mounted set of oceanographic sensors recorded water temperature, current and salinity in the few meters immediately below the ice-shelf bottom. In the other hole, a similarly instrumented profiler was deployed to make quasi-daily vertical transects of the sub-shelf cavity by rising and sinking along a cable suspended in the cavity. These instruments are already returning data that provide direct rates of heat and momentum transfer in the boundary layer, basal melt rates and the temporal variation of water movements on daily and longer time scales. Shallow cores of the sea bed and a photographic record of the drill holes, ocean cavity and sea bed were also collected at two of the drill sites. The geophysics program was spatially much broader and consisted of phase-sensitive radars to measure basal melt rates and active seismic instrumentation to explore the character of the sea bed. Continuous profiling between the drill sites established the previously discovered ("Autosub") sea bed ridge is asymmetric with a steeper downstream face. Spot measurements upstream of the drill sites were reached by helicopter and refined the shape of the ocean cavity where extensive melt rates were measured. The field work is concluding as this abstract is being submitted, so most results are not yet available, but will be included in the presentation as first results emerge.

  6. Subglacial melt channels and fracture in the floating part of Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, David G.; Corr, Hugh F. J.; Bindschadler, Robert A.; Dutrieux, Pierre; Gudmundsson, G. Hilmar; Jenkins, Adrian; Newman, Thomas; Vornberger, Patricia; Wingham, Duncan J.

    2012-09-01

    A dense grid of ice-penetrating radar sections acquired over Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica has revealed a network of sinuous subglacial channels, typically 500 m to 3 km wide, and up to 200 m high, in the ice-shelf base. These subglacial channels develop while the ice is floating and result from melting at the base of the ice shelf. Above the apex of most channels, the radar shows isolated reflections from within the ice shelf. Comparison of the radar data with acoustic data obtained using an autonomous submersible, confirms that these echoes arise from open basal crevasses 50-100 m wide aligned with the subglacial channels and penetrating up to 1/3 of the ice thickness. Analogous sets of surface crevasses appear on the ridges between the basal channels. We suggest that both sets of crevasses were formed during the melting of the subglacial channels as a response to vertical flexing of the ice shelf toward the hydrostatic condition. Finite element modeling of stresses produced after the formation of idealized basal channels indicates that the stresses generated have the correct pattern and, if the channels were formed sufficiently rapidly, would have sufficient magnitude to explain the formation of the observed basal and surface crevasse sets. We conclude that ice-shelf basal melting plays a role in determining patterns of surface and basal crevassing. Increased delivery of warm ocean water into the sub-ice shelf cavity may therefore cause not only thinning but also structural weakening of the ice shelf, perhaps, as a prelude to eventual collapse.

  7. Autonomous ocean observations beneath Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrieux, P.; Jenkins, A.; Jacobs, S.; Heywood, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Warm circumpolar deep water reaching 3.5ºC above the in situ freezing point pervasively fills a network of glacially carved troughs in the Amundsen sea, West Antarctica, and melts and thins neighbouring ice shelves, including Pine Island glacier Ice Shelf (PIIS). Hydrographic, current, and microstructure observations obtained in austral summer 2009 and 2014 by an autonomous underwater vehicle beneath the PIIS are used here to detail the complex ice-ocean interaction and resulting ocean circulation. The theoretical schematic of deeply incoming warm and saline water melting the grounding line and generating a buoyant plume upwelling along the ice draft is generally consistent with observations. The cavity beneath PIIS is clearly divided in two by a seabed ridge, constraining the oceanic circulation and water masses distribution. On the seaward side of the ridge, a thick warm deep water layer circulates cyclonically and is overlaid by a thin meltwater layer. Only intermediate depth waters are allowed to overflow from the ridge top into the inner cavity, where a much thinner warm water layer is now overlaid by a thicker meltwater layer. At the ice/ocean interface, melt induced freshening is forcing an upwelling which in turn injects cyclonic vorticity and participates in creating a vigorous cyclonic recirculation in the inner cavity. The top of the ridge, where warm waters overflow in the inner cavity, is a dynamical boundary characterized by northward along-ridge currents up to 0.2 m/s and enhanced shear, thermal gradient, and mixing. Observations at two points at the ice interface indicate that the ocean remains stratified within 2 meters of the ice.

  8. A cosmogenic 3He chronology of late Quaternary glacier fluctuations in North Island, New Zealand (39°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaves, Shaun R.; N. Mackintosh, Andrew; Winckler, Gisela; Schaefer, Joerg M.; Alloway, Brent V.; Townsend, Dougal B.

    2016-01-01

    Mountain glaciers advance and retreat primarily in response to changes in climate. Establishing the timing and magnitude of mountain glacier fluctuations from geological records can thus help to identify the drivers and mechanisms of past climate change. In this study, we use cosmogenic 3He surface exposure dating and tephrochronology to constrain the timing of past glaciation on Tongariro massif in central North Island, New Zealand (39°S). Exposure ages from moraine boulders show that valley glaciation persisted between c. 30-18 ka, which coincides with the global Last Glacial Maximum. Reinterpretation of moraine tephrostratigraphy, using major element geochemistry analysis, shows that ice retreat and climatic amelioration at the last glacial termination was well underway prior to 14 ka. The equilibrium line altitude in central North Island, during the Last Glacial Maximum, was c. 1400-1550 m above sea level, which is c. 930-1080 m lower than present. Considering the uncertainties in the glacial reconstruction and temperature lapse rates, we estimate that this equilibrium line altitude lowering equates to a temperature depression of 5.6 ± 1.1 °C, relative to present. Our mapping and surface exposure dating also show evidence for an earlier period of glaciation, of similar magnitude to the Last Glacial Maximum, which culminated prior to 57 ka, probably during Marine Isotope Stage 4. Good agreement between the timing and magnitude of glacier fluctuations in central North Island and the Southern Alps indicate a response to a common climatic forcing during the last glacial cycle.

  9. Seabed corrugations beneath an Antarctic ice shelf revealed by autonomous underwater vehicle survey: Origin and implications for the history of Pine Island Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Alastair G. C.; Dutrieux, Pierre; Vaughan, David G.; Nitsche, Frank O.; Gyllencreutz, Richard; Greenwood, Sarah L.; Larter, Robert D.; Jenkins, Adrian

    2013-09-01

    Ice shelves are critical features in the debate about West Antarctic ice sheet change and sea level rise, both because they limit ice discharge and because they are sensitive to change in the surrounding ocean. The Pine Island Glacier ice shelf has been thinning rapidly since at least the early 1990s, which has caused its trunk to accelerate and retreat. Although the ice shelf front has remained stable for the past six decades, past periods of ice shelf collapse have been inferred from relict seabed "corrugations" (corrugated ridges), preserved 340 km from the glacier in Pine Island Trough. Here we present high-resolution bathymetry gathered by an autonomous underwater vehicle operating beneath an Antarctic ice shelf, which provides evidence of long-term change in Pine Island Glacier. Corrugations and ploughmarks on a sub-ice shelf ridge that was a former grounding line closely resemble those observed offshore, interpreted previously as the result of iceberg grounding. The same interpretation here would indicate a significantly reduced ice shelf extent within the last 11 kyr, implying Holocene glacier retreat beyond present limits, or a past tidewater glacier regime different from today. The alternative, that corrugations were not formed in open water, would question ice shelf collapse events interpreted from the geological record, revealing detail of another bed-shaping process occurring at glacier margins. We assess hypotheses for corrugation formation and suggest periodic grounding of ice shelf keels during glacier unpinning as a viable origin. This interpretation requires neither loss of the ice shelf nor glacier retreat and is consistent with a "stable" grounding-line configuration throughout the Holocene.

  10. The influence of shear bands on the grounding line retreat in Pine Island Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, Lionel; Durand, Gaël; Cornford, Stephen; Gagliardini, Olivier; Zwinger, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Pine Island Glacier (PIG), West Antarctica, is known as the weak underbelly of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. During the last 30 years, it has undergone a dramatic acceleration along with a retreat of its grounding line. The main ice stream draining PIG is laterally bounded by two thin bands of damaged ice. These shear bands may play a key role in the dynamics of the grounding line since they likely decrease the ice-shelf buttressing. The traditional approach is generally to infer the viscosity from surface velocity using data assimilation methods. However, in that case the inverse problem is under-constrained when it is coupled to the inversion of basal drag: different set of basal drag and viscosity pattern solution can lead to a good match between modelled and observed surface velocities, but would lead to different prognostic solutions associated to different grounding line migrations. Here, we follow a simpler approach and perform a sensitivity study on the shear bands effective viscosity, and its consequences for the ice dynamics. The areas of fractured ice at PIG are located using a recent SPOT satellite image. The non-fractured ice viscosity depends on ice temperatures while the fractured ice viscosity is decreased through a sensitivity study to reproduce the damaged ice of the shear bands. Using two different higher-order models (Elmer/Ice and BISICLES), we investigate the influence of the shear bands' damage on the grounding line dynamics. Each experiment in the sensitivity study gathers successively (i) the determination of basal drag through assimilation methods, (ii) a geometry relaxation over 15 years and (iii) transient perturbation experiments driven by different calving sizes. The initial geometry of the ice sheet arises from the ALBMAP data set on a 1 km grid resolution, velocities were acquired during the last International polar Year, and non-fractured ice viscosities are deduced from prescribed temperatures computed with a higher order model. We

  11. Mass budget of Queen Elizabeth Islands glaciers and ice caps, Canada, from 1992 to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millan, R.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate to say that the Canadian Artic Archipelago's mass loss has increased in recent years. However the role of ice dynamics changes in this area is not well known. In this study, we present a comprehensive velocity mapping of the CAA using ALOS/PALSAR, RADARSAT-1, ERS1 and Landsat data between 1992 and 2015. Glaciers speed are calculated using a speckle and feature tracking algorithm.The results reveals that three large marine-terminating glaciers have accelerated significantly after 2010, while most others have slowed down or retreated to a sill to become similar to land-terminating glaciers. By combining the velocities of these glaciers with ice thickness measurements from NASA's Operation IceBridge, we calculate their ice discharge. The fluxes of these glaciers increased significantly since 2000 with a marked increase after 2011. The comparison of ice discharge with the surface mass balance from RACMO-2, shows that these glaciers came out of balance after 2011, which is also a time period where their discharge almost doubled. The analysis of RACMO-2 reveals an increase in runoff between 1970's and today and a precipitation with no significant trend. We digitalize the calving front positions of the glaciers and show an increasing rate retreat since 1976. We conclude that global pattern of velocity changes shows that the mass losses due to surface mass balance will likely going to raise in the coming years and that ice discharge will have a smaller part in the contribution of the CAA to sea level rise.

  12. Influence of Subglacial Conditions on Ice Stream Dynamics: Seismic and Potential Field Data from Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. M.; Jordan, T. A.; Ferraccioli, F.; Bingham, R. G.

    2012-12-01

    A synthesis of geophysical and glaciological data sets are used to investigate the relationship between ice dynamics and the underlying geology on Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica. We find correlations between subglacial geology and the variability in the flow of the overlying ice. Seismic reflection amplitude analysis shows a layer of soft water-saturated sediment immediately beneath the ice. Beneath this, gravity and magnetic data indicate harder rocks containing a significant geological boundary, aligned in the ice-flow direction. Crossing this boundary, the ice velocity decreases whilst bed roughness and modeled basal drag both increase. The acoustic impedance of the soft sediments at the ice-bed interface shows no significant change across the boundary. The smoother glacier bed, overlying thicker sediments, appears to facilitate the fastest flow. Where the bed is rougher, the soft sediment layer beneath the ice is very thin and overlies basement rocks. We propose that the rough surface of the basement rocks beneath this thin sediment increases the basal drag on the ice, through the intervening soft sediment, without a detectable influence on the sediment's acoustic properties. Changes in the sub-bed (i.e. deeper than the ice-bed interface) lithology appear to account for the contrasting basal drag and ice velocity patterns over the glacier. Subglacial erosion could soon remove the thin sediment layer leading to increased basal drag and reduced ice flow in the future. We conclude that the subglacial geology plays a significant role in controlling the spatial pattern of present-day ice flow and that the consequences of subglacial erosion may be reflected in temporal changes to the ice dynamics in the past and perhaps also in the near future. Schematic of synthesized subglacial interpretation from the area of the seismic surveys. Arrow lengths for ice velocity and basal drag indicate relative magnitudes.

  13. Helicopter-borne and ground-towed radar surveys of the Fourcade Glacier on King George Island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. Y.; Lee, J.; Hong, M. H.; Hong, J. K.; Shon, H.

    2010-02-01

    To determine subglacial topography and internal features of the Fourcade Glacier on King George Island in Antarctica, helicopter-borne and ground-towed ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data were recorded along four profiles in November 2006. Signature deconvolution, f-k migration velocity analysis, and finite-difference depth migration applied to the mixed-phase, single-channel, ground-towed data, were effective in increasing vertical resolution, obtaining the velocity function, and yielding clear depth images, respectively. For the helicopter-borne GPR, migration velocities were obtained as root-mean-squared velocities in a two-layer model of air and ice. The radar sections show rugged subglacial topography, englacial sliding surfaces, and localised scattering noise. The maximum depth to the basement is over 79m in the subglacial valley adjacent to the south-eastern slope of the divide ridge between Fourcade and Moczydlowski Glaciers. In the ground-towed profile, we interpret a complicated conduit above possible basal water and other isolated cavities, which are a few metres wide. Near the terminus, the GPR profiles image sliding surfaces, fractures, and faults that will contribute to the tidewater calving mechanism forming icebergs in Potter Cove.

  14. Rifting and Calving Event in 2015 at Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, Associated with Frontal and Basal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S.; Howat, I. M.; Bassis, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    Calving is a process that glacier loses its mass by full-thickness penetration of crevasses (i.e. rifting), followed by separation of iceberg from the terminus. Pine Island Glacier (PIG) in West Antarctica has undergone several major calving events including those in 2001, 2007 and 2013. All of them have started from rifting at its shear margin, growing toward the center of the ice shelf, and finally reaching the margin at the other end. However, recent observation of PIG from remote sensing data affirms unprecedented pattern of rifting, that the rifts start to grow at the center of the ice shelf and expanding to the each ends of the shear margin. Moreover, this evolution was accompanied with incessant disintegration of ice melange (mixture of small icebergs and sea ice) filling the shear margin around the terminus. We found from Landsat 8 images that those rifts start from the troughs transverse to the ice shelf, which are surface features of basal crevasses (i.e. cracks at the bottom of ice shelf). We also analyzed velocity fields of PIG's flow and confirmed that its change is consistent with the rifting and melange loss. We postulate this rifting event attributes to the associated effects of reduced resistant force by melange disintegration, and expedited erosion of basal crevasses that causes the tensile stress to concentrate. As both of them are closely related to ocean forcing, we also hypothesize that warmer ocean current under the ice shelf has triggered this new mode of rifting and calving event.

  15. Calibrated prediction of Pine Island Glacier retreat during the 21st and 22nd centuries with a coupled flowline model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, Rupert M.; Lee, Victoria; Rougier, Jonathan; Payne, Antony J.; Hellmer, Hartmut; Le Brocq, Anne; Shepherd, Andrew; Edwards, Tamsin L.; Gregory, Jonathan; Cornford, Stephen L.

    2012-06-01

    A flowline ice sheet model is coupled to a box model for cavity circulation and configured for the Pine Island Glacier. An ensemble of 5000 simulations are carried out from 1900 to 2200 with varying inputs and parameters, forced by ocean temperatures predicted by a regional ocean model under the A1B ‘business as usual’ emissions scenario. Comparison is made against recent observations to provide a calibrated prediction in the form of a 95% confidence set. Predictions are for monotonic (apart from some small scale fluctuations in a minority of cases) retreat of the grounding line over the next 200 yr with huge uncertainty in the rate of retreat. Full collapse of the main trunk of the PIG during the 22nd century remains a possibility.

  16. Ice marginal dynamics during surge activity, Kuannersuit Glacier, Disko Island, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, David H.; Yde, Jacob C.; Knudsen, N. Tvis; Long, Antony J.; Lloyd, Jerry M.

    2009-02-01

    The Kuannersuit Glacier surged 11 km between 1995 and 1998. The surge resulted in the formation of an ice cored thrust moraine complex constructed by subglacial and proglacial glaciotectonic processes. Four main thrust zones are evident in the glacier snout area with phases of compressional folding and thrusting followed by hydrofracture in response to the build-up of compressional stresses and the aquicludal nature of submarginal permafrost and naled. Various types of stratified debris-rich ice facies occur within the marginal zone: The first (Facies I) comprises laterally continuous strata of ice with sorted sediment accumulations, and is reworked and thrust naled ice. The second is laterally discontinuous stratified debris-rich ice with distinct tectonic structures, and is derived through subglacial extensional deformation and localised regelation (Facies II), whilst the third type is characterised by reworked and brecciated ice associated with the reworking and entrainment of meteoric ice (Facies III). Hydrofracture dykes and sills (Facies IV) cross-cut the marginal ice cored thrust moraines, with their sub-vertically frozen internal contact boundaries and sedimentary structures, suggesting supercooling operated as high-pressure evacuation of water occurred during thrusting, but this is not related to the formation of basal stratified debris-rich ice. Linear distributions of sorted fines transverse to ice flow, and small stratified sediment ridges that vertically cross-cut the ice surface up-ice of the thrust zone relate to sediment migration along crevasse traces and fluvial infilling of crevasses. From a palaeoglaciological viewpoint, marginal glacier tectonics, ice sediment content and sediment delivery mechanisms combine to control the development of this polythermal surge valley landsystem. The bulldozing of proglacial sediments and the folding and thrusting of naled leads to the initial development of the outer zone of the moraine complex. This becomes

  17. Seasonal variation of meteorological variables and recent surface ablation / accumulation rates on Davies Dome and Whisky Glacier, James Ross Island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Láska, K.; Nývlt, D.; Engel, Z.; Budík, L.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, surface mass balance data of two glaciers on James Ross Island, Antarctica, and its spatial and temporal variations are evaluated using snow ablation stakes, ground-penetrating radar, and dGPS measurements. The investigated glaciers are located on the Ulu Peninsula, northern part of James Ross Island. Davies Dome is an ice dome, which originates on the surface of a flat volcanic mesa at elevations >400 m a.s.l. and terminates with a single 700 m wide outlet in the Whisky Bay. Davies Dome has an area of ~6.5 km2 and lies in the altitude range of 0-514 m a.s.l. Whisky Glacier is a cold-based land-terminating valley glacier surrounded by an extensive moraine ridges made of debris-covered ice. The glacier has an area of ~2.4 km2 and lies in the altitude range of 215-520 m a.s.l. Within several summer austral summers, extensive field programme were carried out on both glaciers including the operation of two automatic weather stations, field mapping and mass balance measurements. Each station was equipped with albedometer CM7B (Kipp-Zonen, Netherlands), air temperature and humidity sensor EMS33 (EMS, Czech Republic), propeller anemometer 05103 (Young, USA), and snow depth sensors (Judd, USA). In the period 2009-2011, high seasonal and interdiurnal variability of incoming solar radiation and near-surface air temperature was found as a result of changes in the circulation patterns and synoptic-scale weather systems moving in the Circumpolar Trough. High ablation and accumulation rates were recorded mainly in the spring and summer seasons (October-February), while negligible changes were found in winter (May-September). The effects of positive degree-day temperatures on the surface ablation rates were examined using a linear regression model. In this approach, near-surface air temperature maps on the glacier surfaces were derived from digital elevation model according to actual temperature lapse rates. Mass balance investigations started in 2006 on Davies

  18. Constraining the recent mass balance of Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers, West Antarctica with airborne observations of snow accumulation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medley, B.; Joughin, I. R.; Smith, B. E.; Das, S. B.; Steig, E. J.; Conway, H.; Gogineni, P. S.; Criscitiello, A. S.; McConnell, J. R.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Lenaerts, J.; Bromwich, D. H.; Nicolas, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    an ice core depth-age scale. From these measurements we investigate both the spatial and temporal variability in accumulation in this sector of West Antarctica as well as evaluate global and regional atmospheric model accumulation rate equivalents (i.e., precipitation minus sublimation, P-S; surface mass balance, SMB). First, we generate a spatially complete map of the 1985-2009 average annual accumulation over both Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers, which is used to precisely determine their recent mass balance. Next, we investigate the temporal variability and trend in annual accumulation rate, which is limited to Thwaites glacier. Finally, we assess the ability of three global reanalysis P-S products and a regional climate model (RACMO2) SMB product to reproduce the spatiotemporal accumulation variability over these glaciers. Accumulation rate measurements derived from airborne radar systems not only reduce the uncertainty in mass balance measurements but also provide the means with which to evaluate the skill of and discriminate between atmospheric models. New measurements from both Greenland and Antarctica as part of NASA's Operation IceBridge will further reduce our overall uncertainty in the glacial contribution to sea-level rise.

  19. Late Pleistocene ice-shelf, valley-glacier and ice-sheet interactions on Alexander Island, Antarctic Peninsula: implications for climatic and ice-volume changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Bethan; Hambrey, Michael; Glasser, Neil; Smellie, John; Carrivick, Jonathan; Bentley, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Recent rapid warming across the Antarctic Peninsula has resulted in ice-sheet thinning, dramatic ice-shelf collapse, acceleration of ice-flow velocities and widespread glacier recession. Reconstructing past rates, volumes and magnitudes of cryospheric change, particularly with respect to the former configuration of ice sheets and ice shelves, and their response to changing oceanic and climatic regimes, is vital in providing a context for this change, in order to improve predictions of future ice-sheet behaviour, and to provide glacio-isostatic adjustment corrections for gravimetric measurements of contemporary ice loss. This research aimed to investigate valley glacier and ice-shelf interactions during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Holocene Epoch across George VI Sound and Alexander Island, western Antarctic Peninsula, an area with a well-preserved but poorly dated record. We identify four principal stratigraphic units: (1) a high-elevation drift with Alexander Island erratics only (interpreted as recording older advances of ice from the interior of the island), (2) a lower-elevation drift with exotic Palmer Land erratics (interpreted as ice-shelf moraine, representing incursions of George VI Ice Shelf onto Ablation Point Massif), (3) multiple overlapping sequences of valley glacier moraine and ice-shelf moraine, presumed to be Holocene in age, and (4) more recent processes and units, including frozen epishelf lakes, slope processes and alluvial fans. On-going cosmogenic nuclide dating on these sediments (in progress; 25 10Be exposure ages) has the potential to unlock the complex history and interactions of ice streams, valley glaciers and ice shelves in this area. This work will also provide the first long-term record of sea-level indicators, allowing the first estimates of glacial unloading, rates of uplift and ice-sheet thinning to be calculated. The Holocene record of the ice shelf, preserved in the younger ice-shelf moraines and in the overlapping

  20. The Friction Law Stress Exponent under Pine Island Glacier from 15 Years of Surface Elevation and Velocity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet-chaulet, F.; Durand, G.; Gagliardini, O.; Mosbeux, C.; Mouginot, J.; Remy, F.; Ritz, C.

    2015-12-01

    Polar the ice-sheets mass balance largely depends on the flow of ice-streams. Rapid basal motion generally accounts for most of the velocities. In flow models, the conditions at the base of the ice in contact with the bedrock are generally parameterised using a friction law that relates the sliding velocity to the basal shear stress. The most common law has two poorly constrained parameters, the basal slipperiness c and the stress exponent m. The basal slipperiness is expected to depend on local unobservable quantities and is routinely tuned from observed surface velocities using inverse methods. Different values for m are expected depending on the processes, from hard-bed sliding to soft bed deformation, and no consensus has emerged so far for its value that range from 1 to infinity. However, several studies have shown that the transient response of the ice-sheet models to external forcing is highly sensitive to m. Therefore, the uncertainty attached to the friction law is an important limit to our ability to evaluate future dynamical evolution of coastal regions. Calibrating m can be done only if either basal stresses and/or velocities have changed significantly while c can be assumed constant in time. Here, we use Elmer/Ice to model the flow of Pine Island Glacier (PIG), Antarctica, sufficiently far upstream of the grounding line so that we can assume no change in c. Observations show an increase of surface velocities by up to 50% between 1996 and 2010, associated with an important dynamical thinning. Using a control inverse method and different values of m, we tune a spatially varying basal slipperiness field that best fit, in the same time, observed surface velocities for years 1996, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010. These years correspond to the MeaSUREs project velocity datasets that have the best spatial coverage for our model domain. Surface elevations for the corresponding years are constructed using ERS and Envisat radar altimetry data. We show that the

  1. Sensitivity of Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers to ocean-induced melt investigated using a new physically-based melt parameterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmar Gudmundsson, G.; Jenkins, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Ongoing changes on both Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers are generally considered to be driven by ocean-induced melt along the undersides of their respective ice shelves. In ice-flow studies to date, melt has usually been prescribed using simple parametrisations that, for example, relate the melt rate directly to the ice draft. Alternatively, ocean circulation models can be used to calculate the melt distribution in a coupled approach. Such coupled ice-ocean model runs are however very time consuming and therefore not suitable for performing large-scale parameter studies. Here we present an alternative methodology that falls in-between these two approaches. We use a new, physically-based parametrisation of melt that has been derived from plume theory to link melt with the geometry of the ice shelf base and the ocean temperature. The sensitivities of Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers to ocean-induced melting are then estimated using the hybrid flow model Úa.

  2. Jakobshavn Glacier

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... Icebergs released from the glacier drift slowly with the ocean currents and pose hazards for shipping along the coast. The Multi-angle Imaging ... Glacier location:  Greenland Arctic Ocean thumbnail:  ...

  3. Columbia Glacier in 1984: disintegration underway

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, M.F.; Rasmussen, L.A.; Miller, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    Columbia Glacier is a large, iceberg-calving glacier near Valdez, Alaska. The terminus of this glacier was relatively stable from the time of the first scientific studies in 1899 until 1978. During this period the glacier terminated partly on Heather Island and partly on a submerged moraine shoal. In December, 1978, the glacier terminus retreated from Heather Island, and retreat has accelerated each year since then, except during a period of anomalously low calving in 1980. Although the glacier has not terminated on Heather Island since 1978, a portion of the terminus remained on the crest of the moraine shoal until the fall of 1983. By December 8, 1983, that feature had receded more than 300 m from the crest of the shoal, and by December 14, 1984, had disappeared completely, leaving most of the terminus more than 2000 meters behind the crest of the shoal. Recession of the glacier from the shoal has placed the terminus in deeper water, although the glacier does not float. The active calving face of the glacier now terminates in seawater that is about 300 meters deep at the glacier centerline. Rapid calving appears to be associated with buoyancy effects due to deep water at the terminus and subglacial runoff. 12 refs., 10 figs.

  4. A novel multispectral glacier mapping method and its performance in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citterio, M.; Fausto, R. S.; Ahlstrom, A. P.; Andersen, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    Multispectral land surface classification methods are widely used for mapping glacier outlines. Significant post-classification manual editing is typically required, and mapping glacier outlines over larger regions remains a rather labour intensive task. In this contribution we introduce a novel method for mapping glacier outlines from multispectral satellite imagery, requiring only minor manual editing.Over the last decade GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) improved the availability of glacier outlines, and in 2012 the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI) attained global coverage by compiling existing and new data sources in the wake of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5). With the launch of Landsat 8 in 2013 and the upcoming ESA (European Space Agency) Sentinel 2 missions, the availability of multispectral imagery may grow faster than our ability to process it into timely and reliable glacier outline products. Improved automatic classification methods would enable a full exploitation of these new data sources.We outline the theoretical basis of the proposed classification algorithm, provide a step by step walk-through from raw imagery to finished ice cover grids and vector glacier outlines, and evaluate the performance of the new method in mapping the outlines of glaciers, ice caps and the Greenland Ice Sheet from Landsat 8 OLI imagery. The classification output is compared against manually digitized ice margin positions, the RGI vectors, and the PROMICE (Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet) aerophotogrammetric map of Greenland ice masses over a sector of the Disko Island surge cluster in West Greenland, the Qassimiut ice sheet lobe in South Greenland, and the A.P. Olsen ice cap in NE Greenland.

  5. Characterizing interannual variability of glacier dynamics and dynamic discharge (1999-2015) for the ice masses of Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Wychen, Wesley; Davis, Jamie; Burgess, David O.; Copland, Luke; Gray, Laurence; Sharp, Martin; Mortimer, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Landsat 7 and RADARSAT-1/RADARSAT-2 satellite images are used to produce the most comprehensive record of glacier motion in the Canadian High Arctic to date and to characterize spatial and temporal variability in ice flow over the past ~15 years. This allows us to assess whether dynamically driven glacier change can be attributed to "surging" or "pulsing," or whether other mechanisms are involved. RADAR velocity mapping allows annual regional dynamic discharge (iceberg calving) to be calculated for 2000 and the period 2011-2015 (yielding a mean regional discharge of 2.21 ± 0.68 Gt a-1), and velocities derived from feature tracking of optical imagery allow for annual dynamic discharge to be calculated for select glaciers from 1999 to 2010. Since ~2011, several of the major tidewater-terminating glaciers within the region have decelerated and their dynamic discharge has decreased. Trinity and Wykeham Glaciers (Prince of Wales Icefield) represent a notable departure from this pattern as they have generally accelerated over the study period. The resulting increase in dynamic discharge from these glaciers entirely compensates (within error limits) for the decrease in discharge from the other tidewater glaciers across the study region. These two glaciers accounted for ~62% of total regional dynamic discharge in winter 2015 (compared to ~22% in 2000), demonstrating that total ice discharge from the Canadian High Arctic can be sensitive to variations in flow of just a few tidewater glaciers.

  6. Interaction between glacier and glacial lake in the Bhutan, Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutaki, S.; Fujita, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Sakai, A.; Nuimura, T.; Sugiyama, S.; Komori, J.; Takenaka, S.; Tshering, P.

    2012-12-01

    Recession of mountain glaciers in the Himalayas has been reported in the context of global warming. Associated with the glacier retreat, supraglacial lakes have been formed on the termini of debris-covered glaciers. Although it has been said that lake-terminating glaciers flow faster than land-terminating glaciers, observational evidence was scarce. We observationally investigated the influence of the presence/absence of glacial lakes on changes in surface elevation through glacier dynamics in two debris-covered glaciers, Thorthormi Glacier (land-terminating) and Lugge Glacier (lake-terminating), in the Lunana region, the Bhutan Himalaya. We surveyed the surface elevation of debris-covered areas of the two glaciers in 2004 and 2011 by a differential GPS. Change in surface elevation of the lake-terminating Lugge Glacier was much more negative than that of the land-terminating Thorthormi Glacier. Considering almost flat slope and location at lower elevation, however, larger ice thinning rate of the Thorthormi Glacier should have been expected than the Lugge Glacier. We measured surface flow speed of the two glaciers during 2009-2010 by multitemporal orthorectified The Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) images of ALOS. Surface flow speed of the Thorthormi Glacier was faster in the upper reaches and reduced toward the downstream. In contrast, the flow speed at the Lugge Glacier measured in the same periods was greatest at the lower most part. Observed spatial distribution of surface flow speed at both glaciers are evaluated by a two-dimensional numerical flow model. The model shows that contribution of basal sliding to surface flow velocity is large in the lower part of both glaciers. Particularly in the Thorthormi Glacier, approximately 100% of surface flow velocity attribute to basal sliding. Calculated emergence velocity at the Thorthormi Glacier is larger than that at the Lugge Glacier. This result suggests that decreasing in flow

  7. Geomorphologic mapping in the Ny Ålesund area (Svalbard Island, Norway) for the analysis of geomorphologic effects on rock slopes induced by glacier retreat in climate sensitive High Arctic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miccadei, Enrico; Piacentini, Tommaso; Casacchia, Ruggero; Sparapani, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    The geomorphological effects of glacial retreat, rapidly changing Arctic environments and consequent local temporary permafrost melting are several types of glacial and periglacial landforms (pingos, solifluction, drumlins, etc.) but also debris and rock falls, alluvial fan and glacial outwash development and scarp/slopes retreat and evolution. In this work we have realized a geomorphologic map of rockfalls, landslides, alluvial fans and the slopes and scarps of steep mountainsides in the Ny Ålesund area (Svalbard Island, Norway) focused on the analysis of rock falls as geomorphological effects of glacier retreat, permafrost degradation and higher temperatures on slope processes. The investigation is based on geological and geomorphological field survey, and remote sensing and aerial photo interpretation, The Ny Ålesund area landscape is characterized by rugged non-vegetated mountains only partially covered by glaciers, with steep flanks and rock scarps; the scarps are formed by different types of rocks (intrusive and effusive igneous rocks, marine sedimentary rocks); this landscape is highly affected by debris and rock falls (from scarps and slopes) forming wide talus slopes and by alluvial fan and fluvial outwash (from glaciers), which make the surface sedimentary cover of the island together with rock glaciers and moraine deposits and locally fluvial deposits. The work is focused on the comprehension of the role of different factors in inducing rock falls, alluvial fans, slope/scarps evolution in high geomorphological sensitivity environments (i.e. glacial, periglacial or mountain) including: orography, lithology, rock fracturation, morphostructural setting, meteorological context. The conclusions focus on the possible geomorphological hazards affecting the Ny Ålesund area.

  8. Subglacial bathymetry and sediment distribution beneath Pine Island Glacier ice shelf modeled using aerogravity and in situ geophysical data: New results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Atsuhiro; Peters, Leo E.; Gohl, Karsten; Sasgen, Ingo; Alley, Richard B.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Riverman, Kiya L.

    2016-01-01

    Pine Island Glacier (PIG) in the Amundsen Sea sector of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is losing mass and contributing to global sea-level rise at an accelerating rate. Although recent observations and modeling have identified the incursion of relatively warm Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) beneath the PIG ice shelf (PIGIS) as the main driver of this ice-mass loss, the lack of precise bathymetry limits furthering our understanding of the ice-ocean interactions and improving the accuracy of modeling. Here we present updated bathymetry and sediment distribution beneath the PIGIS, modeled by the inversion of aerogravity data with constraints from active-source seismic data, observations from an autonomous underwater vehicle, and the regional gravity-anomaly field derived from satellite gravity observations. Modeled bathymetry shows a submarine ridge beneath the middle of PIGIS that rises ∼350 to 400 m above the surrounding sea floor, with a minimum water-column thickness of ∼200 m above it. This submarine ridge continues across the whole width of the 45-km wide ice shelf, with no deep troughs crossing it, confirming the general features of the previously predicted sub-ice-shelf ocean circulation. However, the relatively low resolution of the aerogravity data and limitations in our inversion method leave a possibility that there is an undetected, few-kilometers-wide or narrower trough that may alter the predicted sub-ice-shelf ocean circulation. Modeled sediment distribution indicates a sedimentary basin of up to ∼800 m thick near the current grounding zone of the main PIG trunk and extending farther inland, and a region seaward of the submarine ridge where sediments are thin or absent with exposed crystalline basement that extends seaward into Pine Island Bay. Therefore, the submarine ridge marks the transition from a thick sedimentary basin providing a smooth interface over which ice could flow easily by sliding or sediment deformation, to a region with no to

  9. Alpine Glaciers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 27 August 2003

    This image shows part of the western flank of Arsia Mons, the southernmost of the three great Tharsis Montes. The surface shows parallel ridges more reminiscent of a Zen garden than any typical geological feature. These ridges are not typical of lava flow fronts, so a different explanation has been proposed by Mars scientists. These ridges may instead be ancient signs of previously existing glaciers that formed high on the volcano's flank. As glaciers retreat with the seasons and shifting climate, they leave behind a mound of debris along their receding edge. Successive retreats can produce a series of parallel ridges similar to those seen here.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.9, Longitude 230.5 East (129.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  10. Instability time-scales of Antarctic outlet glaciers from similitude analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levermann, Anders; Feldmann, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Possible instabilities in Antarctica have the potential to eventually raise sea level by more than 20 meters. Recent observations and ice-dynamic modeling suggest that such an instability might have been triggered in West Antarctica. The corresponding outlet glaciers, Pine Island and Thwaites, showed significant retreat during at least the last two decades. While other regions in Antarctica have the topographic predisposition for the same kind of instability⁠ it is so far unclear how fast these instabilities would unfold if they were initiated. Combining observations with a similarity analysis of the ice-dynamic equation we show here that the similitude principle⁠ suggests that the Thwaites and Pine Island glaciers are likely to be the fastest in Antarctica. Applying scaling laws, as commonly used in hydrodynamics and engineering, to ice-sheet dynamics, the relative response times of different Antarctic ice streams after destabilization can be estimated from their observed relation of surface mass balance, basal friction and topographic geometry that result in their current force balance. Consistent with earlier studies3,4⁠ the response time of Thwaites Glacier is found to be about twice as fast as that of Pine Island Glacier while the main outlet of East Antarctica's Wilkes Basin would be about twice as slow if destabilized. Although the present study suggests that there might be no faster instability in Antarctica than the ongoing destabilization in the Amundsen-Sea sector, it remains unclear whether amplified anthropogenic warming can overwrite the internal time scale of the ice streams and accelerate Antarctica's sea-level contribution beyond the instability.

  11. Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

  12. South Cascade Glacier bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, A.G.; Fulk, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    South Cascade Glacier, in Washington State, resides in a well-defined basin with mainly unglacierized divides making it ideal for most glaciological and hydrological studies. This bibliography is divided into three cateogories: (1) studies done about South Cascade Glacier specifically; (2) studies that use data from South Cascade Glacier but do not focus on or give insight to the glacier itself; and (3) instrumentation studies and non-glacier projects including snow studies done in the basin. (ACR)

  13. Beardmore Glacier proposals wanted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proposals for research projects to be conducted in the upper Beardmore Glacier area of Antarctica during the 1985-1986 field season are being accepted by t h e National Science Foundation (NSF) through August 15. Later proposal submissions should be discussed with the appropriate program managers (see below).A temporary camp with helicopter support will be established in the region. Occupation by scientific parties will likely be between mid-November 1985 and mid-January 1986. Transportation in the field will be by UH1-N twin-engine Huey helicopters (with a range of approximately 185 km) and by motor toboggans. Satellite tent camps will be established within the range of the helicopters. The exact position of the main camp will be determined in November. Likely candidates, however, are Buckley Island Quadrangle, in the area of the Walcott Névé or the Bowden Névé, near Coalsack Bluff or Mount Sirius.

  14. Faster simulation plots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowell, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Most simulation plots are heavily oversampled. Ignoring unnecessary data points dramatically reduces plot time with imperceptible effect on quality. The technique is suited to most plot devices. The departments laser printer's speed was tripled for large simulation plots by data thinning. This reduced printer delays without the expense of a faster laser printer. Surpisingly, it saved computer time as well. All plot data are now thinned, including PostScript and terminal plots. The problem, solution, and conclusions are described. The thinning algorithm is described and performance studies are presented. To obtain FORTRAN 77 or C source listings, mail a SASE to the author.

  15. A Faster Triphosphorylation Ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Gregory F.; Akoopie, Arvin; Müller, Ulrich F.

    2015-01-01

    In support of the RNA world hypothesis, previous studies identified trimetaphosphate (Tmp) as a plausible energy source for RNA world organisms. In one of these studies, catalytic RNAs (ribozymes) that catalyze the triphosphorylation of RNA 5'-hydroxyl groups using Tmp were obtained by in vitro selection. One ribozyme (TPR1) was analyzed in more detail. TPR1 catalyzes the triphosphorylation reaction to a rate of 0.013 min-1 under selection conditions (50 mM Tmp, 100 mM MgCl2, 22°C). To identify a triphosphorylation ribozyme that catalyzes faster triphosphorylation, and possibly learn about its secondary structure TPR1 was subjected to a doped selection. The resulting ribozyme, TPR1e, contains seven mutations relative to TPR1, displays a previously unidentified duplex that constrains the ribozyme's structure, and reacts at a 24-fold faster rate than the parent ribozyme. Under optimal conditions (150 mM Tmp, 650 mM MgCl2, 40°C), the triphosphorylation rate of TRP1e reaches 6.8 min-1. PMID:26545116

  16. Testing geographical and climatic controls on glacier retreat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudiger, Daphné; Stahl, Kerstin; Weiler, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Glacier melt provides an important part of the summer discharge in many mountainous basins. The understanding of the processes behind the glacier mass losses and glacier retreats observed during the last century is therefore relevant for a sustainable management of the water resources and reliable models for the prediction of future changes. The changes in glacier area of 49 sub-basins of the Rhine River in the Alps were analyzed for the time period 1900-2010 by comparing the glacier areas of Siegfried maps for the years 1900 and 1940 with satellite derived glacier areas for the years 1973, 2003 and 2010. The aim was to empirically investigate the controls of glacier retreat and its regional differences. All glaciers in the glacierized basins retreated over the last 110 years with some variations in the sub-periods. However, the relative changes in glacier area compared to 1900 differed for every sub-basin and some glaciers decreased much faster than others. These observed differences were related to a variety of different potential controls derived from different sources, including mean annual solar radiation on the glacier surface, average slope, mean glacier elevation, initial glacier area, average precipitation (summer and winter), and the precipitation catchment area of the glacier. We fitted a generalized linear model (GLM) and selected predictors that were significant to assess the individual effects of the potential controls. The fitted model explains more than 60% of the observed variance of the relative change in glacier area with the initial area alone only explaining a small proportion. Some interesting patterns emerge with higher average elevation resulting in higher area changes, but steeper slopes or solar radiation resulting in lower relative glacier area changes. Further controls that will be tested include snow transport by wind or avalanches as they play an important role for the glacier mass balance and potentially reduce the changes in glacier

  17. Glaciers of Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    1993-01-01

    ALPS: AUSTRIAN: An overview is provided on the occurrence of the glaciers in the Eastern Alps of Austria and on the climatic conditions in this area, Historical documents on the glaciers have been available since the Middle Ages. Special glaciological observations and topographic surveys of individual glaciers were initiated as early as 1846. Recent data in an inventory based on aerial photographs taken in 1969 show 925 glaciers in the Austrian Alps with a total area of 542 square kilometers. Present research topics include studies of mass and energy balance, relations of glaciers and climate, physical glaciology, a complete inventory of the glaciers, and testing of remote sensing methods. The location of the glacier areas is shown on Landsat multispectral scanner images; the improved capabilities of the Landsat thematic mapper are illustrated with an example from the Oztaler Alpen group. ALPS: SWISS: According to a glacier inventory published in 1976, which is based on aerial photography of 1973, there are 1,828 glacier units in the Swiss Alps that cover a total area of 1fl42 square kilometers. The Rhonegletscher, currently the ninth largest in the country, was one of the first to be studied in detail. Its surface has been surveyed repeatedly; velocity profiles were measured, and the fluctuations of its terminus were mapped and recorded from 1874 to 1914. Recent research on the glacier has included climatological, hydrological, and massbalance studies. Glaciological research has been conducted on various other glaciers in Switzerland concerning glacier hydrology, glacier hazards, fluctuations of glacier termini, ice mechanics, ice cores, and mass balance. Good maps are available showing the extent of glaciers from the latter decades of the 19th century. More recently, the entire country has been mapped at scales of 1:25,000, 1:50,000, 1:100,000, 1:200,000, and 1:500,000. The 1:25,000-scale series very accurately represents the glaciers as well as locates

  18. Fast Recession of a West Antarctic Glacier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, E. J.

    1998-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry observations of Pine Island Glacier, in West Antarctica, reveal that the hinge-line position of this major ice stream retreated 1.2+/-0.2 km per year between 1992 and 1996, which in turn implies ice thinning at 3.5+/-0.6m ice per year.

  19. A new glacier inventory for 2009 reveals spatial and temporal variability in glacier response to atmospheric warming in the Northern Antarctic Peninsula, 1988-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, B. J.; Carrivick, J. L.; Glasser, N. F.; Hambrey, M. J.; Smellie, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Northern Antarctic Peninsula has recently exhibited ice-shelf disintegration, glacier recession and acceleration. However, the dynamic response of land-terminating, ice-shelf tributary and tidewater glaciers has not yet been quantified or assessed for variability, and there are sparse published data for glacier classification, morphology, area, length or altitude. This paper firstly uses ASTER images from 2009 and a SPIRIT DEM from 2006 to classify the area, length, altitude, slope, aspect, geomorphology, type and hypsometry of 194 glaciers on Trinity Peninsula, Vega Island and James Ross Island. Secondly, this paper uses LANDSAT-4 and ASTER images from 1988 and 2001 and data from the Antarctic Digital Database (ADD) from 1997 to document glacier change 1988-2009. From 1988-2001, 90 % of glaciers receded, and from 2001-2009, 79 % receded. Glaciers on the western side of Trinity Peninsula retreated relatively little. On the eastern side of Trinity Peninsula, the rate of recession of ice-shelf tributary glaciers has slowed from 12.9 km2 a-1 (1988-2001) to 2.4 km2 a-1 (2001-2009). Tidewater glaciers on the drier, cooler Eastern Trinity Peninsula experienced fastest recession from 1988-2001, with limited frontal retreat after 2001. Land-terminating glaciers on James Ross Island also retreated fastest in the period 1988-2001. Large tidewater glaciers on James Ross Island are now declining in areal extent at rates of up to 0.04 km2 a-1. This east-west difference is largely a result of orographic temperature and precipitation gradients across the Antarctic Peninsula. Strong variability in tidewater glacier recession rates may result from the influence of glacier length, altitude, slope and hypsometry on glacier mass balance. High snowfall means that the glaciers on the Western Peninsula are not currently rapidly receding. Recession rates on the eastern side of Trinity Peninsula are slowing as the floating ice tongues retreat into the fjords and the glaciers reach a

  20. Glaciers: A water resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meier, Mark; Post, Austin

    1995-01-01

    Most Americans have never seen a glacier, and most would say that glaciers are rare features found only in inaccessible, isolated wilderness mountains. Are they really so rare? Or are they really potentially important sources of water supply?

  1. Glacier Ecosystems of Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohshima, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Takeuchi, N.; Segawa, T.; Uetake, J.

    2012-12-01

    Biological activity on glaciers has been believed to be extremely limited. However, we found various biotic communities specialized to the glacier environment in various part of the world, such as Himalaya, Patagonia and Alaska. Some of these glacier hosted biotic communities including various cold-tolerant insects, annelids and copepods that were living in the glacier by feeding on algae and bacteria growing in the snow and ice. Thus, the glaciers are simple and relatively closed ecosystems sustained by the primary production in the snow and ice. In this presentation, we will briefly introduce glacier ecosystems in Himalaya; ecology and behavior of glacier animals, altitudinal zonation of snow algal communities, and the structure of their habitats in the glacier. Since the microorganisms growing on the glacier surface are stored in the glacial strata every year, ice-core samples contain many layers with these microorganisms. We showed that the snow algae in the ice-core are useful for ice core dating and could be new environmental signals for the studies on past environment using ice cores. These microorganisms in the ice core will be important especially in the studies of ice core from the glaciers of warmer regions, in which chemical and isotopic contents are often heavily disturbed by melt water percolation. Blooms of algae and bacteria on the glacier can reduce the surface albedo and significantly affect the glacier melting. For example, the surface albedo of some Himalayan glaciers was significantly reduced by a large amount of dark-colored biogenic material (cryoconite) derived from snow algae and bacteria. It increased the melting rates of the surfaces by as much as three-fold. Thus, it was suggested that the microbial activity on the glacier could affect the mass balance and fluctuation of the glaciers.

  2. Fast-flowing outlet glaciers on Svalbard ice caps

    SciTech Connect

    Dowdeswell, J.A. ); Collin, R.L. )

    1990-08-01

    Four well-defined outlet glaciers are present on the 2510 km{sup 2} cap of Vestfonna in Nordaustlandet, Svalbard. Airborne radio echo sounding and aerial-photograph and satellite-image analysis methods are used to analyze the morphology and dynamics of the ice cap and its component outlet glaciers. The heavily crevassed outlets form linear depressions in the ice-cap surface and flow an order of magnitude faster than the ridges of uncrevassed ice between them. Ice flow on the ridges is accounted for by internal deformation alone, whereas rates of outlet glacier flow require basal motion. One outlet has recently switched into and out of a faster mode of flow. Rapid terminal advance, a change from longitudinal compression to tension, and thinning in the upper basin indicate surge behavior. Observed outlet glacier discharge is significantly greater than current inputs of mass of the ice cap, indicating that present rates of flow cannot be sustained under the contemporary climate.

  3. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     View ... iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica (75°S latitude, 102°W longitude) sometime ...

  4. Malaspina Glacier, Alaska, Perspective with Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Malaspina Glacier in southeastern Alaska is considered the classic example of a piedmont glacier. Piedmont glaciers occur where valley glaciers exit a mountain range onto broad lowlands, are no longer laterally confined, and spread to become wide lobes. Malaspina Glacier is actually a compound glacier, formed by the merger of several valley glaciers, the most prominent of which seen here are Agassiz Glacier (left) and Seward Glacier (right). In total, Malaspina Glacier is up to 65 kilometers (40 miles) wide and extends up to 45 kilometers (28 miles) from the mountain front nearly to the sea.

    This perspective view was created from a Landsat satellite image and an elevation model generated by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Landsat views both visible and infrared light, which have been combined here into a color composite that generally shows glacial ice in light blue, snow in white, vegetation in green, bare rock in grays and tans, and the ocean (foreground) in dark blue. The back (northern) edge of the data set forms a false horizon that meets a false sky.

    Glaciers erode rocks, carry them down slope, and deposit them at the edge of the melting ice, typically in elongated piles called moraines. The moraine patterns at Malaspina Glacier are quite spectacular in that they have huge contortions that result from the glacier crinkling as it gets pushed from behind by the faster-moving valley glaciers.

    Glaciers are sensitive indicators of climatic change. They can grow and thicken with increasing snowfall and/or decreased melting. Conversely, they can retreat and thin if snowfall decreases and/or atmospheric temperatures rise and cause increased melting. Landsat imaging has been an excellent tool for mapping the changing geographic extent of glaciers since 1972. The elevation measurements taken by SRTM in February 2000 now provide a near-global baseline against which future non-polar region glacial thinning or thickening can be assessed.

  5. Glaciers of Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter is the ninth to be released in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386, Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World, a series of 11 chapters. In each of the geographic area chapters, remotely sensed images, primarily from the Landsat 1, 2, and 3 series of spacecraft, are used to analyze the specific glacierized region of our planet under consideration and to monitor glacier changes. Landsat images, acquired primarily during the middle to late 1970s and early 1980s, were used by an international team of glaciologists and other scientists to study various geographic regions and (or) to discuss related glaciological topics. In each glacierized geographic region, the present areal distribution of glaciers is compared, wherever possible, with historical information about their past extent. The atlas provides an accurate regional inventory of the areal extent of glacier ice on our planet during the 1970s as part of a growing international scientific effort to measure global environmental change on the Earth?s surface. The chapter is divided into seven geographic parts and one topical part: Glaciers of the Former Soviet Union (F-1), Glaciers of China (F-2), Glaciers of Afghanistan (F?3), Glaciers of Pakistan (F-4), Glaciers of India (F-5), Glaciers of Nepal (F?6), Glaciers of Bhutan (F-7), and the Paleoenvironmental Record Preserved in Middle-Latitude, High-Mountain Glaciers (F-8). Each geographic section describes the glacier extent during the 1970s and 1980s, the benchmark time period (1972-1981) of this volume, but has been updated to include more recent information. Glaciers of the Former Soviet Union are located in the Russian Arctic and various mountain ranges of Russia and the Republics of Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Kazakstun. The Glacier Inventory of the USSR and the World Atlas of Ice and Snow Resources recorded a total of 28,881 glaciers covering an area of 78,938 square kilometers (km2). China includes many of the mountain-glacier

  6. The thermophysics of glaciers

    SciTech Connect

    Zotikov, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents the results of experimental and theoretical work on the thermodynamics of ice sheets and glaciers. The author has carried out extensive field work in both the Soviet Union and Antarctica over the last 25 years and has contributed to the understanding of the thermophysics of glaciers. The topics covered in this volume embrace heat flow measurement and temperature distributions in glaciers, the thermal drilling of glaciers, the melting and freezing of ice sheets, and other thermophysical problems. Also included are topics of relevance to glacial engineering.

  7. Malaspina Glacier: a modern analog to the Laurentide Glacier in New England

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavson, T.C.; Boothroyd, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The land-based temperate Malaspina Glacier is a partial analog to the late Wisconsinan Laurentide Ice Sheet that occupied New England and adjacent areas. The Malaspina occupies a bedrock basin similar to basins occupied by the margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Ice lobes of the Malaspina are similar in size to end moraine lobes in southern New England and Long Island,New York. Estimated ice temperature, ablation rates, surface slopes and meltwater discharge per unit of surface area for the Laurentide Ice Sheet are similar to those for the Malaspina Glacier. In a simple hydrologic-fluvial model for the Malaspina Glacier meltwater moves towards the glacier bed and down-glacier along intercrystalline pathways, crevasses and moulins, and a series of tunnels. Regolith and bedrock at the glacier floor, which are eroded and transported by subglacial and englacial streams, are the sources of essentially all fluvio-lacustrine sediment on the Malaspina Foreland. Supraglacial eskers containing coarse gravels occur as much as 100 m above the glacier bed and are evidence that bedload can be lifted hydraulically. Subordinant amounts of sediment are contributed to outwash by small surface streams draining the ice margin. By analogy a similar hydrologic-fluvial system existed along the southeastern margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Subglacial regolith and bedrock eroded from beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet by meltwater was also the source of most glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine deposits in southern New England, not sediment carried to the surface of the ice sheet along shear planes and washed off the glacier by meltwater.

  8. 2. HORSESHOE CURVE IN GLACIER POINT ROAD NEAR GLACIER POINT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HORSESHOE CURVE IN GLACIER POINT ROAD NEAR GLACIER POINT. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NNE. GIS N-37 43 44.3 / W-119 34 14.1 - Glacier Point Road, Between Chinquapin Flat & Glacier Point, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  9. HORSESHOE CURVE IN GLACIER POINT ROAD NEAR GLACIER POINT. HALF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HORSESHOE CURVE IN GLACIER POINT ROAD NEAR GLACIER POINT. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. SAME VIEW AT CA-157-2. LOOKING NNE. GIS: N-37' 43 44.3 / W-119 34 14.1 - Glacier Point Road, Between Chinquapin Flat & Glacier Point, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  10. Quantifying Glacier Runoff Contribution to Nooksack River, WA in 2013-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelto, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The 2015 hydrologic year has been posited in terms of temperature as an analog for the future for the Pacific Northwest (PNW), with record warm air temperatures, warm stream temperatures and low summer streamflow. The high stream temperatures and low flows are both threats to salmon in the watershed and are offset in part by glacier runoff. Freezing levels were the highest relative to the median in the key winter months of January through May, 2015. The snowline on glaciers across the region in early July is typically at levels observed 1-2 months later in the melt season. This increases ablation since glacier ice melts faster than glacier snowcover. Very high 2015 ablation rates are occurring because glacier runoff in the PNW is primarily controlled by ablation season temperatures. In July, 2015 streamflow in the North Fork Nooksack River has been at a record low for the 77 years of record, which would increase the role of glacier runoff in stream discharge. We have measured both glacier runoff and ablation on glaciers in the North Fork Nooksack River basin during the summers of 2013-15 that allows determination of the percent of total stream discharge contributed by glaciers. In 2014 the glacier contribution exceeded 40% of total streamflow on 21 days all occurring in Aug. and Sept. Here we will present the results of 2013-2015 glacier runoff observations and the 1984-2015 mass balance observations to put in context 2015 results from our ongoing field work this summer.

  11. Islands uncovered by melting polar ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    Thawing glaciers north of Norway's Svalbard archipelago have revealed at least two unmapped and unclaimed islands, one roughly the size of a basketball court, according to a 20 August Reuters report. In addition, information released in August by the U.S. National Snow and Ice Data Center indicated that with one month left in the melting season, Arctic sea ice is already below the record minimum. "Reductions of snow and ice are happening at an alarming rate," said Norwegian Environment Minister Helen Bjoernoy. She suggested that these observations may indicate that the loss of sea ice is perhaps accelerating faster than predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which warned in February that summer sea ice could almost vanish by the end of this century.

  12. Glacier changes on South Georgia since the late-19th century documented in historical photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, John; Haynes, Valerie

    2014-05-01

    South Georgia is one of the few landmasses in the Southern Ocean. It provides a crucial geographical datapoint for glacier responses to climate change over different timescales. As part of an ongoing glacier inventory of the island, we are compiling a database of historical glacier photographs. Since the late 19th century, the island has been visited by numerous scientific and survey expeditions, as well as being the land-base for a major whaling industry. Historical photographs of the island are available from the late-19th century, beginning with the 1882-83 German International Polar Year Expedition. Many more exist from the 20th century, notably from the South Georgia Surveys in the 1950s. An assessment of the value of the photographs indicates that spatial coverage is variable, many lack reference features to pinpoint glacier positions and, in the case of smaller glaciers, the presence of snowcover makes it difficult to define the ice edge. Nevertheless, the photographs provide useful corroboration of more advanced glacier positions during the late-19th century and recession of smaller mountain and valley glaciers during the mid-20th century, while larger tidewater and sea-calving glaciers generally remained in relatively advanced positions until the 1980s. Since then, nearly all the glaciers have retreated; some of these retreats have been dramatic and a number of small mountain glaciers have fragmented or disappeared. The response of the glaciers can be related to synoptic-scale warming, particularly since the 1950s, moderated by individual glacier geometry and topography.

  13. Bathymetric Controls On Observed Tidewater Glacier Retreat In Northwest Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D. F.; Tinto, K. J.; Boghosian, A.; Cochran, J. R.; Bell, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    contact with more warm water, is flowing faster and experiencing larger mass loss over the past decade. Such broad correlations between grounding line depths and mass wastage are a starting point in an effort to understand the variability of observed retreat of outlet glaciers in northern Greenland.

  14. A strategy for monitoring glaciers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fountain, Andrew G.; Krimmel, Robert M.; Trabant, Dennis C.

    1997-01-01

    Glaciers are important features in the hydrologic cycle and affect the volume, variability, and water quality of runoff. Assessing and predicting the effect of glaciers on water resources require a monitoring program to provide basic data for this understanding. The monitoring program of the U.S. Geological Survey employs a nested approach whereby an intensively studied glacier is surrounded by less intensively studied glaciers and those monitored solely by remote sensing. Ideally, each glacierized region of the United States would have such a network of glaciers. The intensively studied glacier provides a detailed understanding of the physical processes and their temporal changes that control the mass exchange of the glaciers in that region. The less intensively studied glaciers are used to assess the variability of such processes within the region.

  15. Bruggen Glacier, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Expedition 3 crew of the International Space Station caught a rare glimpse of the massive ice fields and glaciers of Patagonia early in the afternoon on September 25, 2001. This part of the South American coast sees frequent storms and is often obscured from view by cloud cover. Bruggen Glacier in southern Chile is the largest western outflow from the Southern Patagonian Ice Field and, unlike most glaciers worldwide, advanced significantly since 1945. From 1945 to 1976, Bruggen surged 5 km across the Eyre Fjord, reaching the western shore by 1962 and cutting off Lake Greve from the sea. The glacier continued advancing both northward and southward in the fjord to near its present position before stabilizing. The growth covers a distance of more than 10 km north to south, adding nearly 60 square km of ice. Additional information on this and other Patagonian glaciers may be found at the following link: USGS - Historic Fluctuations of Outlet Glaciers from the Patagonian Ice Fields. Image ISS003-E-6061 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  16. Rift in Antarctic Glacier: a Unique Chance to Study Ice Shelf Retreat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howat, Ian M.; Jezek, Ken; Studinger, Michael; Macgregor, Joseph A.; Paden, John; Floricioiu, Dana; Russell, Rob; Linkswiler, Matt; Dominguez, Roseanne T.

    2012-01-01

    It happened again, but this time it was caught in the act. During the last week of September 2011 a large transverse rift developed across thefloating terminus of West Antarcticas PineIsland Glacier, less than 5 years after its lastlarge calving event, in 2007 (Figure 1). PineIsland Glaciers retreat has accelerated substantiallyin the past 2 decades, and it is nowlosing 50 gigatons of ice per year, or roughly 25 of Antarcticas total annual contributionto sea level rise [Rignot et al., 2008]. The glaciers recent accelerated retreat is likely triggered by ocean warming and increased submarine melting. As such, it is of significant interest to glaciologists and of heightened societal relevance.

  17. Malaspina Glacier, Alaska, Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph view of Malaspina Glacier in southeastern Alaska was created from a Landsat satellite image and an elevation model generated by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Malaspina Glacier is considered the classic example of a piedmont glacier. Piedmont glaciers occur where valley glaciers exit a mountain range onto broad lowlands, are no longer laterally confined, and spread to become wide lobes. Malaspina Glacier is actually a compound glacier, formed by the merger of several valley glaciers, the most prominent of which seen here are Agassiz Glacier (left) and Seward Glacier (right). In total, Malaspina Glacier is up to 65 kilometers (40 miles) wide and extends up to 45 kilometers (28 miles) from the mountain front nearly to the sea.

    Glaciers erode rocks, carry them down slope, and deposit them at the edge of the melting ice, typically in elongated piles called moraines. The moraine patterns at Malaspina Glacier are quite spectacular in that they have huge contortions that result from the glacier crinkling as it gets pushed from behind by the faster-moving valley glaciers.

    Numerous other features of the glaciers and the adjacent terrain are clearly seen when viewing this image at full resolution. The series of tonal arcs on Agassiz Glacier's extension onto the piedmont are called 'ogives.' These arcs are believed to be seasonal features created by deformation of the glacier as it passes over bedrock irregularities at differing speeds through the year. Assuming one light-and-dark ogive pair per year, the rate of motion of the glacial ice can be estimated (in this case, about 200 meters per year where the ogives are most prominent). Just to the west, moraine deposits abut the eroded bedrock terrain, forming a natural dam that has created a lake. Near the northwest corner of the scene, a recent landslide has deposited rock debris atop a small glacier. Sinkholes are common in many areas of the moraine deposits. The sinkholes form when

  18. Accelerating retreat and high-elevation thinning of glaciers in central Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Małecki, Jakub

    2016-06-01

    Svalbard is a heavily glacier-covered archipelago in the Arctic. Dickson Land (DL), in the central part of the largest island, Spitsbergen, is relatively arid and, as a result, glaciers there are relatively small and restricted mostly to valleys and cirques. This study presents a comprehensive analysis of glacier changes in DL based on inventories compiled from topographic maps and digital elevation models for the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum, the 1960s, 1990, and 2009/2011. Total glacier area has decreased by ˜ 38 % since the LIA maximum, and front retreat increased over the study period. Recently, most of the local glaciers have been consistently thinning in all elevation bands, in contrast to larger Svalbard ice masses which remain closer to balance. The mean 1990-2009/2011 geodetic mass balance of glaciers in DL is among the most negative from the Svalbard regional means known from the literature.

