Science.gov

Sample records for isolated 2-methylbutyrylglycinuria caused

  1. Reproductive isolation caused by colour pattern mimicry.

    PubMed

    Jiggins, C D; Naisbit, R E; Coe, R L; Mallet, J

    2001-05-17

    Speciation is facilitated if ecological adaptation directly causes assortative mating, but few natural examples are known. Here we show that a shift in colour pattern mimicry was crucial in the origin of two butterfly species. The sister species Heliconius melpomene and Heliconius cydno recently diverged to mimic different model taxa, and our experiments show that their mimetic coloration is also important in choosing mates. Assortative mating between the sister species means that hybridization is rare in nature, and the few hybrids that are produced are non-mimetic, poorly adapted intermediates. Thus, the mimetic shift has caused both pre-mating and post-mating isolation. In addition, individuals from a population of H. melpomene allopatric to H. cydno court and mate with H. cydno more readily than those from a sympatric population. This suggests that assortative mating has been enhanced in sympatry. PMID:11357131

  2. Mutations in HPCA Cause Autosomal-Recessive Primary Isolated Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, Gavin; Angelova, Plamena R.; Bartolomé-Robledo, Fernando; Ryten, Mina; Trabzuni, Daniah; Stamelou, Maria; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Wood, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    Reports of primary isolated dystonia inherited in an autosomal-recessive (AR) manner, often lumped together as “DYT2 dystonia,” have appeared in the scientific literature for several decades, but no genetic cause has been identified to date. Using a combination of homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing in a consanguineous kindred affected by AR isolated dystonia, we identified homozygous mutations in HPCA, a gene encoding a neuronal calcium sensor protein found almost exclusively in the brain and at particularly high levels in the striatum, as the cause of disease in this family. Subsequently, compound-heterozygous mutations in HPCA were also identified in a second independent kindred affected by AR isolated dystonia. Functional studies suggest that hippocalcin might play a role in regulating voltage-dependent calcium channels. The identification of mutations in HPCA as a cause of AR primary isolated dystonia paves the way for further studies to assess whether “DYT2 dystonia” is a genetically homogeneous condition or not. PMID:25799108

  3. Pneumothorax Caused by an Isolated Midshaft Clavicle Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Snouda, Salah

    2016-01-01

    Patients with isolated clavicle fractures are frequent in the emergency department. However, unusual clavicle fractures complications, such as pneumothorax, are rare. Previous reports indicated that all pneumothorax cases were treated via performing thoracostomy. Conservatively, the treatment of the clavicle fracture, like in our case, was successful. Despite the fact that isolated clavicle fractures rarely cause complications and generally heal with immobilization, serious complications may occur requiring urgent treatment. It has been proven that physical examinations, with particular attention to the neurovascular and chest examinations, and radiographs of the clavicle are necessary to prevent overlooking these potentially dangerous complications. PMID:27148462

  4. Isolated common femoral artery injury caused by blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Avaro, J P; Biance, N; Savoie, P H; Peycru, T; Bonnet, P M; Balandraud, P

    2008-01-01

    The authors report an isolated common femoral artery injury caused by blunt trauma with dissection and secondary ischaemia. A 21-year-old man was admitted to hospital after being stabbed during acute alcoholic intoxication. He presented with a stab wound on the left leg and blunt trauma in the right groin. The surgical exploration of the left-sided wound did not disclose any vascular injury. After a 12-hour period of observation, the patient was discharged. Six hours later, he came back with severe ischaemia on the right leg caused by a femoral artery dissection. The patient underwent surgical revascularization, and fully recovered. Isolated artery blunt trauma is a rare event. In this observation, the absence of early symptoms resulted in delayed diagnosis. PMID:19241930

  5. Renal Infarction Caused by Isolated Spontaneous Renal Artery Intramural Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sihyung; Lee, Ga Hee; Jin, Kyubok; Park, Kang Min; Kim, Yang Wook; Park, Bong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 46 Final Diagnosis: Renal infarction Symptoms: Flank pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: CT Specialty: Nephrology Objective: Rare disease Background: Acute renal infarction is an uncommon condition resulting from an obstruction or a decrease in renal arterial blood flow. Isolated spontaneous renal artery intramural hematoma is a rare cause of renal infarction. Case Report: A 46-year-old healthy man presented to our emergency room because of sudden onset of severe right flank pain. An enhanced abdominal computed tomography scan showed a low-attenuated lesion in the lateral portion of the right kidney but no visible thromboembolisms in the main vessels. Computed tomography angiography revealed acute infarction resulting from intramural hematoma of the anterior segmental artery of the right kidney, with distal occlusion. Conclusions: The rarity and non-specific clinical presentation of renal infarction often lead to a delayed diagnosis that may result in impaired renal function. Clinical suspicion is important in the early diagnosis, and intramural hematoma of the renal artery should be considered the cause of renal infarction even in healthy patients without pre-disposing factors. PMID:26596500

  6. Isolated subglottic lymphoma: an interesting cause of dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Yardley, M P; Chui, P

    1993-01-01

    Isolated laryngeal lymphomas are exceedingly rare tumours: they tend to be greyish submucosal swellings and to respond well to radiotherapy. A case of subglottic lymphoma is presented, along with a review of previously reported cases of subglottic lymphomas. PMID:8461251

  7. [Isolated left ventricular noncompaction causing refractory heart failure].

    PubMed

    Meneguz-Moreno, Rafael Alexandre; Rodrigues da Costa Teixeira, Felipe; Rossi Neto, João Manoel; Finger, Marco Aurélio; Casadei, Carolina; Castillo, Maria Teresa; Sanchez de Almeida, Antonio Flávio

    2016-03-01

    Left ventricular noncompaction is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by excessive left ventricular trabeculation, deep intertrabecular recesses and a thin compacted layer due to the arrest of compaction of myocardial fibers during embryonic development. We report the case of a young patient with isolated left ventricular noncompaction, leading to refractory heart failure that required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation followed by emergency heart transplantation. PMID:26928017

  8. Isolated Ileal Pancreatic Heterotopia Causing Intussusception with Gangrene.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Jegadeesh; Menon, Prema; Kumar, Vinod; Rao, Katragadda Lakshmi Narasimha; Vaiphei, Kim; Kakkar, Nandita

    2015-01-01

    Isolated ileal heterotopic pancreatic tissue as a lead point of intussusception in children is extremely rare. We report a 6-month-old female with ileoileal intussusception and a 4-year-old female with ileocolic intussusception both associated with gangrene. A review of literature suggests a higher prevalence of gangrene probably secondary to the pancreatic exocrine tissue. PMID:26107550

  9. Isolation of an agent causing bilirubinemia and jaundice in raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilham, L.; Herman, C.M.

    1954-01-01

    An infectious agent, which appears to be a virus (RJV) has been isolated from the liver of a wild raccoon which has led to a highly fatal type of disease characterized by conjunctivitis and an elevated serum bilirubin frequently accompanied by jaundice on inoculation of raccoons. Ferrets also appear to be susceptible to infections with this agent.

  10. Brevibacterium casei isolated as a cause of relapsing peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Althaf, Mohammed Mahdi; Abdelsalam, Mohamed Said; Alsunaid, Mohammed Sunaid; Hussein, Maged Hassan

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of relapsing peritonitis in a 33-year-old woman on automated peritoneal dialysis. End-stage renal disease was secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus complicated with lupus nephritis. The organism isolated was Brevibacterium casei that was not readily identified, delaying appropriate management with an extended antibiotic course. Definite management of B casei peritonitis was peritoneal dialysis catheter removal. PMID:24648477

  11. Perfusion delay causes unintentional ischemic preconditioning in isolated heart preparation.

    PubMed

    Minhaz, U; Koide, S; Shohtsu, A; Fujishima, M; Nakazawa, H

    1995-01-01

    This study sought to show that unintentional preconditioning can be induced in the isolated perfused heart during the preparation procedure. The following four groups were compared: hearts were placed in ice cold saline and cooled for 15 s and then mounted to the Langendorff apparatus (n = 5; cool immediate group); hearts were cooled for 60 s and mounted (n = 5; cool delay group); hearts were mounted directly to the apparatus within 15 s after the isolation without cooling (n = 5; noncool immediate group); hearts were mounted without cooling, but the mounting was delayed for 60 s after the isolation (n = 5; noncool delay group). All hearts were paced at a fixed rate of 300 bpm, and an occlusion of left coronary (LCA) for 60 min was performed, which was followed by reperfusion for another 60 min. Coronary flow (CBF), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) release did not change among the four groups during ischemia. At the end of reperfusion the LVDP values were 70 +/- 1%, 66 +/- 2%, 62 +/- 3%, and 73 +/- 2% of preischemic values in cool immediate, cool delay, noncool immediate, and noncool delay groups, respectively. CPK values were 116 +/- 4, 121 +/- 7, 138 +/- 6, and 29 +/- 1 x 10(3) U/g myocardium, and percentage necrosis/risk areas were 24 +/- 1.0%, 21 +/- 1.7%, 38 +/- 2.6%, and 13 +/- 0.5% in cool immediate, cool delay, noncool immediate, and noncool delay groups, respectively. The noncool delay group demonstrated high LVDP, least amount of CPK release, and smallest size of necrosis. These results indicate that an unintentional preconditioning effect can be induced when the cooling procedure is not applied and perfusion is delayed. PMID:8585864

  12. Monogenic and chromosomal causes of isolated speech and language impairment.

    PubMed

    Barnett, C P; van Bon, B W M

    2015-11-01

    The importance of a precise molecular diagnosis for children with intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy has become widely accepted and genetic testing is an integral part of the diagnostic evaluation of these children. In contrast, children with an isolated speech or language disorder are not often genetically evaluated, despite recent evidence supporting a role for genetic factors in the aetiology of these disorders. Several chromosomal copy number variants and single gene disorders associated with abnormalities of speech and language have been identified. Individuals without a precise genetic diagnosis will not receive optimal management including interventions such as early testosterone replacement in Klinefelter syndrome, otorhinolaryngological and audiometric evaluation in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, cardiovascular surveillance in 7q11.23 duplications and early dietary management to prevent obesity in proximal 16p11.2 deletions. This review summarises the clinical features, aetiology and management options of known chromosomal and single gene disorders that are associated with speech and language pathology in the setting of normal or only mildly impaired cognitive function. PMID:26139234

  13. [Isolated cheiro-facial formication caused by a thalamic hematoma].

    PubMed

    Awada, A

    1989-01-01

    A 25 year-old Saudi female patient presented with numbness of the left half of the face and the tongue and the left hand. Neurological and neuropsychological examinations were normal. Brain CT showed a small hematoma (5 to 7 mm diameter) of the right thalamus probably destroying or compressing the ventropostero-median and ventropostero-lateral thalamic nuclei. Thalamic hematoma has been reported only twice as a cause of pure sensory stroke. The absence of clinical signs together with the presence of symptoms, and the particular topography of the symptoms are discussed. PMID:2616971

  14. Evaluation of Aggressiveness of Fusarium virguliforme Isolates That Cause Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse studies were conducted to compare the ability of fungal isolates that cause soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS). After an initial evaluation of 123 isolates on soybean, 30 were selected for further tests where both foliar severity and root infection were evaluated. Difference among isolat...

  15. Neck hyperflexion causing isolated thyroid cartilage fracture--a case report.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsing-Lin; Kuo, Liang-Chi; Chen, Chao-Wen; Cheng, Yuan-Chia; Lee, Wei-Che

    2008-11-01

    Isolated thyroid cartilage fracture is very rare, and most cartilage fractures are caused by direct impact to the laryngotracheal complex of the neck. Isolated thyroid cartilage fracture caused by hyperflexion of the neck has not been reported before. We present a case where an unrestrained front seat car passenger struck his forehead on the windshield during a motor vehicle accident. Direct impact of his forehead with sudden and forceful flexion of his neck caused isolated thyroid cartilage fracture without direct impact to the neck. Therefore, injury to the thyroid cartilage should be kept in the list of detailed evaluation with high index of suspicion in patients presenting with trauma mechanism possibly causing neck hyperflexion, even without signs of direct neck trauma. PMID:19091279

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of a Virulent Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense Isolate Causing Soft Rot of Cucumber.

    PubMed

    Onkendi, Edward M; Ramesh, Aadi Moolam; Kwenda, Stanford; Naidoo, Sanushka; Moleleki, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense causes soft rot and blackleg diseases on potatoes, ornamentals, and other crops of economic importance. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of a highly virulent P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense strain, PcbHPI01, isolated from a cucumber in South Africa. PMID:26744374

  17. A truncating PET100 variant causing fatal infantile lactic acidosis and isolated cytochrome c oxidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Oláhová, Monika; Haack, Tobias B; Alston, Charlotte L; Houghton, Jessica Ac; He, Langping; Morris, Andrew Am; Brown, Garry K; McFarland, Robert; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zofia Ma; Lightowlers, Robert N; Prokisch, Holger; Taylor, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    Isolated mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency is an important cause of mitochondrial disease in children and adults. It is genetically heterogeneous, given that both mtDNA-encoded and nuclear-encoded gene products contribute to structural components and assembly factors. Pathogenic variants within these proteins are associated with clinical variability ranging from isolated organ involvement to multisystem disease presentations. Defects in more than 10 complex IV assembly factors have been described including a recent Lebanese founder mutation in PET100 in patients presenting with Leigh syndrome. We report the clinical and molecular investigation of a patient with a fatal, neonatal-onset isolated complex IV deficiency associated with multiorgan involvement born to consanguineous, first-cousin British Asian parents. Exome sequencing revealed a homozygous truncating variant (c.142C>T, p.(Gln48*)) in the PET100 gene that results in a complete loss of enzyme activity and assembly of the holocomplex. Our report confirms PET100 mutation as an important cause of isolated complex IV deficiency outside of the Lebanese population, extending the phenotypic spectrum associated with abnormalities within this gene. PMID:25293719

  18. A truncating PET100 variant causing fatal infantile lactic acidosis and isolated cytochrome c oxidase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Oláhová, Monika; Haack, Tobias B; Alston, Charlotte L; Houghton, Jessica AC; He, Langping; Morris, Andrew AM; Brown, Garry K; McFarland, Robert; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zofia MA; Lightowlers, Robert N; Prokisch, Holger; Taylor, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Isolated mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency is an important cause of mitochondrial disease in children and adults. It is genetically heterogeneous, given that both mtDNA-encoded and nuclear-encoded gene products contribute to structural components and assembly factors. Pathogenic variants within these proteins are associated with clinical variability ranging from isolated organ involvement to multisystem disease presentations. Defects in more than 10 complex IV assembly factors have been described including a recent Lebanese founder mutation in PET100 in patients presenting with Leigh syndrome. We report the clinical and molecular investigation of a patient with a fatal, neonatal-onset isolated complex IV deficiency associated with multiorgan involvement born to consanguineous, first-cousin British Asian parents. Exome sequencing revealed a homozygous truncating variant (c.142C>T, p.(Gln48*)) in the PET100 gene that results in a complete loss of enzyme activity and assembly of the holocomplex. Our report confirms PET100 mutation as an important cause of isolated complex IV deficiency outside of the Lebanese population, extending the phenotypic spectrum associated with abnormalities within this gene. PMID:25293719

  19. Neonatal isolated ACTH deficiency (IAD): a potentially life-threatening but treatable cause of neonatal cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Alsaleem, Mahdi; Saadeh, Lina; Misra, Amrit; Madani, Shailender

    2016-01-01

    Isolated ACTH deficiency (IAD) is a rare cause of neonatal cholestasis and hypoglycaemia. This diagnosis has a 20% mortality potential if unrecognised. We describe a case of an infant presenting with cholestatic jaundice and hypoglycaemia. The patient had laboratory findings suggestive of IAD, which was later confirmed with molecular genetic testing. One of the mutations this patient had is a new finding. The patient was started on glucocorticoid replacement therapy after which his bilirubin and glucose levels normalised. PMID:27535729

  20. Escherichia coli Isolates Causing Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Catheterized and Noncatheterized Individuals Possess Similar Virulence Properties ▿

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Rebecca E.; Hancock, Viktoria; Ong, Cheryl-Lynn Y.; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Mabbett, Amanda N.; Totsika, Makrina; Looke, David F.; Nimmo, Graeme R.; Klemm, Per; Schembri, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infectious diseases of humans, with Escherichia coli being responsible for >80% of all cases. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) occurs when bacteria colonize the urinary tract without causing clinical symptoms and can affect both catheterized patients (catheter-associated ABU [CA-ABU]) and noncatheterized patients. Here, we compared the virulence properties of a collection of ABU and CA-ABU nosocomial E. coli isolates in terms of antibiotic resistance, phylogenetic grouping, specific UTI-associated virulence genes, hemagglutination characteristics, and biofilm formation. CA-ABU isolates were similar to ABU isolates with regard to the majority of these characteristics; exceptions were that CA-ABU isolates had a higher prevalence of the polysaccharide capsule marker genes kpsMT II and kpsMT K1, while more ABU strains were capable of mannose-resistant hemagglutination. To examine biofilm growth in detail, we performed a global gene expression analysis with two CA-ABU strains that formed a strong biofilm and that possessed a limited adhesin repertoire. The gene expression profile of the CA-ABU strains during biofilm growth showed considerable overlap with that previously described for the prototype ABU E. coli strain, 83972. This is the first global gene expression analysis of E. coli CA-ABU strains. Overall, our data suggest that nosocomial ABU and CA-ABU E. coli isolates possess similar virulence profiles. PMID:20444967

  1. Xylella fastidiosa Isolates from Both subsp. multiplex and fastidiosa Cause Disease on Southern Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) Under Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Oliver, J E; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2015-07-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited gram-negative plant pathogen that affects numerous crop species, including grape, citrus, peach, pecan, and almond. Recently, X. fastidiosa has also been found to be the cause of bacterial leaf scorch on blueberry in the southeastern United States. Thus far, all X. fastidiosa isolates obtained from infected blueberry have been classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex; however, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates are also present in the southeastern United States and commonly cause Pierce's disease of grapevines. In this study, seven southeastern U.S. isolates of X. fastidiosa, including three X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates from grape, one X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolate from elderberry, and three X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry, were used to infect the southern highbush blueberry 'Rebel'. Following inoculation, all isolates colonized blueberry, and isolates from both X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa caused symptoms, including characteristic stem yellowing and leaf scorch symptoms as well as dieback of the stem tips. Two X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry caused more severe symptoms than the other isolates examined, and infection with these two isolates also had a significant impact on host mineral nutrient content in sap and leaves. These findings have potential implications for understanding X. fastidiosa host adaptation and expansion and the development of emerging diseases caused by this bacterium. PMID:25738552

