Science.gov

Sample records for islands short-term mda

  1. Long-term versus short-term deformation processes at Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizzani, Pietro; Manconi, Andrea; Zeni, Giovanni; Pepe, Antonio; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Camacho, Antonio; FernáNdez, Jose

    2010-12-01

    Several geophysical investigations have identified that the Tenerife volcanic complex is affected by crustal deformation processes occurring at timescales of millions of years. Recently, space-based geodetic observations have also detected a short-term surface deformation, characterized by a broad subsidence pattern with maximum ground velocities of about 4 mm yr-1. For the purpose of investigating the relationship between these long-term and short-term deformation processes, we performed an advanced fluid dynamic analysis (FDA). We first carried out a standard dimensionless FDA to discriminate the deformation style of Tenerife and found that, at million year timescales, basement flexure mainly controls its long-term structural evolution. Secondly, to highlight the driving forces of the short-term deformation process, we simulated a numerical FDA based on finite element models that include topography as well as vertical and lateral material heterogeneities. Our results show that the recent surface deformation is mainly caused by a progressive sagging of the denser (less viscous) core of the island onto the weaker (but more viscous) lithosphere. Moreover, over periods comparable to the hypothesized age of loading of the oceanic crust beneath Tenerife, this tendency would result in a total flexure of about 3-4 km, which is in agreement with independent estimations based on geophysical analyses. Our study shows that a unitary physical model may explain both the deformation recorded in deep geological structures and the current active ground deformation processes occurring at the Tenerife volcano.

  2. Lost and found: Short-term dynamics of the flora on 100 small islands in the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipunov, Alexey; Volkova, Polina; Abramova, Liudmila; Borisova, Polina

    2013-10-01

    The aim was to uncover factors that influence short-term (decade) flora dynamics and species richness of northern marine islets characterized by poor flora and weak anthropogenic pressure. The study used presence-absence data of vascular plant species on 100 small uprising islets of the Kandalaksha Gulf of White Sea (Northern Karelia, Russia). We investigated the influence of islands' attributes on species richness and rates of flora dynamics. Two island types were analyzed separately: younger, stone-like and older, islet-like (which generally are larger and have higher diversity of habitats). Sampled islands were studied via classical biogeographical per island approach and metapopulation per species approach. Stone-like islands had noticeably poorer flora with higher rates of immigration and extinction when compared to those of islet-like islands. The species number for islet-like islands correlated positively with number of habitats, abundance of different habitat types and island area. Species richness of stone-like islands correlated positively only with number of habitat types. Plant species associated with birds, crowberry thickets and coastal rocks were the most stable, and the species of disturbed habitats were significantly less stable. Floristic changes that have occurred have been caused by the massive establishment of new species rather than the extinction of pre-existing taxa. Thus, most of these islands are still in the colonization (assortative) stage. While we found no relationship between island area and species number for stone-like islands, this relationship was seen on islet-like islands.

  3. A short-term in situ CO2 enrichment experiment on Heron Island (GBR)

    PubMed Central

    Kline, David I.; Teneva, Lida; Schneider, Kenneth; Miard, Thomas; Chai, Aaron; Marker, Malcolm; Headley, Kent; Opdyke, Brad; Nash, Merinda; Valetich, Matthew; Caves, Jeremy K.; Russell, Bayden D.; Connell, Sean D.; Kirkwood, Bill J.; Brewer, Peter; Peltzer, Edward; Silverman, Jack; Caldeira, Ken; Dunbar, Robert B.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Mitchell, B. Greg; Dove, Sophie; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification poses multiple challenges for coral reefs on molecular to ecological scales, yet previous experimental studies of the impact of projected CO2 concentrations have mostly been done in aquarium systems with corals removed from their natural ecosystem and placed under artificial light and seawater conditions. The Coral–Proto Free Ocean Carbon Enrichment System (CP-FOCE) uses a network of sensors to monitor conditions within each flume and maintain experimental pH as an offset from environmental pH using feedback control on the injection of low pH seawater. Carbonate chemistry conditions maintained in the −0.06 and −0.22 pH offset treatments were significantly different than environmental conditions. The results from this short-term experiment suggest that the CP-FOCE is an important new experimental system to study in situ impacts of ocean acidification on coral reef ecosystems. PMID:22639723

  4. Effect Modification of the Association between Short-term Meteorological Factors and Mortality by Urban Heat Islands in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Goggins, William B.; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Ng, Edward; Ren, Chao; Chen, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Background Prior studies from around the world have indicated that very high temperatures tend to increase summertime mortality. However possible effect modification by urban micro heat islands has only been examined by a few studies in North America and Europe. This study examined whether daily mortality in micro heat island areas of Hong Kong was more sensitive to short term changes in meteorological conditions than in other areas. Method An urban heat island index (UHII) was calculated for each of Hong Kong’s 248 geographical tertiary planning units (TPU). Daily counts of all natural deaths among Hong Kong residents were stratified according to whether the place of residence of the decedent was in a TPU with high (above the median) or low UHII. Poisson Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) were used to estimate the association between meteorological variables and mortality while adjusting for trend, seasonality, pollutants and flu epidemics. Analyses were restricted to the hot season (June-September). Results Mean temperatures (lags 0–4) above 29°C and low mean wind speeds (lags 0–4) were significantly associated with higher daily mortality and these associations were stronger in areas with high UHII. A 1°C rise above 29°C was associated with a 4.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7%, 7.6%) increase in natural mortality in areas with high UHII but only a 0.7% (95% CI: −2.4%, 3.9%) increase in low UHII areas. Lower mean wind speeds (5th percentile vs. 95th percentile) were associated with a 5.7% (95% CI: 2.7, 8.9) mortality increase in high UHII areas vs. a −0.3% (95% CI: −3.2%, 2.6%) change in low UHII areas. Conclusion The results suggest that urban micro heat islands exacerbate the negative health consequences of high temperatures and low wind speeds. Urban planning measures designed to mitigate heat island effects may lessen the health effects of unfavorable summertime meteorological conditions. PMID:22761684

  5. Long- and short-term temporal variations of the diffuse CO2 emission from Timanfaya volcano, Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, P. A.; Padilla, G.; Calvo, D.; Padrón, E.; Melian, G.; Dionis, S.; Nolasco, D.; Barrancos, J.; Rodríguez, F.; Pérez, N.

    2012-04-01

    Lanzarote Island is an emergent part of the East Canary Ridge and it is situated approximately 100 km from the NW coast of Morocco, covering an area of about 795km2. The largest historical eruption of the Canary Islands, Timanfaya, took place during 1730-36 in this island when long-term eruptions from a NE-SW-trending fissure formed the Montañas del Fuego. The last eruption at Lanzarote Island occurred during 1824, Tinguaton volcano, and produced a much smaller lava flow that reached the SW coast. At present, one of the most prominent phenomena at Timanfaya volcanic field is the high maintained superficial temperatures occurring in the area since the 1730 volcanic eruption. The maximum temperatures recorded in this zone are 605°C, taken in a slightly inclined well 13 m deep. Since fumarolic activity is absent at the surface environment of Lanzarote, to study the diffuse CO2 emission becomes an ideal geochemical tool for monitoring its volcanic activity. Soil CO2 efflux surveys were conducted throughout Timanfaya volcanic field and surrounding areas during the summer periods of 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, fall period of 2010 and winter, spring and summer periods of 2011 to investigate long and short-term temporal variations of the diffuse CO2 emission from Timanfaya volcano. Soil CO2 efflux surveys were undertaken at Timanfaya volcanic field always under stable weather conditions to minimize effects of meteorological conditions on the CO2 at the soil atmosphere. Approximately 370-430 sampling sites were selected at the surface environment of Timanfaya to obtain an even distribution of the sampling points over the study area. The accumulation chamber method (Parkinson et al., 1981) was used to perform soil CO2 efflux measurements in-situ by means of a portable non dispersive infrared (NDIR) CO2 analyzer, which was interfaced to a hand size computer that runs data acquisition software. At each sampling site, soil temperature at 15 and 40cm depth was also measured by

  6. Practical Seismology in Undergraduate Education: A Short-Term Seismic Deployment on the Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polet, J.; Thelen, W.; Greenwood, R.; Butcher, A.

    2011-12-01

    In June 2011, we deployed three broadband seismometers on and near Kilauea volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii as a pilot project in geophysical undergraduate education at Cal Poly Pomona. Although large-scale temporary seismic deployments are now fairly common, usually undergraduate students do not have a leading role. The main purpose of this specific field experiment was for the undergraduate students to be active participants, or even leaders, in the installation and data gathering process, and thus have true ownership of the recorded data. This pilot project is part of Cal Poly Pomona's growing undergraduate geophysics program, which includes significant components of practical fieldwork, using modern geophysical equipment, as well as computational analysis, both in keeping with the polytechnic approach of the university. In this seismological field experiment, eight Geology majors were directly responsible for installing the seismic equipment using three different types of deployment. One seismometer was installed in a large instrument vault close to Kilauea Caldera, the second was installed in a pre-built buried container and the final installation was completely free field, using basic supplies from a local hardware store to build a shelter. Students had been taught how to work with the equipment during an on campus hands-on tutorial session. The specific type of seismometers was specifically chosen for its relative ease and speed of deployment, thus enabling the students to carry out the entire installation process almost completely independently. They aligned and centered the seismometers, built shelters for seismometers and batteries, installed GPS sensors and checked that the instruments were functioning correctly using a laptop. During the deployment period, students were able to see some of the volcanic and tectonic processes that were being recorded on the seismometers in action and in the field. We visited the Hawaii Volcano Observatory; explored a

  7. Short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toulouse, G.

    This is a rather bold attempt to bridge the gap between neuron structure and psychological data. We try to answer the question: Is there a relation between the neuronal connectivity in the human cortex (around 5,000) and the short-term memory capacity (7±2)? Our starting point is the Hopfield model (Hopfield 1982), presented in this volume by D.J. Amit.

  8. [Short-term occupational disability].

    PubMed

    Bebensee, H; Conrad, P; Hein, R

    1994-01-01

    The present political discussion about absenteeism in industry and introduction of days of absence in case of sickness emphasises the amount of short-term sickness cases. More or less openly the misuse of continued salary payment via "unauthorized" working inability is discussed: this is often connected with the increased absenteeism on Mondays and Fridays. From the point of view of the Legal Health Insurances this thesis of misuse is investigated in an analysis of cases of short-term work disability. PMID:8148587

  9. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  10. Short-term intercultural psychotherapy: ethnographic inquiry.

    PubMed

    Seeley, Karen M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical practice. Such approaches allow clinicians conducting short-term intercultural treatments to foreground clients' indigenous conceptions of selfhood, mind, relationship, and emotional disturbance, and thus to more fully grasp their internal, interpersonal, and external worlds. This article demonstrates the uses of clinically adapted ethnographic inquiry in three short-term intercultural cases. PMID:14964524

  11. Short-term energy outlook: Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornett, C.; Paxson, D.; Reznek, A. P.; Chu, C.; Sitzer, S.; Gamson, N.; Childress, J. P.; Paul, S.; Weigel, H.; Sutton, S.

    1981-05-01

    Detailed discussions of forecasting methodology and analytical topics concerning short-term energy markets are presented. Major assumptions necessary to make the energy forecasts are also discussed. Supplementary analyses of topics related to short-term energy forecasting are also given. The discussions relate to the forecasts prepared using the short term integrated forecasting system. This set of computer models uses data from various sources to develop energy supply and demand balances. Econmetric models used to predict the demand for petroleum products, natural gas, coal, and electricity are discussed. Price prediction models are also discussed. The role of oil inventories in world oil markets is reviewed. Various relationship between weather patterns and energy consumption are discussed.

  12. Theoretical models of synaptic short term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Matthias H.

    2013-01-01

    Short term plasticity is a highly abundant form of rapid, activity-dependent modulation of synaptic efficacy. A shared set of mechanisms can cause both depression and enhancement of the postsynaptic response at different synapses, with important consequences for information processing. Mathematical models have been extensively used to study the mechanisms and roles of short term plasticity. This review provides an overview of existing models and their biological basis, and of their main properties. Special attention will be given to slow processes such as calcium channel inactivation and the effect of activation of presynaptic autoreceptors. PMID:23626536

  13. Improving Reproductive Performance: Long and Short Term

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements in reproductive performance for beef herds can be classified as short term (current year) or long term (lifetime production) and can be applied to and measured in individual animals or the entire herd. In other species, results show that rearing young animals under caloric restriction ...

  14. Spanish: Familiarization and Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbelaez, Vicente; And Others

    The State Department's Foreign Service Institute short-term, intensive course in Spanish language and culture for government employees going to work in Spanish-speaking countries contains an introductory section and 38 lessons and 10 related audio cassettes intended as the basis for a ten-week program with an instructor. The lessons cover these…

  15. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  16. Short-Term Play Therapy for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaduson, Heidi Gerard, Ed.; Schaefer, Charles E., Ed.

    Play therapy offers a powerful means of helping children resolve a wide range of psychological difficulties, and many play approaches are ideally suited to short-term work. This book brings together leading play therapists to share their expertise on facilitating children's healing in a shorter time frame. The book provides knowledge and skills…

  17. Short-Term Study Abroad, 2001: IIE's Complete Guide to Summer and Short-Term Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Marie, Ed.

    This guide, formerly called "Vacation Study Abroad," lists short-term educational programs of varying lengths from 1 week to several months. Offerings are for the winter and spring breaks, the summer, and other short-term intervals. Some 60% of these programs are sponsored by U.S. accredited colleges and universities. The guide also offers…

  18. Binding in short-term visual memory.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Mary E; Treisman, Anne M

    2002-03-01

    The integration of complex information in working memory, and its effect on capacity, shape the limits of conscious cognition. The literature conflicts on whether short-term visual memory represents information as integrated objects. A change-detection paradigm using objects defined by color with location or shape was used to investigate binding in short-term visual memory. Results showed that features from the same dimension compete for capacity, whereas features from different dimensions can be stored in parallel. Binding between these features can occur, but focused attention is required to create and maintain the binding over time, and this integrated format is vulnerable to interference. In the proposed model, working memory capacity is limited both by the independent capacity of simple feature stores and by demands on attention networks that integrate this distributed information into complex but unified thought objects. PMID:11900102

  19. Interference with visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Logie, R H; Zucco, G M; Baddeley, A D

    1990-10-01

    Working memory (Baddeley and Hitch 1974) incorporates the notion of a visuo-spatial sketch pad; a mechanism thought to be specialized for short-term storage of visuo-spatial material. However, the nature and characteristics of this hypothesized mechanism are as yet unclear. Two experiments are reported which examined selective interference in short-term visual memory. Experiment 1 contrasted recognition memory span for visual matrix patterns with that for visually presented letter sequences. These two span tasks were combined with concurrent arithmetic or a concurrent task which involved manipulation of visuo-spatial material. Results suggested that although there was a small, significant disruption by concurrent arithmetic of span for the matrix patterns, there was a substantially larger disruption of the letter span task. The converse was true for the secondary visuo-spatial task. Experiment 2 combined the span tasks with two established tasks developed by Brooks (1967). Span for matrix patterns was disrupted by a visuo-spatial task but not by a secondary verbal task. The converse was true for letter span. These results suggest that the impairment in short-term visual memory resulting from secondary arithmetic reflects a small general processing load, but that the selective interference due to mode of processing is by far the stronger effect. Results are interpreted as being entirely consistent with the notion of a specialized visuo-spatial mechanism in working memory. PMID:2260493

  20. Short Term Exogenic Climate Change Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krahenbuhl, Daniel

    Several short term exogenic forcings affecting Earth's climate are but recently identified. Lunar nutation periodicity has implications for numerical meteorological prediction. Abrupt shifts in solar wind bulk velocity, particle density, and polarity exhibit correlation with terrestrial hemispheric vorticity changes, cyclonic strengthening and the intensification of baroclinic disturbances. Galactic Cosmic ray induced tropospheric ionization modifies cloud microphysics, and modulates the global electric circuit. This dissertation is constructed around three research questions: (1): What are the biweekly declination effects of lunar gravitation upon the troposphere? (2): How do United States severe weather reports correlate with heliospheric current sheet crossings? and (3): How does cloud cover spatially and temporally vary with galactic cosmic rays? Study 1 findings show spatial consistency concerning lunar declination extremes upon Rossby longwaves. Due to the influence of Rossby longwaves on synoptic scale circulation, our results could theoretically extend numerical meteorological forecasting. Study 2 results indicate a preference for violent tornadoes to occur prior to a HCS crossing. Violent tornadoes (EF3+) are 10% more probable to occur near, and 4% less probable immediately after a HCS crossing. The distribution of hail and damaging wind reports do not mirror this pattern. Polarity is critical for the effect. Study 3 results confirm anticorrelation between solar flux and low-level marine-layer cloud cover, but indicate substantial regional variability between cloud cover altitude and GCRs. Ultimately, this dissertation serves to extend short term meteorological forecasting, enhance climatological modeling and through analysis of severe violent weather and heliospheric events, protect property and save lives.

  1. Short-term energy outlook, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  2. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  3. Economics of solar energy: Short term costing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klee, H.

    The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.

  4. Short-term energy outlook quarterly projections. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short- term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets.

  5. Group Processes in Short-Term Group Therapy of Psychotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opalic, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Presents fundamental principles of short-term psychotherapy in reference to psychotic patients. Emphasizes empirical hermeneutical research into group process within the phenomenological approach. Presents case study of short-term psychotherapy with psychotic patients. Outlines four-stage approach to short-term therapy. (Author/ABL)

  6. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  7. Continuity of Landsat observations: Short term considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulder, M.A.; White, Joanne C.; Masek, J.G.; Dwyer, J.; Roy, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    As of writing in mid-2010, both Landsat-5 and -7 continue to function, with sufficient fuel to enable data collection until the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) scheduled for December of 2012. Failure of one or both of Landsat-5 or -7 may result in a lack of Landsat data for a period of time until the 2012 launch. Although the potential risk of a component failure increases the longer the sensor's design life is exceeded, the possible gap in Landsat data acquisition is reduced with each passing day and the risk of Landsat imagery being unavailable diminishes for all except a handful of applications that are particularly data demanding. Advances in Landsat data compositing and fusion are providing opportunities to address issues associated with Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery and to mitigate a potential acquisition gap through the integration of imagery from different sensors. The latter will likely also provide short-term, regional solutions to application-specific needs for the continuity of Landsat-like observations. Our goal in this communication is not to minimize the community's concerns regarding a gap in Landsat observations, but rather to clarify how the current situation has evolved and provide an up-to-date understanding of the circumstances, implications, and mitigation options related to a potential gap in the Landsat data record. ?? 2010.

  8. Short-term energy outlook, April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Short-term GNSS satellite clock stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggs, E.; Kursinski, E. R.; Akos, D.

    2015-08-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) clock stability is characterized via the modified Allan deviation using active hydrogen masers as the receiver frequency reference. The high stability of the maser reference allows the GNSS clock contribution to the GNSS carrier phase variance to be determined quite accurately. Satellite clock stability for four different GNSS constellations are presented, highlighting the similarities and differences between the constellations as well as satellite blocks and clock types. Impact on high-rate applications, such as GNSS radio occultation (RO), is assessed through the calculation of the maximum carrier phase error due to clock instability. White phase noise appears to dominate at subsecond time scales. However, while we derived the theoretical contribution of white phase modulation to the modified Allan deviation, our analysis of the GNSS satellite clocks was limited to 1-200 s time scales because of inconsistencies between the subsecond results from the commercial and software-defined receivers. The rubidium frequency standards on board the Global Positioning System (GPS) Block IIF, BeiDou, and Galileo satellites show improved stability results in comparison to previous GPS blocks for time scales relevant to RO. The Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) satellites are the least stable of the GNSS constellations in the short term and will need high-rate corrections to produce RO results comparable to those from the other GNSS constellations.

  10. Short-term Drought Prediction in India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, R.; Mishra, V.

    2014-12-01

    Medium range soil moisture drought forecast helps in decision making in the field of agriculture and water resources management. Part of skills in medium range drought forecast comes from precipitation. Proper evaluation and correction of precipitation forecast may improve drought predictions. Here, we evaluate skills of ensemble mean precipitation forecast from Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) for medium range drought predictions over India. Climatological mean (CLIM) of historic data (OBS) are used as reference forecast to evaluate GEFS precipitation forecast. Analysis was conducted based on forecast initiated on 1st and 15th dates of each month for lead up to 7-days. Correlation and RMSE were used to estimate skill scores of accumulated GEFS precipitation forecast from lead 1 to 7-days. Volumetric indices based on the 2X2 contingency table were used to check missed and falsely predicted historic volume of daily precipitation from GEFS in different regions and at different thresholds. GEFS showed improvement in correlation of 0.44 over CLIM during the monsoon season and 0.55 during the winter season. Lower RMSE was showed by GEFS than CLIM. Ratio of RMSE in GEFS and CLIM comes out as 0.82 and 0.4 (perfect skill is at zero) during the monsoon and winter season, respectively. We finally used corrected GEFS forecast to derive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, which was used to develop short-term forecast of hydrologic and agricultural (soil moisture) droughts in India.