  19. The Glaciers of HARMONIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Ruth; Gleeson, Emily; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian

    2016-04-01

    Developed by the large ALADIN-HIRLAM consortium, the numerical weather prediction (NWP) model system HARMONIE is run by a large number of national weather services and research institutions in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa for weather forecasting. It is now being adopted for climate research purposes as a limited area model in a form known as HCLIM. It is currently run for a number of domains, mostly in Europe but also including Greenland, at a very high resolution (~2.5 km). HARMONIE is a convection permitting non-hydrostatic model that includes the multi-purpose SURFEX surface model. By improving the characterization of glacier surfaces within SURFEX we show that weather forecast errors over both the Greenland ice sheet and over Icelandic glaciers can be significantly reduced. The improvements also facilitate increasingly accurate ice melt and runoff computations, which are important both for ice surface mass balance estimations and hydropower forecasting. These improvements will also benefit the operational HARMONIE domains that cover the Svalbard archipelago, the Alps and the Scandinavian mountain glaciers. Future uses of HCLIM for these regions, where accurately characterizing glacial terrain will be crucial for climate and glaciological applications, are also expected to benefit from this improvement. Here, we report the first results with a new glacier surface scheme in the HARMONIE model, validated with observations from the PROMICE network of automatic weather stations in Greenland. The scheme upgrades the existing surface energy balance over glaciers by including a new albedo parameterization for bare glacier ice and appropriate coefficients for calculating the turbulent fluxes. In addition the snow scheme from the SURFEX land surface module has been upgraded to allow the retention and refreezing of meltwater in the snowpack. These changes allow us to estimate surface mass balance over glaciers at a range of model resolutions that can take full

  20. The GLIMS Glacier Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raup, B. H.; Khalsa, S. S.; Armstrong, R.

    2007-12-01

    The Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) project has built a geospatial and temporal database of glacier data, composed of glacier outlines and various scalar attributes. These data are being derived primarily from satellite imagery, such as from ASTER and Landsat. Each "snapshot" of a glacier is from a specific time, and the database is designed to store multiple snapshots representative of different times. We have implemented two web-based interfaces to the database; one enables exploration of the data via interactive maps (web map server), while the other allows searches based on text-field constraints. The web map server is an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) compliant Web Map Server (WMS) and Web Feature Server (WFS). This means that other web sites can display glacier layers from our site over the Internet, or retrieve glacier features in vector format. All components of the system are implemented using Open Source software: Linux, PostgreSQL, PostGIS (geospatial extensions to the database), MapServer (WMS and WFS), and several supporting components such as Proj.4 (a geographic projection library) and PHP. These tools are robust and provide a flexible and powerful framework for web mapping applications. As a service to the GLIMS community, the database contains metadata on all ASTER imagery acquired over glacierized terrain. Reduced-resolution of the images (browse imagery) can be viewed either as a layer in the MapServer application, or overlaid on the virtual globe within Google Earth. The interactive map application allows the user to constrain by time what data appear on the map. For example, ASTER or glacier outlines from 2002 only, or from Autumn in any year, can be displayed. The system allows users to download their selected glacier data in a choice of formats. The results of a query based on spatial selection (using a mouse) or text-field constraints can be downloaded in any of these formats: ESRI shapefiles, KML (Google Earth), Map

  1. Karakoram glacier surge dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quincey, D. J.; Braun, M.; Glasser, N. F.; Bishop, M. P.; Hewitt, K.; Luckman, A.

    2011-09-01

    We examine the surges of five glaciers in the Pakistan Karakoram using satellite remote sensing to investigate the dynamic nature of surges in this region and how they may be affected by climate. Surface velocity maps derived by feature-tracking quantify the surge development spatially in relation to the terminus position, and temporally with reference to seasonal weather. We find that the season of surge initiation varies, that each surge develops gradually over several years, and that maximum velocities are recorded within the lowermost 10 km of the glacier. Measured peak surge velocities are between one and two orders of magnitude greater than during quiescence. We also note that two of the glaciers are of a type not previously reported to surge. The evidence points towards recent Karakoram surges being controlled by thermal rather than hydrological conditions, coinciding with high-altitude warming from long-term precipitation and accumulation patterns.

  2. Greenland Glacier Albedo Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA) is a NASA-funded project with the prime goal of addressing the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet. Since the formal initiation of the program in 1995, there has been a significant improvement in the estimates of the mass balance of the ice sheet. Results from this program reveal that the high-elevation regions of the ice sheet are approximately in balance, but the margins are thinning. Laser surveys reveal significant thinning along 70 percent of the ice sheet periphery below 2000 m elevations, and in at least one outlet glacier, Kangerdlugssuaq in southeast Greenland, thinning has been as much as 10 m/yr. This study examines the albedo variability in four outlet glaciers to help separate out the relative contributions of surface melting versus ice dynamics to the recent mass balance changes. Analysis of AVHRR Polar Pathfinder albedo shows that at the Petermann and Jakobshavn glaciers, there has been a negative trend in albedo at the glacier terminus from 1981 to 2000, whereas the Stor+strommen and Kangerdlugssuaq glaciers show slightly positive trends in albedo. These findings are consistent with recent observations of melt extent from passive microwave data which show more melt on the western side of Greenland and slightly less on the eastern side. Significance of albedo trends will depend on where and when the albedo changes occur. Since the majority of surface melt occurs in the shallow sloping western margin of the ice sheet where the shortwave radiation dominates the energy balance in summer (e.g. Jakobshavn region) this region will be more sensitive to changes in albedo than in regions where this is not the case. Near the Jakobshavn glacier, even larger changes in albedo have been observed, with decreases as much as 20 percent per decade.

  3. Climate regime of Asian glaciers revealed by GAMDAM glacier inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, A.; Nuimura, T.; Fujita, K.; Takenaka, S.; Nagai, H.; Lamsal, D.

    2015-05-01

    Among meteorological elements, precipitation has a large spatial variability and less observation, particularly in high-mountain Asia, although precipitation in mountains is an important parameter for hydrological circulation. We estimated precipitation contributing to glacier mass at the median elevation of glaciers, which is presumed to be at equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) such that mass balance is zero at that elevation, by tuning adjustment parameters of precipitation. We also made comparisons between the median elevation of glaciers, including the effect of drifting snow and avalanche, and eliminated those local effects. Then, we could obtain the median elevation of glaciers depending only on climate to estimate glacier surface precipitation. The calculated precipitation contributing to glacier mass can elucidate that glaciers in arid high-mountain Asia receive less precipitation, while much precipitation makes a greater contribution to glacier mass in the Hindu Kush, the Himalayas, and the Hengduan Shan due to not only direct precipitation amount but also avalanche nourishment. We classified glaciers in high-mountain Asia into summer-accumulation type and winter-accumulation type using the summer-accumulation ratio and confirmed that summer-accumulation-type glaciers have a higher sensitivity than winter-accumulation-type glaciers.

  4. Climate regime of Asian glaciers revealed by GAMDAM Glacier Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, A.; Nuimura, T.; Fujita, K.; Takenaka, S.; Nagai, H.; Lamsal, D.

    2014-07-01

    Among meteorological elements, precipitation has a large spatial variability and less observation, particularly in High Mountain Asia, although precipitation in mountains is an important parameter for hydrological circulation. We estimated precipitation contributing to glacier mass at median elevation of glaciers, which is presumed to be at equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) so that mass balance is zero at that elevation, by tuning adjustment parameters of precipitation. We also made comparisons between median elevation of glaciers, including the effect of drifting snow and avalanche, and eliminated those local effects. Then, we could obtain median elevation of glaciers depending only on climate to estimate glacier surface precipitation. The calculated precipitation contributing to glacier mass can elucidate that glaciers in the arid High Mountain Asia have very less precipitation, while much precipitation contribute to glacier mass in the Hindu Kush, the Himalayas, and the Hengduan Shan due to not only direct precipitation amount but also avalanche nourishment. We classified glaciers in High Mountain Asia into summer-accumulation type and winter-accumulation type using the summer accumulation ratio, and confirmed that summer-accumulation type glaciers have a higher sensitivity than winter-accumulation type glaciers.

  5. Svalbard surging glacier landsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovell, Harold; Benn, Douglas; Lukas, Sven; Flink, Anne

    2014-05-01

    The percentage of Svalbard glaciers thought to be of surge-type is somewhere between 13-90% according to different sources variously based on statistical analysis and observations of diagnostic glaciological and geomorphological features, e.g. looped moraines. Developing a better understanding of which of these figures, if either, is most realistic is important in the context of glacier dynamics and related contributions of small glaciers and ice caps to sea level change in the immediate future. We present detailed geomorphological assessments of the margins of several known surge-type glaciers in Svalbard in order to update and improve the existing framework by which they are identified, and to provide a foundation for future reassessments of the surge-type glacier population based on distinct landform-sediment assemblages. Three landsystems are proposed: (1) Surges of small valley glaciers produce a prominent ice-cored latero-frontal moraine at their surge maximum and are characterised by an inner zone of ice stagnation terrain (hummocky topography, kettle lakes, debris flows) with no or only very few poorly-defined bedforms (crevasse squeeze ridges, eskers and flutes) and no recessional moraines. Many of these glaciers may have surged in the past but show no signs that they have the capability to do so again in the future. (2) Larger land-terminating glaciers, often with several tributaries, typically produce a push moraine complex which contains evidence for multiple advances, as identified from ridge-meltwater channel relationships. The inner zone often contains a large lagoon, partly dammed by the push moraine complex, and widespread ice stagnation terrain. Crevasse squeeze ridges, eskers and flutes are well-defined but small and limited in number and distribution. (3) Surges of large tidewater glaciers produce distinctive, often multi-generational, landform assemblages both in submarine and lateral terrestrial positions. The well-preserved submarine record

  6. Glacier generated floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, J.S.; Fountain, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    Destructive floods result from drainage of glacier-dammed lakes and sudden release of water stored within glaciers. There is a good basis - both empirical and theoretical - for predicting the magnitude of floods from ice-dammed lakes, although some aspects of flood initiation need to be better understood. In contrast, an understanding of floods resulting from release of internally stored water remains elusive, owing to lack of knowledge of how and where water is stored and to inadequate understanding of the complex physics of the temporally and spatially variable subglacial drainage system.Destructive floods result from drainage of glacier-dammed lakes and sudden release of water stored within glaciers. There is a good basis - both empirical and theoretical - for predicting the magnitude of floods from ice-dammed lakes, although some aspects of flood initiation need to be better understood. In contrast, an understanding of floods resulting from release of internally stored water remains elusive, owing to lack of knowledge of how and where water is stored and to inadequate understanding of the complex physics of the temporally and spatially variable subglacial drainage system.

  7. Alaska Glaciers and Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on October 7, 2007, showing the Alaska Mountains of south-central Alaska already coated with snow. Purple shadows hang in the lee of the peaks, giving the snow-clad land a crumpled appearance. White gives way to brown on the right side of the image where the mountains yield to the lower-elevation Susitna River Valley. The river itself cuts a silver, winding path through deep green forests and brown wetlands and tundra. Extending from the river valley, are smaller rivers that originated in the Alaska Mountains. The source of these rivers is evident in the image. Smooth white tongues of ice extend into the river valleys, the remnants of the glaciers that carved the valleys into the land. Most of the water flowing into the Gulf of Alaska from the Susitna River comes from these mountain glaciers. Glacier melt also feeds glacier lakes, only one of which is large enough to be visible in this image. Immediately left of the Kahiltna River, the aquamarine waters of Chelatna Lake stand out starkly against the brown and white landscape.

  8. Continued rapid glacier recession following the 1995 collapse of the Prince Gustav Ice Shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, N. F.; Scambos, T. A.

    2009-12-01

    We use optical satellite imagery (ASTER and Landsat) to document changes in the Prince Gustav Ice Shelf (PGIS) and its tributary glaciers before and after its 1995 collapse. Interpretation of a pre-collapse Landsat 4-5 TM image acquired in February 1988 shows that the ice shelf was fed primarily by Sjogren Glacier from the Antarctic Peninsula and by Rhoss Glacier from James Ross Island (JRI). In 1988, the PGIS contained numerous structural discontinuities (rifts and crevasses), which collectively indicate that ice-shelf break-up had commenced at least seven years before collapse. Meltwater ponds and streams were also common across its surface. After the ice shelf collapsed, Rhoss Glacier became a tidewater glacier and has since experienced rapid and continued recession. Between January 2001 and December 2006 (six to eleven years after the collapse of the PGIS), the front of Rhoss Glacier receded a total of 13.6 km. We conclude that where tributary glaciers become tidewater glaciers they react to ice-shelf removal by rapid and continued recession and that the response time of glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula to ice-shelf removal is measured on annual to decadal timescales. This rapid recession, coupled with previously documented tributary glacier thinning and acceleration, indicates that Antarctic Peninsula glaciers are extremely sensitive to ice-shelf collapse.

  9. Characteristics of Glacier Ecosystem and Glaciological Importance of Glacier Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohshima, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Takeuchi, N.; Segawa, T.; Uetake, J.

    2004-12-01

    Biological activity on glaciers has been believed to be extremely limited. However, we found various biotic communities specialized to the glacier environment in various part of the world, such as Himalaya, Patagonia and Alaska. Some of these glacier hosted biotic communities including various cold-tolerant insects, annelids and copepods that were living in the glacier by feeding on algae and bacteria growing in the snow and ice. Thus, the glaciers are simple and relatively closed ecosystems sustained by the primary production in the snow and ice. Since these microorganisms growing on the glacier surface are stored in the glacial strata every year, ice-core samples contain many layers with these microorganisms. Recently, it was shown that the snow algae in the ice-core are useful for ice core dating and could be new environmental signals for the studies on past_@environment using ice cores. These microorganisms in the ice core will be important especially in the studies of ice core from the glaciers of warmer regions, in which chemical and isotopic contents are often heavily disturbed by melt water percolation. Blooms of algae and bacteria on the glacier can reduce the surface albedo and significantly affect the glacier melting. For example, the surface albedo of some Himalayan glaciers was significantly reduced by a large amount of dark-colored biogenic material (cryoconite) derived from snow algae and bacteria. It increased the melting rates of the surfaces by as much as three-fold. Thus, it was suggested that the microbial activity on the glacier could affect the mass balance and fluctuation of the glaciers.

  10. Modeling Ocean-Forced Changes in Smith Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilien, D.; Joughin, I. R.; Smith, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    Glaciers along the Amundsen Coast are changing rapidly, which has drawn substantial scientific and public attention. Modeling and observation suggest warm-water intrusion and consequent melting as the cause of observed changes, and that unstoppable retreat may have already been triggered in some drainages. While Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers are losing the most mass and have been the predominant objects study, other systems, particularly Smith, Pope and Kohler Glaciers and the corresponding Dotson and Crosson Shelves, are changing more rapidly relative to their size. Though smaller, these glaciers still have potentially large implications for overall regional dynamics as their beds connect below sea level to surrounding basins. In particular, the long, deep trough of Smith Glacier nearly links to the large eastern tributary of Thwaites, potentially causing rapid changes of Smith to have significant impact on the continuing retreat of Thwaites.We implemented a numerical model in Elmer/Ice, an open-source, full-Stokes, finite-element software package, to investigate the response of the Smith/Pope/Kohler system to different initial conditions. We use various parameterizations of sub-shelf melting with constant magnitude to examine the sensitivity of overall dynamics to melt distribution. Because melt distribution affects lateral buttressing and upstream grounded areas, it is potentially an important control on ice shelf and outlet glacier dynamics. Through comparison to the most recent velocity data, we evaluate the ability of differing melt parameterizations to reproduce the behavior currently seen in Smith/Pope/Kohler glaciers. In addition, we investigate the effect of using different years of velocity data with constant elevation input when initiating model runs. By comparing results over the satellite record to initiation with synchronous observations, we assess the accuracy of the often necessary practice of using differently timestamped datasets.

  11. A century of glacier change in the Wind River Range, WY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVisser, Mark H.; Fountain, Andrew G.

    2015-03-01

    The Wind River Range spans roughly 200 km along the continental divide in western Wyoming and encompasses at least 269 glaciers and perennial snowfields totaling 34.34 ± 0.13 km2 (2006), including Gannett Glacier, the largest glacier (2.81 km2) in the continental U.S. outside of Washington State. To track changing glacier and perennial snow surface area over the past century we used historic maps, aerial photography, and geologic evidence evident in said imagery. Since the end of the Little Ice Age (~ 1900), when the glaciers retreated from their moraines, to 2006 the ice-covered area shrank by ~ 47%. The main driver of surface area change was air temperature, with glaciers at lower elevations shrinking faster than those at higher elevations. The total contribution of ice wastage to late summer stream flow ranged from 0.4 to 1.5%, 0.9 to 2.8%, 1.7 to 5.4%, and 3.4 to 10.9% in four different watersheds, none of which exceeded 7% glacier cover. Results from previous studies were difficult to include because of differences in interpretation of glacier boundaries, because of poor imagery, or to extensive seasonal snow. These difficulties highlight potential problems in combining data sets from different studies and underscores the importance of reexamining past observations to ensure consistent interpretation.

  12. Surge-like behavior at the non-surge type Matanuska Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, M.; Abe, T.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonal glacier velocity changes are attributed to subglacial slip associated with water pressure changes that occur because of the seasonal variability of meltwater input. Abe and Furuya (2014) reported winter speed-up signals and their downglacier propagation at a number of glaciers near the border of Alaska and Yukon, based on ALOS/PALSAR radar image analyses. Here we perform the similar analyses at the Chugach mountain range of South Central Alaska, and report the spatial-temporal evolution of the Matanuska Glacier. Matanuska Glacier is the largest accessible glacier in Alaska with its nearly 40 km length and 5 km width near the terminus. Comparing the winter velocity images in 2007, 2008 and 2010, those in 2010 were about 1.5-2 times faster than those during the previous two years. In addition, comparing the fall and winter velocities, winter velocities were apparently faster at every 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2010-2011 season. These data indicate winter speed-up or mini-surge signals even at a temperate and non-surgetype Matanuska Glacier. We also examine the spatial-temporal elevation changes, using data from the LiDAR altimeter in the Icebridge mission, and found significant elevation increase near the terminus. Winter speed-up may not be uncommon at Alaskan/Yukon glaciers. Lingle and Fatland (2003) detected faster speed in winter than in fall at non-surging Seward Glacier in the St. Elias Mountains; this is the only published and unambiguous report of winter speed-up, to our knowledge. Combined with earlier glacier hydrological studies, Lingle and Fatland proposed englacial water storage and gravity-driven water flow toward the bed in winter regardless of whether a given glacier is surge-type or not, and considered that the capacity of englacial water storage would control if a given glacier was surge-type or not. We consider that our measurements are complementary to Lingle and Fatland's observations and lend further support for their hypothesis. Basal

  13. Modelled glacier response to centennial temperature and precipitation trends on the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Bethan J.; Golledge, Nicholas R.; Glasser, Neil F.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Ligtenberg, Stefan R. M.; Barrand, Nicholas E.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Hambrey, Michael J.; Smellie, John L.

    2014-11-01

    The northern Antarctic Peninsula is currently undergoing rapid atmospheric warming. Increased glacier-surface melt during the twentieth century has contributed to ice-shelf collapse and the widespread acceleration, thinning and recession of glaciers. Therefore, glaciers peripheral to the Antarctic Ice Sheet currently make a large contribution to eustatic sea-level rise, but future melting may be offset by increased precipitation. Here we assess glacier-climate relationships both during the past and into the future, using ice-core and geological data and glacier and climate numerical model simulations. Focusing on Glacier IJR45 on James Ross Island, northeast Antarctic Peninsula, our modelling experiments show that this representative glacier is most sensitive to temperature change, not precipitation change. We determine that its most recent expansion occurred during the late Holocene `Little Ice Age' and not during the warmer mid-Holocene, as previously proposed. Simulations using a range of future Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change climate scenarios indicate that future increases in precipitation are unlikely to offset atmospheric-warming-induced melt of peripheral Antarctic Peninsula glaciers.

  14. Listening to Glaciers: Passive hydroacoustics near marine-terminating glaciers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettit, E.C.; Nystuen, J.A.; O'Neel, Shad

    2012-01-01

    The catastrophic breakup of the Larsen B Ice Shelf in the Weddell Sea in 2002 paints a vivid portrait of the effects of glacier-climate interactions. This event, along with other unexpected episodes of rapid mass loss from marine-terminating glaciers (i.e., tidewater glaciers, outlet glaciers, ice streams, ice shelves) sparked intensified study of the boundaries where marine-terminating glaciers interact with the ocean. These dynamic and dangerous boundaries require creative methods of observation and measurement. Toward this effort, we take advantage of the exceptional sound-propagating properties of seawater to record and interpret sounds generated at these glacial ice-ocean boundaries from distances safe for instrument deployment and operation.

  15. Chernobyl fallout on Alpine glaciers

    SciTech Connect

    Ambach, W.; Rehwald, W.; Blumthaler, M.; Eisner, H.; Brunner, P.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the gross beta activity of snow samples from four Alpine glaciers contaminated by radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident and a gamma-spectrum analysis of selected samples are reported. The results are discussed with respect to possible risks to the population from using meltwater from these glaciers as drinking water.

  16. Malaspina Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite covers an area of 55 by 40 kilometers (34 by 25 miles) over the southwest part of the Malaspina Glacier and Icy Bay in Alaska. The composite of infrared and visible bands results in the snow and ice appearing light blue, dense vegetation is yellow-orange and green, and less vegetated, gravelly areas are in orange. According to Dr. Dennis Trabant (U.S. Geological Survey, Fairbanks, Alaska), the Malaspina Glacier is thinning. Its terminal moraine protects it from contact with the open ocean; without the moraine, or if sea level rises sufficiently to reconnect the glacier with the ocean, the glacier would start calving and retreat significantly. ASTER data are being used to help monitor the size and movement of some 15,000 tidal and piedmont glaciers in Alaska. Evidence derived from ASTER and many other satellite and ground-based measurements suggests that only a few dozen Alaskan glaciers are advancing. The overwhelming majority of them are retreating.

    This ASTER image was acquired on June 8, 2001. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next six years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and

  17. The relationship between ice velocity and bed topography on Byrd Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Child, S.; Stearns, L. A.; Purdon, K.; Li, J.; Rodriguez-Morales, F.; Crowe, R.; Gomez-Garcia, D.

    2012-12-01

    Bed topography controls the pattern and magnitude of ice velocity, far into the catchment basin of many Antarctic outlet glaciers. Predictive models of glacier dynamics and ice sheet mass balance rely on well-prescribed bed topography, but in many regions bed topography is largely unknown. This particular study investigates the relationship between bed and surface topography and ice velocity in the catchment basin and trunk of Byrd Glacier. Byrd Glacier drains ~19 % of the area of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (1,070,400 km2), and has the potential to play a significant role in the ice sheet's total mass balance. In 2011/2012, the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) collected airborne radar data over Byrd Glacier. These new measurements of bed topography, along with updated surface digital elevation models (DEMs) and basin-wide ice velocity maps, are used to investigate the flow dynamics of Byrd Glacier with improved accuracy. Surface DEMs are derived from new high-resolution WorldView imagery; ice velocity is derived from repeat visible imagery, coupled with InSAR results (Rignot et al., 2011). Results exhibit relatively smooth depressions surrounding the inferred subglacial lakes, ~200 km upflow of the grounding line on Byrd Glacier (Stearns et al., 2008). Downflow of the subglacial lakes is a complex pattern of hills and valleys as ice enters the glacier trunk. At the mouth of the trunk is a large overdeepening (~2500 m) that coincides with faster ice flow. We use along- and across-flow radar profiles to perform detailed comparisons of ice velocity, bed topography and surface topography throughout the Byrd Glacier region. Gridded products are used to complete an updated force balance assessment. These results provide us with a better understanding of Byrd Glacier's flow dynamics and sensitivity to external perturbations.

  18. Surface elevation changes on glaciers in 1974-2010 in the Mt. Naimona'Nyi region in the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, J.; YE, Q.; Tian, L.; Gou, P.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers, especially those in mountain regions, are considered as one of the sensitive indicators of climate change nowadays. Glacier mass changes on the Tibetan Plateau significantly affect water resources and eco-systems in Asia. In this paper, surface elevation changes on glaciers were studied by DEMs and in-situ measurements. A DEM in Naimona'Nyi region was generated by Takeo Tanado at JAXA using stereo pairs from ALOS/PRISM in 2006, which was evaluated and calibrated by in-situ differential GPS points measured in 2012 and ICESat/GLAS points in non-glacier area. The 1:50,000 topographic maps and the base 1:50,000 DEM in 1974 was projected into WGS84 UTM 44N and then co-registered to PRISM DEM. The elevation change on glacier surface was calculated by PRISM DEM and 1974 DEM. The results suggested that the surface elevation was decreased rapidly on most glaciers, with an average downwasting rate of 0.7×0.2m per year. The in-situ measurement of glacier surface elevation indicated a decrease of ~1.4m (~0.7m per year) from 2008 to 2010 by Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)differential GPS. It also showed that glacier ice on south slope downwasting faster than those on north slope. According to glacier surface elevation changes at different altitudes, the Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) might reach about 6300m a.s.l.

  19. Reconstructing Glaciers on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, A., II; Brough, S.; Hubbard, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Mars' mid-latitudes host a substantial volume of ice, equivalent to a ~1 - 2.5 m-thick global layer or the sum of Earth's glaciers and ice caps outside of Antarctica and Greenland. These deposits are the remnants of what is believed to have been a once far larger 'ice age', culminating in a last martian glacial maximum. Despite the identification of >1,300 glacier-like forms (GLFs) - the first order component of Mars' glacial landsystem - in Mars' mid-latitudes, little is known about their composition, dynamics or former extent. Here, we reconstruct the former 3D extent of a well-studied GLF located in eastern Hellas Planitia. We combine high-resolution geomorphic and topographic data, obtained from the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera, to reconstruct the GLF's former limits. We then apply a perfect plasticity rheological model, to generate multiple flow-parallel ice-surface transects. These are combined with the GLF's boundary to guide interpolation using ArcGIS' 'Topo to Raster' function to produce a continuous 3D surface for the reconstructed former GLF. Our results indicate that, since its reconstructed 'recent maximum' extent, the GLF's volume has reduced by 0.31 km3 and its area by 6.85 km2, or 70%. On-going research is addressing the degree to which this change is typical of Mars' full GLF population.

  20. Polythermal Glacier Hydrology: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D. L.; Hodson, Andrew J.; Moorman, Brian J.; Vatne, Geir; Hubbard, Alun L.

    2011-11-01

    The manner by which meltwater drains through a glacier is critical to ice dynamics, runoff characteristics, and water quality. However, much of the contemporary knowledge relating to glacier hydrology has been based upon, and conditioned by, understanding gleaned from temperate valley glaciers. Globally, a significant proportion of glaciers and ice sheets exhibit nontemperate thermal regimes. The recent, growing concern over the future response of polar glaciers and ice sheets to forecasts of a warming climate and lengthening summer melt season necessitates recognition of the hydrological processes in these nontemperate ice masses. It is therefore timely to present an accessible review of the scientific progress in glacial hydrology where nontemperate conditions are dominant. This review provides an appraisal of the glaciological literature from nontemperate glaciers, examining supraglacial, englacial, and subglacial environments in sequence and their role in hydrological processes within glacierized catchments. In particular, the variability and complexity in glacier thermal regimes are discussed, illustrating how a unified model of drainage architecture is likely to remain elusive due to structural controls on the presence of water. Cold ice near glacier surfaces may reduce meltwater flux into the glacier interior, but observations suggest that the transient thermal layer of near surface ice holds a hydrological role as a depth-limited aquifer. Englacial flowpaths may arise from the deep incision of supraglacial streams or the propagation of hydrofractures, forms which are readily able to handle varied meltwater discharge or act as locations for water storage, and result in spatially discrete delivery of water to the subglacial environment. The influence of such drainage routes on seasonal meltwater release is explored, with reference to summer season upwellings and winter icing formation. Moreover, clear analogies emerge between nontemperate valley glacier and

  1. Glacier and Ice Shelves Studies Using Satellite SAR Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry is a powerful technique to measure the surface velocity and topography of glacier ice. On ice shelves, a quadruple difference technique separates tidal motion from the steady creep flow deformation of ice. The results provide a wealth of information about glacier grounding lines , mass fluxes, stability, elastic properties of ice, and tidal regime. The grounding line, which is where the glacier detaches from its bed and becomes afloat, is detected with a precision of a few tens of meters. Combining this information with satellite radar altimetry makes it possible to measure glacier discharge into the ocean and state of mass balance with greater precision than ever before, and in turn provide a significant revision of past estimates of mass balance of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. Analysis of creep rates on floating ice permits an estimation of basal melting at the ice shelf underside. The results reveal that the action of ocean water in sub-ice-shelf cavities has been largely underestimated by oceanographic models and is the dominant mode of mass release to the ocean from an ice shelf. Precise mapping of grounding line positions also permits the detection of grounding line migration, which is a fine indicator of glacier change, independent of our knowledge of snow accumulation and ice melting. This technique has been successfully used to detect the rapid retreat of Pine Island Glacier, the largest ice stream in West Antarctica. Finally, tidal motion of ice shelves measured interferometrically provides a modern, synoptic view of the physical processes which govern the formation of tabular icebergs in the Antarctic.

  2. Break-up of the Thwaites Ice Tongue and its implication, Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.

    2011-12-01

    Thwaites Glaciers (TG) is proved to be one of the most vulnerable sectors of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) because its inland sub-glacial topography slopes theoretically cause destabilization of the ice sheet. The recent studies also indicate that ice sheets in the Amundsen Sea are thinning and grounding lines are retreating rapidly due to warming of ocean temperature. In March 2002, a huge iceberg, named B-22, broke away from the Thwaites Ice Tongue in the Amunsen Sea and according to the MODIS images, it has been caught in the same region in contrast to other normal icebergs that break off from ice sheet and usually move freely along with ocean current. It is also observed that the advancing velocity of the ice tongue had been stayed constant. According to the recent publications, it can be inferred that that the bathymetry under the iceberg might have caused this. The MODIS images also show that the iceberg started to move in 2006 and correspondingly, the Thwaites Ice Tongue started to advance more quickly. In 2011, it is observed that the Thwaites Ice Tongue is breaking apart from the grounded ice sheet of Thwaites Glacier, and although calving is a normal process for floating ice shelves beyond a specific threshold, the break-up of the ice tongue in 2011 is abnormal in terms of carving rate and fracturing location. In this study, CryoSat-2 and ENVISAT Radar Altimeter (RA-2) data, provided by the European Space Agency, are used to verify the annual variation of the surface elevation as well as the retreat of grounding line of the ice tongue in the region where the break-up is speculated since 2002. It is suspected that the bathymetry, B-22A iceberg, and much warmer sea temperature in the Amundsen Sea are inter-related to cause faster thinning and retreat of grounding line of ice shelves. Similarly, it is asserted that Pine Island Glacier (PIG) might also be standing at a tip point where a break-up can happen in the near future. We are expected to carry

  3. Rapid Late Holocene glacier fluctuations reconstructed from South Georgia lake sediments using novel analytical and numerical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Bilt, Willem; Bakke, Jostein; Werner, Johannes; Paasche, Øyvind; Rosqvist, Gunhild

    2016-04-01

    The collapse of ice shelves, rapidly retreating glaciers and a dramatic recent temperature increase show that Southern Ocean climate is rapidly shifting. Also, instrumental and modelling data demonstrate transient interactions between oceanic and atmospheric forcings as well as climatic teleconnections with lower-latitude regions. Yet beyond the instrumental period, a lack of proxy climate timeseries impedes our understanding of Southern Ocean climate. Also, available records often lack the resolution and chronological control required to resolve rapid climate shifts like those observed at present. Alpine glaciers are found on most Southern Ocean islands and quickly respond to shifts in climate through changes in mass balance. Attendant changes in glacier size drive variations in the production of rock flour, the suspended product of glacial erosion. This climate response may be captured by downstream distal glacier-fed lakes, continuously recording glacier history. Sediment records from such lakes are considered prime sources for paleoclimate reconstructions. Here, we present the first reconstruction of Late Holocene glacier variability from the island of South Georgia. Using a toolbox of advanced physical, geochemical (XRF) and magnetic proxies, in combination with state-of-the-art numerical techniques, we fingerprinted a glacier signal from glacier-fed lake sediments. This lacustrine sediment signal was subsequently calibrated against mapped glacier extent with the help of geomorphological moraine evidence and remote sensing techniques. The outlined approach enabled us to robustly resolve variations of a complex glacier at sub-centennial timescales, while constraining the sedimentological imprint of other geomorphic catchment processes. From a paleoclimate perspective, our reconstruction reveals a dynamic Late Holocene climate, modulated by long-term shifts in regional circulation patterns. We also find evidence for rapid medieval glacier retreat as well as a

  4. Holocene record of glacier variability from lake sediments reveals tripartite climate history for Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Bilt, Willem; Bakke, Jostein; Vasskog, Kristian; D`Andrea, William; Bradley, Raymond; Olafsdottir, Sædis

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic is responding sensitively to ongoing global climate change, warming and moistening faster than any other region on the planet. Holocene proxy paleoclimate time series are increasingly used to put this amplified response in perspective by understanding Arctic climate processes beyond the instrumental period. Glaciers rapidly respond to climate shifts as demonstrated by their current demise around the world. This response has a composite climate signature, marked by shifts in hydroclimate (winter precipitation) as well as (summer) temperature. Attendant changes in glacier size are recorded by variations in glacigenic rock flour that may be deposited in downstream lakes. Here, we present a Holocene reconstruction of glacier activity, based on sediments from Hajeren, a glacier-fed lake on northwest Spitsbergen in the High Arctic Svalbard archipelago. Owing to undisturbed sediments and robust age control, we could resolve variability on a sub-centennial scale. To ensure the accurate detection of glacier activity, we applied a toolbox of physical, magnetic and geochemical proxies in conjunction with multivariate statistics. Our findings indicate a three-stage Holocene climate history for Svalbard, driving by melt water pulses, episodic Atlantic cooling and a decline in orbitally driven summer insolation. Correspondence between inferred advances, including a Holocene glacier maximum around 9.5 ka BP, suggests forcing by the melting LIS during the Early Holocene. Following a late Holocene Thermal Maximum around 7.4 ka BP, glaciers disappeared from the catchment. Glaciers reformed around 4.2 ka BP during the regional onset of the Neoglacial, supporting previous findings. This transition did, however, not mark the onset of persistent glacier activity in the catchment, but a series of centennial-scale cycles of growth and decay, including events around 3.3 and 1.1 ka BP. As orbitally driven insolation declined towards the present, the glaciation threshold

  5. Outlet glacier response to the 2012 collapse of the Matusevich Ice Shelf, Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Michael J.; Melkonian, Andrew K.; Pritchard, Matthew E.

    2015-10-01

    The Matusevich Ice Shelf (MIS), located within the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago in the Russian Arctic, rapidly broke apart between 10 August and 7 September 2012. We examine the response of the outlet glaciers that fed the MIS from local ice caps to the removal of the ice shelf. We use spaceborne laser altimetry and multiple optically derived digital elevation models to track ice surface elevation change rates (dh/dt) between 1984 and 2014. Glacier speeds are measured by pixel-tracking from optical and RADAR imagery between 2010 and 2014 and interferometric synthetic aperture radar in 1995 to compare precollapse and postcollapse velocities. We find that the three main outlet glaciers that fed the MIS are thinning an order of magnitude more rapidly than most of the rest of Severnaya Zemyla, based upon ICESat data from 2003 to 2009. Recent, 2012 to 2014 thinning rates are three to four times faster than the 30 year average thinning rate, calculated between 1984 and 2014. The springtime speeds of the largest outlet glacier (Issledovateley) have increased more than 200% at the terminus between April 2010 and April 2014. To date, changes in surface elevation (dh/dt) and velocity at the outlet glaciers near MIS are smaller than glacier responses to ice shelf collapse in Antarctica. It is possible that the MIS was already very weak prior to the 2012 collapse and unable to support back stress. Further observations are required to assess whether the thinning and nonmelt season glacier speeds are continuing to accelerate.

  6. UAVs for Glacier Mapping: Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, T.; McKinnon, K. A.; Anderson, B.

    2014-12-01

    Using two different unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) mounted with cameras, we created a digital elevation model (DEM) of the lower 12 km^2 of Tasman Glacier, South Island, New Zealand in March 2014. The project served primarily as a proof-of-concept, and here we discuss the lessons learned, emphasizing the practical, logistical, and flight issues. We tested two different fixed-wing airframes -- a twin-boom tradition and flying wing; two different camera types, both consumer-grade RGB; and various combinations of RC and telemetry radios. We used both commercial and open-source photogrammetry software to create the mosaic and DEM imagery. Some of the most critical UAV-specific issues are: access to a launch/landing site, adequate landing zones, range, airspace contention with manned aircraft, and hardware reliability. While UAVs provide a lower-cost method for photogrammetry access, it also comes with a unique set of challenges.

  7. Accelerating Ice Loss from the Fastest Greenland and Antarctic Glaciers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R.; Frederick, E.; Li, J.; Krabill, W.; Manizade, S.; Paden, J.; Sonntag, J.; Swift, R.; Yungel, J.

    2011-01-01

    Ice discharge from the fastest glaciers draining the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets . Jakobshavn Isbrae (JI) and Pine Island Glacier (PIG). continues to increase, and is now more than double that needed to balance snowfall in their catchment basins. Velocity increase probably resulted from decreased buttressing from thinning (and, for JI, breakup) of their floating ice tongues, and from reduced basal drag as grounding lines on both glaciers retreat. JI flows directly into the ocean as it becomes afloat, and here creep rates are proportional to the cube of bed depth. Rapid thinning of the PIG ice shelf increases the likelihood of its breakup, and subsequent rapid increase in discharge velocity. Results from a simple model indicate that JI velocities should almost double to >20 km/a by 2015, with velocities on PIG increasing to >10 km/a after breakup of its ice shelf. These high velocities would probably be sustained over many decades as the glaciers retreat within their long, very deep troughs. Resulting sea ]level rise would average about 1.5 mm/a.

  8. Accelerating ice loss from the fastest Greenland and Antarctic glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R.; Frederick, E.; Li, J.; Krabill, W.; Manizade, S.; Paden, J.; Sonntag, J.; Swift, R.; Yungel, J.

    2011-05-01

    Ice discharge from the fastest glaciers draining the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets - Jakobshavn Isbrae (JI) and Pine Island Glacier (PIG)- continues to increase, and is now more than double that needed to balance snowfall in their catchment basins. Velocity increase probably resulted from decreased buttressing from thinning (and, for JI, breakup) of their floating ice tongues, and from reduced basal drag as grounding lines on both glaciers retreat. JI flows directly into the ocean as it becomes afloat, and here creep rates are proportional to the cube of bed depth. Rapid thinning of the PIG ice shelf increases the likelihood of its breakup, and subsequent rapid increase in discharge velocity. Results from a simple model indicate that JI velocities should almost double to >20 km a-1 by 2015, with velocities on PIG increasing to >10 km a-1 after breakup of its ice shelf. These high velocities would probably be sustained over many decades as the glaciers retreat within their long, very deep troughs. Resulting sea-level rise would average about 1.5 mm a-1.

  9. Antarctic Peninsula Tidewater Glacier Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettit, E. C.; Scambos, T. A.; Haran, T. M.; Wellner, J. S.; Domack, E. W.; Vernet, M.

    2015-12-01

    The northern Antarctic Peninsula (nAP, north of 66°S) is a north-south trending mountain range extending transverse across the prevailing westerly winds of the Southern Ocean resulting in an extreme west-to-east precipitation gradient. Snowfall on the west side of the AP is one to two orders of magnitude higher than the east side. This gradient drives short, steep, fast-flowing glaciers into narrow fjords on the west side, while longer lower-sloping glaciers flow down the east side into broader fjord valleys. This pattern in ice dynamics affects ice-ocean interaction on timescales of decades to centuries, and shapes the subglacial topography and submarine bathymetry on timescales of glacial cycles. In our study, we calculate ice flux for the western and eastern nAP using a drainage model that incorporates the modern ice surface topography, the RACMO-2 precipitation estimate, and recent estimates of ice thinning. Our results, coupled with observed rates of ice velocity from InSAR (I. Joughin, personal communication) and Landsat 8 -derived flow rates (this study), provide an estimate of ice thickness and fjord depth in grounded-ice areas for the largest outlet glaciers. East-side glaciers either still terminate in or have recently terminated in ice shelves. Sedimentary evidence from the inner fjords of the western glaciers indicates they had ice shelves during LIA time, and may still have transient floating ice tongues (tabular berg calvings are observed). Although direct oceanographic evidence is limited, the high accumulation rate and rapid ice flux implies cold basal ice for the western nAP glaciers and therefore weak subglacial discharge relative to eastern nAP glaciers and or other tidewater fjord systems such as in Alaska. Finally, despite lower accumulation rates on the east side, the large elongate drainage basins result in a greater ice flux funneled through fewer deeper glaciers. Due to the relation between ice flux and erosion, these east-side glaciers

  10. Flow instabilities of Alaskan glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, James Bradley

    Over 300 of the largest glaciers in southern Alaska have been identified as either surge-type or pulse-type, making glaciers with flow instabilities the norm among large glaciers in that region. Consequently, the bulk of mass loss due to climate change will come from these unstable glaciers in the future, yet their response to future climate warming is unknown because their dynamics are still poorly understood. To help broaden our understanding of unstable glacier flow, the decadal-scale ice dynamics of 1 surging and 9 pulsing glaciers are investigated. Bering Glacier had a kinematic wave moving down its ablation zone at 4.4 +/- 2.0 km/yr from 2002 to 2009, which then accelerated to 13.9 +/- 2.0 km/yr as it traversed the piedmont lobe. The wave first appeared in 2001 near the confluence with Bagley Ice Valley and it took 10 years to travel ~64 km. A surge was triggered in 2008 after the wave activated an ice reservoir in the midablation zone, and it climaxed in 2011 while the terminus advanced several km into Vitus Lake. Ruth Glacier pulsed five times between 1973 and 2012, with peak velocities in 1981, 1989, 1997, 2003, and 2010; approximately every 7 years. A typical pulse increased ice velocity 300%, from roughly 40 m/yr to 160 m/yr in the midablation zone, and involved acceleration and deceleration of the ice en masse; no kinematic wave was evident. The pulses are theorized to be due to deformation of a subglacial till causing enhanced basal motion. Eight additional pulsing glaciers are identified based on the spatiotemporal pattern of their velocity fields. These glaciers pulsed where they were either constricted laterally or joined by a tributary, and their surface slopes are 1-2°. These traits are consistent with an overdeepening. This observation leads to a theory of ice motion in overdeepenings that explains the cyclical behavior of pulsing glaciers. It is based on the concept of glaciohydraulic supercooling, and includes sediment transport and erosion

  11. 73X Faster Than a Speeding Bullet

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Nov. 17, 2011, a NASA camera in Tullahoma, Tenn., saw a Leonid meteor -- moving 73 times faster than a bullet fired from an M-16 rifle -- as it burned up 71 miles above Nolensville, Tenn., at an...

  12. New faster CHARMM molecular dynamics engine

    PubMed Central

    Hynninen, Antti-Pekka; Crowley, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new faster molecular dynamics (MD) engine into the CHARMM software package. The new MD engine is faster both in serial (i.e., single CPU core) and parallel execution. Serial performance is approximately two times higher than in the previous version of CHARMM. The newly programmed parallelization method allows the MD engine to parallelize up to hundreds of CPU cores. PMID:24302199

  13. Reconstruction of glacier variability from lake sediments reveals dynamic Holocene climate in Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Bilt, Willem G. M.; Bakke, Jostein; Vasskog, Kristian; D'Andrea, William J.; Bradley, Raymond S.; Ólafsdóttir, Sædis

    2015-10-01

    The Arctic is warming faster than anywhere else on Earth. Holocene proxy time-series are increasingly used to put this amplified response in perspective by understanding Arctic climate processes beyond the instrumental period. However, available datasets are scarce, unevenly distributed and often of coarse resolution. Glaciers are sensitive recorders of climate shifts and variations in rock-flour production transfer this signal to the lacustrine sediment archives of downstream lakes. Here, we present the first full Holocene record of continuous glacier variability on Svalbard from glacier-fed Lake Hajeren. This reconstruction is based on an undisturbed lake sediment core that covers the entire Holocene and resolves variability on centennial scales owing to 26 dating points. A toolbox of physical, geochemical (XRF) and magnetic proxies in combination with multivariate statistics has allowed us to fingerprint glacier activity in addition to other processes affecting the sediment record. Evidence from variations in sediment density, validated by changes in Ti concentrations, reveal glaciers remained present in the catchment following deglaciation prior to 11,300 cal BP, culminating in a Holocene maximum between 9.6 and 9.5 ka cal BP. Correspondence with freshwater pulses from Hudson Strait suggests that Early Holocene glacier advances were driven by the melting Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS). We find that glaciers disappeared from the catchment between 7.4 and 6.7 ka cal BP, following a late Hypsithermal. Glacier reformation around 4250 cal BP marks the onset of the Neoglacial, supporting previous findings. Between 3380 and 3230 cal BP, we find evidence for a previously unreported centennial-scale glacier advance. Both events are concurrent with well-documented episodes of North Atlantic cooling. We argue that this brief forcing created suitable conditions for glaciers to reform in the catchment against a background of gradual orbital cooling. These findings highlight the

  14. Surface melt dominates Alaska glacier mass balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen Chris F; Burgess, E; Arendt, A.A.; O'Neel, Shad; Johnson, A.J.; Kienholz, C.

    2015-01-01

    Mountain glaciers comprise a small and widely distributed fraction of the world's terrestrial ice, yet their rapid losses presently drive a large percentage of the cryosphere's contribution to sea level rise. Regional mass balance assessments are challenging over large glacier populations due to remote and rugged geography, variable response of individual glaciers to climate change, and episodic calving losses from tidewater glaciers. In Alaska, we use airborne altimetry from 116 glaciers to estimate a regional mass balance of −75 ± 11 Gt yr−1 (1994–2013). Our glacier sample is spatially well distributed, yet pervasive variability in mass balances obscures geospatial and climatic relationships. However, for the first time, these data allow the partitioning of regional mass balance by glacier type. We find that tidewater glaciers are losing mass at substantially slower rates than other glaciers in Alaska and collectively contribute to only 6% of the regional mass loss.

  15. Ocean forcing drives glacier retreat sometimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassis, J. N.; Ultee, E.; Ma, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Observations show that marine-terminating glaciers respond to climate forcing nonlinearly, with periods of slow or negligible glacier advance punctuated by abrupt, rapid retreat. Once glacier retreat has initiated, glaciers can quickly stabilize with a new terminus position. Alternatively, retreat can be sustained for decades (or longer), as is the case for Columbia Glacier, Alaska where retreat initiated ~1984 and continues to this day. Surprisingly, patterns of glacier retreat show ambiguous or even contradictory correlations with atmospheric temperature and glacier surface mass balance. Despite these puzzles, observations increasingly show that intrusion of warm subsurface ocean water into fjords can lead to glacier erosion rates that can account for a substantial portion of the total mass lost from glaciers. Here we use a simplified flowline model to show that even relatively modest submarine melt rates (~100 m/a) near the terminus of grounded glaciers can trigger large increases in iceberg calving leading to rapid glacier retreat. However, the strength of the coupling between submarine melt and calving is a strong function of the geometry of the glacier (bed topography, ice thickness and glacier width). This can lead to irreversible retreat when the terminus is thick and grounded deeply beneath sea level or result in little change when the glacier is relatively thin, grounded in shallow water or pinned in a narrow fjord. Because of the strong dependence on glacier geometry, small perturbations in submarine melting can trigger glaciers in their most advanced—and geometrically precarious—state to undergo sudden retreat followed by much slower re-advance. Although many details remain speculative, our model hints that some glaciers are more sensitive than others to ocean forcing and that some of the nonlinearities of glacier response to climate change may be attributable to variations in difficult-to-detect subsurface water temperatures that need to be better

  16. Glacier Sensitivity Across the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagredo, E. A.; Lowell, T. V.; Rupper, S.

    2010-12-01

    Most of the research on causes driving former glacial fluctuations, and the climatic signals involved, has focused on the comparisons of sequences of glacial events in separate regions of the world and their temporal-phasing relationship with terrestrial or extraterrestrial climate-forcing mechanisms. Nevertheless the climatic signals related with these glacial advances are still under debate. This impossibility to resolve these questions satisfactorily have been generally attributed to the insufficiently precise chronologies and unevenly distributed records. However, behind these ideas lies the implicit assumption that glaciers situated in different climate regimes respond uniformly to similar climatic perturbations. This ongoing research is aimed to explore the climate-glacier relationship at regional scale, through the analysis of the spatial variability of glacier sensitivity to climatic change. By applying a Surface Energy Mass Balance model (SEMB) developed by Rupper and Roe (2008) to glaciers located in different climatic regimes, we analyzed the spatial variability of mass balance changes under different baseline conditions and under different scenarios of climatic change. For the sake of this research, the analysis is being focused on the Andes, which in its 9,000 km along the western margin of South America offers an unparalleled climatic diversity. Preliminary results suggest that above some threshold of climate change (a hypothetical uniform perturbation), all the glaciers across the Andes would respond in the “same direction” (advancing or retreating). Below that threshold, glaciers located in some climatic regimes may be insensitive to the specific perturbation. On the other hand, glaciers located in different climatic regimes may exhibit a “different magnitude” of change under a uniform climatic perturbation. Thus, glaciers located in the dry Andes of Perú, Chile and Argentina are more sensitive to precipitation changes than variations in

  17. Modelling Greenland Outlet Glaciers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderVeen, Cornelis; Abdalati, Waleed (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop simple yet realistic models of Greenland outlet glaciers to better understand ongoing changes and to identify possible causes for these changes. Several approaches can be taken to evaluate the interaction between climate forcing and ice dynamics, and the consequent ice-sheet response, which may involve changes in flow style. To evaluate the icesheet response to mass-balance forcing, Van der Veen (Journal of Geophysical Research, in press) makes the assumption that this response can be considered a perturbation on the reference state and may be evaluated separately from how this reference state evolves over time. Mass-balance forcing has an immediate effect on the ice sheet. Initially, the rate of thickness change as compared to the reference state equals the perturbation in snowfall or ablation. If the forcing persists, the ice sheet responds dynamically, adjusting the rate at which ice is evacuated from the interior to the margins, to achieve a new equilibrium. For large ice sheets, this dynamic adjustment may last for thousands of years, with the magnitude of change decreasing steadily over time as a new equilibrium is approached. This response can be described using kinematic wave theory. This theory, modified to pertain to Greenland drainage basins, was used to evaluate possible ice-sheet responses to perturbations in surface mass balance. The reference state is defined based on measurements along the central flowline of Petermann Glacier in north-west Greenland, and perturbations on this state considered. The advantage of this approach is that the particulars of the dynamical flow regime need not be explicitly known but are incorporated through the parameterization of the reference ice flux or longitudinal velocity profile. The results of the kinematic wave model indicate that significant rates of thickness change can occur immediately after the prescribed change in surface mass balance but adjustments in flow

  18. Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Aletsch Glacier, the largest glacier of Europe, covers more than 120 square kilometers (more than 45 square miles)in southern Switzerland. At its eastern extremity lies a glacierlake, Mdrjelensee (2,350 meters/7,711 feet above sea level). To the west rises Aletschhorn (4,195 meters/13,763 feet), which was first climbed in 1859. The Rhone River flows along the southern flank of the mountains.

    This image was acquired on July 23, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as

  19. Monitoring Popocatepetl volcano's glaciers (Mexico): case study of glacier extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, H.; Julio, P.; Huggel, C.; Brugman, M.

    2003-04-01

    Popocatépetl volcano is located 60 km southeast of Mexico City and is one of the three ice-clad volcanoes in Mexico. The two glaciers of Popocatépetl became extinct after a strong retreat due to the combination of at least three causes: global change, change in regional meteorological conditions (induced by the vicinity to highly polluted areas) and local enforcement (namely volcanic eruption). Glacier dimensions of Popocatépetl glaciers have been measured by photogrammetric means, and even though continuous monitoring was not feasible for decades, in recent years availability of aerial photographs allowed a better documentation of glacier areal changes. The first inventory made in 1958 threw an areal extent of 0.89 km2. A second inventory of the areal extent of the two small glaciers of Popocatépetl in 1982 reported 0.56 km2. Average retreat rate resulted nearly 14,000 m2/year. An areal measurement for 1996 resulted in an-order-of-magnitude smaller retreat rate (more than 1,500 m2/year). In early 1997, the retreat rate was nearly 12,500 m2/year, an order of magnitude similar as that of the 1958-1982 period. This scheme changed strongly in the following years when retreat rate was twice in 1998 and more than 7 times greater in 1999. By the end of the year 2000, the retreat rate remained in the same order of magnitude as in early 1999. Since the year 2000 and up to the present, the glaciers are just a series of independent ice masses (seracs) and the bedrock is seen in between them. GPR determinations made in 1995 showed a 40 m average ice thickness. During ice drilling in the year 2000 at nearly the same spot where GPR determinations were made in 1995, a thickness of 4 m was found. Therefore, glacier shrinkage has been documented not only by areal restriction but also by strong changes in thickness. The strong retreat experienced by Popocatépetl’s glaciers along the last decades, were possibly due to global climatic enforcement and proximity to industrial

  20. From Glaciers to Icebergs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wendy

    I will describe works from a collaboration between physics and glaciology that grew out of interactions at the Computations in Science seminar Leo Kadanoff organized at the University of Chicago. The first project considers the interaction between ocean waves and Antarctic ice shelves, large floating portions of ice formed by glacial outflows. Back-of-envelop calculation and seismic sensor data suggest that crevasses may be distributed within an ice shelf to shield it from wave energy. We also examine numerical scenarios in which changes in environmental forcing causes the ice shelf to fail catastrophically. The second project investigates the aftermath of iceberg calving off glacier terminus in Greenland using data recorded via time-lapse camera and terrestrial radar. Our observations indicate that the mélange of icebergs within the fjord experiences widespread jamming during a calving event and therefore is always close to being in a jammed state during periods of terminus quiescence. Joint work with Jason Amundson, Ivo R. Peters, Julian Freed Brown, Nicholas Guttenberg, Justin C Burton, L. Mac Cathles, Ryan Cassotto, Mark Fahnestock, Kristopher Darnell, Martin Truffer, Dorian S. Abbot and Douglas MacAyeal. Kadanoff Session DCMP.

  1. Submarine melting at tidewater glaciers: comparison of numerical modelling, buoyant plume theory and hydrographic data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, D. A.; Nienow, P. W.; Goldberg, D. N.; Cowton, T. R.; Sole, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Observations of the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet in recent decades have shown significant losses at the coastal margins through the thinning, speed-up and retreat of tidewater glaciers. Ocean forcing, via melting of submerged ice at the calving fronts of tidewater glaciers, has been identified as a possible driver of this behaviour. Such submarine melting may provide a significant direct contribution to the negative mass balance of the glacier and could also amplify calving rates. Quantification of submarine melting remains uncertain however since modelling of fjord circulation and submarine melting is challenging, hydrographic data from pro-glacial fjords are sparse and direct observation of submarine melting at a tidewater glacier has so far proved impossible. Here, we compare submarine melt rates obtained using buoyant plume theory to those from a numerical model (MITgcm), finding reasonable agreement between the two methods. We then use buoyant plume theory, due to its faster computational speed, to investigate the dependence of melt rate on subglacial discharge, subglacial channel size (and thus emerging flow velocity) and fjord-water temperature. Finally we apply the theory to real tidewater glaciers, finding significant gaps between modelled melt rates and those estimated from hydrographic data. We discuss possible reasons for such disagreements and their implications for constraining the importance of submarine melting to tidewater glacier mass balance.

  2. Arctic polynya and glacier interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Laura

    2013-04-01

    Major uncertainties surround future estimates of sea level rise attributable to mass loss from the polar ice sheets and ice caps. Understanding changes across the Arctic is vital as major potential contributors to sea level, the Greenland Ice Sheet and the ice caps and glaciers of the Canadian Arctic archipelago, have experienced dramatic changes in recent times. Most ice mass loss is currently focused at a relatively small number of glacier catchments where ice acceleration, thinning and calving occurs at ocean margins. Research suggests that these tidewater glaciers accelerate and iceberg calving rates increase when warming ocean currents increase melt on the underside of floating glacier ice and when adjacent sea ice is removed causing a reduction in 'buttressing' back stress. Thus localised changes in ocean temperatures and in sea ice (extent and thickness) adjacent to major glacial catchments can impact hugely on the dynamics of, and hence mass lost from, terrestrial ice sheets and ice caps. Polynyas are areas of open water within sea ice which remain unfrozen for much of the year. They vary significantly in size (~3 km2 to > ~50,000 km2 in the Arctic), recurrence rates and duration. Despite their relatively small size, polynyas play a vital role in the heat balance of the polar oceans and strongly impact regional oceanography. Where polynyas develop adjacent to tidewater glaciers their influence on ocean circulation and water temperatures may play a major part in controlling subsurface ice melt rates by impacting on the water masses reaching the calving front. Areas of open water also play a significant role in controlling the potential of the atmosphere to carry moisture, as well as allowing heat exchange between the atmosphere and ocean, and so can influence accumulation on (and hence thickness of) glaciers and ice caps. Polynya presence and size also has implications for sea ice extent and therefore potentially the buttressing effect on neighbouring

  3. Glacier albedo decrease in the European Alps: potential causes and links with mass balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, Biagio; Julitta, Tommaso; Colombo, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Both mountain glaciers and polar ice sheets are losing mass all over the Earth. They are highly sensitive to climate variation, and the widespread reduction of glaciers has been ascribed to the atmospheric temperature increase. Beside this driver, also ice albedo plays a fundamental role in defining mass balance of glaciers. In fact, dark ice absorbs more energy causing faster glacier melting, and this can drive to more negative balances. Previous studies showed that the albedo of Himalayan glaciers and the Greenland Ice Sheet is decreasing with important rates. In this contribution, we tested the hypothesis that also glaciers in the European Alps are getting darker. We analyzed 16-year time series of MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) snow albedo from Terra (MOD13A1, 2000-2015) and Aqua (MYD13A1, 2002-2015) satellites. These data feature a spatial resolution of 500m and a daily temporal resolution. We evaluated the existence of a negative linear and nonlinear trend of the summer albedo values both at pixel and at glacier level. We also calculated the correlation between MODIS summer albedo and glacier mass balances (from the World Glaciological Monitoring Service, WGMS database), for all the glaciers with available mass balance during the considered period. In order to estimate the percentage of the summer albedo that can be explained by atmospheric temperature, we correlated MODIS albedo and monthly air temperature extracted from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. Results show that decreasing trends exist with a strong spatial variability in the whole Alpine chain. In large glaciers, such as the Aletch (Swiss Alps), the trend varies significantly also within the glacier, showing that the trend is higher in the area across the accumulation and ablation zone. Over the 17 glaciers with mass balance available in the WGMS data set, 11 gave significant relationship with the MODIS summer albedo. Moreover, the comparison between ERA-Interim temperature

  4. Thinning of the Monte Perdido Glacier in the Spanish Pyrenees since 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Revuelto, Jesús; Rico, Ibai; Chueca-Cía, Javier; Julián, Asunción; Serreta, Alfredo; Serrano, Enrique; Martín Vicente-Serrano, Sergio; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Alonso-González, Esteban; María García-Ruiz, José

    2016-03-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of the Monte Perdido Glacier, the third largest glacier in the Pyrenees, from 1981 to the present. We assessed the evolution of the glacier's surface area by analysis of aerial photographs from 1981, 1999, and 2006, and changes in ice volume by geodetic methods with digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from topographic maps (1981 and 1999), airborne lidar (2010) and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014) data. We interpreted the changes in the glacier based on climate data from nearby meteorological stations. The results indicate that the degradation of this glacier accelerated after 1999. The rate of ice surface loss was almost three times greater during 1999-2006 than during earlier periods. Moreover, the rate of glacier thinning was 1.85 times faster during 1999-2010 (rate of surface elevation change = -8.98 ± 1.80 m, glacier-wide mass balance = -0.73 ± 0.14 m w.e. yr-1) than during 1981-1999 (rate of surface elevation change = -8.35 ± 2.12 m, glacier-wide mass balance = -0.42 ± 0.10 m w.e. yr-1). From 2011 to 2014, ice thinning continued at a slower rate (rate of surface elevation change = -1.93 ± 0.4 m yr-1, glacier-wide mass balance = -0.58 ± 0.36 m w.e. yr-1). This deceleration in ice thinning compared to the previous 17 years can be attributed, at least in part, to two consecutive anomalously wet winters and cool summers (2012-2013 and 2013-2014), counteracted to some degree by the intense thinning that occurred during the dry and warm 2011-2012 period. However, local climatic changes observed during the study period do not seem sufficient to explain the acceleration of ice thinning of this glacier, because precipitation and air temperature did not exhibit statistically significant trends during the study period. Rather, the accelerated degradation of this glacier in recent years can be explained by a strong disequilibrium between the glacier and the current climate, and likely by other

  5. Columbia Glacier, Alaska, 1986-2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Columbia Glacier in Alaska is one of many vanishing around the world. Glacier retreat is one of the most direct and understandable effects of climate change. The consequences of the decline in ...