  2. REP-PCR analysis of Pasteurella multocida isolates that cause haemorrhagic septicaemia.

    PubMed

    Townsend, K M; Dawkins, H J; Papadimitriou, J M

    1997-01-01

    Amplification of multiple P multocida genomic DNA fragments by outwardly-directed primers based on the repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) consensus sequence, generated complex profiles in a PCR-based fingerprinting method known as REP-PCR. Polymorphisms within REP-PCR profiles were used to characterise 38 isolates of P multocida. The high degree of homogeneity observed among haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) strains of serotype B and E provided evidence of a disease-associated REP profile that may serve as a novel method for the identification of HS strains regardless of serotype. REP-PCR profiles of other P multocida serotypes were highly variable, illustrating the potential of this technique for the molecular fingerprinting of fowl cholera or atrophic rhinitis isolates. A specific amplified REP fragment was isolated and used to probe membrane-bound digested P multocida genomic DNA. Hybridisation patterns not only distinguished HS-causing isolates from non-HS P multocida, but also demonstrated a degree of relatedness between HS and HS-like strains. PMID:9429249

  3. Non-typhoidal Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 isolates that cause bacteremia in humans stimulate less inflammasome activation than ST19 isolates associated with gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Carden, Sarah; Okoro, Chinyere; Dougan, Gordon; Monack, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is an enteric pathogen that causes a range of diseases in humans. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium generally cause a self-limiting gastroenteritis whereas typhoidal serovars cause a systemic disease, typhoid fever. However, S. Typhimurium isolates within the multi-locus sequence type ST313 have emerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a major cause of bacteremia in humans. The S. Typhimurium ST313 lineage is phylogenetically distinct from classical S. Typhimurium lineages, such as ST19, that cause zoonotic gastroenteritis worldwide. Previous studies have shown that the ST313 lineage has undergone genome degradation when compared to the ST19 lineage, similar to that observed for typhoidal serovars. Currently, little is known about phenotypic differences between ST313 isolates and other NTS isolates. We find that representative ST313 isolates invade non-phagocytic cells less efficiently than the classical ST19 isolates that are more commonly associated with gastroenteritis. In addition, ST313 isolates induce less Caspase-1-dependent macrophage death and IL-1β release than ST19 isolates. ST313 isolates also express relatively lower levels of mRNA of the genes encoding the SPI-1 effector sopE2 and the flagellin, fliC, providing possible explanations for the decrease in invasion and inflammasome activation. The ST313 isolates have invasion and inflammatory phenotypes that are intermediate; more invasive and inflammatory than Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and less than ST19 isolates associated with gastroenteritis. This suggests that both phenotypically and at the genomic level ST313 isolates are evolving signatures that facilitate a systemic lifestyle in humans. PMID:25808600

  4. Recessive mutations in a distal PTF1A enhancer cause isolated pancreatic agenesis.

    PubMed

    Weedon, Michael N; Cebola, Inês; Patch, Ann-Marie; Flanagan, Sarah E; De Franco, Elisa; Caswell, Richard; Rodríguez-Seguí, Santiago A; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Cho, Candy H-H; Lango Allen, Hana; Houghton, Jayne A L; Roth, Christian L; Chen, Rongrong; Hussain, Khalid; Marsh, Phil; Vallier, Ludovic; Murray, Anna; Ellard, Sian; Ferrer, Jorge; Hattersley, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of cis-regulatory mutations to human disease remains poorly understood. Whole-genome sequencing can identify all noncoding variants, yet the discrimination of causal regulatory mutations represents a formidable challenge. We used epigenomic annotation in human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived pancreatic progenitor cells to guide the interpretation of whole-genome sequences from individuals with isolated pancreatic agenesis. This analysis uncovered six different recessive mutations in a previously uncharacterized ~400-bp sequence located 25 kb downstream of PTF1A (encoding pancreas-specific transcription factor 1a) in ten families with pancreatic agenesis. We show that this region acts as a developmental enhancer of PTF1A and that the mutations abolish enhancer activity. These mutations are the most common cause of isolated pancreatic agenesis. Integrating genome sequencing and epigenomic annotation in a disease-relevant cell type can thus uncover new noncoding elements underlying human development and disease. PMID:24212882

  5. Recessive mutations in a distal PTF1A enhancer cause isolated pancreatic agenesis

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Sarah E.; De Franco, Elisa; Caswell, Richard; Rodríguez-Seguí, Santiago A.; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Cho, Candy H-H.; Allen, Hana Lango; Houghton, Jayne AL.; Roth, Christian L.; Chen, Rongrong; Hussain, Khalid; Marsh, Phil; Vallier, Ludovic; Murray, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of cis-regulatory mutations to human disease remains poorly understood. Whole genome sequencing can identify all non-coding variants, yet discrimination of causal regulatory mutations represents a formidable challenge. We used epigenomic annotation in hESC-derived embryonic pancreatic progenitor cells to guide the interpretation of whole genome sequences from patients with isolated pancreatic agenesis. This uncovered six different recessive mutations in a previously uncharacterized ~400bp sequence located 25kb downstream of PTF1A (pancreas-specific transcription factor 1a) in ten families with pancreatic agenesis. We show that this region acts as a developmental enhancer of PTF1A and that the mutations abolish enhancer activity. These mutations are the most common cause of isolated pancreatic agenesis. Integrating genome sequencing and epigenomic annotation in a disease-relevant cell type can uncover novel non-coding elements underlying human development and disease. PMID:24212882

  6. Bile acids are toxic for isolated cardiac mitochondria: a possible cause for hepatic-derived cardiomyopathies?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Manuela; Coxito, Pedro M; Sardão, Vilma A; Palmeira, Carlos M; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2005-01-01

    Cholestasis and other liver diseases may affect the heart through the toxic effects of the retained bile acids on cardiac mitochondria, which could explain the origin of hepatic-derived cardiomyopathies. The objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that bile acids are toxic to heart mitochondria for concentrations that are relevant for cholestasis. Heart mitochondria were isolated from rat and subjected to incubation with selected bile acids (litocholic acid [LCA], deoxycholic acid [DCA], chenodeoxycholic acid [CDCA], glycochenodeoxycholic acid [GCDC], taurodeoxycholic acid [TDCA], and glycoursodeoxycholic acid [GUDC]). We observed that the most toxic bile acids were also the most lipophilic ones (LCA, DCA, and CDCA), inducing a decrease on state 3 respiration, respiratory control ratio, and membrane potential and causing the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition. GUDC was the bile acid with lower indexes of toxicity on isolated heart mitochondria. The results of this research indicate that at toxicologically relevant concentrations, most bile acids (mainly the most lipophilic) alter mitochondrial bioenergetics. The impairment of cardiac mitochondrial function may be an important cause for the observed cardiac alterations during cholestasis. PMID:15738586

  7. Recessive germline SDHA and SDHB mutations causing leukodystrophy and isolated mitochondrial complex II deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Alston, Charlotte L; Davison, James E; Meloni, Francesca; van der Westhuizen, Francois H; He, Langping; Hornig-Do, Hue-Tran; Peet, Andrew C; Gissen, Paul; Goffrini, Paola; Ferrero, Ileana; Wassmer, Evangeline; McFarland, Robert; Taylor, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Background Isolated complex II deficiency is a rare form of mitochondrial disease, accounting for approximately 2% of all respiratory chain deficiency diagnoses. The succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD) are autosomally-encoded and transcribe the conjugated heterotetramers of complex II via the action of two known assembly factors (SDHAF1 and SDHAF2). Only a handful of reports describe inherited SDH gene defects as a cause of paediatric mitochondrial disease, involving either SDHA (Leigh syndrome, cardiomyopathy) or SDHAF1 (infantile leukoencephalopathy). However, all four SDH genes, together with SDHAF2, have known tumour suppressor functions, with numerous germline and somatic mutations reported in association with hereditary cancer syndromes, including paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma. Methods and results Here, we report the clinical and molecular investigations of two patients with histochemical and biochemical evidence of a severe, isolated complex II deficiency due to novel SDH gene mutations; the first patient presented with cardiomyopathy and leukodystrophy due to compound heterozygous p.Thr508Ile and p.Ser509Leu SDHA mutations, while the second patient presented with hypotonia and leukodystrophy with elevated brain succinate demonstrated by MR spectroscopy due to a novel, homozygous p.Asp48Val SDHB mutation. Western blotting and BN-PAGE studies confirmed decreased steady-state levels of the relevant SDH subunits and impairment of complex II assembly. Evidence from yeast complementation studies provided additional support for pathogenicity of the SDHB mutation. Conclusions Our report represents the first example of SDHB mutation as a cause of inherited mitochondrial respiratory chain disease and extends the SDHA mutation spectrum in patients with isolated complex II deficiency. PMID:22972948

  8. GPR101 Mutations are not a Frequent Cause of Congenital Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Castinetti, F; Daly, A F; Stratakis, C A; Caberg, J-H; Castermans, E; Trivellin, G; Rostomyan, L; Saveanu, A; Jullien, N; Reynaud, R; Barlier, A; Bours, V; Brue, T; Beckers, A

    2016-06-01

    Patients with Xq26.3 microduplication present with X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome, an early-childhood form of gigantism due to marked growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion from mixed GH-PRL adenomas and hyperplasia. The microduplication includes GPR101, which is upregulated in patients' tumor tissue. The GPR101 gene codes for an orphan G protein coupled receptor that is normally highly expressed in the hypothalamus. Our aim was to determine whether GPR101 loss of function mutations or deletions could be involved in patients with congenital isolated GH deficiency (GHD). Taking advantage of the cohort of patients from the GENHYPOPIT network, we studied 41 patients with unexplained isolated GHD. All patients had Sanger sequencing of the GPR101 gene and array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) to look for deletions. Functional studies (cell culture with GH secretion measurements, cAMP response) were performed. One novel GPR101 variant, c.589 G>T (p.V197L), was seen in the heterozygous state in a patient with isolated GHD. In silico analysis suggested that this variant could be deleterious. Functional studies did not show any significant difference in comparison with wild type for GH secretion and cAMP response. No truncating, frameshift, or small insertion-deletion (indel) GPR101 mutations were seen in the 41 patients. No deletion or other copy number variation at chromosome Xq26.3 was found on aCGH. We found a novel GPR101 variant of unknown significance, in a patient with isolated GH deficiency. Our study did not identify GPR101 abnormalities as a frequent cause of GH deficiency. PMID:26797872

  9. Isolated gastric variceal bleeding caused by splenic lymphoma-associated splenic vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bao-Chung; Wang, Hong-Hau; Lin, Yu-Chieh; Shih, Yu-Lueng; Chang, Wei-Kuo; Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan

    2013-10-28

    Isolated gastric varices (IGV) can occur in patients with left-sided portal hypertension resulting from splenic vein occlusion caused by thrombosis or stenosis. In left-sided portal hypertension, blood flows retrogradely through the short and posterior gastric veins and the gastroepiploic veins, leading to the formation of an IGV. The most common causes of splenic vein occlusion are pancreatic diseases, such as pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, or a pseudocyst. However, various other cancers, such as colon, gastric, or renal cancers, have also been known to cause splenic vein occlusion. Our patient presented with a rare case of IGV bleeding induced by splenic lymphoma-associated splenic vein occlusion. Splenectomy, splenic artery embolization, and stenting of the splenic vein are the current treatment choices. Chemotherapy, however, is an alternative effective treatment for splenic vein occlusion caused by chemotherapy-sensitive tumors. Our patient responded well to chemotherapy with a cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, oncovin, and prednisolone regimen, and the splenic vein occlusion resolved after the lymphoma regressed. PMID:24187474

  10. Epidemiological isolation causing variable mortality in Island populations during the 1918–1920 influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, G. Dennis; Hussell, Tracy; Brundage, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Shanks et al. (2012) Epidemiological isolation causing variable mortality in Island populations during the 1918–1920 influenza pandemic. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(6), 417–423. Background  During the 1918 pandemic period, influenza‐related mortality increased worldwide; however, mortality rates varied widely across locations and demographic subgroups. Islands are isolated epidemiological situations that may elucidate why influenza pandemic mortality rates were so variable in apparently similar populations. Objectives  Our objectives were to determine and compare the patterns of pandemic influenza mortality on islands. Methods  We reviewed historical records of mortality associated with the 1918–1920 influenza pandemic in various military and civilian groups on islands. Results and Conclusions  Mortality differed more than 50‐fold during pandemic‐related epidemics on Pacific islands [range: 0·4% (Hawaii) to 22% (Samoa)], and on some islands, mortality sharply varied among demographic subgroups of island residents such as Saipan: Chamorros [12%] and Caroline Islanders [0·4%]. Among soldiers from island populations who had completed initial military training, influenza‐related mortality rates were generally low, for example, Puerto Rico (0·7%) and French Polynesia (0·13%). The findings suggest that among island residents, those who had been exposed to multiple, antigenically diverse respiratory pathogens prior to infection with the 1918 pandemic strain (e.g., less isolated) experienced lower mortality. The continuous circulation of antigenically diverse influenza viruses and other respiratory infectious agents makes widespread high mortality during future influenza pandemics unlikely. PMID:22226378

  11. An isolated hyoid bone fracture caused by blunt trauma to the neck.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Baris; Erdogan, Mehmet Ozgur; Colak, Sahin; Kibici, Ozge; Bozan, Korkut; Alper, Baris

    2015-11-01

    Hyoid bone fractures due to blunt trauma are exceedingly rare. Here, we present an isolated hyoid bone fracture caused by blunt trauma as well as a detailed discussion of the injury and treatment options. A 32-year-old male was admitted to emergency department with odynophagia and severe neck pain. He had been hit in the neck with a metal rod during a fight. Computed tomography scan revealed a fracture on hyoid bone and local swelling of adjacent soft tissues. The patient\\'s head was elevated, and ice packs were used to reduce the swelling. Diclofenac sodium and prednisolone were administered. Patient was discharged with a recommendation of out-patient control. Odynophagia, dysphagia and dyspnoea should alert the physician to possible hyoid or laryngeal damage. Fibre optic laryngoscopy and neck CT are important diagnostic steps to reveal a possible life-threatening injury. Conservative treatment is usually adequate, and patients rarely require surgical intervention. PMID:26564301

  12. A nairovirus isolated from African bats causes haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and severe hepatic disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Orba, Yasuko; Sasaki, Michihito; Moonga, Ladslav; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Umemura, Takashi; Ito, Kimihito; Hall, William W; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Bats can carry important zoonotic pathogens. Here we use a combination of next-generation sequencing and classical virus isolation methods to identify novel nairoviruses from bats captured from a cave in Zambia. This nairovirus infection is highly prevalent among giant leaf-nosed bats, Hipposideros gigas (detected in samples from 16 individuals out of 38). Whole-genome analysis of three viral isolates (11SB17, 11SB19 and 11SB23) reveals a typical bunyavirus tri-segmented genome. The strains form a single phylogenetic clade that is divergent from other known nairoviruses, and are hereafter designated as Leopards Hill virus (LPHV). When i.p. injected into mice, the 11SB17 strain causes only slight body weight loss, whereas 11SB23 produces acute and lethal disease closely resembling that observed with Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus in humans. We believe that our LPHV mouse model will be useful for research on the pathogenesis of nairoviral haemorrhagic disease. PMID:25451856

  13. A nairovirus isolated from African bats causes haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and severe hepatic disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Orba, Yasuko; Sasaki, Michihito; Moonga, Ladslav; Hang’ombe, Bernard M.; Mweene, Aaron S.; Umemura, Takashi; Ito, Kimihito; Hall, William W.; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Bats can carry important zoonotic pathogens. Here we use a combination of next-generation sequencing and classical virus isolation methods to identify novel nairoviruses from bats captured from a cave in Zambia. This nairovirus infection is highly prevalent among giant leaf-nosed bats, Hipposideros gigas (detected in samples from 16 individuals out of 38). Whole-genome analysis of three viral isolates (11SB17, 11SB19 and 11SB23) reveals a typical bunyavirus tri-segmented genome. The strains form a single phylogenetic clade that is divergent from other known nairoviruses, and are hereafter designated as Leopards Hill virus (LPHV). When i.p. injected into mice, the 11SB17 strain causes only slight body weight loss, whereas 11SB23 produces acute and lethal disease closely resembling that observed with Crimean–Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus in humans. We believe that our LPHV mouse model will be useful for research on the pathogenesis of nairoviral haemorrhagic disease. PMID:25451856

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Bacteriophages Against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ji-Gang; Lim, Jeong-A; Song, Yu-Rim; Heu, Sunggi; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Koh, Young Jin; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2016-02-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Owing to the prohibition of agricultural antibiotic use in major kiwifruit-cultivating countries, alternative methods need to be developed to manage this disease. Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically infect target bacteria and have recently been reconsidered as potential biological control agents for bacterial pathogens owing to their specificity in terms of host range. In this study, we isolated bacteriophages against P. syringae pv. actinidiae from soils collected from kiwifruit orchards in Korea and selected seven bacteriophages for further characterization based on restriction enzyme digestion patterns of genomic DNA. Among the studied bacteriophages, two belong to the Myoviridae family and three belong to the Podoviridae family, based on morphology observed by transmission electron microscopy. The host range of the selected bacteriophages was confirmed using 18 strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae, including the Psa2 and Psa3 groups, and some were also effective against other P. syringae pathovars. Lytic activity of the selected bacteriophages was sustained in vitro until 80 h, and their activity remained stable up to 50°C, at pH 11, and under UV-B light. These results indicate that the isolated bacteriophages are specific to P. syringae species and are resistant to various environmental factors, implying their potential use in control of bacterial canker disease in kiwifruits. PMID:26628254

  15. Mutations in IFT172 cause isolated retinal degeneration and Bardet–Biedl syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bujakowska, Kinga M.; Zhang, Qi; Siemiatkowska, Anna M.; Liu, Qin; Place, Emily; Falk, Marni J.; Consugar, Mark; Lancelot, Marie-Elise; Antonio, Aline; Lonjou, Christine; Carpentier, Wassila; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Cremers, Frans P.M.; Leroy, Bart P.; Gai, Xiaowu; Sahel, José-Alain; van den Born, L. Ingeborgh; Collin, Rob W.J.; Zeitz, Christina; Audo, Isabelle; Pierce, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are sensory organelles present on most mammalian cells. The assembly and maintenance of primary cilia are facilitated by intraflagellar transport (IFT), a bidirectional protein trafficking along the cilium. Mutations in genes coding for IFT components have been associated with a group of diseases called ciliopathies. These genetic disorders can affect a variety of organs including the retina. Using whole exome sequencing in three families, we identified mutations in Intraflagellar Transport 172 Homolog [IFT172 (Chlamydomonas)] that underlie an isolated retinal degeneration and Bardet–Biedl syndrome. Extensive functional analyses of the identified mutations in cell culture, rat retina and in zebrafish demonstrated their hypomorphic or null nature. It has recently been reported that mutations in IFT172 cause a severe ciliopathy syndrome involving skeletal, renal, hepatic and retinal abnormalities (Jeune and Mainzer-Saldino syndromes). Here, we report for the first time that mutations in this gene can also lead to an isolated form of retinal degeneration. The functional data for the mutations can partially explain milder phenotypes; however, the involvement of modifying alleles in the IFT172-associated phenotypes cannot be excluded. These findings expand the spectrum of disease associated with mutations in IFT172 and suggest that mutations in genes originally reported to be associated with syndromic ciliopathies should also be considered in subjects with non-syndromic retinal dystrophy. PMID:25168386