  11. Seletracetam enhances short term depression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Meehan, Anna L; Rothman, Steven M; Dubinsky, Janet M

    2015-11-01

    Seletracetam (SEL), an analog of the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam (LEV), decreases seizure activity in a number of epilepsy models and binds to the synaptic vesicle protein SV2A with a higher affinity than LEV. Experiments were performed to determine if SEL, like LEV, reduces the later EPSPs in long trains of stimuli in a manner dependent upon access to the interior of synaptic vesicles and SV2A binding. When hippocampal slices were incubated in 3-30μM SEL for 3h, but not 30 min, the relative amplitude of the CA1 field excitatory synaptic potentials decreased over the course of a train of high frequency stimuli more than for control slices. This short term depression was frequency and dose dependent and largely disappeared when the spontaneous activity during the loading period was removed by cutting the Schaffer collaterals. The SEL effect was also observed in slices loaded during prolonged stimulation at 1Hz, but not 10Hz. Hippocampal slices loaded with both SEL and FM1-43 to visualize synaptic boutons released the FM1-43 in response to prolonged stimulation much more slowly than control slices during prolonged stimulation. Like LEV, SEL produced a frequency-dependent decrement of synaptic transmission that was dependent upon the drug entering recycling synaptic vesicles and compatible with SV2A binding. Previous observations of SV2A binding affinity correlated with the current effect of SEL and the previously reported effect of LEV on synaptic transmission validate SV2A as an extremely attractive target for future antiepileptic drug development. PMID:26320080

  12. Short-Term Periodicities in Solar Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, R. P.

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of the present communication is to identify the short-term (few tens of months) periodicities of several solar indices (sunspot number, Caii area and K index, Lyman α, 2800 MHz radio emission, coronal green-line index, solar magnetic field). The procedure used was: from the 3-month running means (3m) the 37-month running means (37m) were subtracted, and the factor (3m - 37m) was examined for several parameters. For solar indices, considerable fluctuations were seen during the ± 4 years around sunspot maxima of cycles 18-23, and virtually no fluctuations were seen in the ± 2 years around sunspot minima. The spacings between successive peaks were irregular but common for various solar indices. Assuming that there are stationary periodicities, a spectral analysis was carried out which indicated periodicities of months: 5.1 5.7, 6.2 7.0, 7.6 7.9, 8.9 9.6, 10.4 12.0, 12.8 13.4, 14.5 17.5, 22 25, 28 (QBO), 31 36 (QBO), 41 47 (QTO). The periodicities of 1.3 year (15.6 months) and 1.7 years (20.4 months) often mentioned in the literature were seen neither often nor prominently. Other periodicities occurred more often and more prominently. For the open magnetic flux estimated by Wang, Lean, and Sheeley (2000) and Wang and Sheeley (2002), it was noticed that the variations were radically different at different solar latitudes. The open flux for < 45∘ solar latitudes had variations very similar (parallel) to the sunspot cycle, while open flux for > 45∘ solar latitudes had variations anti-parallel to the sunspot cycle. The open fluxes, interplanetary magnetic field and cosmic rays, all showed periodicities similar to those of solar indices. Many peaks (but not all) matched, indicating that the open flux for < 45∘ solar latitudes was at least partially an adequate carrier of the solar characteristics to the interplanetary space and thence for galactic cosmic ray modulation.

  13. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202). The feature article for this issue is Demand, Supply and Price Outlook for Reformulated Gasoline, 1995.

  14. Short-Term Group Treatment for Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Alvin; McCormack, WIlliam A.

    1992-01-01

    Adult children of alcoholics (n=24) were tested on measures of loneliness, anxiety, hostility, depression, and interpersonal dependency before and after participation in short-term group therapy. Highly significant test score changes supported effectiveness of individual therapy in short-term groups. (Author/NB)

  15. 22 CFR 62.21 - Short-term scholars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short-term scholars. 62.21 Section 62.21 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Specific Program Provisions § 62.21 Short-term scholars. (a) Introduction. These regulations govern scholars coming to the United States for a period of up...

  16. Short-Term Training--Where the Action Is!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, George R.

    In order to address major permanent changes in the economic structure and workforce of its community, Chemeketa Community College (CCC) in Oregon has made a commitment to initiate as many short-term training programs as its resources permit. Short-term training, which takes less time than regular one-year certificate or two-year associate degree…

  17. Double Dissociations in Visual and Spatial Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Zhao, Zengmei

    2004-01-01

    A visual short-term memory task was more strongly disrupted by visual than spatial interference, and a spatial memory task was simultaneously more strongly disrupted by spatial than visual interference. This double dissociation supports a fractionation of visuospatial short-term memory into separate visual and spatial components. In 6 experiments,…

  18. Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-06

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  19. 22 CFR 62.21 - Short-term scholars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short-term scholars. 62.21 Section 62.21 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Specific Program Provisions § 62.21 Short-term scholars. (a) Introduction. These regulations govern scholars...

  20. 75 FR 19285 - Short-Term Lending Program (STLP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ...This final rule governs the Short Term Lending Program (STLP), which provides financial assistance in the form of guarantees of short- term revolving lines of credit from Participating Lenders (PLs) to disadvantaged Business Enterprises (DBEs) and other certified small and disadvantaged business (SDBs) in connection with transportation-related contracts at the local, state and federal levels.......

  1. Roles for short-term synaptic plasticity in behavior.

    PubMed

    Fortune, Eric S; Rose, Gary J

    2002-01-01

    Short-term synaptic plasticity is phylogenetically widespread in ascending sensory systems of vertebrate brains. Such plasticity is found at all levels of sensory processing, including in sensory cortices. The functional roles of this apparently ubiquitous short-term synaptic plasticity, however, are not well understood. Data obtained in midbrain electrosensory neurons of Eigenmannia suggest that this plasticity has at least two roles in sensory processing; enhancing low-pass temporal filtering and generating phase shifts used in processing moving sensory images. Short-term synaptic plasticity may serve similar roles in other sensory modalities, including vision. PMID:14692501

  2. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the second quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates.

  3. Auditory Short-Term Memory Behaves Like Visual Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, Kristina M; Kaplan, Elina; Kahana, Michael J; Sekuler, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Are the information processing steps that support short-term sensory memory common to all the senses? Systematic, psychophysical comparison requires identical experimental paradigms and comparable stimuli, which can be challenging to obtain across modalities. Participants performed a recognition memory task with auditory and visual stimuli that were comparable in complexity and in their neural representations at early stages of cortical processing. The visual stimuli were static and moving Gaussian-windowed, oriented, sinusoidal gratings (Gabor patches); the auditory stimuli were broadband sounds whose frequency content varied sinusoidally over time (moving ripples). Parallel effects on recognition memory were seen for number of items to be remembered, retention interval, and serial position. Further, regardless of modality, predicting an item's recognizability requires taking account of (1) the probe's similarity to the remembered list items (summed similarity), and (2) the similarity between the items in memory (inter-item homogeneity). A model incorporating both these factors gives a good fit to recognition memory data for auditory as well as visual stimuli. In addition, we present the first demonstration of the orthogonality of summed similarity and inter-item homogeneity effects. These data imply that auditory and visual representations undergo very similar transformations while they are encoded and retrieved from memory. PMID:17311472

  4. Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) Overview

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) utilizes estimated econometric relationships for demand, inventories and prices to forecast energy market outcomes across key sectors and selected regions throughout the United States.

  5. Short-Term Memory in Habituation and Dishabituation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlow, Jesse William, Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The present research evaluated the refractorylike response decrement, as found in habituation of auditory evoked peripheral vasoconstriction in rabbits, to determine whether or not it represents a short-term habituation process distinct from effector fatigue or sensory adaptation. (Editor)

  6. UTILITY OF SHORT-TERM TESTS FOR GENETIC TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    By definition, short-term test (STTs) for genetic toxicity detect genotoxic agents, not carcinogens specifically. owever, there is ufficient evidence, based on mechanistic considerations alone, to say that genotoxic agents are potential carcinogens. TTs have high statistical powe...

  7. Comparison of very short-term load forecasting techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, K.; Kwan, C.; Lewis, F.L.; Subbarayan, S.; Shoults, R.R.; Manry, M.T.; Naccarino, J.

    1996-05-01

    Three practical techniques--Fuzzy Logic (FL), Neural Networks (NN), and Auto-regressive model (AR)--for very short-term load forecasting have been proposed and discussed in this paper. Their performances are evaluated through a simulation study. The preliminary study shows that it is feasible to design a simple, satisfactory dynamic forecaster to predict the very short-term load trends on-line. FL and NN can be good candidates for this application.

  8. Encephalopathy and vestibulopathy following short-term hydrocarbon exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, M.J.; Furman, J.; Ryan, C.; Durrant, J.; Kern, E.

    1989-01-01

    Dizziness, headaches, and weakness occurred among three men after short-term hydrocarbon exposure during improper welding procedures in a closed container. Symptoms were related to objective evidence of vestibular and cognitive dysfunction. Symptoms and abnormal test results persisted for 6 to 18 months. Simulation of the accident failed to demonstrate likely exposures except aliphatic hydrocarbons, well within the permissible exposure levels. Short-term exposures to neurotoxins may lead to long-term central nervous system abnormalities.

  9. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and interference in short-term memory in a task that rules out the use of rehearsal processes. In this article the authors present a series of studies using a novel paradigm to address this problem directly, by interrogating the operation of decay and interference in short-term memory without rehearsal confounds. The results of these studies indicate that short-term memories are subject to very small decay effects with the mere passage of time but that interference plays a much larger role in their degradation. The authors discuss the implications of these results for existing models of memory decay and interference. PMID:19271849

  10. Short-term memory and dual task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two hypotheses concerning the way in which short-term memory interacts with another task in a dual task situation are considered. It is noted that when two tasks are combined, the activity of controlling and organizing performance on both tasks simultaneously may compete with either task for a resource; this resource may be space in a central mechanism or general processing capacity or it may be some task-specific resource. If a special relationship exists between short-term memory and control, especially if there is an identity relationship between short-term and a central controlling mechanism, then short-term memory performance should show a decrement in a dual task situation. Even if short-term memory does not have any particular identity with a controlling mechanism, but both tasks draw on some common resource or resources, then a tradeoff between the two tasks in allocating resources is possible and could be reflected in performance. The persistent concurrence cost in memory performance in these experiments suggests that short-term memory may have a unique status in the information processing system.

  11. Language repetition and short-term memory: an integrative framework

    PubMed Central

    Majerus, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Short-term maintenance of verbal information is a core factor of language repetition, especially when reproducing multiple or unfamiliar stimuli. Many models of language processing locate the verbal short-term maintenance function in the left posterior superior temporo-parietal area and its connections with the inferior frontal gyrus. However, research in the field of short-term memory has implicated bilateral fronto-parietal networks, involved in attention and serial order processing, as being critical for the maintenance and reproduction of verbal sequences. We present here an integrative framework aimed at bridging research in the language processing and short-term memory fields. This framework considers verbal short-term maintenance as an emergent function resulting from synchronized and integrated activation in dorsal and ventral language processing networks as well as fronto-parietal attention and serial order processing networks. To-be-maintained item representations are temporarily activated in the dorsal and ventral language processing networks, novel phoneme and word serial order information is proposed to be maintained via a right fronto-parietal serial order processing network, and activation in these different networks is proposed to be coordinated and maintained via a left fronto-parietal attention processing network. This framework provides new perspectives for our understanding of information maintenance at the non-word-, word- and sentence-level as well as of verbal maintenance deficits in case of brain injury. PMID:23874280

  12. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections. Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the first quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the second quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  13. Impaired short-term memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26505915

  14. Reconstructing Clusters for Preconditioned Short-term Load Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itagaki, Tadahiro; Mori, Hiroyuki

    This paper presents a new preconditioned method for short-term load forecasting that focuses on more accurate predicted value. In recent years, the deregulated and competitive power market increases the degree of uncertainty. As a result, more sophisticated short-term load forecasting techniques are required to deal with more complicated load behavior. To alleviate the complexity of load behavior, this paper presents a new preconditioned model. In this paper, clustering results are reconstructed to equalize the number of learning data after clustering with the Kohonen-based neural network. That enhances a short-term load forecasting model at each reconstructed cluster. The proposed method is successfully applied to real data of one-step ahead daily maximum load forecasting.

  15. Short-Term Resilience Processes in the Family

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Sunhye; Repetti, Rena L.

    2015-01-01

    The authors review naturalistic studies of short-term processes that appear to promote resilience in children in the context of everyday family life and argue that warm and supportive family interactions foster resilience through their cumulative impact on children’s emotional and physiological stress response systems. In the short-term, these family interactions promote the experience and expression of positive emotion and healthy patterns of diurnal cortisol. Over time, these internal resources – a propensity to experience positive emotion and a well-functioning hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis system –enhance a child’s capacity to avoid, or limit, the deleterious effects of adversity. This article highlights naturalistic research methods that are well suited to the study of these short-term resilience processes and points to clinical applications of our conceptual and methodological approach. PMID:26246651

  16. Verbal short-term memory and vocabulary learning in polyglots.

    PubMed

    Papagno, C; Vallar, G

    1995-02-01

    Polyglot and non-polyglot Italian subjects were given tests assessing verbal (phonological) and visuo-spatial short-term and long-term memory, general intelligence, and vocabulary knowledge in their native language. Polyglots had a superior level of performance in verbal short-term memory tasks (auditory digit span and nonword repetition) and in a paired-associate learning test, which assessed the subjects' ability to acquire new (Russian) words. By contrast, the two groups had comparable performance levels in tasks assessing general intelligence, visuo-spatial short-term memory and learning, and paired-associate learning of Italian words. These findings, which are in line with neuropsychological and developmental evidence, as well as with data from normal subjects, suggest a close relationship between the capacity of phonological memory and the acquisition of foreign languages. PMID:7754088

  17. Short-Termed Integrated Forecasting System: 1993 Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) and describe its basic properties. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Energy Department (DOE) developed the STIFS model to generate short-term (up to 8 quarters), monthly forecasts of US supplies, demands, imports exports, stocks, and prices of various forms of energy. The models that constitute STIFS generate forecasts for a wide range of possible scenarios, including the following ones done routinely on a quarterly basis: A base (mid) world oil price and medium economic growth. A low world oil price and high economic growth. A high world oil price and low economic growth. This report is written for persons who want to know how short-term energy markets forecasts are produced by EIA. The report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public.

  18. Short-term tocolytics for preterm delivery – current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Haas, David M; Benjamin, Tara; Sawyer, Renata; Quinney, Sara K

    2014-01-01

    Administration of short-term tocolytic agents can prolong pregnancy for women in preterm labor. Prolonging pregnancy has many benefits because it allows for other proven interventions, such as antenatal corticosteroid administration, to be accomplished. This review provides an overview of currently utilized tocolytic agents and the evidence demonstrating their efficacy for prolonging pregnancy by at least 48 hours. General pharmacological principles for the clinician regarding drugs in pregnancy are also briefly discussed. In general, while the choice of the best first-line short-term tocolytic drug is not clear, it is evident that use of these agents has a clear place in current obstetric therapeutics. PMID:24707187

  19. Mechanisms of long and short term immunity to plague.

    PubMed Central

    Wake, A; Morita, H; Wake, M

    1978-01-01

    Long and short term immunity to plague was produced in normal mice by using, respectively, an antibiotic resistant Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Both immunogens were used live. Passive serum transfer experiments, together with assays for the bactericidal activity of macrophages and delayed hypersensitivity tests, showed that the short term immunity was of a humoral nature and the long term immunity was cell mediated. The plague virulence markers of the two immunogens were: Y. pestis VW- F1+ P1+ P+; Y. pseudotuberculosis VW+ F1- P1- P-. The challenge organism was Y. pestis VW+ F1+ P1+ P+. Images Figure 3 PMID:680791

  20. Predicting short-term stock fluctuations by using processing fluency

    PubMed Central

    Alter, Adam L.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies investigated the impact of the psychological principle of fluency (that people tend to prefer easily processed information) on short-term share price movements. In both a laboratory study and two analyses of naturalistic real-world stock market data, fluently named stocks robustly outperformed stocks with disfluent names in the short term. For example, in one study, an initial investment of $1,000 yielded a profit of $112 more after 1 day of trading for a basket of fluently named shares than for a basket of disfluently named shares. These results imply that simple, cognitive approaches to modeling human behavior sometimes outperform more typical, complex alternatives. PMID:16754871

  1. Emotive-reconstruction psychotherapy: a short-term cognitive approach.

    PubMed

    Morrison, J K; Cometa, M S

    1977-04-01

    Emotive-Reconstructive Therapy, a recently developed therapeutic modality deriving from cognitive theory, may be a promising short-term approach to psychopathology. Combining the use of imagery with selective hyperventilation, a therapist induces patients to reexperience past events, and subsequently to radically reconstrue themselves and significant others in a personally satisfying direction. PMID:879383

  2. Relation between Intelligence and Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ronald L.; Sandberg, Tor

    1977-01-01

    Intelligence and short-term memory correlations in children were measured using probed serial recall of supraspan digit lists. Results showed the predictive power of intelligence to range from a maximum in the case of recall for recency items to practically zero in the case of primacy items. (Author/MV)

  3. Exogenous Attention Influences Visual Short-Term Memory in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Oakes, Lisa M.; Luck, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that developing visual attentional mechanisms influence infants' Visual Short-Term Memory (VSTM) in the context of multiple items. Five- and 10-month-old infants (N = 76) received a change detection task in which arrays of three differently colored squares appeared and disappeared. On each trial one square…

  4. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. Fourth quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-05

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.

  5. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  6. Regularization in Short-Term Memory for Serial Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botvinick, Matthew; Bylsma, Lauren M.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has shown that short-term memory for serial order can be influenced by background knowledge concerning regularities of sequential structure. Specifically, it has been shown that recall is superior for sequences that fit well with familiar sequencing constraints. The authors report a corresponding effect pertaining to serial…

  7. Short-term storage of Atlantic sturgeon spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is significant interest to restore the Atlantic sturgeon, a species of concern. Biologists are interested in both the short-term storage and cryopreservation of semen to maximize availability of viable spermatozoa whenever a rare ripe female is found and available for spawning. We conducted sh...

  8. Short-term storage options for fresh-market onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet onions have proven to be an excellent spring specialty crop in southeastern Oklahoma. Growers are interested in fuel-efficient methods of short term storage (up to 6 months) to lengthen market windows and enhance returns. Onions were seeded in high tunnels in November of 2005, transplanted to...

  9. 22 CFR 62.21 - Short-term scholars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... participate in seminars, workshops, conferences, study tours, professional meetings, or similar types of... shall satisfy the definition of a short-term scholar as set forth in § 62.4. (e) Cross-cultural... shall be exempted from the requirements of providing cross-cultural activities and orientation as...

  10. 22 CFR 62.21 - Short-term scholars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... participate in seminars, workshops, conferences, study tours, professional meetings, or similar types of... shall satisfy the definition of a short-term scholar as set forth in § 62.4. (e) Cross-cultural... shall be exempted from the requirements of providing cross-cultural activities and orientation as...

  11. 22 CFR 62.21 - Short-term scholars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... participate in seminars, workshops, conferences, study tours, professional meetings, or similar types of... shall satisfy the definition of a short-term scholar as set forth in § 62.4. (e) Cross-cultural... shall be exempted from the requirements of providing cross-cultural activities and orientation as...

  12. Short-term energy outlook, Quarterly projections. Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-04

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding.

  13. Facilitation and Distraction in Short-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, John William; Kail, Robert V., Jr.