  6. Rapid thinning and collapse of lake calving Yakutat Glacier, Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trussel, Barbara Lea

    Glaciers around the globe are experiencing a notable retreat and thinning, triggered by atmospheric warming. Tidewater glaciers in particular have received much attention, because they have been recognized to contribute substantially to global sea level rise. However, lake calving glaciers in Alaska show increasingly high thinning and retreat rates and are therefore contributors to sea level rise. The number of such lake calving systems is increasing worldwide as land-terminating glaciers retreat into overdeepened basins and form proglacial lakes. Yakutat Glacier in Southeast Alaska is a low elevation lake calving glacier with an accumulation to total area ratio of 0.03. It experienced rapid thinning of 4.43 +/- 0.06 m w.e. yr-1 between 2000-2010 and terminus retreat of over 15 km since the beginning of the 20th century. Simultaneously, adjacent Yakutat Icefield land-terminating glaciers thinned at lower but still substantial rates (3.54 +/- 0.06 m w.e. yr -1 for the same time period), indicating lake calving dynamics help drive increased mass loss. Yakutat Glacier sustained a ˜3 km long floating tongue for over a decade, which started to disintegrate into large tabular icebergs in 2010. Such floating tongues are rarely seen on temperate tidewater glaciers. The floating ice was weakened by surface ablation, which then allowed rifts to form and intersect. Ice velocity from GPS measurements showed that the ice on the floating tongue was moving substantially faster than grounded ice, which was attributed to rift opening between the floating and grounded ice. Temporal variations of rift opening were determined from time-lapse imagery, and correlated well with variations in ice speeds. Larger rift opening rates occurred during and after precipitation or increased melt episodes. Both of these events increased subglacial discharge and could potentially increase the subaqueous currents towards the open lake and thus increase drag on the ice underside. Simultaneously

  7. Analysis of time series of glacier speed: Columbia Glacier, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, R.A.; Dunlap, W.W.

    1987-01-01

    During the summer of 1984 and 1985, laser measurements were made of the distance from a reference location to markers on the surface of the lower reach of Columbia Glacier, Alaska. The speed varies from 7 to 15 m/d and has three noteworthy components: 1) a low-frequency perturbation in speed with a time scale of days related to increased precipitation, 2) semidiurnal and diurnal variations related to sea tides, and 3) diurnal variations related to glacier surface melt. -from Authors

  8. Glacier Mass Balance measurements in Bhutan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Miriam; Tenzin, Sangay; Tashi, Tshering

    2014-05-01

    Long-term glacier measurements are scarce in the Himalayas, partly due to lack of resources as well as inaccessibility of most of the glaciers. There are over 600 glaciers in Bhutan in the Eastern Himalayas, but no long-term measurements. However, such studies are an important component of hydrological modelling, and especially relevant to the proposed expansion of hydropower resources in this area. Glaciological studies are also critical to understanding the risk of jøkulhlaups or GLOFS (glacier lake outburst floods) from glaciers in this region. Glacier mass balance measurements have been initiated on a glacier in the Chamkhar Chu region in central Bhutan by the Department of Hydro-Met Services in co-operation with the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate. Chamkhar Chu is the site of two proposed hydropower plants that will each generate over 700 MW, although the present and future hydrological regimes in this basin, and especially the contribution from glaciers, are not well-understood at present. There are about 94 glaciers in the Chamkhar Chhu basin and total glacier area is about 75 sq. km. The glaciers are relatively accessible for the Himalayas, most of them can be reached after only 4-5 days walk from the nearest road. One of the largest, Thana glacier, has been chosen as a mass balance glacier and measurements were initiated in 2013. The glacier area is almost 5 sq. km. and the elevation range is 500 m (5071 m a.s.l. to 5725 m a.s.l.) making it suitable as a benchmark glacier. Preliminary measurements on a smaller, nearby glacier that was visited in 2012 and 2013 showed 1 m of firn loss (about 0.6 m w.eq.) over 12 months.

  9. Recession of Thwaites Glacier: inferring relevant processes using the ice sheet model Elmer/Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Nacho; Durand, Gael; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Gourmelen, Noel; Stumpf, Andre; Lampert, Thomas; Gagliardini, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Numerous studies focusing on ice sheets mass balance clearly show an increasing ice discharge mainly induced by the acceleration of ice flow through coastal outlet glaciers. As a crucial impact, imbalance of both Greenland and Antarctica is today an essential driver of the current sea level rise. In the specific case of West Antarctica, the Amundsen Sea sector is the most impacted region and current recession may be the first sign of a large, unstable and irrevocable retreat of the whole region. Projecting the forthcoming behavior of that sector in general, and the most out of balance Pine Island and Thwaites Glacier is therefore a large matter of concern. Using notably the 3D full-Stokes ice sheet model Elmer/Ice, a recent study has shown that the Pine Island Glacier retreat is currently driven by marine ice sheet instability. Here, we use similar methodologies to investigate the condition of stability of the neighboring Thwaites glacier. In particular, we focus on the effect of ice rises and induced crevasses onto the ice flow and show that their impact is of crucial importance prior to any attempt of projecting the short term response of Twaites glacier.

  10. Longitudinal surface structures (flowstripes) on Antarctic glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, N. F.; Gudmundsson, G. H.

    2012-03-01

    Longitudinal surface structures ("flowstripes") are common on many glaciers but their origin and significance are poorly understood. In this paper we present observations of the development of these longitudinal structures from four different Antarctic glacier systems; the Lambert Glacier/Amery Ice Shelf area, the Taylor and Ferrar Glaciers in the Ross Sea sector, Crane and Jorum Glaciers (ice-shelf tributary glaciers) on the Antarctic Peninsula, and the onset zone of a tributary to the Recovery Glacier Ice Stream in the Filchner Ice Shelf area. Mapping from optical satellite images demonstrates that longitudinal surface structures develop in two main situations: (1) as relatively wide flow stripes within glacier flow units and (2) as relatively narrow flow stripes where there is convergent flow around nunataks or at glacier confluence zones. Our observations indicate that the confluence features are narrower, sharper, and more clearly defined features. They are characterised by linear troughs or depressions on the ice surface and are much more common than the former type. Longitudinal surface structures within glacier flow units have previously been explained as the surface expression of localised bed perturbations but a universal explanation for those forming at glacier confluences is lacking. Here we propose that these features are formed at zones of ice acceleration and extensional flow at glacier confluences. We provide a schematic model for the development of longitudinal surface structures based on extensional flow that can explain their ridge and trough morphology as well as their down-ice persistence.

  11. Get Close to Glaciers with Satellite Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Dorothy K.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of remote sensing from satellites to monitor glaciers. Discusses efforts to use remote sensing satellites of the Landsat series for examining the global distribution, mass, balance, movements, and dynamics of the world's glaciers. Includes several Landsat images of various glaciers. (TW)

  12. Flow velocities of Alaskan glaciers.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Evan W; Forster, Richard R; Larsen, Christopher F

    2013-01-01

    Our poor understanding of tidewater glacier dynamics remains the primary source of uncertainty in sea level rise projections. On the ice sheets, mass lost from tidewater calving exceeds the amount lost from surface melting. In Alaska, the magnitude of calving mass loss remains unconstrained, yet immense calving losses have been observed. With 20% of the global new-water sea level rise coming from Alaska, partitioning of mass loss sources in Alaska is needed to improve sea level rise projections. Here we present the first regionally comprehensive map of glacier flow velocities in Central Alaska. These data reveal that the majority of the regional downstream flux is constrained to only a few coastal glaciers. We find regional calving losses are 17.1 Gt a(-1), which is equivalent to 36% of the total annual mass change throughout Central Alaska. PMID:23857302

  13. Erosion by an Alpine glacier.

    PubMed

    Herman, Frédéric; Beyssac, Olivier; Brughelli, Mattia; Lane, Stuart N; Leprince, Sébastien; Adatte, Thierry; Lin, Jiao Y Y; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Cox, Simon C

    2015-10-01

    Assessing the impact of glaciation on Earth's surface requires understanding glacial erosion processes. Developing erosion theories is challenging because of the complex nature of the erosion processes and the difficulty of examining the ice/bedrock interface of contemporary glaciers. We demonstrate that the glacial erosion rate is proportional to the ice-sliding velocity squared, by quantifying spatial variations in ice-sliding velocity and the erosion rate of a fast-flowing Alpine glacier. The nonlinear behavior implies a high erosion sensitivity to small variations in topographic slope and precipitation. A nonlinear rate law suggests that abrasion may dominate over other erosion processes in fast-flowing glaciers. It may also explain the wide range of observed glacial erosion rates and, in part, the impact of glaciation on mountainous landscapes during the past few million years. PMID:26450208

  14. Particles That Travel Faster than Light?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Roger G.

    1970-01-01

    A discussion of the possible existence of tachyons, particles that travel faster than light, and their theoretical properties. Suggests that if tachyons were found, the consequences for relativity theory, quantum mechanics and the concept of casuality would be far-reaching. Concludes that the final answer rests with the experimentalist.…

  15. Assessing streamflow sensitivity to variations in glacier mass balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neel, Shad; Hood, Eran; Arendt, Anthony; Sass, Louis

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate relationships among seasonal and annual glacier mass balances, glacier runoff and streamflow in two glacierized basins in different climate settings. We use long-term glacier mass balance and streamflow datasets from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Alaska Benchmark Glacier Program to compare and contrast glacier-streamflow interactions in a maritime climate (Wolverine Glacier) with those in a continental climate (Gulkana Glacier). Our overall goal is to improve our understanding of how glacier mass balance processes impact streamflow, ultimately improving our conceptual understanding of the future evolution of glacier runoff in continental and maritime climates.

  16. Integrated Ground-Based LiDAR and Global Fiducials Program Satellite Imagery Time Series Analysis of the Terminus of Bering Glacier, Alaska During the 2008-2011 Surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawden, G. W.; Molnia, B. F.; Howle, J.; Bond, S.; Angeli, K.; Shuchman, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite imagery from the Global Fiducials Program (GFP: classified satellite imagery released to the general public for science use: http://gfl.usgs.gov) tracked the 2008-2011 surge of the Bering Glacier, the largest and longest glacier in North America. The terminus displacement began in late 2010, with maximum velocities of greater than 20 meters per day by late January 2011, as measured using feature tracking with GFP imagery. By July, the velocities had decreased to less than 10 m/d. We used the GFP imagery to locate three helicopter accessible targets on the terminus of the Bering Glacier to collect high-resolution (0.5-4 cm spot spacing) 4D time-series tripod/terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) data. During the week of July 24, 2011 we collected hourly and daily T-LiDAR data to resolve spatially and temporally varied advancement rates at each of the sites. The first site was located on the west side of Tashalich arm on the western side of the Bering Lobe terminus proximal to the region where the maximum GFP velocities had previously been measured. Using the T-LiDAR data, we found that the terminus advanced 5.4 m over 76 hours of observation. The hourly advancement rates for the same location are a very consistent 4.2 cm/h during our daylight hours of observation (0900-1800 local) and when daily rate are extrapolated to the full 76 hours, we should have measured 3.2 m of horizontal displacement: this is a discrepancy between the total and hourly measured displacements of an additional 2.2 m of motion during the night and early morning hours (1800-0900 local). The additional motion may be explained by accelerated terminus velocity associated with daily thermal heating and resulting melt. Motion may also be explained by rain on the second day of the survey that "lubricated" the glacier bed thereby allowing it to advance at a faster velocity. The second site was on Arrowhead Island, located on the eastern side of the terminus where the vertical relieve of the glacier

  17. Uniform summer cooling drove glacier re-advance across New Zealand during the late-glacial climate reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaves, S.; Mackintosh, A. N.; Winckler, G.; Schaefer, J. M.; Anderson, B.; Townsend, D.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid, millennial-scale climate events characterised the last global glacial-interglacial transition (18-11 ka). In New Zealand, the timing and magnitude of climatic events during this period are poorly understood. Improving our understanding of these events will help to identify the mechanisms via which rapid shifts in climate occur. In this study, we report results from geomorphological mapping, cosmogenic 3He exposure dating and numerical glacier modelling, which show evidence for re-advance of mountain glaciers on Mt Ruapehu in central North Island, New Zealand (39°S) during the late glacial chron (15-11 ka). Using a distributed energy balance model, coupled with a 2D ice flow model, we perform a range of experiments and sensitivity analyses to constrain estimates of past temperature associated with the mapped and dated former ice limits. We find that glaciers in North Island re-advanced early in the late glacial period in response to a likely temperature cooling of 2.5 - 3.4 °C relative to present day, assuming precipitation remained within ± 20% of present. This reconstructed cooling is greater than recorded in nearby pollen archives, which may reflect a seasonal bias between climate proxies. Using our glacier model, we quantify the length sensitivity of glaciers on Mt. Ruapehu to seasonal climate changes. We find that a 3 °C cooling relative to present causes a c. 80% increase in glacier length when applied to the austral summer months (Dec-Feb), compared to c. 20% in winter (June-August). Thus, glaciers in North Island, New Zealand are most sensitive to temperature changes during summer. Strong agreement between our late-glacial reconstructions and other summer temperature proxy records (e.g. mountain glaciers, chironomids) from the Southern Alps, suggest New Zealand experienced uniform summertime cooling during the late-glacial climate reversal.

  18. Mesoscale Icefield Breezes over Athbasca Glacier.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, J. P.; Helgason, W.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Sicart, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) dynamics over glaciers are of great interest as they can modify the response of glacier mass balance to large scale climate forcing. A key feature of the glacier ABL is formation of katabatic winds driven by turbulent sensible heat exchange with a cooler underlying ice surface. These winds can markedly alter the spatio-temporal distribution of air temperature over glacier surfaces from the environmental lapse rate, which in turn affects the distribution of melt. An intensive field campaign was conducted over 13 days in June 2015 at Athabasca Glacier, an outlet of Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains of Canada. Multiple automatic weather stations, eddy covariance systems, distributed temperature sensors, SODAR and kite profiling systems were used to characterise how the glacier ABL evolved spatially and temporally, how the differences in glacier ABL properties were related to valley and regional circulation and what effect these differences had on surface lapse rates. In general strong daytime down-glacier winds were observed over the glacier. These winds extended well beyond the glacier into the proglacial area and through the depth of lower ice-free valley. On most days wind speed was consistent or increasing through to the top of the above-glacier profiles (100 to 200 m), indicating a quite well mixed surface boundary layer. A wind speed maximum in the lowest few metres above the glacier surface, characteristic of a katabatic wind, was only observed on one day. The dominant circulation within the valley appears to be what could be termed an 'icefield breeze'; strong down-glacier winds driven by mesoscale pressure gradients that are set up by differential suface heating over the non-glaciated valleys and much the larger Columbia Icefield upstream of the glacier. The effect of the different circulations on lapse rates will be explored with a view to developing variable lapse rates for modelling glacier mass balance.

  19. Reconstruction of Equilibrium Line Altitudes of Nevado Coropuna Glaciers (Southern Peru) from the Late Pleistocene to the present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Úbeda, J.; Palacios, D.; Vázquez, L.

    2009-04-01

    also higher for all periods in the Northern section (5968, 5930, 5923, 5886 and 5186 m) than in the Southern section (5862, 5806, 5787 and 4951 m). The depression in ELAs during the LIA was similar in the NE (~82 m) and in the SE (~86 m). However, the 2007 ELA shows a depression of 106 m in the Southern direction. The magnitude of this depression has shown a marked tendency towards reduction in recent decades (136 m in 1955 and 124 m in 1986). Furthermore, the decrease in ELA depression seems to occur faster, with ↓Z ~12 m between 1955 and 1986 and ↓Z ~18 m between 1986 and 2007. However, during the Little Ice Age (~110 m) that value was closer to the current value (106 m). Depression in ELAs during the last maximum glacier advance has been estimated at ~782 m (NE) and ~847 m (SE). During that period, the N-S depression reached a maximum value of 235 m. These results agree with those obtained for the eastern range of the Central Andes (Smith et al. 2005 a and b) and are also within the depression intervals and trends proposed in regional-scale studies (Kelin et al. 1999). Analyses performed on a sample from a block situated on a lateral moraine in the Queñua Ranra Quebrada (NE group of the complex) suggest a chronology of ~17 Cl36 ky. for the last maximum ice mass advance. This date is in agreement with the depression in SST temperature during the same period, deduced from analyzing Mg/Ca ratios in marine foraminifera shells from the Galapagos Islands (Lea, 2006). Using surfaces and ELAs as geoindicators, deglaciation rates and the Horizon without glaciers (H0) have been calculated globally, for the complete glacier system in scenarios 1 and 2, and for glaciers in the pilot group in scenarios 1, 2 and 3. Results show that the deglaciation process is occurring differentially. Whereas several masses could disappear in a few decades, others could be preserved for centuries. Regarding the last phase of volcanic activity, a lava sample has been dated at only ~2

  20. Glacier recession in Iceland and Austria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Bayr, Klaus J.

    1992-01-01

    It has been possible to measure glacier recession on the basis of Landsat data, in conjunction with comparisons of the magnitude of recession of a glacier margin with in situ measurements at fixed points along the same margin. Attention is presently given to the cases of Vatnajokull ice cap, in Iceland, and the Pasterze Glacier, in Austria, on the basis of satellite data from 1973-1987 and 1984-1990, respectively. Indications of a trend toward negative mass balance are noted. Nevertheless, while most of the world's small glaciers have been receding, some are advancing either due to local climate or the tidewater glacier cycle.

  1. Glacier recession in Iceland and Austria

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.K.; Williams, R.S. Jr.; Bayr, K.J. USGS, Reston, VA Keene State College, NH )

    1992-03-01

    It has been possible to measure glacier recession on the basis of Landsat data, in conjunction with comparisons of the magnitude of recession of a glacier margin with in situ measurements at fixed points along the same margin. Attention is presently given to the cases of Vatnajokull ice cap, in Iceland, and the Pasterze Glacier, in Austria, on the basis of satellite data from 1973-1987 and 1984-1990, respectively. Indications of a trend toward negative mass balance are noted. Nevertheless, while most of the world's small glaciers have been receding, some are advancing either due to local climate or the tidewater glacier cycle. 21 refs.

  2. Younger Dryas Age advance of Franz Josef Glacier in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, G.H. ); Hendy, C.H. )

    1994-06-03

    A corrected radiocarbon age of 11,050 [+-] 14 years before present for an advance of the Franz Josef Glacier to the Waiho Loop terminal moraine on the western flank of New Zealand's Southern Alps shows that glacier advance on a South Pacific island was synchronous with initiation of the Younger Dryas in the North Atlantic region. Hence, cooling at the beginning of the Younger Dryas probably reflects global rather than regional forcing. The source for Younger Dryas climatic cooling may thus lie in the atmosphere rather than in a North Atlantic thermohaline switch. 36 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Relativistic kinematics for motion faster than light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    The use of conformal coordinates in relativistic kinematics is illustrated and a simple extension of the theory of motions faster than light is provided. An object traveling at a speed greater than light discloses its presence by appearing suddenly at a point, splitting into two apparent objects which then recede from each other at sublight velocities. According to the present theory motion at speeds faster than light would not benefit a space traveler, since the twin paradox becomes inverted at such speeds. In Einstein's theory travel at the velocity of light in an intertial system is equivalent to infinite velocity for the traveler. In the present theory the converse is also true; travel at infinite velocity is equivalent to the velocity of light for the traveler.

  4. The contribution of glacier melt to streamflow

    SciTech Connect

    Schaner, Neil; Voisin, Nathalie; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-09-13

    Ongoing and projected future changes in glacier extent and water storage globally have lead to concerns about the implications for water supplies. However, the current magnitude of glacier contributions to river runoff is not well known, nor is the population at risk to future glacier changes. We estimate an upper bound on glacier melt contribution to seasonal streamflow by computing the energy balance of glaciers globally. Melt water quantities are computed as a fraction of total streamflow simulated using a hydrology model and the melt fraction is tracked down the stream network. In general, our estimates of the glacier melt contribution to streamflow are lower than previously published values. Nonetheless, we find that globally an estimated 225 (36) million people live in river basins where maximum seasonal glacier melt contributes at least 10% (25%) of streamflow, mostly in the High Asia region.

  5. Spatially heterogeneous wastage of Himalayan glaciers

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Koji; Nuimura, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    We describe volumetric changes in three benchmark glaciers in the Nepal Himalayas on which observations have been made since the 1970s. Compared with the global mean of glacier mass balance, the Himalayan glaciers showed rapid wastage in the 1970s–1990s, but similar wastage in the last decade. In the last decade, a glacier in an arid climate showed negative but suppressed mass balance compared with the period 1970s–1990s, whereas two glaciers in a humid climate showed accelerated wastage. A mass balance model with downscaled gridded datasets depicts the fate of the observed glaciers. We also show a spatially heterogeneous distribution of glacier wastage in the Asian highlands, even under the present-day climate warming. PMID:21808042

  6. CORSIKA modifications for faster background generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jero, Kyle

    2016-04-01

    CORSIKA is a simulation program for extensive air showers initiated by high energy cosmic particles. These air showers create the majority of the muons and neutrinos which neutrino that telescopes detect and are considered a background signature in searches for astrophysical neutrinos. This contribution will discuss changes to CORSIKA which allow for faster high energy background simulation. The theory, implementation, application, and performance of these modifications will be presented.

  7. Mountain Glaciers and Ice Caps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ananichheva, Maria; Arendt, Anthony; Hagen, Jon-Ove; Hock, Regine; Josberger, Edward G.; Moore, R. Dan; Pfeffer, William Tad; Wolken, Gabriel J.

    2011-01-01

    Projections of future rates of mass loss from mountain glaciers and ice caps in the Arctic focus primarily on projections of changes in the surface mass balance. Current models are not yet capable of making realistic forecasts of changes in losses by calving. Surface mass balance models are forced with downscaled output from climate models driven by forcing scenarios that make assumptions about the future rate of growth of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Thus, mass loss projections vary considerably, depending on the forcing scenario used and the climate model from which climate projections are derived. A new study in which a surface mass balance model is driven by output from ten general circulation models (GCMs) forced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A1B emissions scenario yields estimates of total mass loss of between 51 and 136 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE) (or 13% to 36% of current glacier volume) by 2100. This implies that there will still be substantial glacier mass in the Arctic in 2100 and that Arctic mountain glaciers and ice caps will continue to influence global sea-level change well into the 22nd century.

  8. UV - GLACIER NATIONAL PARK MT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brewer 134 is located in Glacier NP, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instruments, Inc. of ...

  9. Microbial Habitat on Kilimanjaro's Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce, A.; Beaty, S. M.; Lee, C.; Lee, C.; Noell, A. C.; Stam, C. N.; Connon, S. A.

    2011-03-01

    Kilimanjaro glaciers captured a history of microbial diversity and abundance of supraglacial habitats. We show that a majority of bacterial clones, as determined by bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, are most closely related to those isolated from cold-water environments.

  10. Compressing bitmap indexes for faster search operations

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow J.; Shoshani, Arie

    2002-04-25

    In this paper, we study the effects of compression on bitmap indexes. The main operations on the bitmaps during query processing are bitwise logical operations such as AND, OR, NOT, etc. Using the general purpose compression schemes, such as gzip, the logical operations on the compressed bitmaps are much slower than on the uncompressed bitmaps. Specialized compression schemes, like the byte-aligned bitmap code(BBC), are usually faster in performing logical operations than the general purpose schemes, but in many cases they are still orders of magnitude slower than the uncompressed scheme. To make the compressed bitmap indexes operate more efficiently, we designed a CPU-friendly scheme which we refer to as the word-aligned hybrid code (WAH). Tests on both synthetic and real application data show that the new scheme significantly outperforms well-known compression schemes at a modest increase in storage space. Compared to BBC, a scheme well-known for its operational efficiency, WAH performs logical operations about 12 times faster and uses only 60 percent more space. Compared to the uncompressed scheme, in most test cases WAH is faster while still using less space. We further verified with additional tests that the improvement in logical operation speed translates to similar improvement in query processing speed.

  11. The current disequilibrium of North Cascade glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelto, Mauri S.

    2006-03-01

    Three lines of evidence indicate that North Cascade (Washington, USA) glaciers are currently in a state of disequilibrium. First, annual balance measured on nine glaciers yields a mean cumulative balance for the 1984-2004 period of -8.58 m water equivalent (w.e.), a net loss of ice thickness exceeding 9.5 m. This is a significant loss for glaciers that average 30-50 m in thickness, representing 18-32% of their entire volume.Second, longitudinal profiles completed in 1984 and 2002 on 12 North Cascade glaciers confirm this volume change indicating a loss of -5.7 to -6.3 m in thickness (5.0-5.6 m w.e.) between 1984 and 2002, agreeing well with the measured cumulative balance of -5.52 m w.e. for the same period. The change in thickness on several glaciers has been equally substantial in the accumulation zone and the ablation zone, indicating that there is no point to which the glacier can retreat to achieve equilibrium. Substantial thinning along the entire length of a glacier is the key indicator that a glacier is in disequilibrium.Third, North Cascade glacier retreat is rapid and ubiquitous. All 47 glaciers monitored are currently undergoing significant retreat or, in the case of four, have disappeared. Two of the glaciers where mass balance observations were begun, Spider Glacier and Lewis Glacier, have disappeared. The retreat since 1984 of eight Mount Baker glaciers that were all advancing in 1975 has averaged 297 m. These observations indicate broad regional continuity in glacial response to climate.

  12. Imaging evidence for Hubbard Glacier advances and retreats since the last glacial maximum in Yakutat and Disenchantment Bays, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbuchen, Julie M.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Walton, Maureen A. L.; Goff, John A.

    2015-06-01

    High-resolution 2-D multichannel seismic data, collected during the 2012 UTIG-USGS National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program survey of Disenchantment and Yakutat Bays in southeast Alaska, provide insight into their glacial history. These data show evidence of two unconformities, appearing in the form of channels, and are interpreted to be advance pathways for Hubbard Glacier. The youngest observable channel, thought to have culminated near the main phase of the Little Ice Age (LIA), is imaged in Disenchantment Bay and ends at a terminal moraine near Blizhni Point. An older channel, thought to be from an advance that culminated in the early phase of the LIA, extends from Disenchantment Bay into the northeastern edge of Yakutat Bay, turning southward at Knight Island and terminating on the southeastern edge of Yakutat Bay. Our interpretation is that Hubbard Glacier has repeatedly advanced around the east side of Yakutat Bay in Knight Island Channel, possibly due to the presence of Malaspina Glacier cutting off access to central Yakutat Bay during times of mutual advance. We observe two distinct erosional surfaces and retreat sequences of Hubbard Glacier in Yakutat Bay, supporting the hypothesis that minor glacial advances in fjords do not erode all prior sediment accumulations. Interpretation of chaotic seismic facies between these two unconformities suggests that Hubbard Glacier exhibits rapid retreats and that Disenchantment Bay is subject to numerous episodes of outburst flooding and morainal bank collapse. These findings also suggest that tidewater glaciers preferentially reoccupy the same channels in bay and marine settings during advances.

  13. A model study of Abrahamsenbreen, a surging glacier in northern Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oerlemans, J.; van Pelt, W. J. J.

    2015-04-01

    The climate sensitivity of Abrahamsenbreen, a 20 km long surge-type glacier in northern Spitsbergen, is studied with a simple glacier model. A scheme to describe the surges is included, which makes it possible to account for the effect of surges on the total mass budget of the glacier. A climate reconstruction back to AD 1300, based on ice-core data from Lomonosovfonna and climate records from Longyearbyen, is used to drive the model. The model is calibrated by requesting that it produce the correct Little Ice Age maximum glacier length and simulate the observed magnitude of the 1978 surge. Abrahamsenbreen is strongly out of balance with the current climate. If climatic conditions remain as they were for the period 1989-2010, the glacier will ultimately shrink to a length of about 4 km (but this will take hundreds of years). For a climate change scenario involving a 2 m year-1 rise of the equilibrium line from now onwards, we predict that in the year 2100 Abrahamsenbreen will be about 12 km long. The main effect of a surge is to lower the mean surface elevation and thereby to increase the ablation area, causing a negative perturbation of the mass budget. We found that the occurrence of surges leads to a faster retreat of the glacier in a warming climate. Because of the very small bed slope, Abrahamsenbreen is sensitive to small perturbations in the equilibrium-line altitude. If the equilibrium line were lowered by only 160 m, the glacier would steadily grow into Woodfjorddalen until, after 2000 years, it would reach Woodfjord and calving would slow down the advance. The bed topography of Abrahamsenbreen is not known and was therefore inferred from the slope and length of the glacier. The value of the plasticity parameter needed to do this was varied by +20 and -20%. After recalibration the same climate change experiments were performed, showing that a thinner glacier (higher bedrock in this case) in a warming climate retreats somewhat faster.

  14. Maintenance of biodiversity on islands.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P

    2016-04-27

    MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called 'small-island effect' and an overall biphasic species-area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization-extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated). PMID:27122558

  15. OMEGA - an operational glacier monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellikka, P. K. E.

    2003-04-01

    Glacier changes reflect local climate changes and are one of the most important direct indicators of global climate change. In general, the glaciers are retreating in Europe, but some glaciers are advancing. However, even in small areas glacier responses can be different. The application of glaciers as indicators requires sufficient amount of glaciers, which is possible only with remote sensing methods. Remote sensing data have been used for glacier monitoring from the late 19th century, first as terrestrial photographs, but later as aerial photographs. A new era began in the 1970’s as optical satellite data became available. Since late 1990’s the glacier monitoring could be performed with numerous satellite and airborne sensors ranging from satellite radar data to airborne laser scanner data. All together, the development of new remote sensing technologies and methods provides many possibilities for studies of glacier features and parameters. The glacier parameters of interest in operational monitoring are the changes of glacier area and volume, and the variation of glacier zones, such as snow, firn and ice. These parameters enable the estimation of relative volume change, AAR and equilibrium line, for example. Operational monitoring involves that the remote sensing data to be used is available continuously, the image processing methods are accurate and the processing chain is developed so that the derivation of the aimed parameters works fluently. The OMEGA project aims at the development of an operational glacier monitoring system applying all the potential remote sensing data. The objectives are to develop workflows and semi-automatic image processing methodologies for different data types in order to retrieve glacier parameters, to construct databases of the study glaciers and to develop the prototype of an operational monitoring system. The test glaciers are Hintereisferner in Austria and Engabreen in Norway. The deliverable of the project is the OMEGA

  16. Glacier area changes in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khromova, Tatiana; Nosenko, Gennady; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Muraviev, Anton; Chernova, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    Glaciers are widely recognized as key indicators of climate change. Recent evidence suggests an acceleration of glacier mass loss in several key mountain regions. Glacier recession implies landscape changes in the glacial zone, the origin of new lakes and activation of natural disaster processes, catastrophic mudflows, ice avalanches, outburst floods, etc. The absence or inadequacy of such information results in financial and human losses. A more comprehensive evaluation of glacier changes is imperative to assess ice contributions to global sea level rise and the future of water resources from glacial basins. One of the urgent steps is a full inventory of all ice bodies and their changes. The first estimation of glacier state and glacier distribution on the territory of the former Soviet Union has been done in the USSR Glacier Inventory (UGI) published in 1965-1982. The UGI is based on topographic maps and air photos and reflects the status of the glaciers in the 1940s-1970s. There is information about 28 884 glaciers with an area of 7830.75 km2 in the inventory. It covers 25 glacier systems in Northern Eurasia. In the 1980s the UGI has been transformed into digital form as a part of the World Glacier Inventory (WGI). Recent satellite data provide a unique opportunity to look again at these glaciers and to evaluate changes in glacier extent for the second part of the 20th century. About 15 000 glacier outlines for the Caucasus, Polar Urals, Pamir Alay, Tien Shan, Altai, Kamchatka and Russian Arctic have been derived from ASTER and Landsat imagery and can be used for glacier change evaluation. Results of the analysis indicate the steady trend in glacier shrinkage in all mountain regions for the second part of the 20th century. Glacier area loss for the studied regions varies from 13% (Tien Shan) to 22.3% (Polar Urals). The common driver, most likely, is an increase in summer air temperature. There is also a very large variability in the degree of individual

  17. Glaciers in the Rupal Valley (Nanga Parbat)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Nüsser, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The widely discussed controversy about Himalayan glacier changes instigated a current boom in studies on a regional scale. In contrast to often simplified assumptions of general and mostly rapid glacier retreat, recent studies show a more complex pattern with stable, advancing and retreating glaciers. Furthermore, changes of debris covered glaciers are discussed controversial. Due to the great vertical span and steep relief, large ice streams in the Himalaya and Karakoram are often primarily fed by avalanches. Their impact on glacier mass balances is often unconsidered in present studies. However, Hewitt (2014) highlighted the crucial role of snow and ice re-distribution by avalanches for Karakoram glaciers. He used a concept of glacier typology based on different nourishment processes introduced at the beginning of the 20th century. By using this concept, Hewitt classified large glaciers in order to identify the effect of avalanches on the mass balance, because many Karakoram glaciers show low down-wasting or even thickening processes described as the "Karakoram anomaly" (Hewitt 2005). Also in the Nanga Parbat region, the western corner of the High Himalaya, the topography is characterized by steep rock walls with vertical distances up to 4700 m. The debris covered glaciers reach down to 2920 m a.s.l. and are regularly fed by small and large avalanches. Our field based investigations show that the glaciers are characterized by small retreating rates since 1857, when Adolph Schlagintweit has mapped them for the first time; others such as the Raikot Glacier are fluctuating since 1934. Furthermore, the extent of down-wasting varies between different glaciers. By using multi-temporal satellite data, topographical maps, sketches and terrestrial photographs changes of glacier lengths were measured. In order to calculate the down-wasting rates, a digital elevation model (DEM) with a spatial resolution of 30x30 m² was derived from the digitized contour lines of the

  18. Hasty retreat of glaciers in northern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Frank; Mölg, Nico

    2014-05-01

    Mapping glacier extent from optical satellite data has become a most efficient tool to create or update glacier inventories and determine glacier changes over time. A most valuable archive in this regard is the nearly 30-year time series of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data that is freely available (already orthorectified) for most regions in the world from the USGS. One region with a most dramatic glacier shrinkage and a missing systematic assessment of changes, is the Palena province in Chile, located south of Puerto Montt in northern Patagonia. A major bottleneck for accurate determination of glacier changes in this region is related to the huge amounts of snow falling in this very maritime region, hiding the perimeter of glaciers throughout the year. Consequently, we found only three years with Landsat scenes that can be used to map glacier extent through time. We here present the results of a glacier change analysis from six Landsat scenes (path-rows 232-89/90) acquired in 1985, 2000 and 2011 covering the Palena district in Chile and neighbouring regions. Clean glacier ice was mapped automatically with a standard technique (TM3/TM band ratio) and manual editing was applied to remove wrongly classified lakes and to add debris-covered glacier parts. The digital elevation model (DEM) from ASTER (GDEM2) was used to derive drainage divides, determine glacier specific topographic parameters, and analyse the area changes in regard to topography. The scene from the year 2000 has the best snow conditions and was used to eliminate seasonal snow in the other two scenes by digital combination of the binary glacier masks and neighbourhood analysis. The derived mean relative area loss over the entire study area is 25%, showing a large spatial variability and a strong dependence on elevation. While small mountain glaciers at high elevations and steep slopes show only little change over the 26-year period, ice at low elevations from large valley glaciers shows a dramatic

  19. Modelling the behaviour of tidewater glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nick, Faezeh Maghami

    2006-09-01

    More than half of the annual mass transfer from whole cryosphere to the world's oceans occurs through calving. Uncertainties in predicting future sea level are partly caused by a lack of knowledge of the behaviour of calving glaciers. A better understanding of the factors that control the response of calving glaciers to climate change is needed to interpret the past or predict the future behaviour of these glaciers in a warmer climate. Over the past years, interest in the response of calving glaciers to climate change has increased considarably. Many bservational and modelling studies have been carried out to investigate the dynamics of the calving process and the associated response of the glacier terminus. It has been suggested that calving glaciers are inherently unstable showing a periodic advance and retreat that may be nearly independent of climate. The cycle of slow advance and rapid retreat of calving glaciers is mainly a function of fjord geometry, water depth at the glacier terminus, and sedimentation at the glacier front. Some other studies show that climate acts as a first-order control on the advance/retreat. Hence, the diverse behaviour of calving glaciers is a result of both internal dynamics and climate. In this thesis the dynamics of tidewater glaciers (temperate grounded calving glaciers) and the involved processes such as iceberg calving, basal sliding, and proglacial moraine bank are investigated. A numerical ice-flow model is developed, which simulates the rapid retreat and slow advance of tidewater glaciers very well. To construct a time-evolving numerical model that simulates the behaviour of calving glaciers, it is necessary to formulate realistic calving boundary conditions. Empirical studies provide two different calving schemes, the flotation and the water-depth model. We introduce two numerical ice-flow models using the water-depth and the flotation scheme. The results show that any model in which the loss of ice at the glacier front

  20. LOUISIANA BARRIER ISLAND EROSION STUDY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H., Jr.; Penland, Shea; Williams, S. Jeffress; Suter, John R.

    1987-01-01

    During 1986, the U. S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey began a five-year cooperative study focused on the processes which cause erosion of barrier islands. These processes must be understood in order to predict future erosion and to better manage our coastal resources. The study area includes the Louisiana barrier islands which serve to protect 41% of the nation's wetlands. These islands are eroding faster than any other barrier islands in the United States, in places greater than 20 m/yr. The study is divided into three parts: geological development of barrier islands, quantitative processes of barrier island erosion and applications of results. The study focuses on barrier islands in Louisiana although many of the results are applicable nationwide.

  1. Generation of the relationship between glacier area and volume for a tropical glacier in Bolivian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Kinouchi, T.; Hasegawa, A.; Tsuda, M.; Iwami, Y.; Asaoka, Y.; Mendoza, J.

    2015-12-01

    In Andes, retreat of tropical glaciers is rapid, thus water resources currently available from glacierized catchments would be changed in its volume and temporal variations due to climate change and glacier shrinkage. The relationship between glacier area and volume is difficult to define however which is important to monitor glaciers especially those are remote or inaccessible. Water resources in La Paz and El Alto in Bolivia, strongly depend on the runoff from glacierized headwater catchments in the Cordillera Real, Andes, which is therefore selected as our study region.To predict annual glacier mass balances, PWRI-Distributed Hydrological Model (PWRI-DHM) was applied to simulate runoff from the partially glacierized catchments in high mountains (i.e. Condoriri-Huayna West headwater catchment located in the Cordillera Real, Bolivian Andes). PWRI-DHM is based on tank model concept in a distributed and 4-tank configuration including surface, unsaturated, aquifer, and river course tanks. The model was calibrated and validated with observed meteorological and hydrological data from 2011 to 2014 by considering different phases of precipitation, various runoff components from glacierized and non-glacierized areas, and the retarding effect by glacial lakes and wetlands. The model is then applied with MRI-AGCM outputs from 1987 to 2003 considering the shrinkage of glacier outlines since 1980s derived from Landsat data. Annual glacier mass balance in each 100m-grid was reproduced, with which the glacier area-volume relationship was generated with reasonable initial volume setting. Out study established a method to define the relationship between glacier area and volume by remote sensing information and glacier mass balances simulated by distributed hydrological model. Our results demonstrated that the changing trend of local glacier had a consistency the previous observed glacier area-volume relationship in the Cordillera Real.

  2. Using Metaphorical Models for Describing Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felzmann, Dirk

    2014-11-01

    To date, there has only been little conceptual change research regarding conceptions about glaciers. This study used the theoretical background of embodied cognition to reconstruct different metaphorical concepts with respect to the structure of a glacier. Applying the Model of Educational Reconstruction, the conceptions of students and scientists regarding glaciers were analysed. Students' conceptions were the result of teaching experiments whereby students received instruction about glaciers and ice ages and were then interviewed about their understandings. Scientists' conceptions were based on analyses of textbooks. Accordingly, four conceptual metaphors regarding the concept of a glacier were reconstructed: a glacier is a body of ice; a glacier is a container; a glacier is a reflexive body and a glacier is a flow. Students and scientists differ with respect to in which context they apply each conceptual metaphor. It was observed, however, that students vacillate among the various conceptual metaphors as they solve tasks. While the subject context of the task activates a specific conceptual metaphor, within the discussion about the solution, the students were able to adapt their conception by changing the conceptual metaphor. Educational strategies for teaching students about glaciers require specific language to activate the appropriate conceptual metaphors and explicit reflection regarding the various conceptual metaphors.

  3. Future glacier runoff at the global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huss, Matthias; Hock, Regine

    2016-04-01

    Water resources in mountain areas worldwide importantly depend on the runoff contribution by glaciers. Glacial water storage acts as an equilibrating element in the global hydrological cycle on various temporal scales. With ongoing and future glacier retreat a growing concern regarding water supply security in glacier-fed basins arises. However, glacier runoff projections at the regional or global scale are still rare and better models are urgently needed for planning and adaptation measures to cope with a changing seasonal distribution of water yields. Moreover, it is still an open debate in which region "peak water" - the maximum contribution of melting glaciers to runoff - has already been reached, i.e. whether increasing or declining annual runoff volumes must be expected. Here, we present results of a novel global glacier model for calculating the 21st century response of surface mass balance, three-dimensional glacier geometry and monthly water discharge for each individual glacier around the globe. The current surface geometry and thickness distribution for each of the world's roughly 200'000 glaciers is extracted from the Randolph Glacier Inventory and terrain models. Our simulations are driven with 14 Global Circulation Models from the CMIP5 project using the RCP4.5, RCP8.5 and RCP2.6 scenarios. We focus on the timing of peak water from glacierized catchments in all climatic regions of the earth and the corresponding importance of changes in the runoff regime on hydrological stress. The maximum rate of water release from glacial storage is subject to a high spatio-temporal variability depending on glacier characteristics and the transient response to climatic change. Furthermore, we discuss the significance of projected variations in glacier runoff in relation to the hydrology of the world's large-scale drainage basins and population distribution, and highlight 'hot spot' regions where the wastage of current ice volume is particularly relevant.

  4. Harnessing Light for Faster Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Looking for a faster computer? How about an optical computer that processes data streams simultaneously and works with the speed of light? In space, NASA researchers have formed optical thin-film. By turning these thin-films into very fast optical computer components, scientists could improve computer tasks, such as pattern recognition. Dr. Hossin Abdeldayem, physicist at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Al, is working with lasers as part of an optical system for pattern recognition. These systems can be used for automated fingerprinting, photographic scarning and the development of sophisticated artificial intelligence systems that can learn and evolve. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  5. From 'true' glaciers to rock glaciers? The case of the Llanos la Liebre rock glacier, dry Andes of Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, S.; Kinnard, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the dry Andes of Chile, rock glaciers are the most widespread and remarkable superficial landforms, and may constitute important solid water reservoirs. The existence of huge (up to 2-3 kilometres of length) rock glaciers located in deep cirques questions possible derivation from former 'true' glaciers. The issue is of importance (i) for understanding the mechanisms of the landscape evolution from glacial realm to periglacial realm, and (ii) because it may determine the ice content of the concerned rock glaciers. In the Colorado Río valley, in the upper part of the Elqui catchment (~30.15 deg. S and 70.80 deg. W), we investigated the internal structure of the Llanos la Liebre rock glacier using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). With 50 MHz antennas and a constant offset of 2 m between antennas, we performed various GPR profiles, especially a ~2.2 km-long one almost covering the entire length of the rock glacier. The processing and the subsequent interpretation of the GPR data were mainly based on the modelling of the radar wave velocity. Hence, the final representation of the internal structure of the rock glacier integrates the reconstructed stratigraphy, the 2-D velocity model, and first attempts for estimating the ice/water contents. The most striking results are: the neat identification of the base of the superficial blocky layer and of the rock glacier floor; the occurrence of stratigraphic patterns reminiscent of 'true' glaciers; the supremacy of high radar wave velocities in the upper part of the rock glacier. On the latter bases and taking into account the whole geomorphology of the site, the derivation of the Llanos la Liebre rock glacier from a former, buried glacier is debated.

  6. On the role of submarine melting of tidewater glaciers in driving the Greenland ice sheet out of balance (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rignot, E. J.; Koppes, M. N.; Velicogna, I.

    2009-12-01

    The Greenland ice sheet is losing mass and the rate of mass loss has been increasing with time. A recent comparison of the components contributing to the mass balance of the ice sheet suggests that half of the signal is caused by an increase in runoff and half by ice dynamics, i.e. the acceleration of outlet glaciers. The root cause of the glacier acceleration is a de-stabilization of the glacier frontal regions, i.e. an un-grounding of the frontal parts which reduces buttressing and allows faster rates of ice sliding to sea. While the role of surface melt water on the lubrication of the glacier bed has been highly publicized, detailed study of the effect of melt water on glacier flow suggest that it can only account for a moderate acceleration of glaciers. De-stabilization of glaciers from vertical thinning is key, yet the increase in runoff is not large enough to explain the observations. We propose instead that submarine melting of the glacier submerged faces has been the main trigger and control. In August 2008, we collected CTD and current measurements in the front of 4 glaciers, 100 km north of Jakobshavn Isbrae, in West Greenland. Calculation of heat and mass flow reveal submarine melt rates ranging from 1 to 3 meters per day, or 100 times larger than the rates of surface melt. Large variations exist from one glacier to the next, but the results suggest that submarine melting is a large contributor to glacier thinning, capable of explaining glacier un-grounding and de-stabilization. Submarine melting removes from 20% to 90% of the ice that reaches the ocean, the rest being discharged as icebergs. Prior studies totally ignored the role of submarine melting in Greenland and only considered iceberg calving. We conclude than more detailed studies of ice-ocean interactions in tidewater glacier environments are absolutely critical to better understand present-day and future evolutions of the Greenland ice sheet in a warming climate.

  7. Faster Algorithms on Branch and Clique Decompositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodlaender, Hans L.; van Leeuwen, Erik Jan; van Rooij, Johan M. M.; Vatshelle, Martin

    We combine two techniques recently introduced to obtain faster dynamic programming algorithms for optimization problems on graph decompositions. The unification of generalized fast subset convolution and fast matrix multiplication yields significant improvements to the running time of previous algorithms for several optimization problems. As an example, we give an O^{*}(3^{ω/2k}) time algorithm for Minimum Dominating Set on graphs of branchwidth k, improving on the previous O *(4 k ) algorithm. Here ω is the exponent in the running time of the best matrix multiplication algorithm (currently ω< 2.376). For graphs of cliquewidth k, we improve from O *(8 k ) to O *(4 k ). We also obtain an algorithm for counting the number of perfect matchings of a graph, given a branch decomposition of width k, that runs in time O^{*}(2^{ω/2k}). Generalizing these approaches, we obtain faster algorithms for all so-called [ρ,σ]-domination problems on branch decompositions if ρ and σ are finite or cofinite. The algorithms presented in this paper either attain or are very close to natural lower bounds for these problems.

  8. Benthic Trophic Interactions in an Antarctic Shallow Water Ecosystem Affected by Recent Glacier Retreat

    PubMed Central

    Pasotti, Francesca; Saravia, Leonardo Ariel; De Troch, Marleen; Tarantelli, Maria Soledad; Sahade, Ricardo; Vanreusel, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The western Antarctic Peninsula is experiencing strong environmental changes as a consequence of ongoing regional warming. Glaciers in the area are retreating rapidly and increased sediment-laden meltwater runoff threatens the benthic biodiversity at shallow depths. We identified three sites with a distinct glacier-retreat related history and different levels of glacial influence in the inner part of Potter Cove (King George Island, South Shetland Islands), a fjord-like embayment impacted since the 1950s by a tidewater glacier retreat. We compared the soft sediment meio- and macrofauna isotopic niche widths (δ13C and δ15N stable isotope analysis) at the three sites to investigate possible glacier retreat-related influences on benthic trophic interactions. The isotopic niches were locally shaped by the different degrees of glacier retreat-related disturbance within the Cove. Wider isotopic niche widths were found at the site that has become ice-free most recently, and narrower niches at the older ice-free sites. At an intermediate state of glacier retreat-related disturbance (e.g. via ice-growler scouring) species with different strategies could settle. The site at the earliest stage of post-retreat development was characterized by an assemblage with lower trophic redundancy. Generally, the isotopic niche widths increased with increasing size spectra of organisms within the community, excepting the youngest assemblage, where the pioneer colonizer meiofauna size class displayed the highest isotopic niche width. Meiofauna at all sites generally occupied positions in the isotopic space that suggested a detrital-pool food source and/or the presence of predatory taxa. In general ice scour and glacial impact appeared to play a two-fold role within the Cove: i) either stimulating trophic diversity by allowing continuous re-colonization of meiofaunal species or, ii) over time driving the benthic assemblages into a more compact trophic structure with increased

  9. Benthic Trophic Interactions in an Antarctic Shallow Water Ecosystem Affected by Recent Glacier Retreat.

    PubMed

    Pasotti, Francesca; Saravia, Leonardo Ariel; De Troch, Marleen; Tarantelli, Maria Soledad; Sahade, Ricardo; Vanreusel, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The western Antarctic Peninsula is experiencing strong environmental changes as a consequence of ongoing regional warming. Glaciers in the area are retreating rapidly and increased sediment-laden meltwater runoff threatens the benthic biodiversity at shallow depths. We identified three sites with a distinct glacier-retreat related history and different levels of glacial influence in the inner part of Potter Cove (King George Island, South Shetland Islands), a fjord-like embayment impacted since the 1950s by a tidewater glacier retreat. We compared the soft sediment meio- and macrofauna isotopic niche widths (δ13C and δ15N stable isotope analysis) at the three sites to investigate possible glacier retreat-related influences on benthic trophic interactions. The isotopic niches were locally shaped by the different degrees of glacier retreat-related disturbance within the Cove. Wider isotopic niche widths were found at the site that has become ice-free most recently, and narrower niches at the older ice-free sites. At an intermediate state of glacier retreat-related disturbance (e.g. via ice-growler scouring) species with different strategies could settle. The site at the earliest stage of post-retreat development was characterized by an assemblage with lower trophic redundancy. Generally, the isotopic niche widths increased with increasing size spectra of organisms within the community, excepting the youngest assemblage, where the pioneer colonizer meiofauna size class displayed the highest isotopic niche width. Meiofauna at all sites generally occupied positions in the isotopic space that suggested a detrital-pool food source and/or the presence of predatory taxa. In general ice scour and glacial impact appeared to play a two-fold role within the Cove: i) either stimulating trophic diversity by allowing continuous re-colonization of meiofaunal species or, ii) over time driving the benthic assemblages into a more compact trophic structure with increased

  10. Recent Observations and Structural Analysis of Surge-Type Glaciers in the Glacier Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, H.; Herzfeld, U. C.

    2003-12-01

    The Chugach-St.-Elias Mountains in North America hold the largest non-polar connected glaciated area of the world. Most of its larger glaciers are surge-type glaciers. In the summer of 2003, we collected aerial photographic and GPS data over numerous glaciers in the eastern St. Elias Mountains, including the Glacier Bay area. Observed glaciers include Davidson, Casement, McBride, Riggs, Cushing, Carroll, Rendu, Tsirku, Grand Pacific, Melbern, Ferris, Margerie, Johns Hopkins, Lamplugh, Reid, Burroughs, Morse, Muir and Willard Glaciers, of which Carroll, Rendu, Ferris, Grand Pacific, Johns Hopkins and Margerie Glaciers are surge-type glaciers. Our approach utilizes a quantitative analysis of surface patterns, following the principles of structural geology for the analysis of brittle-deformation patterns (manifested in crevasses) and ductile deformation patterns (visible in folded moraines). First results will be presented.

  11. Development of the FASTER Wheeled Bevameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L.; Eder, V.; Hoheneder, W.; Imhof, B.; Lewinger, W.; Ransom, S.; Saaj, C.; Weclewski, P.; Waclavicek, R.,

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a Wheeled Bevameter (WB) within the FASTER project (Forward Acquisition of Soil and Terrain Data for Exploration Rovers), funded by the European Union's FP7 programme. In FASTER, novel and innovative concepts for in situ forward sensing of soil properties and terrain conditions in the planned path of a planetary rover are developed. Terrain strength measurements for assessment of the mobility of crosscountry vehicles have decades of heritage on Earth, but typically trafficability of terrains is only gauged by human operators ahead of vehicle operations rather than in-line by probes deployed from the vehicle itself, as is intended for FASTER. For FASTER, a Wheeled Bevameter (WB) has been selected as the terrain sensing instrument for the vehicle. Wheeled Bevameters are suitable for terrain measurements while driving but traditionally have mostly been employed on terrestrial vehicles to evaluate particular wheel designs. The WB as conceived in FASTER uses a dedicated, passive-rolling test wheel (‚test wheel') placed on the terrain as the loading device to enable to determine bearing strength, compressive strength and shear strength of the terrain immediately ahead of the vehicle, as well as rover-terrain interaction parameters used in semi-empirical vehicle-terrain traction models. The WB includes a placement mechanism for the test wheel. The test wheel would remain lowered onto the ground during nominal rover motion, including when climbing and descending slopes. During normal operations, the placement mechanism assumes the function of a passive suspension of the wheel, allowing it to follow the terrain contour. Quantities measured with the WB are: test wheel sinkage (through a laser sensor), test wheel vertical load, test wheel horizontal reaction force, and test wheel rotation rate. Measurements are performed while the rover is in motion. Measured test wheel rotation rate (with appropriate corrections for slight skid) can

  12. Active seismoelectric exploration of glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulessa, B.; Murray, T.; Rippin, D.

    2006-04-01

    Repeatable and strong seismoelectric signals were recorded on Glacier de Tsanfleuron, Switzerland, using a vertical sounding geometry. Electromagnetic waves are inferred to be generated by electrokinetic conversion of seismic energy within the snow pack and near the dry-wet ice and ice-bed interfaces. A simple gradient-based scheme allows such electrokinetic interface responses (EIRs) to be isolated from noise. EIRs depend sensitively on the azimuthal orientation of the receiving array of electrical dipoles. Seismoelectric techniques promise to allow mapping even of thin water-bearing strata within or beneath glaciers or frozen ground, estimation of hydraulic or fluid properties of such strata, as well as monitoring of ice fracturing or basal properties and processes at improved spatial resolution.

  13. Attribution of glacier fluctuations to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oerlemans, J.

    2012-04-01

    Glacier retreat is a worlwide phenomenon, which started around the middle of the 19th century. During the period 1800-1850 the number of retreating and advancing glaciers was roughly equal (based on 42 records from different continents). During the period 1850-1900 about 92% of all mountain glaciers became shorter (based on 65 records). After this, the percentage of shrinking glaciers has been around 90% until the present time. The glacier signal is rather coherent over the globe, especially when surging and calving glaciers are not considered (for such glaciers the response to climate change is often masked by length changes related to internal dynamics). From theoretical studies as well as extensive meteorological work on glaciers, the processes that control the response of glaciers to climate change are now basically understood. It is useful to make a difference between geometric factors (e.g. slope, altitudinal range, hypsometry) and climatic setting (e.g. seasonal cycle, precipitation). The most sensitive glaciers appear to be flat glaciers in a maritime climate. Characterizing the dynamic properties of a glacier requires at least two quantities: the climate sensitivity, expressing how the equilibrium glacier state depends on the climatic conditions, and the response time, indicating how fast a glacier approaches a new equilibrium state after a stepwise change in the climatic forcing. These quantities can be estimated from relatively simple theory, showing that differences among glaciers are substantial. For larger glaciers, climate sensitivities (in terms of glacier length) vary from 1 to 8 km per 100 m change in the equilibrium-line altitude. Response times are mainly in the range of 20 to 200 years, with most values between 30 and 80 years. Changes in the equilibrium-line altitude or net mass balance of a glacier are mainly driven by fluctuations in air temperature, precipitation, and global radiation. Energy-balance modelling for many glaciers shows that

  14. 1. PARKING LOT AT GLACIER POINT. HALF DOME AT CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PARKING LOT AT GLACIER POINT. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NE. GIS: N-36 43 45.8 / W-119 34 14.1 - Glacier Point Road, Between Chinquapin Flat & Glacier Point, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  15. 5. GLACIER POINT ROAD VIEW AT SENTINEL DOME PARKING AREA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GLACIER POINT ROAD VIEW AT SENTINEL DOME PARKING AREA. LOOKING E. GIS: N-37 42 43.8 / W-119 35 12.1 - Glacier Point Road, Between Chinquapin Flat & Glacier Point, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  16. Molecular analysis of bacterial communities from a Canadian high Arctic polythermal glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, M.; Sharp, M.; Foght, J.

    2003-04-01

    The goal of this study is to characterize the bacterial communities beneath, on, and adjacent to a high Arctic polythermal glacier, with a view to understanding the origins of the subglacial microbial population. The study site is John Evans Glacier (JEG), Ellesmere Island, Canada. JEG is a polythermal glacier consisting of a core of ice at the pressure melting point, surrounded by an outer layer of cold ice. Basal melting and seasonal inputs of meltwater from the glacier surface provide liquid water for subglacial microbial life. Samples were collected from the subglacial, supraglacial, and proglacial environments at JEG. Subglacial samples included basal ice and water that had been stored beneath the glacier. Dry snow, wet snow, and water from supraglacial streams were collected as representatives of the supraglacial environment, which changes in character through the melt season. Sediments and algal mats were collected from an area directly in front of the glacier terminus and along a transect adjacent to the glacier to reflect the developing proglacial environment. Hydrochemical analyses were conducted to assess the role of microbial activity in biogeochemical processes. To compare the bacterial communities, molecular techniques were applied to total community DNA that was released from the samples by a physical cell disruption technique. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used with bacterial-specific primers, one of which was fluorescently labeled, to amplify community 16S rDNA genes. Single digestions with the restriction enzymes HaeIII and HhaI were performed to conduct inter- and intra-community comparisons of the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (tRFLPs) of the fluorescently tagged amplified 16S rDNA genes. Preliminary results indicate that although some species are present throughout the different environments, several species are unique to each particular habitat. Further study of replicate tRFLP data and statistical analyses will

  17. The GAMDAM Glacier Inventory: a quality controlled inventory of Asian glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuimura, T.; Sakai, A.; Taniguchi, K.; Nagai, H.; Lamsal, D.; Tsutaki, S.; Kozawa, A.; Hoshina, Y.; Takenaka, S.; Omiya, S.; Tsunematsu, K.; Tshering, P.; Fujita, K.

    2014-06-01

    We present a new glacier inventory for the high mountain Asia named "Glacier Area Mapping for Discharge from the Asian Mountains" (GAMDAM). Glacier outlines were delineated manually using more than 226 Landsat ETM+ scenes from the period 1999-2003, in conjunction with a digital elevation model (DEM) and high-resolution Google Earth imagery. Geolocations are consistent between the Landsat imagery and DEM due to systematic radiometric and geometric corrections made by the United States Geological Survey. We performed repeated delineation tests and rigorous peer review of all scenes used in order to maintain the consistency and quality of the inventory. Our GAMDAM Glacier Inventory (GGI) includes 82776 glaciers covering a total area of 87507 ± 13126 km2 in the high mountain Asia. Thus, our inventory represents a greater number (+4%) of glaciers but significantly less surface area (-31%) than a recent global glacier inventory (Randolph Glacier Inventory, RGI). The employed definition of the upper boundaries of glaciers, glacier recession since the 1970s, and misinterpretation of seasonal snow cover are likely causes of discrepancies between the inventories, though it is difficult to evaluate these effects quantitatively. The GGI will help improve the temporal consistency of the RGI, which incorporated glacier outlines from the 1970s for the Tibetan Plateau, and will provide new opportunities to study Asian glaciers.

  18. The 24 July 2008 outburst flood of Zyndan glacier lake, Ysyk-Köl region, Kyrgyzstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narama, C.; Duishonakonov, M.; Kääb, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.

    2009-04-01

    On 24 July 2008, a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) occurred in the Zyndan River, the Ysyk-Köl region, Kyrgyzstan. The flood killed three people and many livestock (horse, sheep, fish), and caused heavy damage destroying a bridge, road, two homes, and crops of agriculture fields. We researched the damege after two days of the GLOF. Using kinematic GPS we measured the decrease of the glacier lake area, and the according drop of the water level through the outburst. Glacier lake area of about 0.03 km2 reduced after the collapse, more than 400,000 m3 of water were discharged. While the initial flood discharge was relatively small, it increased substantially and was carrying large boulders after 30 minutes. When spreading further downstream, the dirty waters trapped eight people on islands between the stream branches. The flood discharge continued to rise until midnight and began to decrease again around 3 AM the next morning. The lake at 3771 m asl is located in front of the west Zyndan glacier at the head of the Zyndan River basin. The glacier lake had developed rapidly due to glacier shrinkage caused by recent atmospheric warming. Reasons for the outburst included melting of dead ice inside the moraine that dammed the lake. The villages downstream escaped heavy damage, because the main flood changed its direction, away from the water reservoir along the village and towards another river.

  19. Atmospheric drying as the main driver of dramatic glacier wastage in the southern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Favier, V; Verfaillie, D; Berthier, E; Menegoz, M; Jomelli, V; Kay, J E; Ducret, L; Malbéteau, Y; Brunstein, D; Gallée, H; Park, Y-H; Rinterknecht, V

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing retreat of glaciers at southern sub-polar latitudes is particularly rapid and widespread. Akin to northern sub-polar latitudes, this retreat is generally assumed to be linked to warming. However, no long-term and well-constrained glacier modeling has ever been performed to confirm this hypothesis. Here, we model the Cook Ice Cap mass balance on the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Indian Ocean, 49°S) since the 1850s. We show that glacier wastage during the 2000s in the Kerguelen was among the most dramatic on Earth. We attribute 77% of the increasingly negative mass balance since the 1960s to atmospheric drying associated with a poleward shift of the mid-latitude storm track. Because precipitation modeling is very challenging for the current generation of climate models over the study area, models incorrectly simulate the climate drivers behind the recent glacier wastage in the Kerguelen. This suggests that future glacier wastage projections should be considered cautiously where changes in atmospheric circulation are expected. PMID:27580801

  20. Atmospheric drying as the main driver of dramatic glacier wastage in the southern Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Favier, V.; Verfaillie, D.; Berthier, E.; Menegoz, M.; Jomelli, V.; Kay, J. E.; Ducret, L.; Malbéteau, Y.; Brunstein, D.; Gallée, H.; Park, Y.-H.; Rinterknecht, V.