  16. Isolation of a compound from Eupatorium adenophorum (Spreng.) [Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.)] causing hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Oelrichs, P B; Calanasan, C A; MacLeod, J K; Seawright, A A; Ng, J C

    1995-01-01

    Regular ingestion of Eupatorium adenophorum [Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.)] or Crofton weed causes chronic pulmonary disease in horses mainly in Australia, New Zealand, and the Himalayas. The disease is characterized by pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, emphysema, alveolar epithelisation and reduced tolerance to exercise. Horses apparently are the only animals affected and there are numerous reports of farms losing all their horses. The disorder was produced experimentally in horse feeding trials, and it was shown that characteristic lesions occurred in the lungs. In studies with laboratory animals, mice were shown to be suitable test animals, but in this species lesions occur in the liver rather than the lungs. The hepatic injury in these animals is characterized by multiple areas of focal necrosis of the parenchyma associated with degeneration and loss of the epithelium lining the small bile ducts. The active principle 9-oxo-10,11 dehydroagerophorone responsible for these lesions in mice has been isolated from E. adenophorum. Although the compound has been shown to exhibit toxicity to larvae of invertebrate species, no mammalian toxicity studies have been previously reported involving the isolated toxin. The mechanism of the toxic effect of the compound as well as its possible relevance to the respiratory disease in the horse remain to be investigated. PMID:8581319

  17. Isolated inclusion body myopathy caused by a multisystem proteinopathy–linked hnRNPA1 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Rumiko; Warita, Hitoshi; Niihori, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Tateyama, Maki; Suzuki, Naoki; Nishiyama, Ayumi; Shirota, Matsuyuki; Funayama, Ryo; Nakayama, Keiko; Mitsuhashi, Satomi; Nishino, Ichizo; Aoki, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the genetic cause of isolated inclusion body myopathy (IBM) with autosomal dominant inheritance in 2 families. Methods: Genetic investigations were performed using whole-exome and Sanger sequencing of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 gene (hnRNPA1). The clinical and pathologic features of patients in the 2 families were evaluated with neurologic examinations, muscle imaging, and muscle biopsy. Results: We identified a missense p.D314N mutation in hnRNPA1, which is also known to cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, in 2 families with IBM. The affected individuals developed muscle weakness in their 40s, which slowly progressed toward a limb-girdle pattern. Further evaluation of the affected individuals revealed no apparent motor neuron dysfunction, cognitive impairment, or bone abnormality. The muscle pathology was compatible with IBM, lacking apparent neurogenic change and inflammation. Multiple immunohistochemical analyses revealed the cytoplasmic aggregation of hnRNPA1 in close association with autophagosomes and myonuclei. Furthermore, the aberrant accumulation was characterized by coaggregation with ubiquitin, sequestome-1/p62, valosin-containing protein/p97, and a variety of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Conclusions: The present study expands the clinical phenotype of hnRNPA1-linked multisystem proteinopathy. Mutations in hnRNPA1, and possibly hnRNPA2B1, will be responsible for isolated IBM with a pure muscular phenotype. Although the mechanisms underlying the selective skeletal muscle involvement remain to be elucidated, the immunohistochemical results suggest a broad sequestration of RBPs by the mutated hnRNPA1. PMID:27066560

  18. Genetic Diversity and Dynamic Distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates Causing Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Srilohasin, Prapaporn; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nishida, Nao; Prammananan, Therdsak; Smittipat, Nat; Mahasirimongkol, Surakameth; Chaiyasirinroje, Boonchai; Yanai, Hideki; Palittapongarnpim, Prasit

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the genetic diversity and dynamicity of circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Thailand using nearly neutral molecular markers. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genotypes of 1,414 culture-positive M. tuberculosis isolates from 1,282 pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 132 extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) patients collected from 1995 to 2011 were characterized. Among the eight SNP cluster groups (SCG), SCG2 (44.1%), which included the Beijing (BJ) genotype, and SCG1 (39.4%), an East African Indian genotype, were dominant. Comparisons between the genotypes of M. tuberculosis isolates causing PTB and EPTB in HIV-negative cases revealed similar prevalence trends although genetic diversity was higher in the PTB patients. The identification of 10 reported sequence types (STs) and three novel STs was hypothesized to indicate preferential expansion of the SCG2 genotype, especially the modern BJ ST10 (15.6%) and ancestral BJ ST19 (13.1%). An association between SCG2 and SCG1 genotypes and particular patient age groups implies the existence of different genetic advantages among the bacterial populations. The results revealed that increasing numbers of young patients were infected with M. tuberculosis SCGs 2 and 5, which contrasts with the reduction of the SCG1 genotype. Our results indicate the selection and dissemination of potent M. tuberculosis genotypes in this population. The determination of heterogeneity and dynamic population changes of circulating M. tuberculosis strains in countries using the Mycobacterium bovis BCG (bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine are beneficial for vaccine development and control strategies. PMID:25297330

  19. Ability of Escherichia coli isolates that cause meningitis in newborns to invade epithelial and endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Meier, C; Oelschlaeger, T A; Merkert, H; Korhonen, T K; Hacker, J

    1996-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates that cause meningitis in newborns are able to invade the circulation and subsequently cross the blood-brain barrier. One mechanism for traversing the blood-brain barrier might involve transcytosis through the endothelial cells. The ability of the meningitis isolate E. coli IHE3034, of serotype 018:K1:H7, to invade epithelial (T24) and endothelial (EA-hy926) cells was investigated by the standard gentamicin survival assay and by electron microscopy. Human bladder epithelial and endothelial cells were efficiently invaded by strain IHE3034, whereas epithelial human colon Caco-2 cells, canine kidney MDCK cells, and the opossum [correction of opposum] epithelial kidney cell line OK were not invaded. The ability to invade human epithelial cells of the bladder could also be demonstrated for several other newborn meningitis E. coli strains and one septicemic E. coli strain. Studies utilizing inhibitors which act on eukaryotic cells revealed a dependence on microfilaments as well as on microtubules in the process of E. coli IHE3034 entry into T24 and EA-hy926 cells. These results indicated that cell cytoskeletal rearrangements are involved in bacterial uptake and suggest that there are either two pathways (microtubule dependent and microfilament dependent) or one complex pathway involving both microtubules and microfilaments. The intracellular IHE3034 organisms were contained in a host-membrane-confined compartment mainly as single microorganisms. Intracellular replication of 1HE3034 was not detected, nor did the number of intracellular bacteria decrease significantly during a 48-h period. The ability of E. coli O18:K1 to invade and survive within certain eukaryotic cells may be another virulence factor of meningitis-associated E. coli. PMID:8698457

  20. Staphylococcus aureus seroproteomes discriminate ruminant isolates causing mild or severe mastitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of mastitis in ruminants. In ewe mastitis, symptoms range from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. S. aureus factors or host-factors contributing to the different outcomes are not completely elucidated. In this study, experimental mastitis was induced on primiparous ewes using two S. aureus strains, isolated from gangrenous (strain O11) or subclinical (strain O46) mastitis. Strains induced drastically distinct clinical symptoms when tested in ewe and mice experimental mastitis. Notably, they reproduced mild (O46) or severe (O11) mastitis in ewes. Ewe sera were used to identify staphylococcal immunoreactive proteins commonly or differentially produced during infections of variable severity and to define core and accessory seroproteomes. Such SERological Proteome Analysis (SERPA) allowed the identification of 89 immunoreactive proteins, of which only 52 (58.4%) were previously identified as immunogenic proteins in other staphylococcal infections. Among the 89 proteins identified, 74 appear to constitute the core seroproteome. Among the 15 remaining proteins defining the accessory seroproteome, 12 were specific for strain O11, 3 were specific for O46. Distribution of one protein specific for each mastitis severity was investigated in ten other strains isolated from subclinical or clinical mastitis. We report here for the first time the identification of staphylococcal immunogenic proteins common or specific to S. aureus strains responsible for mild or severe mastitis. These findings open avenues in S. aureus mastitis studies as some of these proteins, expressed in vivo, are likely to account for the success of S. aureus as a pathogen of the ruminant mammary gland. PMID:21324116

  1. Occurrence of weak mutators among avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates causing salpingitis and peritonitis in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Pires-dos-Santos, Teresa; Bisgaard, Magne; Kyvsgaard, Niels; Christensen, Henrik

    2014-01-10

    A collection of 46 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates was examined for the presence of mutators by determining the rate of mutation to rifampicin resistance. The collection included 34 E. coli isolates obtained in pure culture from chronic lesions of salpingitis and peritonitis in 34 broiler breeders, of which 12 were associated with the development of secondary septicemia. Twelve additional isolates were obtained from a clonal outbreak (ST95) of E. coli peritonitis syndrome (EPS), the lesions of which changed gradually over time into a subacute/chronic form. The hypothesis of the present study was that mutation rates would be higher for chronic infection isolates than for isolates from acute infections/exacerbations. The distribution of mutation rates followed a pattern similar to that found for other clinical isolates of E. coli, with a modal/median value of 1.47 × 10(-8). Of the 46 isolates, 24% (n=11) were weakly hypermutable (2.00 × 10(-8) ≤ μ<2.00 × 10(-7)), however, no strong mutators were detected (μ ≥ 2.00 × 10(-7)). Chronic salpingitis isolates had the highest proportion (45%, P=0.001) of weak mutators and also, significantly higher mutation rates (P=0.003) compared to isolates that caused septicemia (4%). In addition, mutation rates were significantly lower among ST95 isolates (P<0.0005), and among isolates from the same clonal group as ST95 (P=0.027), when compared to isolates from other groups. Although a clear association with the time phase of infection (as lesions of EPS became more chronic) could not be observed (ρ=0.523, P=0.081), a higher frequency of weak mutators among chronic infection isolates suggests that increased mutation rates play a role in adaptation of APEC to long-term persistence in an infected host environment. PMID:24230977

  2. Social Isolation During Postweaning Development Causes Hypoactivity of Neurons in the Medial Nucleus of the Male Rat Amygdala.

    PubMed

    Adams, Thomas; Rosenkranz, J Amiel

    2016-06-01

    Children exposed to neglect or social deprivation are at heightened risk for psychiatric disorders and abnormal social patterns as adults. There is also evidence that prepubertal neglect in children causes abnormal metabolic activity in several brain regions, including the amygdala area. The medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) is a key region for performance of social behaviors and still undergoes maturation during the periadolescent period. As such, the normal development of this region may be disrupted by social deprivation. In rodents, postweaning social isolation causes a range of deficits in sexual and agonistic behaviors that normally rely on the posterior MeA (MeAp). However, little is known about the effects of social isolation on the function of MeA neurons. In this study, we tested whether postweaning social isolation caused abnormal activity of MeA neurons. We found that postweaning social isolation caused a decrease of in vivo firing activity of MeAp neurons, and reduced drive from excitatory afferents. In vitro electrophysiological studies found that postweaning social isolation caused a presynaptic impairment of excitatory input to the dorsal MeAp, but a progressive postsynaptic reduction of membrane excitability in the ventral MeAp. These results demonstrate discrete, subnucleus-specific effects of social deprivation on the physiology of MeAp neurons. This pathophysiology may contribute to the disruption of social behavior after developmental social deprivation, and may be a novel target to facilitate the treatment of social disorders. PMID:26677945

  3. Experimental infection of cows with newly isolated Akabane virus strain (AKAV-7) causing encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyeoun; Jeong, Hansol; Park, Surim; Yang, Myeon-Sik; Kim, Jongwon; Bae, Jaehyun; Kwon, Yonghwan; Kim, Min-Su; Oem, Jae-Ku; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lim, Chae-Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2016-01-01

    Akabane virus (AKAV), an arthropod-transmitted bunyavirus, is a major cause of congenital abnormalities and encephalomyelitis in ruminants. In 2010, there was a major outbreak of encephalomyelitis in Korea and fifteen AKAV strains, including AKAV-7, were isolated from cows. To identify the neuropathogenicity of AKAV-7, we performed experimental infection of cows. Six-month-old female Korean Holstein dairy cattle were inoculated with AKAV-7 by various routes, including intracerebral (IC), intrasubarachnoid space (IS), subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV); a separate group was vaccinated before intravenous infection. Five of the six cows in the IC group and two of the six cows in the IS group showed clinical signs such as locomotor ataxia and paralysis of the hind limbs. Three of six cows died after IC infection 9-12 days post infection (dpi). Histopathologic changes such as nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis were confirmed in various parts of the central nervous system in the IC, IS and SC groups. Early onset of neutralizing antibodies in the serum and lower viral mRNA levels in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and various tissues in the vaccinated group was noticeable compared to the unvaccinated group (IV group). We suggest that the AKAV vaccine currently used in Korea may be partially effective for protection against AKAV-7 in cows. PMID:27287214

  4. Asymmetric isolating barriers between different microclimatic environments caused by low immigrant survival

    PubMed Central

    Gosden, Thomas P.; Waller, John T.; Svensson, Erik I.

    2015-01-01

    Spatially variable selection has the potential to result in local adaptation unless counteracted by gene flow. Therefore, barriers to gene flow will help facilitate divergence between populations that differ in local selection pressures. We performed spatially and temporally replicated reciprocal field transplant experiments between inland and coastal habitats using males of the common blue damselfly (Enallagma cyathigerum) as our study organism. Males from coastal populations had lower local survival rates than resident males at inland sites, whereas we detected no differences between immigrant and resident males at coastal sites, suggesting asymmetric local adaptation in a source–sink system. There were no intrinsic differences in longevity between males from the different environments suggesting that the observed differences in male survival are environment-dependent and probably caused by local adaptation. Furthermore, the coastal environment was found to be warmer and drier than the inland environment, further suggesting local adaptation to microclimatic factors has lead to differential survival of resident and immigrant males. Our results suggest that low survival of immigrant males mediates isolation between closely located populations inhabiting different microclimatic environments. PMID:25631994

  5. Isolation, identification, and pathogenicity of O142 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli causing black proventriculus and septicemia in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Cao, Chunguang; Huan, Haixia; Zhang, Liuli; Mu, Xiaohui; Gao, Qingqing; Dong, Xianglei; Gao, Song; Liu, Xiufan

    2015-06-01

    Avian colibacillosis, characterized by black proventriculus and caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) with an uncommon O142 serogroup, was diagnosed in young broiler breeders. Colonization and persistence assays performed in 7-day-old broilers showed that the bacterial load of the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 proventricular isolate in the lung was about 10-fold higher than that of the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 heart blood isolate (P<0.01), and about 100-fold higher in the heart blood, livers, spleens, kidneys, and proventriculi of inoculated broilers (P<0.001). When 32 common virulence genes of APEC were tested, the two isolates had nearly identical profiles, except that only the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 proventricular isolate carried the feoB gene. Furthermore, 100% mortality was observed in both 1-day-old Arbor Acres (AA) broilers and 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens inoculated with 10(6) colony-forming units of the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 proventricular isolate. However, black proventriculus was only observed in the dead AA broilers, consistent with the clinical occurrence of the disease. This implies that the black proventriculi seen in the dead birds, caused by the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 proventricular isolate, was breed-specific. Both the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 proventricular and heart blood isolates belong to phylogroup B2. However, the former was assigned to ST131 and the latter to ST2704 with multilocus sequence typing, demonstrating the genetic heterogeneity of these two bacterial isolates, although they were derived from the same dead broiler. These results suggest that the O142 APEC isolate was the main pathogenic agent for black proventriculi in 7-day-old broiler breeders. PMID:25709068

  6. Short-gap Isolated Esophageal Atresia Causing Stridor Due to Compression of the Trachea

    PubMed Central

    Sekmenli, Tamer; Ciftci, İlhan; Sivri, Mesut; Koplay, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Isolated esophageal atresias are reported always to be associated with long gap in the literature. In this manuscript, we aimed to discuss the imaging and surgical treatment methods of an isolated esophageal atresia case with ‘short gap’ who had stridor due to compression of the trachea by dilated upper esophageal pouch and had not identified previously in the literature. PMID:26843741

  7. Host ranges of North American isolates of Penicillium causing blue mold of bulb crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single isolates of four Penicillium species belonging to series Corymbifera (Penicillium allii, P. hirsutum, P. tulipae, P. venetum) plus an isolate of P. polonicum, all from North American sources, were inoculated individually into Crocus sativus, Allium sativum (garlic), A. cepa (onion), Iris holl...

  8. Stunting of onion caused by Rhizoctonia spp. isolated from the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2009 and 2010, 45 isolates of Rhizoctonia spp. were recovered from onion bulb crops in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, in which patches of severely stunted onion plants developed following rotation with winter cereal cover crops. Characterization of isolates recovered f...

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Characterization among Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates Causing Severe Obstetric Infections in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Guiral, Elisabet; Sáez-López, Emma; Bosch, Jordi; Goncé, Anna; López, Marta; Sanz, Sergi; Vila, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The virulence markers and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of 78 Escherichia coli isolates causing obstetric infections accompanied by sepsis or not were studied. Adhesion-related virulence factors were the most prevalent markers. Low rates of resistance to the antimicrobial agents used as first-line therapy suggest their correct implementation in stewardship guidelines. PMID:25740771

  10. Newcastle disease viruses causing recent outbreaks worldwide show unexpectedly high genetic similarity with historical virulent isolates from the 1940s

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), a devastating disease of poultry and wild birds. Phylogenetic analyses clearly distinguish historical isolates (obtained prior to 1960) from currently circulating viruses of class II genotypes V, VI, VII, and XII throug...

  11. Molecular Characterization of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producer Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates Causing Neonatal Sepsis in Peru.