    Children's short-term memory was studied under two experimental conditions: one in which recall was expected to be facilitated because of the provision of a study period, and one in which a distracting task was imposed that was expected to interfere with recall. Forty subjects at each of two age levels, 7 and 11 years, were tested in a…

  14. A Short Term Real Time Study in Syntactic Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Maria Eugenia Lamoglia

    Recent research has shown that Brazilian Portuguese is undergoing a change regarding the null subject parameter, evolving from a null subject to a non-null subject language. This paper presents the results of a short term, real time study of speakers of Brazilian Portuguese with low and mid levels of formal education. The study was based on…

  15. Visual Motor Short Term Memory in Educationally Subnormal Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugden, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    This investigation attempted to describe the developmental sequence of visual motor short term memory in mentally handicapped boys (mental ages 6, 9, and 12) during conditions of rest and interpolated activity, and to explore their use of spontaneous rehearsal strategies. Results are compared with those for normal boys. (Author/SJL)

  16. Labeling, Rehearsal, and Short-Term Memory in Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, John W.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A short-term memory task was used to explore the effects of verbal labeling and rehearsal on serial-position recall in mildly retarded 9-to 11-year-old children. Results support the view that verbal skills affect recall in mildly retarded children similarly to normal children. (Author/SDH)

  17. Visual Short-Term Memory During Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerzel, Dirk; Ziegler, Nathalie E.

    2005-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) was probed while observers performed smooth pursuit eye movements. Smooth pursuit keeps a moving object stabilized in the fovea. VSTM capacity for position was reduced during smooth pursuit compared with a condition with eye fixation. There was no difference between a condition in which the items were approximately…

  18. Validation of a Fish Short-term Reproduction Assay

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Fish Short-term Reproduction Assay is an in vivo assay conducted with fathead minnows and is designed to detect changes in spawning, gross morphology, histopathology, and specific biochemical endpoints that reflect disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis...

  19. Interference-Based Forgetting in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Geiger, Sonja M.; Oberauer, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    This article presents four experiments that tested predictions of SOB (Serial Order in a Box), an interference-based theory of short-term memory. Central to SOB is the concept of novelty-sensitive encoding, which holds that items are encoded to the extent that they differ from already-encoded information. On the additional assumption that…

  20. CONTROLLED, SHORT-TERM DERMAL AND INHALATION EXPOSURE TO CHLOROFORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted to determine the uptake by humans of chloroform as a result of controlled short-term dermal and inhalation exposures. The approach used continuous real-time breath analysis to determine exhaled-breath profiles and evaluate chloroform kinetics in the huma...

  1. A DAPHNIA MAGNA SHORT-TERM SURVIVAL AND GROWTH TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the change in acceptable test temperatures for invertebrate toxicity tests from <20oC to 25oC, it is now possible to use Daphnia magna for short-term chronic testing. When cultured at 25oC the dry weight of <24 hr old D. magna ranges from 7 to 15 g depending upon nutrition,...

  2. The Role of Short-Term Memory on Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li-Yuch

    Two studies assessed the impact of short-term memory on English as a Second Language learning. The first involved 20 graduate students at a Taiwanese university, who were randomly divided into treatment and control groups. It investigated differences in the performance of phrase recollection when the information was chunked versus unchunked.…

  3. Valuing Short-Term Study Abroad in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Chung-Ping A.; Steagall, Jeffrey W.; Gallo, Andres; Michelman, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    Short-term study abroad courses often claim to provide a unique experience for students, but it is not clear how the value translates into a dollar amount. The paper uses the contingent valuation method to assess participating students' pre- and post-trip perceived dollar value of their study abroad courses at an AACSB accredited business school.…

  4. Short Term Skill Training. Alternative Approaches. Information Series No. 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Russell

    Short term skill training programs are those programs, usually one year or less, designed to train, retrain, or upgrade the skills of workers. Such programs provide an opportunity for postsecondary vocational institutions to respond to the human resource needs of their communities. A number of important policy issues are involved in the provision…

  5. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, second quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The forecasts in this issue cover the second quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Changes to macroeconomic measures by the Bureau of Economic Analysis have been incorporated into the STIFS model used.

  6. PROTOCOLS FOR SHORT TERM TOXICITY SCREENING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual contains short-term methods for measuring the toxicity of chemical contaminants in soil, sediment, surface water, and groundwater samples. The algal assay is a chronic test, while all other tests described in the manual are acute tests. The methods are one of several t...

  7. Improving creativity performance by short-term meditation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One form of meditation intervention, the integrative body-mind training (IBMT) has been shown to improve attention, reduce stress and change self-reports of mood. In this paper we examine whether short-term IBMT can improve performance related to creativity and determine the role that mood may play in such improvement. Methods Forty Chinese undergraduates were randomly assigned to short-term IBMT group or a relaxation training (RT) control group. Mood and creativity performance were assessed by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) questionnaire respectively. Results As predicted, the results indicated that short-term (30 min per day for 7 days) IBMT improved creativity performance on the divergent thinking task, and yielded better emotional regulation than RT. In addition, cross-lagged analysis indicated that both positive and negative affect may influence creativity in IBMT group (not RT group). Conclusions Our results suggested that emotion-related creativity-promoting mechanism may be attributed to short-term meditation. PMID:24645871

  8. Short-Term Effects of Playing Computer Games on Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca Gul; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Uzel, Mehtap; Altunbas, Handan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term cognitive effects of computer games in children with different psychiatric disorders and normal controls. Method: One hundred one children are recruited for the study (aged between 9 and 12 years). All participants played a motor-racing game on the computer for 1 hour.…

  9. Short-Term Reducing Conditions Decreases Soil Aggregation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Upland soils in Midwestern US are often ponded during the spring for days or weeks and may undergo reducing state. Short-term reducing conditions change the chemistry of the soil and that may affect soil aggregation. The objective of this paper was to determine how changes in the redox status of the...

  10. Color Cues and Rehearsal in Short-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, Ruth A.; Hagen, John W.

    A short term memory task was used to explore the effects of color cues and of a condition that permitted rehearsal as compared to one that did not. Eighty subjects per grade at grades 3, 5, and 7 were tested. A stimulus array consisted of five cards, each of which contained pictures that could be designated as central or incidental. The stimulus…

  11. SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS INDEPENDENT OF BRAIN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Hasker P.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Jones, Oliver W.

    1980-09-01

    Male Swiss albino CD-1 mice given a single injection of a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI) (1 mg/animal), 20 min prior to single trial passive avoidance training demonstrated impaired retention at tests given 3 hr, 6 hr, 1 day, and 7 days after training. Retention was not significantly different from saline controls when tests were given 0.5 or 1.5 hr after training. Prolonging inhibition of brain protein synthesis by giving either 1 or 2 additional injections of ANI 2 or 2 and 4 hr after training did not prolong short-term retention performance. The temporal development of impaired retention in ANI treated mice could not be accounted for by drug dosage, duration of protein synthesis inhibition, or nonspecific sickness at test. In contrast to the suggestion that protein synthesis inhibition prolongs short-term memory (Quinton, 1978), the results of this experiment indicate that short-term memory is not prolonged by antibiotic drugs that inhibit cerebral protein synthesis. All evidence seems consistent with the hypothesis that short-term memory is protein synthesis independent and that the establishment of long-term memory depends upon protein synthesis during or shortly after training. Evidence for a role of protein synthesis in memory maintenance is discussed.

  12. An Evaluation of Short-Term Distributed Online Learning Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bradley; Brooks, David

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of short-term distributed online training events using an adapted version of the compressed evaluation form developed by Wisher and Curnow (1998). Evaluating online distributed training events provides insight into course effectiveness, the contribution of prior knowledge to learning, and…

  13. A Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy Approach for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the need for university counseling centers (UCCs) to implement brief therapies and describes one such treatment, intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP), as a particularly viable therapeutic approach in this setting. Because ISTDP is not appropriate for all students seeking therapy, a careful assessment of the…

  14. Ordered Short-Term Memory Differs in Signers and Speakers: Implications for Models of Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavelier, Daphne; Newport, Elissa L.; Hall, Matt; Supalla, Ted; Boutla, Mrim

    2008-01-01

    Capacity limits in linguistic short-term memory (STM) are typically measured with forward span tasks in which participants are asked to recall lists of words in the order presented. Using such tasks, native signers of American Sign Language (ASL) exhibit smaller spans than native speakers ([Boutla, M., Supalla, T., Newport, E. L., & Bavelier, D.…

  15. Short-term synaptic plasticity and heterogeneity in neural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejias, J. F.; Kappen, H. J.; Longtin, A.; Torres, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    We review some recent results on neural dynamics and information processing which arise when considering several biophysical factors of interest, in particular, short-term synaptic plasticity and neural heterogeneity. The inclusion of short-term synaptic plasticity leads to enhanced long-term memory capacities, a higher robustness of memory to noise, and irregularity in the duration of the so-called up cortical states. On the other hand, considering some level of neural heterogeneity in neuron models allows neural systems to optimize information transmission in rate coding and temporal coding, two strategies commonly used by neurons to codify information in many brain areas. In all these studies, analytical approximations can be made to explain the underlying dynamics of these neural systems.

  16. Cardioprotective Signature of Short-Term Caloric Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Isserlin, Ruth; Arab, Sara; Momen, Abdul; Cheng, Henry S.; Wu, Jun; Afroze, Talat; Li, Ren-Ke; Fish, Jason E.; Bader, Gary D.; Husain, Mansoor

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the molecular pathways underlying the cardiac preconditioning effect of short-term caloric restriction (CR). Background Lifelong CR has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease through a variety of mechanisms. However, prolonged adherence to a CR life-style is difficult. Here we reveal the pathways that are modulated by short-term CR, which are associated with protection of the mouse heart from ischemia. Methods Male 10-12 wk old C57bl/6 mice were randomly assigned to an ad libitum (AL) diet with free access to regular chow, or CR, receiving 30% less food for 7 days (d), prior to myocardial infarction (MI) via permanent coronary ligation. At d8, the left ventricles (LV) of AL and CR mice were collected for Western blot, mRNA and microRNA (miR) analyses to identify cardioprotective gene expression signatures. In separate groups, infarct size, cardiac hemodynamics and protein abundance of caspase 3 was measured at d2 post-MI. Results This short-term model of CR was associated with cardio-protection, as evidenced by decreased infarct size (18.5±2.4% vs. 26.6±1.7%, N=10/group; P=0.01). mRNA and miR profiles pre-MI (N=5/group) identified genes modulated by short-term CR to be associated with circadian clock, oxidative stress, immune function, apoptosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM). Western blots pre-MI revealed CR-associated increases in phosphorylated Akt and GSK3ß, reduced levels of phosphorylated AMPK and mitochondrial related proteins PGC-1α, cytochrome C and cyclooxygenase (COX) IV, with no differences in the levels of phosphorylated eNOS or MAPK (ERK1/2; p38). CR regimen was also associated with reduced protein abundance of cleaved caspase 3 in the infarcted heart and improved cardiac function. PMID:26098549

  17. Auditory short-term memory activation during score reading.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Veerle L; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback. PMID:23326487

  18. 75 FR 58285 - Short-Term, Small Amount Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ...NCUA is amending its general lending rule to enable Federal credit unions (FCUs) to offer short-term, small amount loans (STS loans) as a viable alternative to predatory payday loans. The amendment permits FCUs to charge a higher interest rate for an STS loan than is permitted under the general lending rule, but imposes limitations on the permissible term, amount, and fees associated with an......

  19. Short-term hydroelectric generation model. Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Short-Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on the model structure. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with the EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models.

  20. Auditory Short-Term Memory Activation during Score Reading

    PubMed Central

    Simoens, Veerle L.; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback. PMID:23326487

  1. Short term UV line profile variation in 59 Cyg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Doazan, V.; Peters, G. J.; Willis, A.; Snow, T. P.; Aitken, D.; Barker, P. K.; Bolton, C. T.; Henrichs, H.; Kitchen, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    The International ultraviolet Explorer high dispersion spectra of 59 Cyg obtained as part of the long term monitoring program have shown that noticeable variation can occur in C 5 and N 5 on timescales 3 hours t24 to 28 hours. In order to begin to resolve whether these changes occur continuously or sporadically, 48 hours were devoted to monitoring this star in January 1982. The January spectra show no short term variation, which may be consistent with sporadic rather than continuous variation.

  2. An ethics curriculum for short-term global health trainees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in short-term global health training and service programs continues to grow, yet they can be associated with a variety of ethical issues for which trainees or others with limited global health experience may not be prepared to address. Therefore, there is a clear need for educational interventions concerning these ethical issues. Methods We developed and evaluated an introductory curriculum, “Ethical Challenges in Short-term Global Health Training.” The curriculum was developed through solicitation of actual ethical issues experienced by trainees and program leaders; content drafting; and external content review. It was then evaluated from November 1, 2011, through July 1, 2012, by analyzing web usage data and by conducting user surveys. The survey included basic demographic data; prior experience in global health and global health ethics; and assessment of cases within the curriculum. Results The ten case curriculum is freely available at http://ethicsandglobalhealth.org. An average of 238 unique visitors accessed the site each month (standard deviation, 19). Of users who had been abroad before for global health training or service, only 31% reported prior ethics training related to short-term work. Most users (62%) reported accessing the site via personal referral or their training program; however, a significant number (28%) reported finding the site via web search, and 8% discovered it via web links. Users represented different fields: medicine (46%), public health (15%), and nursing (11%) were most common. All cases in the curriculum were evaluated favorably. Conclusions The curriculum is meeting a critical need for an introduction to the ethical issues in short-term global health training. Future work will integrate this curriculum within more comprehensive curricula for global health and evaluate specific knowledge and behavioral effects, including at training sites abroad. PMID:23410089

  3. 2-arachidonoylglycerol signaling impairs short-term fear extinction

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, N D; Gunduz-Cinar, O; Halladay, L; Bukalo, O; Holmes, A; Patel, S

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in fear extinction are thought to be central to the psychopathology of posttraumatic stress disorder, and endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been strongly implicated in extinction learning. Here we utilized the monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 to selectively augment brain 2-AG levels combined with an auditory cue fear-conditioning paradigm to test the hypothesis that 2-AG-mediated eCB signaling modulates short-term fear extinction learning in mice. We show that systemic JZL184 impairs short-term extinction learning in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner without affecting non-specific freezing behavior or the acquisition of conditioned fear. This effect was also observed in over-conditioned mice environmentally manipulated to re-acquire fear extinction. Cumulatively, the effects of JZL184 appear to be partly due to augmentation of 2-AG signaling in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA), as direct microinfusion of JZL184 into the BLA produced similar results. Moreover, we elucidate a short ~3-day temporal window during which 2-AG augmentation impairs extinction behavior, suggesting a preferential role for 2-AG-mediated eCB signaling in the modulation of short-term behavioral sequelae to acute traumatic stress exposure. PMID:26926885

  4. Short term creep rupture predictions for tantalum alloy T-111

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.J. )

    1991-01-01

    A knowledge of the short term creep rupture behavior of Tantalum alloy T-111 is necessary to predict device integrity in the heat source section of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) at the end of service life, in the event of a fuel fire. High pressures exist in RTGs near the end of service life, these are caused by gas generation resulting from radioactive decay of the nuclear fuel. The internal pressure exerts a significant hoop stress on the T-111 alloy structural containment member. This paper analyses the short term creep behavior (rupture times up to {similar to}2{times}10{sup 3} hrs.) of cold worked (CW) T-111 alloy, using the existing data of Stephenson (1967). Corellations for the time to rupture, time to 1% strain and minimum creep rate have been obtained from this data using multivariable linear regression analysis. These results are compared to other short term rupture data for T-111 alloy. Finally, at the stress/temperature levels relevant to the RTG fuel fire scenario near the end of service life, the rupture time correlation for T-111 alloy predicts a rupture time of approximately 100 hrs.

  5. Short term creep rupture predictions for Tantalum alloy T-3

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    A knowledge of the short term creep rupture behavior of Tantalum alloy T-111 is necessary to predict device integrity in the heat source section of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG's) at the end of service life, in the event of a fuel fire. High pressures exist in RTG's near the end of service life, these are caused by gas generation resulting from radioactive decay of the nuclear fuel. The internal pressure exerts a significant hoop stress on the T-111 alloy structural containment member. This paper analyses the short term creep behavior (rupture times up to {approximately}2 {times} 10{sup 3} hrs.) of cold worked (CW) T-111 alloy, using the existing data of Stephenson (1967). Corellations for the time to rupture, time to 1% strain and minimum creep rate have been obtained from this data using multivariable linear regression analysis. These results are compared to other short term rupture data for T-111 alloy. Finally, at the stress/temperature levels relevant to the RTG fuel fire scenario near the end of service life, the rupture time correlation for T-111 alloy predicts a rupture time of approximately 100 hrs. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  7. Frequency-specific insight into short-term memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Feurra, Matteo; Galli, Giulia; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone

    2016-07-01

    The digit span is one of the most widely used memory tests in clinical and experimental neuropsychology for reliably measuring short-term memory capacity. In the forward version, sequences of digits of increasing length have to be reproduced in the order in which they are presented, whereas in the backward version items must be reproduced in the reversed order. Here, we assessed whether transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) increases the memory span for digits of young and midlife adults. Imperceptibly weak electrical currents in the alpha (10 Hz), beta (20 Hz), theta (5 Hz), and gamma (40 Hz) range, as well as a sham stimulation, were delivered over the left posterior parietal cortex, a cortical region thought to sustain maintenance processes in short-term memory through oscillatory brain activity in the beta range. We showed a frequency-specific effect of beta-tACS that robustly increased the forward memory span of young, but not middle-aged, healthy individuals. The effect correlated with age: the younger the subjects, the greater the benefit arising from parietal beta stimulation. Our results provide evidence of a short-term memory capacity improvement in young adults by online frequency-specific tACS application. PMID:27121583

  8. An approach to distribution short-term load forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.C.; Gaustad, K.L.

    1995-03-01

    This paper reports on the developments and findings of the Distribution Short-Term Load Forecaster (DSTLF) research activity. The objective of this research is to develop a distribution short-term load forecasting technology consisting of a forecasting method, development methodology, theories necessary to support required technical components, and the hardware and software tools required to perform the forecast The DSTLF consists of four major components: monitored endpoint load forecaster (MELF), nonmonitored endpoint load forecaster (NELF), topological integration forecaster (TIF), and a dynamic tuner. These components interact to provide short-term forecasts at various points in the, distribution system, eg., feeder, line section, and endpoint. This paper discusses the DSTLF methodology and MELF component MELF, based on artificial neural network technology, predicts distribution endpoint loads for an hour, a day, and a week in advance. Predictions are developed using time, calendar, historical load, and weather data. The overall DSTLF architecture and a prototype MELF module for retail endpoints have been developed. Future work will be focused on refining and extending MELF and developing NELF and TIF capabilities.

  9. Does tonality boost short-term memory in congenital amusia?

    PubMed

    Albouy, Philippe; Schulze, Katrin; Caclin, Anne; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. Recent findings have demonstrated that this deficit is linked to an impaired short-term memory for tone sequences. As it has been shown before that non-musicians' implicit knowledge of musical regularities can improve short-term memory for tone information, the present study investigated if this type of implicit knowledge could also influence amusics' short-term memory performance. Congenital amusics and their matched controls, who were non-musicians, had to indicate whether sequences of five tones, presented in pairs, were the same or different; half of the pairs respected musical regularities (tonal sequences) and the other half did not (atonal sequences). As previously reported for non-musician participants, the control participants showed better performance (as measured with d') for tonal sequences than for atonal ones. While this improvement was not observed in amusics, both control and amusic participants showed faster response times for tonal sequences than for atonal sequences. These findings suggest that some implicit processing of tonal structures is potentially preserved in congenital amusia. This observation is encouraging as it strengthens the perspective to exploit implicit knowledge to help reducing pitch perception and memory deficits in amusia. PMID:24041778

  10. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Key drivers for EIA's short-term U.S. crude oil production outlook

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil production increased by 790,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) between 2011 and 2012, the largest increase in annual output since the beginning of U.S. commercial crude oil production in 1859. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects U.S. crude oil production to continue rising over the next two years represented in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO).

  11. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, first quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the fourth quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the first quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook.

  12. Short-term memory binding deficits in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Parra, Mario A; Abrahams, Sharon; Fabi, Katia; Logie, Robert; Luzzi, Simona; Della Sala, Sergio

    2009-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease impairs long term memories for related events (e.g. faces with names) more than for single events (e.g. list of faces or names). Whether or not this associative or 'binding' deficit is also found in short-term memory has not yet been explored. In two experiments we investigated binding deficits in verbal short-term memory in Alzheimer's disease. Experiment 1: 23 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 23 age and education matched healthy elderly were recruited. Participants studied visual arrays of objects (six for healthy elderly and four for Alzheimer's disease patients), colours (six for healthy elderly and four for Alzheimer's disease patients), unbound objects and colours (three for healthy elderly and two for Alzheimer's disease patients in each of the two categories), or objects bound with colours (three for healthy elderly and two for Alzheimer's disease patients). They were then asked to recall the items verbally. The memory of patients with Alzheimer's disease for objects bound with colours was significantly worse than for single or unbound features whereas healthy elderly's memory for bound and unbound features did not differ. Experiment 2: 21 Alzheimer's disease patients and 20 matched healthy elderly were recruited. Memory load was increased for the healthy elderly group to eight items in the conditions assessing memory for single or unbound features and to four items in the condition assessing memory for the binding of these features. For Alzheimer's disease patients the task remained the same. This manipulation permitted the performance to be equated across groups in the conditions assessing memory for single or unbound features. The impairment in Alzheimer's disease patients in recalling bound objects reported in Experiment 1 was replicated. The binding cost was greater than that observed in the healthy elderly group, who did not differ in their performance for bound and unbound features. Alzheimer's disease grossly impairs the

  13. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, second quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the first quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the second quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). 34 figs., 19 tabs.