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing retreat of glaciers at southern sub-polar latitudes is particularly rapid and widespread. Akin to northern sub-polar latitudes, this retreat is generally assumed to be linked to warming. However, no long-term and well-constrained glacier modeling has ever been performed to confirm this hypothesis. Here, we model the Cook Ice Cap mass balance on the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Indian Ocean, 49°S) since the 1850s. We show that glacier wastage during the 2000s in the Kerguelen was among the most dramatic on Earth. We attribute 77% of the increasingly negative mass balance since the 1960s to atmospheric drying associated with a poleward shift of the mid-latitude storm track. Because precipitation modeling is very challenging for the current generation of climate models over the study area, models incorrectly simulate the climate drivers behind the recent glacier wastage in the Kerguelen. This suggests that future glacier wastage projections should be considered cautiously where changes in atmospheric circulation are expected. PMID:27580801

  1. Union Glacier: a new exploration gateway for the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, A.; Zamora, R.; Uribe, J. A.; Jaña, R.; Oberreuter, J.

    2014-02-01

    Union Glacier (79°46' S/83°24' W) in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), has been used by the private company Antarctic Logistic and Expeditions (ALE) since 2007 for their landing and commercial operations, providing a unique logistic opportunity to perform glaciological research in a vast region, including the Ice divide between Institute and Pine Island glaciers and the Subglacial Lake Ellsworth. Union glacier is flowing into the Ronne Ice Shelf, where future migrations of the grounding line zone (GLZ) in response to continuing climate and oceanographic changes have been modelled. In order to analyse the potential impacts on Union glacier of this scenario, we installed an array of stakes, where ice elevation, mass balance and ice velocities have been measured since 2007, resulting in near equilibrium conditions with horizontal displacements between 10 and 33 m yr-1. GPS receivers and three radar systems have been also used to map the subglacial topography, the internal structure of the ice and the presence of crevasses along surveyed tracks. The resulting radar data showed a subglacial topography with a minimum of 858 m below sea level, much deeper than estimated before. The below sea level subglacial topography confirms the potential instability of the glacier in foreseen scenarios of GLZ upstream migration during the second half of the XXI century.

  2. Columbia Glacier, Alaska recent ice loss and its relationship to seasonal terminal embayments, thinning and glacial flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sikonia, W.G.; Post, Austin

    1980-01-01

    In 1974 the U.S. Geological Survey began an intensive investigation of the stability of Columbia Glacier, a calving tidewater galcier terminating in Columbia Bay, near Valdez, Alaska. Aerial photographs taken in 1957 and a sequence of photographs taken at about 2-month intervals since 1976, when analyzed photogrammetrically, provided detailed data on changes in Columbia Glacier 's thickness, flow rate, and terminal position. Annual embayments in the glacier 's terminus form during the summer-autumn season in most years; the size of embayments appears to be related to (1) the thickness of the glacier, and (2) the position and nature of subglacial freshwater discharge. Embayments have apparently increased in size in recent years; the largest embayments yet observed formed in 1975, 1976, 1977, and 1978. From April 1, 1977, to April 1, 1978, the total volume of ice calved was about 1.0 cubic kilometer. By January 1979 the glacier front had retreated from Heather Island. Glacier flow varies seasonally and synchronously in the lower 17 kilometers of the glacier; large accelerations occur near the terminus in response to embayment formation. Daily speed within 5 kilometers of the terminus increased from about 1.9 meters per day between 1963 and 1968 to about 2.7 meters per day between 1977 and 1978. In the lowest 15 kilometers, the glacier surface was lowered about 9 meters between 1957 and 1974, and about 13 meters between 1974 and 1978. Columbia Glacier is being reduced in mass due, in part, to recent losses caused by large embayments forming annually. If such reduction continues it will result in a drastic retreat. (USGS)

  3. Stable oxygen isotope variability in two contrasting glacier river catchments in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yde, Jacob C.; Knudsen, Niels T.; Steffensen, Jørgen P.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Hasholt, Bent; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Kronborg, Christian; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Mernild, Sebastian H.; Oerter, Hans; Roberts, David H.; Russell, Andrew J.

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of stable oxygen isotope (δ18O) characteristics is a useful tool to investigate water provenance in glacier river systems. In order to attain knowledge on the diversity of δ18O variations in Greenlandic rivers, we examined two contrasting glacierised catchments disconnected from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). At the Mittivakkat Gletscher river, a small river draining a local temperate glacier in southeast Greenland, diurnal oscillations in δ18O occurred with a 3 h time lag to the diurnal oscillations in run-off. The mean annual δ18O was -14.68 ± 0.18 ‰ during the peak flow period. A hydrograph separation analysis revealed that the ice melt component constituted 82 ± 5 % of the total run-off and dominated the observed variations during peak flow in August 2004. The snowmelt component peaked between 10:00 and 13:00 local time, reflecting the long travel time and an inefficient distributed subglacial drainage network in the upper part of the glacier. At the Kuannersuit Glacier river on the island Qeqertarsuaq in west Greenland, the δ18O characteristics were examined after the major 1995-1998 glacier surge event. The mean annual δ18O was -19.47 ± 0.55 ‰. Despite large spatial variations in the δ18O values of glacier ice on the newly formed glacier tongue, there were no diurnal oscillations in the bulk meltwater emanating from the glacier in the post-surge years. This is likely a consequence of a tortuous subglacial drainage system consisting of linked cavities, which formed during the surge event. Overall, a comparison of the δ18O compositions from glacial river water in Greenland shows distinct differences between water draining local glaciers and ice caps (between -23.0 and -13.7 ‰) and the GrIS (between -29.9 and -23.2 ‰). This study demonstrates that water isotope analyses can be used to obtain important information on water sources and the subglacial drainage system structure that is highly desired for understanding glacier hydrology.

  4. Antarctica: measuring glacier velocity from satellite images

    SciTech Connect

    Lucchitta, B.K.; Ferguson, H.M.

    1986-11-28

    Many Landsat images of Antarctica show distinctive flow and crevasse features in the floating part of ice streams and outlet glaciers immediately below their grounding zones. Some of the features, which move with the glacier or ice stream, remain visible over many years and thus allow time-lapse measurements of ice velocities. Measurements taken from Landsat images of features on Byrd Glacier agree well with detailed ground and aerial observations. The satellite-image technique thus offers a rapid and cost-effective method of obtaining average velocities, to a first order of accuracy, of many ice streams and outlet glaciers near their termini.

  5. Antarctica: Measuring glacier velocity from satellite images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucchitta, B.K.; Ferguson, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    Many Landsat images of Antarctica show distinctive flow and crevasse features in the floating part of ice streams and outlet glaciers immediately below their grounding zones. Some of the features, which move with the glacier or ice stream, remain visible over many years and thus allow time-lapse measurements of ice velocities. Measurements taken from Landsat images of features on Byrd Glacier agree well with detailed ground and aerial observations. The satellite-image technique thus offers a rapid and cost-effective method of obtaining average velocities, to a first order of accuracy, of many ice streams and outlet glaciers near their termini.

  6. Internationally coordinated glacier monitoring: strategy and datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelzle, Martin; Armstrong, Richard; Fetterer, Florence; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Haeberli, Wilfried; Kääb, Andreas; Kargel, Jeff; Nussbaumer, Samuel; Paul, Frank; Raup, Bruce; Zemp, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Internationally coordinated monitoring of long-term glacier changes provide key indicator data about global climate change and began in the year 1894 as an internationally coordinated effort to establish standardized observations. Today, world-wide monitoring of glaciers and ice caps is embedded within the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) in support of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as an important Essential Climate Variable (ECV). The Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G) was established in 1999 with the task of coordinating measurements and to ensure the continuous development and adaptation of the international strategies to the long-term needs of users in science and policy. The basic monitoring principles must be relevant, feasible, comprehensive and understandable to a wider scientific community as well as to policy makers and the general public. Data access has to be free and unrestricted, the quality of the standardized and calibrated data must be high and a combination of detailed process studies at selected field sites with global coverage by satellite remote sensing is envisaged. Recently a GTN-G Steering Committee was established to guide and advise the operational bodies responsible for the international glacier monitoring, which are the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS), the US National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) initiative. Several online databases containing a wealth of diverse data types having different levels of detail and global coverage provide fast access to continuously updated information on glacier fluctuation and inventory data. For world-wide inventories, data are now available through (a) the World Glacier Inventory containing tabular information of about 130,000 glaciers covering an area of around 240,000 km2, (b) the GLIMS-database containing digital outlines of around 118,000 glaciers with different time stamps and

  7. Darks are processed faster than lights.

    PubMed

    Komban, Stanley Jose; Alonso, Jose-Manuel; Zaidi, Qasim

    2011-06-01

    Recent physiological studies claim that dark stimuli have access to greater neuronal resources than light stimuli in early visual pathway. We used two sets of novel stimuli to examine the functional consequences of this dark dominance in human observers. We show that increment and decrement thresholds are equal when controlled for adaptation and eye movements. However, measurements for salience differences at high contrasts show that darks are detected pronouncedly faster and more accurately than lights when presented against uniform binary noise. In addition, the salience advantage for darks is abolished when the background distribution is adjusted to control for the irradiation illusion. The threshold equality suggests that the highest sensitivities of neurons in the ON and OFF channels are similar, whereas the salience difference is consistent with a population advantage for the OFF system. PMID:21653869

  8. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongqiu; Courchamp, Franck; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals’ response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect. PMID:26728113

  9. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongqiu; Courchamp, Franck; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals’ response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect.

  10. Microbial communities evolve faster in extreme environments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng-Jin; Hua, Zheng-Shuang; Huang, Li-Nan; Li, Jie; Shi, Su-Hua; Chen, Lin-Xing; Kuang, Jia-Liang; Liu, Jun; Hu, Min; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary analysis of microbes at the community level represents a new research avenue linking ecological patterns to evolutionary processes, but remains insufficiently studied. Here we report a relative evolutionary rates (rERs) analysis of microbial communities from six diverse natural environments based on 40 metagenomic samples. We show that the rERs of microbial communities are mainly shaped by environmental conditions, and the microbes inhabiting extreme habitats (acid mine drainage, saline lake and hot spring) evolve faster than those populating benign environments (surface ocean, fresh water and soil). These findings were supported by the observation of more relaxed purifying selection and potentially frequent horizontal gene transfers in communities from extreme habitats. The mechanism of high rERs was proposed as high mutation rates imposed by stressful conditions during the evolutionary processes. This study brings us one stage closer to an understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the adaptation of microbes to extreme environments. PMID:25158668

  11. Pigeons home faster through polluted air.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongqiu; Courchamp, Franck; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals' response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect. PMID:26728113

  12. Brief communication: Getting Greenland's glaciers right - a new data set of all official Greenlandic glacier names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjørk, A. A.; Kruse, L. M.; Michaelsen, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Place names in Greenland can be difficult to get right, as they are a mix of Greenlandic, Danish, and other foreign languages. In addition, orthographies have changed over time. With this new data set, we give the researcher working with Greenlandic glaciers the proper tool to find the correct name for glaciers and ice caps in Greenland and to locate glaciers described in the historic literature with the old Greenlandic orthography. The data set contains information on the names of 733 glaciers, 285 originating from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and 448 from local glaciers and ice caps (LGICs).

  13. GLIMS: Progress in Mapping the World's glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raup, B. H.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Armstrong, R.; Racoviteanu, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) initiative has built a database of glacier outlines and related attributes, derived primarily from satellite imagery, such as from ASTER and Landsat. Each snapshot of a glacier is from a specific time, and the database is designed to store multiple snapshots representative of different times. The database currently contains outlines for approximately 83,000 glaciers. Of these, 549 glaciers have outlines from more than one time, which can be studied for change. The glacier-by-glacier area-change signal over large areas tends to be noisy, but the mode of the distribution of area change for these 549 glaciers is -5%. We have implemented two web-based interfaces to the database. One enables exploration of the data via interactive maps (Web map server), while the other allows searches based on text-field constraints. The Web map server creates interactive maps on our Web site, www.glims.org, and can also supply glacier layers to other servers over the Internet. As a service to the GLIMS community, the database contains metadata on all ASTER imagery (approximately 200,000 images) acquired over glacierized terrain. Reduced-resolution images can be viewed either as a layer in the MapServer application, or overlaid on the virtual globe within Google Earth. The system allows users to download their selected glacier data in a choice of formats. The results of a query based on spatial selection (using a mouse) or text-field constraints can be downloaded in any of these formats: ESRI shapefiles, KML (Google Earth), MapInfo, GML (Geography Markup Language) and GMT (Generic Mapping Tools). This "clip-and-ship" function allows users to download only the data they are interested in. In this presentation we describe our flexible Web interfaces to the database, which includes various ancillary layers, facilitates enhanced analysis of glacier systems, their distribution, and their impacts on other Earth systems.

  14. Advances in Modelling of Valley Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Surendra

    For glaciological conditions typical of valley glaciers, the central idea of this research lies in understanding the effects of high-order mechanics and parameterizing these for simpler dynamical and statistical methods in glaciology. As an effective tool for this, I formulate a new brand of dynamical models that describes distinct physical processes of deformational flow. Through numerical simulations of idealized glacier domains, I calculate empirical correction factors to capture the effects of longitudinal stress gradients and lateral drag for simplified dynamical models in the plane-strain regime. To get some insights into real glacier dynamics, I simulate Haig Glacier in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. As geometric effects overshadow dynamical effects in glacier retreat scenarios, it appears that high-order physics are not very important for Haig Glacier, particularly for evaluating its fate. Indeed, high-order and reduced models all predict that Haig Glacier ceases to exist by about AD2080 under ongoing climate warming. This finding regarding the minimal role of high-order physics may not be broadly valid, as it is not true in advance scenarios at Haig Glacier and it may not be representative of other glaciological settings. Through a 'bulk' parameterization of high-order physics, geometric and climatic settings, sliding conditions, and transient effects, I also provide new insights into the volume-area relation, a widely used statistical method for estimating glacier volume. I find a steady-state power-law exponent of 1:46, which declines systematically to 1:38 after 100 years of sustained retreat, in good accord with the observations. I recommend more accurate scaling relations through characterization of individual glacier morphology and degree of climatic disequilibrium. This motivates a revision of global glacier volume estimates, of some urgency in sea level rise assessments.

  15. Tracking glaciers with the Alaska seismic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    More than 40 years ago it was known that calving glaciers in Alaska created unmistakable seismic signals that could be recorded tens and hundreds of kilometers away. Their long monochromatic signals invited studies that foreshadowed the more recent surge in glacier seismology. Beyond a handful of targeted studies, these signals have remained a seismic novelty. No systematic attempt has been made to catalog and track glacier seismicity across the years. Recent advances in understanding glacier sources, combined with the climate significance of tidewater glaciers, have renewed calls for comprehensive tracking of glacier seismicity in coastal Alaska. The Alaska Earthquake Center has included glacier events in its production earthquake catalog for decades. Until recently, these were best thought of as bycatch—accidental finds in the process of tracking earthquakes. Processing improvements a decade ago, combined with network improvements in the past five years, have turned this into a rich data stream capturing hundreds of events per year across 600 km of the coastal mountain range. Though the source of these signals is generally found to be iceberg calving, there are vast differences in behavior between different glacier termini. Some glaciers have strong peaks in activity during the spring, while others peak in the late summer or fall. These patterns are consistent over years pointing to fundamental differences in calving behavior. In several cases, changes in seismic activity correspond to specific process changes observed through other means at particular glacier. These observations demonstrate that the current network is providing a faithful record of the dynamic behavior of several glaciers in coastal Alaska. With this as a starting point, we examine what is possible (and not possible) going forward with dedicated detection schemes.

  16. Glaciers. Attribution of global glacier mass loss to anthropogenic and natural causes.

    PubMed

    Marzeion, Ben; Cogley, J Graham; Richter, Kristin; Parkes, David

    2014-08-22

    The ongoing global glacier retreat is affecting human societies by causing sea-level rise, changing seasonal water availability, and increasing geohazards. Melting glaciers are an icon of anthropogenic climate change. However, glacier response times are typically decades or longer, which implies that the present-day glacier retreat is a mixed response to past and current natural climate variability and current anthropogenic forcing. Here we show that only 25 ± 35% of the global glacier mass loss during the period from 1851 to 2010 is attributable to anthropogenic causes. Nevertheless, the anthropogenic signal is detectable with high confidence in glacier mass balance observations during 1991 to 2010, and the anthropogenic fraction of global glacier mass loss during that period has increased to 69 ± 24%. PMID:25123485

  17. Impact Analysis of Climate Change on the Dynamics of Glaciers, Bhagirathi Basin, Garhwal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvan, T. M.; Mathukumalli, B. P.

    2012-12-01

    The recent developments in remote sensing give an opportunity to map natural features on the earth surface with more accurately. The semiarid to arid climatic condition of the Himalayan region makes it extremely amenable to glacial geomorphological studies and snout determination because of the well preserved moraines and other geomorphological features. In this paper, the de-glaciation pattern of the Bhagirathi basin have been studied from year 1980-2006 and various climatic parameters are also analysed during this period and compared with the changes on the glacier dynamics. The Bhagirathi River and its tributaries are dependents predominantly on glacier, snow melt and precipitation response. The investigation was carried out with the satellite images from the Landsat images of Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM and ETM+). Along with the Landsat images, Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) LISS-III images have been used for preparing a repetitive glacier inventory. The larger glaciers have shown a reduction in the areal extent, whereas the smaller glaciers have increased in number. With the gradual retreat, the tributaries of the glaciers are susceptible to a detachment from the main body, thus showing fragmentation. These fragmentations have been observed in the images during the interpretation and analysis process. The glacier retreat rate was faster in years 1980-2000 compare to the years 2000-2006. At the same time Vegetation and Open Rocks Area are increasing considerably, while the Debris Covered Ice and Snow cover area is decreasing linearly at the time scale. This indicates that rate of retreat is reduced during the recent time. The climatic data analysis shows that the average rainfall for the Garhwal Himalaya varies between 1000 to 2500 mm of which 50-80% falls during the south-west monsoon period between June and September. Over the study period, the average daily temperatures ranged between 14.7 and 4.1°C (avg. 9.4°C). It is

  18. How to drill horizontal sections faster

    SciTech Connect

    Chaffin, M. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports that fewer trips, reduced slide time and lower drag during sliding have resulted from the application of downhole-adjustable stabilizers to horizontal drilling. Faster drilling times mean lower measurement while drilling (MWD) cost, and less wear on downhole equipment, motors and bits. These advantages combined with reduced drilling shocks have increased drilling rates and efficiency. Applying existing technology in new situations is an important way of reducing the cost of finding, exploring for and developing reserves. Engineers are responsible for using current technology to its fullest and developing new technology to reduce drilling expenses. Horizontal drilling was used in its early stages to develop the Austin chalk formation in Pearsall oil field more effectively. As procedures were generated to drill horizontal wells, Oryx drilling engineers began to develop new technology and investigate ways for existing technology to be used or altered to fit horizontal drilling programs. The new technology of downhole-adjustable stabilizers has been used successfully to further improve horizontal drilling efficiency.

  19. Fast Physics Testbed for the FASTER Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.; Liu, Y.; Hogan, R.; Neggers, R.; Jensen, M.; Fridlind, A.; Lin, Y.; Wolf, A.

    2010-03-15

    This poster describes the Fast Physics Testbed for the new FAst-physics System Testbed and Research (FASTER) project. The overall objective is to provide a convenient and comprehensive platform for fast turn-around model evaluation against ARM observations and to facilitate development of parameterizations for cloud-related fast processes represented in global climate models. The testbed features three major components: a single column model (SCM) testbed, an NWP-Testbed, and high-resolution modeling (HRM). The web-based SCM-Testbed features multiple SCMs from major climate modeling centers and aims to maximize the potential of SCM approach to enhance and accelerate the evaluation and improvement of fast physics parameterizations through continuous evaluation of existing and evolving models against historical as well as new/improved ARM and other complementary measurements. The NWP-Testbed aims to capitalize on the large pool of operational numerical weather prediction products. Continuous evaluations of NWP forecasts against observations at ARM sites are carried out to systematically identify the biases and skills of physical parameterizations under all weather conditions. The highresolution modeling (HRM) activities aim to simulate the fast processes at high resolution to aid in the understanding of the fast processes and their parameterizations. A four-tier HRM framework is established to augment the SCM- and NWP-Testbeds towards eventual improvement of the parameterizations.

  20. Using Metaphorical Models for Describing Glaciers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felzmann, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    To date, there has only been little conceptual change research regarding conceptions about glaciers. This study used the theoretical background of embodied cognition to reconstruct different metaphorical concepts with respect to the structure of a glacier. Applying the Model of Educational Reconstruction, the conceptions of students and scientists…

  1. Microbial biodiversity in glacier-fed streams.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Linda; Singer, Gabriel A; Fasching, Christina; Battin, Tom J; Besemer, Katharina

    2013-08-01

    While glaciers become increasingly recognised as a habitat for diverse and active microbial communities, effects of their climate change-induced retreat on the microbial ecology of glacier-fed streams remain elusive. Understanding the effect of climate change on microorganisms in these ecosystems is crucial given that microbial biofilms control numerous stream ecosystem processes with potential implications for downstream biodiversity and biogeochemistry. Here, using a space-for-time substitution approach across 26 Alpine glaciers, we show how microbial community composition and diversity, based on 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, in biofilms of glacier-fed streams may change as glaciers recede. Variations in streamwater geochemistry correlated with biofilm community composition, even at the phylum level. The most dominant phyla detected in glacial habitats were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria/chloroplasts. Microorganisms from ice had the lowest α diversity and contributed marginally to biofilm and streamwater community composition. Rather, streamwater apparently collected microorganisms from various glacial and non-glacial sources forming the upstream metacommunity, thereby achieving the highest α diversity. Biofilms in the glacier-fed streams had intermediate α diversity and species sorting by local environmental conditions likely shaped their community composition. α diversity of streamwater and biofilm communities decreased with elevation, possibly reflecting less diverse sources of microorganisms upstream in the catchment. In contrast, β diversity of biofilms decreased with increasing streamwater temperature, suggesting that glacier retreat may contribute to the homogenisation of microbial communities among glacier-fed streams. PMID:23486246

  2. GIS-based glacier inventory of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Wu, L.-Z.

    2003-04-01

    The project of the Glacier Inventory of China initialized in 1979 was just accomplished in 2000. This inventory was complied based on numerous LandSat TM images, aerial photographs, and topographic maps. More than 40 Chinese glaciologists made their great efforts in this work. With the newest statistics from the inventory, there are total 46,928 glaciers in China; the total area is 59,406 km2 and the ice volume is 5,598 km3. We launched a new project to digitize the 11 volumes of published glacier data and all the distribution maps of glaciers in China. Large-scale topographic maps were also used as reference to reconstruct a more accurate geographic coordinate system of the inventory. We paid particularly attention to the data quality control. The properties of both the spatial and attribute data were carefully examined with a few operations by manual and computerized checks. Since the digital inventory lays a baseline for the monitoring of glacier change, we are going to release the database on the Internet and with CD-ROMs. In additions, the second glacier inventory in some glaciered drainages were carried out. Chinese glaciologist are using new generation remote sensors such as ASTER and LandSat ETM+ to identify glacier change in many areas. Preliminary results showed that the change is significant.

  3. Glacier-derived August runoff in northwest Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Adam; Harper, Joel T.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    The second largest concentration of glaciers in the U.S. Rocky Mountains is located in Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana. The total glacier-covered area in this region decreased by ∼35% over the past 50 years, which has raised substantial concern about the loss of the water derived from glaciers during the summer. We used an innovative weather station design to collect in situ measurements on five remote glaciers, which are used to parameterize a regional glacier melt model. This model offered a first-order estimate of the summer meltwater production by glaciers. We find, during the normally dry month of August, glaciers in the region produce approximately 25 × 106 m3 of potential runoff. We then estimated the glacier runoff component in five gaged streams sourced from GNP basins containing glaciers. Glacier-melt contributions range from 5% in a basin only 0.12% glacierized to >90% in a basin 28.5% glacierized. Glacier loss would likely lead to lower discharges and warmer temperatures in streams draining basins >20% glacier-covered. Lower flows could even be expected in streams draining basins as little as 1.4% glacierized if glaciers were to disappear.

  4. Debris-covered Himalayan glaciers under a changing climate: observations and modelling of Khumbu Glacier, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan, Ann; Quincey, Duncan; Egholm, David; Gibson, Morgan; Irvine-Fynn, Tristram; Porter, Philip; Glasser, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Many mountain glaciers are characterised in their lower reaches by thick layers of rock debris that insulate the glacier surface from solar radiation and atmospheric warming. Supraglacial debris modifies the response of these glaciers to climate change compared to glaciers with clean-ice surfaces. However, existing modelling approaches to predicting variations in the extent and mass balance of debris-covered glaciers have relied on numerical models that represent the processes governing glaciers with clean-ice surfaces, and yield conflicting results. Moreover, few data exist describing the mass balance of debris-covered glaciers and many observations are only made over short periods of time, but these data are needed to constrain and validate numerical modelling experiments. To investigate the impact of supraglacial debris on the response of a glacier to climate change, we developed a numerical model that couples the flow of ice and debris to include important feedbacks between mass balance, ice flow and debris accumulation. We applied this model to a large debris-covered Himalayan glacier - Khumbu Glacier in the Everest region of Nepal. Our results demonstrate that supraglacial debris prolongs the response of the glacier to warming air temperatures and causes lowering of the glacier surface in situ, concealing the magnitude of mass loss when compared with estimates based on glacierised area. Since the Little Ice Age, the volume of Khumbu Glacier has reduced by 34%, while glacier area has reduced by only 6%. We predict a further decrease in glacier volume of 8-10% by AD2100 accompanied by dynamic and physical detachment of the debris-covered tongue from the active glacier within the next 150 years. For five months during the 2014 summer monsoon, we measured temperature profiles through supraglacial debris and proglacial discharge on Khumbu Glacier. We found that temperatures at the ice surface beneath 0.4-0.7 m of debris were sufficient to promote considerable

  5. Englacial Hydrology of Temperate Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountain, A. G.; Creyts, T. T.

    2015-12-01

    The englacial region of temperate glaciers is generally treated as a passive conveyor of water from the surface to the bed. Consequently, few studies have examined this region and relatively little is known. This is an important issue because englacial processes probably exert a first order control on the distribution of water to the subglacial hydraulic system. Controlling the water distribution probably controls the type of subglacial hydraulic features present and therefore sliding behavior. Certainly, englacial conduits play a major, if not primary, role in conveying water in the ablation zone. In regions of over-deepenings, areas highly crevassed, or in the accumulation zone, the importance of englacial conduits is less clear. Field studies have shown that intersecting englacial passageways in these regions are relatively common, implying that large water fluxes can drain efficiently through a network of fractures. Hypothetically, efficient drainage systems composed of englacial conduits develop in response to point input of large surface water fluxes. Where input is small and distributed, common to highly crevassed areas or the accumulation zone, water is probably routed through a network of englacial fractures. Glacier geometry may also play a role. Conduits may not develop in the over-deepened (closed basins) regions of a glacier requiring another flow pathway. That englacial fractures exist and can convey water presents a promising alternative. Measured rates of flow in fractures strongly suggest laminar conditions and a sufficient fracture density exists to accommodate the estimated water flux generated upstream by surface melt. The slow flow rates do not generate sufficient viscous heat to compensate expected rates of closure by freezing, however field observations and seismic evidence point to spontaneous fracture formation at depth that must regenerate the fracture network. It is unfortunate that englacial investigations are ignored in favor of

  6. Accelerating thinning of Kenai Peninsula glaciers, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanLooy, J.; Forster, R.; Ford, A.

    2006-11-01

    Temperate mountain glaciers are thinning at high rates and significantly contributing to sea level rise. Due to these glaciers' remote locations, remote sensing and digital elevation models (DEMs) are an effective way to calculate their thinning rates and contribution to sea level rise. Comparisons of 1950s United States Geological Survey (USGS) and 2000 Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) DEMs with DEMs produced from Lidar profiles of glacier center-lines indicate thinning rates from the mid-1990s to 1999 (-0.72 +/- 0.13 m y-1) accelerated by a factor of 1.5 as compared with 1950 to mid-1990s (-0.47 +/- 0.01 m y-1) for glaciers on the Harding Icefield. Overall, comparison of USGS and SRTM DEMs indicate the Harding Icefield and Grewingk-Yalik Glacier Complex, Alaska, are thinning -0.61 +/- 0.12 m y-1 from 1950 to 1999.

  7. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2002-05-01

    Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal

  8. The length of the glaciers in the world - a straightforward method for the automated calculation of glacier center lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machguth, H.; Huss, M.

    2014-05-01

    Glacier length is an important measure of glacier geometry but global glacier inventories are mostly lacking length data. Only recently semi-automated approaches to measure glacier length have been developed and applied regionally. Here we present a first global assessment of glacier length using a fully automated method based on glacier surface slope, distance to the glacier margins and a set of trade-off functions. The method is developed for East Greenland, evaluated for the same area as well as for Alaska, and eventually applied to all ∼200 000 glaciers around the globe. The evaluation highlights accurately calculated glacier length where DEM quality is good (East Greenland) and limited precision on low quality DEMs (parts of Alaska). Measured length of very small glaciers is subject to a certain level of ambiguity. The global calculation shows that only about 1.5% of all glaciers are longer than 10 km with Bering Glacier (Alaska/Canada) being the longest glacier in the world at a length of 196 km. Based on model output we derive global and regional area-length scaling laws. Differences among regional scaling parameters appear to be related to characteristics of topography and glacier mass balance. The present study adds glacier length as a central parameter to global glacier inventories. Global and regional scaling laws might proof beneficial in conceptual glacier models.

  9. Erosion and transport by Byrd Glacier, Antarctica during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licht, K. J.; Palmer, E. F.

    2013-02-01

    Glacial till samples from seven, modern-Holocene Byrd Glacier moraines were characterized using particle size analysis, sand petrography and detrital zircon geochronology and compared to Ross Sea tills deposited during the Last Glacial Maximum. The goal was to identify the paleoflow path for Byrd Glacier and assess the use of multiple provenance techniques. The coarse sand fraction of Byrd Glacier tills is dominated by lithic fragments of adjacent bedrock outcrops, except samples from the Lonewolf Nunataks, which have a higher proportion of mineral to lithic fragments, as well as a recognizable exotic component. Cluster analysis shows that Byrd Glacier tills, with the exception of the two Lonewolf Nunataks sites, do not cluster strongly with Ross Sea samples because they have a higher proportion of lithic fragments. This indicates that comminution must be an active subglacial process beneath East Antarctic outlet glaciers. Byrd Glacier tills are also typically coarser grained that Ross Sea tills and their maturity is a reflection of both glacial processes and rock type. Measured U/Pb ages of detrital zircons from Byrd Glacier tills range from Triassic to Archean (240-3540 Ma) with a dominance of grains 530-600 Ma. Ross Sea till samples show spatial variability in U/Pb age distributions, with the core sites west of the 180° longitude line showing similarity to most Byrd Glacier tills, whereas core NBP9407-39, east of 180° long., is dominated by ˜100 Ma grains. Ross Sea tills also contain a recognizable detrital zircon fraction eroded inland of the Transantarctic Mountains. Both provenance methods indicate that the ice flow line for Byrd Glacier during the LGM was to the east of Ross Island and extended on either side of Ross Bank, with the majority of ice flowing to the Ross Sea's Central Basin. Our analysis shows that sand petrography and detrital zircon U/Pb age spectra provide complementary datasets that produce similar ice flow reconstructions and reveal

  10. Seasonal variability of organic matter composition in an Alaskan glacier outflow: insights into glacier carbon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Robert G. M.; Vermilyea, Andrew; Fellman, Jason; Raymond, Peter; Stubbins, Aron; Scott, Durelle; Hood, Eran

    2014-05-01

    Glacier ecosystems are a significant source of bioavailable, yet ancient dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Characterizing DOC in Mendenhall Glacier outflow (southeast Alaska) we document a seasonal persistence to the radiocarbon-depleted signature of DOC, highlighting ancient DOC as a ubiquitous feature of glacier outflow. We observed no systematic depletion in Δ 14C-DOC with increasing discharge during the melt season that would suggest mobilization of an aged subglacial carbon store. However, DOC concentration, δ 13C-DOC, Δ 14C-DOC and fluorescence signatures appear to have been influenced by runoff from vegetated hillslopes above the glacier during onset and senescence of melt. In the peak glacier melt period, the Δ 14C-DOC of stream samples at the outflow (-181.7 to -355.3‰) was comparable to the Δ 14C-DOC for snow samples from the accumulation zone (-207.2 to -390.9‰), suggesting that ancient DOC from the glacier surface is exported in glacier runoff. The pre-aged DOC in glacier snow and runoff is consistent with contributions from fossil fuel combustion sources similar to those documented previously in ice cores and thus provides evidence for anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon cycle. Overall, our results emphasize the need to further characterize DOC inputs to glacier ecosystems, particularly in light of predicted changes in glacier mass and runoff in the coming century.

  11. The GAMDAM glacier inventory: a quality-controlled inventory of Asian glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuimura, T.; Sakai, A.; Taniguchi, K.; Nagai, H.; Lamsal, D.; Tsutaki, S.; Kozawa, A.; Hoshina, Y.; Takenaka, S.; Omiya, S.; Tsunematsu, K.; Tshering, P.; Fujita, K.

    2015-05-01

    We present a new glacier inventory for high-mountain Asia named "Glacier Area Mapping for Discharge from the Asian Mountains" (GAMDAM). Glacier outlines were delineated manually using 356 Landsat ETM+ scenes in 226 path-row sets from the period 1999-2003, in conjunction with a digital elevation model (DEM) and high-resolution Google EarthTM imagery. Geolocations are largely consistent between the Landsat imagery and DEM due to systematic radiometric and geometric corrections made by the United States Geological Survey. We performed repeated delineation tests and peer review of glacier outlines in order to maintain the consistency and quality of the inventory. Our GAMDAM glacier inventory (GGI) includes 87 084 glaciers covering a total area of 91 263 ± 13 689 km2 throughout high-mountain Asia. In the Hindu Kush-Himalaya range, the total glacier area in our inventory is 93% that of the ICIMOD (International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development) inventory. Discrepancies between the two regional data sets are due mainly to the effects of glacier shading. In contrast, our inventory represents significantly less surface area (-24%) than the recent global Randolph Glacier Inventory, version 4.0 (RGI), which includes 119 863 ± 9201 km2 for the entirety of high Asian mountains. Likely causes of this disparity include headwall definition, effects of exclusion of shaded glacier areas, glacier recession since the 1970s, and inclusion of seasonal snow cover in the source data of the RGI, although it is difficult to evaluate such effects quantitatively. Further rigorous peer review of GGI will both improve the quality of glacier inventory in high-mountain Asia and provide new opportunities to study Asian glaciers.

  12. Black soot and the survival of Tibetan glaciers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baiqing; Cao, Junji; Hansen, James; Yao, Tandong; Joswia, Daniel R; Wang, Ninglian; Wu, Guangjian; Wang, Mo; Zhao, Huabiao; Yang, Wei; Liu, Xianqin; He, Jianqiao

    2009-12-29

    We find evidence that black soot aerosols deposited on Tibetan glaciers have been a significant contributing factor to observed rapid glacier retreat. Reduced black soot emissions, in addition to reduced greenhouse gases, may be required to avoid demise of Himalayan glaciers and retain the benefits of glaciers for seasonal fresh water supplies. PMID:19996173

  13. Black soot and the survival of Tibetan glaciers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Baiqing; Cao, Junji; Hansen, James; Yao, Tandong; Joswia, Daniel R.; Wang, Ninglian; Wu, Guangjian; Wang, Mo; Zhao, Huabiao; Yang, Wei; Liu, Xianqin; He, Jianqiao

    2009-01-01

    We find evidence that black soot aerosols deposited on Tibetan glaciers have been a significant contributing factor to observed rapid glacier retreat. Reduced black soot emissions, in addition to reduced greenhouse gases, may be required to avoid demise of Himalayan glaciers and retain the benefits of glaciers for seasonal fresh water supplies. PMID:19996173

  14. Winter speed-up of ice flow at quiescent surge-type glaciers in Yukon, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, M.; Abe, T.

    2013-12-01

    Glacier surge exhibits order-of-magnitude faster velocity and km-scale terminus advance during its short active phase after a long quiescent period. The observations of glacier surge are still limited, and the mechanisms of glacier surge cycle remain elusive. Moreover, with the exception of several well-examined glaciers, the glacier dynamics during their quiescent periods remains even more uncertain due to the paucity of surface velocity measurement data. Here we examined spatial-temporal changes in the ice surface velocity of surge-type glaciers in the St. Elias Mountains near the border of Alaska and Yukon during the period from December 2006 to March 2011. We applied the offset-tracking (feature-tracking) technique to the L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images derived from the Japanese Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS). The Chitina, Anderson, Walsh, and Logan Glaciers, the major subpolar surge-type glaciers of the Chitina River valley system, could be examined with the highest temporal resolution because of the overlap of multiple satellite tracks. We have found significant upstream accelerations from fall to winter at a number of glaciers during their quiescence. Moreover, whereas the upstream propagating summer speed-up was observed, the winter speed-up propagated from upstream to downglacier. Although the winter speed-up seems to be at odds with the well-known summer speed-up, these observations are consistent with the fragmentary but well-known fact of glacier surge that often initiates in winter, suggesting that some of the mechanisms would be valid even during quiescent phases. Ice surface velocity at mountain glaciers and ice sheets typically exhibits the greatest acceleration from spring to early summer, followed by deceleration in mid-summer to fall, and is slowest in winter. These short-term velocity changes are attributed to subglacial slip associated with water pressure changes that occur because of the seasonal variability of

  15. Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A large tabular iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica (75oS latitude, 102oW longitude) sometime between November 4 and 12, 2001. Images of the glacier were acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This event was preceded by the formation of a large crack across the glacier in mid 2000. Data gathered by other imaging instruments revealed the crack to be propagating through the shelf ice at a rate averaging 15 meters per day, accompanied by a slight rotation of about one percent per year at the seaward margin of the rift.

    The image set shows three views of Pine Island Glacier acquired by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. The first was captured in late 2000, early in the development of the crack. The second and third views were acquired in November 2001, just before and just after the new iceberg broke off. The existence of the crack took the glaciological community by surprise, and the rapid rate at which the crack propagated was also not anticipated. Glaciologists predicted that the rift would reach the other side of the glacier sometime in 2002. However, the iceberg detached much sooner than anticipated, and the last 10-kilometer segment that was still attached to the ice shelf snapped off in a matter of days.

    The animated sequence consists of 11 snapshots acquired by MISR's nadir camera between September 16, 2000 and November 12, 2001. Due to frequent cloud cover, the time interval between successive frames is not uniform. The flow of the glacier, widening of the rift, and subsequent break-off of the iceberg are evident. A 'jump' in the position of the rift near the middle of the sequence is due to a gap in image acquisition during Antarctic winter, when the glacier was in continuous darkness.

    Pine Island Glacier is the largest discharger of ice in Antarctica and the continent's fastest moving glacier. This area of the West

  16. Quantifying global warming from the retreat of glaciers

    SciTech Connect

    Oerlemans, J. )

    1994-04-08

    Records of glacier fluctuations compiled by the World Glacier Monitoring Service can be used to derive an independent estimate of global warming during the last 100 years. Records of different glaciers are made comparable by a two-step scaling procedure; one allowing for differences in glacier geometry, the other for differences in climate sensitivity. The retreat of glaciers during the last 100 years appears to be coherent over the globe. On the basis of modeling of the climate sensitivity of glaciers, the observed glacier retreat can be explained by a linear warming trend of 0.66 kelvin per century.

  17. Recent Ice Loss from the Fleming and Other Glaciers, Wordie Bay, West Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, E.; Casassa, G.; Gogineni, S.; Kanagaratnam, P.; Krabill, W.; Pritchard, H.; Rivera, A.; Thomas, R.; Turner, J.; Vaughan, D.

    2005-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry data from 1995 to 2004, and airborne ice thickness data from 2002, reveal that the glaciers flowing into former Wordie Ice Shelf, West Antarctic Peninsula, discharge 6.8 +/- 0.3 km(exp 3)/yr of ice, which is 84 +/- 30 percent larger than a snow accumulation of 3.7 +/- 0.8 km(exp 3)/yr over a 6,300 km(exp 2) drainage basin. Airborne and ICESat laser altimetry elevation data reveal glacier thinning at rates up to 2 m/yr. Fifty km from its ice front, Fleming Glacier flows 50 percent faster than it did in 1974 prior to the main collapse of Wordie Ice Shelf. We conclude that the glaciers accelerated following ice shelf removal, and have been thinning and losing mass to the ocean over the last decade. This and other observations suggest that the mass loss from the northern part of the Peninsula is not negligible at present.

  18. Glaciers in Patagonia: Controversy and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Alho, P.; Buytaert, W.; Célleri, R.; Cogley, J. G.; Dussaillant, A.; Guido, Z.; Haeberli, W.; Harrison, S.; Leonard, G.; Maxwell, A.; Meier, C.; Poveda, G.; Reid, B.; Reynolds, J.; Rodríguez, C. A. Portocarrero; Romero, H.; Schneider, J.

    2012-05-01

    Lately, glaciers have been subjects of unceasing controversy. Current debate about planned hydroelectric facilities—a US7- to 10-billion megaproject—in a pristine glacierized area of Patagonia, Chile [Romero Toledo et al., 2009; Vince, 2010], has raised anew the matter of how glaciologists and global change experts can contribute their knowledge to civic debates on important issues. There has been greater respect for science in this controversy than in some previous debates over projects that pertain to glaciers, although valid economic motivations again could trump science and drive a solution to the energy supply problem before the associated safety and environmental problems are understood. The connection between glaciers and climate change—both anthropogenic and natural—is fundamental to glaciology and to glaciers' practical importance for water and hydropower resources, agriculture, tourism, mining, natural hazards, ecosystem conservation, and sea level [Buytaert et al., 2010; Glasser et al., 2011]. The conflict between conservation and development can be sharper in glacierized regions than almost anywhere else. Glaciers occur in spectacular natural landscapes, but they also supply prodigious exploitable meltwater.

  19. Glacier Monitoring: Opportunities, Accomplishments, and Limitations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, M. F.; Dyurgerov, M. B.

    2001-12-01

    Glaciers and ice caps, exclusive of the two major ice sheets, have been monitored for more than a century. Initially sparked by interest in the effect of glaciers on the landscape and their sensitive response to changes of climate, glacier study is now additionally motivated because of impacts on cold-regions ecology and hydrology as well as global sea-level rise. Glacier observations in many areas provide the only real data on climate change in the mountains. A substantial number of mass balance programs were initiated during the 1960s that improved our understanding of spatial and temporal changes in climate, and provided a basis for projecting future changes to glaciers and sea level. These results show a general increase in both snow accumulation and ice melting during the last 40 years (but with net wastage predominating), and a marked increase in the sensitivity of ice wastage to air temperature since the late 1980s. The World Data Center system provided unrestricted exchange of data among glaciologists during the `cold war.' The World Glacier Monitoring Service together with the National Snow and Ice Data Center and several individuals now provide ready access to glacier data. Remaining problems include inadequate access to digital data, a size bias to small glaciers, some traditional methodologies which limit the usefulness of the results, slow incorporation of new technologies, complexity of incorporating glacier dynamics in mass balance analysis, and insufficient attention by some investigators to reporting observational error. Perhaps the most difficult problems are the extension of limited data to the synthesis of broad regional or global conclusions, and a general dwindling of support for monitoring activities.

  20. Classification of debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers in the Andes of central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janke, Jason R.; Bellisario, Antonio C.; Ferrando, Francisco A.

    2015-07-01

    In the Dry Andes of Chile (17 to 35° S), debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers are differentiated from true glaciers based on the percentage of surface debris cover, thickness of surface debris, and ice content. Internal ice is preserved by an insulating cover of thick debris, which acts as a storage reservoir to release water during the summer and early fall. These landforms are more numerous than glaciers in the central Andes; however, the existing legislation only recognizes uncovered or semicovered glaciers as a water resource. Glaciers, debris-covered glaciers, and rock glaciers are being altered or removed by mining operations to extract valuable minerals from the mountains. In addition, agricultural expansion and population growth in this region have placed additional demands on water resources. In a warmer climate, as glaciers recede and seasonal water availability becomes condensed over the course of a snowmelt season, rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers contribute a larger component of base flow to rivers and streams. As a result, identifying and locating these features to implement sustainable regional planning for water resources is important. The objective of this study is to develop a classification system to identify debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers based on the interpretation of satellite imagery and aerial photographs. The classification system is linked to field observations and measurements of ice content. Debris-covered glaciers have three subclasses: surface coverage of semi (class 1) and fully covered (class 2) glaciers differentiates the first two forms, whereas debris thickness is critical for class 3 when glaciers become buried with more than 3 m of surface debris. Based on field observations, the amount of ice decreases from more than 85%, to 65-85%, to 45-65% for semi, fully, and buried debris-covered glaciers, respectively. Rock glaciers are characterized by three stages. Class 4 rock glaciers have pronounced

  1. A graph-based approach to glacier flowline extraction: An application to glaciers in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Moine, Nicolas; Gsell, Pierre-Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose a new, graph-based approach to glacier segmentation and flowline extraction. The method, which requires a set of glacier contours and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), consists in finding an optimum branching that connects a set of vertices belonging to the topological skeleton of each glacier. First, the challenges associated with glacier flowline extraction are presented. Then, the three main steps of the method are described: the skeleton extraction and pruning algorithm, the definition and computation of a travel cost between all pairs of skeleton vertices, and the identification of the directed minimum spanning tree in the resulting directed graph. The method, which is mainly designed for valley glaciers, is applied to glaciers in Switzerland.

  2. Step-wise changes in glacier flow speed coincide with calving and glacial earthquakes at Helheim Glacier, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettles, M.; Larsen, T. B.; Elósegui, P.; Hamilton, G. S.; Stearns, L. A.; Ahlstrøm, A. P.; Davis, J. L.; Andersen, M. L.; de Juan, J.; Khan, S. A.; Stenseng, L.; Ekström, G.; Forsberg, R.

    2008-12-01

    Geodetic observations show several large, sudden increases in flow speed at Helheim Glacier, one of Greenland's largest outlet glaciers, during summer, 2007. These step-like accelerations, detected along the length of the glacier, coincide with teleseismically detected glacial earthquakes and major iceberg calving events. No coseismic offset in the position of the glacier surface is observed; instead, modest tsunamis associated with the glacial earthquakes implicate glacier calving in the seismogenic process. Our results link changes in glacier velocity directly to calving-front behavior at Greenland's largest outlet glaciers, on timescales as short as minutes to hours, and clarify the mechanism by which glacial earthquakes occur.

  3. Modelled trends in oceanic conditions of Pine Island Bay between 1991 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimuras, Satoshi; Holland, Paul; Regan, Heather; Jenkins, Adrian; Van Wessem, Melchior

    2016-04-01

    Two ice shelves in Pine Island Bay, Pine Island Glacier and its neighbour Thwaites Glacier, have been highlighted as major drainage pathways for the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. We quantify the melting of these ice shelves and oceanic conditions between 1991 and 2014 using a general circulation model. Two different atmospheric forcing scenarios (RACMO2.3 and ERA-Interim) are used as a surface boundary. The ocean heat content of the Pine Island Bay from the simulations shows periodic decrease in the late 1990s and 2012-2014, but the magnitude of cooling is different between RACMO2.3 and ERA-Interim forced simulations. The brine rejection of the sea ice production causes enhanced overturning and cools the water north of Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf. This cold water flows southward along the coastline, resulting in lower melt rate in the late 1990s and 2012-2014.

  4. Glacier Instability, Rapid Glacier Lake Growth and Related Hazards at Belvedere Glacier, Macugnaga, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggel, C.; Kaeaeb, A.; Haeberli, W.; Mortara, G.; Chiarle, M.; Epifani, F.

    2002-12-01

    Starting in summer 2000, Belvedere Glacier, near Macugnaga, Italian Alps, developed an extraordinary change in flow, geometry and surface appearance. A surge-type flow acceleration started in the lower parts of the Monte-Rosa east face, leading to strong crevassing and deformation of Belvedere Glacier, accompanied by bulging of its orographic right margin. In September 2001, a small supraglacial lake developed on the glacier. High water pressure and accelerated movement lasted into winter 2001/2002. The ice, in places, started to override moraines from the Little Ice Age. In late spring and early summer 2002, the supraglacial lake grew at extraordinary rates reaching a maximum area of more than 150'000 m2 by end of June. The evolution of such a large supraglacial lake, a rather unique feature in the Alps, was probably enabled by changes in the subglacial drainage system in the course of the surge-like developments with high water pressure in the glacier. At the end of June, an enhanced growth of the lake level with a rise of about 1 m per day was observed such that the supraglacial lake became a urgent hazard problem for the community of Macugnaga. Emergency measures had to be taken by the Italian Civil Protection. The authors thereby acted as the official expert advisers. Temporal evacuations were ordered and a permanent monitoring and alarm system was installed. Pumps with a maximum output of 1 m3/s were brought to the lake. Bathymetric studies yielded a maximum lake depth of 55 m and a volume of 3.3 millions of cubic meters of water. Aerial photography of 1995, 1999, September 2001 and October 2001 was used to calculate ice flow velocities and changes in surface altitude. Compared to the period of 1995 to 1999, the flow accelerated by about five times in 2001 (max. speeds up to 200 m/yr). Surface uplift measured was about 10-15 m/yr. The results of the photogrammetric studies were used to evaluate different possible lake-outburst scenarios, in particular

  5. Thermal structure of Svalbard glaciers and implications for thermal switch models of glacier surging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevestre, Heïdi; Benn, Douglas I.; Hulton, Nicholas R. J.; Bælum, Karoline

    2015-10-01

    Switches between cold- and warm-based conditions have long been invoked to explain surges of High Arctic glaciers. Here we compile existing and new data on the thermal regime of six glaciers in Svalbard to test the applicability of thermal switch models. Two of the large glaciers of our sample are water terminating while one is land terminating. All three have a well-known surge history. They have a thick basal layer of temperate ice, superimposed by cold ice. A cold terminus forms during quiescence but is mechanically removed by calving on tidewater glaciers. The other three glaciers are relatively small and are either entirely cold or have a diminishing warm core. All three bear evidence of former warm-based thermal regimes and, in two cases, surge-like behavior during the Little Ice Age. In Svalbard, therefore, three types of glaciers have switched from slow to fast flow: (1) small glaciers that underwent thermal cycles during and following the Little Ice Age (switches between cold- and warm-based conditions), (2) large terrestrial glaciers which remain warm based throughout the entire surge cycle but develop cold termini during quiescence, and (3) large tidewater glaciers that remain warm based throughout the surge cycle. Our results demonstrate that thermal switching cannot explain the surges of large glaciers in Svalbard. We apply the concept of enthalpy cycling to the spectrum of surge and surge-like behavior displayed by these glaciers and demonstrate that all Svalbard surge-type glaciers can be understood within a single conceptual framework.

  6. Sea otter studies in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Kloecker, K.A.; Esslinger, G.G.; Monson, D.H.; DeGroot, J.D.; Doherty, J.

    2002-01-01

    Following translocations to the outer coast of Southeast Alaska in 1965, sea otters have been expanding their range and increasing in abundance. We began conducting surveys for sea otters in Cross Sound, Icy Strait, and Glacier Bay, Alaska in 1994, following initial reports (in 1993) of their presence in Glacier Bay. Since 1995, the number of sea otters in Glacier Bay proper has increased from around 5 to more than 1500. Between 1993 and 1997 sea otters were apparently only occasional visitors to Glacier Bay, but in 1998 long-term residence was established as indicated by the presence of adult females and their dependent pups. Sea otter distribution is limited to the Lower Bay, south of Sandy Cove, and is not continuous within that area. Concentrations occur in the vicinity of Sita Reef and Boulder Island and between Pt. Carolus and Rush Pt. on the west side of the Bay (Figure 1). We describe the diet of sea otters during 2001 in Glacier Bay based on visual observations of prey during 456 successful forage dives. In Glacier Bay, diet consisted of 62% clam, 15% mussel, 9% crab, 7% unidentified, 4& urchins, and 4% other. Most prey recovered by sea otters are commercially, socially, or ecologically important species. Species of clam include Saxidomus gigantea, Protothaca staminea, and Mya truncata. Urchins are primarily Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis and the mussel is Modiolus modiolus. Crabs include species of three genera: Cancer, Chinoecetes, and Telmessus. Although we characterize diet at broad geographic scales, we found diet to vary between sites separated by as little as several hundred meters. Dietary variation among and within sites can reflect differences in prey availability and individual specialization. We estimated species composition, density, biomass, and sizes of subtidal clams, urchins, and mussels at 9 sites in lower Glacier Bay. All sites were selected based on the presence of abundant clam siphons. Sites were not selected to allow inference to

  7. Reconstructing climate variability using tree rings and glacier fluctuations in the southern Chilean Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravena, Juan-Carlos

    -early summer in northwestern Patagonia extends from AD 1600 to 2002, and only explains 14% of the variance in the instrumental record. The southern Patagonia summer-autumn precipitation reconstruction (1600 to 2000) explains 40% of the total variance. Both reconstructed series show oscillatory modes for periodicities between 2 and 4 years and between 20 and 40 years. Droughts recognized in the reconstructed northwestern Patagonia precipitation series coincide with several other precipitation reconstructions of south-central Chile and Argentina over the last 400 years. "Little Ice Age" glacier fluctuations were examined at Mount San Lorenzo (47°30'S) and Santa Ines Island (53°45'S) in southern Chile using dendroglaciologic, geomorphic and historical (documentary, photographic) evidence. At Mount San Lorenzo the glacial advances occurred between 1600 and the late 1800s-early 1900s. At Santa Ines Island, the oldest glacial advance is dated ca. AD 1675 at Alejandro Glacier. Minimum age estimates ca. AD 1758, 1840-45 and 1895-1910 are common to Alejandro and Beatriz glaciers suggesting synchronous glacial activity. Glaciers have been receding at both sites during the last half of the 20th century. Radiocarbon dates from peat at Beatriz Glacier on Santa Ines Island indicate that the seventeenth century advance was the most extensive in the last 5,300 years in this area. Comparison between these glacier histories and climatic reconstructions for the last 400 years shows that glaciers from both study areas respond to a combination of temperature and precipitation. Future work involving a multi-criteria approach to date these moraines should include examination of soils, volcanic tephras and lake deposits within moraines, together with other dating tools to improve the dating control of the glacier histories. Keywords. Precipitation, homogeneity analysis, atmospheric circulation, Pilgerodendron uviferum, tree rings, time series analysis, climate variability, Southern South America

  8. Insights into the Thwaites Glacier grounding zone from Operation IceBridge aerogravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinto, K. J.; Bell, R. E.; Cochran, J. R.; Elieff, S.; Frearson, N.

    2010-12-01

    Operation IceBridge acquired 1500 km of geophysical data, at 10 km spacing, in front of the Thwaites Glacier grounding line during the 2009 season. The gravity anomalies recorded by the survey have been used to model the bathymetry of the sea floor in front of the glacier, an area inaccessible to previous surveys. The resulting map reveals previously unseen detail of the Thwaites grounding zone, as well as the spatial extent of features that were formerly only known as points affecting the ice surface. The modeled bathymetry in front of Thwaites Glacier is marked by an undulating ridge running sub-parallel to the grounding line, 40 km seaward. The highest peak on the ridge is in contact with the overlying ice shelf, hindering its flow. Ridge elevation decreases to the west, with a maximum ridge depth of 850 m and an average relief of 350 m. This is comparable in scale to the recently identified ridge crossing the channel of nearby Pine Island Glacier (Jenkins et al., 2010). The present-day grounding line of Thwaites appears to be marked by a more subdued ridge, in which we have identified a 20 km wide hollow, to a water depth of 1200 m. Our model shows that this hollow corresponds to a landward bight in the grounding line, in the region through which the fast ice flow of Thwaites Glacier is focused. This correlation was not visible on previous, coarser scale maps of the grounding line, and shows a clear relationship between the bathymetry and ice flow. Gravity inversions have been constrained by nearby marine surveys, satellite images of the ice rise at the peak of the ridge and radar and laser data from the IceBridge survey to constrain ice thickness. The absolute values of predicted bathymetry are dependent on the density of the rocks in the subsurface, for example the presence or absence of volcanic material or loose sediments. Some models of the geology of the survey area are also proposed. Uncertainty of underlying geology may account for ~100 m errors in the

  9. Himalayan glaciers: understanding contrasting patterns of glacier behavior using multi-temporal satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racoviteanu, A.

    2014-12-01

    High rates of glacier retreat for the last decades are often reported, and believed to be induced by 20th century climate changes. However, regional glacier fluctuations are complex, and depend on a combination of climate and local topography. Furthermore, in ares such as the Hindu-Kush Himalaya, there are concerns about warming, decreasing monsoon precipitation and their impact on local glacier regimes. Currently, the challenge is in understanding the magnitude of feedbacks between large-scale climate forcing and small-scale glacier behavior. Spatio-temporal patterns of glacier distribution are still llimited in some areas of the high Hindu-Kush Himalaya, but multi-temporal satellite imagery has helped fill spatial and temporal gaps in regional glacier parameters in the last decade. Here I present a synopsis of the behavior of glaciers across the Himalaya, following a west to east gradient. In particular, I focus on spatial patterns of glacier parameters in the eastern Himalaya, which I investigate at multi-spatial scales using remote sensing data from declassified Corona, ASTER, Landsat ETM+, Quickbird and Worldview2 sensors. I also present the use of high-resolution imagery, including texture and thermal analysis for mapping glacier features at small scale, which are particularly useful in understanding surface trends of debris-covered glaciers, which are prevalent in the Himalaya. I compare and contrast spatial patterns of glacier area and élévation changes in the monsoon-influenced eastern Himalaya (the Everest region in the Nepal Himalaya and Sikkim in the Indian Himalaya) with other observations from the dry western Indian Himalaya (Ladakh and Lahul-Spiti), both field measurements and remote sensing-based. In the eastern Himalaya, results point to glacier area change of -0.24 % ± 0.08% per year from the 1960's to the 2006's, with a higher rate of retreat in the last decade (-0.43% /yr). Debris-covered glacier tongues show thinning trends of -30.8 m± 39 m

  10. Climatology of Andean glaciers: A framework to understand glacier response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagredo, E. A.; Lowell, T. V.

    2012-04-01

    Recent glacial and climate models suggest that glaciers located in contrasting climates could respond with different magnitudes to identical climatic perturbations. This implies that to understand the response of glaciers to a particular climate perturbation or to compare glacial fluctuations between different regions, climate conditions that permit glaciers to exist must be taken into account. In this study we systematize, classify, and identify the spatial distribution of the climates that permit the occurrence of present-day glaciers in the climatically diverse Andes. A first approximation suggests that a sample of 234 Andean glaciers exist under three distinctive combinations of temperature and precipitation conditions: i) cold and dry, ii) intermediate, and iii) warm and wet conditions. Cluster analysis (CA) and Principal Component analysis (PCA) of temperature, precipitation, and humidity reveal seven climatic configurations that support present-day Andean glaciers and suggest that these configurations have a distinctive geographical distribution. The groups are: 1) inner tropics and Tierra del Fuego, 2) wetter outer tropics, 3) drier outer tropics, 4) subtropics, 5) central Chile-Argentina (semi-arid), 6) northern and central Patagonia, and 7) southern Patagonia. This classification provides a basis to examine the spatial variability of glacier sensitivity to climate change, to unravel the causes of past glacial fluctuations, to understand the climatic signals driving present-day glacier fluctuations, and perhaps to predict the response of glaciers to future climate changes.

  11. A Revised Glacier Inventory of Bhaga Basin Himachal Pradesh, India : Current Status and Recent Glacier Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birajdar, F.; Venkataraman, G.; Bahuguna, I.; Samant, H.