    PubMed

    García, Coralith; Astocondor, Lizeth; Rojo-Bezares, Beatriz; Jacobs, Jan; Sáenz, Yolanda

    2016-02-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the most common cause of neonatal sepsis in the low- and middle-income countries. Our objective was to describe the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producer KP in neonatal care centers from Peru. We collected 176 non-duplicate consecutive KP isolates from blood isolates of neonates from eight general public hospitals of Lima, Peru. The overall rate of ESBL production was 73.3% (N = 129). The resistance rates were higher among ESBL-producer isolates when compared with the nonproducers: 85.3% versus 12.8% for gentamicin (P < 0.01), 59.7% versus 8.5% for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (P < 0.01), 45.0% versus 8.5% for ciprofloxacin (P < 0.01), and 36.4% versus 12.8% for amikacin (P < 0.01). A total of 359 β-lactamase-encoding genes were detected among 129 ESBL-producer isolates; 109 isolates (84.5%) carried two or more genes. Among 37 ESBL-producer isolates randomly selected, CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-2 were the most common ESBLs detected. Most of the isolates (92%) belonged to the group KpI. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that multiple KP clones were circulating among the eight neonatal units included. PMID:26643537

  12. Recessive Mutations in the α3 (VI) Collagen Gene COL6A3 Cause Early-Onset Isolated Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Zech, Michael; Lam, Daniel D.; Francescatto, Ludmila; Schormair, Barbara; Salminen, Aaro V.; Jochim, Angela; Wieland, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Lochmüller, Hanns; Strom, Tim M.; Haslinger, Bernhard; Katsanis, Nicholas; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2015-01-01

    Isolated dystonia is a disorder characterized by involuntary twisting postures arising from sustained muscle contractions. Although autosomal-dominant mutations in TOR1A, THAP1, and GNAL have been found in some cases, the molecular mechanisms underlying isolated dystonia are largely unknown. In addition, although emphasis has been placed on dominant isolated dystonia, the disorder is also transmitted as a recessive trait, for which no mutations have been defined. Using whole-exome sequencing in a recessive isolated dystonia-affected kindred, we identified disease-segregating compound heterozygous mutations in COL6A3, a collagen VI gene associated previously with muscular dystrophy. Genetic screening of a further 367 isolated dystonia subjects revealed two additional recessive pedigrees harboring compound heterozygous mutations in COL6A3. Strikingly, all affected individuals had at least one pathogenic allele in exon 41, including an exon-skipping mutation that induced an in-frame deletion. We tested the hypothesis that disruption of this exon is pathognomonic for isolated dystonia by inducing a series of in-frame deletions in zebrafish embryos. Consistent with our human genetics data, suppression of the exon 41 ortholog caused deficits in axonal outgrowth, whereas suppression of other exons phenocopied collagen deposition mutants. All recessive mutation carriers demonstrated early-onset segmental isolated dystonia without muscular disease. Finally, we show that Col6a3 is expressed in neurons, with relevant mRNA levels detectable throughout the adult mouse brain. Taken together, our data indicate that loss-of-function mutations affecting a specific region of COL6A3 cause recessive isolated dystonia with underlying neurodevelopmental deficits and highlight the brain extracellular matrix as a contributor to dystonia pathogenesis. PMID:26004199

  13. Recessive mutations in the α3 (VI) collagen gene COL6A3 cause early-onset isolated dystonia.

    PubMed

    Zech, Michael; Lam, Daniel D; Francescatto, Ludmila; Schormair, Barbara; Salminen, Aaro V; Jochim, Angela; Wieland, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Lochmüller, Hanns; Strom, Tim M; Haslinger, Bernhard; Katsanis, Nicholas; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2015-06-01

    Isolated dystonia is a disorder characterized by involuntary twisting postures arising from sustained muscle contractions. Although autosomal-dominant mutations in TOR1A, THAP1, and GNAL have been found in some cases, the molecular mechanisms underlying isolated dystonia are largely unknown. In addition, although emphasis has been placed on dominant isolated dystonia, the disorder is also transmitted as a recessive trait, for which no mutations have been defined. Using whole-exome sequencing in a recessive isolated dystonia-affected kindred, we identified disease-segregating compound heterozygous mutations in COL6A3, a collagen VI gene associated previously with muscular dystrophy. Genetic screening of a further 367 isolated dystonia subjects revealed two additional recessive pedigrees harboring compound heterozygous mutations in COL6A3. Strikingly, all affected individuals had at least one pathogenic allele in exon 41, including an exon-skipping mutation that induced an in-frame deletion. We tested the hypothesis that disruption of this exon is pathognomonic for isolated dystonia by inducing a series of in-frame deletions in zebrafish embryos. Consistent with our human genetics data, suppression of the exon 41 ortholog caused deficits in axonal outgrowth, whereas suppression of other exons phenocopied collagen deposition mutants. All recessive mutation carriers demonstrated early-onset segmental isolated dystonia without muscular disease. Finally, we show that Col6a3 is expressed in neurons, with relevant mRNA levels detectable throughout the adult mouse brain. Taken together, our data indicate that loss-of-function mutations affecting a specific region of COL6A3 cause recessive isolated dystonia with underlying neurodevelopmental deficits and highlight the brain extracellular matrix as a contributor to dystonia pathogenesis. PMID:26004199

  14. Microscopic and biochemical evidence of differentially virulent field isolates of Diplocarpon rosae causing black spot disease of roses.

    PubMed

    Gachomo, Emma W; Kotchoni, Simeon O

    2010-01-01

    Black spot disease caused by Diplocarpon rosae is one of the most widespread diseases of roses that are very difficult to control due to the generative reproduction and complex genetic constitution of roses and up to now the control of black spot still requires intensive use of systemic fungicides. Here we report for the first time evidence of differentially virulent field isolates of D. rosae. Using a combination of fungal structures, disease symptoms and host cells protein expression pattern analysis we here provide direct biochemical evidence that tropical field isolates of D. rosae are more virulent and caused disease symptoms earlier than their temperate counterparts. The tropical fungal field isolates strongly induced an excessive accumulation of ROS and repressed activity of pathogenesis-related proteins such as peroxidases, chitinase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase compared to their temperate counterparts. These findings bring insights into a hidden pathogenic characteristic of tropical D. rosae field isolates compared to their temperate counterparts and open a novel dimension of parameters to be considered when controlling black spot disease of roses by fungicides in tropical versus temperate regions. Interestingly, we found that treatment of rose leaves with ROS (H2O2) prior to fungal inoculation promoted plant defense response regardless of the isolate virulence based on protein expression pattern analysis, suggesting that ROS (H2O2) can be efficiently incorporated into black spot disease management. PMID:20137960

  15. Leishmaniasis as a Neglected Cause of Isolated Lymphadenopathy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    SHORAFA, Eslam; POLADFAR, Gholamreza; ADELIAN, Roholla; SHARIAT, Mahmood; MINAEE, Mohammad Reza; HASHEMI, Syeed Mohammad; TAZANG, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an endemic parasitic disease in Iran. This paper reports the case of a 5-yr-old boy who presented with multiple isolated cervical lymphadenopathy for several months with no history of fever and no signs or symptoms. In an excisional lymph node biopsy, Leishmania parasites were histologically detected. Thus, leishmaniasis should be included in the differential diagnosis of isolated lymphadenitis in immunocompetent patients, even if the K39 and IFA for kala-azar are reported as negative. PMID:27517003

  16. Novel katG mutations causing isoniazid resistance in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Jessica N; Paul, Lynthia V; Rodwell, Timothy C; Victor, Thomas C; Amallraja, Anu M; Elghraoui, Afif; Goodmanson, Amy P; Ramirez-Busby, Sarah M; Chawla, Ashu; Zadorozhny, Victoria; Streicher, Elizabeth M; Sirgel, Frederick A; Catanzaro, Donald; Rodrigues, Camilla; Gler, Maria Tarcela; Crudu, Valeru; Catanzaro, Antonino; Valafar, Faramarz

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery and confirmation of 23 novel mutations with previously undocumented role in isoniazid (INH) drug resistance, in catalase-peroxidase (katG) gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) isolates. With these mutations, a synonymous mutation in fabG1g609a, and two canonical mutations, we were able to explain 98% of the phenotypic resistance observed in 366 clinical Mtb isolates collected from four high tuberculosis (TB)-burden countries: India, Moldova, Philippines, and South Africa. We conducted overlapping targeted and whole-genome sequencing for variant discovery in all clinical isolates with a variety of INH-resistant phenotypes. Our analysis showed that just two canonical mutations (katG 315AGC-ACC and inhA promoter-15C-T) identified 89.5% of resistance phenotypes in our collection. Inclusion of the 23 novel mutations reported here, and the previously documented point mutation in fabG1, increased the sensitivity of these mutations as markers of INH resistance to 98%. Only six (2%) of the 332 resistant isolates in our collection did not harbor one or more of these mutations. The third most prevalent substitution, at inhA promoter position -8, present in 39 resistant isolates, was of no diagnostic significance since it always co-occurred with katG 315. 79% of our isolates harboring novel mutations belong to genetic group 1 indicating a higher tendency for this group to go down an uncommon evolutionary path and evade molecular diagnostics. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of INH resistance in Mtb isolates that lack the canonical mutations and could improve the sensitivity of next generation molecular diagnostics. PMID:26251830

  17. Isolated supra-cardiac partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection causing right heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Sogomonian, Robert; Alkhawam, Hassan; Zaiem, Feras; Vyas, Neil; Jolly, JoshPaul; Nguyen, James; Haftevani, Emma A. Moradoghli; Dijanic, Christopher; Lieber, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    Right heart failure (RHF) has been overlooked as left heart failure has predominated. One of the many causes of RHF is partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC), an extremely rare entity in nature. Physicians should consider the unusual causes of RHF after ruling out the common causes. PMID:27124165

  18. Newcastle Disease Viruses Causing Recent Outbreaks Worldwide Show Unexpectedly High Genetic Similarity to Historical Virulent Isolates from the 1940s.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Kiril M; Lee, Dong-Hun; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Olivier, Timothy L; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

    2016-05-01

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), a devastating disease of poultry and wild birds. Phylogenetic analyses clearly distinguish historical isolates (obtained prior to 1960) from currently circulating viruses of class II genotypes V, VI, VII, and XII through XVIII. Here, partial and complete genomic sequences of recent virulent isolates of genotypes II and IX from China, Egypt, and India were found to be nearly identical to those of historical viruses isolated in the 1940s. Phylogenetic analysis, nucleotide distances, and rates of change demonstrate that these recent isolates have not evolved significantly from the most closely related ancestors from the 1940s. The low rates of change for these virulent viruses (7.05 × 10(-5) and 2.05 × 10(-5) per year, respectively) and the minimal genetic distances existing between these and historical viruses (0.3 to 1.2%) of the same genotypes indicate an unnatural origin. As with any other RNA virus, Newcastle disease virus is expected to evolve naturally; thus, these findings suggest that some recent field isolates should be excluded from evolutionary studies. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses show that these recent virulent isolates are more closely related to virulent strains isolated during the 1940s, which have been and continue to be used in laboratory and experimental challenge studies. Since the preservation of viable viruses in the environment for over 6 decades is highly unlikely, it is possible that the source of some of the recent virulent viruses isolated from poultry and wild birds might be laboratory viruses. PMID:26888902

  19. Analysis of haemorrhagic septicaemia-causing isolates of Pasteurella multocida by ribotyping and field alternation gel electrophoresis (FAGE).

    PubMed

    Townsend, K M; Dawkins, H J; Papadimitriou, J M

    1997-10-16

    Ribotyping and field alternation gel electrophoresis (FAGE) were used to examine 19 Pasteurella multocida isolates, and to assess the ability of these techniques to differentiate P. multocida strains that cause haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS). Reproducible patterns were obtained from both methods, with FAGE demonstrating greater discriminatory power than ribotyping. FAGE analysis was particularly useful in distinguishing North American cultures originating from the 1922 Yellowstone National Park Buffalo 'B' strain, demonstrating the ability to detect genetic alterations induced by repeated subculture. A remarkable homogeneity was observed among Asian HS strains following ribotyping and FAGE analysis, with a clear distinction observed between virulent and avirulent HS isolates. This study has illustrated the value of genomic fingerprinting methods in distinguishing strains of similar serotype, and the capability of these methods to produce detailed characterisation of P. multocida isolates. PMID:9444075

  20. Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in blood isolates causing bacteremia: molecular epidemiology and microbiologic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cha, Min Kyeong; Kang, Cheol-In; Kim, So Hyun; Cho, Sun Young; Ha, Young Eun; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Among 127 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates causing bacteremia, 41 (32.3%) were nonsusceptible to levofloxacin, in which four sequence types and 24 diverse allelic profiles were detected. The most prevalent ST was ST77 (n = 8, 19.5%), followed by ST28 (n = 3, 7.3%). Amino acid substitutions were found in the gyrB and parC genes of 10 and 1 isolates, respectively. No amino acid substitutions were identified in gyrA. Twenty-three (56.1%) isolates showed amino acid substitutions in the parE gene. These results suggest that quinolone resistance-determining regions of parE may not be the primary targets, but an important determining factor of high levels of fluoroquinolone resistance. PMID:27117514

  1. Ultrasonography Guided Excision of Isolated Cysticercosis of the Temporalis Muscle Causing Intractable Headache: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Bhavana, Kranti; Kumar, Prem; Kumar, Subhash

    2016-09-01

    Cysticercosis cellulosae is a systemic parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of pork tapeworm, Taenia solium which involve humans as either a definitive or secondary hosts. The central nervous system is the most important primary site of involvement. Cases of cysticercosis presenting as an isolated muscle mass is an extremely rare entity and demands documentation. We report an extremely unusual case of isolated cysticercosis of the temporalis muscle causing intractable headache which presented a diagnostic challenge. The condition was surgically treated by ultrasonography guided excision of the cysticercosis swelling in the temporalis muscle. We also emphasize on the role of proper imaging modalities in the diagnosis and treatment of such unique cases. PMID:27508147

  2. Endophytic fungal metabolite fumigaclavine C causes relaxation of isolated rat aortic rings.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hsiao-Yen; Song, Yong-Chun; Mao, Ying-Ying; Jiang, Ji-Hong; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Luo, Lan

    2006-04-01

    Two indole alkaloids were isolated from the culture of Aspergillus fumigatus (strain No. CY018), an endophytic fungus harboring inside the elder leaf of Cynodon dactylon. These two chemicals were identified as fumigaclavine C and fumitremorgin C. In screening the bioactivity of these two indole alkaloids, their vasorelaxant effects on isolated rat thoracic aortic rings were observed. The results showed that fumigaclavine C exhibited potent concentration-dependent vasorelaxant actions in isolated rat aortic rings pre-contracted by high K+ or phenylephrine (with EC50 values of 5.62 micromol/L and 1.58 micromol/L, respectively) whereas fumitremorgin C displayed a weaker vasorelaxation. A detailed investigation was therefore performed with fumigaclavine C. The vasorelaxing action of fumigaclavine C is independent of the presence of endothelium, suggesting its effect of vasorelaxation was not related to endothelial mediators. Blockage of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels, activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels and inhibition of Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores may be involved in fumigaclavine C induced relaxation of rat isolated aortic rings. These results demonstrate that fumigaclavine C from the endophytic fungus has a potential capacity in vascular protection and thus may have therapeutic use in protection against cardiovascular disease. PMID:16557450

  3. Population structure and dynamics among fusarium oxysprium isolates causing wilt of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 1992 to 2015 nearly 3,000 isolates of Fusarium species from wilted cotton plants, seed, or cotton field soils were tested for pathogenesis using root-dip, stem-puncture, and soil-infestation assays. The greatest numbers of pathogens were identified by the root-dip assay. These were divided in...

  4. Molecular Typing of Mastitis-Causing Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Heifers and Cows

    PubMed Central

    Castelani, Lívia; Santos, Aline Franciele Silva; Miranda, Mariana dos Santos; Zafalon, Luiz Francisco; Pozzi, Claudia Rodrigues; Arcaro, Juliana Rodrigues Pozzi

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is among the main etiologic agents of bovine mastitis. A total of 83 isolates of S. aureus from mammary glands of primiparous heifers were collected in the prepartum, calving and during lactation. For lactating cows, a total of 27 isolates of S. aureus from mammary glands were collected during lactation. The samples were taken in two dairy farms located in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The highest frequency of S. aureus isolation in heifers was at the end of lactation. Strains were typified through Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and grouped according to patterns of restriction enzyme SmaI. PFGE generated seven clonal profiles that were grouped into three different lineages, with the LA lineage being predominant and identified in heifers, as well as in the cows from the two regions studied. It was concluded that the cows showed a significant source of dispersion of S. aureus. At the first lactation the heifers were infected by the same clonal profiles of S. aureus which were isolated from multiparous lactating cows. The heifers were infected during milking over the months of lactation. PMID:23429273

  5. Type 2 Superior Labral Anterior to Posterior Lesion-Related Paralabral Cyst Causing Isolated Infraspinatus Paralysis: Two Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Ki; Han, Eun Young; Choi, Sung Wook; Kim, Bo Ryun; Suh, Min Ji

    2015-10-01

    Type 2 superior labral anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesion is a common cause of shoulder pain requiring surgical operation. SLAP tears are often associated with paralabral cysts, but they rarely cause nerve compression. However, we experienced two cases of type 2 SLAP-related paralabral cysts at the spinoglenoid notch which were confirmed as isolated nerve entrapment of the infraspinatus branch of the suprascapular nerve by electrodiagnostic assessment and magnetic resonance imaging. In these pathological conditions, comprehensive electrodiagnostic evaluation is warranted for confirmation of neuropathy, while surgical decompression of the paralabral cyst combined with SLAP repair is recommended. PMID:26605185

  6. HISTOLOGY OF SWEET ORANGE STEM PITTING CAUSED BY AN AUSTRALIAN ISOLATE OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some strains of the citrus tristeza virus (CTV) cause stem pitting in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck). This abnormality causes tree decline and reduction in fruit size and yield of affected citrus trees. Stem-pitting symptoms can occur on trunks, on all sizes of limbs, and on the twigs ...