  14. Power system very short-term load prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, D.J.; Johnson, J.M.; Whitney, P.

    1997-02-01

    A fundamental objective of a power-system operating and control scheme is to maintain a match between the system`s overall real-power load and generation. To accurately maintain this match, modern energy management systems require estimates of the future total system load. Several strategies and tools are available for estimating system load. Nearly all of these estimate the future load in 1-hour steps over several hours (or time frames very close to this). While hourly load estimates are very useful for many operation and control decisions, more accurate estimates at closer intervals would also be valuable. This is especially true for emerging Area Generation Control (AGC) strategies such as look-ahead AGC. For these short-term estimation applications, future load estimates out to several minutes at intervals of 1 to 5 minutes are required. The currently emerging operation and control strategies being developed by the BPA are dependent on accurate very short-term load estimates. To meet this need, the BPA commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Montana Tech (an affiliate of the University of Montana) to develop an accurate load prediction algorithm and computer codes that automatically update and can reliably perform in a closed-loop controller for the BPA system. The requirements include accurate load estimation in 5-minute steps out to 2 hours. This report presents the results of this effort and includes: a methodology and algorithms for short-term load prediction that incorporates information from a general hourly forecaster; specific algorithm parameters for implementing the predictor in the BPA system; performance and sensitivity studies of the algorithms on BPA-supplied data; an algorithm for filtering power system load samples as a precursor to inputting into the predictor; and FORTRAN 77 subroutines for implementing the algorithms.

  15. MHz gravitational waves from short-term anisotropic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro

    2016-04-01

    We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around 10-26~ 10-27 are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10 MHz~100 MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.

  16. Short-term energy outlook. Volume 2. Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-05-01

    Recent changes in forecasting methodology for nonutility distillate fuel oil demand and for the near-term petroleum forecasts are discussed. The accuracy of previous short-term forecasts of most of the major energy sources published in the last 13 issues of the Outlook is evaluated. Macroeconomic and weather assumptions are included in this evaluation. Energy forecasts for 1983 are compared. Structural change in US petroleum consumption, the use of appropriate weather data in energy demand modeling, and petroleum inventories, imports, and refinery runs are discussed.

  17. Short-term prospective spirometric study of new coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Hankinson, J.L.; Hodous, T.K.

    1982-09-01

    This study examined prospectively a small cohort (N=116) of new coal miners with questionnaires and spirometry. Data collection began just prior to underground employment and extended over a two year period at 6 month intervals to address the question or short-term adverse occupational pulmonary effects and their relationship to outward migration from the industry. A comparison of the initial (unexposed) and six month (exposed) changes in lung function over the work shift was also conducted to detect an acute effect due to dust, which might be related to chronic decline in lung function.

  18. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. Short-term bioconcentration studies of Np in freshwater biota

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Simmons, M.A. )

    1990-12-01

    Short-term laboratory exposures were conducted to determine the potential accumulation of Np in aquatic organisms. Concentration factors were highest in green algae. Daphnia magna, a filter-feeding crustacean, accumulated Np at levels one order of magnitude greater than the amphipod Gammarus sp., an omnivorous substrate feeder. Accumulation of Np in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was highest in carcass (generally greater than 78% of the total body burden) and lowest in fillets. Recommended concentration factors for Np, based on fresh weight, were 300 for green algae, 100 for filter-feeding invertebrates, for nonfilter-feeding invertebrates, 10 for whole fish, and one for fish flesh.

  20. Short-term memory load and pronunciation rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweickert, Richard; Hayt, Cathrin

    1988-01-01

    In a test of short-term memory recall, two subjects attempted to recall various lists. For unpracticed subjects, the time it took to read the list is a better predictor of immediate recall than the number of items on the list. For practiced subjects, the two predictors do about equally well. If the items that must be recalled are unfamiliar, it is advantageous to keep the items short to pronounce. On the other hand, if the same items will be encountered over and over again, it is advantageous to make them distinctive, even at the cost of adding to the number of syllables.

  1. Short-term frequency stability of the Rb-87 maser.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tetu, M.; Busca, G.; Vanier, J.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements of the short-term stability of the Rb-87 maser as a function of the maser power output and the receiver cutoff frequency are reported. The experimental data are compared to theoretical results obtained from an approximate theory. In this theory the transfer function of the maser for thermal noise is derived, and the spectral density of the phase fluctuations is calculated. An analytical expression for the 'Allan variance' is also given. A comparison of the stability of the Rb-87 maser with existing frequency standards shows its superiority for averaging times less than 1 sec.

  2. Short-term stability of Borrelia garinii in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Berenová, Dagmar; Krsek, Daniel; Šípková, Lenka; Lukavská, Alena; Malý, Marek; Kurzová, Zuzana; Hořejší, Jan; Kodym, Petr

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to find out the optimal conditions for short-term storage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for direct diagnosis of Lyme disease. A mixture of Borrelia-negative CSFs spiked with a defined amount of cultured Borrelia garinii was used. Borrelia stability was investigated over 7 days at four different temperatures [room temperature (RT), +4, -20 and -70 °C]. Quantitative changes in CSF Borrelia were measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and morphological changes in the spirochetes were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These qPCR results were statistically evaluated. We found +4 °C to be an optimal temperature for short-term storage of CSF samples intended for TEM observation. There was no significant difference between the temperatures tested in the average quantity of Borrelia measured by qPCR. On the contrary, electron optical diagnosis of frozen samples and samples stored at RT showed destructive morphological changes and decreased spirochete counts. Our results show that optimal conditions for the pre-analytical phase of investigation of one type of material can differ depending on the diagnostic method employed. PMID:26104540

  3. Robust Short-Term Memory without Synaptic Learning

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Samuel; Marro, J.; Torres, Joaquín J.

    2013-01-01

    Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can – as a gradual modification of synaptic weights – since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds). The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings. PMID:23349664

  4. Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). The base scope has been applied to the entire complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. Findings from the implementation, commissioning, and short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach. Despite being a moderate rehab instead of a gut rehab, the Bay Ridge DER is currently projected to achieve energy savings ≥ 50% compared to pre-retrofit, and the short-term testing supports this estimate.

  5. Statistical approaches to short-term electricity forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellova, Andrea

    The study of the short-term forecasting of electricity demand has played a key role in the economic optimization of the electric energy industry and is essential for power systems planning and operation. In electric energy markets, accurate short-term forecasting of electricity demand is necessary mainly for economic operations. Our focus is directed to the question of electricity demand forecasting in the Czech Republic. Firstly, we describe the current structure and organization of the Czech, as well as the European, electricity market. Secondly, we provide a complex description of the most powerful external factors influencing electricity consumption. The choice of the most appropriate model is conditioned by these electricity demand determining factors. Thirdly, we build up several types of multivariate forecasting models, both linear and nonlinear. These models are, respectively, linear regression models and artificial neural networks. Finally, we compare the forecasting power of both kinds of models using several statistical accuracy measures. Our results suggest that although the electricity demand forecasting in the Czech Republic is for the considered years rather a nonlinear than a linear problem, for practical purposes simple linear models with nonlinear inputs can be adequate. This is confirmed by the values of the empirical loss function applied to the forecasting results.

  6. Short-term energy outlook, Annual supplement 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-25

    This supplement is published once a year as a complement to the Short- Term Energy Outlook, Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts. Chap. 2 analyzes the response of the US petroleum industry to the recent four Federal environmental rules on motor gasoline. Chap. 3 compares the EIA base or mid case energy projections for 1995 and 1996 (as published in the first quarter 1995 Outlook) with recent projections made by four other major forecasting groups. Chap. 4 evaluates the overall accuracy. Chap. 5 presents the methology used in the Short- Term Integrated Forecasting Model for oxygenate supply/demand balances. Chap. 6 reports theoretical and empirical results from a study of non-transportation energy demand by sector. The empirical analysis involves the short-run energy demand in the residential, commercial, industrial, and electrical utility sectors in US.

  7. Plant community controls on short-term ecosystem nitrogen retention.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D

    2016-05-01

    Retention of nitrogen (N) is a critical ecosystem function, especially in the face of widespread anthropogenic N enrichment; however, our understanding of the mechanisms involved is limited. Here, we tested under glasshouse conditions how plant community attributes, including variations in the dominance, diversity and range of plant functional traits, influence N uptake and retention in temperate grassland. We added a pulse of (15) N to grassland plant communities assembled to represent a range of community-weighted mean plant traits, trait functional diversity and divergence, and species richness, and measured plant and microbial uptake of (15) N, and leaching losses of (15) N, as a short-term test of N retention in the plant-soil system. Root biomass, herb abundance and dominant plant traits were the main determinants of N retention in the plant-soil system: greater root biomass and herb abundance, and lower root tissue density, increased plant (15) N uptake, while higher specific leaf area and root tissue density increased microbial (15) N uptake. Our results provide novel, mechanistic insight into the short-term fate of N in the plant-soil system, and show that dominant plant traits, rather than trait functional diversity, control the fate of added N in the plant-soil system. PMID:26749302

  8. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, third quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the second quarter of 1996, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the third quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  9. Calcium Channels and Short-term Synaptic Plasticity*

    PubMed Central

    Catterall, William A.; Leal, Karina; Nanou, Evanthia

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in presynaptic nerve terminals initiate neurotransmitter release in response to depolarization by action potentials from the nerve axon. The strength of synaptic transmission is dependent on the third to fourth power of Ca2+ entry, placing the Ca2+ channels in a unique position for regulation of synaptic strength. Short-term synaptic plasticity regulates the strength of neurotransmission through facilitation and depression on the millisecond time scale and plays a key role in encoding information in the nervous system. CaV2.1 channels are the major source of Ca2+ entry for neurotransmission in the central nervous system. They are tightly regulated by Ca2+, calmodulin, and related Ca2+ sensor proteins, which cause facilitation and inactivation of channel activity. Emerging evidence reviewed here points to this mode of regulation of CaV2.1 channels as a major contributor to short-term synaptic plasticity of neurotransmission and its diversity among synapses. PMID:23400776

  10. Hepatic antioxidative responses to PCDPSs and estimated short-term biotoxicity in freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Li, Mei; Shi, Jiaqi; Yang, Xi; Wang, Zunyao

    2012-09-15

    This study evaluated the short-term toxicity of polychlorinated diphenylsulfides (PCDPSs) in freshwater fish. Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the oxidative stress and antioxidative responses of 12 different types of PCDPSs in the liver of goldfish, Carassius auratus. Fish were injected with increasing concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, 100 μg/kg body weight for various PCDPSs and 1, 10, 100 mg/kg for diphenylsulfides (DPS)) of test compounds for 12h, with one group assigned as the control. We simultaneously evaluated the time-dependent effects of PCDPSs on the antioxidant defense system, using Tris-, Penta- and Hepta-CDPS. Fish were acutely injected with either 10 μg/kg of such PCDPSs or corn oil alone (control), and then liver samples were collected at 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5d for analysis of antioxidant content. Changes in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected, suggesting that PCDPSs exhibit potential biotoxicity. In addition, our data indicated that PCDPS toxicity varies with the degree of substitution and the position of substitution attached to two benzene rings, results that were also partly supported by the time-dependent effects elicited by the Tris-, Penta- and Hepta-CDPSs. In particular, our results indicate that Penta- and Hexa-CDPSs may act as highly toxic contaminants that exhibit striking enzymatic inhibitory activity. Furthermore, our results suggest that altered levels of antioxidant enzymes, including SOD and CAT, along with MDA, may serve as potential biomarkers of PCDPS contamination. PMID:22640874

  11. Does short-term exposure to elevated levels of natural gamma radiation in Ramsar cause oxidative stress?

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, SMJ; Niroomand-Rad, A; Roshan-Shomal, P; Razavi-Toosi, SMT; Mossayeb-Zadeh, M; Moghadam, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ramsar, a city in northern Iran, has areas with some of the highest recorded levels of natural radiation among inhabited areas measured on the earth. Aims: To determine whether short-term exposure to extremely high levels of natural radiation induce oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: In this study, 53 Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 10-12 animals. Animals in the 1st group were kept for 7 days in an outdoor area with normal background radiation while the 2nd , 3rd , 4th and 5th groups were kept in four different outdoor areas with naturally elevated levels of gamma radiation in Ramsar. A calibrated RDS-110 survey meter, mounted on a tripod approximately 1 m above the ground, was used to measure exposure rate at each location. On days 7 and 9 blood sampling was performed to assess the serum levels of catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA). On day 8, all animals were exposed to a lethal dose of 8 Gy gamma radiations emitted by a Theratron Phoenix (Theratronics, Canada) Cobalt-60 (55 cGy/min) at Radiotherapy Department of Razi Hospital in Rasht, Iran. Results: Findings obtained in this study indicate that high levels of natural radiation cannot induce oxidative stress. CAT and MDA levels in almost all groups were not significantly different (P = 0.69 and P = 0.05, respectively). After exposure to the lethal dose, CAT and MDA levels in all groups were not significantly different (P = 0.054 and P = 0.163, respectively). Conclusions: These findings indicate that short-term exposure to extremely high levels of natural radiation (up to 196 times higher than the normal background) does not induce oxidative stress. PMID:25143879

  12. The cognitive neuroscience of visual short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Postle, Bradley R

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the neural bases of visual short-term memory (STM), the ability to mentally retain information over short periods of time, is being reshaped by two important developments: the application of methods from statistical machine learning, often a variant of multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalographic (EEG) data sets; and advances in our understanding of the physiology and functions of neuronal oscillations. One consequence is that many commonly observed physiological "signatures" that have previously been interpreted as directly related to the retention of information in visual STM may require reinterpretation as more general, state-related changes that can accompany cognitive-task performance. Another is important refinements of theoretical models of visual STM. PMID:26516631

  13. Short-term scheduling of reactive power controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Yingyi; Liao Csongming

    1995-05-01

    A two-level approach is presented to solve the problem of optimal short-term (one day) scheduling of reactive power controllers in this paper. The entire problem is decomposed into two levels: the master and the slave levels. The master level deals with minimization of the depreciation cost of compensators and EHV transformer taps in order to reduce the control action for compensators and EHV transformer taps while satisfying operating constraints. The slave level treats minimization of capitalized MW losses while satisfying system security constraints. The slave level also treats OLTCs and determines scheduling of the generator voltages. These two levels interact through linear constraints in the iteration process. A practical 265-bus system, namely Taiwan Power System, are used to serve as a sample to show the applicability of the presented approach.

  14. Short-Term Test Results. Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, James

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. This report describes the Bay Ridge project, a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). Findings from the short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach.

  15. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.

    1991-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration = 28, 56, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights.

  16. Risk Quantification for ANN Based Short-Term Load Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwashita, Daisuke; Mori, Hiroyuki

    A new risk assessment method for short-term load forecasting is proposed. The proposed method makes use of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to forecast one-step ahead daily maximum loads and evaluate uncertainty of in load forecasting. As ANN the model, the Radial Basis Function (RBF) network is employed to forecast loads due to the good performance. Sufficient realistic pseudo-scenarios are required to carry out quantitative risk analysis. The multivariate normal distribution with the correlation between input variables is used to give more realistic results to ANN. In addition, the method of Moment Matching is used to improve the accuracy of the multivariate normal distribution. The Peak Over Threshold (POT) approach is used to evaluate risk that exceeds the upper bounds of generation capacity. The proposed method is successfully applied to real data of daily maximum load forecasting.

  17. Short-Term Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    U.S. liquid fuels production increased from 7.43 million barrels per day (b/d) in 2008 to 13.75 million b/d in 2015. However, the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) expects liquid fuels production to decline to 12.99 million b/d in 2017, mainly as a result of prolonged low oil prices. The liquid fuels production forecast reflects a 1.24 million b/d decline in crude oil production by 2017 that is partially offset by a 450,000 b/d increase in the production of hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGL)—a group of products including ethane, propane, butane (normal and isobutane), natural gasoline, and refinery olefins. This analysis will discuss the outlook for each of these four HGL streams and related infrastructure projects through 2017.

  18. The effects of short-term hypergravity on Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldanha, Jenifer N.; Pandey, Santosh; Powell-Coffman, Jo Anne

    2016-08-01

    As we seek to recognize the opportunities of advanced aerospace technologies and spaceflight, it is increasingly important to understand the impacts of hypergravity, defined as gravitational forces greater than those present on the earth's surface. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been established as a powerful model to study the effects of altered gravity regimens and has displayed remarkable resilience to space travel. In this study, we investigate the effects of short-term and defined hypergravity exposure on C. elegans motility, brood size, pharyngeal pumping rates, and lifespan. The results from this study advance our understanding of the effects of shorter durations of exposure to increased gravitational forces on C. elegans, and also contribute to the growing body of literature on the impacts of altered gravity regimens on earth's life forms.

  19. Short-term Variability of Extinction by Broadband Stellar Photometry

    SciTech Connect

    Musat, I.C.; Ellingson, R.G.

    2005-03-18

    Aerosol optical depth variation over short-term time intervals is determined from broadband observations of stars with a whole sky imager. The main difficulty in such measurements consists of accurately separating the star flux value from the non-stellar diffuse skylight. Using correction method to overcome this difficulty, the monochromatic extinction at the ground due to aerosols is extracted from heterochromatic measurements. A form of closure is achieved by comparison with simultaneous or temporally close measurements with other instruments, and the total error of the method, as a combination of random error of measurements and systematic error of calibration and model, is assessed as being between 2.6 and 3% rms.

  20. Benefits of short-term dietary restriction in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Lauren T.; Mitchell, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary or calorie restriction (DR, CR), defined as reduced food intake without malnutrition, imparts many benefits in model organisms. Extended longevity is the most popularized benefit but the least clinically relevant due to the requirement for long-term food restriction. DR also promotes stress resistance and metabolic fitness. Emerging data in experimental models and in humans indicate that these benefits occur rapidly upon initiation of DR, suggesting potential clinical relevance. Here we review data on the ability of short-term DR to induce beneficial effects on clinically relevant endpoints including surgical stress, inflammation, chemotherapy and insulin resistance. The encouraging results obtained in these preclinical and clinical studies, and the general lack of mechanistic understanding, both strongly suggest the need for further research in this emerging area. PMID:23376627

  1. Emulating short-term synaptic dynamics with memristive devices

    PubMed Central

    Berdan, Radu; Vasilaki, Eleni; Khiat, Ali; Indiveri, Giacomo; Serb, Alexandru; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2016-01-01

    Neuromorphic architectures offer great promise for achieving computation capacities beyond conventional Von Neumann machines. The essential elements for achieving this vision are highly scalable synaptic mimics that do not undermine biological fidelity. Here we demonstrate that single solid-state TiO2 memristors can exhibit non-associative plasticity phenomena observed in biological synapses, supported by their metastable memory state transition properties. We show that, contrary to conventional uses of solid-state memory, the existence of rate-limiting volatility is a key feature for capturing short-term synaptic dynamics. We also show how the temporal dynamics of our prototypes can be exploited to implement spatio-temporal computation, demonstrating the memristors full potential for building biophysically realistic neural processing systems. PMID:26725838

  2. Astronomical observation tasks short-term scheduling using PDDS algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    A concept of the ground-based optical astronomical observation efficiency is considered in this paper. We believe that a telescope efficiency can be increased by properly allocating observation tasks with respect to the current environment state and probability to obtain the data with required properties under the current conditions. An online observations scheduling is assumed to be an essential part for raising the efficiency. The short-term online scheduling is treated as the discrete optimisation problems which are stated using several abstraction levels. The optimisation problems are solved using the parallel depth-bounded discrepancy search (PDDS) algorithm by Moisan et al. (2014). Some aspects of the algorithm performance are discussed. The presented algorithm is a core of open-source chelyabinsk C++ library which is planned to be used at 2.5 m telescope of Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University.