    2014-11-01

    Himalayan glaciers show large uncertainty regarding their present and future state due to their sensitive reaction towards change in climatic condition. Himalayan glaciers are unique as they are located in tropical, high altitude regions, predominantly valley type and many are covered with debris. The great northern plains of India sustain on the perennial melt of glaciers meeting the water requirements of agriculture, industries, domestic sector even in the months of summer when large tracts of the country go dry. Therefore, it is important to monitor and assess the state of snow and glaciers and to know the sustainability of glaciers in view of changing global scenarios of climate and water security of the nation. Any information pertaining to Himalayan glaciers is normally difficult to be obtained by conventional means due to its harsh weather and rugged terrains. Due to the ecological diversity and geographical vividness, major part of the Indian Himalaya is largely un-investigated. Considering the fact that Himalayan glaciers are situated in a harsh environment, conventional techniques of their study is challenging and difficult both in terms of logistics and finances whereas the satellite remote sensing offers a potential mode for monitoring glaciers in long term. In order to gain an updated overview of the present state of the glacier cover and its changes since the previous inventories, an attempt has been made to generate a new remotesensing- derived glacier inventory on 1:50,000 scale for Bhaga basin (N32°28'19.7'' - N33°0'9.9'' ; E76°56'16.3'' - E77°25'23.7'' ) Western Himalaya covering an area of 1695.63 km2. having 231 glaciers and occupying glacierized area of 385.17 ±3.71 km2. ranging from 0.03 km2. to 29.28 km2. Glacier inventory has been carried out using high resolution IRS P6 LISS III data of 2011, ASTER DEM and other ancillary data. Specific measurements of mapped glacier features are the inputs for generating the glacier inventory data

  12. Biogeochemistry of glacier and rock glacier outflow in the western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fegel, T. S.; Baron, J.; Hall, E.; Boot, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers are melting at unprecedented rates worldwide, releasing bioavailable minerals and nutrients and altering downstream biogeochemistry. Though much research has focused on the recession of ice-glaciers in alpine environments, far less is known about the melt dynamics and biogeochemistry of rock glaciers. Rock glaciers, which are mixtures of ice and rocks that flow like a glacier, are far more abundant in mountainous regions of the western United States than ice glaciers. Little is known about their influence on downstream hydrology and water quality. We report here preliminary results of a west-wide survey of the influence of glaciers and rock glaciers on headwater properties. Measurements of specific conductance, nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), dissolved silica, and dissolved organic matter were compared between glaciers, rock glaciers, and snow-fed reference streams from three basins in the Colorado Front Range. Samples were collected from ice, where possible, and downstream at 500m intervals from the first flowing water to tree line. UV and fluorescence data were analyzed using excitation emission matrices (EEMs) and PARAFAC modeling. High concentrations of NH4+ were only found in ice and the most upstream locations; NH4+ was below detection at all lower elevation sites, whereas NO3- concentrations were low in the headwaters and higher downstream. The fluorescence spectrum of DOC from both ice and the highest elevations had a strong autochthonous (microbial or algal) signal that was replaced by a more allochtonous, terrestrially-derived DOC as it approached tree line. Rock glacier stream chemistry was intermediate between glacier-fed streams and strictly snow fed drainages. DOC levels for ice glaciers ranged 2-3mg/L with increasing values downstream, while rock glaciers ranged from 1-2.5 mg/L with attenuation downstream. Snowfed only streams had DOC values at detection <0.5mg/L, with the exception at Lake Husted outflow, with an upland wetland, unlike the

  13. Integrated firn elevation change model for glaciers and ice caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saß, Björn; Sauter, Tobias; Braun, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    We present the development of a firn compaction model in order to improve the volume to mass conversion of geodetic glacier mass balance measurements. The model is applied on the Arctic ice cap Vestfonna. Vestfonna is located on the island Nordaustlandet in the north east of Svalbard. Vestfonna covers about 2400 km² and has a dome like shape with well-defined outlet glaciers. Elevation and volume changes measured by e.g. satellite techniques are becoming more and more popular. They are carried out over observation periods of variable length and often covering different meteorological and snow hydrological regimes. The elevation change measurements compose of various components including dynamic adjustments, firn compaction and mass loss by downwasting. Currently, geodetic glacier mass balances are frequently converted from elevation change measurements using a constant conversion factor of 850 kg m‑³ or the density of ice (917 kg m‑³) for entire glacier basins. However, the natural conditions are rarely that static. Other studies used constant densities for the ablation (900 kg m‑³) and accumulation (600 kg m‑³) areas, whereby density variations with varying meteorological and climate conditions are not considered. Hence, each approach bears additional uncertainties from the volume to mass conversion that are strongly affected by the type and timing of the repeat measurements. We link and adapt existing models of surface energy balance, accumulation and snow and firn processes in order to improve the volume to mass conversion by considering the firn compaction component. Energy exchange at the surface is computed by a surface energy balance approach and driven by meteorological variables like incoming short-wave radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, wind speed, all-phase precipitation, and cloud cover fraction. Snow and firn processes are addressed by a coupled subsurface model, implemented with a non-equidistant layer

  14. Global Warming and Glaciers Melting at Fjords in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a discussion on the validation or not of a likely paradigm about the melting of polar glaciers and their direct impact on increasing ocean levels. Physico-chemical properties of ocean waters, as well as anomalies in the thermal behavior of water are used as providers of this discussion using fjords of Greenland as study area. This text seeks to infer the relationship between the most recent developments in global warming, specifically dealing with the melting of glaciers located in fjords in the eastern part of Greenland, increasing the water temperature in ocean currents and changes in sea levels. We emphasize the importance of the correlation of the water physico-chemical characteristics in these changes perceived in the studied environment. Greenland is defined by convention as the widest oceanic island in the world. In its fjords formed in the last glaciation of the Quaternary period, basically made of ice mountains with entries to the sea, there has been melts that are discussed in this work. At first, global warming and the melting of glaciers with a consequent rise in sea levels are presented almost as an axiom. This paper seeks to address the conclusions arising from this type of research according the basic laws of physics and chemistry, related to the behavior of water in their states (typically solid and liquid). The ultimate goal of this work glimpsed through some inferences and validation of water behavior in the ice condition and in its liquid state, a broader view with regard to the findings applied to the relationship between global warming and ice melting processes. Will be observed some water anomalies in the variation between its liquid and solid states to attempt a better understanding of the phenomena occurring in this area of interest as well as their possible impacts. It is noteworthy the fact that the water does not behave thermally as most liquids, with very specific consequences in relation to the variation between its

  15. Geocryological Structure and Glaciers Novaya Zemlya archipelago in the context of global climate processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholmiansky, Mikhail; Anokhin, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    New Earth glaciation due to the Quaternary glaciation .epohami and modern climate. We distinguish four types of ice sheets: small glaciers and snowfields - a capacity of up to 100 m .; mountain-valley glaciation - up to 200 m .; net (transition to the coverslip) - up to 300 m. and glaciation (ice sheet) - up to 500 m. The archipelago is characterized by continuous permafrost raprosraneniem, which is located under the roof of the seasonally thawed layer at a depth of 0.1 to 3.2 m . The depth is increased by its lakes and man-made Taliko up to 35 m. The temperature of the permafrost Paleozoic sandstones and shales at a depth of 15 m. Reaches -3,5°; limestones and shales containing cryopeg it reaches -2,8° at a depth of 130 m. Power Cryolithozone on drilling data and calculations 265-280 m. The average temperature of ice sheets are formed depending on the type of ice, its cut and the power supply type and morphology of the surface. It differs from the temperature of the surrounding glacier rocks on 3-7° and is at a depth from the surface of the glacier 13-15 m .: -3 - -4,5°; at a depth of 30 m .: -2°. In the age of the Quaternary glaciation entire archipelago was covered with continental ice. Global warming has resulted in a reduction of its area by 25% In the northern part of the South Island there are snowfields and small lednichki. In the area of Matochkin Shar and further north to South Bay Sulmenova, found mainly hanging and cirque glaciers, severely degraded, and in most cases do not reach the sea. At the same time, in the South Bay and Sulmenova and a number of other areas there are powerful lobes were associated with the ice sheet interior of the North Island, and reaching the sea. In the west of the archipelago to reach the sea only a few branches of the Central ice sheet; in the eastern part of the North Island ice sheet breaks in the sea in the form of ice walls up to 400 meters. This part is called the Nordenskiöld glacier. The maximum ice thickness

  16. Hubbard Glacier, Alaska: growing and advancing in spite of global climate change and the 1986 and 2002 Russell Lake outburst floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trabant, Dennis C.; March, Rod S.; Thomas, Donald S.

    2003-01-01

    Hubbard Glacier, the largest calving glacier on the North American Continent (25 percent larger than Rhode Island), advanced across the entrance to 35-mile-long Russell Fiord during June 2002, temporarily turning it into a lake. Hubbard Glacier has been advancing for more than 100 years and has twice closed the entrance to Russell Fiord during the last 16 years by squeezing and pushing submarine glacial sediments across the mouth of the fiord. Water flowing into the cutoff fiord from mountain streams and glacier melt causes the level of Russell Lake to rise. However, both the 1986 and 2002 dams failed before the lake altitude rose enough for water to spill over a low pass at the far end of the fiord and enter the Situk River drainage, a world-class sport and commercial fishery near Yakutat, Alaska.

  17. Assessing the Influence of Tributary Glaciers on Ice Properties and Flow Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, A. M.; Rupper, S.; McBride, J. H.; Ritter, S.; Tingey, D. G.; McKean, A.; Parks, E.

    2009-12-01

    from the confluence on Zwillingsgletscher . Preliminary processing and interpretation of the profile suggest an upper zone of low-backscatter ice (e.g., 10-15 m thick) that rests over a layer, of unknown thickness, that is highly diffractive with occasional planar reflections. The results of our survey can be compared to previous lower-frequency and deeper penetration radar surveys on Grenzgletscher, which detected a zone of low backscatter interpreted as cold ice extending to 100-200 m depth (Eisen et al., 2009). All else being equal, the differences in fraction of ice below the pressure melting point is enough to create flow rates of Zwillingsgletscher three times faster than that of Gornergletscher. In summary, the preliminary ice core and radar data indicate significant differences in bulk ice properties between the two, adjacent tributary glaciers, differences large enough to greatly impact the strain rates across this glacier system and, ultimately, the system’s response to climatic change.

  18. Distinct patterns of seasonal Greenland glacier velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Twila; Joughin, Ian; Smith, Ben; Broeke, Michiel R.; Berg, Willem Jan; Noël, Brice; Usher, Mika

    2014-10-01

    Predicting Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss due to ice dynamics requires a complete understanding of spatiotemporal velocity fluctuations and related control mechanisms. We present a 5 year record of seasonal velocity measurements for 55 marine-terminating glaciers distributed around the ice sheet margin, along with ice-front position and runoff data sets for each glacier. Among glaciers with substantial speed variations, we find three distinct seasonal velocity patterns. One pattern indicates relatively high glacier sensitivity to ice-front position. The other two patterns are more prevalent and appear to be meltwater controlled. These patterns reveal differences in which some subglacial systems likely transition seasonally from inefficient, distributed hydrologic networks to efficient, channelized drainage, while others do not. The difference may be determined by meltwater availability, which in some regions may be influenced by perennial firn aquifers. Our results highlight the need to understand subglacial meltwater availability on an ice sheet-wide scale to predict future dynamic changes.

  19. Complex Greenland outlet glacier flow captured

    PubMed Central

    Aschwanden, Andy; Fahnestock, Mark A.; Truffer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet is losing mass at an accelerating rate due to increased surface melt and flow acceleration in outlet glaciers. Quantifying future dynamic contributions to sea level requires accurate portrayal of outlet glaciers in ice sheet simulations, but to date poor knowledge of subglacial topography and limited model resolution have prevented reproduction of complex spatial patterns of outlet flow. Here we combine a high-resolution ice-sheet model coupled to uniformly applied models of subglacial hydrology and basal sliding, and a new subglacial topography data set to simulate the flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Flow patterns of many outlet glaciers are well captured, illustrating fundamental commonalities in outlet glacier flow and highlighting the importance of efforts to map subglacial topography. Success in reproducing present day flow patterns shows the potential for prognostic modelling of ice sheets without the need for spatially varying parameters with uncertain time evolution. PMID:26830316

  20. Stabilizing feedbacks in glacier-bed erosion.

    PubMed

    Alley, R B; Lawson, D E; Larson, G J; Evenson, E B; Baker, G S

    2003-08-14

    Glaciers often erode, transport and deposit sediment much more rapidly than nonglacial environments, with implications for the evolution of glaciated mountain belts and their associated sedimentary basins. But modelling such glacial processes is difficult, partly because stabilizing feedbacks similar to those operating in rivers have not been identified for glacial landscapes. Here we combine new and existing data of glacier morphology and the processes governing glacier evolution from diverse settings to reveal such stabilizing feedbacks. We find that the long profiles of beds of highly erosive glaciers tend towards steady-state angles opposed to and slightly more than 50 per cent steeper than the overlying ice-air surface slopes, and that additional subglacial deepening must be enabled by non-glacial processes. Climatic or glaciological perturbations of the ice-air surface slope can have large transient effects on glaciofluvial sediment flux and apparent glacial erosion rate. PMID:12917679

  1. Complex Greenland outlet glacier flow captured.

    PubMed

    Aschwanden, Andy; Fahnestock, Mark A; Truffer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet is losing mass at an accelerating rate due to increased surface melt and flow acceleration in outlet glaciers. Quantifying future dynamic contributions to sea level requires accurate portrayal of outlet glaciers in ice sheet simulations, but to date poor knowledge of subglacial topography and limited model resolution have prevented reproduction of complex spatial patterns of outlet flow. Here we combine a high-resolution ice-sheet model coupled to uniformly applied models of subglacial hydrology and basal sliding, and a new subglacial topography data set to simulate the flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Flow patterns of many outlet glaciers are well captured, illustrating fundamental commonalities in outlet glacier flow and highlighting the importance of efforts to map subglacial topography. Success in reproducing present day flow patterns shows the potential for prognostic modelling of ice sheets without the need for spatially varying parameters with uncertain time evolution. PMID:26830316

  2. Recent transformations in the high-Arctic glacier landsystems based on examples from Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewertowski, Marek; Tomczyk, Aleksandra

    2014-05-01

    Glacier recession and landform development in the foreland of several Svalbard's glaciers were quantified for different spatio-temporal scales. Time-series orthophotos and digital elevation models from 1961, 1990 and 2009 (with ground resolution varying from 0.4 m to 0.7 m) were used for quantification of decadal changes for the whole glacial catchments. Time-series geomorphological maps were constructed using a combination of DEM visualization and stereoscopic viewing of aerial photographs. Planar transformations of landforms were quantified based on orthophotomaps, whereas changes of the volume of ice and landforms were assessed by creation of digital elevation models of differences (i.e. elevation changes between sequential DEMs). Repetitive geomorphological and geodetic field surveys were applied to estimates seasonal and inter-seasonal transformations of various landforms assemblages and individual landforms. Research were carried out for several glaciers in the central part of the Spitsbergen Island, including: Nordenskiöldbreen, Ebbabreen, Raganrbreen, Hørbyebreen, Cambridgebreen, Balliolbreen, Svenbreen and Ferdinandbreen. In the period LIA-2013, glaciers' margins retreated seriously, moreover ice volume and glaciers' surface profiles changed enormously emphasizing the relative importance of glaciers' thinning over area loss. In terms of landscape alteration, the landforms response was much more varied between glaciers. Most important transformation included: (1) developing of a terminoglacial and/or supraglacial lakes, which acted as a sedimentary trap and at the same time probably accelerated glacier erosion, (2) developing the lateral moraines whose transformations were divided into creation, initial, mature, and senile phases, with various magnitudes of debris flow and backwasting activity that changed with time (3) developing of end moraine complexes, which are now the most stable components, alternated mainly by dead-ice downwasting and to a lesser

  3. Towards a complete World Glacier Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemp, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The need for an inventory of the world's glaciers evolved during the International Hydrological Decade (1965-74). As a result, guidelines were established in the mid 1970s to compile a worldwide detailed inventory of existing perennial snow and ice masses. Following these international guidelines, several countries started compiling national glacier inventories based primarily on aerial photographs and maps. In the 1980s, the World Glacier Inventory (WGI) database was launched together with a status report about global and regional glacierised surface areas for the second half of the 20th century. These estimates were based on the detailed inventory data together with preliminary estimates of the remaining glacierised regions derived from early satellite imagery. In the late 1990s, the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) database was initiated to continue the inventory task with space-borne sensors. In the WGI, glaciers are represented by geographical point coordinates. The GLIMS database includes digital outlines. Both include exact time stamps and tabular information on glacier classifications, length, area, orientation, and altitude range. Both are regularly updated with newly available data: the WGI stores point information for the second half of the 20th century whereas the GLIMS includes digital outlines for the 21st century. Since these detailed glacier inventories are not (yet) globally complete, there have been several efforts towards preliminary estimates of the overall global glacier coverage. A first, well elaborated one was included in the original status report of the WGI, published in 1989, and was refined in 2005 with information from other sources by Dyurgerov and Meier. Other studies used the detailed WGI, or an extended format by Cogley, for regional or global up-scaling of glacier extents. In 2003, Cogley published a global map of percentage glacier coverage per 1°x1° grid box (GGHydro) that is widely used for modeling at global

  4. International Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingle, Craig S.

    1990-01-01

    Cryospheric Sciences Program "International Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow" (PI, C. Lingle) provided partial support for publication of Annals of Glaciology 36 by the International Glaciological Society. Annals of Glaciology is a peer-reviewed journal. Annals 36, which was published in 2003, contains 39 peer-reviewed and edited papers from the International Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow, which was held in Yakutat, Alaska, 10-14 June 2002.

  5. Regional Observations of Alaska Glacier Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, E. W.; Forster, R. R.; Hall, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    Alaska glaciers contribute more to sea level rise than any other glacierized mountain region in the world. Alaska is loosing ~84 Gt of ice annually, which accounts for ~0.23 mm/yr of SLR (Luthcke et al., 2008). Complex glacier flow dynamics, frequently related to tidewater environments, is the primary cause of such rapid mass loss (Larsen et al., 2007). Indirect observations indicate these complex flow dynamics occur on many glaciers throughout Alaska, but no comprehensive velocity measurements exist. We are working to measure glacier surface velocities throughout Alaska using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) offset tracking. This work focuses on the Seward/Malaspina, Bering, Columbia, Kaskawulsh, and Hubbard Glaciers and uses a MODIS land surface temperature "melt-day" product (Hall et al., 2006, 2008) to identify potential links between velocity variability and summertime temperature fluctuations. Hall, D., R. Williams Jr., K. Casey, N. DiGirolamo, and Z. Wan (2006), Satellite-derived, melt-season surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet (2000-2005) and its relationship to mass balance, Geophysical Research Letters, 33(11). Hall, D., J. Box, K. Casey, S. Hook, C. Shuman, and K. Steffen (2008), Comparison of satellite-derived and in-situ observations of ice and snow surface temperatures over Greenland, Remote Sensing of Environment, 112(10), 3739-3749. Larsen, C. F., R. J. Motyka, A. A. Arendt, K. A. Echelmeyer, and P. E. Geissler (2007), Glacier changes in southeast Alaska and northwest British Columbia and contribution to sea level rise, J. Geophys. Res. Luthcke, S., A. Arendt, D. Rowlands, J. McCarthy, and C. Larsen (2008), Recent glacier mass changes in the Gulf of Alaska region from GRACE mascon solutions, Journal of Glaciology, 54(188), 767-777.

  6. The fleeting glaciers of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakke, Jostein; Røthe, Torgeir; van der Bilt, Willem; Paasche, Øyvind

    2015-04-01

    Glaciers and snow are the very symbol of the Arctic, covering large parts of its terrestrial surface throughout the year. The cool temperatures that have allowed for the widespread coverage of glaciers are now trending towards a warmer climate, and with this gradual shift we observe a non-linear response in the cryosphere of which glaciers are a key component. This change is manifested in retreating fronts and an overall thinning. Because the typology of Arctic glaciers is rich and varied, the response pattern to the on-going warming is not unison. Instead we observe large spatial variations due to the critical balance between summer temperature and winter precipitation, but also other factors such as aspect, altitude, geographical location, debris cover and so forth. Even so, minor variations is superimposed on a larger trends which suggests that in a not so distant future, glaciers will probably be less abundant than what has been common for the last 100 years. In the context of the last 10 000 years it is evident that arctic glaciers have changed significantly and they have even been smaller than they are today, which was the case 9000 to 5000 years ago. On Svalbard, three glacier lake sediment records foretell of large past variations, indicating a more articulated sensitivity to climate change than what is commonly perceived for the Arctic cryosphere. Based on the lake sediment studies we will discuss Arctic glaciers sensitivity to decadal to millenium scale climate fluctuations and discuss possible forcing mechanims behind suitable for explaining what we see.

  7. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for Glacier Hazards Assessment: Application to Predicting the Potential for Glacier Lake Outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furfaro, R.; Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Bishop, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    Glaciers and ice sheets are among the largest unstable parts of the solid Earth. Generally, glaciers are devoid of resources (other than water), are dangerous, are unstable and no infrastructure is normally built directly on their surfaces. Areas down valley from large alpine glaciers are also commonly unstable due to landslide potential of moraines, debris flows, snow avalanches, outburst floods from glacier lakes, and other dynamical alpine processes; yet there exists much development and human occupation of some disaster-prone areas. Satellite remote sensing can be extremely effective in providing cost-effective and time- critical information. Space-based imagery can be used to monitor glacier outlines and their lakes, including processes such as iceberg calving and debris accumulation, as well as changing thicknesses and flow speeds. Such images can also be used to make preliminary identifications of specific hazardous spots and allows preliminary assessment of possible modes of future disaster occurrence. Autonomous assessment of glacier conditions and their potential for hazards would present a major advance and permit systematized analysis of more data than humans can assess. This technical leap will require the design and implementation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms specifically designed to mimic glacier experts’ reasoning. Here, we introduce the theory of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) as an AI tool for predicting and assessing natural hazards in alpine glacier environments. FCM techniques are employed to represent expert knowledge of glaciers physical processes. A cognitive model embedded in a fuzzy logic framework is constructed via the synergistic interaction between glaciologists and AI experts. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed AI methodology as applied to predicting hazards in glacier environments, we designed and implemented a FCM that addresses the challenging problem of autonomously assessing the Glacier Lake Outburst Flow

  8. Where glaciers meet water: Subaqueous melt and its relevance to glaciers in various settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truffer, Martin; Motyka, Roman J.

    2016-03-01

    Glacier change is ubiquitous, but the fastest and largest magnitude changes occur in glaciers that terminate in water. This includes the most rapidly retreating glaciers, and also several advancing ones, often in similar regional climate settings. Furthermore, water-terminating glaciers show a large range in morphology, particularly when ice flow into ocean water is compared to that into freshwater lakes. All water-terminating glaciers share the ability to lose significant volume of ice at the front, either through mechanical calving or direct melt from the water in contact. Here we present a review of the subaqueous melt process. We discuss the relevant physics and show how different physical settings can lead to different glacial responses. We find that subaqueous melt can be an important trigger for glacier change. It can explain many of the morphological differences, such as the existence or absence of floating tongues. Subaqueous melting is influenced by glacial runoff, which is largely a function of atmospheric conditions. This shows a tight connection between atmosphere, oceans and lakes, and glaciers. Subaqueous melt rates, even if shown to be large, should always be discussed in the context of ice supply to the glacier front to assess its overall relevance. We find that melt is often relevant to explain seasonal evolution, can be instrumental in shifting a glacier into a different dynamical regime, and often forms a large part of a glacier's mass loss. On the other hand, in some cases, melt is a small component of mass loss and does not significantly affect glacier response.

  9. Integrated glacier and snow hydrological modelling in the Urumqi No.1 Glacier catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hongkai; Hrachowitz, Markus; Savenije, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    The glacier and snow melt water from mountainous area is an essential water resource in Northwest China, where the climate is arid. Therefore a hydrologic model including glacier and snow melt simulation is in an urgent need for water resources management and prediction under climate change in this region. In this study, the Urumqi No.1 Glacier catchment in Northwest China, with 51% area covered by glacier, was selected as the study site. An integrated daily hydrological model was developed to systematically simulate the hydrograph, runoff separation (glacier and non-glacier runoff), the glacier mass balance (GMB), the equilibrium line altitude (ELA), and the snow water equivalent (SWE). Only precipitation, temperature and sunshine hour data is required as forcing input. A combination method, which applies degree-day approach during dry periods and empirical energy balance formulation during wet seasons, was implemented to simulate snow and glacier melt. Detailed snow melt processes were included in the model, including the water holding capacity of snow pack, the liquid water refreezing process in snow pack, and the change of albedo with time. A traditional rainfall-runoff model (Xinanjiang) was applied to simulate the rainfall(snowmelt)-runoff process in non-glacierized area. Additionally, the influence of elevation on temperature and precipitation distribution, and the impact of different aspect on snow and glacier melting were considered. The model was validated, not only by long-term observed daily runoff data, but also by measured snow (SWE) and glacier data (GMB, ELA) of over 50 years. Furthermore, the calibrated model can be upscaled into a larger catchment, which further supports our proposed model and optimized parameter sets.

  10. Glacier speed-up events and water inputs on the lower Franz Josef Glacier, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrl, L. M.; Horgan, H.; Mackintosh, A. N.; Anderson, B. A.; Dadic, R.

    2012-12-01

    A glacier speed-up event occurs when a water input exceeds the capacity of the subglacial drainage system, and the subglacial water pressure increases. Several studies have suggested that glacier speed-up events do not affect overall glacier motion, as high ice-flow velocities during the event are offset by lower ice-flow velocities after the event due to a more efficient subglacial drainage system. In this study, we combine in-situ velocity measurements with a full Stokes glacier flowline model to explore the temporal and spatial variability in glacier flow on the lower Franz Josef Glacier, Southern Alps, New Zealand. Significant volumes of water enter the Franz Josef Glacier throughout the year due to high rainfall rates and year-round ablation. As a result, we infer that the subglacial drainage system is generally well-developed. In late summer (March) 2011, measured ice-flow velocities increased by up to 75% above background values because of rain events and by up to 32% above background values because of diurnal melt cycles. The observed speed-up events occurred at all survey locations within 4 ± 1 hours after the peak water input. We use a flowline model to show that a spatially-uniform subglacial water pressure, which increased during periods of heavy rain and glacier melt, can reproduce the measured ice-flow velocities across the lower glacier. From our results, we suggest that the variability in water inputs, rather than the mean water input to the system, is the primary driver in glacier speed-up events. If this is the case and the variability in water inputs is maintained, then glacier speed-up events can occur even if the subglacial drainage system is well-developed.

  11. Rheology of rock glaciers: a preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Giardino, J.R.; Vitek, J.D.; Hoskins, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    Movement of rock debris under the influence of gravity, i.e., mass movement, generates a range of phenomena from soil creep, through solifluction,debris flows and rock glaciers to rock falls. Whereas the resultant forms of these phenomena are different, common elements in the mechanics of movement are utilized in the basic interpretation of the processes of formation. Measurements of morphologic variables provide data for deductive analyses of processes that operate too slowly to observe or for processes that generated relict phenomena. External and internal characteristics or rock glacier morphometry and measured rates of motion serve as the basis for the development of a rheological model to explain phenomena classified as rock glaciers. A rock glacier in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of Southern Colorado, which exhibits a large number of ridges and furrows and lichen bare fronts of lobes, suggests present day movement. A strain-net established on the surface provides evidence of movement characteristics. These data plus morphologic and fabric data suggest two rheological models to explain the flow of this rock glacier. Model one is based upon perfect plastic flow and model two is based upon stratified fluid movement with viscosity changing with depth. These models permit a better understanding of the movement mechanics and demonstrate that catastrophic events and slow creep contribute to the morphologic characteristics of this rock glacier.

  12. Creating improved ASTER DEMs over glacierized terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raup, B. H.; Khalsa, S. S.; Armstrong, R.

    2006-12-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) produced from ASTER stereo imagery over glacierized terrain frequently contain data voids, which some software packages fill by interpolation. Even when interpolation is applied, the results are often not accurate enough for studies of glacier thickness changes. DEMs are created by automatic cross-correlation between the image pairs, and rely on spatial variability in the digital number (DN) values for this process. Voids occur in radiometrically homogeneous regions, such as glacier accumulation areas covered with uniform snow, due to lack of correlation. The same property that leads to lack of correlation makes possible the derivation of elevation information from photoclinometry, also known as shape-from-shading. We demonstrate a technique to produce improved DEMs from ASTER data by combining the results from conventional cross-correlation DEM-generation software with elevation information produced from shape-from-shading in the accumulation areas of glacierized terrain. The resulting DEMs incorporate more information from the imagery, and the filled voids more accurately represent the glacier surface. This will allow for more accurate determination of glacier hypsometry and thickness changes, leading to better predictions of response to climate change.

  13. Glacier area and length changes in Norway from repeat inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsvold, S. H.; Andreassen, L. M.; Kienholz, C.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we assess glacier area and length changes in mainland Norway from repeat Landsat TM/ETM+-derived inventories and digitized topographic maps. The multi-temporal glacier inventory consists of glacier outlines from three time ranges: 1947 to 1985 (GIn50), 1988 to 1997 (GI1990), and 1999 to 2006 (GI2000). For the northernmost regions, we include an additional inventory (GI1900) based on historic maps surveyed between 1895 and 1907. Area and length changes are assessed per glacier unit, 36 subregions, and for three main parts of Norway: southern, central, and northern. The results show a decrease in the glacierized area from 2994 km2 in GIn50 to 2668 km2 in GI2000 (total 2722 glacier units), corresponding to an area reduction of -326 km2, or -11% of the initial GIn50 area. The average length change for the full epoch (within GIn50 and GI2000) is -240 m. Overall, the comparison reveals both area and length reductions as general patterns, even though some glaciers have advanced. The three northernmost subregions show the highest retreat rates, whereas the central part of Norway shows the lowest change rates. Glacier area and length changes indicate that glaciers in maritime areas in southern Norway have retreated more than glaciers in the interior, and glaciers in the north have retreated more than southern glaciers. These observed spatial trends in glacier change are related to a combination of several factors such as glacier geometry, elevation, and continentality, especially in southern Norway.

  14. Application of artificial neural networks in hydrological modeling: A case study of runoff simulation of a Himalayan glacier basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buch, A. M.; Narain, A.; Pandey, P. C.

    1994-01-01

    The simulation of runoff from a Himalayan Glacier basin using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is presented. The performance of the ANN model is found to be superior to the Energy Balance Model and the Multiple Regression model. The RMS Error is used as the figure of merit for judging the performance of the three models, and the RMS Error for the ANN model is the latest of the three models. The ANN is faster in learning and exhibits excellent system generalization characteristics.

  15. The Glacial Buzzsaw in the Northern Basin and Range: the Importance of Glacier Size and Uplift Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, D.; Brocklehurst, S. H.; Gawthorpe, R. L.

    2007-12-01

    The role of glaciers in limiting mountain range elevations is an important component of studies linking tectonic uplift and climate-driven erosion. Recent investigations suggesting that a glacial buzzsaw effect can efficiently offset rock uplift in tectonically active settings have concentrated on regions that have held large glaciers (10s km long at Last Glacial Maximum, LGM). However, little work has addressed the role small glaciers may play in controlling range topography. This study looks at the effectiveness of smaller (<10 km) glaciers at limiting peak and ridge elevations in both slow and relatively rapid rock uplift settings. The Lost River and Lemhi Ranges, Idaho, and the Beaverhead-Bitterroot Mountains, Idaho-Montana all experience slow rock uplift, with slip rates <0.3 mm/yr on the range-bounding normal faults. Here, swath-elevation profiles show that maximum elevations correlate well to estimates of both LGM and mean Quaternary equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs). Furthermore, peaks in hypsometry and minima in slope-elevation profiles correspond to ELAs, suggesting that small glaciers can efficiently limit range elevations where rock uplift is slow. The Teton Range, Wyoming, experiences 5-10 times faster rock uplift. In general, elevations, slope profiles, and hypsometry all correlate to both LGM and mean Quaternary ELA estimates, although supra-elevated peaks do penetrate through this zone. Comparisons of valley long-profiles show that glacier size is important in controlling valley form under more rapid rock uplift. Small (<5km) glacial valleys perched high on the range front have profiles that have steepened in response to the rapid rock uplift. In contrast, larger (>8km) valleys extend back beyond the high peaks of the range front, and have housed glaciers that have eroded deep into the range, maintaining shallow gradients. Feedback mechanisms are important in snow accumulation on the larger glaciers, which receive extra inputs of snow from the

  16. Modeling debris-covered glaciers: response to steady debris deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Leif S.; Anderson, Robert S.

    2016-05-01

    Debris-covered glaciers are common in rapidly eroding alpine landscapes. When thicker than a few centimeters, surface debris suppresses melt rates. If continuous debris cover is present, ablation rates can be significantly reduced leading to increases in glacier length. In order to quantify feedbacks in the debris-glacier-climate system, we developed a 2-D long-valley numerical glacier model that includes englacial and supraglacial debris advection. We ran 120 simulations on a linear bed profile in which a hypothetical steady state debris-free glacier responds to a step increase of surface debris deposition. Simulated glaciers advance to steady states in which ice accumulation equals ice ablation, and debris input equals debris loss from the glacier terminus. Our model and parameter selections can produce 2-fold increases in glacier length. Debris flux onto the glacier and the relationship between debris thickness and melt rate strongly control glacier length. Debris deposited near the equilibrium-line altitude, where ice discharge is high, results in the greatest glacier extension when other debris-related variables are held constant. Debris deposited near the equilibrium-line altitude re-emerges high in the ablation zone and therefore impacts melt rate over a greater fraction of the glacier surface. Continuous debris cover reduces ice discharge gradients, ice thickness gradients, and velocity gradients relative to initial debris-free glaciers. Debris-forced glacier extension decreases the ratio of accumulation zone to total glacier area (AAR). Our simulations reproduce the "general trends" between debris cover, AARs, and glacier surface velocity patterns from modern debris-covered glaciers. We provide a quantitative, theoretical foundation to interpret the effect of debris cover on the moraine record, and to assess the effects of climate change on debris-covered glaciers.

  17. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics. PMID:27027291

  18. What Influences Climate and Glacier Change in the Southwestern China?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasunari, Teppei J.

    2012-01-01

    The subject of climate change in the areas of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the Himalayas has taken on increasing importance because of available water resources from their mountain glaciers. Many of these glaciers over the region have been retreating, while some are advancing and stable. Other studies report that some glaciers in the Himalayas show acceleration on their shrinkage. However, the causes of the glacier meltings are still difficult to grasp because of the complexity of climatic change and its influence on glacier issues. However, it is vital that we pursue further study to enable the future prediction on glacier changes.

  19. Glacier Changes in the Russian High Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M. E.; Willis, M. J.; Melkonian, A. K.; Golos, E. M.; Stewart, A.; Ornelas, G.; Ramage, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    We provide new surveys of ice speeds and surface elevation changes for ~40,000 km2 of glaciers and ice caps at the Novaya Zemlya (NovZ) and Severnaya Zemlya (SevZ) Archipelagoes in the Russian High Arctic. The contribution to sea level rise from this ice is expected to increase as the region continues to warm at above average rates. We derive ice speeds using pixel-tracking on radar and optical imagery, with additional information from InSAR. Ice speeds have generally increased at outlet glaciers compared to those measured using interferometry from the mid-1990s'. The most pronounced acceleration is at Inostrantseva Glacier, one of the northernmost glaciers draining into the Barents Sea on NovZ. Thinning rates over the last few decades are derived by regressing stacked elevations from multiple Digital Elevations Models (DEMs) sourced from ASTER and Worldview stereo-imagery and cartographically derived DEMs. DEMs are calibrated and co-registered using ICESat returns over bedrock. On NovZ thinning of between 60 and 100 meters since the 1950s' is common. Similar rates between the late 1980s' and the present are seen at SevZ. We examine in detail the response of the outlet glaciers of the Karpinsky and Russanov Ice Caps on SevZ to the rapid collapse of the Matusevich Ice Shelf in the late summer of 2012. We do not see a dynamic thinning response at the largest feeder glaciers. This may be due to the slow response of the cold polar glaciers to changing boundary conditions, or the glaciers may be grounded well above sea level. Speed increases in the interior are difficult to assess with optical imagery as there are few trackable features. We therefore use pixel tracking on Terra SARX acquisitions before and after the collapse of the ice shelf to compute rates of flow inland, at slow moving ice. Interior ice flow has not accelerated in response to the collapse of the ice shelf but interior rates at the Karpinsky Ice Cap have increased by about 50% on the largest outlet

  20. Evaluating the performance of a glacier erosion model applied to Peyto Glacier, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, R.; Mlynowski, T. J.; Menounos, B.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers are effective agents of erosion for many mountainous regions, but primary rates of erosion are difficult to quantify due to unknown conditions at the glacier bed. We develop a numerical model of subglacial erosion and passively couple it to a vertically integrated ice flow model (UBC regional glaciation model). The model accounts for seasonal changes in water pressure at the glacier bed which affect rates of abrasion and quarrying. We apply our erosion model to Peyto Glacier, and compare estimates of glacier erosion to the mass of fine sediment contained in a lake immediately down valley from the glacier. A series of experiments with our model and ones based on subglacial sliding rates are run to explore model sensitivity to bedrock hardness, seasonal hydrology, changes in mass balance, and longer-term dimensional changes of the glacier. Our experiments show that, as expected, erosion rates are most sensitive to bedrock hardness and changes in glacier mass balance. Silt and clay contained in Peyto Lake primarily originate from the glacier, and represent sediments derived from abrasion and comminution of material produced by quarrying. Average specific sediment yield during the period AD1917-1970 from the lake is 467×190 Mg km-2yr-1 and reaches a maximum of 928 Mg km-2yr-1 in AD1941. Converting to a specific sediment yield, modelled average abrasion and quarrying rates during the comparative period are 142×44 Mg km-2yr-1 and 1167×213 Mg km-2yr-1 respectively. Modelled quarrying accounts for approximately 85-95% of the erosion occurring beneath the glacier. The basal sliding model estimates combined abrasion and quarrying. During the comparative period, estimated yields average 427×136 Mg km-2yr-1, lower than the combined abrasion and quarrying models. Both models predict maximum sediment yield when Peyto Glacier reached its maximum extent. The simplistic erosion model shows higher sensitivity to climate, as seen by accentuated sediment yield peaks

  1. Antarctic outlet glacier mass change resolved at basin scale from satellite gravity gradiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouman, J.; Fuchs, M.; Ivins, E.; Wal, W.; Schrama, E.; Visser, P.; Horwath, M.

    2014-08-01

    The orbit and instrumental measurement of the Gravity Field and Steady State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite mission offer the highest ever resolution capabilities for mapping Earth's gravity field from space. However, past analysis predicted that GOCE would not detect changes in ice sheet mass. Here we demonstrate that GOCE gravity gradiometry observations can be combined with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity data to estimate mass changes in the Amundsen Sea Sector. This refined resolution allows land ice changes within the Pine Island Glacier (PIG), Thwaites Glacier, and Getz Ice Shelf drainage systems to be measured at respectively -67 ± 7, -63 ± 12, and -55 ± 9 Gt/yr over the GOCE observing period of November 2009 to June 2012. This is the most accurate pure satellite gravimetry measurement to date of current mass loss from PIG, known as the "weak underbelly" of West Antarctica because of its retrograde bed slope and high potential for raising future sea level.

  2. Glacier Surface Monitoring by Maximizing Mutual Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erten, E.; Rossi, C.; Hajnsek, I.

    2012-07-01

    The contribution of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) images compared with the single-channel SAR in terms of temporal scene characterization has been found and described to add valuable information in the literature. However, despite a number of recent studies focusing on single polarized glacier monitoring, the potential of polarimetry to estimate the surface velocity of glaciers has not been explored due to the complex mechanism of polarization through glacier/snow. In this paper, a new approach to the problem of monitoring glacier surface velocity is proposed by means of temporal PolSAR images, using a basic concept from information theory: Mutual Information (MI). The proposed polarimetric tracking method applies the MI to measure the statistical dependence between temporal polarimetric images, which is assumed to be maximal if the images are geometrically aligned. Since the proposed polarimetric tracking method is very powerful and general, it can be implemented into any kind of multivariate remote sensing data such as multi-spectral optical and single-channel SAR images. The proposed polarimetric tracking is then used to retrieve surface velocity of Aletsch glacier located in Switzerland and of Inyltshik glacier in Kyrgyzstan with two different SAR sensors; Envisat C-band (single polarized) and DLR airborne L-band (fully polarimetric) systems, respectively. The effect of number of channel (polarimetry) into tracking investigations demonstrated that the presence of snow, as expected, effects the location of the phase center in different polarization, such as glacier tracking with temporal HH compared to temporal VV channels. Shortly, a change in polarimetric signature of the scatterer can change the phase center, causing a question of how much of what I am observing is motion then penetration. In this paper, it is shown that considering the multi-channel SAR statistics, it is possible to optimize the separate these contributions.

  3. Stationary monitoring of glacier response to climate change in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jiawen; Li, Zhongqin; Qin, Xiang; He, Yuanqing; He, Xiaobo; Li, Huilin

    2016-04-01

    At present, there are about 48571 glaciers with a total area of about 51.8×103 km2 and a volume of about 5.6×103 km3 in China. They are distributed widely in the high mountains in and surrounding the Tibetan Plateau and other high mountains such as Tianshan, Altay and Pamir. In view of differences in climatic conditions and glacier types, stationary monitoring of the glacier variations has been ongoing in different regions in order to investigate the glacier response to climate change. The monitoring results show that all the monitoring glaciers have been in retreat during the past decades and especially since 1990's the retreat rate has an accelerating trend. The accumulative mass balance is much negative and has a large annual variability for the monsoonal maritime glaciers in comparison with the continental and sub-continental glaciers. Under climate warming background, the acceleration of glacier melting is mainly attributed to rise in air temperature, ice temperature augment and albedo reduction of glacier surface. Particularly, the albedo reduction has a positive feedback effect on the glacier melting. Based on long term observation of glacier variations and physical properties, a simple dynamics model is coupled with mass balance modeling to make a projection of a typical glacier change in future. The primary modeling results suggest that the glacier will continue in shrinkage until vanishing within 50-90 years.

  4. Rock glaciers and the sediment dynamics in arid mountain belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöthe, Jan Henrik; Höser, Thorsten; Rosenwinkel, Swenja; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Rock glaciers are common periglacial features in highest elevations of semiarid to arid mountain ranges. Rock glaciers predominate in realms where precipitation values fall below thresholds that allow for ice glacier formation, then even outranging ice glaciers in size and number. The influence of ice glaciers on high-mountain's sediment dynamics is manifold: ice-glacier-driven erosion produces large amounts of clastic material; ice glaciers act as a conveyor belt for sediments, delivering material from their source regions to their terminus; ice glaciers entering trunk valleys form efficient dams that interrupt sediment delivery. While these mechanisms have been addressed in numerous earlier studies, the role of rock glaciers for the sediment dynamics of arid mountain belts remains elusive. We address this shortcoming by analysing a rock glacier inventory that we compiled for the Himalaya-Karakoram ranges and the Tien Shan ranges in Central Asia. Our inventory comprises more than 1000 specimen, a large number of which form dams of large trunk rivers and minor tributaries, disconnecting the sediment fluxes from upstream. In certain regions that are nearly devoid of ice-glaciers, like the Gamugah surface of NW Pakistan, rock glaciers of >10^4-m length occupy valley bottoms entirely, constituting the only mode of transport for sediments produced in headwaters. In conclusion, we call for a better understanding of the role that rock glaciers take in the sediment dynamics of arid mountain belts.

  5. Measured Climate Induced Volume Changes of Three Glaciers and Current Glacier-Climate Response Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabant, D. C.; March, R. S.; Cox, L. H.; Josberger, E. G.

    2003-12-01

    Small but hydrologically significant shifts in climate have affected the rates of glacier volume change at the three U.S. Geological Survey Benchmark glaciers. Rate changes are detected as inflections in the cumulative conventional and reference-surface mass-balances of Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers in Alaska and South Cascade Glacier in Washington. The cumulative mass balances are robust and have recently been corroborated by geodetic determinations of glacier volume change. Furthermore, the four-decade length of record is unique for the western hemisphere. Balance trends at South Cascade Glacier in Washington are generally in the opposite sense compared with Wolverine Glacier in Alaska; NCEP correlation of winter balance with local winter temperatures is positive at 0.59 for Wolverine and -0.64 for South Cascade Glacier. At Wolverine Glacier, the negative trend of cumulative mass balances, since measurements began in 1965, was replaced by a growth trend \\(positive mass balances\\) during the late 1970s and 1980s. The positive mass-balance trend was driven by increased precipitation during the 1976/77 to 1989 period. At Gulkana Glacier, the cumulative mass-balance trend has been negative throughout its measurement history, but with rate-change inflection points that coincide with the interdecadal climate-regime shifts in the North Pacific indices. At South Cascade Glacier, the mass-loss trend, observed since measurements began in 1953, was replaced by a positive trend between 1970 and 1976 then became strongly and continuously negative until 1997 when the rate of loss generally decreased. Since 1989, the trends of the glaciers in Alaska have also been strongly negative. These loss rates are the highest rates in the entire record. The strongly negative trends during the 1990s agree with climate studies that suggest that the period since the 1989 regime shift has been unusual. Volume response time and reference surface balance are the current suggested methods for

  6. Spatial features of glacier changes in the Barents-Kara Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharov, A. I.; Schöner, W.; Pail, R.

    2009-04-01

    In the 1950s, the total area of glaciers occupying separate islands and archipelagos of the Barents and Kara seas exceeded 92,300 km² (Atlas of the Arctic 1985). The overall glacier volume reached 20,140 km³ and the average ice thickness was given as 218 m. Our recent remote sensing studies and mass-balance estimates using spaceborne ASTER and LANDSAT imagery, ERS and JERS radar interferometric mosaics, and ICESat altimetry data revealed that, in the 2000s, the areal extent and volume of Barents-Kara glaciation amounted to 86,200±200 km² and 19,330±20 km³, respectively. The annual loss of land ice influenced by severe climate change in longitudinal direction was determined at approx. 8 km³/a in Svalbard, 4 km³/a both in the Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya archipelagos, and less than 0.3 km³/a in Severnaya Zemlya over the past 50 years. The average ice thickness of remaining glaciation increased to 224 m. This fact was explained by rapid disintegration of thinner glacier margins and essential accumulation of snow at higher glacier elevations. Both effects were clearly visible in the series of satellite image maps of glacier elevation changes generated within the framework of the INTEGRAL, SMARAGD and ICEAGE research projects. These maps can be accessed at http://joanneum.dib.at/integral or smaragd (cd results). The largest negative elevation changes were typically detected in the seaward basins of fast-flowing outlet glaciers, both at their fronts and tops. Ablation processes were stronger manifested on southern slopes of ice caps, while the accumulation of snow was generally higher on northern slopes so that main ice divides "shifted" to the north. The largest positive elevation changes (about 100 m) were found in the central part of the study region in the accumulation areas of the biggest ice caps, such as Northern Ice Cap in Novaya Zemlya, Tyndall and Windy ice domes in Franz Josef Land, and Kvitoyjokulen at Kvitøya. The sides of these glaciers

  7. Annual and seasonal mass balances of Chhota Shigri Glacier (benchmark glacier, Western Himalaya), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Arindan; Ramanathan, Alagappan; Farooq Azam, Mohd; Wagnon, Patrick; Vincent, Christian; Linda, Anurag; Sharma, Parmanand; Angchuk, Thupstan; Bahadur Singh, Virendra; Pottakkal, Jose George; Kumar, Naveen; Soheb, Mohd

    2015-04-01

    Several studies on Himalayan glaciers have been recently initiated as they are of particular interest in terms of future water supply, regional climate change and sea-level rise. In 2002, a long-term monitoring program was initiated on Chhota Shigri Glacier (15.7 square km, 9 km long, 6263-4050 m a.s.l.) located in Lahaul and Spiti Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India. This glacier lies in the monsoon-arid transition zone (western Himalaya) and is a representative glacier in Lahaul and Spiti Valley. While annual mass balances have been measured continuously since 2002 using the glaciological method, seasonal scale observations began in 2009. The annual and seasonal mass balances were then analyzed along with meteorological conditions in order to understand the role of winter and summer balances on annual glacier-wide mass balance of Chhota Shigri glacier. During the period 2002-2013, the glacier experienced a negative glacier-wide mass balance of -0.59±0.40 m w.e. a-1 with a cumulative glaciological mass balance of -6.45 m w.e. Annual glacier-wide mass balances were negative except for four years (2004/05, 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11) where it was generally close to balanced conditions. Equilibrium line altitude (ELA) for steady state condition is calculated as 4950 m a.s.l. corresponding to an accumulation area ratio (AAR) of 62% using annual glacier-wide mass balance, ELA and AAR data between 2002 and 2013. The winter glacier-wide mass balance between 2009 and 2013 ranges from a maximum value of 1.38 m w.e. in 2009/10 to a minimum value of 0.89 in 2012/13 year whereas the summer glacier-wide mass balance varies from the highest value of -0.95 m w.e. in 2010/11 to the lowest value of -1.72 m w.e. in 2011/12 year. The mean vertical mass balance gradient between 2002 and 2013 was 0.66 m w.e. (100 m)-1 quite similar to Alps, Nepalese Himalayas etc. Over debris covered area, the gradients are highly variable with a negative mean value of -2.15 m w.e. (100 m)-1 over 2002

  8. Soil processes in recently deglaciated environments in Maritime Antarctica: a study case from Elephant Point (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Marc; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Quijano, Laura; Palazón, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Many ice-free environments in the northern Antarctic Peninsula are undergoing rapid and substantial environmental changes in response to reent climate trends. This is the case of Elephant Point (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands), where the glacier retreat recorded during the second half of the XX century, has exposed 17% of this small peninsula (1.16 km2). Glacier retreat has exposed new ice-free land surface in the northern part of Elephant Point: a moraine extending from the western to the eastern coastlines and a relatively flat proglacial surface. Besides, a sequence of present-day beach, Holocece marine terraces and bedrock plateaus are also distributed in the southern margin of the peninsula. Periglacial processes are widespread in all the peninsula, but the type and characteristics of soils depen on the timing of glacier retreat. In this research we aim to assess how the glacier retreat affects the recently formed soils. Ten sites were sampled along a transect crossing different geomorphological units (beach, raised beaches, moraine, proglacial environment), following the direction of glacier retreat. To this purpose the upper part of selected soil profiles was sectioned in 3 cm depth interval increments to examine main soil properties, grain size distribution, soil organic carbon and pH. Besides, elemental composition and patterns of fallout (FRNs) and environmental radionuclides (ERNs) were analysed to assess if soil profile characteristics within the active layer are affected by glacier retreat. The results obtained confirm the potential for using geomorphological, edaphic and geochemical data to derive information for assessing the influence of different stages of glacier retreat in the study soils.

  9. Exploration of Uncertainty in Glacier Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David E.

    1999-01-01

    There are procedures and methods for verification of coding algebra and for validations of models and calculations that are in use in the aerospace computational fluid dynamics (CFD) community. These methods would be efficacious if used by the glacier dynamics modelling community. This paper is a presentation of some of those methods, and how they might be applied to uncertainty management supporting code verification and model validation for glacier dynamics. The similarities and differences between their use in CFD analysis and the proposed application of these methods to glacier modelling are discussed. After establishing sources of uncertainty and methods for code verification, the paper looks at a representative sampling of verification and validation efforts that are underway in the glacier modelling community, and establishes a context for these within overall solution quality assessment. Finally, an information architecture and interactive interface is introduced and advocated. This Integrated Cryospheric Exploration (ICE) Environment is proposed for exploring and managing sources of uncertainty in glacier modelling codes and methods, and for supporting scientific numerical exploration and verification. The details and functionality of this Environment are described based on modifications of a system already developed for CFD modelling and analysis.

  10. Geophysical imaging of alpine rock glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Hansruedi; Hauck, Christian

    Slope instabilities caused by the disappearance of ice within alpine rock glaciers are an issue of increasing concern. Design of suitable counter-measures requires detailed knowledge of the internal structures of rock glaciers, which can be obtained using geophysical methods. We examine benefits and limitations of diffusive electromagnetics, geoelectrics, seismics and ground-penetrating radar (georadar) for determining the depth and lateral variability of the active layer, the distributions of ice and water, the occurrence of shear horizons and the bedrock topography. In particular, we highlight new developments in data acquisition and data analysis that allow 2-D or even 3-D structures within rock glaciers to be imaged. After describing peculiarities associated with acquiring appropriate geophysical datasets across rock glaciers and emphasizing the importance of state-of-the-art tomographic inversion algorithms, we demonstrate the applicability of 2-D imaging techniques using two case studies of rock glaciers in the eastern Swiss Alps. We present joint interpretations of geoelectric, seismic and georadar data, appropriately constrained by information extracted from boreholes. A key conclusion of our study is that the different geophysical images are largely complementary, with each image resolving a different suite of subsurface features. Based on our results, we propose a general template for the cost-effective and reliable geophysical characterization of mountain permafrost.

  11. Distinct patterns of seasonal Greenland glacier velocity

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Twila; Joughin, Ian; Smith, Ben; van den Broeke, Michiel R; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Noël, Brice; Usher, Mika

    2014-01-01

    Predicting Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss due to ice dynamics requires a complete understanding of spatiotemporal velocity fluctuations and related control mechanisms. We present a 5 year record of seasonal velocity measurements for 55 marine-terminating glaciers distributed around the ice sheet margin, along with ice-front position and runoff data sets for each glacier. Among glaciers with substantial speed variations, we find three distinct seasonal velocity patterns. One pattern indicates relatively high glacier sensitivity to ice-front position. The other two patterns are more prevalent and appear to be meltwater controlled. These patterns reveal differences in which some subglacial systems likely transition seasonally from inefficient, distributed hydrologic networks to efficient, channelized drainage, while others do not. The difference may be determined by meltwater availability, which in some regions may be influenced by perennial firn aquifers. Our results highlight the need to understand subglacial meltwater availability on an ice sheet-wide scale to predict future dynamic changes. Key Points First multi-region seasonal velocity measurements show regional differences Seasonal velocity fluctuations on most glaciers appear meltwater controlled Seasonal development of efficient subglacial drainage geographically divided PMID:25821275

  12. Mathematical challenges in glacier modeling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jouvet, G.

    2013-12-01

    Many of Earth's glaciers are currently shrinking and it is expected that this trend will continue as global warming progresses. To virtually reproduce the evolution of glaciers and finally to predict their future, one needs to couple models of different disciplines and scales. Indeed, the slow motion of ice is described by fluid mechanics equations while the daily snow precipitations and melting are described by hydrological and climatic models. Less visible, applied mathematics are essential to run such a coupling at two different levels: by solving numerically the underlying equations and by seeking parameters using optimisation methods. This talk aims to make visible the role of mathematics in this area. I will first present a short educational film I have made for the "Mathematics of Planet Earth 2013", which is an introduction to the topic. To go further, solving the mechanical model of ice poses several mathematical challenges due to the complexity of the equations and geometries of glaciers. Then, I will describe some strategies to deal with such difficulties and design robust simulation tools. Finally, I will present some simulations of the largest glacier of the European Alps, the Aletsch glacier. As a less unexpected application, I will show how these results allowed us to make a major advance in a police investigation started in 1926.

  13. USGS collects ice core through Alpine glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naftz, David L.; Miller, Kirk A.

    1992-01-01

    On August 24, 1991, a U.S. Geological Survey study team from Wyoming completed a core hole to bedrock underlying Upper Fremont Glacier in the Wind River Range of central Wyoming. During the month of core drilling, the team collected a 160-m ice core from the glacier at an elevation of 4000 m above sea level using a solar-powered thermal drill (See photo). The drill was constructed and operated by personnel from the Polar Ice Coring Office (PICO) in Fairbanks, Alaska.The 1991 drilling project is part of ongoing research conducted by the USGS since 1988 on temperate glaciers in the Wind River Range of Wyoming. The objective of the project is to use variations in concentrations of chemical and isotopic constituents in samples of ice cores to reconstruct records of the chemical quality of atmospheric deposition and to extend long-term climatic records. A maximum of 300-500 years of record is estimated to be available in upper accumulation zones of the Wind River Range glaciers. The proximity of the Wind River Range glaciers to atmospheric pollution sources in the western United States makes them unique environmental records. Cooperating in the project were the Shoshone and Arapaho Indian tribes, Wyoming Water Development Commission, PICO, Wyoming State Engineer, and the U.S. Bureau of Land Management.

  14. ICESat Observations of Southern Alaska Glaciers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne; Molnia, Bruce F.; Mitchell, Darius

    2003-01-01

    In late February and March, 2003, the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) measured ice and land elevations along profiles across southern Alaska. During this initial data acquisition stage ICESat observations were made on 8-day repeat tracks to enable calibration and validation of the ICESat data products. Each profile consists of a series of single point values derived from centroid elevations of an $\\approx$70 m diameter laser footprint. The points are s4pakated by $\\approx$172 m along track. Data siets of 8-day observations (an ascending and descending ground track) crossed the Bering and Malaspina Glacier. Following its 1993--1995 surge; the Bering Glacier has undergone major terminus retreat as well as ike thinning in the abtation zone. During the later part of the 20th century, parts of the Malaspina thinned by about 1 m/yr. The multiple observation profiles across the Bering and Malaspina piedmont lobes obtained in February/March are being geolocated on Landsat images and the elevation profiles will be used for a number o scientific objectives. Based on our simulations of ICESat performance over the varied ice surface of the Jakobshavn Glacier of GReenland, 2003, we expect to measure annual, and possibly seasonal, ice elevation changes on the large Alaskan glaciers. Using elevation data obtained from a second laser, we plan to estimate ice elevation changes on the Bering Glacier between March and October 2003.

  15. Improving Mass Balance Modeling of Benchmark Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beusekom, A. E.; March, R. S.; O'Neel, S.

    2009-12-01

    The USGS monitors long-term glacier mass balance at three benchmark glaciers in different climate regimes. The coastal and continental glaciers are represented by Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers in Alaska, respectively. Field measurements began in 1966 and continue. We have reanalyzed the published balance time series with more modern methods and recomputed reference surface and conventional balances. Addition of the most recent data shows a continuing trend of mass loss. We compare the updated balances to the previously accepted balances and discuss differences. Not all balance quantities can be determined from the field measurements. For surface processes, we model missing information with an improved degree-day model. Degree-day models predict ablation from the sum of daily mean temperatures and an empirical degree-day factor. We modernize the traditional degree-day model as well as derive new degree-day factors in an effort to closer match the balance time series and thus better predict the future state of the benchmark glaciers. For subsurface processes, we model the refreezing of meltwater for internal accumulation. We examine the sensitivity of the balance time series to the subsurface process of internal accumulation, with the goal of determining the best way to include internal accumulation into balance estimates.

  16. Sea otter studies in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve: annual report 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, James L.; Kloecker, Kimberly A.; Esslinger, George G.; Monson, Daniel H.; Coletti, Heather A.; Doherty, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Since 1995, the number of sea otters in Glacier Bay proper has increased from around 5 to more than 1200. Sea otter distribution is mostly limited to the Lower Bay, south of Sandy Cove, and is not continuous within that area. Concentrations occur in the vicinity of Sita Reef and Boulder Island and between Pt. Carolus and Rush Pt. on the west side of the Bay, although there have been occasional sightings north of Sandy Cove (Figure 1). Large portions of the Bay remain unoccupied by sea otters, but recolonization is occurring rapidly. Most prey recovered by sea otters in Glacier Bay are ecologically, commercially, or socially important species. In 2002 sea otter diet consisted of 35% clam, 26% mussel, 3% crab, 3.0% snail, 2% starfish, 11% urchins, 2% other, and 20% unidentified. Dominant clam species include the butter clam, Saxidomus gigantea, the Greenland cockle, Serripes groenlandicus, and the littleneck clam, Protothaca staminea. Urchins are primarily green urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and the mussel is Modiolus modiolus. Crabs observed in 2002 include the Dungeness, Cancer magister, the kelp crab Pugettia gracilis, and the helmet crab, Telmessus cherigonus. Although we characterize diet at broad geographic scales, we have previously found diet to vary between sites separated by as little as several hundred meters. Dietary variation among and within sites can reflect differences in prey availability as well as individual specialization. We estimated species composition, density, biomass, and sizes of subtidal clams, urchins, and mussels at 13 sites in Glacier Bay and 5 sites in nearby Port Althorp, where sea otters have been present for at least 20 years. All sites were selected based on the presence of abundant clam siphons and the absence of sea otters (Glacier Bay) or abundant shell litter and the presence of sea otters (Port Althorp). Glacier Bay sites were selected to achieve a broad geographic sample of dense subtidal clam beds within

  17. Columbia Glacier, Alaska: changes in velocity 1977-1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krimmel, R.M.; Vaughn, B.H.

    1987-01-01

    The Columbia Glacier, a grounded, iceberg-calving tidewater glacier near Valdez, Alaska, began to retreat about 1977. Drastic retreat occurred in 1984, and by early 1986, retreat amounted to 2km. The glacier has thinned more than 100m since 1974 at a point 4km behind the 1974 terminus position. Between 1977 and 1985 the lower glacier ice velocity increased from 3-8m/d to 10-15m/d. -from Authors

  18. Earthshots: Satellite images of environmental change – Petermann Glacier, Greenland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamson, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This calving is normal, but it’s worth watching Petermann and other Greenland glaciers closely. Petermann is one of the major marine-terminating glaciers of Greenland. Ice loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet has increased recently. An article in Nature concluded that climate change may cause Petermann and other Greenland glaciers to contribute to sea level rise. Landsat helps glaciologists keep a close eye on this remote but significant glacier.

  19. Modeled climate-induced glacier change in Glacier National Park, 1850-2100

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, M.H.P.; Fagre, D.B.

    2003-01-01

    The glaciers in the Blackfoot-Jackson Glacier Basin of Glacier National Park, Montana, decreased in area from 21.6 square kilometers (km2) in 1850 to 7.4 km2 in 1979. Over this same period global temperatures increased by 0.45??C (?? 0. 15??C). We analyzed the climatic causes and ecological consequences of glacier retreat by creating spatially explicit models of the creation and ablation of glaciers and of the response of vegetation to climate change. We determined the melt rate and spatial distribution of glaciers under two possible future climate scenarios, one based on carbon dioxide-induced global warming and the other on a linear temperature extrapolation. Under the former scenario, all glaciers in the basin will disappear by the year 2030, despite predicted increases in precipitation; under the latter, melting is slower. Using a second model, we analyzed vegetation responses to variations in soil moisture and increasing temperature in a complex alpine landscape and predicted where plant communities are likely to be located as conditions change.

  20. The differing biogeochemical and microbial signatures of glaciers and rock glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fegel, Timothy S.; Baron, Jill S.; Fountain, Andrew G.; Johnson, Gunnar F.; Hall, Ed K.

    2016-03-01

    Glaciers and rock glaciers supply water and bioavailable nutrients to headwater mountain lakes and streams across all regions of the American West. Here we present a comparative study of the metal, nutrient, and microbial characteristics of glacial and rock glacial influence on headwater ecosystems in three mountain ranges of the contiguous U.S.: the Cascade Mountains, Rocky Mountains, and Sierra Nevada. Several meltwater characteristics (water temperature, conductivity, pH, metals, nutrients, complexity of dissolved organic matter (DOM), and bacterial richness and diversity) differed significantly between glacier and rock glacier meltwaters, while other characteristics (Ca2+, Fe3+, SiO2 concentrations, reactive nitrogen, and microbial processing of DOM) showed distinct trends between mountain ranges regardless of meltwater source. Some characteristics were affected both by glacier type and mountain range (e.g., temperature, ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations, and bacterial diversity). Due to the ubiquity of rock glaciers and the accelerating loss of the low-latitude glaciers, our results point to the important and changing influence that these frozen features place on headwater ecosystems.

  1. Impact of debris cover on glacier ablation and atmosphere-glacier feedbacks in the Karakoram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, E.; Maussion, F.; Nicholson, L. I.; Mölg, T.; Immerzeel, W. W.; Bush, A. B. G.