  7. Thoracolumbar spinal vascular malformation as a rare cause of isolated intraventricular hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Marlin, Evan S; Entwistle, John J; Arnold, Michael A; Pierson, Christopher R; Governale, Lance S

    2014-07-01

    Spinal vascular malformations are rare vascular lesions that most frequently present with back pain, radiculopathy, and/or myelopathy. Neurological decline is typically secondary to progressive radiculopathy, myelopathy, venous thrombosis, and stroke. Few case reports have described thoracolumbar spinal vascular malformations that present with both subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage. This is the first reported case of a thoracolumbar spinal vascular malformation presenting with isolated intraventricular hemorrhage on initial imaging followed by acute and fatal rehemorrhage. PMID:24784978

  8. Nitrogen laser irradiation (337 nm) causes temporary inactivation of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Dube, Alok; Jayasankar, K; Prabakaran, L; Kumar, V; Gupta, P K

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of nitrogen laser irradiation (337 nm) on viability of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Bacteria were exposed to a nitrogen laser (average power 2.0 mW) in vitro at power density of 70 +/- 0.7 W/m2 for 0-30 min, and the cell viability was determined by luciferase reporter phage (LRP) assay. Immediately after laser exposure, all the clinical isolates investigated showed a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. However, when the laser-exposed isolates were incubated in broth medium for 3 days, most of these showed significant recovery from laser-induced damage. Addition of 5.0 microg/ml acriflavine (a DNA repair inhibitor) in the incubation medium had no significant effect on recovery. This suggests that DNA damage may not be involved in the cell inactivation. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies using 5-doxyl strearic acid (5-DS) as a probe suggest alterations in lipid regions of the cell wall. Implications of these results for understanding therapeutic effect of nitrogen laser on drug-resistant tuberculosis are discussed. PMID:15278725

  9. Characterization and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates causing urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Piccinelli, Giorgio; Biscaro, Valeria; Gargiulo, Franco; Caruso, Arnaldo; De Francesco, Maria Antonia

    2015-08-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) has been implicated in urinary tract infections but the microbiological characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of these strains are poorly investigated. In this study, 87 isolates recovered from urine samples of patients who had attended the Spedali Civili of Brescia (Italy) and had single organism GBS cultured were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular characterization of macrolide and levofloxacin resistance, PCR-based capsular typing and analysis of surface protein genes. By automated broth microdilution method, all isolates were susceptible to penicillin, cefuroxime, cefaclor, and ceftriaxone; 80%, 19.5% and 3.4% of isolates were non-susceptible to tetracycline, erythromycin, and levofloxacin, respectively. Macrolide resistance determinants were iMLS(B) (n=1), cMLS(B) (n=10) and M (n=5), associated with ermTR, ermB and mefA/E. Levofloxacin resistance was linked to mutations in gyrA and parC genes. Predominant capsular types were III, Ia, V, Ib and IX. Type III was associated with tetracycline resistance, while type Ib was associated with levofloxacin resistance. Different capsular type-surface protein gene combinations (serotype V-alp2, 3; serotype III-rib; serotype Ia-epsilon) were detected. A variety of capsular types are involved in significant bacteriuria. The emergence of multidrug resistant GBS may become a significant public health concern and highlights the importance of careful surveillance to prevent the emergence of these virulent GBS. PMID:26144658

  10. Antifungal Resistance to Fluconazole and Echinocandins Is Not Emerging in Yeast Isolates Causing Fungemia in a Spanish Tertiary Care Center

    PubMed Central

    Marcos-Zambrano, Laura Judith; Escribano, Pilar; Sánchez, Carlos; Muñoz, Patricia; Bouza, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of fungemia epidemiology requires identification of strains to the molecular level. Various studies have shown that the rate of resistance to fluconazole ranges from 2.5% to 9% in Candida spp. isolated from blood samples. However, trends in antifungal resistance have received little attention and have been studied only using CLSI M27-A3 methodology. We assessed the fungemia epidemiology in a large tertiary care institution in Madrid, Spain, by identifying isolates to the molecular level and performing antifungal susceptibility testing according to the updated breakpoints of European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) definitive document (EDef) 7.2. We studied 613 isolates causing 598 episodes of fungemia in 544 patients admitted to our hospital (January 2007 to December 2013). Strains were identified after amplification and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and further tested for in vitro susceptibility to amphotericin B, fluconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, micafungin, and anidulafungin. Resistance was defined using EUCAST species-specific breakpoints, and epidemiological cutoff values (ECOFFs) were applied as tentative breakpoints. Most episodes were caused by Candida albicans (46%), Candida parapsilosis (28.7%), Candida glabrata (9.8%), and Candida tropicalis (8%). Molecular identification enabled us to better detect cryptic species of Candida guilliermondii and C. parapsilosis complexes and episodes of polyfungal fungemia. The overall percentage of fluconazole-resistant isolates was 5%, although it was higher in C. glabrata (8.6%) and non-Candida yeast isolates (47.4%). The rate of resistance to echinocandins was 4.4% and was mainly due to the presence of intrinsically resistant non-Candida species. Resistance mainly affected non-Candida yeasts. The rate of resistance to fluconazole and echinocandins did not change considerably during the study period. PMID:24867979

  11. "Isolated Spontaneous Renal Artery Thrombosis - A Rare Cause of Acute Flank Pain".

    PubMed

    Raghavendran, M; Sarkar, Mrityunjoy; Kumar, Kiran G

    2016-11-01

    Many patients present with severe abdominal pain. Renal Artery Thrombosis (RAT) is rare, serious and misdiagnosed. RAT has been well described in association with various disorders, but isolated spontaneously occurring RAT is rare and only 2 cases have been described as of date. We present a case of flank pain presenting to emergency for evaluation and discuss the clinical aspects and management. We would like to stress on the important role of serum LDH levels and CT scan in RAT. Early diagnosis may result in salvage of organ by minimally invasive techniques. Late diagnosis will almost always result in nephrectomy. PMID:27617211

  12. Microdeletions of chromosome 17p13 as a cause of isolated lissencephaly

    SciTech Connect

    Ledbetter, S.A.; Kuwano, Akira; Ledbetter, D.H. ); Dobyns, W.B. )

    1992-01-01

    Lissencephaly (agyria-pachygyria) is a brain malformation manifested by a smooth cerebral surface, resulting from arrest of neuronal migration at 10-14 wk gestation. Type I, or classical, lissencephaly can occur either in association with the Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS) or as an isolated finding, termed isolated lissencephaly sequence (ILS). About 90% of MDS patients have visible or submicroscopic deletions of 17p13.3. The authors therefore investigated the possibility that some ILS patients have smaller deletions in this chromosomal region. Forty-five ILS patients with gyral abnormalities ranging from complete agyria to mixed agyria/pachygyria and complete pachygyria were studied. RFLP analysis with five polymorphic loci in 17p13.3 was performed on all patients and their parents. Somatic cell hybrids were constructed on three patients, to confirm a deletion or to determine the boundaries of a deletion. These data demonstrate that a locus on 17p13 represents a major genetic etiology for patients with lissencephaly, ranging from complete agyria to pachygyria. In situ hybridization allows rapid and sensitive deletion detection and is the preferred method for diagnostic evaluation of MDA and ILS patients.

  13. Successfully Treated Isolated Posterior Spinal Artery Aneurysm Causing Intracranial Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    HORIO, Yoshinobu; KATSUTA, Toshiro; SAMURA, Kazuhiro; WAKUTA, Naoki; FUKUDA, Kenji; HIGASHI, Toshio; INOUE, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    There are very few published reports of rupture of an isolated posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysm, and consequently the optimal therapeutic strategy is debatable. An 84-year-old man presented with sudden onset of restlessness and disorientation. Neuroradiological imaging showed an intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with no visible intracranial vascular lesion. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected a localized subarachnoid hematoma at Th10–11. Both contrast-enhanced spinal computed tomography and enhanced MRI and magnetic resonance angiography revealed an area of enhancement within the hematoma. Superselective angiography of the left Th12 intercostal artery demonstrated a faintly enhanced spot in the venous phase. Thirteen days after the onset of symptoms, a small fusiform aneurysm situated on the radiculopial artery was resected. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and he was eventually discharged in an ambulatory condition. To our knowledge, this 84-year-old man is the oldest reported case of surgical management of a ruptured isolated PSA aneurysm. This case illustrates both the validity and efficacy of this therapeutic approach. PMID:26522607

  14. Introduction of ranavirus to isolated wood frog populations could cause local extinction.

    PubMed

    Earl, Julia E; Gray, Matthew J

    2014-12-01

    Amphibian declines and extinction have been attributed to many causes, including disease such as chytridiomycosis. Other pathogens may also contribute to declines, with ranavirus as the most likely candidate given reoccurring die-offs observed in the wild. We were interested in whether it is possible for ranavirus to cause extinction of a local, closed population of amphibians. We used susceptibility data from experimental challenges on different life stages combined with estimates of demographic parameters from a natural population to predict the likelihood of extinction using a stage-structured population model for wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus). Extinction was most likely when the larval or metamorph stage was exposed under frequent intervals in smaller populations. Extinction never occurred when only the egg stage was exposed to ranavirus. Under the worst-case scenario, extinction could occur in as quickly as 5 years with exposure every year and 25-44 years with exposure every 2 years. In natural wood frog populations, die-offs typically occur in the larval stage and can reoccur in subsequent years, indicating that our simulations represent possible scenarios. Additionally, wood frog populations are particularly sensitive to changes in survival during the pre-metamorphic stages when ranavirus tends to be most pathogenic. Our results suggest that ranavirus could contribute to amphibian species declines, especially for species that are very susceptible to ranavirus with closed populations. We recommend that ranavirus be considered in risk analyses for amphibian species. PMID:24962849

  15. Isolation and characterization of an Enterococcus-like bacterium causing muscle necrosis and mortality in Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, W; Chen, J C

    1998-10-01

    A Gram-positive, ovoid, diplococoid bacterium tentatively identified as Enterococcus-like was isolated from diseased Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Taiwanese aquaculture ponds. The diseased prawns displayed poor growth, anorexia, inactivity, opaque and whitish musculature, and mortality. In histological preparations, melanized hemocytic granulomas were seen in the connective tissue around hemal sinuses together with hemocytic aggregation in necrotic musculature. Five isolates of diplococci were collected from diseased prawns at 4 farms and these were evaluated for 93 characteristics including morphology, physiology, biochemistry and sensitivity to antibiotics. The results indicated that the isolates belonged to a single species. They grew in 0.5 to 6.0% NaCl, at 10 to 40 degrees C, at pH 9.6 and on bile esculin medium, gave positive pyrrolidonylarylamidase, arginine dehydrolase and Voges-Proskauer tests, were resistant to bacitracin and SXT, and were CAMP-negative and non-hemolytic on sheep blood agar. These findings indicated an Enterococcus-like bacterium closely related to Enterococcus seriolicida (recently reduced to synonymy with Lactococcus garvieae). Experimental injection of 3 x 10(5) cells of strain KM002 of this Enterococcus-like bacterium into the ventral sinus of the prawn cephalothorax caused 100% mortality in 11 d, and induced muscular necrosis and hepatopancreatitis, gross signs and histopathology similar to those observed in the naturally infected prawns. It was concluded that this Enterococcus-like bacterium was the etiological agent associated with mortality of the farmed, diseased prawns. PMID:9828405

  16. Avian mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium in four ornamental birds and in vitro drug sensitivity testing of isolates.

    PubMed

    Stepień-Pyśniak, Dagmara; Puk, Krzysztof; Guz, Leszek; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Marek, Agnieszka; Kosikowska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Avian tuberculosis, one of the most important diseases affecting various species of birds, is most often caused by Mycobacterium (M.) avium. This report describes cases of M. avium subsp. avium (MAA) infection in a white-crested Holland dwarf rooster, a male and a female golden pheasant and a male peacock. We also investigated the prevalence of mycobacteria in 60 other birds and 40 alpacas. Tissue samples of necropsied birds were cultured for mycobacteria. From non-necropsied 60 other birds and alpacas only faecal samples were collected. Clinical signs in the affected white-crested Holland cock included gradual loss of body weight and hoarse attempts at crowing during its last 3 weeks, with a dramatic loss of body condition and depression over the final week. Only slight weakening was observed in the peacock just before its death, and the golden pheasants died suddenly. Diagnosis was confirmed by microbiological, molecular and pathological results. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium strains were isolated from the internal organs of the affected birds. Only one faecal sample from 60 other birds was culture- and PCR-positive for M. avium subsp. avium, while another one was only PCR-positive for M. chelonae. We did not isolate any Mycobacterium spp. from faecal samples of alpacas and all of them were PCR-negative. All 18 isolated M. avium strains were resistant to rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, ethionamide, capreomycin and ofloxacin, and susceptible to cycloserine and streptomycin. PMID:26904899

  17. Isolated cardiomyopathy caused by a DMD nonsense mutation in somatic mosaicism: genetic normalization in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Juan-Mateu, J; Paradas, C; Olivé, M; Verdura, E; Rivas, E; González-Quereda, L; Rodríguez, M J; Baiget, M; Gallano, P

    2012-12-01

    X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy is a pure cardiac dystrophinopathy phenotype mainly caused by DMD mutations that present a specific transcription effect in cardiac tissue. We report a 26-year-old male who presented with severe dilated cardiomyopathy and high creatine kinase. The patient did not complain of skeletal muscle weakness. A muscle biopsy showed mild dystrophic changes and a low proportion of dystrophin-negative fibres. A molecular study identified a nonsense DMD mutation (p.Arg2098X) in somatic mosaicism. The ratio of mutant versus normal allele in blood and skeletal muscle suggests selective pressure against mutant muscle cells, a process known as genetic normalization. We hypothesize that this process may have mitigated skeletal muscle symptoms in this patient. This is the second report of a DMD somatic mosaic with evidence of genetic normalization in muscle. Somatic DMD mutations should be considered in patients presenting with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:22092019

  18. Isolation of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) from Household Water and Shower Aerosols in Patients with Pulmonary Disease Caused by NTM

    PubMed Central

    Tolson, Carla; Carter, Robyn; Coulter, Chris; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

    2013-01-01

    It has been postulated that susceptible individuals may acquire infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) from water and aerosol exposure. This study examined household water and shower aerosols of patients with NTM pulmonary disease. The mycobacteria isolated from clinical samples from 20 patients included M. avium (5 patients), M. intracellulare (12 patients), M. abscessus (7 patients), M. gordonae (1 patient), M. lentiflavum (1 patient), M. fortuitum (1 patient), M. peregrinum (1 patient), M. chelonae (1 patient), M. triplex (1 patient), and M. kansasii (1 patient). One-liter water samples and swabs were collected from all taps, and swimming pools or rainwater tanks. Shower aerosols were sampled using Andersen six-stage cascade impactors. For a subgroup of patients, real-time PCR was performed and high-resolution melt profiles were compared to those of ATCC control strains. Pathogenic mycobacteria were isolated from 19 homes. Species identified in the home matched that found in the patient in seven (35%) cases: M. abscessus (3 cases), M. avium (1 case), M. gordonae (1 case), M. lentiflavum (1 case), and M. kansasii (1 case). In an additional patient with M. abscessus infection, this species was isolated from potable water supplying her home. NTM grown from aerosols included M. abscessus (3 homes), M. gordonae (2 homes), M. kansasii (1 home), M. fortuitum complex (4 homes), M. mucogenicum (1 home), and M. wolinskyi (1 home). NTM causing human disease can be isolated from household water and aerosols. The evidence appears strongest for M. avium, M. kansasii, M. lentiflavum, and M. abscessus. Despite a predominance of disease due to M. intracellulare, we found no evidence for acquisition of infection from household water for this species. PMID:23843489

  19. Apolipoprotein A-I Q[-2]X causing isolated apolipoprotein A-I deficiency in a family with analphalipoproteinemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, D S; Leiter, L A; Vezina, C; Connelly, P W; Hegele, R A

    1994-01-01

    We report a Canadian kindred with a novel mutation in the apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene causing analphalipoproteinemia. The 34-yr-old proband, product of a consanguineous marriage, had bilateral retinopathy, bilateral cataracts, spinocerebellar ataxia, and tendon xanthomata. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was < 0.1 mM and apoA-I was undetectable. Genomic DNA sequencing of the proband's apoA-I gene identified a nonsense mutation at codon [-2], which we designate as Q[-2]X. This mutation causes a loss of endonuclease digestion sites for both BbvI and Fnu4HI. Genotyping identified four additional homozygotes, four heterozygotes, and two unaffected subjects among the first-degree relatives. Q[-2]X homozygosity causes a selective failure to produce any portion of mature apoA-I, resulting in very low plasma level of HDL. Heterozygosity results in approximately half-normal apoA-I and HDL. Gradient gel electrophoresis and differential electroimmunodiffusion assay revealed that the HDL particles of the homozygotes had peak Stokes diameter of 7.9 nm and contained apoA-II without apoA-I (Lp-AII). Heterozygotes had an additional fraction of HDL3-like particles. Two of the proband's affected sisters had documented premature coronary heart disease. This kindred, the third reported apoA-I gene mutation causing isolated complete apoA-I deficiency, appears to be at significantly increased risk for atherosclerosis. Images PMID:8282791

  20. T4-Related Bacteriophage LIMEstone Isolates for the Control of Soft Rot on Potato Caused by ‘Dickeya solani’

    PubMed Central

    Adriaenssens, Evelien M.; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Dunon, Vincent; Ceyssens, Pieter-Jan; De Proft, Maurice; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Noben, Jean-Paul; Maes, Martine; Lavigne, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The bacterium ‘Dickeya solani’, an aggressive biovar 3 variant of Dickeya dianthicola, causes rotting and blackleg in potato. To control this pathogen using bacteriophage therapy, we isolated and characterized two closely related and specific bacteriophages, vB_DsoM_LIMEstone1 and vB_DsoM_LIMEstone2. The LIMEstone phages have a T4-related genome organization and share DNA similarity with Salmonella phage ViI. Microbiological and molecular characterization of the phages deemed them suitable and promising for use in phage therapy. The phages reduced disease incidence and severity on potato tubers in laboratory assays. In addition, in a field trial of potato tubers, when infected with ‘Dickeya solani’, the experimental phage treatment resulted in a higher yield. These results form the basis for the development of a bacteriophage-based biocontrol of potato plants and tubers as an alternative for the use of antibiotics. PMID:22413005

  1. Cefditoren: Comparative efficacy with other antimicrobials and risk factors for resistance in clinical isolates causing UTIs in outpatients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To investigate a possible role of Cefditoren, a recently marketed in Greece third-generation oral cephalosporin in urinary infections of outpatients. Methods During a multicenter survey of Enterobacteriaceae causing UTIs in outpatients during 2005–2007, Cefditoren MICs were determined by agar dilution method in a randomly selected sample of uropathogens. Susceptibility against 18 other oral/parenteral antimicrobials was determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology. Results A total of 563 isolates (330 Escherichia coli, 142 Proteus mirabilis and 91 Klebsiella spp) was studied; MIC50/MIC90 of Cefditoren was 0.25/0.5 mg/L respectively, with 97.1% of the isolates being inhibited at 1 mg/L. All 12 strains producing ESBLs or AmpC enzymes were resistant to cefditoren. Susceptibility rates (%) for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime axetil, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and fosfomycin were 93.1- 94.1- 96.8-93.1-71.9 and 92.8% respectively. Cefditoren MIC was significantly higher in nalidixic/ciprofloxacin non-susceptible strains; resistance to cefditoren was not associated with resistance to mecillinam, fosfomycin nitrofurantoin and aminoglycosides. Multivariate analysis demonstrated history of urinary infection in the last two weeks or three months as risk factors for cefditoren resistance. Conclusions Cefditoren exhibited enhanced in vitro activity against the most common uropathogens in the outpatient setting, representing an alternative oral treatment option in patients with risk factors for resistance to first-line antibiotics. PMID:23009290

  2. Prevalence and Characterization of Oxacillin Susceptible mecA-Positive Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus Causing Bovine Mastitis in India.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Hiral; Sharma, Paresh; Mahato, Sudipta; Saravanan, R; Kumar, P Anand; Bhandari, Vasundhra