  3. Short-term outcomes after conventional transthoracic esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Niwa, Yukiko; Koike, Masahiko; Hattori, Masashi; Iwata, Naoki; Takami, Hideki; Hayashi, Masamichi; Kanda, Mitsuro; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Tanaka, Chie; Yamada, Suguru; Fujii, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Goro; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Nomoto, Shuji; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In our department, we have attempted to reduce the incidence of complications of conventional esophagectomy. The objective of this retrospective study was to report the short-term outcomes of esophagectomy. We reviewed 138 consecutive patients who had undergone subtotal esophagectomy by combined laparotomy via a 12-cm upper abdominal vertical incision combined with right anterior muscle-sparing thoracotomy from August 2010 to August 2014. Most of the cervical para-esophageal lymph node dissection was completed within the thoracic cavity. We performed three-field dissection in patients with tumors in the upper or middle third of the esophagus with clinical lymph node metastases in the superior mediastinum; the others underwent two-field dissection. We performed neck anastomoses in patients undergoing three-field dissection and thoracic anastomoses in those undergoing two-field dissection. Effective postoperative pain management was achieved with a combination of epidural anesthesia and paravertebral block. Postoperative rehabilitation was instituted for early ambulation and recovery. Enteral nutrition via a duodenal feeding tube was administered from postoperative day 2. Median hospital stay after surgery was 15 days (range, 10–129). Rates for both 30-day and in-hospital mortality were 0%. Morbidity rate for all Clavien–Dindo grades was 41.3%, whereas the morbidity rate for Clavien–Dindo grades III and IV was 7.2%. Anastomotic leakage developed in two patients (1.4%), recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in 11 (8.0%), and pneumonia in nine (6.5%). Good short-term outcomes, especially regarding anastomotic leaks, were achieved by consistent improvements in surgical techniques, optimization of several operative procedures, and appropriate perioperative management. PMID:27018983

  4. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26541581

  5. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    PubMed

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific. PMID:26476140

  6. Short-Term International Internship Experiences for Future Teachers and Other Child Development Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kari Knutson; Gonzalez, Amber M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines outcomes associated with participation in short-term, international internship experiences. Results suggest short-term international internship experiences contribute to rich personal and professional development outcomes. Findings highlight participant challenges associated with initial internship experiences, professional…

  7. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the short-term full diet program under the following general criteria: (1)...

  8. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the short-term full diet program under the following general criteria: (1)...

  9. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the short-term full diet program under the following general criteria: (1)...

  10. Short-Term Effects of Midseason Coach Turnover on Team Performance in Soccer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balduck, Anne-Line; Buelens, Marc; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term team performance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team…

  11. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the short-term full diet program under the following general criteria: (1)...

  12. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the short-term full diet program under the following general criteria: (1)...

  13. 34 CFR 390.1 - What is the Rehabilitation Short-Term Training program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Rehabilitation Short-Term Training program...) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION REHABILITATION SHORT-TERM TRAINING General § 390.1 What is the Rehabilitation Short-Term Training program? This program...

  14. 34 CFR 664.11 - What is a short-term seminar project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is a short-term seminar project? 664.11 Section... Projects Does the Secretary Assist Under This Program? § 664.11 What is a short-term seminar project? A short-term seminar project is— (a) Designed to help integrate international studies into an...

  15. 34 CFR 390.1 - What is the Rehabilitation Short-Term Training program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What is the Rehabilitation Short-Term Training program...) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION REHABILITATION SHORT-TERM TRAINING General § 390.1 What is the Rehabilitation Short-Term Training program? This program...

  16. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  17. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  18. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  19. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  20. Short-term visual deprivation improves the perception of harmonicity.

    PubMed

    Landry, Simon P; Shiller, Douglas M; Champoux, François

    2013-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that the perception of auditory stimuli involves occipital cortical regions traditionally associated with visual processing, even in the absence of any overt visual component to the task. Analogous behavioral evidence of an interaction between visual and auditory processing during purely auditory tasks comes from studies of short-term visual deprivation on the perception of auditory cues, however, the results of such studies remain equivocal. Although some data have suggested that visual deprivation significantly increases loudness and pitch discrimination and reduces spatial localization inaccuracies, it is still unclear whether such improvement extends to the perception of spectrally complex cues, such as those involved in speech and music perception. We present data demonstrating that a 90-min period of visual deprivation causes a transient improvement in the perception of harmonicity: a spectrally complex cue that plays a key role in music and speech perception. The results provide clear behavioral evidence supporting a role for the visual system in the processing of complex auditory stimuli, even in the absence of any visual component to the task. PMID:23957309

  1. Leukocyte subsets and neutrophil function after short-term spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C. F.; Mehta, S. K.; Kaur, I.; Jones, M. L.; Feeback, D. L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in leukocyte subpopulations and function after spaceflight have been observed but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not well defined. This study investigated the effects of short-term spaceflight (8-15 days) on circulating leukocyte subsets, stress hormones, immunoglobulin levels, and neutrophil function. At landing, a 1.5-fold increase in neutrophils was observed compared with preflight values; lymphocytes were slightly decreased, whereas the results were variable for monocytes. No significant changes were observed in plasma levels of immunoglobulins, cortisol, or adrenocorticotropic hormone. In contrast, urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol were significantly elevated at landing. Band neutrophils were observed in 9 of 16 astronauts. Neutrophil chemotactic assays showed a 10-fold decrease in the optimal dose response after landing. Neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells was increased both before and after spaceflight. At landing, the expression of MAC-1 was significantly decreased while L-selectin was significantly increased. These functional alterations may be of clinical significance on long-duration space missions.

  2. Genotoxicity Assessment of Erythritol by Using Short-term Assay

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Young-Shin

    2013-01-01

    Erythritol is a sugar alcohol that is widely used as a natural sugar substitute. Thus, the safety of its usage is very important. In the present study, short-term genotoxicity assays were conducted to evaluate the potential genotoxic effects of erythritol. According to the OECD test guidelines, the maximum test dose was 5,000 μg/plate in bacterial reverse mutation tests, 5,000 μg/ml in cell-based assays, and 5,000 mg/kg for in vivo testing. An Ames test did not reveal any positive results. No clastogenicity was observed in a chromosomal aberration test with CHL cells or an in vitro micronucleus test with L5178Y tk+/− cells. Erythritol induced a marginal increase of DNA damage at two high doses by 24 hr of exposure in a comet assay using L5178Y tk+/− cells. Additionally, in vivo micronucleus tests clearly demonstrated that oral administration of erythritol did not induce micronuclei formation of the bone marrow cells of male ICR mice. Taken together, our results indicate that erythritol is not mutagenic to bacterial cells and does not cause chromosomal damage in mammalian cells either in vitro or in vivo. PMID:24578795

  3. Short-term toxicity of nine industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Komsta, E.; Secours, V.E.; Chu, I.; Morris, R.; Harrison, J.; Baranowski, E.; Villeneuve, D.C. ); Valli, V.E. )

    1989-07-01

    There are a number of industrial chemicals currently used in Canada in sufficiently large quantities that warrant a careful environmental and human health hazard assessment by the regulatory agencies. A review of the existing toxicity data for these chemicals indicated that most of the studies were inadequate due to study design, small group size, inadequate procedures or insufficient parameters being monitored. In order to determine if further studies were warranted it was decided to screen 9 of these chemicals in a short-term study using male and female rats. The chemicals were chosen based on considerations such as quantity, availability of toxicological data, chemical and structural properties and commercial availability. The chemicals selected were: tri(butoxyethyl) phosphate, dimethylol urea, 2-butyne-1,4-diol, triallyl-s-triazine-trione, cyclohexanone oxime, p-toluene sulphonhydrazide, 2-nitroaniline, propargyl alcohol and 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole. The assay consisted of a 14-day oral dosing regime followed by a comprehensive evaluation of biochemical, hematological and histophathological changes.

  4. Synchronous dynamics in the presence of short-term plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Volo, Matteo; Livi, Roberto; Luccioli, Stefano; Politi, Antonio; Torcini, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the occurrence of quasisynchronous events in a random network of excitatory leaky integrate-and-fire neurons equipped with short-term plasticity. The dynamics is analyzed by monitoring both the evolution of global synaptic variables and, on a microscopic ground, the interspike intervals of the individual neurons. We find that quasisynchronous events are the result of a mixture of synchronized and unsynchronized motion, analogously to the emergence of synchronization in the Kuramoto model. In the present context, disorder is due to the random structure of the network and thereby vanishes for a diverging network size N (i.e., in the thermodynamic limit), when statistical fluctuations become negligible. Remarkably, the fraction of asynchronous neurons remains strictly larger than zero for arbitrarily large N. This is due to the presence of a robust homoclinic cycle in the self-generated synchronous dynamics. The nontrivial large-N behavior is confirmed by the anomalous scaling of the maximum Lyapunov exponent, which is strictly positive in a finite network and decreases as N-0.27. Finally, we have checked the robustness of this dynamical phase with respect to the addition of noise, applied to either the reset potential or the leaky current.

  5. Short-term fluoride release from various aesthetic restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Yap, Adrian U J; Tham, S Y; Zhu, L Y; Lee, H K

    2002-01-01

    The short-term fluoride release of a giomer (Reactmer), a compomer (Dyract AP), a conventional glass ionomer cement (Fuji II Cap) and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Fuji II LC) was evaluated and compared. Specimen discs (6 +/-0.2 mm diameter and 1 +/- 0.2 mm thick) were prepared for each material using custom molds. Each disc was placed in 1 ml of deionized for 24 hours at 37 degrees C. After one day, the water was extracted and analyzed. The specimen discs were then re-immersed into another 1 ml of fresh deionized water. The procedure of removing and refilling the water was repeated for 28 days. Sample solutions taken during the first seven days and at days 14, 21 and 28 were introduced into a capillary electrophoresis system using field amplified sample injection (FASI) to determine fluoride release. Data was analyzed using factorial ANOVA/Scheffe's post-hoc test at significance level 0.05. An initial fluoride "burst" effect was observed with glass ionomers. Both compomer and giomer did not show an initial fluoride "burst" effect. With the exception of the compomer, fluoride release at day one was generally significantly greater than at the other time intervals. The glass ionomers released significantly more fluoride than the compomer and giomer at day one. Although fluoride release of the giomer was significantly greater than the other materials at day seven, it became significantly lower at day 28. PMID:12022457

  6. Short-Term Dynamical Interactions Among Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Gregory; Chambers, John E.; DiVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We show that short-term perturbations among massive planets in multiple planet systems can result in radial velocity variations of the central star which differ substantially from velocity variations derived assuming the planets are executing independent Keplerian motions. We discuss two alternate fitting methods which can lead to an improved dynamical description of multiple planet systems. In the first method, the osculating orbital elements are determined via a Levenberg-Marquardt minimization scheme driving an N-body integrator. The second method is an improved analytic model in which orbital elements such as the periods and longitudes of periastron are allowed to vary according to a simple model for resonant interactions between the planets. Both of these methods can potentially determine the true masses for the planets by eliminating the sin(i) degeneracy inherent in fits that assume independent Keplerian motions. As more radial velocity data is accumulated from stars such as GJ876, these methods should allow for unambiguous determination of the planetary masses and relative inclinations.

  7. Slave systems in verbal short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; Howard, David

    2013-01-01

    Background The model of performance in short-term memory (STM) tasks that has been most influential in cognitive neuropsychological work on deficits of STM is the “working memory” model mainly associated with the work of Alan Baddeley and his colleagues. Aim This paper reviews the model. We examine the development of this theory in studies that account for STM performances in normal (non-brain-damaged) individuals, and then review the application of this theory to neuropsychological cases and specifications, modifications, and extensions of the theory that have been suggested on the basis of these cases. Our approach is to identify the major phenomena that have been discussed and to examine selected papers dealing with those phenomena in some detail. Main Contribution The main contribution is a review of the WM model that includes both normative and neuropsychological data. Conclusions We conclude that the WM model has many inconsistencies and empirical inadequacies, and that cognitive neuropsychologists might benefit from considering other models when they attempt to describe and explain patients’ performances on STM tasks. PMID:24347786

  8. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration approximately 28, 59, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights. Reticulocyte count was decreased after both short- and long-term flights, indicating that a reduction in red blood cell mass is probably more closely related to suppression of red cell production than to an increase in destruction of erythrocytes. Serum ferritin and number of platelets were also elevated after Shuttle flights. In determining the reasons for postflight differences between the shorter and longer flights, it is important to consider not only duration but also countermeasures, differences between spacecraft, and procedures for landing and egress.

  9. Short-term Aerosol Trends: Reality or Myth?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory; Zubko, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The main questions addressed in this slide presentation involve short-term trends of MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over 6 years: (1) Why are the trends different in different regions? (2) How are these trends so high? (3) Why are they "coherent" in many areas? (4) Are these changes in aerosol concentrations real, i.e., are they monotonic changes in emissions? Several views of the Spatial Distribution of AOT from Terra are shown. In conclusion there are several trends: (1) There is a broad spatial inhomogenueity in AOT trends over 6 years of MODIS Terra and Aqua (2) Some of the areas demonstrate clear positive trends related to increase of emission (e.g., Eastern China) (3) Strong trends in some other areas are superficial and might be attributed, in part, to: (3a) Least squares linear trend sensitivity to outliers (need to use more robust linear fitting method) (3b) Spatial and temporal shifts or trends in meteorological conditions, especially in wind patterns responsible for aerosol transport (6) Aerosol trends should be studied together with changes in meteorology patterns as they might closely linked together

  10. Local short-term variability in solar irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Gerald M.; Monahan, Adam H.; Heinemann, Detlev

    2016-05-01

    Characterizing spatiotemporal irradiance variability is important for the successful grid integration of increasing numbers of photovoltaic (PV) power systems. Using 1 Hz data recorded by as many as 99 pyranometers during the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), we analyze field variability of clear-sky index k* (i.e., irradiance normalized to clear-sky conditions) and sub-minute k* increments (i.e., changes over specified intervals of time) for distances between tens of meters and about 10 km. By means of a simple classification scheme based on k* statistics, we identify overcast, clear, and mixed sky conditions, and demonstrate that the last of these is the most potentially problematic in terms of short-term PV power fluctuations. Under mixed conditions, the probability of relatively strong k* increments of ±0.5 is approximately twice as high compared to increment statistics computed without conditioning by sky type. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation structures of k* increment fields differ considerably between sky types. While the profiles for overcast and clear skies mostly resemble the predictions of a simple model published by , this is not the case for mixed conditions. As a proxy for the smoothing effects of distributed PV, we finally show that spatial averaging mitigates variability in k* less effectively than variability in k* increments, for a spatial sensor density of 2 km-2.

  11. Short Term Memory, Working Memory, and Syntactic Comprehension in Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, David; Michaud, Jennifer; Hufford, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Sixty one people with aphasia were tested on ten tests of short term memory (STM) and for the ability to use syntactic structure to determine the meanings of eleven types of sentences in three tasks – object manipulation, picture matching and picture matching with self-paced listening. Multilevel models showed relationships between measures of the ability to retain and manipulate item and order information in STM and accuracy and RT, and a greater relationship between these STM measures and accuracy and RT for several more complex sentence types in individual tasks. There were no effects of measures of STM that reflect the use of phonological codes or rehearsal on comprehension. There was only one effect of STM measures on self-paced listening times. There were double dissociations between performance on STM and individual comprehension tasks, indicating that normal STM is not necessary to perform normally on these tasks. The results are most easily related to the view that STM plays a facilitatory role in supporting the use of the products of the comprehension process to accomplish operations related to tasks. PMID:23865692

  12. Visual short-term memory load strengthens selective attention.

    PubMed

    Roper, Zachary J J; Vecera, Shaun P

    2014-04-01

    Perceptual load theory accounts for many attentional phenomena; however, its mechanism remains elusive because it invokes underspecified attentional resources. Recent dual-task evidence has revealed that a concurrent visual short-term memory (VSTM) load slows visual search and reduces contrast sensitivity, but it is unknown whether a VSTM load also constricts attention in a canonical perceptual load task. If attentional selection draws upon VSTM resources, then distraction effects-which measure attentional "spill-over"-will be reduced as competition for resources increases. Observers performed a low perceptual load flanker task during the delay period of a VSTM change detection task. We observed a reduction of the flanker effect in the perceptual load task as a function of increasing concurrent VSTM load. These findings were not due to perceptual-level interactions between the physical displays of the two tasks. Our findings suggest that perceptual representations of distractor stimuli compete with the maintenance of visual representations held in memory. We conclude that access to VSTM determines the degree of attentional selectivity; when VSTM is not completely taxed, it is more likely for task-irrelevant items to be consolidated and, consequently, affect responses. The "resources" hypothesized by load theory are at least partly mnemonic in nature, due to the strong correspondence they share with VSTM capacity. PMID:24002967

  13. Audiovisual integration facilitates monkeys' short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, James; Poremba, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Many human behaviors are known to benefit from audiovisual integration, including language and communication, recognizing individuals, social decision making, and memory. Exceptionally little is known about the contributions of audiovisual integration to behavior in other primates. The current experiment investigated whether short-term memory in nonhuman primates is facilitated by the audiovisual presentation format. Three macaque monkeys that had previously learned an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task were trained to perform a similar visual task, after which they were tested with a concurrent audiovisual DMS task with equal proportions of auditory, visual, and audiovisual trials. Parallel to outcomes in human studies, accuracy was higher and response times were faster on audiovisual trials than either unisensory trial type. Unexpectedly, two subjects exhibited superior unimodal performance on auditory trials, a finding that contrasts with previous studies, but likely reflects their training history. Our results provide the first demonstration of a bimodal memory advantage in nonhuman primates, lending further validation to their use as a model for understanding audiovisual integration and memory processing in humans. PMID:27010716

  14. A model for sustainable short-term international medical trips.

    PubMed

    Suchdev, Parminder; Ahrens, Kym; Click, Eleanor; Macklin, Lori; Evangelista, Doris; Graham, Elinor

    2007-01-01

    The health status of many people in developing countries is often dismal compared with the norms in industrialized countries. Increasingly, medical practitioners in the United States and other industrialized countries have become interested in global health issues, an interest that often takes the form of short-term international medical trips. We discuss several ethical issues associated with participation in such trips and use our experiences in developing the Children's Health International Medical Project of Seattle (CHIMPS) to outline and illustrate a set of 7 guiding principles for making these trips. CHIMPS is a resident-run, faculty-supported international medical program founded in 2002 by pediatric residents at the University of Washington in Seattle. Members of CHIMPS work with a rural community in El Salvador to support ongoing public health interventions there and provide sustainable medical care in collaboration with the community and a local nongovernmental organization. The 7 principles developed as a result of this work-mission, collaboration, education, service, teamwork, sustainability, and evaluation-can be used as a model for health practitioners as they develop or select international medical trips. The importance of partnering with the community and working within the existing medical and public health infrastructure is emphasized. Many of the challenges of doing international medical work can be overcome when efforts are guided by a few specific principles, such as those we have outlined. PMID:17660105

  15. Dimension-based attention in visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Michael; Barrett, Doug J K

    2016-07-01

    We investigated how dimension-based attention influences visual short-term memory (VSTM). This was done through examining the effects of cueing a feature dimension in two perceptual comparison tasks (change detection and sameness detection). In both tasks, a memory array and a test array consisting of a number of colored shapes were presented successively, interleaved by a blank interstimulus interval (ISI). In Experiment 1 (change detection), the critical event was a feature change in one item across the memory and test arrays. In Experiment 2 (sameness detection), the critical event was the absence of a feature change in one item across the two arrays. Auditory cues indicated the feature dimension (color or shape) of the critical event with 80 % validity; the cues were presented either prior to the memory array, during the ISI, or simultaneously with the test array. In Experiment 1, the cue validity influenced sensitivity only when the cue was given at the earliest position; in Experiment 2, the cue validity influenced sensitivity at all three cue positions. We attributed the greater effectiveness of top-down guidance by cues in the sameness detection task to the more active nature of the comparison process required to detect sameness events (Hyun, Woodman, Vogel, Hollingworth, & Luck, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35; 1140-1160, 2009). PMID:26920437

  16. Short term fluctuations of wind and solar power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anvari, M.; Lohmann, G.; Wächter, M.; Milan, P.; Lorenz, E.; Heinemann, D.; Rahimi Tabar, M. Reza; Peinke, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Wind and solar power are known to be highly influenced by weather events and may ramp up or down abruptly. Such events in the power production influence not only the availability of energy, but also the stability of the entire power grid. By analysing significant amounts of data from several regions around the world with resolutions of seconds to minutes, we provide strong evidence that renewable wind and solar sources exhibit multiple types of variability and nonlinearity in the time scale of seconds and characterise their stochastic properties. In contrast to previous findings, we show that only the jumpy characteristic of renewable sources decreases when increasing the spatial size over which the renewable energies are harvested. Otherwise, the strong non-Gaussian, intermittent behaviour in the cumulative power of the total field survives even for a country-wide distribution of the systems. The strong fluctuating behaviour of renewable wind and solar sources can be well characterised by Kolmogorov-like power spectra and q-exponential probability density functions. Using the estimated potential shape of power time series, we quantify the jumpy or diffusive dynamic of the power. Finally we propose a time delayed feedback technique as a control algorithm to suppress the observed short term non-Gaussian statistics in spatially strong correlated and intermittent renewable sources.