    2015-08-01

    The Karakoram range of the Hindu-Kush Himalaya is characterized by both extensive glaciation and a widespread prevalence of surficial debris cover on the glaciers. Surface debris exerts a strong control on glacier surface-energy and mass fluxes and, by modifying surface boundary conditions, has the potential to alter atmosphere-glacier feedbacks. To date, the influence of debris on Karakoram glaciers has only been directly assessed by a small number of glaciological measurements over short periods. Here, we include supraglacial debris in a high-resolution, interactively coupled atmosphere-glacier modeling system. To investigate glaciological and meteorological changes that arise due to the presence of debris, we perform two simulations using the coupled model from 1 May to 1 October 2004: one that treats all glacier surfaces as debris-free and one that introduces a simplified specification for the debris thickness. The basin-averaged impact of debris is a reduction in ablation of ~ 14 %, although the difference exceeds 5 m w.e. on the lowest-altitude glacier tongues. The relatively modest reduction in basin-mean mass loss results in part from non-negligible sub-debris melt rates under thicker covers and from compensating increases in melt under thinner debris, and may help to explain the lack of distinct differences in recent elevation changes between clean and debris-covered ice. The presence of debris also strongly alters the surface boundary condition and thus heat exchanges with the atmosphere; near-surface meteorological fields at lower elevations and their vertical gradients; and the atmospheric boundary layer development. These findings are relevant for glacio-hydrological studies on debris-covered glaciers and contribute towards an improved understanding of glacier behavior in the Karakoram.

  2. 36 CFR 7.3 - Glacier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glacier National Park. 7.3... REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.3 Glacier National Park. (a) Fishing. (1) Fishing... food, drink, or lodging for sale may be operated on any privately owned lands within Glacier...

  3. Contrasting responses of Central Asian rock glaciers to global warming

    PubMed Central

    Sorg, Annina; Kääb, Andreas; Roesch, Andrea; Bigler, Christof; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-01-01

    While the responses of Tien Shan glaciers – and glaciers elsewhere – to climatic changes are becoming increasingly well understood, this is less the case for permafrost in general and for rock glaciers in particular. We use a novel approach to describe the climate sensitivity of rock glaciers and to reconstruct periods of high and low rock glacier activity in the Tien Shan since 1895. Using more than 1500 growth anomalies from 280 trees growing on rock glacier bodies, repeat aerial photography from Soviet archives and high-resolution satellite imagery, we present here the world's longest record of rock glacier movements. We also demonstrate that the rock glaciers exhibit synchronous periods of activity at decadal timescales. Despite the complex energy-balance processes on rock glaciers, periods of enhanced activity coincide with warm summers, and the annual mass balance of Tuyuksu glacier fluctuates asynchronously with rock glacier activity. At multi-decadal timescales, however, the investigated rock glaciers exhibit site-specific trends reflecting different stages of inactivation, seemingly in response to the strong increase in air temperature since the 1970s. PMID:25657095

  4. Contrasting responses of Central Asian rock glaciers to global warming.

    PubMed

    Sorg, Annina; Kääb, Andreas; Roesch, Andrea; Bigler, Christof; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-01-01

    While the responses of Tien Shan glaciers--and glaciers elsewhere--to climatic changes are becoming increasingly well understood, this is less the case for permafrost in general and for rock glaciers in particular. We use a novel approach to describe the climate sensitivity of rock glaciers and to reconstruct periods of high and low rock glacier activity in the Tien Shan since 1895. Using more than 1500 growth anomalies from 280 trees growing on rock glacier bodies, repeat aerial photography from Soviet archives and high-resolution satellite imagery, we present here the world's longest record of rock glacier movements. We also demonstrate that the rock glaciers exhibit synchronous periods of activity at decadal timescales. Despite the complex energy-balance processes on rock glaciers, periods of enhanced activity coincide with warm summers, and the annual mass balance of Tuyuksu glacier fluctuates asynchronously with rock glacier activity. At multi-decadal timescales, however, the investigated rock glaciers exhibit site-specific trends reflecting different stages of inactivation, seemingly in response to the strong increase in air temperature since the 1970s. PMID:25657095

  5. Ocean and glaciers interactions in Svalbard area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczowski, Waldemar; Błaszczyk, Małgorzata; Wawrzyniak, Tomasz; Beszczyńska-Möller, Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    Arctic fjords are a link between land and ocean. The inshore boundary of the fjords system is usually dominated by the tidewater glaciers and seasonal freshwater input while its offshore boundary is strongly influenced by oceanic waters. Improved understanding of the fjords-ocean exchange and processes within Arctic fjords is of a highest importance because their response to atmospheric, oceanic and glacial variability provides a key to understand the past and to forecast the future of the high latitude glaciers and Arctic climate. Rapidly changed Arctic climate requires multidisciplinary and complex investigations of the basic climate components and interactions between them. The aim of the Polish-Norwegian project 'Arctic climate system study of ocean, sea ice and glaciers interactions in Svalbard area' (AWAKE-2) is to understand the interactions between the ocean, atmosphere and cryosphere. The main oceanic heat source in Svalbard region is the West Spitsbergen Current consisting of multi-branch, northward flow of warm, Atlantic origin water (AW). During its transit through the Nordic Seas, AW releases a large amount of heat to the atmosphere. When entering the Western Svalbard fjords, AW modifies hydrographic conditions, reduces winter ice cover and directly influences tidewater glaciers. An impact of the AW variability on atmosphere and sea ice is clearly visible with strong correlations between AW properties and air temperature or sea ice coverage. For tidewater glaciers these effects can be recognized, but correlations are weaker due to different processes that influence the intensity of glaciers melting and calving. The dedicated, multidisciplinary approach was adopted to achieve the AWAKE-2 project's aims by carrying out the coordinated meteorological, oceanographic, glaciological and geophysical observations in the Hornsund fjord, the adjacent shelf and ocean.

  6. Comparative metagenome analysis of an Alaskan glacier.

    PubMed

    Choudhari, Sulbha; Lohia, Ruchi; Grigoriev, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    The temperature in the Arctic region has been increasing in the recent past accompanied by melting of its glaciers. We took a snapshot of the current microbial inhabitation of an Alaskan glacier (which can be considered as one of the simplest possible ecosystems) by using metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA recovered from ice/snow samples. Somewhat contrary to our expectations and earlier estimates, a rich and diverse microbial population of more than 2,500 species was revealed including several species of Archaea that has been identified for the first time in the glaciers of the Northern hemisphere. The most prominent bacterial groups found were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. Firmicutes were not reported in large numbers in a previously studied Alpine glacier but were dominant in an Antarctic subglacial lake. Representatives of Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria and Planctomycetes were among the most numerous, likely reflecting the dependence of the ecosystem on the energy obtained through photosynthesis and close links with the microbial community of the soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) of nucleotide word frequency revealed distinct sequence clusters for different taxonomic groups in the Alaskan glacier community and separate clusters for the glacial communities from other regions of the world. Comparative analysis of the community composition and bacterial diversity present in the Byron glacier in Alaska with other environments showed larger overlap with an Arctic soil than with a high Arctic lake, indicating patterns of community exchange and suggesting that these bacteria may play an important role in soil development during glacial retreat. PMID:24712530

  7. Use of terrestrial laser scanning to characterize rock glacier surface morphology and deformation, Handcart Gulch, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuddus, Y.; Caine, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    While there has been extensive, recent research on the kinematics of rock glaciers, few studies have been able to examine surface deformation and strain utilizing terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). TLS captures a high precision, three-dimensional point cloud of X, Y, Z data. We scanned a portion of the Handcart Gulch Rock Glacier (HRG) surface at centimeter scale resolution (standard deviation of 0.64 cm). Although the origins of rock glacier formation and subsequent kinematics are poorly understood, the general consensus is that periglacial rock glaciers are a type of mass-driven permafrost that moves on the order of tens of cm per year. Velocity near the surface is thought to be faster than at depth, producing ridge- or moraine-like structures possibly formed by near-surface, compressional buckling. The HRG, located in Pike National Forest just below the Continental Divide, is multi-lobed and composed of hydrothermally altered Proterozoic metamorphic rock. In addition to commonly observed "compressional ridges", the rock glacier surface shows a number of scarp-like discontinuities that may be indicative of extension. The rock glacier surface has limited vegetative cover and a thin, but laterally extensive, layer of unidentified black lichen and lesser amounts of green Rhizocarpon lichen. The curviplanar scarps are up to about 4 m in height and are marked by discrete discontinuities that cut the lichen-covered rock glacier surface, revealing steeply dipping (> 35°) faces that are not covered with lichen. The lichen-covered surface appears to have been displaced, top-down in the direction of the maximum topographic gradient, and along the relatively lichen-free scarps thus resembling normal faults. Lichenometry is a useful method for providing a relative dating of rock glacial movement. Rhizocarpon is commonly used for dating due to its well documented, slow growth rate and ease of identification. After a century of growth the maximum diameter of Front Range

  8. Columbia Glacier in 1986; 800 meters retreat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krimmel, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    Columbia Glacier, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, continued its rapid retreat in 1986, with a retreat of 800 m. Average velocity of the lower portion of the glacier, 10 September 1986 to 26 January 1987, was three km/yr, or about one-half of the velocity during similar periods for the previous three years. This reduced velocity is a new development in the progression of the retreat, and if the calving rate follows the pattern of previous years, will result in continued retreat. (Author 's abstract)

  9. A multicomponent coupled model of glacier hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, Gwenn Elizabeth

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest a causal link between subglacial hydrology and phenomena such as fast-flowing ice. This evidence includes a measured correlation between water under alpine glaciers and their motion, the presence of saturated sediment beneath Antaxctic ice streams, and geologic signatures of enhanced paleo-ice flow over deformable substrates. The complexity of the glacier bed as a three-component mixture presents an obstacle to unraveling these conundra. Inadequate representations of hydrology, in part, prevent us from closing the gap between empirical descriptions and a comprehensive consistent framework for understanding the dynamics of glacierized systems. I have developed a distributed numerical model that solves equations governing glacier surface runoff, englacial water transport, subglacial drainage, and subsurface groundwater flow. Ablation and precipitation drive the surface model through a temperature-index parameterization. Water is permitted to flow over and off the glacier, or to the bed through a system of crevasses, pipes, and fractures. A macroporous sediment horizon transports subglacial water to the ice margin or to an underlying aquifer. Governing equations are derived from the law of mass conservation and are expressed as a balance between the internal redistribution of water and external sources. Each of the four model components is represented as a two-dimensional, vertically-integrated layer that communicates with its neighbors through water exchange. Stacked together, these layers approximate a three-dimensional system. I tailor the model to Trapridge Glacier, where digital maps of the surface and bed have been derived from ice-penetrating radar data. Observations of subglacial water pressure provide additional constraints on model parameters and a basis for comparison of simulations with real data. Three classical idealizations of glacier geometry are used for simple model experiments. Equilibrium tests emphasize geometric

  10. Glacier surge after ice shelf collapse.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Hernán; Skvarca, Pedro

    2003-03-01

    The possibility that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet will collapse as a consequence of ice shelf disintegration has been debated for many years. This matter is of concern because such an event would imply a sudden increase in sea level. Evidence is presented here showing drastic dynamic perturbations on former tributary glaciers that fed sections of the Larsen Ice Shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula before its collapse in 1995. Satellite images and airborne surveys allowed unambiguous identification of active surging phases of Boydell, Sjögren, Edgeworth, Bombardier, and Drygalski glaciers. This discovery calls for a reconsideration of former hypotheses about the stabilizing role of ice shelves. PMID:12624263

  11. Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research News From NIH Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table ... please turn Javascript on. Photo: Getty image (StockDisc) Youths with superior IQ are distinguished by how fast ...

  12. Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIH Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... on. Photo: Getty image (StockDisc) Youths with superior IQ are distinguished by how fast the thinking part ...

  13. Glacier fluctuations in the Kenai Fjords, Alaska, U.S.A.: An evaluation of controls on Iceberg-calving glaciers

    SciTech Connect

    Wiles, G.C.; Calkin, P.E.; Post, A.

    1995-08-01

    The histories of four iceberg-calving outlet-glacier systems in the Kenai Fjords National Park underscore the importance of fiord depth, sediment supply, and fiord geometry on glacier stability. These parameters, in turn, limit the reliability of calving glacier chronologies as records of climatic change. Tree-ring analysis together with radiocarbon dating show that the Northwestern and McCarty glaciers, with large drainage basins, were advancing in concert with nearby land-terminating glaciers about A.D. 600. After an interval of retreat and possible nonclimatically induced extension during the Medieval Warm Period, these ice margins advanced again through the Little Ice Age and then retreated synchronously with the surrounding land-terminating glaciers about A.D. 1900. In contrast, Holgate and Aialik glaciers, with deeper fiords and smaller basins, retreated about 300 yr earlier. Reconstructions of Little Ice Age glaciers suggest that equilibrium-line altitudes of Northwestern and McCarty glaciers were, respectively, 270 and 500 m lower than now. Furthermore, the reconstructions show that these two glaciers were climatically sensitive when at their terminal moranies. However, with ice margins at their present recessional positions and accumulation area ratios between 0.8 and 0.9, only McCarty Glacier shows evidence of advance. Aialik and Holgate glaciers were climatically insensitive during the Little Ice Age maxima and remain insensitive to climate. 40 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Surface characteristics and evolution of debris covered glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölg, Nico; Vieli, Andreas; Bolch, Tobias; Bauder, Andreas; Bhattacharya, Atanu

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change has led to increasing glacier retreat in most parts of the world. However, many heavily debris-covered glaciers have shown much smaller recession rates than their clean-ice neighbours. This can be attributed to the insulation effect of the supraglacial debris. Remote-sensing based investigations revealed that recent mass balances of debris-covered glaciers are equally negative. This fact is partly due to enhanced melting at supra-glacial lakes and ice cliffs but can also be caused by reduced mass flux. In this context, insufficient process understanding constitutes a major challenge for large scale glacier change assessment and modelling. In this project, we aim at better understanding the evolution of glaciers in connection with changes in supra-glacial debris coverage. It is performed on Zmutt Glacier in Matter valley in Switzerland and on Gangotri Glacier in Garwhal Himalaya in India. Changes in glacier length, area, debris coverage, and surface elevation were compiled based on topographic maps, oblique photos, aerial and satellite orthoimages, digital terrain models (DTMs), and glacier monitoring data for a 50 (Gangotri) and 120 (Zmutt) year period, respectively. The subsequent analysis revealed that Zmutt Glacier has been in a slow but almost continuous retreating state since the end of the 19th century and showed a clear reduction in glacier area and volume. Similarly, Gangotri Glacier has retreated and, to a smaller degree, lost volume. However, the change in glacier length and area is clearly smaller than for other nearby, less debris-covered or debris-free glaciers. This fact is attributed to the larger debris-covered area that has steadily increased. Further in the project, this data will serve as an important input and validation for the envisaged 3D flow modelling and, hence, will contribute to the understanding of the development of glaciers and debris-covered ice in a period of fast climatic changes.

  15. Glacier area and length changes in Norway from repeat inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsvold, S. H.; Andreassen, L. M.; Kienholz, C.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we assess glacier area and length changes in mainland Norway from repeat Landsat TM/ETM+ derived inventories and digitized topographic maps. The multi-temporal glacier inventory consists of glacier outlines from within three time ranges: 1947 to 1985 (GIn50), 1988 to 1997 (GI1990), and 1999 to 2006 (GI2000). For the northernmost regions, we include an additional inventory (GI1900), based on historic maps surveyed between 1895 to 1907. Area and length changes are assessed per glacier unit, for 36 subregions, and for three main parts of Norway: southern, central and northern Norway. The results show a decrease of the glacierized area from 2994 km2 in GIn50, to 2668 km2 in GI2000 (totally 2722 glacier units), corresponding to an area reduction of -326 km2, or -11% of the initial GIn50 area. This is equivalent to an average change rate of -11 km2 a-1 over the past 30 years. The average length change for the full epoch (within GIn50 and GI2000) is -240 m, corresponding to an average length change rate of -8 m a-1. Overall, the comparison reveals both area and length reduction as a general pattern, even though some glaciers have advanced. The three northernmost glacier regions show the strongest retreat rates, whereas the central part of Norway shows the lowest change rates. Glacier area and length changes indicate that glaciers in maritime areas in southern Norway have retreated more than glaciers in the interior, and glaciers in the north have retreated more than southern glaciers. These observed spatial trends in glacier change are related to a combination of several geographical factors like glacier geometry and elevation, and other climatic aspects, such as continentality and the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  16. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  17. Faster-X Effects in Two Drosophila Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Ávila, Victoria; Marion de Procé, Sophie; Campos, José L.; Borthwick, Helen; Charlesworth, Brian; Betancourt, Andrea J.

    2014-01-01

    Under certain circumstances, X-linked loci are expected to experience more adaptive substitutions than similar autosomal loci. To look for evidence of faster-X evolution, we analyzed the evolutionary rates of coding sequences in two sets of Drosophila species, the melanogaster and pseudoobscura clades, using whole-genome sequences. One of these, the pseudoobscura clade, contains a centric fusion between the ancestral X chromosome and the autosomal arm homologous to 3L in D. melanogaster. This offers an opportunity to study the same loci in both an X-linked and an autosomal context, and to compare these loci with those that are only X-linked or only autosomal. We therefore investigated these clades for evidence of faster-X evolution with respect to nonsynonymous substitutions, finding mixed results. Overall, there was consistent evidence for a faster-X effect in the melanogaster clade, but not in the pseudoobscura clade, except for the comparison between D. pseudoobscura and its close relative, Drosophila persimilis. An analysis of polymorphism data on a set of genes from D. pseudoobscura that evolve rapidly with respect to their protein sequences revealed no evidence for a faster-X effect with respect to adaptive protein sequence evolution; their rapid evolution is instead largely attributable to lower selective constraints. Faster-X evolution in the melanogaster clade was not related to male-biased gene expression; surprisingly, however, female-biased genes showed evidence for faster-X effects, perhaps due to their sexually antagonistic effects in males. PMID:25323954

  18. Contrasting response of South Greenland glaciers to recent climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.R.; Glasser, N.F. )

    1992-05-01

    A unique geographical configuration of glaciers exists in the Narsarsuaq district of South Greenland. Two large outlet glaciers divide into seven distributaries, such that each glacier system has land-terminating, tidewater-calving, and fresh-water-calving termini. Despite a similar climatic regime, these seven glaciers have exhibited strongly contrasting terminal behavior in historical time, as shown by historical records, aerial photographs, and fieldwork in 1989. The behavior of the calving glaciers cannot be accounted for with reference solely to climatic parameters. The combination of iceberg calving dynamics and topographic control has partially decoupled them from climatic forcing such that their oscillations relate more closely to glaciodynamic than glacioclimatic factors.

  19. Sensitivity of glaciers and small ice caps to greenhouse warming

    SciTech Connect

    Oerlemans, J.; Fortuin, J.P.F. )

    1992-10-02

    Recent field programs on glaciers have supplied information that makes simulation of glacier mass balance with meteorological models meaningful. An estimate of world-wide glacier sensitivity based on a modeling study of 12 selected glaciers situated in widely differing climatic regimes shows that for a uniform 1 K warming the area-weighted glacier mass balance will decrease by 0.40 meter per year. This corresponds to a sea-level rise of 0.58 millimeter per year, a value significantly less than earlier estimates.

  20. Do Glaciers on Cascade Volcanoes Behave Differently Than Other Glaciers in the Region?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, J. L.; Ryane, C.; Osborn, J.; Davis, T.; Menounos, B.; Clague, J. J.; Koch, J.; Scott, K. M.; Reasoner, M.

    2006-12-01

    It has been suggested that glaciers on two stratovolcanoes in the Cascade Range of Washington state, Mt. Baker and Glacier Peak, achieved their maximum extent of the past 10,000 years during the early Holocene. These findings differ from most evidence in western North America, which indicates that Little Ice Age moraines represent the most extensive glacier advances of the Holocene. Significant early Holocene advances are difficult to reconcile with the documented warm, dry conditions at this time in western North America. Our data indicate that glaciers on these volcanoes responded similarly to Holocene climatic events as glaciers in other areas in Washington and British Columbia. Heavy winter accumulation and favorable hypsometry have been proposed as the explanations for the unusual behavior of glaciers on volcanoes compared to similar-sized glaciers elsewhere in the Cascade Range. However, glacier mass balance on the volcanoes is controlled by not only these factors, but also by glacier geometry, snow erosion and ablation. Accumulation zones of glaciers on isolated Cascade stratovolcanoes are high, but are narrow at the top. For example, the accumulation zone of Deming Glacier on the southwest side of Mt. Baker extends above 3000 m asl, but due to its wedge shape lies largely below 2500 m asl. Furthermore, glaciers on Mt. Baker and other symmetrical volcanoes have high ablation rates because they are not shaded, and south-southwest aspects are subject to erosion of snow by prevailing southwesterly winds. Modern glacier observations in the North Cascades quantify the important influence of aspect and snow erosion on glacier mass balance. For example, average equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of Easton Glacier on the south flank of Mt. Baker is 2160 m, whereas the ELA of a north-facing cirque glacier 25km to the east is 2040m. Our research at Mt. Baker contradicts the claim of extensive early Holocene advances on the south flank of the volcano. Tephra set SC, which

  1. Exploiting SENTINEL-1 Amplitude Data for Glacier Surface Velocity Field Measurements: Feasibility Demonstration on Baltoro Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascetti, A.; Nocchi, F.; Camplani, A.; Di Rico, C.; Crespi, M.

    2016-06-01

    The leading idea of this work is to continuously retrieve glaciers surface velocity through SAR imagery, in particular using the amplitude data from the new ESA satellite sensor Sentinel-1 imagery. These imagery key aspects are the free access policy, the very short revisit time (down to 6 days with the launch of the Sentinel-1B satellite) and the high amplitude resolution (up to 5 m). In order to verify the reliability of the proposed approach, a first experiment has been performed using Sentinel-1 imagery acquired over the Karakoram mountain range (North Pakistan) and Baltoro and other three glaciers have been investigated. During this study, a stack of 11 images acquired in the period from October 2014 to September 2015 has been used in order to investigate the potentialities of the Sentinel-1 SAR sensor to retrieve the glacier surface velocity every month. The aim of this test was to measure the glacier surface velocity between each subsequent pair, in order to produce a time series of the surface velocity fields along the investigated period. The necessary coregistration procedure between the images has been performed and subsequently the glaciers areas have been sampled using a regular grid with a 250 × 250 meters posting. Finally the surface velocity field has been estimated, for each image pair, using a template matching procedure, and an outlier filtering procedure based on the signal to noise ratio values has been applied, in order to exclude from the analysis unreliable points. The achieved velocity values range from 10 to 25 meters/month and they are coherent to those obtained in previous studies carried out on the same glaciers and the results highlight that it is possible to have a continuous update of the glacier surface velocity field through free Sentinel-1 imagery, that could be very useful to investigate the seasonal effects on the glaciers fluid-dynamics.

  2. Glacier dynamics at Helheim and Kangerdlugssuaq glaciers, southeast Greenland, since the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S. A.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Kjær, K. H.; Bevan, S.; Luckman, A.; Aschwanden, A.; Bjørk, A. A.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Box, J. E.; van den Broeke, M.; van Dam, T. M.; Fitzner, A.

    2014-08-01

    Observations over the past decade show significant ice loss associated with the speed-up of glaciers in southeast Greenland from 2003, followed by a deceleration from 2006. These short-term, episodic, dynamic perturbations have a major impact on the mass balance on the decadal scale. To improve the projection of future sea level rise, a long-term data record that reveals the mass balance beyond such episodic events is required. Here, we extend the observational record of marginal thinning of Helheim and Kangerdlugssuaq glaciers from 10 to more than 80 years. We show that, although the frontal portion of Helheim Glacier thinned by more than 100 m between 2003 and 2006, it thickened by more than 50 m during the previous two decades. In contrast, Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier underwent minor thinning of 40-50 m from 1981 to 1998 and major thinning of more than 100 m after 2003. Extending the record back to the end of the Little Ice Age (prior to 1930) shows no thinning of Helheim Glacier from its maximum extent during the Little Ice Age to 1981, while Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier underwent substantial thinning of 230 to 265 m. Comparison of sub-surface water temperature anomalies and variations in air temperature to records of thickness and velocity change suggest that both glaciers are highly sensitive to short-term atmospheric and ocean forcing, and respond very quickly to small fluctuations. On century timescales, however, multiple external parameters (e.g. outlet glacier shape) may dominate the mass change. These findings suggest that special care must be taken in the projection of future dynamic ice loss.

  3. Long-term linkages between glaciers, permafrost and hydrology at two glacierized watersheds in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaedeke, A.; Liljedahl, A. K.; Gatesman, T.; Campbell, S. W.; Hock, R.; Oneel, S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate warming is expected to have considerable impact on the regional water balance of high latitude Arctic and sub-Arctic glacerized watersheds. In this study we combine field observations and the physically based Water Balance Simulation Model WaSiM to refine our understanding of the linkages between glaciers, permafrost and hydrology at two nearby basins with contrasting precipitation regimes: Jarvis Cr. watershed (630 km2) on the north (rain-shadow) side of Eastern Alaska Range and the south facing Phelan Cr. (32 km2), which include the US Geological Survey benchmark site Gulkana Glacier. Both are characterized by a semi-arid climate and are sub-watersheds of the Tanana River basin (12,000 km2). Our research questions include: How has glacier water storage and release varied in the past and how are they expected to change in the future? And what are the subsequent effects on lowland runoff and regional groundwater recharge? Our analyses show i) an increase in air temperature and summer warmth index (the sum of all mean monthly air temperature above 0 °C) in recent decades and ii) a continued negative glacier mass balance. Our findings suggest that, on the larger spatial scale (Tanana River basin), the reduced glacier coverage and increased glacier wastage has, in combination with limited changes in precipitation, lead to (i) increased mean annual and (ii) late winter (March) runoff. We postulate that this is due to increased groundwater recharge, which has been fueled by the 20% reduction in glacier coverage of the Tanana River basin. Here we aim to assess the combined effect of climate change, glacier shrinkage and thawing permafrost on the regional sub-arctic mountain- to lowland hydrologic system, which may transition into a regime with less surface and more subsurface water availability.

  4. Implications of Glacier Volume Change for Ice-Ocean Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, E. W.; O'Neel, S.; Fellman, J.; Bidlack, A.; Arendt, A. A.; Arimitsu, M.; Spencer, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate are forcing complex glaciological responses that can be transmitted to downstream ecosystems via glacier runoff. Along the Gulf of Alaska, rates of glacier mass loss are among the highest measured on Earth. Changes in glacier volume in this region are altering the amount of glacier runoff delivered to the coastal ocean. Moreover, shifts in glacier extent are changing the location of the ice-ocean interface and, in cases where tidewater glaciers become grounded, fundamentally altering circulation in glacierized fjords. The runoff from glacier ecosystems is unique in terms of its physical and chemical properties when compared to runoff from non-glacial ecosystems. For example, the silt and chemical constituents in glacier discharge alter light penetration and the nutrient regime in near-shore marine ecosystems, which, in turn, influence levels of marine primary productivity. Future changes in the magnitude, timing, and location of glacier runoff have important implications for biogeochemical and ecological processes in glacially-dominated fjords and estuaries. This talk will highlight research from glacierized watersheds and fjords to synthesize what is known about the physical, chemical, and biological linkages that characterize icefield-ocean ecosystems along the Gulf of Alaska.

  5. Satellite-Based Study of Glaciers Retreat in Northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munir, Siraj

    Glaciers serve as a natural regulator of regional water supplies. About 16933 Km 2 area of glaciers is covered by Pakistan. These glaciers are enormous reservoirs of fresh water and their meltwater is an important resource which feed rivers in Pakistan. Glacier depletion, especially recent melting can affect agriculture, drinking water supplies, hydro-electric power, and ecological habitats. This can also have a more immediate impact on Pakistan's economy that depends mainly on water from glacier melt. Melting of seasonal snowfall and permanent glaciers has resulted not only in reduction of water resources but also caused flash floods in many areas of Pakistan. With the advent of satellite technology, using optical and SAR data the study of glaciers, has become possible. Using temporal data, based on calculation of snow index, band ratios and texture reflectance it has been revealed that the rate of glacier melting has increased as a consequent of global warming. Comparison of Landsat images of Batura glacier for October 1992 and October 2000 has revealed that there is a decrease of about 17 sq km in Batura glaciers. Although accurate changes in glacier extent cannot be assessed without baseline information, these efforts have been made to analyze future changes in glaciated area.

  6. Modelling glacier change in the Everest region, Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, J. M.; Immerzeel, W. W.; Wagnon, P.; Vincent, C.; Bajracharya, S.

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we apply a glacier mass balance and ice redistribution model to examine the sensitivity of glaciers in the Everest region of Nepal to climate change. High-resolution temperature and precipitation fields derived from gridded station data, and bias-corrected with independent station observations, are used to drive the historical model from 1961 to 2007. The model is calibrated against geodetically derived estimates of net glacier mass change from 1992 to 2008, termini position of four large glaciers at the end of the calibration period, average velocities observed on selected debris-covered glaciers, and total glacierized area. We integrate field-based observations of glacier mass balance and ice thickness with remotely sensed observations of decadal glacier change to validate the model. Between 1961 and 2007, the mean modelled volume change over the Dudh Koshi basin is -6.4 ± 1.5 km3, a decrease of 15.6% from the original estimated ice volume in 1961. Modelled glacier area change between 1961 and 2007 is -101.0 ± 11.4 km2, a decrease of approximately 20% from the initial extent. The modelled glacier sensitivity to future climate change is high. Application of temperature and precipitation anomalies from warm/dry and wet/cold end-members of the CMIP5 RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 ensemble results in sustained mass loss from glaciers in the Everest region through the 21st century.

  7. A complex relationship between calving glaciers and climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Post, A.; O'Neel, S.; Motyka, R.J.; Streveler, G.

    2011-01-01

    Many terrestrial glaciers are sensitive indicators of past and present climate change as atmospheric temperature and snowfall modulate glacier volume. However, climate interpretations based on glacier behavior require careful selection of representative glaciers, as was recently pointed out for surging and debris-covered glaciers, whose behavior often defies regional glacier response to climate [Yde and Paasche, 2010]. Tidewater calving glaciers (TWGs)mountain glaciers whose termini reach the sea and are generally grounded on the seaflooralso fall into the category of non-representative glaciers because the regional-scale asynchronous behavior of these glaciers clouds their complex relationship with climate. TWGs span the globe; they can be found both fringing ice sheets and in high-latitude regions of each hemisphere. TWGs are known to exhibit cyclic behavior, characterized by slow advance and rapid, unstable retreat, largely independent of short-term climate forcing. This so-called TWG cycle, first described by Post [1975], provides a solid foundation upon which modern investigations of TWG stability are built. Scientific understanding has developed rapidly as a result of the initial recognition of their asynchronous cyclicity, rendering greater insight into the hierarchy of processes controlling regional behavior. This has improved the descriptions of the strong dynamic feedbacks present during retreat, the role of the ocean in TWG dynamics, and the similarities and differences between TWG and ice sheet outlet glaciers that can often support floating tongues.

  8. SAR investigations of glaciers in northwestern North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingle, Craig S.; Harrison, William D.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the utility of satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery for measurement of geophysical parameters on Alaskan glaciers relevant to their mass balance and dynamics, including: (1) the positions of firn lines (late-summer snow lines); (2) surface velocities on fast-flowing (surging) glaciers, and also on slower steady-flow glaciers; and (3) the positions and changes in the positions of glacier termini. Preliminary studies of topography and glacier surface velocity with SAR interferometry have also been carried out. This project was motivated by the relationships of multi-year to decadal changes in glacier geometry to changing climate, and the probable significant contribution of Alaskan glaciers to rising sea level.

  9. Effects of volcanism on the glaciers of Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brugman, Melinda M.; Post, Austin

    1981-01-01

    The cataclysmic eruption of Mount St. Helens May 18, 1980, removed 2.9 km2 (about 0.13 km3) of glacier snow and ice including a large part of Shoestring, Forsyth, Wishbone, Ape, Nelson, and all of Loowit and Leschi Glaciers. Minor eruptions and bulging of the volcano from March 27 to May 17 shattered glaciers which were on the deforming rock and deposited ash on other glaciers. Thick ash layers persisted after the May 18 eruption through the summer on most of the remaining snow and ice, and protected winter snow from melting on Swift and Dryer Glaciers. Melting and recrystalization of snow and ice surviving on Mount St. Helens could cause and lubricate mudflows and generate outburst floods. Study of glaciers that remain on this active volcano may assist in recognizing potential hazards on other volcanoes and lead to new contributions to knowledge of the transient response of glaciers to changes in mass balance or geometry.

  10. 21st-century evolution of Greenland outlet glacier velocities.

    PubMed

    Moon, T; Joughin, I; Smith, B; Howat, I

    2012-05-01

    Earlier observations on several of Greenland's outlet glaciers, starting near the turn of the 21st century, indicated rapid (annual-scale) and large (>100%) increases in glacier velocity. Combining data from several satellites, we produce a decade-long (2000 to 2010) record documenting the ongoing velocity evolution of nearly all (200+) of Greenland's major outlet glaciers, revealing complex spatial and temporal patterns. Changes on fast-flow marine-terminating glaciers contrast with steady velocities on ice-shelf-terminating glaciers and slow speeds on land-terminating glaciers. Regionally, glaciers in the northwest accelerated steadily, with more variability in the southeast and relatively steady flow elsewhere. Intraregional variability shows a complex response to regional and local forcing. Observed acceleration indicates that sea level rise from Greenland may fall well below proposed upper bounds. PMID:22556249

  11. Glacier modeling in support of field observations of mass balance at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Josberger, Edward G.; Bidlake, William R.

    2010-01-01

    The long-term USGS measurement and reporting of mass balance at South Cascade Glacier was assisted in balance years 2006 and 2007 by a new mass balance model. The model incorporates a temperature-index melt computation and accumulation is modeled from glacier air temperature and gaged precipitation at a remote site. Mass balance modeling was used with glaciological measurements to estimate dates and magnitudes of critical mass balance phenomena. In support of the modeling, a detailed analysis was made of the "glacier cooling effect" that reduces summer air temperature near the ice surface as compared to that predicted on the basis of a spatially uniform temperature lapse rate. The analysis was based on several years of data from measurements of near-surface air temperature on the glacier. The 2006 and 2007 winter balances of South Cascade Glacier, computed with this new, model-augmented methodology, were 2.61 and 3.41 mWE, respectively. The 2006 and 2007 summer balances were -4.20 and -3.63 mWE, respectively, and the 2006 and 2007 net balances were -1.59 and -0.22 mWE. PDF version of a presentation on the mass balance of South Cascade Glacier in Washington state. Presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2010.

  12. Climate change and glacier retreat drive shifts in an Antarctic benthic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Sahade, Ricardo; Lagger, Cristian; Torre, Luciana; Momo, Fernando; Monien, Patrick; Schloss, Irene; Barnes, David K A; Servetto, Natalia; Tarantelli, Soledad; Tatián, Marcos; Zamboni, Nadia; Abele, Doris

    2015-11-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula (AP) is one of the three places on Earth that registered the most intense warming in the last 50 years, almost five times the global mean. This warming has strongly affected the cryosphere, causing the largest ice-shelf collapses ever observed and the retreat of 87% of glaciers. Ecosystem responses, although increasingly predicted, have been mainly reported for pelagic systems. However, and despite most Antarctic species being benthic, responses in the Antarctic benthos have been detected in only a few species, and major effects at assemblage level are unknown. This is probably due to the scarcity of baselines against which to assess change. We performed repeat surveys of coastal benthos in 1994, 1998, and 2010, analyzing community structure and environmental variables at King George Island, Antarctica. We report a marked shift in an Antarctic benthic community that can be linked to ongoing climate change. However, rather than temperature as the primary factor, we highlight the resulting increased sediment runoff, triggered by glacier retreat, as the potential causal factor. The sudden shift from a "filter feeders-ascidian domination" to a "mixed assemblage" suggests that thresholds (for example, of tolerable sedimentation) and alternative equilibrium states, depending on the reversibility of the changes, could be possible traits of this ecosystem. Sedimentation processes will be increasing under the current scenario of glacier retreat, and attention needs to be paid to its effects along the AP. PMID:26702429

  13. Climate change and glacier retreat drive shifts in an Antarctic benthic ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Sahade, Ricardo; Lagger, Cristian; Torre, Luciana; Momo, Fernando; Monien, Patrick; Schloss, Irene; Barnes, David K. A.; Servetto, Natalia; Tarantelli, Soledad; Tatián, Marcos; Zamboni, Nadia; Abele, Doris

    2015-01-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula (AP) is one of the three places on Earth that registered the most intense warming in the last 50 years, almost five times the global mean. This warming has strongly affected the cryosphere, causing the largest ice-shelf collapses ever observed and the retreat of 87% of glaciers. Ecosystem responses, although increasingly predicted, have been mainly reported for pelagic systems. However, and despite most Antarctic species being benthic, responses in the Antarctic benthos have been detected in only a few species, and major effects at assemblage level are unknown. This is probably due to the scarcity of baselines against which to assess change. We performed repeat surveys of coastal benthos in 1994, 1998, and 2010, analyzing community structure and environmental variables at King George Island, Antarctica. We report a marked shift in an Antarctic benthic community that can be linked to ongoing climate change. However, rather than temperature as the primary factor, we highlight the resulting increased sediment runoff, triggered by glacier retreat, as the potential causal factor. The sudden shift from a “filter feeders–ascidian domination” to a “mixed assemblage” suggests that thresholds (for example, of tolerable sedimentation) and alternative equilibrium states, depending on the reversibility of the changes, could be possible traits of this ecosystem. Sedimentation processes will be increasing under the current scenario of glacier retreat, and attention needs to be paid to its effects along the AP. PMID:26702429

  14. The Bay in Place of a Glacier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Wayne

    1997-01-01

    The cultural resource specialist at Glacier Bay National Park (Alaska) explains the collaborative efforts of park staff and the Hoonah Tlingit to overcome language and cultural barriers in documenting park place names and clan oral history and traditions. The new park-community relationship, which follows decades of conflict, includes training…

  15. A Facies Model for Temperate Continental Glaciers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashley, Gail Mowry

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the presence and dynamics of continental glaciers in the domination of the physical processes of erosion and deposition in the mid-latitudes during the Pleistocene period. Describes the use of a sedimentary facies model as a guide to recognizing ancient temperate continental glacial deposits. (TW)

  16. Glacier Change Investigation for Early Elementary Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, R. S.; Landis, C.

    2008-12-01

    Few opportunities exist for early elementary students to do inquiry or guided inquiry into topics dealing with climate change and glaciers. "Flubber" offers a simulation for the movement of glacial ice. It is inexpensive to make, stores well, and can be re-used. Students of all ages enjoy watching, measuring, and thinking about flubber and what it represents. As the interest in ice sheets continues to build, activities that both help to illustrate how glaciers move and provide a launch pad for student-driven investigations need to be available to teachers. With support from the National Science Foundation's Science and Technology Center for the Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS), a set of activities has been developed to provide opportunities for early elementary students to develop inquiry skills within the standards for early elementary grades bands in the National Science Education Standards. Lesson plans, instructions for making and using "Flubber", student worksheets, teacher guides with glacier and climate change information, and a chart of the National Science Education Standards applicable to the activities are available to elementary teachers wishing to introduce their students to glaciers and climate change.

  17. Subglacial till: the deforming glacier bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Jaap J. M.; Menzies, John; Rose, James

    2003-07-01

    "Till is a sediment and is perhaps more variable than any sediment known by a single name." R.F. Flint 1957 Glacial and Pleistocene Geology Tills are commonly classified according to the perceived process of deposition. However, it is increasingly recognised that this classification, which is mainly based on macroscopic field data, has severe limitations. At the same time the concept of the deforming glacier bed has become more realistic as a framework for discussing tills and their properties, and this (tectonic) concept is irreconcilable with the existing (depositional) till classification scheme. Over the last 20 years large thin sections have been used to study tills, which has provided new insights into the textural and structural properties of tills. These results have revolutionised till sedimentology as they show that, in the main, subglacial tills possess deformational characteristics. Depositional properties are rare. Based on this new insight the process of subglacial till formation is discussed in terms of glacier/ice sheet basal velocity, clay, water and carbonate content and the variability of these properties in space and time. The end result of this discussion is: till, the deforming glacier bed. To distinguish subglacial till from depositional sediments the term 'tectomict' is proposed. Within the single framework of subglacial till as the deforming glacier bed, many textural, structural and geomorphological features of till beds can be more clearly and coherently explained and understood.

  18. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  19. The first glacier inventory for entire Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastner, P.; Bolch, T.; Mölg, N.; Le Bris, R.; Paul, F.

    2012-04-01

    Detailed glacier data is becoming more and more important in the last decades to solve several research issues. One of the most prominent questions in this regard is the potential contribution of glaciers and icecaps (GIC) to global sea-level rise. Primarily, estimates are uncertain due to the globally still incomplete information about glacier location and size, as well as large uncertainties in future climate scenarios. Recent studies that calculate global sea-level rise from GIC have developed simplified approaches using information from glacier inventories or gridded data sets and a range of different global climate models and emission scenarios. However, for several strongly glacierized regions very rough assumptions about the ice distribution have to be made and an urgent demand for a globally complete glacier inventory is expressed. The GIC on Greenland are one of the regions with lacking information. Within the EU FP7 project ice2sea we mapped the GIC on Greenland using Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery acquired around the year 2000, along with an additional dataset in the North (DCW - Digital Chart of the World). A digital elevation model (DEM) with 90 m resolution (GIMP DEM) was used to derive drainage divides and henceforth topographic parameters for each entity. A major challenge in this regard is the application of a consistent strategy to separate the local GIC from the ice sheet. For this purpose we have defined different levels of connectivity (CL) of the local GIC with the ice sheet: CL0: Not connected. CL1: Connected but separable (either with drainage divides in the accumulation region or in touch only - and thus separable - in the ablation region). CL2: Connected but non-separable (the local GIC contribute to the flow of an ice sheet outlet in the ablation area). Up to now close to 12'000 GIC (only CL0 and CL1) with a total area of about 129'000 km2 have been mapped considering only entities larger than 0.1 km2. The area of the ice sheet itself is

  20. Glaciers along proposed routes extending the Copper River Highway, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Three inland highway routes are being considered by the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities to connect the community of Cordova in southcentral Alaska to a statewide road system. The routes use part of a Copper River and Northwest Railway alignment along the Copper River through mountainous terrain having numerous glaciers. An advance of any of several glaciers could block and destroy the roadway, whereas retreating glaciers expose large quantities of unconsolidated, unvegetated, and commonly ice-rich sediments. The purpose of this study was to map historical locations of glacier termini near these routes and to describe hazards associated with glaciers and seasonal snow. Historical and recent locations of glacier termini along the proposed Copper River Highway routes were determined by reviewing reports and maps and by interpreting aerial photographs. The termini of Childs, Grinnell, Tasnuna, and Woodworth Glaciers were 1 mile or less from a proposed route in the most recently available aerial photography (1978-91); the termini of Allen, Heney, and Schwan Glaciers were 1.5 miles or less from a proposed route. In general, since 1911, most glaciers have slowly retreated, but many glaciers have had occasional advances. Deserted Glacier and one of its tributary glaciers have surge-type medial moraines, indicating potential rapid advances. The terminus of Deserted Glacier was about 2.1 miles from a proposed route in 1978, but showed no evidence of surging. Snow and rock avalanches and snowdrifts are common along the proposed routes and will periodically obstruct the roadway. Floods from ice-dammed lakes also pose a threat. For example, Van Cleve Lake, adjacent to Miles Glacier, is as large as 4.4 square miles and empties about every 6 years. Floods from drainages of Van Cleve Lake have caused the Copper River to rise on the order of 20 feet at Million Dollar Bridge.

  1. Remote Sensing Characterization of Glaciers in the N. Himachal Pradesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, D.; Catania, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    Glaciers in high mountain Asia represent the largest volume of ice outside of the polar regions. They play an important role in the water resources of communities downstream and there has been recent dispute over the total amount of ice present how it is changing. The immense quantity of glaciers and variability of glacier types in the Himalayas coupled with the sparse amount of suitable satellite data limits the capability of conducting detailed and efficient remote sensing observations on a regional scale. This study aims to develop a semi-automated characterization of approximately 5,000 glaciers in the N. Himachal Pradesh region of India using multi-spectral data. We use an August 2002 Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image because of its small percentage of snow and cloud cover, and because it is acquired late in the summer allowing for delineation of ablation and accumulation zones. Glacier outlines from the GLIMS glacier database for this region comprise total glacier area including debris covered ice regions. We outline the accumulation (snow-covered) region for each glacier exploiting the high reflectance value of snow compared to ice and debris. We further outline debris-free, bare-ice using a threshold on a ratio image of ETM+ bands 4 and 5. Subtracting this region from the GLIMS outlines leaves us with the debris-covered ice region. Using our resulting ablation and accumulation areas, we compute the area-accumulation ratio (AAR) for the many glaciers in our region. These data are compared to mean aspect, mean elevation, glacier size, percentage of debris cover, and mean equilibrium line altitude (ELA) for each glacier. This study hopes to contribute to and improve on glacier databases for the Himalayan region and to advance glacier analyses using remote sensing data. A possible future aim is to identify benchmark glaciers which can be used for detailed future study.

  2. Glacier and hydrology changes in future climate over western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winger, Katja; Sushama, Laxmi; Marshall, Shawn

    2016-04-01

    Glaciers are frozen fresh water reservoirs that respond to changes in temperature and snowfall. Concern is growing about the impact that changes in glaciers may have on water resources in regions such as western Canada that derive a lot of their summer streamflow from glacier melt. Given that RCM projections are an important tool and are increasingly being used in assessing projected changes to water resources, particularly due to its high resolution compared with GCMs, realistic representation of glaciers in RCMs is very important. Currently, glaciers are only represented in an extremely simplified way in the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5). This simple approach of representing glaciers as static glacier masks is appropriate for short-term integrations, where the response of glacier to changing atmospheric conditions might still be small due to glacier response times and therefore the feedback of changing glacier extent on large-scale atmospheric flow conditions might be negligible. A new dynamic glacier scheme has been developed for use within CRCM5, based on volume-area relationships. Simulations have been performed with this glacier model and Land Surface Scheme CLASS for the 2000-2100 period over a domain covering western Canada. These simulations were driven by outputs from a CRCM5 transient climate change simulation driven by CanESM2 at the lateral boundaries, for RCPs 4.5 and 8.5. Preliminary results suggest significant decreases to glacier fractions in future climate. Though the glacier contribution to streamflows is found to dramatically decrease in future climate, the total streamflows did not show any dramatic decreases due to the increase in precipitation for these regions.

  3. Model based historical runoff contribution from an Alpine glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoccatelli, Davide; Bonato, Paola; Carturan, Luca; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; De Blasi, Fabrizio; Borga, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze how climatic variability and glacier retreat impact the water balance of a small (8.5 km2) glaciarised catchment in the Eastern Italia Alps over a 30 year (1983-2013) period. The analysis is carried out by coupling local high quality data and a glacio-hydrological model able to simulate both the glacier and hydrology dynamics. Runoff contribution from glacier ice is related with trends in climatic variables and with glacier retreat. The area analyzed is the headwater of Noce Bianco river basin, lying in the Ortles-Cevedale group and including the La Mare glacier. During the study period the glacier area decreased from 4.7 km2 (50% basin area) to 3.47 km2 (40% basin area). In this area the following observations are available: 30 years of daily meteorological data at high elevation close to the catchment; three DTMs of the glacier, covering the entire period, which enable the calculation of the volume change and geodetic mass balance; direct glaciological mass balance observations over the period 2003-2013; discharge measurement at the catchment outlet over the period 2007-2013. The data availability and the significant shrinking of the glacier during the analyzed period make this catchment ideal for studying the hydrological impacts of glacier retreat. The semi-distributed conceptual model includes a snow and glacier accumulation and ablation module, based on temperature-radiation index and a glacier retreat model. The glacier retreat model allows to use the annual simulated glacier mass balance to update the glacier area (Huss et al., 2010). The model simulations are carried out from 1983 to 2013. We show that the model is able to capture adequately the measured daily discharge, the observed changes in glacier area and their spatial distribution. The contribution of glacier ice meltwater to annual runoff is below 10% in the first decade of simulation. This variable however showed a clear increasing trend, with peaks for single

  4. Snowline observations to remotely derive glacier-wide mass balance on four Kyrgyz glaciers from 2003 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barandun, Martina; Huss, Matthias; Sold, Leo; Kienholz, Christian; Usubaliev, Ryskul; Bolch, Tobias; Hoelzle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring of glacier mass balance in remote regions is challenging but vital for understanding the response of glaciers to climate change. Direct mass balance observations are sparse and discontinuous in the Kyrgyz Tien Shan and Pamir. The under-sampling problem of glacier change assessments limits change predictions and impact projections. In this study, we elaborate on novel approaches to derive sub-seasonal glacier mass balance based on remote snowline monitoring on four Kyrgyz glaciers for a period from 2003 to 2015. The proposed methodology is based on the information content of short-term changes in snowline elevation detected with repeated remote sensing imagery for both the quantities of winter accumulation and summer ablation. By backward modelling the observed snowline position and the glacier geometry are related to the glacier-wide mass balance. Snowline position over the glacier area is detected with a semi-automatic procedure on remote sensing images (Landsat, ASTER) and automatically on terrestrial photographs. We apply the methodology to four glaciers on which direct mass balance measurements have been (re)-initiated recently and use reanalysed and partly reconstructed mass balance series as a first source to validate our approach to remotely determine the seasonal glacier mass budget. In a second step, the derived glacier-wide mass balance is compared to geodetic mass balance calculations for the first decade of the 21st century.

  5. A GRASS GIS module to obtain an estimation of glacier behavior under climate change: A pilot study on Italian glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strigaro, Daniele; Moretti, Massimiliano; Mattavelli, Matteo; Frigerio, Ivan; Amicis, Mattia De; Maggi, Valter

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work is to integrate the Minimal Glacier Model in a Geographic Information System Python module in order to obtain spatial simulations of glacier retreat and to assess the future scenarios with a spatial representation. The Minimal Glacier Models are a simple yet effective way of estimating glacier response to climate fluctuations. This module can be useful for the scientific and glaciological community in order to evaluate glacier behavior, driven by climate forcing. The module, called r.glacio.model, is developed in a GRASS GIS (GRASS Development Team, 2016) environment using Python programming language combined with different libraries as GDAL, OGR, CSV, math, etc. The module is applied and validated on the Rutor glacier, a glacier in the south-western region of the Italian Alps. This glacier is very large in size and features rather regular and lively dynamics. The simulation is calibrated by reconstructing the 3-dimensional dynamics flow line and analyzing the difference between the simulated flow line length variations and the observed glacier fronts coming from ortophotos and DEMs. These simulations are driven by the past mass balance record. Afterwards, the future assessment is estimated by using climatic drivers provided by a set of General Circulation Models participating in the Climate Model Inter-comparison Project 5 effort. The approach devised in r.glacio.model can be applied to most alpine glaciers to obtain a first-order spatial representation of glacier behavior under climate change.

  6. Modelled glacier equilibrium line altitudes during the mid-Holocene in the southern mid-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, C.; Rojas, M.; Anderson, B. M.; Mackintosh, A. N.; Sagredo, E.; Moreno, P. I.

    2015-11-01

    Glacier behaviour during the mid-Holocene (MH, 6000 years BP) in the Southern Hemisphere provides observational data to constrain our understanding of the origin and propagation of palaeoclimate signals. In this study we examine the climatic forcing of glacier response in the MH by evaluating modelled glacier equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) and climatic conditions during the MH compared with pre-industrial time (PI, year 1750). We focus on the middle latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, specifically Patagonia and the South Island of New Zealand. Climate conditions for the MH were obtained from PMIP2 model simulations, which in turn were used to force a simple glacier mass balance model to simulate changes in ELA. In Patagonia, the models simulate colder conditions during the MH in austral summer (-0.2 °C), autumn (-0.5 °C), and winter (-0.4), and warmer temperatures (0.2 °C) during spring. In the Southern Alps the models show colder MH conditions in autumn (-0.7 °C) and winter (-0.4 °C), warmer conditions in spring (0.3 °C), and no significant change in summer temperature. Precipitation does not show significant changes but exhibits a seasonal shift, with less precipitation from April to September and more precipitation from October to April during the MH in both regions. The mass balance model simulates a climatic ELA that is 15-33 m lower during the MH compared with PI conditions. We suggest that the main causes of this difference are driven mainly by colder temperatures associated with the MH simulation. Differences in temperature have a dual effect on glacier mass balance: (i) less energy is available for ablation during summer and early autumn and (ii) lower temperatures cause more precipitation to fall as snow rather than rain in late autumn and winter, resulting in more accumulation and higher surface albedo. For these reasons, we postulate that the modelled ELA changes, although small, may help to explain larger glacier extents observed by 6000

  7. Faster-than-natural spacecraft circumnavigation via way points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Trevor; Schaub, Hanspeter; Roscoe, Christopher W. T.

    2016-06-01

    Circumnavigation relative motion is considered for applications such as inspecting a space object for damage, or characterizing space debris before engaging a remediation operation. Faster-than-natural circumnavigation is a guidance method in which the deputy spacecraft is advanced ahead of the natural Keplerian relative motion. A state transition matrix method of generating a discrete way point guidance solution is proposed for faster-than natural circumnavigation. The state transition matrix methodology is applied to both circular and elliptical chief orbits. For the circular chief case, natural relative trajectories are planar in nature. With the faster-than-natural circumnavigation, this work illustrates how the required relative trajectories become three-dimensional curves. This methodology allows for closed-form impulsive control solutions and the associated fuel cost. Numerical simulations illustrate and validate the proposed method.

  8. Delivering Faster Congestion Feedback with the Mark-Front Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chunlei; Jain, Raj

    2001-01-01

    Computer networks use congestion feedback from the routers and destinations to control the transmission load. Delivering timely congestion feedback is essential to the performance of networks. Reaction to the congestion can be more effective if faster feedback is provided. Current TCP/IP networks use timeout, duplicate Acknowledgement Packets (ACKs) and explicit congestion notification (ECN) to deliver the congestion feedback, each provides a faster feedback than the previous method. In this paper, we propose a markfront strategy that delivers an even faster congestion feedback. With analytical and simulation results, we show that mark-front strategy reduces buffer size requirement, improves link efficiency and provides better fairness among users. Keywords: Explicit Congestion Notification, mark-front, congestion control, buffer size requirement, fairness.

  9. Biogeochemistry differences along lineal transect from glacier to Elephant Point coast in Antarctic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Guzman, Adrián; Otero, Xosé Luis; Oliva, Marc; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Pérez-Alberti, Augusto

    2015-04-01

    The main aim of this work is studying the biogeochemistry changes occurred in the soil since glacier front until Elephant Point coast, at Shetland Islands, in Antarctic. For that, it picked up 20 samples from 10 different points. Sampling has followed a lineal transect since coast to glacier, going across 5 marine terraces, the morrenic area and going through col to reach glacier front. The terrace samples 2, 3, 4 and 5 show bryophyte vegetation forms covering a wide part of the surface however vegetation is almost nonexistent in the rest of the sampling points. The particle size, pH (pHw and pHKCl), electrical conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total Fe (TFe), Fe and Al associated with organic matter (soluble in sodium pyrophosphate, Cp), amorphous oxyhydroxides-Fe (extracted with ammonium oxalate, FeO), crystalline oxyhydroxides-Fe (extracted with sodium dithionite, FeD), bioavailable plant nutrients (soluble in Mehlich 3 extractant) and clay mineralogy were analyzed. Results obtained show the importance of the alive organism in the weathering of minerals and the contribution of these to form a more evolved soil. There are also important differences at the different zones of the lineal transect due to predominant geomorphologic forces performing in each type of area. On the third hand, current global climate change is causing glacier backward movement; this allows increasing vegetal cover and growing superior vegetation forms. In this way edaphic processes will increase and with them a leaching of nutrients which able to participate positively on closest seas, rivers and lakes.

  10. Internationally coordinated glacier monitoring - a timeline since 1894

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, Samuel U.; Armstrong, Richard; Fetterer, Florence; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Hoelzle, Martin; Machguth, Horst; Mölg, Nico; Paul, Frank; Raup, Bruce H.; Zemp, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Changes in glaciers and ice caps provide some of the clearest evidence of climate change, with impacts on sea-level variations, regional hydrological cycles, and natural hazard situations. Therefore, glaciers have been recognized as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV). Internationally coordinated collection and distribution of standardized information about the state and change of glaciers and ice caps was initiated in 1894 and is today organized within the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G). GTN-G ensures the continuous development and adaptation of the international strategies to the long-term needs of users in science and policy. A GTN-G Steering Committee coordinates, supports and advices the operational bodies responsible for the international glacier monitoring, which are the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS), the US National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) initiative. In this presentation, we trace the development of the internationally coordinated glacier monitoring since its beginning in the 19th century. Today, several online databases containing a wealth of diverse data types with different levels of detail and global coverage provide fast access to continuously updated information on glacier fluctuation and inventory data. All glacier datasets are made freely available through the respective operational bodies within GTN-G, and can be accessed through the GTN-G Global Glacier Browser (http://www.gtn-g.org/data_browser.html). Glacier inventory data (e.g., digital outlines) are available for about 180,000 glaciers (GLIMS database, RGI - Randolph Glacier Inventory, WGI - World Glacier Inventory). Glacier front variations with about 45,000 entries since the 17th century and about 6,200 glaciological and geodetic mass (volume) change observations dating back to the 19th century are available in the Fluctuations of Glaciers (FoG) database. These datasets reveal clear evidence that

  11. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  12. Constraining Glacier Sensitivity across the Andes: A Modeling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagredo, E. A.; Rupper, S.; Lowell, T. V.

    2011-12-01

    Valley glaciers are sensitive indicators of climate change. Records of former glacial fluctuations have been extensively used to reconstruct paleoclimatic conditions at different temporal and spatial scales. These reconstructions typically do not account for variations in regional climate conditions. Based on modeling results, it has been suggested these regional climate conditions could play an important role modulating the magnitude of glacier response for large scale climate perturbations. The climatically diverse Andes mountain range represents an ideal setting to test hypothesis of glacier sensitivity variability. Here, we quantify glacier sensitivity to climate change in different climatic regimes across the Andean. By applying a regional Surface Energy Mass Balance model (SEMB), we analyze the change in the Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) for a sample of 234 glaciers, under different climatic perturbations. Our results suggest that ELAs of Andean glaciers respond linearly to changes in temperature, with rates that oscillate between 153 and 186 m/°C. For example, with a perturbation of -6°C (~Global LGM), our model predicts a drop in the ELA of 916 m for the least sensitive glaciers and 1117 m for the more sensitive ones. This glacier sensitivity variability exhibits a very distinctive spatial distribution. The most sensitive glaciers are located in Central Chile (south of 31°C), and the Western Cordillera of Peru (north of 13°S). In contrast, lower sensitivity glaciers are situated in the inner Tropics, Eastern Cordillera of Peru and Bolivia (south of 13°S), and part of southern Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. When analyzing the response of glaciers to changes in accumulation, our results suggest that under a scenario of increasing precipitation, glacier behavior is nonlinear. A statistical cluster analysis of glacier sensitivity divides our 234 glaciers into three distinct groups. The most sensitive glaciers correspond to those situated in western

  13. Seasonality and extent of East Greenland glacier fluctuations from automatic satellite monitoring of calving glacier fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seale, Anthony; Christoffersen, Poul; Mugford, Ruth

    2010-05-01

    The recent acceleration of Greenland outlet glaciers shows that flow speeds can respond sensitively to changes of calving front positions, but little is known about the seasonality and range of margin position changes. To investigate the geographical extent of margin changes on subseasonal timescale, we developed an automated procedure for identifying calving margins from MODIS data (2000-2008), allowing for the analysis of 105,536 images of 32 glaciers in East Greenland. Validation exercises found results to compare well to those of other studies, which have been limited in either temporal resolution or spatial extent by more labor-intensive methods. All most all glacier exhibited seasonal cycles, demonstrating a strong sensitivity to environmental conditions. However, there was a distinct difference in response of glaciers north and south of 65.9°N. Those above showed close to no interannual change, whilst those below retreated rapidly by an average of 2.9 km over 2001 to 2005. We found that only a few glaciers have returned to their original calving position and that only 26% of the average calving retreat was recovered when the glaciers returned to a steady margin position during 2005 to 2008. The extent of rapid change of calving positions is consistent with the recent attribution of sustained mass losses in southeast Greenland to increased discharge. Meteorological records and climate reanalysis data show clear evidence of recent atmospheric warming in southeast Greenland, but this warming trend do not statistically explain the observed extent of margin recessions. A statistically convincing explanation was found in the output from the ¼ degree NEMO ocean model where variable extent of Atlantic water intrusions onto the East Greenland continental shelf coincide with the observed glacier change.

  14. Franz Josef and Fox Glaciers, New Zealand: Historic length records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purdie, Heather; Anderson, Brian; Chinn, Trevor; Owens, Ian; Mackintosh, Andrew; Lawson, Wendy

    2014-10-01

    Compilation of modern and historical length change records for Franz Josef and Fox Glaciers demonstrates that these glaciers have lost ~ 3 km in length and at least 3-4 km2 in area since the 1800s, with the greatest overall loss occurring between 1934 and 1983. Within this dramatic and ongoing retreat, both glaciers have experienced periods of re-advance. The record from Franz Josef Glacier is the most detailed, and shows major advances from 1946 to 1951 (340 m), 1965-1967 (400 m), 1983-1999 (1420 m) and 2004-2008 (280 m). At Fox Glacier the record is similar, with advances recorded during 1964-1968 (60 m), 1985-1999 (710 m) and 2004-2008 (290 m). Apart from the latest advance event, the magnitude of advance has been greater at Franz Josef Glacier, suggesting a higher length sensitivity. Analysis of the relationship between glacier length and a reconstructed annual equilibrium line altitude (ELA) record shows that the glaciers react very quickly to ELA variations - with the greatest correlation at 3-4 years' lag. The present (2014) retreat is the fastest retreat in the records of both glaciers. While decadal length fluctuations have been linked to hemispheric ocean-atmosphere variability, the overall reduction in length is a clear sign of twentieth century warming. However, documenting glacier length changes can be challenging; especially when increased surface debris-cover makes identification of the 'true' terminus a convoluted process.