    2016-01-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a huge problem reported worldwide, resulting in prolonged antibiotic treatment and death of livestock. The current study is focused on surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility along with genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the pathogenic S. aureus strains causing mastitis in India. One hundred and sixty seven milk samples were collected from mastitis-affected cows from different farms in India resulting in thirty nine isolated S. aureus strains. Antibiotic sensitivity profiling revealed the majority of the strains (n = 24) to be multidrug resistant and eleven strains showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (MICs = 2μg/ml). All strains were oxacillin sensitive, but 19 strains were positive for the mecA gene, which revealed the occurrence of oxacillin susceptible mecA positive strains (OS-MRSA) for the first time from India. Additionally, 32 strains were positive for the pvl gene, a virulence determinant; of these 17 were also OS-MRSA strains. Molecular characterization based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, agr typing and SCCmec classification revealed strains belonging to different groups. Moreover, strains showed spa types (t2526, t9602) and MLST sequence types, ST-72, ST-88 and ST-239 which have been earlier reported in human infections. The prevalence of OS-MRSA strains indicates the importance of including both the genetic and phenotypic tests in characterizing S. aureus strains. Increased genotypic variability with strain related to human infections and pvl positive isolates indicates a worrisome situation with the possibility of bilateral transfer. PMID:27603123

  3. Cryptococcus gattii VGIII Isolates Causing Infections in HIV/AIDS Patients in Southern California: Identification of the Local Environmental Source as Arboreal

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Deborah J.; Billmyre, R. Blake; Filler, Elan E.; Voelz, Kerstin; Pursall, Rhiannon; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Larsen, Robert A.; Dietrich, Fred S.; May, Robin C.; Filler, Scott G.; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing Cryptococcus gattii outbreaks in the Western United States and Canada illustrate the impact of environmental reservoirs and both clonal and recombining propagation in driving emergence and expansion of microbial pathogens. C. gattii comprises four distinct molecular types: VGI, VGII, VGIII, and VGIV, with no evidence of nuclear genetic exchange, indicating these represent distinct species. C. gattii VGII isolates are causing the Pacific Northwest outbreak, whereas VGIII isolates frequently infect HIV/AIDS patients in Southern California. VGI, VGII, and VGIII have been isolated from patients and animals in the Western US, suggesting these molecular types occur in the environment. However, only two environmental isolates of C. gattii have ever been reported from California: CBS7750 (VGII) and WM161 (VGIII). The incongruence of frequent clinical presence and uncommon environmental isolation suggests an unknown C. gattii reservoir in California. Here we report frequent isolation of C. gattii VGIII MATα and MATa isolates and infrequent isolation of VGI MATα from environmental sources in Southern California. VGIII isolates were obtained from soil debris associated with tree species not previously reported as hosts from sites near residences of infected patients. These isolates are fertile under laboratory conditions, produce abundant spores, and are part of both locally and more distantly recombining populations. MLST and whole genome sequence analysis provide compelling evidence that these environmental isolates are the source of human infections. Isolates displayed wide-ranging virulence in macrophage and animal models. When clinical and environmental isolates with indistinguishable MLST profiles were compared, environmental isolates were less virulent. Taken together, our studies reveal an environmental source and risk of C. gattii to HIV/AIDS patients with implications for the >1,000,000 cryptococcal infections occurring annually for which the causative

  4. Selection for resistance to Verticillium wilt caused by race 2 isolates of Verticillium dahliae in accessions of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt of lettuce caused by Verticillium dahliae can cause severe economic damage to lettuce producers. The pathogen exists as two races (races 1 and 2) in lettuce, and complete resistance to race 1 is known. Resistance to race 2 isolates has not been reported, and production of race 1 re...

  5. The inheritance of resistance to Verticillium wilt caused by race 1 isolates of Verticillium dahliae in the lettuce cultivar La Brillante.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt of lettuce caused by Verticillium dahliae can cause severe economic damage to lettuce producers. Complete resistance to race 1 isolates is available in L. sativa cultivar (cv) La Brillante and understanding the inheritance of resistance will aid development of new resistant cultiva...

  6. Mechanisms governing the direct removal of wastes from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository caused by exploratory drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, J.W.

    1992-12-01

    Two processes are identified that can influence the quantity of wastes brought to the ground surface when a waste disposal room of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is inadvertently penetrated by an exploratory borehole. The first mechanism is due to the erosion of the borehole wall adjacent to the waste caused by the flowing drilling fluid (mud); a quantitative computational model based upon the flow characteristics of the drilling fluid (laminar or turbulent) and other drilling parameters is developed and example results shown. The second mechanism concerns the motion of the waste and borehole spall caused by the flow of waste-generated gas to the borehole. Some of the available literature concerning this process is discussed, and a number of elastic and elastic-plastic finite-difference and finite-element calculations are described that confirm the potential importance of this process in directly removing wastes from the repository to the ground surface. Based upon the amount of analysis performed to date, it is concluded that it is not unreasonable to expect that volumes of waste several times greater than that resulting from direct cutting of a gauge borehole could eventually reach the ground surface. No definitive quantitative model for waste removal as a result of the second mechanism is presented; it is concluded that decomposed waste constitutive data must be developed and additional experiments performed to assess further the full significance of this latter mechanism.

  7. Long-lasting endothelium-dependent relaxation of isolated arteries caused by an extract from the bark of Combretum leprosum

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Francisco das Chagas; Cavalcanti, Paulo Marques da Silva; Passaglia, Rita de Cassia Aleixo Tostes; Ballejo, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe and to characterize the relaxing effect of an extract of the bark of Combretum leprosum on isolated arterial rings from different animals. Methods Rings (3 to 4mm) from rabbit, rat, or porcine arteries rings were suspended in an organ bath (Krebs, 37°C, 95%O2/5%CO2) to record isometric contractions. After the stabilization period (2 to 3 hours) contractions were induced by the addition of phenylephrine (0.1 to 0.3µM) or U46619 (10 to 100nM), and Combretum leprosum extract was added on the plateau of the contractions. Experiments were performed to determine the potency, duration, reversibility, and to get insights on the potential mechanism involved in extract-induced relaxations. Results In all rings tested, Combretumleprosum extract (1.5μg/mL) was able to cause relaxations, which were strictly endothelium-dependent. In rabbit or rat thoracic aorta rings, the relaxations were reversed by vitamin B12a or L-NG-nitroarginine. In porcine right coronary arteries and rabbit abdominal aorta, extract caused both L-NG-nitroarginine-sensitive and L-NG-nitroarginine-resistant relaxations. In rabbit thoracic aorta, the extract was relatively potent (EC50=0.20µg/mL) and caused relaxations; intriguingly the endothelium continued to produce relaxing factors for a long period after removing the extract. The magnitude of extract-induced relaxations was significantly reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca2+; in addition, the TRPs channels blocker ruthenium red (10µM) was able to revert extract-induced relaxations. Phytochemical analyses indicated that the extract was rich in polyphenol-like reacting substances. Conclusions Combretum leprosum extract contains bioactive compounds capable of promoting Ca2+-dependent stimulation of endothelial cells which results in a prolonged production of relaxing factors. PMID:26466063

  8. Synchronization of Isolated Downstates (K-Complexes) May Be Caused by Cortically-Induced Disruption of Thalamic Spindling

    PubMed Central

    Mak-McCully, Rachel A.; Deiss, Stephen R.; Rosen, Burke Q.; Jung, Ki-Young; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Bastuji, Hélène; Rey, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Sleep spindles and K-complexes (KCs) define stage 2 NREM sleep (N2) in humans. We recently showed that KCs are isolated downstates characterized by widespread cortical silence. We demonstrate here that KCs can be quasi-synchronous across scalp EEG and across much of the cortex using electrocorticography (ECOG) and localized transcortical recordings (bipolar SEEG). We examine the mechanism of synchronous KC production by creating the first conductance based thalamocortical network model of N2 sleep to generate both spontaneous spindles and KCs. Spontaneous KCs are only observed when the model includes diffuse projections from restricted prefrontal areas to the thalamic reticular nucleus (RE), consistent with recent anatomical findings in rhesus monkeys. Modeled KCs begin with a spontaneous focal depolarization of the prefrontal neurons, followed by depolarization of the RE. Surprisingly, the RE depolarization leads to decreased firing due to disrupted spindling, which in turn is due to depolarization-induced inactivation of the low-threshold Ca2+ current (IT). Further, although the RE inhibits thalamocortical (TC) neurons, decreased RE firing causes decreased TC cell firing, again because of disrupted spindling. The resulting abrupt removal of excitatory input to cortical pyramidal neurons then leads to the downstate. Empirically, KCs may also be evoked by sensory stimuli while maintaining sleep. We reproduce this phenomenon in the model by depolarization of either the RE or the widely-projecting prefrontal neurons. Again, disruption of thalamic spindling plays a key role. Higher levels of RE stimulation also cause downstates, but by directly inhibiting the TC neurons. SEEG recordings from the thalamus and cortex in a single patient demonstrated the model prediction that thalamic spindling significantly decreases before KC onset. In conclusion, we show empirically that KCs can be widespread quasi-synchronous cortical downstates, and demonstrate with the first model

  9. Evidence of Reversible Bradycardia and Arrhythmias Caused by Immunogenic Proteins Secreted by T. cruzi in Isolated Rat Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Angulo, Héctor O.; Toro-Mendoza, Jhoan; Marques, Juan A.; Concepción, Juan L.; Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael; Higuerey, Yoliver; Thomas, Luz E.; Balzano-Nogueira, Leandro; López, José R.; Mijares, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Chagas cardiomyopathy, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is characterized by alterations in intracellular ion, heart failure and arrhythmias. Arrhythmias have been related to sudden death, even in asymptomatic patients, and their molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Objective The aim of this study is to demonstrate the effect of proteins secreted by T. cruzi on healthy, isolated beating rat heart model under a non-damage-inducing protocol. Methods and Results We established a non-damage-inducing recirculation-reoxygenation model where ultrafiltrate fractions of conditioned medium control or conditioned infected medium were perfused at a standard flow rate and under partial oxygenation. Western blotting with chagasic patient serum was performed to determine the antigenicity of the conditioned infected medium fractions. We observed bradycardia, ventricular fibrillation and complete atrioventricular block in hearts during perfusion with >50 kDa conditioned infected culture medium. The preincubation of conditioned infected medium with chagasic serum abolished the bradycardia and arrhythmias. The proteins present in the conditioned infected culture medium of >50 kDa fractions were recognized by the chagasic patient sera associated with arrhythmias. Conclusions These results suggest that proteins secreted by T. cruzi are involved in Chagas disease arrhythmias and may be a potential biomarker in chagasic patients. PMID:25647069

  10. Isolation and Molecular Detection of Gram Negative Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection in Patients Referred to Shahrekord Hospitals, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Tajbakhsh, Elahe; Tajbakhsh, Sara; Khamesipour, Faham

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urinary Tract Infections (UTI), and their complications, cause serious health problems, which affect millions of people every year. Infections of the urinary tract are the second most common type of infection in the body and approximately 20% of women are especially prone to UTIs for reasons not yet well understood. Urinary Tract Infections in men are not as common as in women yet can be very serious when they do occur. Accurate identification of bacterial isolates is an essential task of the clinical microbiology laboratory. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and variety of the causative microbial agents of UTIs in patients who had referred to a medical laboratory of Kashani and Hajar hospital in Shahrekord, Iran. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study 147 urine samples of patients (urine test results were positive for UTIs) were examined during April to September 2013. A total of 147 urine samples of patients with clinical symptoms of UTI who had been referred to a medical laboratory of Kashani and Hajar hospital in Shahrekord (Iran), were collected and processed immediately for laboratory analysis. Results: Escherichia coli was identified as the most common causative agent of UTIs (51.70% of total isolates in both sexes), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. Pneumoniae) (16.32%). Frequency of Proteus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Entrobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Providencia spp. was 10.88%, 6.12%, 5.44%, 4.08%, 3.40% and 2.04%, respectively. Statistical analysis by Fisher exact test showed that there was no significant relationship between the type of bacteria and gender (P > 0.05). Chi square test showed that there was no significant relationship between the type of bacteria and the use of catheter and age group (P > 0.05). However, there was a significant relationship between the type of bacteria and the history of hospitalization (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Our

  11. Biofilm Formation Caused by Clinical Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates Is Associated with Overexpression of the AdeFGH Efflux Pump

    PubMed Central

    He, Xinlong; Lu, Feng; Yuan, Fenglai; Jiang, Donglin; Zhao, Peng; Zhu, Jie; Cheng, Huali

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wound infections are associated with biofilm formation, which in turn has been correlated with drug resistance. However, the mechanism by which bacteria form biofilms in clinical environments is not clearly understood. This study was designed to investigate the biofilm formation potency of Acinetobacter baumannii and the potential association of biofilm formation with genes encoding efflux pumps, quorum-sensing regulators, and outer membrane proteins. A total of 48 clinically isolated A. baumannii strains, identified by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR as types A-II, A-III, and A-IV, were analyzed. Three representative strains, which were designated A. baumannii ABR2, ABR11, and ABS17, were used to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility, biofilm inducibility, and gene transcription (abaI, adeB, adeG, adeJ, carO, and ompA). A significant increase in the MICs of different classes of antibiotics was observed in the biofilm cells. The formation of a biofilm was significantly induced in all the representative strains exposed to levofloxacin. The levels of gene transcription varied between bacterial genotypes, antibiotics, and antibiotic concentrations. The upregulation of adeG correlated with biofilm induction. The consistent upregulation of adeG and abaI was detected in A-III-type A. baumannii in response to levofloxacin and meropenem (1/8 to 1/2× the MIC), conditions which resulted in the greatest extent of biofilm induction. This study demonstrates a potential role of the AdeFGH efflux pump in the synthesis and transport of autoinducer molecules during biofilm formation, suggesting a link between low-dose antimicrobial therapy and a high risk of biofilm infections caused by A. baumannii. This study provides useful information for the development of antibiofilm strategies. PMID:26033730

  12. Microbicidal activity of neutrophils is inhibited by isolates from recurrent vaginal candidiasis (RVVC) caused by Candida albicans through fungal thioredoxin reductase.

    PubMed

    Ratti, Bianca Altrão; Godoy, Janine Silva Ribeiro; de Souza Bonfim Mendonça, Patrícia; Bidóia, Danielle Lazarin; Nakamura, Tânia Ueda; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Lopes Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine; Estivalet Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli

    2015-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is characterized by an infection of the vulva and vagina, mainly caused by Candida albicans, a commensal microorganism that inhabits the vaginal, digestive, and respiratory mucosae. Vulvovaginal candidiasis affects approximately 75% of women, and 5% develop the recurrent form (RVVC). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether neutrophils microbicidal response is triggered when activated with RVVC isolates caused by C. albicans. Our results showed that RVVC isolates induced neutrophil migration but significantly decrease the microbicidal activity of neutrophils, compared with VVC and ASS isolates. The microbicidal activity of neutrophils is highly dependent on the production of reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). However, this isolate induced detoxification of ROS/RNS produced by neutrophils, reflected by the high level of thiol groups and by the oxygen consumption. Therefore, RVVC isolates induced biochemical changes in the inflammatory response triggered by neutrophils, and these effects were mainly related to the detoxification of ROS/RNS through the thioredoxin reductase (TR), a key antioxidant enzyme in fungi. This might be one of the resistance mechanisms triggered by RVVC caused by C. albicans. PMID:25497972

  13. Evaluation of bacteria isolated from rice rhizosphere for biological control of charcoal rot of sorghum caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Humayun, Pagidi; Kiran, Bandru Keerthi; Kannan, Iyer Girish Kumar; Vidya, Meesala Sree; Deepthi, Kanala; Rupela, Om

    2011-06-01

    A total of 360 bacteria, isolated from the rhizospheres of a system of rice intensification (SRI) fields, were characterized for the production of siderophore, fluorescence, indole acetic acid (IAA), hydrocyanic acid (HCN) and solubilization of phosphorus. Of them, seven most promising isolates (SRI-156, -158, -178, -211, -229, -305 and -360) were screened for their antagonistic potential against Macrophomina phaseolina (causes charcoal rot in sorghum) by dual culture assay, blotter paper assay and in greenhouse. All the seven isolates inhibited M. phaseolina in dual culture assay, whereas six isolates solubilized phosphorous (except SRI-360), all seven produced siderophore, four produced fluorescence (except SRI-178, -229 and -305), six produced IAA (except SRI-305) and five produced HCN (except SRI-158 and -305). In the blotter paper assay, no charcoal rot infection was observed in SRI-156-treated sorghum roots, indicating complete inhibition of the pathogen, while the roots treated with the other isolates showed 49-76% lesser charcoal rot infection compared to the control. In the antifungal activity test (in green house on sorghum), all the isolates increased shoot dry mass by 15-23% and root dry mass by 15-20% (except SRI-158 and -360), over the control. In order to confirm the plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits of the isolates, the green house experiment was repeated but, in the absence of M. phaseolina. The results further confirmed the PGP traits of the isolates as evidenced by increases in shoot and root dry mass, 22-100% and 5-20%, respectively, over the control. The sequences of 16S rDNA gene of the isolates SRI-156, -158, -178, -211, -229, -305 and -360 were matched with Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, Brevibacterium antiquum, Bacillus altitudinis, Enterobacter ludwigii, E. ludwigii, Acinetobacter tandoii and P. monteilii, respectively in BLAST analysis. This study indicates that the selected bacterial isolates have the potential for PGP and control of

  14. Purpureocillium lilacinum as a Cause of Cavitary Pulmonary Disease: a New Clinical Presentation and Observations on Atypical Morphologic Characteristics of the Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Suhail; Al-Ghimlas, Fahad; Al-Mutairi, Sana; Joseph, Leena; Chandy, Rachel; Sutton, Deanna A.; Guarro, Josep

    2012-01-01

    The first case of cavitary pulmonary disease caused by Purpureocillium lilacinum is described. The isolate showed atypical microscopic characteristics similar to Acremonium and Fusarium spp., which necessitated molecular identification by sequencing of multiple conserved loci. The patient responded to voriconazole, reinforcing its therapeutic efficacy for P. lilacinum infections. PMID:22322350

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of a Hypersensitive Reaction-Inducing Pantoea agglomerans Strain Isolated from Olive Knots Caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Chiaraluce; Cortese, Chiara; Passos da Silva, Daniel; Venturi, Vittorio; Torelli, Emanuela; Firrao, Giuseppe; Buonaurio, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans strains inducing a hypersensitive reaction in tobacco leaves are frequently isolated inside olive knots caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Italian P. agglomerans strain, which is able to increase olive knot disease severity when coinoculated with P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi. PMID:25103763

  16. Characterization and PCR Detection Of Binary, Pir-Like Toxins from Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates that Cause Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) in Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Sirikharin, Ratchanok; Taengchaiyaphum, Suparat; Sanguanrut, Piyachat; Chi, Thanh Duong; Mavichak, Rapeepat; Proespraiwong, Porranee; Nuangsaeng, Bunlung; Thitamadee, Siripong; Flegel, Timothy W.; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2015-01-01

    Unique isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND) have previously been identified as the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp. AHPND is characterized by massive sloughing of tubule epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas (HP), proposed to be induced by soluble toxins released from VPAHPND that colonize the shrimp stomach. Since these toxins (produced in broth culture) have been reported to cause AHPND pathology in reverse gavage bioassays with shrimp, we used ammonium sulfate precipitation to prepare protein fractions from broth cultures of VPAHPND isolates for screening by reverse gavage assays. The dialyzed 60% ammonium sulfate fraction caused high mortality within 24–48 hours post-administration, and histological analysis of the moribund shrimp showed typical massive sloughing of hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells characteristic of AHPND. Analysis of the active fraction by SDS-PAGE revealed two major bands at marker levels of approximately 16 kDa (ToxA) and 50 kDa (ToxB). Mass spectrometry analysis followed by MASCOT analysis revealed that both proteins had similarity to hypothetical proteins of V. parahaemolyticus M0605 (contig034 GenBank accession no. JALL01000066.1) and similarity to known binary insecticidal toxins called 'Photorhabdus insect related' proteins A and B (Pir-A and Pir-B), respectively, produced by the symbiotic, nematode bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. In in vivo tests, it was shown that recombinant ToxA and ToxB were both required in a dose dependent manner to cause AHPND pathology, indicating further similarity to Pir-A and -B. A single-step PCR method was designed for detection of the ToxA gene and was validated using 104 bacterial isolates consisting of 51 VPAHPND isolates, 34 non-AHPND VP isolates and 19 other isolates of bacteria commonly found in shrimp ponds (including other species of Vibrio and Photobacterium). The results showed 100% specificity and sensitivity for detection of

  17. Comparison of the pathogenesis of Asian highly-pathogenic PRRSV isolates to U.S. isolates and their ability to cause secondary bacterial infection in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The appearance of highly-pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates in Asia necessitates investigation into the clinical repercussions of these viruses if the strains were to appear in the United States. Epidemiologic data from Asian outbreaks suggest that diseas...