  17. Short-Term Outcomes and Mortality of Late Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Cahide; Gürsoy, Tuğba; Ovalı, Fahri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Late preterm infants have increased rates of morbidity and mortality compared to term infants. Determining the risk factors in these infants leads to more comprehensive preventive and treatment strategies. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the morbidity rates such as respiratory system diseases, infections, congenital anomalies, hypoglycemia and hematologic abnormalities and mortality rates in a large group of patients at a referral center. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Medical records of late preterm and term infants who were managed at the referral center were analysed. Results: 41752 births were analysed in 3 years. 71.9% of all births were between 37–42 gestational weeks (i.e. term) and 16.1% were between 34–37 weeks (i.e. late preterm). Compared to term infants, late preterm infants had increased rates of short-term problems. The rate of mortality increased with decreased gestational age. The duration of hospitalization was significantly higher in the smallest late preterm infants. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the need that late preterm infants who have higher risk for morbidity and mortality, compared to term infants require close monitoring. The rate of mortality and hospitalization increased with decreased gestational age.

  18. Differential short-term memorisation for vocal and instrumental rhythms.

    PubMed

    Klyn, Niall A M; Will, Udo; Cheong, Yong-Jeon; Allen, Erin T

    2016-07-01

    This study explores differential processing of vocal and instrumental rhythms in short-term memory with three decision (same/different judgments) and one reproduction experiment. In the first experiment, memory performance declined for delayed versus immediate recall, with accuracy for the two rhythms being affected differently: Musicians performed better than non-musicians on clapstick but not on vocal rhythms, and musicians were better on vocal rhythms in the same than in the different condition. Results for the second experiment showed that concurrent sub-vocal articulation and finger-tapping differentially affected the two rhythms and same/different decisions, but produced no evidence for articulatory loop involvement in delayed decision tasks. In a third experiment, which tested rhythm reproduction, concurrent sub-vocal articulation decreased memory performance, with a stronger deleterious effect on the reproduction of vocal than of clapstick rhythms. This suggests that the articulatory loop may only be involved in delayed reproduction not in decision tasks. The fourth experiment tested whether differences between filled and empty rhythms (continuous vs. discontinuous sounds) can explain the different memorisation of vocal and clapstick rhythms. Though significant differences were found for empty and filled instrumental rhythms, the differences between vocal and clapstick can only be explained by considering additional voice specific features. PMID:26274938

  19. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. Probing short-term face memory in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Shah, Punit; Gaule, Anne; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Bird, Geoffrey; Cook, Richard

    2015-03-01

    It has recently been proposed that the face recognition deficits seen in neurodevelopmental disorders may reflect impaired short-term face memory (STFM). For example, introducing a brief delay between the presentation of target and test faces seems to disproportionately impair matching or recognition performance in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The present study sought to determine whether deficits of STFM contribute to impaired face recognition seen in Developmental Prosopagnosia. To determine whether developmental prosopagnosics exhibit impaired STFM, the present study used a six-alternative-forced-choice match-to-sample procedure. Memory demand was manipulated by employing a short or long delay between the presentation of the target face, and the six test faces. Crucially, the perceptual demands were identical in both conditions, thereby allowing the independent contribution of STFM to be assessed. Prosopagnosics showed clear evidence of a category-specific impairment for face-matching in both conditions; they were both slower and less accurate than matched controls. Crucially, however, the prosopagnosics showed no evidence of disproportionate face recognition impairment in the long-interval condition. While individuals with DP may have problems with the perceptual encoding of faces, it appears that their representations are stable over short durations. These results suggest that the face recognition difficulties seen in DP and autism may be qualitatively different, attributable to deficits of perceptual encoding and perceptual maintenance, respectively. PMID:25461712

  1. Airway response to ultra short-term exposure to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Fouke, J.M.; Delemos, R.A.; McFadden, E.R. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    To determine whether acute short-term exposure to oxidant pollutants can cause changes in respiratory mechanics, we gave 0.5 ppm ozone for 5 min to 7 baboons. We measured pulmonary resistance (RL) and obtained dose response curves to methacholine before and after the exposures. This brief insult increased resistance (control RL = 1.53 +/- 0.21 cm H/sub 2/O.L-1 s; post-ozone RL = 3.53 +/- 0.54 cm H/sub 2/O.L-1 s). On a second occasion, 6 of these animals were restudied before and after the administration of cromolyn sodium. Although this drug had no effect on the measurements of mechanics made in the control period, it significantly reduced the ozone-induced changes in mechanics. The increase in RL was 52% of that produced in the first study. The results demonstrated that the ozone injury with its acute and subacute airway sequelae occurs quite rapidly and after very brief exposure. The time course of the change in mechanics and the effects of cromolyn suggest the hypothesis that surface epithelial cells are disrupted, causing subsequent release of bronchoconstricting agents.

  2. Role of short-term memory in loudness comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Werner, Birgit

    2003-04-01

    In an earlier study of the auditory discrimination of time-varying noise bursts [Ellermeier and Schrödl, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2596 (2000)], listeners were found to place greater weight on the beginning and end of the sounds than on the middle portion. To investigate whether this outcome is due to primacy and recency effects in short-term memory which tend to be sensitive to manipulations of the inter-stimulus interval (ISI), the ISI separating the two noise bursts in a 2IFC task was varied systematically. Six participants performed loudness comparisons on 1-s samples of white noise randomly changing in level every 100 ms. In different blocks of trials, the two noise bursts to be compared were either separated by a 500-ms or a 2-s ISI. COSS analysis [Berg, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 1743-1746 (1989)] of the overall loudness judgments revealed elevated weights for the beginning and end of the noises, as in the earlier study. These weighting patterns were largely unaffected by the manipulation of ISI, suggesting that the temporal weights found characterize loudness integration in general, and are not just due to idiosyncrasies of the timing used in the 2IFC procedure.

  3. Grouping and binding in visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Philip T; Cohen, Dale J

    2012-09-01

    Findings of 2 experiments are reported that challenge the current understanding of visual short-term memory (VSTM). In both experiments, a single study display, containing 6 colored shapes, was presented briefly and then probed with a single colored shape. At stake is how VSTM retains a record of different objects that share common features: In the 1st experiment, 2 study items sometimes shared a common feature (either a shape or a color). The data revealed a color sharing effect, in which memory was much better for items that shared a common color than for items that did not. The 2nd experiment showed that the size of the color sharing effect depended on whether a single pair of items shared a common color or whether 2 pairs of items were so defined-memory for all items improved when 2 color groups were presented. In explaining performance, an account is advanced in which items compete for a fixed number of slots, but then memory recall for any given stored item is prone to error. A critical assumption is that items that share a common color are stored together in a slot as a chunk. The evidence provides further support for the idea that principles of perceptual organization may determine the manner in which items are stored in VSTM. PMID:22449133

  4. A Single Brief Burst Induces GluR1-Dependent Associative Short-Term Potentiation: A Potential Mechanism for Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Martha A.; Maramara, Lauren A.; Lisman, John

    2010-01-01

    Recent work showed that short-term memory (STM) is selectively reduced in GluR1 knockout mice. This raises the possibility that a form of synaptic modification dependent on GluR1 might underlie STM. Studies of synaptic plasticity have shown that stimuli too weak to induce long-term potentiation induce short-term potentiation (STP), a phenomenon…

  5. Response to short term ultraviolet stress in the reef-building coral Pocillopora capitata (Anthozoa: Scleractinia).

    PubMed

    Liñán-Cabello, Marco A; Flores-Ramírez, Laura A; Cobo-Díaz, José Francisco; Zenteno-Savin, Tania; Olguín-Monroy, Norma O; Olivos-Ortiz, Aramís; Tintos-Gómez, Adrián

    2010-03-01

    Coral reefs are impacted by a range of environmental variables that affect their growth and survival, the main factors being the high irradiance and temperature fluctuations. Specimens of Pocillopora capitata Verrill 1864 were exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) for 32 h under laboratory conditions. We examined lipid peroxidation (MDA), antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GPx and GST), chlorophyll a (Chl a), carotenoid pigments (CPs), mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), and expulsion of zooxanthellae. Our results revealed that corals exposed to UVR had relatively low levels of carotenoids and antioxidant enzyme activities compared to those exposed to PAR, as well as lower CPs/Chl a ratios. Although MAAs and CPs are rapidly produced as non-enzymatic antioxidants in response to UVR in corals, these were not sufficient, even in the dark phase of the experiment, to mitigate the damage caused by formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which caused breakdown of the symbiotic relationship between the zooxanthellae and the host animal to an extent 33 times greater than in the PAR treatment. In this study, it could be possible to distinguish that, parallel to the short-term adjustments, such as the amount of pigment in the algae or the sensitivity of the photosynthetic response reported in other species of coral, P. capitata exhibits at the enzymatic level a series of responses oriented to resist the effects derived from the propagation of ROS and, thus, to adapt to and maintain its reproductive capacity in shallow oceanic environments that commonly exhibit high UVR levels. Nevertheless, as a result of the inappropriate location of the artificial intercommunication structure of the Juluapan Lagoon with respect to the arrecifal area of study and therefore of the tides influence, other variables, such as the changes in short-term in turbidity, sediment inputs, nutrients, temperature and osmolarity, can act in

  6. A model of short term surface deformation of Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, constrained by GPS geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, E. E.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2013-05-01

    Soufriere Hills Volcano (SHV), Montserrat, in the Lesser Antilles island arc, became active in 1995, and for nearly two decades, ground breaking geodetic surveys have been conducted using both continuous GPS and campaign GPS sites. Data have been collected and processed using the latest and most advanced geodetic instruments and technique available. The NSF- funded CALIPSO and SEA-CALIPSO projects have allowed for some of the most in depth studies of the ongoing SHV eruptions to date, and many models for surface deformation and magmatic chamber configuration have resulted. Research for this study is constrained to data gathered from the early stages of eruption in 1996 through 2010 from two continuous GPS sites, Hermitage Peak (HERM - located ~1.6 km from the vent) and Montserrat Volcano Observatory 1 (MVO1- located ~7.6 km away from the vent) and have been reprocessed using GIPSY-OASIS II (v. 6.1.2) with final, precise IGS08 orbits, clocks, and earth orientation parameters using an absolute point positioning (APP) strategy. Our study is being conducted to re-examine spatial and temporal changes in surface deformation, constrained by GPS, and to better illuminate the short term (i.e. sub-daily to weekly) deformation signals noted amongst the longer, cyclic deformation signals (i.e. monthly to annually) that have been previously reported and modeled. The reprocessed time-series show lower variance for daily APP solutions over the entire temporal data set; trends in the long-term inflation and deflation patterns are similar to those previously published (e.g. Elsworth et al., 2008; Mattioli et al., 2010; Odbert et al., 2012), but now superimposed, shorter term signals are more clearly visible. New elastic deformation models are being developed and will be presented for these short-term signals.

  7. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-02-04

    the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  8. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-03-04

    results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  9. Short-term potentiation of breathing in humans.

    PubMed

    Fregosi, R F

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the increase in ventilation induced by hypoxic stimulation of the carotid bodies (CB) persists after cessation of the stimulus in humans. I reasoned that a short-term potentiation (STP) of breathing, sometimes called an "afterdischarge," could be unmasked by combining hypoxia with exercise, because ventilation increases synergistically under these conditions. Seven young healthy men performed mild bicycle exercise (30% peak power) while breathing O2 for 1.5 min ("control" state), and their CB were then stimulated by 1.5 min of hypoxic exercise (10% O2--balance N2). CB stimulation was then terminated by changing the inspirate back to O2 as exercise continued. Inspiratory and expiratory duration (TI and TE) and inspiratory flow and its time integral [tidal volume (VT)] were measured with a pneumotachometer. Inspired minute ventilation (VI) and mean inspiratory flow (VT/TI) declined exponentially after the cessation of CB stimulation, with first-order time constants of 28.6 +/- 6.7 and 24.6 +/- 1.6 (SD) s, respectively. The slow decay of VI was due primarily to potentiation of both TI and TE, although the effect on the latter predominated. Additional experiments in six subjects showed that brief intense CB stimulation with four to five breaths of N2 during mild exercise induced STP of similar magnitude to that observed in the hypoxic exercise experiments. Finally, the imposition of hyperoxia during air breathing exercise at a level of respiratory drive similar to that induced by the hypoxic exercise did not change VI significantly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1757326

  10. Finding Short-Term Variability in Methanol Masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Samuel; Barott, W. C.; Catanach, T.

    2012-05-01

    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) performed 53 observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers between July 2010 and January 2011 in an effort to identify short-timescale variability. With the notable exception of Weisberg et al. (2005), few analyses have been performed analyzing variability in masers on timescales of minutes or less. This work is aimed both at providing additional data (including refined positions) on the catalog of observed sources as well as identifying the prevalence and cause of short-term phenomena. Observations utilized both the ATA correlator (for mapping) and beamformer (for recording voltage time series). A combination of Fast-Fourier Transforms and Continuous Wavelet Transforms are applied to channelized power series waterfalls) in this investigation. Wavelet analysis can be thought of as a generalization of Fourier analysis that allows us to examine non-stationary characteristics of the spectra. The survey included both short (10 minute), long (60 minute), and follow-up observations on candidate targets. Analysis so far has identified three variable sources out of 43 distinct objects that were observed. These objects exhibit significant variation on the order of several minutes, are consistent in follow-up observations, and we have ruled out instrumental variation. Future and ongoing work includes identifying the source of this variation as intrinsic to the source or a property of the ISM. Shorter time-scales will be investigated using a combination of techniques, including total power variation, pulse searching (in an attempt to find pulsars), and phase-shift demodulation techniques. The case for SETI analysis of these data is given, for example, by Cordes (1993), who suggested that extraterrestrial intelligences could use masers to amplify interstellar signals.This project was funded by the National Science Foundation Grant AST0852095. [1] Weisberg J. M. et al. (2005) Science, 309, 5731. [2] Cordes J. M. (1993) Astron. Soc. Pacific Conf. Series

  11. Neural circuit mechanisms of short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Mark

    Memory over time scales of seconds to tens of seconds is thought to be maintained by neural activity that is triggered by a memorized stimulus and persists long after the stimulus is turned off. This presents a challenge to current models of memory-storing mechanisms, because the typical time scales associated with cellular and synaptic dynamics are two orders of magnitude smaller than this. While such long time scales can easily be achieved by bistable processes that toggle like a flip-flop between a baseline and elevated-activity state, many neuronal systems have been observed experimentally to be capable of maintaining a continuum of stable states. For example, in neural integrator networks involved in the accumulation of evidence for decision making and in motor control, individual neurons have been recorded whose activity reflects the mathematical integral of their inputs; in the absence of input, these neurons sustain activity at a level proportional to the running total of their inputs. This represents an analog form of memory whose dynamics can be conceptualized through an energy landscape with a continuum of lowest-energy states. Such continuous attractor landscapes are structurally non-robust, in seeming violation of the relative robustness of biological memory systems. In this talk, I will present and compare different biologically motivated circuit motifs for the accumulation and storage of signals in short-term memory. Challenges to generating robust memory maintenance will be highlighted and potential mechanisms for ameliorating the sensitivity of memory networks to perturbations will be discussed. Funding for this work was provided by NIH R01 MH065034, NSF IIS-1208218, Simons Foundation 324260, and a UC Davis Ophthalmology Research to Prevent Blindness Grant.

  12. Short-term landfill methane emissions dependency on wind.

    PubMed

    Delkash, Madjid; Zhou, Bowen; Han, Byunghyun; Chow, Fotini K; Rella, Chris W; Imhoff, Paul T

    2016-09-01

    Short-term (2-10h) variations of whole-landfill methane emissions have been observed in recent field studies using the tracer dilution method for emissions measurement. To investigate the cause of these variations, the tracer dilution method is applied using 1-min emissions measurements at Sandtown Landfill (Delaware, USA) for a 2-h measurement period. An atmospheric dispersion model is developed for this field test site, which is the first application of such modeling to evaluate atmospheric effects on gas plume transport from landfills. The model is used to examine three possible causes of observed temporal emissions variability: temporal variability of surface wind speed affecting whole landfill emissions, spatial variability of emissions due to local wind speed variations, and misaligned tracer gas release and methane emissions locations. At this site, atmospheric modeling indicates that variation in tracer dilution method emissions measurements may be caused by whole-landfill emissions variation with wind speed. Field data collected over the time period of the atmospheric model simulations corroborate this result: methane emissions are correlated with wind speed on the landfill surface with R(2)=0.51 for data 2.5m above ground, or R(2)=0.55 using data 85m above ground, with emissions increasing by up to a factor of 2 for an approximately 30% increase in wind speed. Although the atmospheric modeling and field test are conducted at a single landfill, the results suggest that wind-induced emissions may affect tracer dilution method emissions measurements at other landfills. PMID:26896003

  13. Conceptual short term memory in perception and thought.

    PubMed

    Potter, Mary C

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual short term memory (CSTM) is a theoretical construct that provides one answer to the question of how perceptual and conceptual processes are related. CSTM is a mental buffer and processor in which current perceptual stimuli and their associated concepts from long term memory (LTM) are represented briefly, allowing meaningful patterns or structures to be identified (Potter, 1993, 1999, 2009). CSTM is different from and complementary to other proposed forms of working memory: it is engaged extremely rapidly, has a large but ill-defined capacity, is largely unconscious, and is the basis for the unreflective understanding that is characteristic of everyday experience. The key idea behind CSTM is that most cognitive processing occurs without review or rehearsal of material in standard working memory and with little or no conscious reasoning. When one perceives a meaningful stimulus such as a word, picture, or object, it is rapidly identified at a conceptual level and in turn activates associated information from LTM. New links among concurrently active concepts are formed in CSTM, shaped by parsing mechanisms of language or grouping principles in scene perception and by higher-level knowledge and current goals. The resulting structure represents the gist of a picture or the meaning of a sentence, and it is this structure that we are conscious of and that can be maintained in standard working memory and consolidated into LTM. Momentarily activated information that is not incorporated into such structures either never becomes conscious or is rapidly forgotten. This whole cycle - identification of perceptual stimuli, memory recruitment, structuring, consolidation in LTM, and forgetting of non-structured material - may occur in less than 1 s when viewing a pictured scene or reading a sentence. The evidence for such a process is reviewed and its implications for the relation of perception and cognition are discussed. PMID:22557984

  14. Short-term wind speed predictions with machine learning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbani, M. A.; Khatibi, R.; FazeliFard, M. H.; Naghipour, L.; Makarynskyy, O.

    2016-02-01

    Hourly wind speed forecasting is presented by a modeling study with possible applications to practical problems including farming wind energy, aircraft safety and airport operations. Modeling techniques employed in this paper for such short-term predictions are based on the machine learning techniques of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic expression programming (GEP). Recorded values of wind speed were used, which comprised 8 years of collected data at the Kersey site, Colorado, USA. The January data over the first 7 years (2005-2011) were used for model training; and the January data for 2012 were used for model testing. A number of model structures were investigated for the validation of the robustness of these two techniques. The prediction results were compared with those of a multiple linear regression (MLR) method and with the Persistence method developed for the data. The model performances were evaluated using the correlation coefficient, root mean square error, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient and Akaike information criterion. The results indicate that forecasting wind speed is feasible using past records of wind speed alone, but the maximum lead time for the data was found to be 14 h. The results show that different techniques would lead to different results, where the choice between them is not easy. Thus, decision making has to be informed of these modeling results and decisions should be arrived at on the basis of an understanding of inherent uncertainties. The results show that both GEP and ANN are equally credible selections and even MLR should not be dismissed, as it has its uses.