  15. Glacier Changes in the Bhutanese Himalaya - Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupper, S.; Schaefer, J. M.; Burgener, L. K.; Maurer, J.; Smith, R.; Cook, E.; Putnam, A. E.; Krusic, P.; Tsering, K.; Koenig, L.

    2012-12-01

    Glacierized change in the Himalayas affects river-discharge, hydro-energy and agricultural production, and Glacial Lake Outburst Flood potential, but its quantification and extent of impacts remains highly uncertain. Here we present conservative, comprehensive and quantitative predictions for glacier area and meltwater flux changes in Bhutan, monsoonal Himalayas. In particular, we quantify the uncertainties associated with the glacier area and meltwater flux changes due to uncertainty in climate data, a critical problem for much of High Asia. Based on a suite of gridded climate data and a robust glacier melt model, our results show that glacier area and meltwater change projections can vary by an order of magnitude for different climate datasets. The most conservative results indicate that, even if climate were to remain at the present-day mean values (1980-2000), almost 10% of Bhutan's glacierized area would vanish and the meltwater flux would drop by as much as 30%. New mapping of glacierized area from 2000-2010 shows a significant change in glacierized area of 4-6%. Thus the conservative steady-state area changes predicted by the model are already being realized. Under the conservative scenario of an additional 1°C regional warming, glacier retreat is predicted to continue until about 25% of Bhutan's glacierized area will have disappeared and the annual meltwater flux, after an initial spike, would drop by as much as 65%.

  16. Assessing streamflow sensitivity to variations in glacier mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oneel, S.; Hood, E. W.; Arendt, A. A.; Sass, L. C.; March, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    We examine long-term streamflow and mass balance data from two Alaskan glaciers located in climatically distinct basins: Gulkana Glacier, a continental glacier located in the Alaska Range, and Wolverine Glacier, a maritime glacier located in the Kenai Mountains. Both glaciers lost mass, primarily as a result of summer warming, and both basins exhibit increasing streamflow over the 1966-2011 study interval. We estimated total glacier runoff via summer mass balance, and separated the fraction related to annual mass imbalances. In both climates, the fraction of streamflow related to annual mass balance averages less than 20%, substantially smaller than the fraction related to total summer mass loss (>50%), which occurs even in years of glacier growth. The streamflow fraction related to changes in annual mass balance has increased only in the continental environment. In the maritime climate, where deep winter snowpacks and frequent rain events drive consistently high runoff, the magnitude of this streamflow fraction is small and highly variable, precluding detection of any existing trend. Changes in streamflow related to annual balance are often masked by interannual variability of maritime glacier mass balance, such that predicted scenarios of continued glacier recession are more likely to impact the quality and timing of runoff than the total basin water yield.

  17. Modelling glacier change in the Everest region, Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, J. M.; Immerzeel, W. W.; Wagnon, P.; Vincent, C.; Bajracharya, S.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we apply a glacier mass balance and ice redistribution model to simulate historical and future glacier change in the Everest region of Nepal. High-resolution temperature and precipitation fields derived from gridded APHRODITE data, and validated against independent station observations from the EVK2CNR network, are used to drive the historical model from 1961 to 2007. The model is calibrated against geodetically derived estimates of net glacier mass change from 1992 to 2008, termini position of four large glaciers at the end of the calibration period, average velocities observed on selected debris-covered glaciers, and total glacierized area. We integrate field-based observations of glacier mass balance and ice thickness with remotely-sensed observations of decadal glacier change to validate the model. Between 1961 and 2007, the mean modelled volume change over the Dudh Kosi basin is -6.4 ± 1.5 km3, a decrease of 15.6% from the original estimated ice volume in 1961. Modelled glacier area change between 1961 and 2007 is -101.0 ± 11.4 km2, a decrease of approximately 20% from the initial extent. Scenarios of future climate change, based on CMIP5 RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 end members, suggest that glaciers in the Everest region will continue to lose mass through the 21st century. Glaciers in the basin are concentrated between 5000 and 6000 m of elevation, and are thus expected to be sensitive to changes in temperature and equilibrium line altitude (ELA). Glacier volume reductions between -35 to -62% are possible by 2050, and sustained temperature increases to 2100 may result in total glacier volume losses of between -73 and -96%.

  18. Microbial Energetics Beneath the Taylor Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikucki, J. A.; Turchyn, A. V.; Farquhar, J.; Priscu, J. C.; Schrag, D. P.; Pearson, A.

    2007-12-01

    Subglacial microbiology is controlled by glacier hydrology, bedrock lithology, and the preglacial ecosystem. These factors can all affect metabolic function by influencing electron acceptor and donor availability in the subglacial setting leaving biogeochemical signatures that can be used to determine ecosystem processes. Blood Falls, an iron-rich, episodic subglacial outflow from the Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys Antarctica provides an example of how microbial community structure and function can provide insight into subglacial hydrology. This subglacial outflow contains cryoconcentrated, Pliocene-age seawater salts that pooled in the upper Taylor Valley and was subsequently covered by the advance of the Taylor Glacier. Biogeochemical measurements, culture-based techniques, and genomic analysis were used to characterize microbes and chemistry associated with the subglacial outflow. The isotopic composition of important geochemical substrates (i.e., δ34Ssulfate, Δ33Ssulfate, δ18Osulfate, δ18Owater, Δ14SDIC) were also measured to provide more detail on subglacial microbial energetics. Typically, subglacial systems, when driven to anoxia by the hydrolysis of organic matter, will follow a continuum of redox chemistries utilizing electron acceptors with decreasing reduction potential (e.g., Fe (III), sulfate, CO2). Our data provide no evidence for sulfate reduction below the Taylor Glacier despite high dissolved organic carbon (450 μM C) and measurable metabolic activity. We contend that, in the case of the Taylor Glacier, the in situ bioenergetic reduction potential has been 'short-circuited' at Fe(III)-reduction and excludes sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Given the length of time that this marine system has been isolated from phototrophic production (~2 Mya) the ability to degrade and consume increasingly recalcitrant organic carbon is likely an important component to the observed redox chemistry. Our work indicates that glacier hydrology

  19. Climatic Teleconnections Recorded By Tropical Mountain Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L. G.; Permana, D.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Davis, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Information from ice cores from the world's highest mountains in the Tropics demonstrates both local climate variability and a high degree of teleconnectivity across the Pacific basin. Here we examine recently recovered ice core records from glaciers near Puncak Jaya in Papua, Indonesia, which lie on the highest peak between the Himalayas and the South American Andes. These glaciers are located on the western side of the Tropical Pacific warm pool, which is the "center of action" for interannual climate variability dominated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). ENSO either directly or indirectly affects most regions of Earth and their populations. In 2010, two ice cores measuring 32.13 m and 31.25 m were recovered to bedrock from the East Northwall Firn ice field. Both have been analyzed in high resolution (~3 cm sample length, 1156 and 1606 samples, respectively) for stable isotopes, dust, major ions and tritium concentrations. To better understand the controls on the oxygen isotopic (δ18 O) signal for this region, daily rainfall samples were collected between January 2013 and February 2014 at five weather stations over a distance of ~90 km ranging from 9 meters above sea level (masl) on the southern coast up to 3945 masl. The calculated isotopic lapse rate for this region is 0.24 ‰/100m. Papua, Indonesian ice core records are compared to ice core records from Dasuopu Glacier in the central Himalayas and from Quelccaya, Huascarán, Hualcán and Coropuna ice fields in the tropical Andes of Peru on the eastern side of the Pacific Ocean. The composite of the annual isotopic time series from these cores is significantly (R2 =0.53) related to tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs), reflecting the strong linkage between tropical Pacific SSTs associated with ENSO and tropospheric temperatures in the low latitudes. New data on the already well-documented concomitant loss of ice on Quelccaya, Kilimanjaro in eastern Africa and the ice fields near Puncak

  20. Glacier melt on the Third Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, T.

    2015-12-01

    With an average elevation above 4,000 metres, the Third Pole (TP) is a unique region with many high mountains centered on the Tibetan Plateau stretching over 5 million square kilometers. Major environmental changes are taking place on the TP characterized by complex interactions of atmospheric, cryospheric, hydrological, geological and environmental processes. These processes are critical for the well-being of the three billion people inhabiting the plateau and the surrounding regions. Glacier melt is one of the most significant environmental changes observed on the TP. Over the past decade, most of the glaciers on the TP have undergone considerable melt. The Third Pole Environment (TPE) has focused on the causes of the glacier melt by conducting large-scale ground in-situ observation and monitoring, analyzing satellite images and remote sensing data, and applying numerical modeling to environmental research on the TP. The studies of long-term record of water stable isotopes in precipitation and ice core throughout the TP have revealed different features with regions, thus proposing significant influence of atmospheric circulations on spatial precipitation pattern over the TP. Validation of the result by isotope-equipped general circulation models confirms the spatial distribution of different atmospheric circulation dominances on the TP, with northern part dominated by the westerlies, southern part by the summer monsoon, and central part featuring the influences of both circulation systems. Such unique circulation patterns also bear directly on the status of glaciers and lakes over the TP and its surroundings. The studies therefore found the largest glacier melt in the monsoon-dominated southern part, moderate melt in the central part of transition, and the least melt, or even slight advance in the westerlies-dominated northern TP. It is clear that some mountains on the TP are undergoing rapid melt and the consequence of without ice and snow will be very soon. The

  1. The Impact of Empirical Calving Laws on Thwaites Glacier Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parizek, B. R.; Christianson, K. A.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Dupont, T. K.; Holland, D. M.; Pollard, D.; Walker, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    Mass loss from the Amundsen Sea Embayment currently dominates Antarctica's contribution to sea-level rise. Future estimates of mass loss and sea-level contribution from this sector of Antarctica depend on accurate estimates and predictions of basal properties, basal melt, and direct ice discharge through calving. Although significant progress has been made in inferring and predicting basal-melt rates through using satellite data as input to models, lack of understanding of calving processes remains a significant impediment to accurate predictions of ice discharge. Here we determine the impact of a range of calving laws, based on spatiotemporal observations within Pine Island Bay, on the dynamics of Thwaites Glacier (TG) as well as ice-ocean interactions beneath its ice tongue. Oceanic forcing of (once) buttressing ice shelves has been implicated as the driver of the ongoing changes in this region of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and may have important ramifications for calving rate. Building on a suite of ice-ocean coupled model runs as well as similarly determined calving laws for a variety of representative ice shelves/tongues from Antarctica and Greenland, we include calving parameterizations for TG that range from simple freeboard limitations to regionally refined laws relating calving flux to spreading rate. Our results highlight the importance of including and constraining numerical representations of the calving process within prognostic ice-sheet models.

  2. Recent changes of very small glaciers in the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Mauro; Huss, Matthias; Hoelzle, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Present knowledge about Alpine glaciers is not representative in terms of glacier size distribution. More than 80% of all Swiss glaciers are smaller than 0.5 km2 and hence belong to the class of very small glaciers. In the context of fast glacier wastage in the European Alps, the near-future development of the size class distribution will most probably be in favour of very small glaciers which will comparably increase in number. However, there has been little research carried out about very small glaciers so far. It is not clear whether findings and theoretical concepts elaborated for medium and large valley glaciers (> 3 km2) can be directly transferred to very small glaciers, whose accumulation patterns are, for instance, characteristically exceptional because winter precipitation is multiplied by wind drift and avalanching. The extent of glaciers in the European Alps has recently been mapped and inventoried spatio-temporally consistently. Nevertheless, such glacier outlines derived by satellite remote-sensing techniques are not accurate enough for the special case of investigating changes in very small glaciers. Therefore, glacier outlines are digitized manually using high-resolution (25 cm) orthophotographs covering the entire Swiss Alps acquired twice for every scene (both in the early and late noughties). In contrast to the known shortcomings of satellite remote-sensing based approaches, the margins of very small glaciers are (with few exceptions) clearly distinguishable on these orthophotos, even in shaded, snow- or debris-covered areas. For the eastern Swiss Alps (east of the rivers Reuss and Ticino), about one third of all glaciers has vanished since 1973. The total area presently still glacierized amounts to 140 km2, whereof very small glaciers cover only 25% but account for almost 90% of the total number of glaciers. Retreat rates are highest for very small glaciers but seem to be stabilizing or even decreasing since the early noughties, implying that

  3. Glacier Dynamics and Outburst Flood Potential from the Imja and Thulagi Glacier-Lake Systems (Nepal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, Jeffrey; Leonard, Gregory; Regmi, Dhananjay; Haritashya, Umesh; Chand, Mohan; Pradhan, Suresh; Sapkota, Nawaraj; Byers, Alton; Joshi, Sharad; McKinney, Daene; Mool, Pradeep; Somos-Valenzuela, Marcelo; Huggel, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Thulagi and Imja lakes are, according to ICIMOD, among Nepal's most dangerous glacier lakes, i.e., most likely to cause death and destruction in case of a glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF). Imja Lake and the associated Imja and Lhoste-Shar glaciers have been intensively studied; Thulagi Glacier and its lake are much less studied. Collectively, we have undertaken a series of increasingly thorough bathymetric and land surveys and satellite remote sensing analyses of Imja Lake and its glacier setting. We are analyzing several expeditions' data to build a detailed assessment of the glacier and lake to better establish the dynamical evolution of the system and its future GLOF potential. Our most recent, most complete bathymetric survey of Imja Lake has revealed a much greater volume (75,200,000 cubic meters) and maximum depth (149.8 m) than found before. Our analysis suggests that not all possible Imja GLOF scenarios would result in devastation. Some moraine melt-through or down-cutting mechanisms -- perhaps induced by extreme monsoon precipitation or an earthquake -- could generate outbursts lasting from 10,000-100,000 seconds ("slow GLOFs"), thus limiting peak flows and downstream damage. The potential damage from a slow GLOF from Imja Lake -- even if there is a large total volume -- is lessened by the relatively low peak discharge and because the major villages downstream from Imja Lake are situated just outside of and above a deep, broad outwash and debris-flow channel system. Imja and other glaciers in the area have built a large fan, now deeply trenched, which is able to accommodate the peak discharges of potential slow GLOFs, such that Dingboche and other villages would be spared. However, local geomorphology also bears evidence of "fast GLOFs," such as may be issued by a tsunami, which could be initiated by a large mass movement into Imja Lake and which might override and damage the end moraine in <100 seconds. Dingboche and other villages are vulnerable to

  4. Surge-type glaciers in the Tien Shan (Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Kriti; Bolch, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Surge-type glaciers in High Mountain Asia are mostly observed in Karakoram and Pamir. However, few surge-type glaciers also exist in the Tien Shan, but have not comprehensively studied in detail in the recent literature. We identified surge-type glaciers in the Tien Shan either from available literature or by manual interpretation using available satellite images (such as Corona, Hexagon, Landsat, SPOT, IRS) for the period 1960 to 2014. We identified 39 possible surge-type glaciers, showing typical characteristics like looped moraines. Twenty-two of them rapidly advanced during different periods or a surge was clearly described in the literature. For the remaining possible surge-type glaciers either the advance, in terms of time and length, were not mentioned in detail in the literature, or the glaciers have remained either stable or retreated during the entire period of our study. Most of the surge-type glaciers cluster in the Inner Tien Shan (especially in the Ak-Shiirak rage) and the Central Tien Shan, are in size and are facing North, West or North West. Pronounced surge events were observed for North Inylchek and Samoilowitsch glaciers, both of which are located in the Central Tien Shan. Samoilowitsch Glacier retreated by more than 3 km between 1960 (length ~8.9 km) and 1992 (~5.8 km), advanced by almost 3 km until 2006 and slightly retreated thereafter. The most pronounced advance occurred between 2000 and 2002. DEM differencing (based on SRTM3 data and stereo Hexagon and Cartosat-1 data) revealed a significant thickening in the middle reaches (reservoir area) of the glacier between 1973 and 2000 while the surface significantly lowered in the middle and upper parts of the glacier between 2000 and 2006. Hence, the ice mass was transferred to the lower reaches (receiving area) and caused the advance with a maximum thickening of more than 80 m. The ~30 km long North Inylchek Glacier retreated since 1943 and showed a very rapid advance of ~3.5 km especially in

  5. Norwegian mountain glaciers in the past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesje, Atle; Bakke, Jostein; Dahl, Svein Olaf; Lie, Øyvind; Matthews, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Documentation of glacier changes is a key element for reconstruction of past climate variability and early detection of global climate change. In this paper, records of Holocene glacier variations in different regions in Norway have been synthesised. During the period from approximately 8000 to 4000 cal. yr BP, most glaciers in Norway were completely melted away at least once due to high summer temperatures and/or reduced winter precipitation. Lichenometrically and historically dated moraines at Jostedalsbreen, in Jotunheimen, at Hardangerjøkulen, and at Folgefonna were used to extend records of glacier length variations back to their maximum position during the 'Little Ice Age'. The timing of the maximum 'Little Ice Age' glacial advance in different parts of southern Norway varied considerably, ranging from the early 18th century to the late 19th century. Cumulative glacier length variations of glaciers in southern Norway show an overall retreat from ˜ AD 1750 to the 1930s-40s. Thereafter, most Norwegian glaciers retreated significantly. Short maritime outlet glaciers with a short response time (< 10-15 yr) started to advance in the mid-1950s, whereas long outlet glaciers with longer frontal time lag (> 15-20 yr) continued their retreat to the 1980s. In the 1990s, however, several of the maritime glaciers started to advance as a response to higher winter accumulation during the first part of the 1990s. Since 2000 most of the observed glaciers have retreated remarkably fast (annual frontal retreat > 100 m) mainly due to high summer temperatures. The last glacier inventory in Norway published in 1988 shows that there were 1627 glaciers covering a total area of 2609 km 2 with an estimated volume of 164 km 3. Modern climate-glacier relationships from mass balance data in Scandinavia have been used to present possible effects on the Norwegian glaciers of climate scenarios between 1961-1990 and 2070-2100 presented by the 'RegClim' project. This long-term weather

  6. FASTER: an unsupervised fully automated sleep staging method for mice

    PubMed Central

    Sunagawa, Genshiro A; Séi, Hiroyoshi; Shimba, Shigeki; Urade, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Hiroki R

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the stages of sleep, or sleep staging, is an unavoidable step in sleep research and typically requires visual inspection of electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) data. Currently, scoring is slow, biased and prone to error by humans and thus is the most important bottleneck for large-scale sleep research in animals. We have developed an unsupervised, fully automated sleep staging method for mice that allows less subjective and high-throughput evaluation of sleep. Fully Automated Sleep sTaging method via EEG/EMG Recordings (FASTER) is based on nonparametric density estimation clustering of comprehensive EEG/EMG power spectra. FASTER can accurately identify sleep patterns in mice that have been perturbed by drugs or by genetic modification of a clock gene. The overall accuracy is over 90% in every group. 24-h data are staged by a laptop computer in 10 min, which is faster than an experienced human rater. Dramatically improving the sleep staging process in both quality and throughput FASTER will open the door to quantitative and comprehensive animal sleep research. PMID:23621645

  7. Hidden Covariation Detection Produces Faster, Not Slower, Social Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Lynne A.; Andrade, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    In P. Lewicki's (1986b) demonstration of hidden covariation detection (HCD), responses of participants were slower to faces that corresponded with a covariation encountered previously than to faces with novel covariations. This slowing contrasts with the typical finding that priming leads to faster responding and suggests that HCD is a unique type…

  8. Differences in dissolved organic matter lability between alpine glaciers and alpine rock glaciers of the American West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E.; Fegel, T. S., II; Baron, J.; Boot, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    While alpine glaciers in montane regions represent the largest flux of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from global ice melt no research has examined the bioavailability of DOM melted out of glacial ice in the western continental United States. Furthermore, rock glaciers are an order of magnitude more abundant than ice glaciers in U.S., yet are not included in budgets for perennial ice carbon stores. Our research aims to understand differences in the bioavailability of carbon from ice glaciers and rock glaciers along the Central Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Identical microbial communities were fed standardized amounts of DOM from four different ice glacier-rock glaciers pairs. Using laboratory incubations, paired with mass spectrometry based metabolomics and 16S gene sequencing; we were able to examine functional definitions of DOM lability in glacial ice. We hypothesized that even though DOM quantities are similar in the outputs of both glacial types in our study area, ice glacial DOM would be more bioavailable than DOM from rock glaciers due to higher proportions of byproducts from microbial metabolism than rock glacier DOM, which has higher amounts of "recalcitrant" plant material. Our results show that DOM from ice glaciers is more labile than DOM from geologically and geographically similar paired rock glaciers. Ice glacier DOM represents an important pool of labile carbon to headwater ecosystems of the Rocky Mountains. Metabolomic analysis shows numerous compounds from varying metabolite pathways, including byproducts of nitrification before and after incubation, meaning that, similar to large maritime glaciers in Alaska and Europe, subglacial environments in the mountain ranges of the United States are hotspots for biological activity and processing of organic carbon.

  9. Modeling Runoff from Partially Glacierized Catchments in the Tropical Andes with Different Glacier Coverage and Land Cover Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinouchi, T.; Mendoza, J.; Luna, J.; Asaoka, Y.

    2014-12-01

    In Bolivian Andes, retreats of tropical glaciers are rapid, thus water resources currently available from glacierized catchments for drinking, agriculture, industry and hydropower would be changed in its volume and variations due to changing climate. Water resources in La Paz and El Alto, the capital city areas of Bolivia, strongly depend on the runoff from partially glacierized catchments located in the Cordillera Real, which is a combined contribution of surface and subsurface flow from glacierized and non-glacierized areas due to rainfall, snow melt and glacier melt. To predict the long-term availability of water resources for the capital city areas, we developed a semi-distributed conceptual glacio-hydrological model that considers various runoff pathways from partially glacierized high-altitudinal catchments located in the outer tropics. In the model, the retarding effect of lakes and wetlands was considered, based on the observed hydraulic functions and distribution of wetlands. The model was applied to three sub-catchments of the Tuni Lake watershed (98km2), from which the water resources for La Paz and El Alto are supplied. With calibrated parameters, the model reproduced well the observed seasonal variations of daily runoff during recent two years. Simulated results of water balance suggested that for the catchment with a larger glacier cover, more than 40% of the annual total runoff is contributed from glacierized areas due to glacier melt and snowmelt. The contribution from glacierized areas in other two sub-catchments, with relatively smaller areas covered by glacier ice, was calculated to be between 10-15%. We found that the role of wetlands and lakes are essential in retarding and regulating the runoff from partially glacierized high-mountain catchments.

  10. Glaciers and ice caps outside Greenland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, Marin; Wolken, G.; Burgess, D.; Cogley, J.G.; Copland, L.; Thomson, L.; Arendt, A.; Wouters, B.; Kohler, J.; Andreassen, L.M.; O'Neel, Shad; Pelto, M.

    2015-01-01

    Mountain glaciers and ice caps cover an area of over 400 000 km2 in the Arctic, and are a major influence on global sea level (Gardner et al. 2011, 2013; Jacob et al. 2012). They gain mass by snow accumulation and lose mass by meltwater runoff. Where they terminate in water (ocean or lake), they also lose mass by iceberg calving. The climatic mass balance (Bclim, the difference between annual snow accumulation and annual meltwater runoff) is a widely used index of how glaciers respond to climate variability and change. The total mass balance (ΔM) is defined as the difference between annual snow accumulation and annual mass losses (by iceberg calving plus runoff).

  11. Mass loss on Himalayan glacier endangers water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, Natalie M.; Thompson, Lonnie G.; Tandong, Yao; Mosley-Thompson, Ellen; Schotterer, Ulrich; Alfimov, Vasily; Beer, Jürg; Eikenberg, Jost; Davis, Mary E.

    2008-11-01

    Ice cores drilled from glaciers around the world generally contain horizons with elevated levels of beta radioactivity including 36Cl and 3H associated with atmospheric thermonuclear bomb testing in the 1950s and 1960s. Ice cores collected in 2006 from Naimona'nyi Glacier in the Himalaya (Tibet) lack these distinctive marker horizons suggesting no net accumulation of mass (ice) since at least 1950. Naimona'nyi is the highest glacier (6050 masl) documented to be losing mass annually suggesting the possibility of similar mass loss on other high-elevation glaciers in low and mid-latitudes under a warmer Earth scenario. If climatic conditions dominating the mass balance of Naimona'nyi extend to other glaciers in the region, the implications for water resources could be serious as these glaciers feed the headwaters of the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra Rivers that sustain one of the world's most populous regions.

  12. Quality controlled glacier inventory in high Asian mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, A.; Nuimura, T.; Taniguchi, K.; Lamsal, D.; Nagai, H.; Tsutaki, S.; Kozawa, A.; Hoshina, Y.; Takenaka, S.; Omiya, S.; Tsunematsu, K.; Tshering, P.; Fujita, K.; Okamoto, S.

    2013-12-01

    Glacier inventories provide a basic information for the water resources, glacier mass balance and ice volume at continental areas. Although glaciers in the Asian mountain are thought to play an important role for the regional water resources (Immerzeel et al., 2010), glacier distribution in the Asia have been poorly understood. Our GAMDAM (Glacier Area Mapping for Discharge in Asian Mountains) project have conducted to establish a glacier inventory with the aim of estimating glacier runoff contribution to river runoff. Our target region covers the High Mountain Asia, extending from 27 to 52 degrees N and from 68 to 104 degrees E. Glacier outlines were manually delineated using more than 260 of LANDSAT images taken from 1999 to 2003. Thermal infrared band was also used to delineate termini of debris-covered glaciers with help of high resolution images on Google Earth. The manual delineation has been conducted for more than two years by 5-7 operators. We conducted several tests, along which the operators delineated the same regions, and assessed the quality and criteria, and fed them back to the operators. At the end of June 2013, the inventory was completed 80% with about 63000 glaciers covering 7.8 × 10^4 km^2. Median elevation of glaciers has been interpreted as a proxy for the equilibrium line altitude (ELA), at which the accumulation and ablation were equal and thus the mass balance was zero (Braithwaite and Raper, 2009). Distribution of the median altitude derived from the GAMDAM glacier inventory was well consistent with that previously reported (Shi et al., 1980).

  13. Holocene cirque glacier activity in Rondane, southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvisvik, Bjørn Christian; Paasche, Øyvind; Dahl, Svein Olaf

    2015-10-01

    Skriufonnen is a small cirque glacier (0.03 km2) in the continental mountains of Rondane in southern Norway. At present, it is the only glacier in Rondane, and very little is known about Holocene glacier fluctuations in this region. Direct observations of the glacier began in 2002, since which time Skriufonnen has been in a state of strong decline. In order to provide a temporal context, past glacier fluctuations were reconstructed based on a series of short HTH gravity cores (n = 8) and long piston cores (n = 6) retrieved from three downstream lakes of Skriufonnen. The cores were analysed for selected magnetic properties (χbulk, ARM, SIRM, 77 K/293 K), organic content (LOI), and geochemical trace elements. Soil catchment samples (n = 6) were collected along a transect running from the three lakes up to the present glacier terminus. Bulk susceptibility (χbulk) measurements show that the finest fractions systematically return the highest values and that ferromagnetic minerals are depleted with distance to the glacier front. This means that periods dominated by paramagnetic minerals indicate very little or no glacier activity, whereas intervals with more ferromagnetic minerals suggest increased glacier activity. The quantitative core analyses indicate that Skriufonnen existed prior to 10,200 b2k (years before A.D. 2000) and disappeared ~ 10,000 b2k. No glacier activity is recorded from c. 10,000 b2k until the glacier reoccurred at the onset of the local Neoglacial period, c. 4000 b2k. The glacier attained its maximum extent between 3200 and 2400 b2k and during the end of the 'Little Ice Age' (LIA) c. A.D. 1800. Neoglacial fluctuations of Skriufonnen are in line with shifts in local summer temperatures and show a delayed Neoglacial inception compared to western Norway.

  14. Modelling mass balance and temperature sensitivity on Shallap glacier, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurgiser, W.; Marzeion, B.; Nicholson, L. I.; Ortner, M.; Kaser, G.

    2013-12-01

    Due to pronounced dry seasons in the tropical Andes of Peru glacier melt water is an important factor for year-round water availability for the local society. Andean glaciers have been shrinking during the last decades but present day's magnitudes of glacier mass balance and sensitivities to changes in atmospheric drivers are not well known. Therefore we have calculated spatial distributed glacier mass and energy balance of Shallap glacier (4700 m - 5700 m, 9°S), Cordillera Blanca, Peru, on hourly time steps for the period Sept. 2006 to Aug. 2008 with records from an AWS close to the glacier as model input. Our model evaluation against measured surface height change in the ablation zone of the glacier yields our model results to be reasonable and within an expectable error range. For the mass balance characteristics we found similar vertical gradients and accumulation area ratios but markedly differences in specific mass balance from year to year. The differences were mainly caused by large differences in annual ablation in the glacier area below 5000m. By comparing the meteorological conditions in both years we found for the year with more negative mass balance that total precipitation was only slightly lower but mean annual temperature was higher, thus the fraction of liquid precipitation and the snow line altitude too. As shortwave net energy turned out to be the key driver of ablation in all seasons the deviations in snow line altitude and surface albedo explain most of the deviations in available melt energy. Hence, mass balance of tropical Shallap glacier was not only sensitive to precipitation but also to temperature which has not been expected for glaciers in the Peruvian Andes before. We furthermore have investigated impacts of increasing temperature due to its multiple effects on glacier mass and energy balance (fraction of liquid precipitation, long wave incoming radiation, sensible and latent heat flux). Presenting these results should allow for better

  15. Response of Glaciers to Climate Change in Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Wang, P.

    2015-12-01

    In Northwest China, an extremely dry region, more than 20,000 mountain glaciers are developed. Glacial melt water is vital for local water resources, ecosystem in the lower reaches, peoples' living and city development there. During the past several decades, due to climate warming, the most glaciers in NW China are in a state of rapid retreating. To obtain the general idea on response of glaciers in that region, Tianshan Glaciological Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences selected more than ten glaciers in six sub-regions along Altai Mountain, Tianshan and Qilian Mountain, respectively, doing in-situ observations. Based on field observation and remote sensing technique, this study has revealed that the area reductions in different regions range between 8.8%~34.2 % during the past four decades. The potential impact of the glacier recession on water resource in future will be spatially different. For the Tarim River, the glacier runoff is estimated to maintain its current level or increase somewhat in next 30~50 years. In the north slope of Tianshan, the glaciers with a size smaller than 1 km2 are most likely to be melted away in next 20~40 years, and those larger than 5 km2 are melting intensively. In eastern Xinjiang, because the number of the glaciers is small and also because the climate is extremely dry, the glacier retreating are causing the water shortage problem. For Ili River and Irtysh River, because they are dominant by snow melt runoff, the impact of the glacier shrinkage and temperature rise would be limited on the quantity of the river runoff, but significant on the annual distribution of the river runoff. For Qilian Mountains, glaciers are quite small. The vanishing of small glacier will have significant impact on local water resources in near future.

  16. Modeling seasonal velocity variability and assessing the influence of glacial hydrology and sea-ice buttressing at the Belcher Glacier, Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, S.; Flowers, G. E.; Boon, S.; Clavano, W.; Copland, L.; Danielson, B.; Duncan, A.; Kavanaugh, J. L.; Sharp, M. J.; van Wychen, W. D.

    2011-12-01

    Seasonal ice dynamics on marine outlet glaciers can be influenced by the effects of both glacial hydrology and sea-ice buttressing. In summer surface meltwater finds its way through crevasses and moulins into the subglacial drainage system thereby modulating the extent of glacier sliding. Whereas in winter sea-ice build-up in front of the glacier terminus provides a buttressing effect exerting a back stress on the glacier ice. In this study we seek to distinguish between contributions from these two processes at a large fast-flowing tidewater-terminating Arctic glacier. The Belcher Glacier is the largest outlet glacier of the Devon Island Ice Cap in the Canadian high-Arctic. We employ the use of a hydrologically coupled higher-order ice-flow model together with field data collected in 2008 and 2009. Model output is compared against surface GPS observations as well as remotely sensed velocities derived using speckle tracking methods on Radarsat-2 imagery. Five major drainage sub-catchments have been identified on the Belcher and a melt model is used to generate daily surface runoff for each sub-catchment. The observed timing of lake drainage and moulin openings in each sub-catchment allow a seasonal timeseries of meltwater inputs to the subglacial drainage system to be constructed. Model simulations for 2008 and 2009 forced with this meltwater input timeseries are presented. Model responses to tidal forcing and changes in sea-ice back stress at the terminus are examined and compared alongside hydrologically driven accelerations.

  17. A macroscopic approach to glacier dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, W.D.; Raymond, C.F.; Echelmeyer, K.A.; Krimmel, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    A simple approach to glacier dynamics is explored in which there is postulated to be a relationship between area and volume with three parameters: the time for area to respond to changes in volume, a thickness scale, and an area characterizing the condition of the initial state. This approach gives a good fit to the measurements of cumulative balance and area on South Cascade Glacier from 1970-97; the area time-scale is roughly 8 years, the thickness scale about 123 m, and the 1970 area roughly 4% larger than required for adjustment with volume. Combining this relationship with a version of mass continuity expressed in terms of area and volume produces a theory of glacier area and volume response to climate in which another time constant, the volume time-scale, appears. Area and volume both respond like a damped spring and mass system. The damping of the South Cascade response is approximately critical, and the volume time-scale is roughly 48 years, six times the area time-scale. The critically damped spring and mass analogy reproduces the time dependence predicted by the more complicated traditional theory of Nye.

  18. Modelling Glacier Retreat after Ice Shelf Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rydt, J.; Gudmundsson, G. H.; Rott, H.; Bamber, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite measurements have shown the consistent and ongoing speed-up and retreat of glaciers that were once buttressed by the collapsed Larsen B ice shelf. Understanding the response of grounded ice to ice shelf collapse is a prerequisite to future predictions of sea level rise as other ice shelfs such as Scar Inlet or the Larsen Ice Shelf further weaken due to changing atmospheric and ocean conditions.We present model results for a number of sensitivity experiments that aim to simulate the response of glaciers to the collapse of Larsen B. For this purpose we use a state of the art shallow shelf model with grounding line resolving capabilities. The model is initialized to observed pre-2002 conditions with the ice shelf in place, and transient runs are done that study the response to a weakening and removal of the ice shelf. Results are compared to a novel dataset of observed ice velocities, which provides the most comprehensive overview of dynamical changes after the collapse to-date. In addition, we investigate glacier response to the future collapse of Scar Inlet, a remnant of the Larsen B ice shelf which has been suggested to show signs of weakening in recent years. Results will also be used to inform a future Antartic Peninsula-wide modelling study.

  19. Dielectric Signatures of Annealing in Glacier Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, R. E.; Stillman, D. E.; MacGregor, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed the dielectric spectra of 49 firn and ice samples from ice sheets and glaciers to better understand how differing ice formation and evolution affect electrical properties. The dielectric relaxation of ice is well known and its characteristic frequency increases with the concentration of soluble impurities in the ice lattice. We found that meteoric ice and firn generally possess two such relaxations, indicating distinct crystal populations or zonation. Typically, one population is consistent with that of relatively pure ice, and the other is significantly more impure. However, high temperatures (e.g., temperate ice), long residence times (e.g., ancient ice from Mullins Glacier, Antarctica), or anomalously high impurity concentrations favor the development of a single relaxation. These relationships suggest that annealing causes two dielectrically distinct populations to merge into one population. The dielectric response of temperate ice samples indicates increasing purity with increasing depth, suggesting final rejection of impurities from the lattice. Separately, subglacially frozen samples from the Vostok 5G ice core possess a single relaxation whose variable characteristic frequency likely reflects the composition of the source water. Multi-frequency electrical measurements on cores and in the field can track annealing of glacier ice.

  20. Pathways of Petermann Glacier meltwater, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuzé, Céline; Wåhlin, Anna; Johnson, Helen; Münchow, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Radar and satellite observations suggest that the floating ice shelf of Petermann Glacier loses up to 80% of its mass through basal melting, caused by the intrusion of warm Atlantic Water into the fjord and under the ice shelf. The fate of Petermann's glacial meltwater is still largely unknown. It is investigated here, using hydrographic observations collected during a research cruise on board I/B Oden in August 2015. Two methods are used to detect the meltwater from Petermann: a mathematical one that provides the concentration of ice shelf meltwater, and a geometrical one to distinguish the meltwater from Petermann and the meltwater from other ice shelves. The meltwater from Petermann mostly circulates on the north side of the fjord. At the sill, 0.5 mSv of meltwater leave the fjord, mostly on the northeastern side between 100 and 350 m depth, but also in the central channel, albeit with a lesser concentration. Meltwater from Petermann is found in all the casts in Hall Basin, notably north of the sill by Greenland coast. The geometrical method reveals that the casts closest to the Canadian side mostly contain meltwater from other, unidentified glaciers. As Atlantic Water warms up, it is key to monitor Greenland melting glaciers and track their meltwater to properly assess their impact on the ocean circulation and sea level rise.

  1. Columbia Glacier stake location, mass balance, glacier surface altitude, and ice radar data, 1978 measurement year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, L.R.; Trabant, D.C.; March, Rod; Haeberli, Wilfried

    1979-01-01

    A 1 year data-collection program on Columbia Glacier, Alaska has produced a data set consisting of near-surface ice kinematics, mass balance, and altitude change at 57 points and 34 ice radar soundings. These data presented in two tables, are part of the basic data required for glacier dynamic analysis, computer models, and predictions of the number and size of icebergs which Columbia Glacier will calve into shipping lanes of eastern Prince William Sound. A metric, sea-level coordinate system was developed for use in surveying throughout the basin. Its use is explained and monument coordinates listed. A series of seven integrated programs for calculators were used in both the field and office to reduce the surveying data. These programs are thoroughly documented and explained in the report. (Kosco-USGS)

  2. Passive microwave (SSM/I) satellite predictions of valley glacier hydrology, Matanuska Glacier, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kopczynski, S.E.; Ramage, J.; Lawson, D.; Goetz, S.; Evenson, E.; Denner, J.; Larson, G.

    2008-01-01

    We advance an approach to use satellite passive microwave observations to track valley glacier snowmelt and predict timing of spring snowmelt-induced floods at the terminus. Using 37 V GHz brightness temperatures (Tb) from the Special Sensor Microwave hnager (SSM/I), we monitor snowmelt onset when both Tb and the difference between the ascending and descending overpasses exceed fixed thresholds established for Matanuska Glacier. Melt is confirmed by ground-measured air temperature and snow-wetness, while glacier hydrologic responses are monitored by a stream gauge, suspended-sediment sensors and terminus ice velocity measurements. Accumulation area snowmelt timing is correlated (R2 = 0.61) to timing of the annual snowmelt flood peak and can be predicted within ??5 days. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Serologic surveillance of pathogens in a declining harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) population in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, USA and a reference site.

    PubMed

    Hueffer, Karsten; Holcomb, Darce; Ballweber, Lora R; Gende, Scott M; Blundell, Gail; O'Hara, Todd M

    2011-10-01

    The harbor seal population in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, has declined by over 70% since 1992. The reasons for this decline are not known. We examined serum antibodies and feces for evidence of exposure to multiple pathogens in this population. We also studied harbor seals from a reference site on Kodiak Island. In 2007, we found antibodies against Leptospira spp. in 31% of specimens from harbor seals in Glacier Bay, but no detectable serum antibodies in samples from Kodiak. In 2008, no samples had detectable antibodies against Leptospira spp. No serum antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, morbilliviruses, or presence of Cryptosporidium in fecal samples were detected. However, Giardia was found in 6% of the fecal samples from Glacier Bay. Our results indicate that the harbor seal population in Glacier Bay National Park could be immunologically naïve to distemper viruses and therefore vulnerable to these pathogens. Given the relatively low prevalence of antibodies and low titers, pathogens likely are not the reason for the harbor seal decline in Glacier Bay. PMID:22102671

  4. Ice loss and sea level rise contribution from Alaskan glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, E.; Schiefer, E.; Clarke, G. K.; Menounos, B.; Rémy, F.; Cazenave, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Over the last 50 years, retreating glaciers and ice caps (GIC) contributed 0.5 mm/yr to SLR, and one third is believed to originate from ice masses bordering the Gulf of Alaska. However, these estimates of ice wastage in Alaska are based on methods that directly measure mass changes from a limited number of glaciers and extrapolate the results to estimate ice loss for the many thousands of others. Here, using a new glacier inventory with elevation changes derived from sequential digital elevation models (DEMs), we found that, between 1962 and 2006, Alaskan glaciers lost 41.9 ± 8.6 km**3/yr water equivalent (w.e.) and contributed 0.12 ± 0.02 mm/yr to SLR. Our ice loss is 34% lower than previous estimates. Reasons for our lower values include the higher spatial resolution of the glacier inventory used in our study and the complex pattern of ice elevation changes at the scale of individual glaciers and mountain ranges which was not resolved in earlier work. Our ice elevation changes reveal that glacier dynamics (surges, phase of the tidewater cycle, etc...) have a profound effect on the wastage of Alaska glaciers. 3D satellite view of Columbia glacier, Chugach Mountains, Alaska. (Copyright CNES 2007, Distribution Spot Image, processing E. Berthier CNRS)

  5. Climatic Significance of Holocene Glacier Fluctuations in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, A. M.; Mackintosh, A. N.; Anderson, B. A.; Putnam, A. E.; Barrell, D.; Denton, G.; Schaefer, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Holocene glacier fluctuations in New Zealand are represented by well-preserved moraine complexes in the Southern Alps. Recent cosmogenic dating of Holocene moraine sequences has allowed for interhemispheric comparisons of glacier advances and hence climate change. However, Balco (2009, Science, v 324, p 599-600) and others have asked "Can the timing and magnitude of observed past glacier changes in a particular region be explained by stochastic variability inherent in a steady climate, or is a change in the mean climate required?" To understand better the link between glaciers and climate during the Holocene, we evaluate possible past climate parameters by simulating ice extent at several well-preserved moraines deposited by the Cameron Glacier in the Arrowsmith Range, Southern Alps, New Zealand. We use a coupled 2-D ice-flow and distributed energy balance model with a snow transport component, the latter of which is necessary because, in its present-day configuration, this glacier receives a component of its accumulation from frequent snow avalanches. In our first experiment, we use steady-state simulations to identify the temperature and precipitation forcing required to fit the modelled Cameron Glacier to each of the geomorphically-defined moraine ridges. In our second experiment, we forced the glacier model with a time series of stochastic climate forcing that excludes a background temperature change. We discuss results of these tests, which permit assessment of the sensitivity and response of the Cameron Glacier to different modes of climate variability.

  6. Little Ice Age glaciers in the Mediterranean mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Only a few small glaciers survive today in the Mountains of the Mediterranean. Notable examples are found in the Pyrenees, Maritime Alps, Italian Apennines, the Dinaric and Albanian Alps and the mountains of Turkey. Many glaciers disappeared during the 20th Century. Glaciers were much larger and more numerous during the Little Ice Age (Hughes, 2014). Small glaciers even existed as far south as the High Atlas of Morocco and the Sierra Nevada of southern Spain. In more northerly areas, such as the western Balkans, glaciers and permanent snow patches occupied hundreds of cirques on relatively low-lying mountains. In the High Atlas and the Sierra Nevada no glaciers exist today, whilst in the Balkans only a few modern glaciers have been reported. A similar situation is apparent throughout the mountains of the Mediterranean region. New evidence for glacier change since the Little Ice Age will be published soon in Hughes (2014) and this paper reviews the extent, timing and climatic significance of Little Ice Age glaciation in the Mediterranean region. Reference: Hughes, P.D. (2014) Little Ice Age glaciers in the Mediterranean mountains. In: Carozza, J.-M., Devillers, B., Morhange, C. (eds) Little Ice Age in the Mediterranean, Méditerranée, volume 123.

  7. Effect of fjord geometry on tidewater glacier stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åkesson, Henning; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Nick, Faezeh M.

    2016-04-01

    Many marine-terminating glaciers have thinned, accelerated and retreated during the last two decades, broadly consistent with warmer atmospheric and oceanic conditions. However, these patterns involve considerable spatial and temporal variability, with diverse glacier behavior within the same regions. Similarly, reconstructions of marine-terminating glaciers indicate highly asynchronous retreat histories. While it is well known that retrograde slopes can cause marine ice sheet instabilities, the effect of lateral drag and fjord width has received less attention. Here, we test the hypothesis that marine outlet glacier stability is largely controlled by fjord width, and to a less extent by regional climate forcing. We employ a dynamic flowline model on idealized glacier geometries (representative of different outlet glaciers) to investigate geometric controls on decadal and longer times scales. The model accounts for driving and resistive stresses of glacier flow as well as along-flow stress transfer. It has a physical treatment of iceberg calving and a time-adaptive grid allowing for continuous tracking of grounding-line migration. We apply changes in atmospheric and oceanic forcing and show how wide and narrow fjord sections foster glacier (in)stabilities. We also evaluate the effect of including a surface mass balance - elevation feedback in such a setting. Finally, the relevance of these results to past and future marine-terminating glacier stability is discussed.

  8. Siberian Islands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia     View Larger Image ... clouds from snow and ice. The central portion of Russia's East Siberian Sea, including one of the New Siberian Islands, Novaya ...

  9. How important are glaciers for Indus water resources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorteberg, A.

    2013-12-01

    How important are glaciers for Indus water resources? Looking into the literature reveals a wide range of estimates to this question. They partly diverge because of different definitions of a 'water resource' and partly due to the different estimates of the contribution from the glaciers. Defining the Indus water resources as precipitation (rain and snowfall) minus the loss of water due to evapotranspiration and sublimation for non-glaciated regions and the total runoff from the glaciated regions (sum of seasonal snowmelt on top of the glacier, percolating rainfall and loss of glacier ice), we have attempted to estimate the fraction of the total water resource that is coming from the glaciated regions and the fraction due to loss of glacier ice alone (which is the part that may be lost if a glacier disappears). Here we present estimates of water resources from non-glaciated regions using a wide range of estimates from observationally based, reanalysis and land data assimilation systems. Our results indicate large differences between the different estimates even for the annual values averaged over the whole basin. The implication of this finding is that the large uncertainties in the water resources of the non-glaciated regions will prevent us from making narrow estimates of the importance of the glaciers. For estimating the contribution from the glaciers we use an energy balance model with snow metamorphosis forced with 3 hourly reanalysis data (including perturbed precipitation and temperature runs based on the uncertainties in temperature and precipitation found from 10 different datasets). As there is over 10 000 glaciers in Indus it is not possible to model individual glaciers. Instead we model ';representative' glaciers where we get the average elevation of terminus and top, avg. glacier depth etc. from the Extended World Glacier Inventory in a given sub basin (using the FAO HydroSHEDS dataset to divide the Indus basin into subbasins). The mass balance and

  10. Dynamics of glacier calving at the ungrounded margin of Helheim Glacier, southeast Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Selmes, Nick; James, Timothy D.; Edwards, Stuart; Martin, Ian; O'Farrell, Timothy; Aspey, Robin; Rutt, Ian; Nettles, Meredith; Baugé, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During summer 2013 we installed a network of 19 GPS nodes at the ungrounded margin of Helheim Glacier in southeast Greenland together with three cameras to study iceberg calving mechanisms. The network collected data at rates up to every 7 s and was designed to be robust to loss of nodes as the glacier calved. Data collection covered 55 days, and many nodes survived in locations right at the glacier front to the time of iceberg calving. The observations included a number of significant calving events, and as a consequence the glacier retreated ~1.5 km. The data provide real‐time, high‐frequency observations in unprecedented proximity to the calving front. The glacier calved by a process of buoyancy‐force‐induced crevassing in which the ice downglacier of flexion zones rotates upward because it is out of buoyant equilibrium. Calving then occurs back to the flexion zone. This calving process provides a compelling and complete explanation for the data. Tracking of oblique camera images allows identification and characterisation of the flexion zones and their propagation downglacier. Interpretation of the GPS data and camera data in combination allows us to place constraints on the height of the basal cavity that forms beneath the rotating ice downglacier of the flexion zone before calving. The flexion zones are probably formed by the exploitation of basal crevasses, and theoretical considerations suggest that their propagation is strongly enhanced when the glacier base is deeper than buoyant equilibrium. Thus, this calving mechanism is likely to dominate whenever such geometry occurs and is of increasing importance in Greenland. PMID:27570721

  11. Observations of Dynamic Changes at an Advancing Tidewater Glacier: Hubbard Glacier, Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J.; Stearns, L. A.; Pritchard, M. E.; Bartholomaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    Hubbard Glacier, located in southeast Alaska, is the largest non-polar tidewater glacier in the world and one of a small number of glaciers that is steadily advancing. These attributes make it an intriguing target for observations of variations in ice dynamics over time. We use synthetic aperture radar data (ALOS and TerraSAR-X) and high-resolution optical imagery (WorldView and Quickbird) with a pixel tracking technique to map surface velocities from 2008 to the present, lengthening and broadening the time series of ice velocities presented in previous studies. A key result from our analysis is that Hubbard displays peak speeds of up to 12 m/day during the winter months (December - February) and minimum speeds during late summer (August - September). The times of peak and minimum speeds is quite different from those found in previous studies of Hubbard surface velocities derived from Landsat imagery, GPS, and photogrammetric methods. Those studies found peak speeds during late spring (May - June) and minimum speeds in fall (October-November), a pattern observed generally at tidewater glaciers. A second major feature we observe in our time series is the dramatic seasonal variation in surface speeds. The minimum speeds we find along the terminal lobe of the glacier are much lower than those found in previous studies, with values decreasing to near zero. Such a dramatic slow down of a tidewater glacier has not been widely observed. This result, along with the recent pattern of seasonal velocity peaks and minimas, suggests that Hubbard has undergone a change in ice dynamics.

  12. Dynamics of glacier calving at the ungrounded margin of Helheim Glacier, southeast Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Tavi; Selmes, Nick; James, Timothy D.; Edwards, Stuart; Martin, Ian; O'Farrell, Timothy; Aspey, Robin; Rutt, Ian; Nettles, Meredith; Baugé, Tim

    2015-06-01

    During summer 2013 we installed a network of 19 GPS nodes at the ungrounded margin of Helheim Glacier in southeast Greenland together with three cameras to study iceberg calving mechanisms. The network collected data at rates up to every 7 s and was designed to be robust to loss of nodes as the glacier calved. Data collection covered 55 days, and many nodes survived in locations right at the glacier front to the time of iceberg calving. The observations included a number of significant calving events, and as a consequence the glacier retreated ~1.5 km. The data provide real-time, high-frequency observations in unprecedented proximity to the calving front. The glacier calved by a process of buoyancy-force-induced crevassing in which the ice downglacier of flexion zones rotates upward because it is out of buoyant equilibrium. Calving then occurs back to the flexion zone. This calving process provides a compelling and complete explanation for the data. Tracking of oblique camera images allows identification and characterisation of the flexion zones and their propagation downglacier. Interpretation of the GPS data and camera data in combination allows us to place constraints on the height of the basal cavity that forms beneath the rotating ice downglacier of the flexion zone before calving. The flexion zones are probably formed by the exploitation of basal crevasses, and theoretical considerations suggest that their propagation is strongly enhanced when the glacier base is deeper than buoyant equilibrium. Thus, this calving mechanism is likely to dominate whenever such geometry occurs and is of increasing importance in Greenland.

  13. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  14. Dust transport from glacierized rivers of southern Alaska to the Gulf of Alaska: Interannual variability in magnitude and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crusius, J.; Schroth, A. W.; Campbell, R. W.; Resing, J.; Gasso, S.

    2014-12-01

    Dust from high latitudes is underappreciated and little studied. We recently identified new sites of dust formation, and a new dust generation mechanism, from the southern AK coastline, in Crusius et al, 2011. Dust is generated each autumn from glacierized river valleys as river levels and discharge decrease following summer peak glacier melt. The most prominent such river is the Copper River, the single largest freshwater source to the Gulf of Alaska. Each autumn the exposed river floodplains contain abundant, fine glacial flour and represent a large dust source region, prior to significant snowfall. Strong katabatic winds channeled down mountain river valleys generate dust from the fine glacial flour, which is transported as much as several hundred kilometers into the ocean. This dust is an important source of Fe to the Gulf of Alaska, where phytoplankton growth is limited by available Fe (a micronutrient). Glaciers are rapidly losing mass in this region, so there is an increasing supply of fine glacial flour during the summer melt season, and possibly increased deposition of fine glacial flour in the dust source regions. We initiated continuous, year-round time-series measurements of dust concentration, and its geochemical composition, in August of 2011 on Middleton Island, AK, which lies in the path of the dust plume extending from the Copper River valley. Dust is clearly generated from other glacierized river valleys along the southern coast of AK, as well. We will discuss results from our continuous record spanning three dust seasons, which prominently shows these events each autumn, and displays substantial interannual variability. Dust appears to remain in the boundary layer, but is transported hundreds of kilometers into the ocean, into Fe-limited waters. It is also possible that some of this dust is redeposited on snow or glacier surfaces, enhancing melting. This dust source is not accounted for in typical global dust models.

  15. Detecting glacier-bed overdeepenings for glaciers in the Western Italian Alps using the GlabTop2 model: the test site of the Rutor Glacier, Aosta Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viani, Cristina; Machguth, Horst; Huggel, Christian; Perotti, Luigi; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    It is expected that the rapid retreat of glaciers, observed in the European Alps and other mountain regions of the world, will continue in the future. One of the most evident and relevant consequences of this phenomenon is the formation of new glacier lakes in recently deglaciated areas. During glacier retreat overdeepened parts of the glacier bed become exposed and, in some cases, filled with water. It is important to understand where these new lakes can appear because of the associated potential risks (i.e. lake outburst and consequent flood) and opportunities (tourism, hydroelectricity, water reservoir, etc.) especially in densely populated areas such as the European Alps. GlabTop2 (Glacier Bed Topography model version 2) allows to model glacier bed topography over large glaciated areas combining digital terrain information and slope-related estimates of glacier thickness. The model requires a minimum set of input data: glaciers outlines and a surface digital elevation model (DEM). In this work we tested the model on the Rutor Glacier (8,1 km2) located in the Aosta Valley. The glacier has a well-known history of a series of glacier lake outburst floods between 1430 AD and 1864 AD due to front fluctuations. After the last advance occurred during the 70s of the previous century, glacier shrinkage has been continuous and new lakes have formed in newly exposed overdeepenings. We applied GlabTop2 to DEMs derived from historical data (topographic maps and aerial photos pair) representing conditions before the proglacial lake formation. The results obtained have been compared with the present situation and existing lakes. Successively we used the model also on present-day DEMs, which are of higher resolution than the historical derived ones, and compared the modeled bed topography with an existing bedrock map obtained by in-situ geophysical investigations (GPR surveys). Preliminary results, obtained with the 1991 surface model, confirm the robustness of GlabTop2 in

  16. Multiple Object Tracking Using the Shortest Path Faster Association Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Heping; Liu, Huaping; Yang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    To solve the persistently multiple object tracking in cluttered environments, this paper presents a novel tracking association approach based on the shortest path faster algorithm. First, the multiple object tracking is formulated as an integer programming problem of the flow network. Then we relax the integer programming to a standard linear programming problem. Therefore, the global optimum can be quickly obtained using the shortest path faster algorithm. The proposed method avoids the difficulties of integer programming, and it has a lower worst-case complexity than competing methods but better robustness and tracking accuracy in complex environments. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm takes less time than other state-of-the-art methods and can operate in real time. PMID:25215322

  17. Faster Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullender, Craig C.; Johnson, Daniel D.; Walker, Daniel D.

    1993-01-01

    Current-measuring circuit operates on Hall-effect-sensing and magnetic-field-nulling principles similar to those described in article, "Nulling Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit" (LEW-15023), but simpler and responds faster. Designed without feedback loop, and analog pulse-width-modulated output indicates measured current. Circuit measures current at frequency higher than bandwidth of its Hall-effect sensor.

  18. Boundary conditions on faster-than-light transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Knowles, H. B.

    1993-01-01

    In order to be consistent with current physical theories, any proposal of a faster-than light (FTL) transportation system must satisfy several critical conditions. It must predict the mass, space, and time dimensional changes predicted by relativity physics when velocity falls below the speed of light. It must also not violate causality, and remain consistent with quantum physics in the limit of microscopic systems. It is also essential that the proposal conserve energy.

  19. Faster P300 Classifier Training Using Spatiotemporal Beamforming.

    PubMed

    Wittevrongel, Benjamin; Van Hulle, Marc M

    2016-05-01

    The linearly-constrained minimum-variance (LCMV) beamformer is traditionally used as a spatial filter for source localization, but here we consider its spatiotemporal extension for P300 classification. We compare two variants and show that the spatiotemporal LCMV beamformer is at par with state-of-the-art P300 classifiers, but several orders of magnitude faster in training the classifier. PMID:26971787

  20. Imaging Evidence for Hubbard Glacier Advances and Retreats since the Last Glacial Maximum in Disenchantment and Yakutat Bays, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbuchen, J.; Gulick, S. P.; Levoir, M. A.; Goff, J. A.; Haeussler, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    As glaciers advance and retreat, they leave erosional surfaces, retreat sequences, morainal banks, and terminal moraines. These features can be imaged and interpreted in seismic reflection data to gain insight into ice routing, ice-sediment processes, and preserved glacial history. High-resolution 2-D multichannel seismic data gathered on the August 2012 UTIG-USGS National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program survey of Disenchantment and Yakutat Bays have provided understanding of the advance pathways of the Hubbard Glacier and the glacial history of the bays. These data show evidence of three unconformities appearing in the form of channels and interpreted to be glacial advance and retreat paths. The youngest observable channel in Disenchantment Bay is ~2 km wide, forming morainal banks along the edges of the bay. The depth below modern sea level in two-way travel time (twtt) shallows from 510 ms in the middle of the bay to 400 ms ~4 km north of the entrance to Yakutat Bay. The sediment contained within the youngest channel measured from the seafloor thins southward from a twtt thickness of 260 ms to 115 ms. Beneath the youngest channel lies an older, 2.2 km-wide channel which is observed at ~580 ms below sea level, and is filled with sediments ranging in thickness from 480 ms to 180 ms at the terminus. This older channel extends from Disenchantment Bay into Yakutat Bay, staying to the northeast of Yakutat Bay, then turns southward at Knight Island and shallows to 450 ms twtt before forming a terminal moraine ~10 km north of the mouth of Yakutat Bay. Evidence for the third and oldest unconformity can only be seen within a very small number of short seismic lines in Disenchantment Bay. It is the largest of the channels, at ~3 km wide and 720 ms below modern sea level. The evidence of three nested unconformities suggests that the Hubbard Glacier has had at least three major advances in recent history. Radiocarbon dating of wooden branches in moraine deposits

  1. Why does hydronium diffuse faster than hydroxide in liquid water?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lixin; Santra, Biswajit; Distasio, Robert; Klein, Michael; Car, Roberto; Wu, Xifan

    Experiments show that the hydronium ion (H3O+) diffuses much faster than the hydroxide ion (OH-) in liquid water. ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations correctly associated the diffusion mechanism to proton transfer (PT) but have been unable so far to clearly identify the reason for the faster diffusion of hydronium compared to hydroxide, as the diffusion rate was found to depend sensitively on the adopted functional approximation. We carried out AIMD simulations of the solvated water ions using a van der Waals (vdW) inclusive PBE0 hybrid density functional. It is found that not only hydronium diffuses faster than hydroxide but also the absolute rates agree with experiment. The fast diffusion of H3O+ occurs via concerted PT that enables the ion to jump across several H-bonded molecules in successful transfer events; in contrast, such concerted motion is significantly hindered in OH- where the ion is easily trapped in a hyper-coordination configuration (a local solvation structure that forbids PT). As a result multiple PT events are rare and the diffusion of OH- is significantly slowed down. Such a clear difference between the two ions results from the combined effect of vdW interactions and self-interaction correction. Doe SciDac: DE-SC0008626 and DE-SC0008726.

  2. The faster-X effect: integrating theory and data.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Richard P; Connallon, Tim

    2013-09-01

    Population genetics theory predicts that X (or Z) chromosomes could play disproportionate roles in speciation and evolutionary divergence, and recent genome-wide analyses have identified situations in which X or Z-linked divergence exceeds that on the autosomes (the so-called 'faster-X effect'). Here, we summarize the current state of both the theory and data surrounding the study of faster-X evolution. Our survey indicates that the faster-X effect is pervasive across a taxonomically diverse array of evolutionary lineages. These patterns could be informative of the dominance or recessivity of beneficial mutations and the nature of genetic variation acted upon by natural selection. We also identify several aspects of disagreement between these empirical results and the population genetic models used to interpret them. However, there are clearly delineated aspects of the problem for which additional modeling and collection of genomic data will address these discrepancies and provide novel insights into the population genetics of adaptation. PMID:23790324

  3. Evolution of Glacier Snowline Since the End of the Last Ice Age in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, M. R.; Putnam, A. E.; Schaefer, J. M.; Denton, G. H.; Chinn, T. J.; Barrell, D.; Doughty, A. M.; Mackintosh, A. N.; Andersen, B. G.

    2012-12-01

    An important problem in paleoclimatology is how Southern Hemisphere climate changed since the end of the last ice age. The terrestrial glacier record reflects past snowline (=equilibrium line altitude) variability and is one of the few direct proxies available, in the middle latitudes, of former atmospheric properties. We reconstruct changes in snowline since ~15 ka on the South Island of New Zealand using geomorphologic mapping, 10Be surface-exposure dating, accumulation-area ratio (AAR) methods and numerical modeling. The snowline data are a proxy for the 0°C atmospheric isotherm, which occurs above 1500 m asl in the central Southern Alps, and trends in temperature since ~15 ka. Our findings show that snowline was depressed during the Antarctic Cold Reversal. Subsequently, snowline rose ~100 m during the Younger Dryas stadial in Europe. These late glacial changes appear coherent across the southern middle latitudes. In the early Holocene, snowline was depressed >200 m relative to modern in the Southern Alps. Between 11 ka and 600 years ago, short-term oscillations punctuated a multi-millennia trend of decreasing glacier extent as snowline rose ~100 m. Since ~600 yrs ago, net snowline has continued progressively to rise. The record implies long-term warming in New Zealand since the Late Glacial period. During the Holocene, the lowest snowlines and most extensive glaciers occurred in the early part of the epoch. Snowline reconstruction and numerical modeling allow us to estimate that temperature depression during the Late Glacial was ~2.1±0.4°C (relative to modern) and increased about 0.6 to 1°C between the early and late Holocene. Our terrestrial glacier and snowline records show coherence and also they are consistent with marine records in the Australian sector, documenting a regional climate pattern. However, the climate of the southwest Pacific region was fundamentally different from that observed in the Northern Hemisphere, where the most extensive

  4. Extending Glacier Monitoring into the Little Ice Age and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, S. U.; Gärtner-Roer, I.; Zemp, M.; Zumbühl, H. J.; Masiokas, M. H.; Espizua, L. E.; Pitte, P.