  18. Possible healthcare-associated transmission as a cause of secondary infection and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from two wound treatment centres in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kpeli, G; Darko Otchere, I; Lamelas, A; Buultjens, A L; Bulach, D; Baines, S L; Seemann, T; Giulieri, S; Nakobu, Z; Aboagye, S Y; Owusu-Mireku, E; Pluschke, G; Stinear, T P; Yeboah-Manu, D

    2016-09-01

    We have previously shown that secondary infections of Buruli ulcer wounds were frequently caused by Staphylococcus aureus. To gain understanding into possible routes of secondary infection, we characterized S. aureus isolates from patient lesions and surrounding environments across two Ghanaian health centres. One hundred and one S. aureus isolates were isolated from wounds (n = 93, 92.1%) and the hospital environment (n = 8, 7.9%) and characterized by the spa gene, mecA and the Panton-Valentine leucocidin toxin followed by spa sequencing and whole genome sequencing of a subset of 49 isolates. Spa typing and sequencing of the spa gene from 91 isolates identified 29 different spa types with t355 (ST152), t186 (ST88), and t346 dominating. Although many distinct strains were isolated from both health centres, genotype clustering was identified within centres. In addition, we identified a cluster consisting of isolates from a healthcare worker, patients dressed that same day and forceps used for dressing, pointing to possible healthcare-associated transmission. These clusters were confirmed by phylogenomic analysis. Twenty-four (22.8%) isolates were identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus and lukFS genes encoding Panton-Valentine leucocidin were identified in 67 (63.8%) of the isolates. Phenotype screening showed widespread resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, rifampicin, amikacin and streptomycin. Genomics confirmed the widespread presence of antibiotic resistance genes to β-lactams, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, quinolone, streptomycin and tetracycline. Our findings indicate that the healthcare environment probably contributes to the superinfection of Buruli ulcer wounds and calls for improved training in wound management and infection control techniques. PMID:27547406

  19. Rapid and Reversible Impairments of Short- and Long-Term Social Recognition Memory Are Caused by Acute Isolation of Adult Rats via Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Shahar-Gold, Hadar; Gur, Rotem; Wagner, Shlomo

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian social organizations require the ability to recognize and remember individual conspecifics. This social recognition memory (SRM) can be examined in rodents using their innate tendency to investigate novel conspecifics more persistently than familiar ones. Here we used the SRM paradigm to examine the influence of housing conditions on the social memory of adult rats. We found that acute social isolation caused within few days a significant impairment in acquisition of short-term SRM of male and female rats. Moreover, SRM consolidation into long-term memory was blocked following only one day of social isolation. Both impairments were reversible, but with different time courses. Furthermore, only the impairment in SRM consolidation was reversed by systemic administration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP). In contrast to SRM, object recognition memory was not affected by social isolation. We conclude that acute social isolation rapidly induces reversible changes in the brain neuronal and molecular mechanisms underlying SRM, which hamper its acquisition and completely block its consolidation. These changes occur via distinct, AVP sensitive and insensitive mechanisms. Thus, acute social isolation of rats swiftly causes changes in their brain and interferes with their normal social behavior. PMID:23741464

  20. Genomic Analysis Reveals Multi-Drug Resistance Clusters in Group B Streptococcus CC17 Hypervirulent Isolates Causing Neonatal Invasive Disease in Southern Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Campisi, Edmondo; Rosini, Roberto; Ji, Wenjing; Guidotti, Silvia; Rojas-López, Maricarmen; Geng, Guozhu; Deng, Qiulian; Zhong, Huamin; Wang, Weidong; Liu, Haiying; Nan, Cassandra; Margarit, Immaculada; Rinaudo, C D

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal invasive disease caused by group B Streptococcus (GBS) represents a significant public health care concern globally. However, data related to disease burden, serotype distribution, and molecular epidemiology in China and other Asian countries are very few and specifically relative to confined regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic characteristics of GBS isolates recovered from neonates with invasive disease during 2013-2014 at Guangzhou and Changsha hospitals in southern mainland China. We assessed the capsular polysaccharide type, pilus islands (PIs) distribution and hvgA gene presence in a panel of 26 neonatal clinical isolates, of which 8 were recovered from Early Onset Disease and 18 from Late Onset Disease (LOD). Among 26 isolates examined, five serotypes were identified. Type III was the most represented (15 cases), particularly among LOD strains (n = 11), followed by types Ib (n = 5), V (n = 3), Ia (n = 2) and II (n = 1). We performed whole-genome sequencing analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing on the 14 serotype III isolates belonging to the hypervirulent Clonal Complex 17 (serotype III-CC17). The presence of PI-2b alone was associated with 13 out of 14 serotype III-CC17 strains. Genome analysis led us to identify two multi-drug resistance gene clusters harbored in two new versions of integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), carrying five or eight antibiotic resistance genes, respectively. These ICEs replaced the 16 kb-locus that normally contains the PI-1 operon. All isolates harboring the identified ICEs showed multiple resistances to aminoglycoside, macrolide, and tetracycline antibiotic classes. In conclusion, we report the first whole-genome sequence analysis of 14 GBS serotype III-CC17 strains isolated in China, representing the most prevalent lineage causing neonatal invasive disease. The acquisition of newly identified ICEs conferring multiple antibiotic resistance could in part explain the spread of

  1. Faecal Escherichia coli isolates show potential to cause endogenous infection in patients admitted to the ICU in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Nagarjuna, D; Mittal, G; Dhanda, R S; Verma, P K; Gaind, R; Yadav, M

    2015-09-01

    Nosocomial infections are acquired during hospital treatment or in a hospital environment. One such infecting agent, Escherichia coli, harbours many virulence genes that enable it to become pathogenic, causing damage to the host. The mechanism of the E. coli virulence factors provenance to cause infection in host environments is not clearly elucidated. We investigated the virulence and pathogenicity of E. coli affected by the host environment. For this, blood (n = 78) and faecal (n = 83) E. coli isolates were collected from patients with and without sepsis, respectively, who had been admitted to the intensive care unit. The E. coli genomic DNA was isolated; the phylogenetic grouping was conducted by triplex PCR. The occurrence of nine virulence genes among the all the isolates was confirmed by gene-specific PCR. The prevalence of E. coli in blood isolates was more in phylogenetic groups B2 and D compared to groups A and B1. However, in faecal isolates, there was no significant difference. The prevalence of adhesin and toxin (papG, sfa, afa, cnf1, hlyA) genes was higher in blood compared to faecal E. coli isolates. However, the prevalence of aer, traT and PAI was similar as well as higher among both of these groups. These observations indicate a role of external environment (hospital setting) on host susceptibility (development of infection) in the faecal E. coli isolates, thereby making the patient prone to a sepsis condition. PMID:26257914

  2. Faecal Escherichia coli isolates show potential to cause endogenous infection in patients admitted to the ICU in a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Nagarjuna, D.; Mittal, G.; Dhanda, R.S.; Verma, P.K.; Gaind, R.; Yadav, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are acquired during hospital treatment or in a hospital environment. One such infecting agent, Escherichia coli, harbours many virulence genes that enable it to become pathogenic, causing damage to the host. The mechanism of the E. coli virulence factors provenance to cause infection in host environments is not clearly elucidated. We investigated the virulence and pathogenicity of E. coli affected by the host environment. For this, blood (n = 78) and faecal (n = 83) E. coli isolates were collected from patients with and without sepsis, respectively, who had been admitted to the intensive care unit. The E. coli genomic DNA was isolated; the phylogenetic grouping was conducted by triplex PCR. The occurrence of nine virulence genes among the all the isolates was confirmed by gene-specific PCR. The prevalence of E. coli in blood isolates was more in phylogenetic groups B2 and D compared to groups A and B1. However, in faecal isolates, there was no significant difference. The prevalence of adhesin and toxin (papG, sfa, afa, cnf1, hlyA) genes was higher in blood compared to faecal E. coli isolates. However, the prevalence of aer, traT and PAI was similar as well as higher among both of these groups. These observations indicate a role of external environment (hospital setting) on host susceptibility (development of infection) in the faecal E. coli isolates, thereby making the patient prone to a sepsis condition. PMID:26257914

  3. Genomic Analysis Reveals Multi-Drug Resistance Clusters in Group B Streptococcus CC17 Hypervirulent Isolates Causing Neonatal Invasive Disease in Southern Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Campisi, Edmondo; Rosini, Roberto; Ji, Wenjing; Guidotti, Silvia; Rojas-López, Maricarmen; Geng, Guozhu; Deng, Qiulian; Zhong, Huamin; Wang, Weidong; Liu, Haiying; Nan, Cassandra; Margarit, Immaculada; Rinaudo, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal invasive disease caused by group B Streptococcus (GBS) represents a significant public health care concern globally. However, data related to disease burden, serotype distribution, and molecular epidemiology in China and other Asian countries are very few and specifically relative to confined regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic characteristics of GBS isolates recovered from neonates with invasive disease during 2013–2014 at Guangzhou and Changsha hospitals in southern mainland China. We assessed the capsular polysaccharide type, pilus islands (PIs) distribution and hvgA gene presence in a panel of 26 neonatal clinical isolates, of which 8 were recovered from Early Onset Disease and 18 from Late Onset Disease (LOD). Among 26 isolates examined, five serotypes were identified. Type III was the most represented (15 cases), particularly among LOD strains (n = 11), followed by types Ib (n = 5), V (n = 3), Ia (n = 2) and II (n = 1). We performed whole-genome sequencing analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing on the 14 serotype III isolates belonging to the hypervirulent Clonal Complex 17 (serotype III-CC17). The presence of PI-2b alone was associated with 13 out of 14 serotype III-CC17 strains. Genome analysis led us to identify two multi-drug resistance gene clusters harbored in two new versions of integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), carrying five or eight antibiotic resistance genes, respectively. These ICEs replaced the 16 kb-locus that normally contains the PI-1 operon. All isolates harboring the identified ICEs showed multiple resistances to aminoglycoside, macrolide, and tetracycline antibiotic classes. In conclusion, we report the first whole-genome sequence analysis of 14 GBS serotype III-CC17 strains isolated in China, representing the most prevalent lineage causing neonatal invasive disease. The acquisition of newly identified ICEs conferring multiple antibiotic resistance could in part explain the spread

  4. Protective effect of dieckol isolated from Ecklonia cava against ethanol caused damage in vitro and in zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Cheol; Kim, Kil-Nam; Kang, Sung-Myung; Yang, Xiudong; Kim, Eun-A; Song, Choon Bok; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jang, Mi-Kyeong; Lee, Jung-Suck; Jung, Won-Kyo; Jeon, You-Jin

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, the protective effects of phlorotannins isolated from Ecklonia cava against ethanol-induced cell damage and apoptosis were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Three phlorotannin compounds, namely phloroglucinol, eckol and dieckol, were successively isolated and identified from the extract. Dieckol showed the strongest protective effect against ethanol-induced cell apoptosis in Chang liver cells, with the lowest cytotoxicity. It was observed that dieckol reduced cell apoptosis through activation of Bcl-xL and PARP, and down-regulation of Bax and caspase-3 in Western blot analyses. In the in vivo study, the protective effect of ethanol induced by dieckol was investigated in a zebrafish model. The dieckol treated group scavenged intracellural reactive oxygen species and prevented lipid peroxidation and ethanol induced cell death in the zebrafish embryo. In conclusion, dieckol isolated from E. cava might possess a potential protective effect against ethanol-induced liver diseases. PMID:24189014

  5. Molecular characteristics of penicillin-binding protein 2b, 2x and 1a sequences in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates causing invasive diseases among children in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Liu, J; Zhang, Z; Liu, Y; Wang, Y; Liu, Y

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the common pathogens causing severe invasive infections in children. This study aimed to investigate the serotype distribution and variations of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) 2b, 2x and 1a in S. pneumoniae isolates causing invasive diseases in Northeast China. A total of 256 strains were isolated from children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) from January 2000 to October 2014. All strains were serotyped and determined for antibiotic resistance. The amplicons of penicillin-binding domains in pbp1a, pbp2b and pbp2x genes were sequenced for variation identification. The most prevalent serotypes of isolates in IPD children were 19A, 14, 19F, 23F and 6B. 19A and 19F were the most frequent serotypes of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP), which present with high resistance to amoxicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and meropenem. The numbers of amino acid substitutions of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PNSP) isolates were higher than those of penicillin-sensitive S. pneumoniae isolates in all the PBP genes (p < 0.01). The patterns of amino acid mutation in PBP2b, PBP2x and PBP1a were unique and different from those of other countries. All of the serotype 19A and 19F PRSP isolates carried 25 amino acid mutations, including Ala618 → Gly between positions 560 and 675 in PBP2b and Thr338 → Ala substitutions in PBP2x. The amino acid alterations in PBP2b, PBP2x and PBP1a from S. pneumoniae were closely associated with resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. This study provides new data for further monitoring of genetic changes related to the emergence and spread of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in China. PMID:26972430

  6. Isolation and characterization of a distinct duck-origin goose parvovirus causing an outbreak of duckling short beak and dwarfism syndrome in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shilong; Wang, Shao; Cheng, Xiaoxia; Xiao, Shifeng; Zhu, Xiaoli; Lin, Fengqiang; Wu, Nanyang; Wang, Jinxiang; Huang, Meiqing; Zheng, Min; Chen, Shaoying; Yu, Fusong

    2016-09-01

    Many mule duck and Cherry Valley duck flocks in different duck-producing regions of China have shown signs of an apparently new disease designated "short beak and dwarfism syndrome" (SBDS) since 2015. The disease is characterized by dyspraxia, weight loss, a protruding tongue, and high morbidity and low mortality rates. In order to characterize the etiological agent, a virus designated SBDSV M15 was isolated from allantoic fluid of dead embryos following serial passage in duck embryos. This virus causes a cytopathic effect in duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells. Using monoclonal antibody diagnostic assays, the SBDSV M15 isolate was positive for the antigen of goose parvovirus but not Muscovy duck parvovirus. A 348-bp (2604-2951) VP1gene fragment was amplified, and its sequence indicated that the virus was most closely related to a Hungarian GPV strain that was also isolated from mule ducks with SBDS disease. A similar disease was reproduced by inoculating birds with SBDSV M15. Together, these data indicate that SBDSV M15 is a GPV-related parvovirus causing SBDS disease and that it is divergent from classical GPV isolates. PMID:27314945

  7. Nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant isolates of pseudomonas putida producing VIM-1 metallo-beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Gianluigi; Luzzaro, Francesco; Docquier, Jean-Denis; Riccio, Maria Letizia; Perilli, Mariagrazia; Colì, Alessandra; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Toniolo, Antonio

    2002-11-01

    Successful carbapenem-based chemotherapy for the treatment of Pseudomonas infections has been seriously hindered by the recent appearance of IMP- and VIM-type metallo-beta-lactamases, which confer high-level resistance to carbapenems and most other beta-lactams. Recently, multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas putida isolates for which carbapenem MICs were >/=32 micro g/ml were recovered from cultures of urine from three inpatients in the general intensive care unit of the Ospedale di Circolo, Varese, Italy. Enzyme assays revealed production of a metallo-beta-lactamase activity, while molecular analysis detected in each isolate a bla(VIM-1) determinant carried by an apparently identical medium-sized plasmid. Conjugation experiments were unsuccessful in transferring the beta-lactamase determinant to Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Macrorestriction analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated that the isolates were of clonal origin. PCR mapping and sequencing of the variable region of the plasmid-borne class 1 integron carrying the bla(VIM-1) determinant (named In110) showed that the bla(VIM-1)-containing cassette was identical to that previously found in strains of different species from other Italian hospitals and that the cassette array of In110 was not identical but clearly related to that of In70 (a bla(VIM-1)-containing plasmid-borne integron from an Achromobacter xylosoxidans isolate), pointing to a common origin of this cassette and to a related evolutionary history of their cognate integrons. PMID:12409373

  8. Using MOMP typing as an epidemiological tool to investigate outbreaks caused by milkborne Campylobacter jejuni isolates in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe using major outer membrane protein (MOMP) typing as a screen to compare the C. jejuni porA gene sequences of clinical outbreak strains from human stool with the porA sequences of dairy farm strains isolated during two milkborne campylobacteriosis outbreak investigations in California. Th...

  9. Assessing the Role of the Courts in Addressing the Educational Problems Caused by Racial Isolation in School Finance Litigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Preston C., III.