  15. Frailty as a predictor of short-term adverse outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Tiago; Paúl, Constança; Gobbens, Robbert J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare how different frailty measures (Frailty Phenotype/FP, Groningen Frailty Indicator/GFI and Tilburg Frailty Indicator/TFI) predict short-term adverse outcomes. Secondarily, adopting a multidimensional approach to frailty (integral conceptual model–TFI), this study aims to compare how physical, psychological and social frailty predict the outcomes. A longitudinal study was carried out with 95 community-dwelling elderly. Participants were assessed at baseline for frailty, determinants of frailty, and adverse outcomes (healthcare utilization, quality of life, disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living/ADL and IADL). Ten months later the outcomes were assessed again. Frailty was associated with specific healthcare utilization indicators: the FP with a greater utilization of informal care; GFI with an increased contact with healthcare professionals; and TFI with a higher amount of contacts with a general practitioner. After controlling for the effect of life-course determinants, comorbidity and adverse outcome at baseline, GFI predicted IADL disability and TFI predicted quality of life. The effect of the FP on the outcomes was not significant, when compared with the other measures. However, when comparing TFI’s domains, the physical domain was the most significant predictor of the outcomes, even explaining part of the variance of ADL disability. Frailty at baseline was associated with adverse outcomes at follow-up. However, the relationship of each frailty measure (FP, GFI and TFI) with the outcomes was different. In spite of the role of psychological frailty, TFI’s physical domain was the determinant factor for predicting disability and most of the quality of life. PMID:26246968

  16. Conceptual Short Term Memory in Perception and Thought

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual short term memory (CSTM) is a theoretical construct that provides one answer to the question of how perceptual and conceptual processes are related. CSTM is a mental buffer and processor in which current perceptual stimuli and their associated concepts from long term memory (LTM) are represented briefly, allowing meaningful patterns or structures to be identified (Potter, 1993, 1999, 2009). CSTM is different from and complementary to other proposed forms of working memory: it is engaged extremely rapidly, has a large but ill-defined capacity, is largely unconscious, and is the basis for the unreflective understanding that is characteristic of everyday experience. The key idea behind CSTM is that most cognitive processing occurs without review or rehearsal of material in standard working memory and with little or no conscious reasoning. When one perceives a meaningful stimulus such as a word, picture, or object, it is rapidly identified at a conceptual level and in turn activates associated information from LTM. New links among concurrently active concepts are formed in CSTM, shaped by parsing mechanisms of language or grouping principles in scene perception and by higher-level knowledge and current goals. The resulting structure represents the gist of a picture or the meaning of a sentence, and it is this structure that we are conscious of and that can be maintained in standard working memory and consolidated into LTM. Momentarily activated information that is not incorporated into such structures either never becomes conscious or is rapidly forgotten. This whole cycle – identification of perceptual stimuli, memory recruitment, structuring, consolidation in LTM, and forgetting of non-structured material – may occur in less than 1 s when viewing a pictured scene or reading a sentence. The evidence for such a process is reviewed and its implications for the relation of perception and cognition are discussed. PMID:22557984

  17. Short Term Effects of Cocoa Consumption on Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Alleyne, T; Alleyne, A; Arrindell, D; Balleram, N; Cozier, D; Haywood, R; Humphrey, C; Pran, L; Rampersad, K; Reyes, D; Bahall, S; Holder, R; Ignacio, D

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension, defined as diastolic pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and systolic pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among black populations globally. Several studies have shown that prolonged consumption of cocoa or cocoa containing products leads to decreased blood pressure (BP) in hypertensives. In this study, we investigated the flavonoid content of the top selling cocoa/cocoa based products in Trinidad and Tobago and attempted to determine if consumption of cocoa had any immediate impact on blood pressure levels. The flavonoid content of three 100% cocoa powder products and four cocoa-based formulas was measured using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. The brand with the highest flavonoid content, 372 gallic acid equivalents, was selected to evaluate the short-term impact of cocoa consumption on blood pressure. Thirty-six participants comprising nineteen hypertensives and seventeen persons with normal blood pressure had their blood pressure recorded on three separate days using ambulatory blood pressure monitors; the blood pressure was recorded every half hour for eight hours. On the first day, the participants received no intervention but on the second and third days, they received either the intervention (5 g cocoa in 125 ml water) or a placebo, in any order. Statistical analysis conducted using t-test statistic and a 95% confidence interval revealed that whether participants regularly took antihypertensive medication or not, a single intervention of cocoa induced decreases in both the diastolic and systolic BPs that were significant (p = 0.0001). Mean decreases of between 8 mmHg and 18 mmHg were observed. PMID:25429467

  18. Short-Term Variability on the Scotian Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenan, B.; Petrie, B.; Harrison, G.; Oakey, N.; Strain, P.

    2002-12-01

    The traditional view of the production cycle on the continental shelf of Nova Scotia features a spring bloom followed by a period of low production and a less intense fall bloom. The annual cycle of primary productivity thus has a large, low frequency component. However, there is increasing evidence that the production cycle has significant variability on shorter time scales. Physical, chemical and biological variability on the Scotian Shelf is examined on a daily to weekly timescale. This is accomplished through the use of a newly developed mooring platform (SeaHorse) that uses surface wave energy to enable the instrument to climb down the mooring wire and then float upwards while sampling the water column. This provides bi-hourly profiles of temperature, salinity, pressure and chlorophyll at one location over month-long periods. Results from the three-week deployment in October 2000 indicate a subsurface chlorophyll maximum below the pycnocline during the first part of the time series. An event occurred in mid-October during which the temperature, salinity and density iso-surfaces rose approximately 25 m. During this event, a small bloom, with peak chlorophyll concentrations of about 2 mg m-3 and duration of several days, began as nutrients were brought into the upper part of the water column by upwelling-favorable winds. SeaWiFS ocean color satellite images were valuable in providing a spatial context for chlorophyll concentrations, however, the lack of temporal resolution due to poor quality images means that this data set provided limited information for short-term chlorophyll variability. Gradient Richardson Numbers were estimated for 2 m vertical bins using SeaHorse CTD data and nearby ADCP current measurements. A trend of decreasing Ri in the ocean mixed layer with increasing surface wind stress is suggested.

  19. Is Earthquake Prediction Possible from Short-Term Foreshocks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Avlonitis, Markos; Di Fiore, Boris; Minadakis, George

    2015-04-01

    Foreshocks preceding mainshocks in the short-term, ranging from minutes to a few months prior the mainshock, have been known from several decades ago. Understanding the generation mechanisms of foreshocks was supported by seismicity observations and statistics, laboratory experiments, theoretical considerations and simulation results. However, important issues remain open. For example, (1) How foreshocks are defined? (2) Why only some mainshocks are preceded by foreshocks but others do not? (2) Is the mainshock size dependent on some attributes of the foreshock sequence? (3) Is that possible to discriminate foreshocks from other seismicity styles (e.g. swarms, aftershocks)? To approach possible replies to these issues we reviewed about 400 papers, reports, books and other documents referring to foreshocks as well as to relevant laboratory experiments. We found that different foreshock definitions are used by different authors. We found also that the ratio of mainshocks preceded by foreshocks increases with the increase of monitoring capabilities and that foreshock activity is dependent on source mechanical properties and favoured by material heterogeneity. Also, the mainshock size does not depend on the largest foreshock size but rather by the foreshock area. Seismicity statistics may account for an effective discrimination of foreshocks from other seismicity styles since during foreshock activities the seismicity rate increases with the inverse of time and, at the same, the b-value of the G-R relationship as a rule drops significantly. Our literature survey showed that only the last years the seismicity catalogs organized in some well monitored areas are adequately complete to search for foreshock activities. Therefore, we investigated for a set of "good foreshock examples" covering a wide range of mainshock magnitudes from 4.5 to 9 in Japan (Tohoku 2011), S. California, Italy (including L' Aquila 2009) and Greece. The good examples used indicate that foreshocks

  20. Effects of Short Term Exposure of Atrazine on the Liver and Kidney of Normal and Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jestadi, Dinesh Babu; Phaniendra, Alugoju; Babji, Undru; Srinu, Thupakula; Shanmuganathan, Bhavatharini

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effects of short term (15 days) exposure of low dose (300 μg kg−1) of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) on antioxidant status and markers of liver and kidney damage in normal (nondiabetic) and diabetic male Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups: Group I as normal control, Group II as atrazine treated, Group III as diabetic control, and Group IV as atrazine treated diabetic rats. Atrazine administration resulted in increased MDA concentration as well as increased activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx in both liver and kidney of atrazine treated and atrazine treated diabetic rats. However, GSH level was decreased in both liver and kidney of atrazine treated and atrazine treated diabetic rats. Atrazine administration led to significant increase in liver damage biomarkers such as AST, ALT, and ALP as well as kidney damage biomarkers such as creatinine and urea in both normal and diabetic rats, but this increase was more pronounced in diabetic rats when compared to normal rats. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrate that short term exposure of atrazine at a dose of 300 μg kg−1 could potentially induce oxidative damage in liver and kidney of both normal and diabetic rats. PMID:25349608

  1. Long- and short-term triggering and modulation of mud volcano eruptions by earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonini, Marco; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Manga, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Earthquakes can trigger the eruption of mud. We use eruptions in Azerbaijan, Italy, Romania, Japan, Andaman Islands, Pakistan, Taiwan, Indonesia, and California to probe the nature of stress changes that induce new eruptions and modulate ongoing eruptions. Dynamic stresses produced by earthquakes are usually inferred to be the dominant triggering mechanism; however static stress changes acting on the feeder systems of mud volcanoes may also play a role. In Azerbaijan, eruptions within 2-10 fault lengths from the epicenter are favored in the year following earthquakes where the static stress changes cause compression of the mud source and unclamp feeder dikes. In Romania, Taiwan, and some Italian sites, increased activity is also favored where the static stress changes act to unclamp feeder dikes, but responses occur within days. The eruption in the Andaman Islands, and those of the Niikappu mud volcanoes, Japan are better correlated with amplitude of dynamic stresses produced by seismic waves. Similarly, a new island that emerged off the coast of Pakistan in 2013 was likely triggered by dynamic stresses, enhanced by directivity. At the southern end of the Salton Sea, California earthquakes increase the gas flux at small mud volcanoes. Responses are best correlated with dynamic stresses. The comparison of responses in these nine settings indicates that dynamic stresses are most often correlated with triggering, although permanent stress changes as small as, and possibly smaller than, 0.1 bar may be sufficient to also influence eruptions. Unclamping stresses with magnitude similar to Earth tides (0.01 bar) persist over time and may play a role in triggering delayed responses. Unclamping stresses may be important contributors to short-term triggering only if they exceed 0.1-1 bar.

  2. Tritanium acetabular wedge augments: short-term results

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Camilo; Heller, Snir

    2016-01-01

    Background Reconstruction of acetabular defects in total hip arthroplasty (THA) presents a great challenge to orthopaedic surgeons. Previous studies have reported on the use and outcomes of trabecular metal acetabular augments for the reconstruction of acetabular defects. However, no study has been conducted evaluating the short-term results of tritanium acetabular wedge augments for the reconstruction of acetabular defects in THA. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using a prospective database at a single institution including primary and revision THA patients from January 2013 to December 2014. Patients were included if they received a tritanium acetabular wedge augment system and had a minimum of 2-year follow-up (average 2.2 years ±0.3, range, 2–2.6 years). Demographic data and outcomes data [Harris Hip Score—HHS and Short Form (SF)-36] was collected. Radiographic data was also collected on THA revision cases (Paprosky classification), developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) cases (Crowe classification), and radiographic follow-up using DeLee and Charnley’s classification system. Results There were 4 revision THA patients, 3 DDH patients, and 1 patient with posttraumatic arthritis. At the latest radiographic follow-up, there were no lucent lines in DeLee and Charnley Zones I, II or III. During the follow-up period, there was no open revision surgery. The SF-36 physical score significantly improved from preoperative measurement (29.6±2.2) to postoperative measurement (52.2±8.7, P=0.003), and the SF-36 mental score also significantly improved from preoperative assessment (34.5±4.5) to postoperative assessment (52.2±7.5, P=0.003). Total HHS scores also significantly improved postoperatively (P=0.02), with significant improvements in both the pain score (P=0.01) and function score (P=0.02). Conclusions Tritanium acetabular wedge augments in this short follow-up case series exhibit high clinical outcome scores, no radiographic lucency, and no

  3. Short-term change detection for UAV video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saur, Günter; Krüger, Wolfgang

    2012-11-01

    In the last years, there has been an increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for video reconnaissance and surveillance. An important application in this context is change detection in UAV video data. Here we address short-term change detection, in which the time between observations ranges from several minutes to a few hours. We distinguish this task from video motion detection (shorter time scale) and from long-term change detection, based on time series of still images taken between several days, weeks, or even years. Examples for relevant changes we are looking for are recently parked or moved vehicles. As a pre-requisite, a precise image-to-image registration is needed. Images are selected on the basis of the geo-coordinates of the sensor's footprint and with respect to a certain minimal overlap. The automatic imagebased fine-registration adjusts the image pair to a common geometry by using a robust matching approach to handle outliers. The change detection algorithm has to distinguish between relevant and non-relevant changes. Examples for non-relevant changes are stereo disparity at 3D structures of the scene, changed length of shadows, and compression or transmission artifacts. To detect changes in image pairs we analyzed image differencing, local image correlation, and a transformation-based approach (multivariate alteration detection). As input we used color and gradient magnitude images. To cope with local misalignment of image structures we extended the approaches by a local neighborhood search. The algorithms are applied to several examples covering both urban and rural scenes. The local neighborhood search in combination with intensity and gradient magnitude differencing clearly improved the results. Extended image differencing performed better than both the correlation based approach and the multivariate alternation detection. The algorithms are adapted to be used in semi-automatic workflows for the ABUL video exploitation system of Fraunhofer

  4. Short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants (LPI) compared with those of term infants (TI). Methods A retrospective study conducted in a single third level Italian centre (2005–2009) to analyse the incidence and risk factors of composite respiratory morbidity (CRM), the need for adjunctive therapies (surfactant therapy, inhaled nitric oxide, pleural drainage), the highest level of respiratory support (mechanical ventilation – MV, nasal continuous positive airway pressure – N-CPAP, nasal oxygen) and the duration of pressure support (hours in N-CPAP and/or MV). Results During the study period 14,515 infants were delivered. There were 856 (5.9%) LPI and 12,948 (89.2%) TI. CRM affected 105 LPI (12.4%), and 121 TI (0.9%), with an overall rate of 1.6%. Eighty-four LPI (9.8%) and 73 TI (0.56%) received respiratory support, of which 13 LPI (1.5%) and 16 TI (0.12%) were ventilated. The adjusted OR for developing CRM significantly increased from 3.3 (95% CI 2.0-5.5) at 37 weeks to 40.8 (95% CI 19.7-84.9%) at 34 weeks. The adjusted OR for the need of MV significantly increased from 3.4 (95% CI 1.2-10) at 37 weeks to 34.4 (95% CI 6.7-180.6%) at 34 weeks. Median duration of pressure support was significantly higher at 37 weeks (66.6 h vs 40.5 h). Twin pregnancies were related to a higher risk of CRM (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.6-7.3), but not independent of gestational age (GA). Cesarean section (CS) was associated with higher risk of CRM independently of GA, but the OR was lower in CS with labour (2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.4 vs 3.0, 95% CI 2.1-4.2). Conclusions In this single third level care study late preterm births, pulmonary diseases and supportive respiratory interventions were lower than previously documented. LPI are at a higher risk of developing pulmonary disease than TI. Infants born from elective cesarean sections, late preterm twins in particular and 37 weekers too might benefit from preventive intervention. PMID:24893787

  5. Vitamin D endocrine system after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoten, William B. (Principal Investigator); Sergeev, Igor N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca(2+) metabolism, yet the cellular/molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. There is some evidence for microgravity-induced alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system, which is known to be primarily involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) metabolism. Vitamin D-dependent Ca(2+) binding proteins, or calbindins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. We used immunocytochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D(sub 28k) and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in kidneys and intestines of rats flown for 9 days aboard the Spacelab 3 mission. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats in space vs. 'grounded' animals (synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls and tail suspension controls) were compared. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant decrease in calbindin-D(sub 28k) content in kidneys and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in the intestine of flight and suspended animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in kidneys and intestine, and insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease in the distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 28k) and absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 9k) immunoreactivity in the space and suspension kidneys and intestine, as compared with matched ground controls. No consistent differences in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space, suspension and ground controls was observed. There were significant correlations between results by quantitative ICC and ELISA. Western blot analysis showed no consistent changes in the low levels of intestinal and renal vitamin D receptors. These findings suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins after a short-term

  6. Long and short term variations of the polar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Takumi

    We present long-term and short-term variations of the polar wind in the mid-altitude (2000- 9000) km polar ionosphere from Akebono (EXOS-D) suprathermal ion mass spectrometer (SMS) observations. In particular, we will discuss a dominant process for the thermal ion acceleration to cause a variation of the ion outflow flux in such a time scale. The polar wind is a thermal ion outflow driven by the ambipolar electric field as a result of plasma pressure gradient along the geomagnetic field under typical ionospheric condition. Therefore, the polar wind velocity largely depends on a vertical density profile of thermal plasma in the high-latitude polar ionosphere. In general, the thermal plasma density profile is strongly influenced by the magnitude of EUV energy input from the Sun. The Akebono observations show a weak correlation between the H+ and O+ polar wind velocity profile and the solar F10.7 index in the time scale of several to ten days, and it is suggestive of such a causal relationship. It is also found in the Akebono observations that the polar wind velocity variation has a component corresponding to a daily variation of the geomagnetic activity. In the present analysis, the velocity profile is defined by two parameters; 1) the lowest altitude where the polar wind acceleration is identified, 2) velocity variation ratio with respect to the altitude. Our analysis indicates that the magnitude of F10.7 and the geomagnetic activity are influential in determining the polar wind velocity profile. The solar-activity dependence and seasonal variation of the polar wind velocity profiles are also investigated by the data from the Akebono. These observations spanned a solar cycle, and covered a wide range of altitudes and invariant latitudes and a variety of geomagnetic activity conditions. At low (high) altitudes below (above) 4000 km, the increase of the averaged H+ and O+ ion velocities with altitude was larger (smaller) at solar minimum than at solar maximum. For

  7. Short-term exposure of arsenite disrupted thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in the HPT axis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-Jie; Li, Hong-Bo; Xiang, Ping; Zhang, Xiaowei; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-10-01

    Arsenic (As) pollution in aquatic environment may adversely impact fish health by disrupting their thyroid hormone homeostasis. In this study, we explored the effect of short-term exposure of arsenite (AsIII) on thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish. We measured As concentrations, As speciation, and thyroid hormone thyroxine levels in whole zebrafish, oxidative stress (H2O2) and damage (MDA) in the liver, and gene transcription in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in the brain and liver tissues of zebrafish after exposing to different AsIII concentrations for 48 h. Result indicated that exposure to AsIII increased inorganic As in zebrafish to 0.46-0.72 mg kg(-1), induced oxidative stress with H2O2 being increased by 1.4-2.5 times and caused oxidative damage with MDA being augmented by 1.6 times. AsIII exposure increased thyroxine levels by 1.3-1.4 times and modulated gene transcription in HPT axis. Our study showed AsIII caused oxidative damage, affected thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in HPT axis in zebrafish. PMID:26057477

  8. Comparative Study of the Effects of Long and Short Term Biological Processes on the Cycling of Colloidal Trace Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinedo, P.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.; West, A.

    2013-05-01

    Nanoparticle (or colloids), with sizes operationally defined as ranging from 1nm to 1000nm diameter, are thought to play an important role in metal cycling in the ocean due to their high surface area to volume ratio and abundance in marine systems. In coastal waters, the bulk of marine nanoparticles are organic, so short and long term biological processes are expected to influence the dynamics of these types of particles in marine environments. This is, in turn, expected to influence metal concentrations. Here we selected two different environments to study the influence of long-term biological events (phytoplankton blooms) and short-term biological events (diel cycles of photosynthesis and respiration) on the cycling of colloidal trace metals. We focus on Cu and Fe, both biogeochemically important metals but with differing colloidal behavior. Long term processes (West Neck Bay): A bay (West Neck Bay, Long Island) with predictable natural phytoplankton blooms, but with limited inputs of freshwater, nutrients and metals, was selected to study the partitioning of Cu and Fe between colloidal and soluble pools over the course of a bloom. During the bloom, there was a significant build-up of Cu associated with DOM accumulation and a removal of Fe via particle stripping. Fraction-specific metal concentrations, and metal accumulation and removal rates, were found to be significantly correlated with chlorophyll-a concentration and with dissolved organic matter (DOM). Short term processes (Catalina Island): To identify the cyclical variation in metal speciation during diel (24-hour) cycles of photosynthesis and respiration, we conducted a study off Catalina Island, a pristine environment where trace metal cycling is solely controlled by biological processes and changes in the phytoplankton community are well characterized. The speciation of Fe between soluble and colloidal pools showed that Fe has a high affinity for colloidal material and that the distribution between

  9. Floods, landslides and short-term meandering bedrock river dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lague, D.; Bonnet, S.; Davies, T. R.; Davy, P.