    2011-12-01

    Glaciers are among the best natural proxies of climatic changes and, as such, a key variable within the international climate observing system. The worldwide monitoring of glacier distribution and fluctuations has been internationally coordinated for more than a century. Direct measurements of seasonal and annual glacier mass balance are available for the past six decades. Regular observations of glacier front variations have been carried out since the late 19th century. Information on glacier fluctuations before the onset of regular in situ measurements have to be reconstructed from moraines, historical evidence, and a wide range of dating methods. The majority of corresponding data is not available to the scientific community which challenges the reproducibility and direct comparison of the results. Here, we present a first approach towards the standardization of reconstructed Holocene glacier front variations as well as the integration of the corresponding data series into the database of the World Glacier Monitoring Service (www.wgms.ch), within the framework of the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (www.gtn-g.org). The concept for the integration of these reconstructed front variations into the relational glacier database of the WGMS was jointly elaborated and tested by experts of both fields (natural and historical sciences), based on reconstruction series of 15 glaciers in Europe (western/central Alps and southern Norway) and 9 in southern South America. The reconstructed front variation series extend the direct measurements of the 20th century by two centuries in Norway and by four in the Alps and in South America. The storage of the records within the international glacier databases guarantees the long-term availability of the data series and increases the visibility of the scientific research which - in historical glaciology - is often the work of a lifetime. The standardized collection of reconstructed glacier front variations from southern Norway

  5. Climate Change and Glacier Retreat: Scientific Fact and Artistic Opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagre, D. B.

    2008-12-01

    Mountain glaciers continue to retreat rapidly over most of the globe. In North America, at Glacier National Park, Montana, recent research results from Sperry Glacier (2005-2007) indicate negative mass balances are now 3-4 times greater than in the 1950s. A geospatial model of glacier retreat in the Blackfoot-Jackson basin suggested all glaciers would be gone by 2030 but has proved too conservative. Accelerated glacier shrinkage since the model was developed has mirrored an increase in actual annual temperature that is almost twice the rate used in the model. The glaciers in Glacier National Park are likely to be gone well before 2030. A variety of media, curricula, and educational strategies have been employed to communicate the disappearance of the glaciers as a consequence of global warming. These have included everything from print media and television coverage to podcasts and wayside exhibits along roads in the park. However, a new thrust is to partner with artists to communicate climate change issues to new audiences and through different channels. A scientist-artist retreat was convened to explore the tension between keeping artistic products grounded in factually-based reality while providing for freedom to express artistic creativity. Individual artists and scientists have worked to create aesthetic and emotional images, using painting, poetry, music and photography, to convey core messages from research on mountain ecosystems. Finally, a traveling art exhibit was developed to highlight the photography that systematically documents glacier change through time. The aim was to select photographs that provide the most compelling visual experience for an art-oriented viewer and also accurately reflect the research on glacier retreat. The exhibit opens on January 11, 2009

  6. Melting beneath Greenland outlet glaciers and ice streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, David; Perrette, Mahé; Beckmann, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    Basal melting of fast-flowing Greenland outlet glaciers and ice streams due to frictional heating at the ice-bed interface contributes significantly to total glacier mass balance and subglacial meltwater flux, yet modelling this basal melt process in Greenland has received minimal research attention. A one-dimensional dynamic ice-flow model is calibrated to the present day longitudinal profiles of 10 major Greenland outlet glaciers and ice streams (including the Jakobshavn Isbrae, Petermann Glacier and Helheim Glacier) and is validated against published ice flow and surface elevation measurements. Along each longitudinal profile, basal melt is calculated as a function of ice flow velocity and basal shear stress. The basal shear stress is dependent on the effective pressure (difference between ice overburden pressure and water pressure), basal roughness and a sliding parametrization. Model output indicates that where outlet glaciers and ice streams terminate into the ocean with either a small floating ice tongue or no floating tongue whatsoever, the proportion of basal melt to total melt (surface, basal and submarine melt) is 5-10% (e.g. Jakobshavn Isbrae; Daugaard-Jensen Glacier). This proportion is, however, negligible where larger ice tongues lose mass mostly by submarine melt (~1%; e.g. Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier). Modelled basal melt is highest immediately upvalley of the grounding line, with contributions typically up to 20-40% of the total melt for slippery beds and up to 30-70% for resistant beds. Additionally, modelled grounding line and calving front migration inland for all outlet glaciers and ice streams of hundreds of metres to several kilometres occurs. Including basal melt due to frictional heating in outlet glacier and ice stream models is important for more accurately modelling mass balance and subglacial meltwater flux, and therefore, more accurately modelling outlet glacier and ice stream dynamics and responses to future climate change.

  7. Patterns of Glacier Change in the American West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountain, A. G.; Basagic, H. J.; Hoffman, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    We examine a century of glacier area change in the American West, exclusive of Alaska, using historic photography, historic maps, and recent aerial photos. Of the approximately 3200 glaciers and permanent snow masses, we track about 400 glaciers across a region that spans from Washington to California and Colorado to Montana. All glaciers have retreated since 1900 with the greatest change in Montana (Lewis Range) and the Sierra Nevada of California, and the least change in Washington including the North Cascades and the Olympic Peninsula. The pattern since 1970s is more complex, with the majority of glaciers having retreated since the 1970s, some vastly more than others. The glaciers that exhibit relatively little retreat are largely restricted to the high stratovolcanoes >3500m in elevation. In these cases we infer elevated snow accumulation at higher elevations compensates for increased ablation (melt) at lower elevations. In addition, many of the most stable glaciers are debris covered in their lower elevations, due to rock fall from the relatively weak volcanic edifice. Small glaciers, <1 km2, show great variability in their behavior, with a few glaciers at equilibrium or slightly advancing, to the majority retreating, with some losing 67% of their area. These differences are more difficult to explain. We infer that local climatic/topographic influences play a dominant role in the magnitude of change while regional climate patterns control the sign of the change. Temporal patterns of glacier change are very similar across broad regions while the magnitude of that change is particular to individual glaciers.

  8. Evaluating different methods for glacier mass balance interpolation on a tropical glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölg, Nico; Ceballos, Jorge Luis

    2016-04-01

    Glaciers in the inner tropics receive precipitation throughout the year while the annual temperature amplitude is small. Therefore, a seasonal distinction in accumulation and ablation season as for mid-latitude glaciers is hardly applicable. In order to better understand the sub-annual glacier development and its relation to meteorological conditions, a mass balance programme with monthly resolution was established on Conejeras Glacier in the Cordillera Central in Colombia in 2006. After almost ten years of measurements the time series has been reanalysed. The results show a mass balance of around -25 m w.e. during this period and a strong correlation to several warm and cold phases of ENSO. Reanalysis of the monthly mass balance data reveal an often low correlation between ablation/accumulation and elevation. Quality and density of the measurement network allow for the application of several different interpolation methods, recommended ones as well as "outlawed" GIS methods like Kriging. In this study we show the advantages and disadvantages of a number of possibilities and try to rank their usability according to different conditions and purposes. The application of multiple methods can also be of advantage for the estimation of uncertainty ranges.

  9. A century of glacier change in the American West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountain, A. G.

    2007-12-01

    Over the past 100 years glaciers in the American West (exclusive of Alaska) have largely receded. The magnitude of the recession varies across the west, with the greatest loss in Montana and California (>50% area loss) and the least loss on the stratovolcanoes (>35%) of the Pacific Northwest. The variations can be broadly characterized by elevation. Our results suggest that increased mass loss caused by increased summer temperatures affect all glaciers, whereas increasing winter temperatures, that change the phase of precipitation from snow to rain adversely affect those glaciers less than 3000m in elevation. The high glaciers (>3000m) of California and Colorado appear to be immune to variations in snowfall making them sensitive to variations in temperature alone. We infer that these very small, steep glaciers can only hold a given amount of snow beyond which extra snow avalanches or is blown off. Conversely, during winters of little direct snowfall, additional snow may be added through win drift from the surrounding terrain. The relatively little glacier shrinkage on the stratovolcanoes is due to the high altitude of the glacier accumulation zones. An east to west decrease in glacier shrinkage from Montana through Washington is due to enhanced winter precipitation along the west coast that somewhat buffers ice loss due to summer temperatures and winter precipitation phase changes.

  10. The motion of Martian glaciers and volcanic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechowski, L.

    2015-10-01

    The role of density of the heat flow on the velocity of motion of Martian glaciers is investigated using numerical model. We find that for enhanced heat flow the motion could increase dramatically. Similar effect could be achieved by thick insulating thermally layer on the top of the glacier.

  11. Sensitivity and Response of Bhutanese Glaciers to Atmospheric Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupper, Summer; Schaefer, Joerg M.; Burgener, Landon K.; Koenig, Lora S.; Tsering, Karma; Cook, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Glacierized change in the Himalayas affects river-discharge, hydro-energy and agricultural production, and Glacial Lake Outburst Flood potential, but its quantification and extent of impacts remains highly uncertain. Here we present conservative, comprehensive and quantitative predictions for glacier area and meltwater flux changes in Bhutan, monsoonal Himalayas. In particular, we quantify the uncertainties associated with the glacier area and meltwater flux changes due to uncertainty in climate data, a critical problem for much of High Asia. Based on a suite of gridded climate data and a robust glacier melt model, our results show that glacier area and meltwater change projections can vary by an order of magnitude for different climate datasets. However, the most conservative results indicate that, even if climate were to remain at the present-day mean values, almost 10% of Bhutan s glacierized area would vanish and the meltwater flux would drop by as much as 30%. Under the conservative scenario of an additional 1 C regional warming, glacier retreat is going to continue until about 25% of Bhutan s glacierized area will have disappeared and the annual meltwater flux, after an initial spike, would drop by as much as 65%. Citation

  12. 36 CFR 7.3 - Glacier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Glacier National Park. 7.3 Section 7.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.3 Glacier National Park. (a) Fishing. (1) Fishing regulations, based on management...

  13. Over 400 previously undocumented Svalbard surge-type glaciers identified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, Wesley R.; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Retelle, Michael; Schomacker, Anders

    2016-07-01

    Identifying glaciers that exhibit surge-type behavior is important when using evidence of ice front fluctuations as a proxy for reconstructing past climate oscillations. This study identifies previously undocumented surge-type glaciers in Svalbard, based on the presence of crevasse squeeze ridges in glacier forelands. Crevasse squeeze ridges are landforms suggested to be unique to surging glacier land systems. Estimates vary greatly as to the actual percentage of surge-type glaciers in Svalbard, and consequently their distribution pattern is poorly understood. A detailed survey of recent (2008-2012), high-resolution aerial imagery from TopoSvalbard, provided by the Norwegian Polar Institute, allowed for a survey of all the glacier forelands in Svalbard. Before our study, 277 individual glaciers in Svalbard have been documented to exhibit surge behavior. By using crevasse squeeze ridges as indicators of surge behavior, we have identified 431 additional glaciers that have surged. We suggest that this is a modest value as the unique surge landforms were not visible in approximately one-third of the forelands with documented surge histories. Limits to the crevasse squeeze ridge technique are presented and potential controlling factors for crevasse squeeze ridge formation/preservation are discussed.

  14. Reanalysis of the USGS Alaskan benchmark glacier dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beusekom, A. E.; O'Neel, S.; March, R. S.; Sass, L. C.

    2010-12-01

    Resolving the relationship between glacier surface-forcing (climate) and glacier geometry changes is accomplished through mass-balance estimates which can be made with remote sensing methods or field-based observations. The small scale of Alaskan glaciers has prevented remote sensing methods until recently, and field data are essential for validating new techniques. Field data provide the only long duration record that can be studied with respect to climate. The United States Geological Survey has maintained a 44-year mass-balance program at Alaska’s Gulkana Glacier and Wolverine Glacier. We have reanalyzed the Alaskan benchmark glaciers mass balance time series so that all data are treated similarly and systematically. Both glaciers are undergoing sustained mass loss with an increasing rate in recent years. However, the magnitude of the calculated loss depends on the number and location of the data collection sites. We explore the sensitivity of the glacier-wide balance estimates to the method of integration used on the necessarily point data. The robustness of the balance is strengthened with use of independent photogrammetric measurements.

  15. The length of the world's glaciers - a new approach for the global calculation of center lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machguth, H.; Huss, M.

    2014-09-01

    Glacier length is an important measure of glacier geometry. Nevertheless, global glacier inventories are mostly lacking length data. Only recently semi-automated approaches to measure glacier length have been developed and applied regionally. Here we present a first global assessment of glacier length using an automated method that relies on glacier surface slope, distance to the glacier margins and a set of trade-off functions. The method is developed for East Greenland, evaluated for East Greenland as well as for Alaska and eventually applied to all ~ 200 000 glaciers around the globe. The evaluation highlights accurately calculated glacier length where digital elevation model (DEM) quality is high (East Greenland) and limited accuracy on low-quality DEMs (parts of Alaska). Measured length of very small glaciers is subject to a certain level of ambiguity. The global calculation shows that only about 1.5% of all glaciers are longer than 10 km, with Bering Glacier (Alaska/Canada) being the longest glacier in the world at a length of 196 km. Based on the output of our algorithm we derive global and regional area-length scaling laws. Differences among regional scaling parameters appear to be related to characteristics of topography and glacier mass balance. The present study adds glacier length as a key parameter to global glacier inventories. Global and regional scaling laws might prove beneficial in conceptual glacier models.

  16. Microbial food web dynamics along a soil chronosequence of a glacier forefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esperschütz, J.; Pérez-de-Mora, A.; Schreiner, K.; Welzl, G.; Buegger, F.; Zeyer, J.; Hagedorn, F.; Munch, J. C.; Schloter, M.

    2011-02-01

    Microbial food webs are critical for efficient nutrient turnover providing the basis for functional and stable ecosystems. However, the successional development of such microbial food webs and their role in "young" ecosystems is unclear. Due to a continuous glacier retreat since the middle of the 19th century, glacier forefields have expanded offering an excellent opportunity to study food web development at differently developed soils. In the present study, litter degradation and the corresponding C fluxes into microbial communities were investigated along the forefield of the Damma glacier (Switzerland). 13C-enriched litter of the pioneering plant Leucanthemopsis alpina (L.) Heywood was incorporated into the soil at sites that have been free from ice for approximately 10, 60, 100 and more than 700 years. The structure and function of microbial communities were identified by 13C analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and phospholipid ether lipids (PLEL). Results showed increasing microbial diversity and biomass, and enhanced proliferation of bacterial groups as ecosystem development progressed. Initially, litter decomposition proceeded faster at the more developed sites, but at the end of the experiment loss of litter mass was similar at all sites, once the more easily-degradable litter fraction was processed. As a result incorporation of 13C into microbial biomass was more evident during the first weeks of litter decomposition. 13C enrichments of both PLEL and PUFA biomarkers following litter incorporation were observed at all sites, suggesting similar microbial foodwebs at all stages of soil development. Nonetheless, the contribution of bacteria and actinomycetes to litter turnover became more pronounced as soil age increased in detriment of archaea, fungi and protozoa, more prominent in recently deglaciated terrain.

  17. Microbial food web dynamics along a soil chronosequence of a glacier forefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esperschütz, J.; Pérez-de-Mora, A.; Schreiner, K.; Welzl, G.; Buegger, F.; Zeyer, J.; Hagedorn, F.; Munch, J. C.; Schloter, M.

    2011-11-01

    Microbial food webs are critical for efficient nutrient turnover providing the basis for functional and stable ecosystems. However, the successional development of such microbial food webs and their role in "young" ecosystems is unclear. Due to a continuous glacier retreat since the middle of the 19th century, glacier forefields have expanded offering an excellent opportunity to study food web dynamics in soils at different developmental stages. In the present study, litter degradation and the corresponding C fluxes into microbial communities were investigated along the forefield of the Damma glacier (Switzerland). 13C-enriched litter of the pioneering plant Leucanthemopsis alpina (L.) Heywood was incorporated into the soil at sites that have been free from ice for approximately 10, 60, 100 and more than 700 years. The structure and function of microbial communities were identified by 13C analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and phospholipid ether lipids (PLEL). Results showed increasing microbial diversity and biomass, and enhanced proliferation of bacterial groups as ecosystem development progressed. Initially, litter decomposition proceeded faster at the more developed sites, but at the end of the experiment loss of litter mass was similar at all sites, once the more easily-degradable litter fraction was processed. As a result incorporation of 13C into microbial biomass was more evident during the first weeks of litter decomposition. 13C enrichments of both PLEL and PLFA biomarkers following litter incorporation were observed at all sites, suggesting similar microbial foodwebs at all stages of soil development. Nonetheless, the contribution of bacteria, especially actinomycetes to litter turnover became more pronounced as soil age increased in detriment of archaea, fungi and protozoa, more prominent in recently deglaciated terrain.

  18. Comparison of Secondary Islands in Collisional Reconnection to Hall Reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, L. S.; Cassak, P. A.

    2010-07-02

    Large-scale resistive Hall-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the transition from Sweet-Parker (collisional) to Hall (collisionless) magnetic reconnection are presented; the first to separate secondary islands from collisionless effects. Three main results are described. There exists a regime with secondary islands but without collisionless effects, and the reconnection rate is faster than Sweet-Parker, but significantly slower than Hall reconnection. This implies that secondary islands do not cause the fastest reconnection rates. The onset of Hall reconnection ejects secondary islands from the vicinity of the X line, implying that energy is released more rapidly during Hall reconnection. Coronal applications are discussed.

  19. Full Stokes glacier model on GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licul, Aleksandar; Herman, Frédéric; Podladchikov, Yuri; Räss, Ludovic; Omlin, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    Two different approaches are commonly used in glacier ice flow modeling: models based on asymptotic approximations of ice physics and full stokes models. Lower order models are computationally lighter but reach their limits in regions of complex flow, while full Stokes models are more exact but computationally expansive. To overcome this constrain, we investigate the potential of GPU acceleration in glacier modeling. The goal of this preliminary research is to develop a three-dimensional full Stokes numerical model and apply it to the glacier flow. We numerically solve the nonlinear Stokes momentum balance equations together with the incompressibility equation. Strong nonlinearities for the ice rheology are also taken into account. We have developed a fully three-dimensional numerical MATLAB application based on an iterative finite difference scheme. We have ported it to C-CUDA to run it on GPUs. Our model is benchmarked against other full Stokes solutions for all diagnostic ISMIP-HOM experiments (Pattyn et al.,2008). The preliminary results show good agreement with the other models. The major advantages of our programming approach are simplicity and order 10-100 times speed-up in comparison to serial CPU version of the code. Future work will include some real world applications and we will implement the free surface evolution capabilities. References: [1] F. Pattyn, L. Perichon, A. Aschwanden, B. Breuer, D.B. Smedt, O. Gagliardini, G.H. Gudmundsson, R.C.A. Hindmarsh, A. Hubbard, J.V. Johnson, T. Kleiner, Y. Konovalov, C. Martin, A.J. Payne, D. Pollard, S. Price, M. Ruckamp, F. Saito, S. Sugiyama, S., and T. Zwinger, Benchmark experiments for higher-order and full-Stokes ice sheet models (ISMIP-HOM), The Cryosphere, 2 (2008), 95-108.

  20. Exploring tidewater glacier retreat using past and current observations at Columbia Glacier, Alaska. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neel, S.; Pfeffer, W. T.; Howat, I. M.; Conway, H.; Columbia Glacier Consortium

    2010-12-01

    Since fulfilling Austin Post’s prediction of impending retreat in the late 1970s, Columbia Glacier has repeatedly surprised both casual and careful observers with its ability for rapid change. Over the last three decades, Columbia Glacier has lost approximately 18 km of its original 66 km length, while thinning by approximately 50% at the present terminus. The total ice volume lost to the Gulf of Alaska Estimates upwards of 120 km3 constrain the total ice volume lost to the Gulf of Alaska. Recently, the terminus supported a ~1.5 km long floating tongue for over than a year, contradicting the common assumption that the mechanical properties of temperate ice prohibit flotation over sustained time intervals. The rich history of study offers an opportunity to better understand tidewater glacier retreat, and a valuable analog to the dynamic instability underway at several ice sheet outlet glaciers. Current research aims to improve processing resolution of existing aerial photographic data, while complimenting the 30-year photogrammetric record with a suite of field observations. Recent instrumentation includes: oblique time lapse and still imagery, semi-permanent GPS, airborne radar, mass balance, passive seismology and LiDAR. This presentation will focus on innovative methods developed in recent field seasons, sharing insight each has provided into the retreat process . 1The Columbia Glacier Consortium consists of: Fabian Walter (SIO), Kenichi Matsuoka (NPI), Ben Smith (UW), Ethan Welty (CU-Boulder), Chris Larsen (UAF), Dave Finnegan (CRREL), Dan McNamara (USGS), Yushin Ahn (OSU), Julie Markus (OSU), Adam LeWinter (EIS).

  1. Glacial lakes amplify glacier recession in the central Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Owen; Quincey, Duncan; Carrivick, Jonathan; Rowan, Ann

    2016-04-01

    The high altitude and high latitude regions of the world are amongst those which react most intensely to climatic change. Across the Himalaya glacier mass balance is predominantly negative. The spatial and temporal complexity associated with this ice loss across different glacier clusters is poorly documented however, and our understanding of the processes driving change is limited. Here, we look at the spatial variability of glacier hypsometry and glacial mass loss from three catchments in the central Himalaya; the Dudh Koshi basin, Tama Koshi basin and an adjoining section of the Tibetan Plateau. ASTER and SETSM digital elevation models (2014/15), corrected for elevation dependant biases, co-registration errors and along or cross track tilts, are differenced from Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data (2000) to yield surface lowering estimates. Landsat data and a hypsometric index (HI), a classification scheme used to group glaciers of similar hypsometry, are used to examine the distribution of glacier area with altitude in each catchment. Surface lowering rates of >3 m/yr can be detected on some glaciers, generally around the clean-ice/debris-cover boundary, where dark but thin surface deposits are likely to enhance ablation. More generally, surface lowering rates of around 1 m/yr are more pervasive, except around the terminus areas of most glaciers, emphasising the influence of a thick debris cover on ice melt. Surface lowering is only concentrated at glacier termini where glacial lakes have developed, where surface lowering rates are commonly greater than 2.5 m/yr. The three catchments show contrasting hypsometric distributions, which is likely to impact their future response to climatic changes. Glaciers of the Dudh Koshi basin store large volumes of ice at low elevation (HI > 1.5) in long, debris covered tongues, although their altitudinal range is greatest given the height of mountain peaks in the catchment. In contrast, glaciers of the Tama Koshi

  2. Examining a Half Century of Northwestern North American Glacier Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnia, B. F.; Fahey, M. J.; Friesen, B.; Josberger, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    In 1957, as part of the United States' contribution to the International Geophysical Year (IGY), the American Geographical Society (AGS) initiated a multi-institutional mapping project to produce 1:10,000-scale topographic maps of nine northwestern North American glaciers. The project's goal was to prepare precise maps at large scales of selected small glaciers to form a permanent record of the condition of these glaciers so that at a future date they could be resurveyed and compared. Continued surveys would give the history of wastage and accumulation, and more accurate interpretation of the response of these glaciers to meteorological and other factors. The resulting maps and a descriptive summary brochure were published in 1960 by the American Geographical Society. The USGS Global Fiducials Program (GFP) began to systematically image the same nine glaciers approximately half-century after its IGY mapping. The results of the GFP analyses would permit the types of comparisons that were envisioned by the IGY project. Imagery of each of these nine glaciers has been collected from multiple sources, including Next View licensed commercial imagery, vertical and oblique aerial photography, Landsat, and US National Imagery Systems. Exploitation of the imagery has resulted in the production of new 21st century maps that can be compared and contrasted with the vintage AGS map set. Comparison will permit the calculation of a number of parameters which will provide a direct insight into the changes that northwestern North American glaciers have been experiencing during the past half century. Specifically, these comparisons will permit the calculation of changes in glacier length, area, thickness, and volume; computation of rates of glacier advance and/or retreat, rates of glacier thickening and/or thinning, and rates of volume change; production of digital elevation models (DEMs); and generation of velocity fields from crevasse migration. The subsequent re-mapping and

  3. Glacier response to North Atlantic climate variability during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balascio, N. L.; D'Andrea, W. J.; Bradley, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    Small glaciers and ice caps respond rapidly to climate variations, and records of their past extent provide information on the natural envelope of past climate variability. Millennial-scale trends in Holocene glacier size are well documented and correspond with changes in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation. However, there is only sparse and fragmentary evidence for higher-frequency variations in glacier size because in many Northern Hemisphere regions glacier advances of the past few hundred years were the most extensive and destroyed the geomorphic evidence of ice growth and retreat during the past several thousand years. Thus, most glacier records have been of limited use for investigating centennial-scale climate forcing and feedback mechanisms. Here we report a continuous record of glacier activity for the last 9.5 ka from southeast Greenland derived from high-resolution measurements on a proglacial lake sediment sequence. Physical and geochemical parameters show that the glaciers responded to previously documented Northern Hemisphere climatic excursions, including the "8.2 ka" cooling event, the Holocene Thermal Maximum, Neoglacial cooling, and 20th century warming. In addition, the sediments indicate centennial-scale oscillations in glacier size during the late Holocene. Beginning at 4.1 ka, a series of abrupt glacier advances occurred, each lasting ~100 years and followed by a period of retreat, that were superimposed on a gradual trend toward larger glacier size. Thus, while declining summer insolation caused long-term cooling and glacier expansion during the late Holocene, climate system dynamics resulted in repeated episodes of glacier expansion and retreat on multi-decadal to centennial timescales. These episodes coincided with ice rafting events in the North Atlantic Ocean and periods of regional ice cap expansion, which confirms their regional significance and indicates that considerable glacier activity on these timescales is a normal feature of

  4. Pine Island Bay movie

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-08-01

    ... between successive frames is not uniform. The flow of the glacier, widening of the rift, and subsequent break-off of the iceberg are ... a gap in image acquisition during Antarctic winter, when the glacier was in continuous darkness. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's ...

  5. Status and distribution of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris along the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak and Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madison, Erica N.; Piatt, John F.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Romano, Marc D.; van Pelt, Thomas I.; Nelson, S. Kim; Williams, Jeffrey C.; DeGange, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    The Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris is adapted for life in glacial-marine ecosystems, being concentrated in the belt of glaciated fjords in the northern Gulf of Alaska from Glacier Bay to Cook Inlet. Most of the remaining birds are scattered along coasts of the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands, where they reside in protected bays and inlets, often in proximity to remnant glaciers or recently deglaciated landscapes. We summarize existing information on Kittlitz's Murrelet in this mainly unglaciated region, extending from Kodiak Island in the east to the Near Islands in the west. From recent surveys, we estimated that ~2400 Kittlitz's Murrelets were found in several large embayments along the Alaska Peninsula, where adjacent ice fields feed silt-laden water into the bays. On Kodiak Island, where only remnants of ice remain today, observations of Kittlitz's Murrelets at sea were uncommon. The species has been observed historically around the entire Kodiak Archipelago, however, and dozens of nest sites were found in recent years. We found Kittlitz's Murrelets at only a few islands in the Aleutian chain, notably those with long complex shorelines, high mountains and remnant glaciers. The largest population (~1600 birds) of Kittlitz's Murrelet outside the Gulf of Alaska was found at Unalaska Island, which also supports the greatest concentration of glacial ice in the Aleutian Islands. Significant populations were found at Atka (~1100 birds), Attu (~800) and Adak (~200) islands. Smaller numbers have been reported from Unimak, Umnak, Amlia, Kanaga, Tanaga, Kiska islands, and Agattu Island, where dozens of nest sites have been located in recent years. Most of those islands have not been thoroughly surveyed, and significant pockets of Kittlitz's Murrelets may yet be discovered. Our estimate of ~6000 Kittlitz's Murrelets along the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands is also likely to be conservative because of the survey protocols we employed (i.e. early

  6. Isotopic composition of ice cores and meltwater from upper fremont glacier and Galena Creek rock glacier, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWayne, Cecil L.; Green, J.R.; Vogt, S.; Michel, R.; Cottrell, G.

    1998-01-01

    Meltwater runoff from glaciers can result from various sources, including recent precipitation and melted glacial ice. Determining the origin of the meltwater from glaciers through isotopic analysis can provide information about such things as the character and distribution of ablation on glaciers. A 9.4 m ice core and meltwater were collected in 1995 and 1996 at the glacigenic Galena Creek rock glacier in Wyoming's Absaroka Mountains. Measurements of chlorine-36 (36Cl), tritium (3H), sulphur-35 (35S), and delta oxygen-18 (??18O) were compared to similar measurements from an ice core taken from the Upper Fremont Glacier in the Wind River Range of Wyoming collected in 1991-95. Meltwater samples from three sites on the rock glacier yielded 36Cl concentrations that ranged from 2.1 ?? 1.0 X 106 to 5.8??0.3 X 106 atoms/l. The ice-core 36Cl concentrations from Galena Creek ranged from 3.4??0.3 X 105 to 1.0??0.1 X 106 atoms/l. Analysis of an ice core from the Upper Fremont Glacier yielded 36Cl concentrations of 1.2??0.2 X 106 and 5.2??0.2 X 106 atoms/l for pre- 1940 ice and between 2 X 106 and 3 X 106 atoms/l for post-1980 ice. Purdue's PRIME Lab analyzed the ice from the Upper Fremont Glacier. The highest concentration of 36Cl in the ice was 77 ?? 2 X 106 atoms/l and was deposited during the peak of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in the late 1950s. This is an order of magnitude greater than the largest measured concentration from both the Upper Fremont Glacier ice core that was not affected by weapons testing fallout and the ice core collected from the Galena Creek rock glacier. Tritium concentrations from the rock glacier ranged from 9.2??0.6 to 13.2??0.8 tritium units (TU) in the meltwater to -1.3??1.3 TU in the ice core. Concentrations of 3H in the Upper Fremont Glacier ice core ranged from 0 TU in the ice older than 50 years to 6-12 TU in the ice deposited in the last 10 years. The maximum 3H concentration in ice from the Upper Fremont Glacier deposited in the

  7. Dynamics of rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers in the Central Chilean Andes over the last 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, Xavier; Brenning, Alexander; Rojas Marchini, Fernanda

    2010-05-01

    In the semiarid Central Andes of Chile at 33.5°S., mountain permafrost is widely present above 3500-4000 m asl, especially in the form of rock glaciers, which often coexist with glaciers and debris-covered glaciers. This peculiar configuration of the cryosphere involves complex and poorly known responses of its components to climate change. Our study area in the Laguna Negra catchment is part of a watershed that provides up to two-thirds of the drinking water supplies to Chile's capital Santiago (5.5 million inhabitants) during the dry summer months. The 35 km² watershed contains 2.3 km² of uncovered glaciers, 0.9 km² of debris-covered glacier area and 4.3 km² of rock glaciers, and hosts the longest series of glacier mass balance measurement in Chile (Echaurren Norte glacier). Using orthorectified aerial photographs of 1956 and 1996 and a high resolution satellite image of 2008, we mapped the geometric changes that affected the glacier and the debris-covered glacier of the Punta Negra sub-catchment during the last 50 years. Surface displacements and volume changes were estimated based on 1956 and 1996 digital elevation models (DEMs), and the total loss of water equivalent in the catchment was quantified. At a shorter time scale, rock glaciers and a debris-covered glacier are being monitored since 2004, providing insights into their kinematics and near-surface thermal regime. The orthophotos reveal a 44.7% reduction of the uncovered glacier area between 1955 and 1996, and only small surface changes between 1996 and 2008. The volume reduction of both uncovered and debris-covered glaciers is estimated at at least 3.9 million m3 water equivalent between 1955 and 1996. The second noticeable change is the growth of the thermokarst areas on the debris-covered glacier, with the formation of new and the widening and deepening of existing melt-out depressions between 1955 and 2008. The thermal monitoring revealed that, in 2003/04, the mean annual ground surface

  8. Ocean forcing of glacier retreat in the western Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, A. J.; Holland, P. R.; Meredith, M. P.; Murray, T.; Luckman, A.; Vaughan, D. G.

    2016-07-01

    In recent decades, hundreds of glaciers draining the Antarctic Peninsula (63° to 70°S) have undergone systematic and progressive change. These changes are widely attributed to rapid increases in regional surface air temperature, but it is now clear that this cannot be the sole driver. Here, we identify a strong correspondence between mid-depth ocean temperatures and glacier-front changes along the ~1000-kilometer western coastline. In the south, glaciers that terminate in warm Circumpolar Deep Water have undergone considerable retreat, whereas those in the far northwest, which terminate in cooler waters, have not. Furthermore, a mid-ocean warming since the 1990s in the south is coincident with widespread acceleration of glacier retreat. We conclude that changes in ocean-induced melting are the primary cause of retreat for glaciers in this region.

  9. Ocean forcing of glacier retreat in the western Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Cook, A J; Holland, P R; Meredith, M P; Murray, T; Luckman, A; Vaughan, D G

    2016-07-15

    In recent decades, hundreds of glaciers draining the Antarctic Peninsula (63° to 70°S) have undergone systematic and progressive change. These changes are widely attributed to rapid increases in regional surface air temperature, but it is now clear that this cannot be the sole driver. Here, we identify a strong correspondence between mid-depth ocean temperatures and glacier-front changes along the ~1000-kilometer western coastline. In the south, glaciers that terminate in warm Circumpolar Deep Water have undergone considerable retreat, whereas those in the far northwest, which terminate in cooler waters, have not. Furthermore, a mid-ocean warming since the 1990s in the south is coincident with widespread acceleration of glacier retreat. We conclude that changes in ocean-induced melting are the primary cause of retreat for glaciers in this region. PMID:27418507

  10. Subglacial discharge at tidewater glaciers revealed by seismic tremor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomaus, Timothy C.; Amundson, Jason M.; Walter, Jacob I.; O'Neel, Shad; West, Michael E.; Larsen, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    Subglacial discharge influences glacier basal motion and erodes and redeposits sediment. At tidewater glacier termini, discharge drives submarine terminus melting, affects fjord circulation, and is a central component of proglacial marine ecosystems. However, our present inability to track subglacial discharge and its variability significantly hinders our understanding of these processes. Here we report observations of hourly to seasonal variations in 1.5–10 Hz seismic tremor that strongly correlate with subglacial discharge but not with basal motion, weather, or discrete icequakes. Our data demonstrate that vigorous discharge occurs from tidewater glaciers during summer, in spite of fast basal motion that could limit the formation of subglacial conduits, and then abates during winter. Furthermore, tremor observations and a melt model demonstrate that drainage efficiency of tidewater glaciers evolves seasonally. Glaciohydraulic tremor provides a means by which to quantify subglacial discharge variations and offers a promising window into otherwise obscured glacierized environments.

  11. Effects of volcanism on the glaciers of Mount St. Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugman, M. M.; Post, A.

    The cataclysmic eruption of Mount St. Helens May 18, 1980, removed 2.9 sq/km of glacier snow and ice including a large part of Shoestring Forsyth, Wishbone, Ape, Nelson, and all of Loowit and Leschi Glaciers. Minor eruptions and bulging of the volcano from March 27 to May 17 shattered glaciers which were on the deforming rock and deposited ash on other glaciers. Thick ash layers persisted after the May 18 eruption through the summer on most of the remaining snow and ice, and protected winter snow from melting on Swift and Dryer Glaciers. Melting and recrystallization of snow and ice surviving on Mount St. Helens could cause and lubricate mud flows and generate outburst floods.

  12. Summer melt regulates winter glacier flow speeds throughout Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Evan W.; Larsen, Christopher F.; Forster, Richard R.

    2013-12-01

    how climate change will affect glacier and ice sheet flow speeds remains a large hurdle toward accurate sea level rise forecasting. Increases in surface melt rates are known to accelerate glacier flow in summer, whereas in winter, flow speeds are believed to be relatively invariant. Here we show that wintertime flow speeds on nearly all major glaciers throughout Alaska are not only variable but are inversely related to melt from preceding summers. For each additional meter of summertime melt, we observe an 11% decrease in wintertime velocity on glaciers of all sizes, geometries, climates, and bed types. This dynamic occurs because interannual differences in summertime melt affect how much water is retained in the subglacial system during winter. The ubiquity of the dynamic indicates it occurs globally on glaciers and ice sheets not frozen to their beds and thus constitutes a new mechanism affecting sea level rise projections.

  13. Subglacial discharge at tidewater glaciers revealed by seismic tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomaus, Timothy C.; Amundson, Jason M.; Walter, Jacob I.; O'Neel, Shad; West, Michael E.; Larsen, Christopher F.

    2015-08-01

    Subglacial discharge influences glacier basal motion and erodes and redeposits sediment. At tidewater glacier termini, discharge drives submarine terminus melting, affects fjord circulation, and is a central component of proglacial marine ecosystems. However, our present inability to track subglacial discharge and its variability significantly hinders our understanding of these processes. Here we report observations of hourly to seasonal variations in 1.5-10 Hz seismic tremor that strongly correlate with subglacial discharge but not with basal motion, weather, or discrete icequakes. Our data demonstrate that vigorous discharge occurs from tidewater glaciers during summer, in spite of fast basal motion that could limit the formation of subglacial conduits, and then abates during winter. Furthermore, tremor observations and a melt model demonstrate that drainage efficiency of tidewater glaciers evolves seasonally. Glaciohydraulic tremor provides a means by which to quantify subglacial discharge variations and offers a promising window into otherwise obscured glacierized environments.

  14. Botanical Evidence of the Modern History of Nisqually Glacier, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sigafoos, Robert S.; Hendricks, E.L.

    1961-01-01

    A knowledge of the areas once occupied by mountain glaciers reveals at least part of the past behavior of these glaciers. From this behavior, inferences of past climate can be drawn. The maximum advance of Nisqually Glacier in the last thousand years was located, and retreat from this point is believed to have started about 1840. The maximum downvalley position of the glacier is marked by either a prominent moraine or by a line of difference between stands of trees of strikingly different size and significantly different age. The thousand-year age of the forest beyond the moraine or line between abutting stands represents the minimum time since the surface was glaciated. This age is based on the age of the oldest trees, plus an estimated interval required for the formation of humus, plus evidence of an ancient fire, plus an interval of deposition of pyroclastics. The estimate of the date when Nisqually Glacier began to retreat from its maximum advance is based upon the ages of the oldest trees plus an interval of 5 years estimated as the time required for the establishment of trees on stable moraines. This interval was derived from a study of the ages of trees growing at locations of known past positions of the glacier. Reconnaissance studies were made on moraines formed by Emmons and Tahoma Glaciers. Preliminary analyses of these data suggest that Emmons Glacier started to recede from its maximum advance in about 1745. Two other upvalley moraines mark positions from which recession started about 1849 and 1896. Ages of trees near Tahoma Glacier indicate that it started to recede from its position of maximum advance in about 1635. About 1835 Tahoma Glacier started to recede again from another moraine formed by a readvance that ter minated near the 1635 position.

  15. Glacier Mapping With Landsat Tm: Improvements and Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, F.; Huggel, C.; Kaeaeb, A.; Maisch, M.

    The new Swiss Glacier Inventory for the year 2000 (SGI 2000) is presently derived from Landsat TM data. Glacier areas were obtained by segmentation of a ratio image from TM band 4 and 5. This method has proven to be very simple and highly accurate - an essential requirement for world-wide application within the project GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space). Mis-classification using TM4 / TM 5 results for lakes, forests and areas with vegetation in cloud shadows. Digital image processing techniques are used to classify these regions separately and eliminate them from the glacier map. Automatic mapping of debris-covered glacier ice is difficult due to the spectral similarity with the surrounding terrain. For the SGI 2000, an attempt has been made to obtain the debris-covered area on glaciers by a combination of pixel- based image classification, digital terrain modelling, an object-oriented procedure and change detection analysis. First results of these improvements are presented. The accuracy of the TM derived glacier outlines is assessed by a comparison with manually derived outlines of higher resolution data sets (pan bands from SPOT, IRS- 1C and Ikonos). The overlay of outlines show very good correspondence (within the georeferencing accuracy) and the comparison of glacier areas reveals differences smaller than 5% for debris-free ice. Since acquisition of IRS-1C and Ikonos imagery is one year before and after the TM scene, respectively, small differences are also a result of glacier retreat. The automatically mapped debris-covered glacier areas are compared to the areas assigned manually on the TM image by visual interpretation. For most glaciers only a few pixels have to be corrected, for some others larger modi- fications are required.

  16. Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, T.A.; Carrara, P.E.; Smith, Jody L.; Anne, V.; Johnson, J.

    2010-01-01

    An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ???12,900??cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400??cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (???12,900??cal yr BP) was pine woodland (Pinus contorta) with alder (Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ???12,240??cal yr BP, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ???11,200??cal yr BP, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ???10,180??cal yr BP, when western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ???7100??cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

  17. Faster and More Accurate Transport Procedures for HZETRN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaba, Tony C.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Badavi, Francis F.

    2010-01-01

    Several aspects of code verification are examined for HZETRN. First, a detailed derivation of the numerical marching algorithms is given. Next, a new numerical method for light particle transport is presented, and improvements to the heavy ion transport algorithm are discussed. A summary of various coding errors is also given, and the impact of these errors on exposure quantities is shown. Finally, a coupled convergence study is conducted. From this study, it is shown that past efforts in quantifying the numerical error in HZETRN were hindered by single precision calculations and computational resources. It is also determined that almost all of the discretization error in HZETRN is caused by charged target fragments below 50 AMeV. Total discretization errors are given for the old and new algorithms, and the improved accuracy of the new numerical methods is demonstrated. Run time comparisons are given for three applications in which HZETRN is commonly used. The new algorithms are found to be almost 100 times faster for solar particle event simulations and almost 10 times faster for galactic cosmic ray simulations.

  18. Quantum mechanics and faster-than-light communication Methodological considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirardi, G. C.; Weber, T.

    1983-11-01

    A critical analysis is made of proposals for faster-than-light communications schemes based on quantum mechanics concepts. The point of view taken is that no reduction in one physical system can have an instantaneous effect on another, isolated system. It is shown that the philosophical contradictions exposed by the Einstein-Podolsky Rosen can be directly transferred to an interpretation of physical events. Attention is directed toward the possibility of a photon, propagating in one direction with either circular or plane polarization, entering a nonselective laser tube. The photon originally emerged from a quantum decay process which yielded two photons traveling in opposite directions. The photon in the laser gain tube precipitates a beam which is polarized as the initiating photon. A first observer can then determine the polarization observed by a second observer (with the laser) before the signal arrives. It is concluded that the FLASH argument of Herbert (1982) therefore assumes a violation of quantum mechanical laws in order to use quantum mechanics to prove that faster-than-light communication is possible.

  19. Faster quantum chemistry simulation on fault-tolerant quantum computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody Jones, N.; Whitfield, James D.; McMahon, Peter L.; Yung, Man-Hong; Van Meter, Rodney; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2012-11-01

    Quantum computers can in principle simulate quantum physics exponentially faster than their classical counterparts, but some technical hurdles remain. We propose methods which substantially improve the performance of a particular form of simulation, ab initio quantum chemistry, on fault-tolerant quantum computers; these methods generalize readily to other quantum simulation problems. Quantum teleportation plays a key role in these improvements and is used extensively as a computing resource. To improve execution time, we examine techniques for constructing arbitrary gates which perform substantially faster than circuits based on the conventional Solovay-Kitaev algorithm (Dawson and Nielsen 2006 Quantum Inform. Comput. 6 81). For a given approximation error ɛ, arbitrary single-qubit gates can be produced fault-tolerantly and using a restricted set of gates in time which is O(log ɛ) or O(log log ɛ) with sufficient parallel preparation of ancillas, constant average depth is possible using a method we call programmable ancilla rotations. Moreover, we construct and analyze efficient implementations of first- and second-quantized simulation algorithms using the fault-tolerant arbitrary gates and other techniques, such as implementing various subroutines in constant time. A specific example we analyze is the ground-state energy calculation for lithium hydride.

  20. Safety and mission assurance in a better, faster, cheaper environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Frederick D.

    1996-09-01

    To provide the American people with an exciting aeronautics and space program that provides more tangible value in products and services and more relevance to the public, NASA has developed a philosophy that emphasizes better, faster, and cheaper ways of conducting business. The integration of safety, reliability and quality assurance (SR&QA) products and services into all NASA's programs and projects, from beginning to end, and the implementation of progressive quality management and contracting practices are direct applications of this philosophy. NASA's new test effectiveness program integrates the oribital performance and reliability experience of prior spacecraft with new design processes and improved telemetry to achieve higher performance and reliability, faster, and at reduced cost. As United States government leaders for ISO 9000 implementation, NASA is promoting single quality systems for contractors, the use of advanced quality practices, and methods for the implementation of baseline quality systems with the appropriate oversight to further low cost, high performance programs in the future. To remain vital in today's era of fiscal constraint, NASA must be efficient, effective, and relevant. The innovative integration and application of SR&QA tools, techniques, and management approaches in all NASA's programs and projects will play an integral role in achieving this end.

  1. Elastic coupling of limb joints enables faster bipedal walking

    PubMed Central

    Dean, J.C.; Kuo, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    The passive dynamics of bipedal limbs alone are sufficient to produce a walking motion, without need for control. Humans augment these dynamics with muscles, actively coordinated to produce stable and economical walking. Present robots using passive dynamics walk much slower, perhaps because they lack elastic muscles that couple the joints. Elastic properties are well known to enhance running gaits, but their effect on walking has yet to be explored. Here we use a computational model of dynamic walking to show that elastic joint coupling can help to coordinate faster walking. In walking powered by trailing leg push-off, the model's speed is normally limited by a swing leg that moves too slowly to avoid stumbling. A uni-articular spring about the knee allows faster but uneconomical walking. A combination of uni-articular hip and knee springs can speed the legs for improved speed and economy, but not without the swing foot scuffing the ground. Bi-articular springs coupling the hips and knees can yield high economy and good ground clearance similar to humans. An important parameter is the knee-to-hip moment arm that greatly affects the existence and stability of gaits, and when selected appropriately can allow for a wide range of speeds. Elastic joint coupling may contribute to the economy and stability of human gait. PMID:18957360

  2. Geographic Names of Iceland's Glaciers: Historic and Modern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sigurdsson, Oddur; Williams, Richard S., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Climatic changes and resulting glacier fluctuations alter landscapes. In the past, such changes were noted by local residents who often documented them in historic annals; eventually, glacier variations were recorded on maps and scientific reports. In Iceland, 10 glacier place-names are to be found in Icelandic sagas, and one of Iceland's ice caps, Snaefellsjokull, appeared on maps of Iceland published in the 16th century. In the late 17th century, the first description of eight of Iceland's glaciers was written. Therefore, Iceland distinguishes itself in having a more than 300-year history of observations by Icelanders on its glaciers. A long-term collaboration between Oddur Sigurdsson and Richard S. Williams, Jr., led to the authorship of three books on the glaciers of Iceland. Much effort has been devoted to documenting historical glacier research and related nomenclature and to physical descriptions of Icelandic glaciers by Icelanders and other scientists from as far back as the Saga Age to recent (2008) times. The first book, Icelandic Ice Mountains, was published by the Icelandic Literary Society in 2004 in cooperation with the Icelandic Glaciological Society and the International Glaciological Society. Icelandic Ice Mountains was a glacier treatise written by Sveinn Palsson in 1795 and is the first English translation of this important scientific document. Icelandic Ice Mountains includes a Preface, including a summary of the history and facsimiles of page(s) from the original manuscript, a handwritten copy, and an 1815 manuscript (without maps and drawings) by Sveinn Palsson on the same subject which he wrote for Rev. Ebenezer Henderson; an Editor's Introduction; 82 figures, including facsimiles of Sveinn Palsson's original maps and perspective drawings, maps, and photographs to illustrate the text; a comprehensive Index of Geographic Place-Names and Other Names in the treatise; References, and 415 Endnotes. Professional Paper 1746 (this book) is the second

  3. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... equipment and technology that may be deployed during a human mission to Mars. One of the many objectives of the project scientists is to ... Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's ...

  4. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  5. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... Snorkelers around this island are likely to encounter the fish Achilles Tang and the Moorish Idol (Acanthurus achilles and Zanclus ... Terra circles the Earth in the same orbit as Landsat 7, flying at an altitude of about 700 kilometers above the Earth's surface. ...

  6. Instrument for Analysis of Greenland's Glacier Mills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Matthews, Jaret B.; Tran, Hung B.; Steffen, Konrad; McGrath, Dan; Phillips, Thomas; Elliot, Andrew; OHern, Sean; Lutz, Colin; Martin, Sujita; Wang, Henry

    2010-01-01

    A new instrument is used to study the inner workings of Greenland s glacier mills by riding the currents inside a glacier s moulin. The West Greenland Moulin Explorer instrument was deployed into a tubular shaft to autonomously record temperature, pressure, 3D acceleration, and location. It is built with a slightly positive buoyancy in order to assist in recovery. The unit is made up of several components. A 3-axis MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) accelerometer with 0.001-g resolution forms the base of the unit. A pressure transducer is added that is capable of withstanding 500 psi (=3.4 MPa), and surviving down to -40 C. An Iridium modem sends out data every 10 minutes. The location is traced by a GPS (Global Positioning System) unit. This GPS unit is also used for recovery after the mission. Power is provided by a high-capacity lithium thionyl chloride D-sized battery. The accelerometer is housed inside a cylindrical, foot-long (=30 cm) polyvinyl chloride (PVC) shell sealed at each end with acrylic. The pressure transducer is attached to one of these lids and a MEMS accelerometer to the other, recording 100 samples per second per axis.

  7. Models for polythermal ice sheets and glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Ian; Schoof, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of ice-sheets and glaciers depend sensitively on their thermal structure. Many ice masses are polythermal, containing both cold ice, with temperature below the melting point, and temperate ice, with temperature at the melting point. The temperate ice is really an ice-water mixture, with water produced at grain boundaries by dissipative heating. Although the water content is typically small, it can have an important effect on ice dynamics; water content controls ice viscosity, and internal meltwater percolation affects hydrology. Locations where this may be important are in the enhanced shear layer at the base of fast-flowing outlet glaciers, and in the shear margins of ice streams. In this study, we present a simplified model to describe the temperature and water-content of polythermal ice masses, accounting for the possibility of gravity- and pressure-driven water drainage according to Darcy's law. The model is based on the principle of energy conservation and the theory of viscous compaction. Numerical solutions are described and a number of illustrative test problems presented. The model is compared with existing methods in the literature, including enthalpy gradient methods, to which it reduces under certain conditions. Based on the results of our analysis, we suggest a modified enthalpy method that allows for drainage under gravity but that can be relatively easily implemented in ice-sheet models.

  8. The Physics of Glaciers, 3rd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, David

    At one time or another, who among us has not marveled at the beauty of the snow and ice-covered Alps, or admired the tenacity of polar explorers and the adventurous spirits of climbers on the glacier-clad summits of the high Himalaya? The fascination of distant ice covered expanses has enlisted more than a few recruits into the ranks of glaciologists, but many, if not most, of today's students of glaciology are a slightly less romantic and more mathematical lot, attracted by the quantitative world of physics and the applied sciences of polar climatology, ice mechanics, and snow hydrology.Once a relatively quiet branch of geophysics filled with venturesome climbers capable of reaching the objects of their study, glaciology is now a field that is fueled by a rapid influx of talent, technology, and new ideas due to the increasingly acknowledged relationships between global climate, sea level, and ice sheets. While the understanding of glacier processes has seen significant progress, as a result there is also a sense of being overwhelmed by the voluminous and sometimes speculative theories and field observations associated with an expanding discipline.

  9. 36 CFR 13.1132 - What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? 13.1132 Section 13.1132 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1132 What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? Three types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1132 - What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? 13.1132 Section 13.1132 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1132 What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? Three types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1132 - What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? 13.1132 Section 13.1132 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1132 What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? Three types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay...

  12. 36 CFR 13.1132 - What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? 13.1132 Section 13.1132 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1132 What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? Three types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay...

  13. 36 CFR 13.1132 - What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? 13.1132 Section 13.1132 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1132 What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? Three types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay...

  14. Scale effects impeding palaeoclimate reconstructions from mountain glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinz, Rainer; Nicholson, Lindsey; Mölg, Thomas; Kaser, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Lewis Glacier on Mt. Kenya lost more than 80% of its area since its last stadial in the late 19th century (L19). Can we reconstruct climate conditions sustaining Lewis Glacier in its L19 extent? First, we optimized a physical based energy and mass balance model to the modern-day glacier extent with in situ observed climate observations. Second, from this record we constructed synthetic climate scenarios (based on coupled parameter perturbation applying a simple weather generator concept) as input for the mass balance model. These scenarios reflect the observed variability in precipitation and air temperature over recent decades, reproduce the observed mass balance variability for the modern-day glacier extent, and quantify the glacier's sensitivity to climate. Using the mass balance model as optimized for the modern-day glacier on the L19 extent, driven by climate perturbations most favourable to glaciation, results in negative mass balances. This would traditionally be interpreted to mean that even the extremes of the present-day climate are incapable of reproducing the L19 conditions. Alternatively or additionally, the modelling suggests that the L19 Lewis Glacier could be sustained if a favourable climate perturbation is applied in conjunction with a modification of the gradients used to extrapolate the climate observations over the glacier surface from those optimized for the very small modern-day glacier. Such a modification might be justifiable, where the modern-day glacier is so small that it is unlikely to generate significant microclimatological effects that would be expected for the larger L19 extent, when e.g. the glacier filled its cirque reducing long-wave emissions from surrounding terrain drastically. In a general sense this finding indicates that extracting proxy climate conditions from a particular glacier geometry, using a modelling system optimized on a dramatically different geometry, may invalidate the approach, particularly if changes in

  15. Combined Ice and Water Balances of Maclure Glacier, California, South Cascade Glacier, Washington, and Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers, Alaska, 1967 Hydrologic Year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tangborn, Wendell V.; Mayo, Lawrence R.; Scully, David R.; Krimmel, Robert M.

    1977-01-01

    Combined ice and water balances were measured in the 1967 hydrologic year (October 1-September 30) on four glaciers in western North America ranging in latitude from 37 deg to 63 deg N. This hydrologic year was characterized by heavier than normal winter precipitation in California and Washington and abnormally dry winter conditions in coastal Alaska. In summer the western conterminous states were abnormally dry and central and southern Alaska experienced very wet conditions. Maclure Glacier (lat 37 deg 45' N., 3,650-m (metres) mean equilibrium line altitude) had an above normal winter balance of 3.46 m and a positive annual balance of 1.05 m (metres of water equivalent). South Cascade Glacier (lat 48 deg 22' N., 1900-m mean equilibrium line altitude) had a winter balance of 3.28 m, slightly above average. Above normal summer ablation resulted in a final annual balance of -0.58 m, slightly more negative than has been the case for the past decade. Wolverine Glacier's (lat 60 deg 24' N., 1,200-m mean equilibrium line altitude) winter balance was 1.17 m, considerably below normal; the annual balance was -2.04 m. Gulkana Glacier (lat 63 deg 15' N., 1,700-m mean equilibrium line altitude) had a winter balance of 1.05 m, approximately normal for this glacier; the final annual balance was -0.30 m.

  16. Glacier maxima in Baffin Bay during the Medieval Warm Period coeval with Norse settlement

    PubMed Central

    Young, Nicolás E.; Schweinsberg, Avriel D.; Briner, Jason P.; Schaefer, Joerg M.

    2015-01-01

    The climatic mechanisms driving the shift from the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) to the Little Ice Age (LIA) in the North Atlantic region are debated. We use cosmogenic beryllium-10 dating to develop a moraine chronology with century-scale resolution over the last millennium and show that alpine glaciers in Baffin Island and western Greenland were at or near their maximum LIA configurations during the proposed general timing of the MWP. Complimentary paleoclimate proxy data suggest that the western North Atlantic region remained cool, whereas the eastern North Atlantic region was comparatively warmer during the MWP—a dipole pattern compatible with a persistent positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. These results demonstrate that over the last millennium, glaciers approached their eventual LIA maxima before what is considered the classic LIA in the Northern Hemisphere. Furthermore, a relatively cool western North Atlantic region during the MWP has implications for understanding Norse migration patterns during the MWP. Our results, paired with other regional climate records, point to nonclimatic factors as contributing to the Norse exodus from the western North Atlantic region. PMID:26665173

  17. Rapid Thinning of an East Antarctic Outlet Glacier During Stable Holocene Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. S.; Mackintosh, A. N.; Norton, K. P.; Golledge, N. R.; Fogwill, C. J.; Kubik, P.

    2014-12-01

    Ice-sheets that are grounded on overdeepened beds below sea-level are potentially vulnerable to collapse. Many outlets of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet that occupy reverse bed slopes are currently in negative mass balance. New ice-penetrating radar data reveal that large overdeepened basins and reverse bed slopes exist under parts of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, raising concern for its future behaviour. Retreat of the Antarctic ice sheet from the Last Glacial Maximum to its present configuration provides an opportunity to assess ice-sheet response to climate forcing and ice-dynamic feedbacks. Here we report 44 new surface-exposure ages from an East Antarctic outlet glacier that thinned dramatically during the early/mid-Holocene at a rate comparable to modern rates of thinning at Pine Island Glacier. Rapid thinning was coeval with retreat of the grounding-line through an overdeepening on the inner continental-shelf, and the disintegration of a buttressing ice-shelf. We demonstrate that a similar magnitude and timing of ice-dynamic thinning also occurred on the West Antarctic and Peninsula ice-sheets, at a time of relative climatic and oceanic stability after grounding-lines had retreated to the inner continental-shelf. These results imply that significant ice-sheet thinning in the early/mid Holocene arose from topographic feedbacks rather than from significant environmental forcing.

  18. Glacier maxima in Baffin Bay during the Medieval Warm Period coeval with Norse settlement.

    PubMed

    Young, Nicolás E; Schweinsberg, Avriel D; Briner, Jason P; Schaefer, Joerg M

    2015-12-01

    The climatic mechanisms driving the shift from the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) to the Little Ice Age (LIA) in the North Atlantic region are debated. We use cosmogenic beryllium-10 dating to develop a moraine chronology with century-scale resolution over the last millennium and show that alpine glaciers in Baffin Island and western Greenland were at or near their maximum LIA configurations during the proposed general timing of the MWP. Complimentary paleoclimate proxy data suggest that the western North Atlantic region remained cool, whereas the eastern North Atlantic region was comparatively warmer during the MWP-a dipole pattern compatible with a persistent positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. These results demonstrate that over the last millennium, glaciers approached their eventual LIA maxima before what is considered the classic LIA in the Northern Hemisphere. Furthermore, a relatively cool western North Atlantic region during the MWP has implications for understanding Norse migration patterns during the MWP. Our results, paired with other regional climate records, point to nonclimatic factors as contributing to the Norse exodus from the western North Atlantic region. PMID:26665173

  19. What influences climate and glacier change in southwestern China?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasunari, Teppei J.

    2011-12-01

    The subject of climate change in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and Himalayas has taken on increasing importance because of the availability of water resources from their mountain glaciers (Immerzeel et al 2010). Many of the glaciers over these regions have been retreating, while some are advancing and stable (Yao et al 2004, Scherler et al 2011). Other studies report that some glaciers in the Himalayas show acceleration of their shrinkage (e.g., Fujita and Nuimura 2011). However, the causes of glacier melting are still difficult to grasp because of the complexity of climatic change and its influence on glacier issues. Despite this, it is vital that we pursue further study to enable future predictions of glacier changes. The paper entitled 'Climate and glacier change in southwestern China during the past several decades' by Li et al (2011) provided carefully analyzed, quality controlled, long-term data on atmospheric temperature and precipitation during the period 1961-2008. The data were obtained from 111 Chinese stations. The researchers performed systematic analyses of temperature and precipitation over the whole southwestern Chinese domain. They discussed those changes in terms of other meteorological components such as atmospheric circulation patterns, radiation and altitude difference, and then showed how these factors could contribute to climate and glacier changes in the region. Air temperature and precipitation are strongly associated with glacier mass balance because of heat balance and the addition of mass when it snows. Temperature warming trends over many places in southwestern China were unequivocally dominant in all seasons and at higher altitudes. This indicates that the heat contribution to the glaciers has been increasing. On the other hand, precipitation has a wider variability in time and space. It is more difficult to clearly understand the effect of precipitation on the climate and glacier melting characteristics in the whole of southwestern China

  20. The effect of bed topography on modeled grounding line migration in a conditional simulation of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waibel, M. S.; Jackson, C. S.; Hulbe, C. L.; Martin, D. F.; Goff, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Chief among the challenges involved with accurately modeling grounding line migration of marine terminating ice sheets is integrating grounding line dynamics together with accurate sub-kilometer scale bed topography. We address this challenge using a Berkeley Ice Sheet Initiative for Climate at Extreme Scales (BISICLES) ice sheet model with a new 250 m resolution conditional simulation of the bed beneath Thwaites Glacier and its catchment area. The new bed topography was created by interpolating aerogeophysical observations to a fine grid using inhomogeneous statistics with channelized morphology and a realistic small-scale roughness. The primary interest here is understanding how (and why) the more realistic bed geometry affects model behavior and projections of future change, relative to projections made using simpler bed geometries. We use the same forcing as prior work on the Thwaites and Pine Island Glacier systems--parameterized warm water incursion beneath the floating glacier terminus--and compare the resulting grounding line retreat to retreat simulated using the same model with a standard 1 km resolution basal elevation data set.