    2012-12-01

    Actively incising bedrock meanders are an ubiquitous feature of mountain belts, but the mechanisms leading to their formation and evolution are still poorly understood. As for straight bedrock rivers, we expect the combination of stochastic discharge, sediment supply and river transport capacity to play a key role in the partitioning between vertical and lateral incision. But the sinuous planform geometry yields localized high rates of outer bank incision driving localized hillslope mass wasting processes. The resulting deposits may alter patterns of sedimentation and incision leading to a strongly coupled channel-hillslope system. We aim at better understanding this coupling following two approaches : a detailed quantification of channel response to individual floods and mass-wasting events using Terrestrial Laser Scanner surveys and recent historical data; and the integration of this short-term dynamics at longer-timescales through numerical modelling. In particular, we note that many of these rivers exhibits numerous strath terraces abandoned in their inner bend documenting an evolution which is not purely continuous but rather punctuated by rapid changes in the balance between vertical and lateral erosion. Whether these changes can be tied to specific extreme events (floods, landslides, major earthquakes...) or an intrinsic instability is a key question to better understand bedrock meandering dynamics. It also has potentially important implications for the reconstruction of paleo-extremes from dated terraces or for the management of infrastructures located near actively migrating meandering bedrock rivers. This presentation focuses on the use of Terrestrial Laser Scanner to investigate the spatio-temporal patterns of bank erosion in the Rangitikei river (New-Zealand) over 3 years. The Rangitikei river is incising weakly consolidated mudstone at an average rate of 5 mm/yr since 15 kyr and has developed a very sinuous meandering pattern with several cut

  10. Short-term Ensemble Flood Forecasting Experiments in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collischonn, Walter; Meller, Adalberto; Fan, Fernando; Moreira, Demerval; Dias, Pedro; Buarque, Diogo; Bravo, Juan

    2013-04-01

    Flood Forecasting and issuing early warnings to communities under risk can help reduce the impacts of those events. However, to be effective, warnings should be given several hours in advance. The best solution to extend the lead time is possibly the use of rainfall-runoff models with input given by rainfall and streamflow observations and by forecasts of future precipitation derived from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Recent studies showed that probabilistic or ensemble flood forecasts produced using ensemble precipitation forecasts as input data outperform deterministic flood forecasts in several cases in Europe and the United States, and ensemble flood forecasting systems are increasingly becoming operational in these regions. In Brazil, on the other hand, operational flood warning systems are rare, and often based on simplified river routing or linear transfer function models. However, a large number of global and regional meteorological models is operationally run covering most of the country, and forecasts of those models are available for recent years. We used this available data to conduct experiments of short term ensemble flood forecasting in the Paraopeba River basin (12 thousand km2), located in Southeastern Brazil. Streamflow forecasts were produced using the MGB-IPH hydrological model, using a simple empirical state updating method and using an ensemble of precipitation forecasts generated by several models, with different initial conditions and parameterizations, from several weather forecasting centers. A single deterministic streamflow forecast, based on a quantitative precipitation forecast derived from the optimal combination of several outputs of NWP models was used as a reference to assess the performance of the ensemble streamflow forecasts. Flood forecasts experiments were performed for three rainy seasons (austral summer) between 2008-2011. The results for predictions of dichotomous events, which mean exceeding or not flood

  11. Distribution of Short-Term and Lifetime Predicted Risks of Cardiovascular Diseases in Peruvian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quispe, Renato; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Burroughs Peña, Melissa S; Poterico, Julio A; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Huffman, Mark D; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Background Short-term risk assessment tools for prediction of cardiovascular disease events are widely recommended in clinical practice and are used largely for single time-point estimations; however, persons with low predicted short-term risk may have higher risks across longer time horizons. Methods and Results We estimated short-term and lifetime cardiovascular disease risk in a pooled population from 2 studies of Peruvian populations. Short-term risk was estimated using the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease Pooled Cohort Risk Equations. Lifetime risk was evaluated using the algorithm derived from the Framingham Heart Study cohort. Using previously published thresholds, participants were classified into 3 categories: low short-term and low lifetime risk, low short-term and high lifetime risk, and high short-term predicted risk. We also compared the distribution of these risk profiles across educational level, wealth index, and place of residence. We included 2844 participants (50% men, mean age 55.9 years [SD 10.2 years]) in the analysis. Approximately 1 of every 3 participants (34% [95% CI 33 to 36]) had a high short-term estimated cardiovascular disease risk. Among those with a low short-term predicted risk, more than half (54% [95% CI 52 to 56]) had a high lifetime predicted risk. Short-term and lifetime predicted risks were higher for participants with lower versus higher wealth indexes and educational levels and for those living in urban versus rural areas (P<0.01). These results were consistent by sex. Conclusions These findings highlight potential shortcomings of using short-term risk tools for primary prevention strategies because a substantial proportion of Peruvian adults were classified as low short-term risk but high lifetime risk. Vulnerable adults, such as those from low socioeconomic status and those living in urban areas, may need greater attention regarding cardiovascular preventive strategies. PMID:26254303

  12. A clustering-based fuzzy wavelet neural network model for short-term load forecasting.

    PubMed

    Kodogiannis, Vassilis S; Amina, Mahdi; Petrounias, Ilias

    2013-10-01

    Load forecasting is a critical element of power system operation, involving prediction of the future level of demand to serve as the basis for supply and demand planning. This paper presents the development of a novel clustering-based fuzzy wavelet neural network (CB-FWNN) model and validates its prediction on the short-term electric load forecasting of the Power System of the Greek Island of Crete. The proposed model is obtained from the traditional Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy system by replacing the THEN part of fuzzy rules with a "multiplication" wavelet neural network (MWNN). Multidimensional Gaussian type of activation functions have been used in the IF part of the fuzzyrules. A Fuzzy Subtractive Clustering scheme is employed as a pre-processing technique to find out the initial set and adequate number of clusters and ultimately the number of multiplication nodes in MWNN, while Gaussian Mixture Models with the Expectation Maximization algorithm are utilized for the definition of the multidimensional Gaussians. The results corresponding to the minimum and maximum power load indicate that the proposed load forecasting model provides significantly accurate forecasts, compared to conventional neural networks models. PMID:23924415

  13. Short Term Variability in Water Column and Porewater Carbon Chemistry on a Tropical Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drupp, P. S.; De Carlo, E. H.; Mackenzie, F. T.; Thompson, R.; Sabine, C. L.; Feely, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    A high-resolution carbon system study has been ongoing on the Kaneohe Bay barrier reef on the island of Oahu, Hawaii since 2008, in an effort to characterize short term variability of the carbon system in the water column and porewaters. In addition, during a 3 week time period from June 4th-24th, multiple sensors were deployed at the CRIMP-2 MAPCO2 buoy and discrete bottle samples were collected frequently, including once an hour for a period of 48 hours. In-situ sensors measured pCO2, pH, temperature and salinity at the CRIMP-2 location. Dissolved inorganic carbon to total alkalinity ratios indicate a reef system where primary production slightly exceeds calcification, consistent with previous studies on the reef. A second MAP-CO2 buoy located outside the bay (Kaneohe Buoy) also measured pCO2 and pH to serve as an end member point for water entering the reef system. Porewater has been collected at varying depths in order to determine the effect of overlying water conditions on the carbonic-acid system chemistry. Porewater alkalinity appears to vary with changes in overlying water column chemistry and physical forcings such as wind and current speeds, which influence flushing rates and ventilation, and calcium and magnesium data suggests dissolution of soluble magnesian calcites concurrently with precipitation of calcites.

  14. Community in a Hurry: Social Contracts and Social Covenants in Short-Term ESL Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinsen, Rob A.

    2009-01-01

    Like many adult ESL instructors, the author has felt firsthand the challenges of creating community in short-term courses. Through his experience, he has noticed that in order to successfully build community in short-term ESL courses, teachers need to lay a foundation for social contracts and social covenants from the first day of the course and…

  15. Effect of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs on Students' Cultural Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapp, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    The number of U.S. students studying abroad has been growing, particularly those participating in short-term trips. However, literature on the effect of these short-term trips is lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess quantitatively the effect on bachelor students' cross-cultural adaptability using a pre-post design. Significant changes…

  16. Focusing on Short-Term Achievement Gains Fails to Produce Long-Term Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissmer, David W.; Ober, David R.; Beekman, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The short-term emphasis engendered by No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has focused research predominantly on unraveling the complexities and uncertainties in assessing short-term results, rather than developing methods and assessing results over the longer term. In this paper we focus on estimating long-term gains and address questions important to…

  17. How Emotional Pictures Influence Visuospatial Binding in Short-Term Memory in Ageing and Alzheimer's Disease?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Celine; Leroy, Nicolas; Favre, Emilie; Laurent, Bernard; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the prediction that emotion can facilitate short-term memory. Nevertheless, emotion also recruits attention to process information, thereby disrupting short-term memory when tasks involve high attentional resources. In this way, we aimed to determine whether there is a differential influence of emotional information on…

  18. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    In the recent literature there has been considerable confusion about the three types of memory: long-term, short-term, and working memory. This chapter strives to reduce that confusion and makes up-to-date assessments of these types of memory. Long- and short-term memory could differ in two fundamental ways, with only short-term memory demonstrating (1) temporal decay and (2) chunk capacity limits. Both properties of short-term memory are still controversial but the current literature is rather encouraging regarding the existence of both decay and capacity limits. Working memory has been conceived and defined in three different, slightly discrepant ways: as short-term memory applied to cognitive tasks, as a multi-component system that holds and manipulates information in short-term memory, and as the use of attention to manage short-term memory. Regardless of the definition, there are some measures of memory in the short term that seem routine and do not correlate well with cognitive aptitudes and other measures (those usually identified with the term “working memory”) that seem more attention demanding and do correlate well with these aptitudes. The evidence is evaluated and placed within a theoretical framework depicted in Fig. 1. PMID:18394484

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: SHORT-TERM TESTS FOR CARCINOGENS, MUTAGENS AND OTHER GENOTOXIC AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Short-term tests have been developed to serve as rapid and relatively inexpensive predictors of a chemical's potential to cause chronic effects. These tests employ bacteria, yeast, plants, insects, isolated mammalian cells and whole animals. Short-term tests can detecta chemical'...

  20. 25 CFR 20.504 - What short-term homemaker services can Child Assistance pay for?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What short-term homemaker services can Child Assistance pay for? 20.504 Section 20.504 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN... Be Used § 20.504 What short-term homemaker services can Child Assistance pay for? You, the...

  1. 32 CFR 552.39 - Acquisition of short-term leases by local commanding officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Acquisition of short-term leases by local commanding officers. 552.39 Section 552.39 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Acquisition of Real Estate and Interest Therein § 552.39 Acquisition of short-term leases by local...

  2. 32 CFR 552.39 - Acquisition of short-term leases by local commanding officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Acquisition of short-term leases by local commanding officers. 552.39 Section 552.39 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Acquisition of Real Estate and Interest Therein § 552.39 Acquisition of short-term leases by local...

  3. Short-Term Memory of Children with Mental Retardation: Structural Defects or Control Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katims, David S.

    The short-term memory of 24 retarded and 24 nonretarded individuals, aged 10 to 14, under conditions of restricted cognitive strategy use was investigated. An attempt was made to determine whether short-term memory difficulties of persons with mental retardation are caused by deficits in voluntary cognitive strategies, such as the organization and…

  4. 14 CFR 1214.809 - Short-term call-up and accelerated launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Short-term call-up and accelerated launch. 1214.809 Section 1214.809 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.809 Short-term call-up and accelerated launch....

  5. 14 CFR § 1214.809 - Short-term call-up and accelerated launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Short-term call-up and accelerated launch. § 1214.809 Section § 1214.809 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.809 Short-term call-up and accelerated...

  6. 14 CFR 1214.809 - Short-term call-up and accelerated launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Short-term call-up and accelerated launch. 1214.809 Section 1214.809 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.809 Short-term call-up and accelerated launch....

  7. 14 CFR 1214.809 - Short-term call-up and accelerated launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Short-term call-up and accelerated launch. 1214.809 Section 1214.809 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.809 Short-term call-up and accelerated launch....

  8. 14 CFR 1214.809 - Short-term call-up and accelerated launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Short-term call-up and accelerated launch. 1214.809 Section 1214.809 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.809 Short-term call-up and accelerated launch....

  9. Cash Management and Short-Term Investments for Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Leonard H.

    Effective cash management and short-term investing are discussed in this "how to" guide designed to benefit most institutions of higher education. The following premises are examined: proper compensation for effective cash management is not an expense but an investment; effective cash management and short-term investment programs do not depend on…

  10. The Role of Short Term Synaptic Plasticity in Temporal Coding of Neuronal Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasekaran, Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Short term synaptic plasticity is a phenomenon which is commonly found in the central nervous system. It could contribute to functions of signal processing namely, temporal integration and coincidence detection by modulating the input synaptic strength. This dissertation has two parts. First, we study the effects of short term synaptic plasticity…

  11. Phonological Short-Term and Working Memory in Bilinguals' Native and Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine bilinguals' phonological short-term and working memory performance in their native/first (L1) and second (L2) languages. Korean-English bilinguals were tested in both Korean (L1) and English (L2). Short-term memory (STM) was measured via a nonword repetition task, where participants repeated…

  12. ROLE OF SHORT-TERM TESTS IN EVALUATING HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Short-term bioassays such as the Ames test are used to assess genotoxicity and potential carcinogenicity of specific drinking water contaminants as well as concentrated samples of drinking water. he authors discuss the development, limitations, and interpretation of short-term te...

  13. Exploring Developmental Differences in Visual Short-Term Memory and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Su Yin; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    Although visuospatial short-term memory tasks have been found to engage more executive resources than do their phonological counterparts, it remains unclear whether this is due to intrinsic differences between the tasks or differences in participants' experience with them. The authors found 11-year-olds' performances on both visual short-term and…

  14. The Development of Short-Term and Incidental Memory: A Cross-cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    1974-01-01

    Subjects from urban and rural Yucatan were tested on a short-term and incidental memory task. Urban subjects were in school, whereas most rural subjects were not. Results indicated that formal schooling is an important factor in the development of mnemonic skills in short-term memory. (ST)

  15. Short-Term Volunteer Teachers in Rural China: Challenges and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Huiquan; Shang, Xinyuan

    2011-01-01

    The brain-drain caused by imbalanced economic development has produced a lack of qualified teachers in rural China. Short-term volunteer teaching has emerged as a response. Despite the popularity of such programs, little systematic data have been gathered regarding their strengths and weaknesses. A short-term volunteer teaching program was…

  16. When Worlds Collide: Evaluating the Impact of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Deirdre Colby

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether and how short-term study abroad programs transform college students' perspectives. The study examined attitudes about host country and international outlook, as well as intellectual, social and personal understandings. Short-term programs were defined as programs of less than a semester or a…

  17. 47 CFR 1.9035 - Short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9035 Short-term de... any of the included services) and a spectrum lessee may enter into a short-term de facto transfer... the leased spectrum is transferred to the spectrum lessee for the duration of the spectrum...

  18. 47 CFR 1.9035 - Short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9035 Short-term de... any of the included services) and a spectrum lessee may enter into a short-term de facto transfer... the leased spectrum is transferred to the spectrum lessee for the duration of the spectrum...

  19. 47 CFR 1.9035 - Short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9035 Short-term de... any of the included services) and a spectrum lessee may enter into a short-term de facto transfer... the leased spectrum is transferred to the spectrum lessee for the duration of the spectrum...

  20. 47 CFR 1.9035 - Short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9035 Short-term de facto transfer leasing...) and a spectrum lessee may enter into a short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangement in which the licensee retains de jure control of the license while de facto control of the leased spectrum...

  1. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  2. A Short-Term Study Abroad Program for School Counseling Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Teddi; Caldwell, Charmaine; Geltner, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Well planned, short-term study abroad programs can benefit school counseling students through exposure to new and different cultural experiences. Students gain knowledge and skills that will help them serve the diverse cultural groups found in public school settings. The objective of the short-term study abroad program described in this article…

  3. Long- and Short-Term Magmatic Behavior of Piton De La Fournaise Volcano Inferred from Noise-Based Seismic Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenguier, F.; Rivet, D. N.; Kowalski, P.; Larose, E. F.; Lecocq, T.; Chaput, J. A.; Rambaud, S.; Shapiro, N.; Campillo, M.; Roux, P.; Ferrazzini, V.; Villeneuve, N.

    2014-12-01

    Probing the long-term preparation of eruptions as well as the short-term initiation and transport of magma to surface remains extremely difficult. One reason is that it is hardly possible to directly monitor at depth the magma storage area. One way to overcome this issue is to use seismic waves that, through their propagation, sample the targets of interest. Here we use ambient seismic waves to infer temporal mechanical property changes of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (PdF, La Réunion island). We find both 1) a long-term behavior that might reflect processes of deep magma replenishment as well as 2) short-term variations that are controlled by both environmental (rainfall) and pre-eruptive perturbations that are or not associated with edifice deformation. We will discuss the possible origins for such pre-eruptive perturbations (effects of magma pressure buildup or fluid pore pressure increase by heat transfer). In order to improve the depth resolution of our observations we deployed 3 seismic arrays for a total of 300 seismometers on PdF volcano in the framework of VolcArray project. We will present first results discussing how dense seismic arrays can be useful for noise-based seismic imaging and monitoring.

  4. Short-term hot hardness characteristics of rolling-element steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, J. L.; Dietrich, M. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    Short-term hot hardness studies were performed with five vacuum-melted steels at temperatures from 294 to 887 K (70 to 1140 F). Based upon a minimum Rockwell C hardness of 58, the temperature limitation on all materials studied was dependent on the initial room temperature hardness and the tempering temperature of each material. For the same room temperature hardness, the short-term hot hardness characteristics were identical and independent of material composition. An equation was developed to predict the short-term hardness at temperature as a function of initial room temperature hardness for AISI 52100, as well as the high-speed tool steels.

  5. Relations between Vocabulary Development and Verbal Short-Term Memory: The Relative Importance of Short-Term Memory for Serial Order and Item Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Greffe, Christelle; Van der Linden, Martial

    2006-01-01

    Although many studies have shown an association between verbal short-term memory (STM) and vocabulary development, the precise nature of this association is not yet clear. The current study reexamined this relation in 4- to 6-year-olds by designing verbal STM tasks that maximized memory for either item or serial order information. Although…

  6. Attention Problems, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Visuospatial Short-Term Memory: Differential Effects on Near- and Long-Term Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarver, Dustin E.; Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Scanlan, Sean W.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Altro, Thomas A.; Bolden, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined individual differences in children's phonological and visuospatial short-term memory as potential mediators of the relationship among attention problems and near- and long-term scholastic achievement. Nested structural equation models revealed that teacher-reported attention problems were associated negatively with…

  7. Short-term effects of air temperature on plasma metabolite concentrations in patients undergoing cardiac cattheterization.

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown associations between air temperature and cardiovascular health outcomes. Metabolic dysregulation might also play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease.OBJECTIVES: To investigate short-term temperature effects on metabol...

  8. CHARACTERIZING THE GENOTOXICITY OF HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND EFFLUENTS USING SHORT-TERM BIOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter demonstrates that short-term bioassays can reliably and expeditiously measure the genotoxic potential of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents. etrochemical wastes have been studied in detail, especially discharges from chemical manufacturing plants and textile a...

  9. A Master Equation Approach to Modeling Short-term Behaviors of the Stock Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Conan; Yang, Xiaoxiang; Mazilu, Irina

    2015-03-01

    Short term fluctuations in stock prices are highly random, due to the multitude of external factors acting on the price determination process. While long-term economic factors such as inflation and revenue growth rate affect short-term price fluctuation, it is difficult to obtain the complete set of information and uncertainties associated with a given period of time. Instead, we propose a simpler short-term model based on only prior price averages and extrema. In this paper, we take a master equation under the random walk hypothesis and fit parameters based on AAPL stock price data over the past ten years. We report results for small system sizes and for the short term average price. These results may lead to a general closed-form solution to this particular master equation.

  10. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Supply and Demand

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The hydrocarbon gas liquids (ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasoline) module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of U.S. production, consumption, refinery inputs, net imports, and inventories.