    2013-01-01

    Since the separate-but-equal era, students attending schools with high concentrations of Black students have attempted to improve the quality of their educations through school finance litigation. Because of the negative effects of racial isolation, Black students might consider mounting school finance litigation to force states to explicitly…

  10. Molecular Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility of Yeast Isolates Causing Fungemia Collected in a Population-Based Study in Spain in 2010 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Guinea, Jesús; Zaragoza, Óscar; Escribano, Pilar; Martín-Mazuelos, Estrella; Pemán, Javier; Sánchez-Reus, Ferrán

    2014-01-01

    We report the molecular identifications and antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates causing fungemia collected in the CANDIPOP population-based study conducted in 29 Spanish hospitals. A total of 781 isolates (from 767 patients, 14 of them having mixed fungemia) were collected. The species found most frequently were Candida albicans (44.6%), Candida parapsilosis (24.5%), Candida glabrata (13.2%), Candida tropicalis (7.6%), Candida krusei (1.9%), Candida guilliermondii (1.7%), and Candida lusitaniae (1.3%). Other Candida and non-Candida species accounted for approximately 5% of the isolates. The presence of cryptic species was low. Compared to findings of previous studies conducted in Spain, the frequency of C. glabrata has increased. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by using EUCAST and CLSI M27-A3 reference procedures; the two methods were comparable. The rate of fluconazole-susceptible isolates was 80%, which appears to be a decrease compared to findings of previous studies, explained mainly by the higher frequency of C. glabrata. Using the species-specific breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values, the rate of voriconazole and posaconazole in vitro resistance was low (<2%). In the case of C. tropicalis, using the EUCAST procedure, the rate of azole resistance was around 20%. There was a correlation between the previous use of azoles and the presence of fluconazole-resistant isolates. Resistance to echinocandins was very rare (2%), and resistance to amphotericin B also was very uncommon. The sequencing of the hot spot (HS) regions from FKS1 or FKS2 genes in echinocandin-resistant isolates revealed previously described point mutations. The decrease in the susceptibility to fluconazole in Spanish isolates should be closely monitored in future studies. PMID:24366741

  11. Acoustic stimulation causes tonotopic alterations in the length of isolated outer hair cells from guinea pig hearing organ.

    PubMed Central

    Canlon, B; Brundin, L; Flock, A

    1988-01-01

    Isolated outer hair cells from the mammalian cochlea exhibit a motile response to electrical or chemical stimulation. Here we show that isolated outer hair cells can also respond to acoustic stimulation, in the form of a tone burst of 200 Hz, by either shortening or lengthening depending on their cochlear location. Cells from the apical region of the cochlea (long cells) responded by increasing their length, whereas those from more basal regions (short cells) responded by decreasing their length. Cells from intermediate positions showed an equal probability for either elongating or shortening. Both the elongating and shortening response was inhibited by 3 microM poly(L-lysine). It is suggested that this tonotopic and bidirectional acoustic response may be one of the active components underlying the specific phase and frequency displacement of the basilar membrane. Images PMID:3413135

  12. In vitro isolation and characterization of a calicivirus causing a vesicular disease of the hands and feet.

    PubMed

    Smith, A W; Berry, E S; Skilling, D E; Barlough, J E; Poet, S E; Berke, T; Mead, J; Matson, D O

    1998-02-01

    We report that a calicivirus of oceanic origin, San Miguel sea lion virus serotype 5 (SMSV-5), is a human pathogen. This biotype was isolated originally from blisters on the flippers of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) and replicates readily in primate and human cell lines. It infects a phylogenetically diverse array of hosts (poikilotherms to primates) and induces type-specific neutralizing antibodies in exposed humans. Group antibody against a pooled antigen of SMSV-5 and two other serotypes was also observed in 18% of 300 blood donors from a population in the northwestern United States. The human calicivirus isolate designated SMSV-5 Homosapien-1 (SMSV-5 Hom-1) was recovered from a laboratory worker with systemic illness, including vesicular lesions on all four extremities. We believe this newly described human disease represents a paradigmatic shift in calicivirus disease recognition. PMID:9502467

  13. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing skin and soft tissue infections in patients from Malakand, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Madzgalla, S; Syed, M A; Khan, M A; Rehman, S S; Müller, E; Reissig, A; Ehricht, R; Monecke, S

    2016-09-01

    Comparatively few studies have been published describing Staphylococcus aureus/MRSA epidemiology in Central Asia including Pakistan. Here, we report the genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains (that include both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) from community- and hospital-acquired skin and soft-tissue infections in a tertiary care hospital in the Malakand district of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. Forty-five isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were characterized by microarray hybridization. Twenty isolates (44 %) were MRSA, whereas 22 (49 %) were PVL-positive. Fourteen isolates (31 %) harboured both mecA and PVL genes. The dominant clones were CC121-MSSA (n = 15, 33 %) and the PVL-positive "Bengal Bay Clone" (ST772-MRSA-V; n = 13, 29 %). The PVL-positive CC8-MRSA-IV strain "USA300" was found once. The pandemic ST239-MRSA-III strain was absent, although it has previously been observed in Pakistan. These observations require a re-assessment of schemes for initial antibiotic therapy to cover MRSA and they emphasise the need for a rapid and non-molecular test for PVL. PMID:27262852

  14. Isolation of rpoB Mutations Causing Rifampicin Resistance in Bacillus subtilis Spores Exposed to Simulated Martian Surface Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Amy E.; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Nicholson, Wayne L.

    2008-12-01

    Bacterial spores are considered prime candidates for Earth-to-Mars transport by natural processes and human spaceflight activities. Previous studies have shown that exposure of Bacillus subtilis spores to ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) characteristic of space both increased the spontaneous mutation rate and altered the spectrum of mutation in various marker genes; but, to date, mutagenesis studies have not been performed on spores exposed to milder low pressures encountered in the martian environment. Mutations to rifampicin-resistance (RifR) were isolated in B. subtilis spores exposed to simulated martian atmosphere (99.9% CO2, 710 Pa) for 21 days in a Mars Simulation Chamber (MSC) and compared to parallel Earth controls. Exposure in the MSC reduced spore viability by ˜67% compared to Earth controls, but this decrease was not statistically significant (P = 0.3321). The frequency of mutation to RifR was also not significantly increased in the MSC compared to Earth-exposed spores (P = 0.479). Forty-two and 51 RifR mutant spores were isolated from the MSC- and Earth-exposed controls, respectively. Nucleotide sequencing located the RifR mutations in the rpoB gene encoding the β subunit of RNA polymerase at residue V135F of the N-cluster and at residues Q469K/L, H482D/P/R/Y, and S487L in Cluster I. No mutations were found in rpoB Clusters II or III. Two new alleles, Q469L and H482D, previously unreported in B. subtilis rpoB, were isolated from spores exposed in the MSC; otherwise, only slight differences were observed in the spectra of spontaneous RifR mutations from spores exposed to Earth vs. the MSC. However, both spectra are distinctly different from RifR mutations previously reported arising from B. subtilis spores exposed to simulated space vacuum.

  15. Hypothyroidism is a rare cause of isolated constipation: 5-year review of all thyroid tests in a pediatric gastroenterology office

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, William E.; Heuckeroth, Robert O.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of constipation in children is high and accounts for a large percentage of pediatric and pediatric gastroenterology visits. Thyroid testing is frequently ordered to evaluate constipation and other gastrointestinal complaints in children. We reviewed all patients with thyroid testing ordered by our pediatric gastroenterology division over a five-year period. We found 873 patients on whom thyroid testing was performed, and 56 had evidence of hypothyroidism. Nine patients had constipation and clinically significant hypothyroidism in this group. However, only one child had constipation as their sole presenting symptom. The contribution of occult hypothyroidism to isolated constipation in children may have been previously overestimated. PMID:21975961

  16. Antimicrobial activity of ceftaroline tested against bacterial isolates causing respiratory tract and skin and skin structure infections in US medical centers in 2013.

    PubMed

    Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Flamm, Robert K; Castanheira, Mariana; Jones, Ronald N

    2015-05-01

    A total of 4533 isolates from community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) and 8446 from skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs) were consecutively collected in 149 US medical centers in 2013. Strains were susceptibility tested by broth microdilution method against ceftaroline and numerous comparators. Ceftaroline (MIC(50/90), ≤0.015/0.12 μg/mL) was more potent than ceftriaxone (MIC(50/90), ≤0.06/1 μg/mL) against Streptococcus pneumoniae and highly active against ceftriaxone-nonsusceptible strains (n=201; MIC(90), 0.25 μg/mL). Ceftaroline was also very active against Haemophilus influenzae (MIC(50/90), 0.008/0.015 μg/mL), methicillin-susceptible (MIC(50/90), 0.25/0.25 μg/mL) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC(50/90), 1/1 μg/mL), and β-hemolytic streptococci (highest MIC, 0.03 μg/mL). Ceftaroline exhibited good activity against non-extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype isolates of Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli (96.7% susceptible and MIC(90) of 0.25 μg/mL for both) but limited activity against ESBL phenotype isolates. In summary, ceftaroline exhibited potent in vitro activity against a large collection of bacterial isolates causing CARTI and SSSI in US medical centers. PMID:25708896

  17. Fibroblasts Isolated from Human Middle Turbinate Mucosa Cause Neural Progenitor Cells to Differentiate into Glial Lineage Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xingjia; Bolger, William E.; Anders, Juanita J.

    2013-01-01

    Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) is a potential therapy for repair of spinal cord injury (SCI). Autologous transplantation of OECs has been reported in clinical trials. However, it is still controversial whether purified OECs or olfactory mucosa containing OECs, fibroblasts and other cells should be used for transplantation. OECs and fibroblasts were isolated from olfactory mucosa of the middle turbinate from seven patients. The percentage of OECs with p75NTR+ and GFAP+ ranged from 9.2% to 73.2%. Fibroblasts were purified and co-cultured with normal human neural progenitors (NHNPs). Based on immunocytochemical labeling, NHNPs were induced into glial lineage cells when they were co-cultured with the mucosal fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that OECs can be isolated from the mucosa of the middle turbinate bone as well as from the dorsal nasal septum and superior turbinates, which are the typical sites for harvesting OECs. Transplantation of olfactory mucosa containing fibroblasts into the central nervous system (CNS) needs to be further investigated before translation to clinical application. PMID:24204706

  18. Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shawna T; Collingwood, Amanda M; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Sheridan, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibiting B. dendrobatidis in vitro, and therefore might be a factor in the toad’s coexistence with this pathogen. Isolates from 6 of 21 genera tested were found to inhibit the growth of B. dendrobatidis. These bacteria represent diverse lineages such as the Gammaproteobacteria, the Betaproteobacteria, and the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobium groups. We propose that these bacteria compete via microbial antagonism with B. dendrobatidis. PMID:24826077

  19. First report of in-vitro fludioxonil-resistant isolates of Fusarium spp. causing potato dry rot in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium species and is of worldwide importance. Measures for controlling dry rot in storage are limited. Dry rot has been managed primarily by reducing tuber bruising, providing conditions for rapid wound heal...

  20. Recombinant fragilysin isoforms cause E-cadherin cleavage of intact cells and do not cleave isolated E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Kharlampieva, Daria; Manuvera, Valentin; Podgorny, Oleg; Grafskaia, Ekaterina; Kovalchuk, Sergey; Pobeguts, Olga; Altukhov, Ilya; Govorun, Vadim; Lazarev, Vassili

    2015-01-01

    The fragilysin (BFT) is a protein secreted by enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis strains. BFT contains zinc-binding motif which was found in the metzincins family of metalloproteinases. In this study, we generated three known recombinant isoforms of BFT using Escherichia coli, tested their activity and examined whether E-cadherin is a substrate for BFTs. BFT treatment of HT-29 cells induced endogenous E-cadherin cleavage, and this BFT activity requires the native structure of zinc-binding motif. At the same time recombinant BFTs did not cleave recombinant E-cadherin or E-cadherin in isolated cell fractions. It indicates that E-cadherin may be not direct substrate for BFT. We also detected and identified proteins released into the cultural medium after HT-29 cells treatment with BFT. The role of these proteins in pathogenesis and cell response to BFT remains to be determined. PMID:25998017

  1. Serological and Molecular Studies of a Novel Virus Isolate Causing Yellow Mosaic of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth

    PubMed Central

    Zaim, Mohammad; Ali, Ashif; Joseph, Jomon; Khan, Feroz

    2013-01-01

    Here we have identified and characterized a devastating virus capable of inducing yellow mosaic on the leaves of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth]. The diagnostic tools used were host range, transmission studies, cytopathology, electron microscopy, serology and partial coat protein (CP) gene sequencing. Evidence from biological, serological and sequence data suggested that the causal virus belonged to genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae. The isolate, designated as Patchouli Yellow Mosaic Virus (PaYMV), was transmitted through grafting, sap and the insect Myzus persicae (Sulz.). Flexuous rod shaped particles with a mean length of 800 nm were consistently observed in leaf-dip preparations from natural as well as alternate hosts, and in purified preparation. Cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusions, pinwheels and laminar aggregates were observed in ultra-thin sections of infected patchouli leaves. The purified capsid protein has a relative mass of 43 kDa. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against the coat protein separated on SDS – PAGE; which were used in ELISA and western blotting. Using specific antibodies in ELISA, PaYMV was frequently detected at patchouli plantations at Lucknow and Bengaluru. Potyvirus-specific degenerate primer pair (U335 and D335) had consistently amplified partial CP gene from crude preparations of infected tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Comparison of the PCR product sequence (290 bp) with the corresponding regions of established potyviruses showed 78–82% and 91–95% sequence similarity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. The results clearly established that the virus under study has close homology with watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in the coat protein region and therefore could share a common ancestor family. Further studies are required to authenticate the identity of PaYMV as a distinct virus or as an isolate of WMV. PMID:24386278

  2. Serological and molecular studies of a novel virus isolate causing yellow mosaic of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth].

    PubMed

    Zaim, Mohammad; Ali, Ashif; Joseph, Jomon; Khan, Feroz

    2013-01-01

    Here we have identified and characterized a devastating virus capable of inducing yellow mosaic on the leaves of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth]. The diagnostic tools used were host range, transmission studies, cytopathology, electron microscopy, serology and partial coat protein (CP) gene sequencing. Evidence from biological, serological and sequence data suggested that the causal virus belonged to genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae. The isolate, designated as Patchouli Yellow Mosaic Virus (PaYMV), was transmitted through grafting, sap and the insect Myzus persicae (Sulz.). Flexuous rod shaped particles with a mean length of 800 nm were consistently observed in leaf-dip preparations from natural as well as alternate hosts, and in purified preparation. Cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusions, pinwheels and laminar aggregates were observed in ultra-thin sections of infected patchouli leaves. The purified capsid protein has a relative mass of 43 kDa. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against the coat protein separated on SDS - PAGE; which were used in ELISA and western blotting. Using specific antibodies in ELISA, PaYMV was frequently detected at patchouli plantations at Lucknow and Bengaluru. Potyvirus-specific degenerate primer pair (U335 and D335) had consistently amplified partial CP gene from crude preparations of infected tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Comparison of the PCR product sequence (290 bp) with the corresponding regions of established potyviruses showed 78-82% and 91-95% sequence similarity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. The results clearly established that the virus under study has close homology with watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in the coat protein region and therefore could share a common ancestor family. Further studies are required to authenticate the identity of PaYMV as a distinct virus or as an isolate of WMV. PMID:24386278

  3. Population Structure of Klebsiella pneumoniae Causing Bloodstream Infections at a New York City Tertiary Care Hospital: Diversification of Multidrug-Resistant Isolates.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Simmonds, Angela; Greenman, Michelle; Sullivan, Sean B; Tanner, Joshua P; Sowash, Madeleine G; Whittier, Susan; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin

    2015-07-01

    Despite the growing importance of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP), the clonal relationships between CRKP and antibiotic-susceptible isolates remain unclear. We compared the genetic diversity and clinical features of CRKP, third-generation and/or fourth-generation cephalosporin-resistant (Ceph-R) K. pneumoniae, and susceptible K. pneumoniae isolates causing bloodstream infections at a tertiary care hospital in New York City between January 2012 and July 2013. Drug susceptibilities were determined with the Vitek 2 system. Isolates underwent multilocus sequence typing and PCR sequencing of the wzi and blaKPC genes. Clinical and microbiological data were extracted from patient records and correlated with molecular data. Among 223 patients, we identified 272 isolates. Of these, 194 were susceptible, 30 Ceph-R, and 48 CRKP, belonging to 144 sequence types (STs). Susceptible (127 STs) and Ceph-R (20 STs) isolates were highly diverse. ST258 dominated CRKP strains (12 STs, with 63% ST258). There was minimal overlap in STs between resistance groups. The blaKPC-3 gene (30%) was restricted to ST258/wzi154, whereas blaKPC-2 (70%) was observed for several wzi allele types. CRKP infections occurred more frequently among solid organ transplant (31%) and dialysis (17%) patients. Mortality rates were high overall (28%) and highest among CRKP-infected patients (59%). In multivariable analyses, advanced age, comorbidities, and disease severity were significant predictors of 30-day mortality rates, whereas the K. pneumoniae susceptibility phenotype was not. Among CRKP infections, we observed a borderline significant association of increased mortality rates with ST258 and the wzi154 allele. Although the clonal spread of ST258 continues to contribute substantially to the dissemination of CRKP, non-ST258 strains appear to be evolving. Further investigations into the mechanisms promoting CRKP diversification and the effects of clonal backgrounds on outcomes are warranted

  4. Population Structure of Klebsiella pneumoniae Causing Bloodstream Infections at a New York City Tertiary Care Hospital: Diversification of Multidrug-Resistant Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Simmonds, Angela; Greenman, Michelle; Sullivan, Sean B.; Tanner, Joshua P.; Sowash, Madeleine G.; Whittier, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing importance of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP), the clonal relationships between CRKP and antibiotic-susceptible isolates remain unclear. We compared the genetic diversity and clinical features of CRKP, third-generation and/or fourth-generation cephalosporin-resistant (Ceph-R) K. pneumoniae, and susceptible K. pneumoniae isolates causing bloodstream infections at a tertiary care hospital in New York City between January 2012 and July 2013. Drug susceptibilities were determined with the Vitek 2 system. Isolates underwent multilocus sequence typing and PCR sequencing of the wzi and blaKPC genes. Clinical and microbiological data were extracted from patient records and correlated with molecular data. Among 223 patients, we identified 272 isolates. Of these, 194 were susceptible, 30 Ceph-R, and 48 CRKP, belonging to 144 sequence types (STs). Susceptible (127 STs) and Ceph-R (20 STs) isolates were highly diverse. ST258 dominated CRKP strains (12 STs, with 63% ST258). There was minimal overlap in STs between resistance groups. The blaKPC-3 gene (30%) was restricted to ST258/wzi154, whereas blaKPC-2 (70%) was observed for several wzi allele types. CRKP infections occurred more frequently among solid organ transplant (31%) and dialysis (17%) patients. Mortality rates were high overall (28%) and highest among CRKP-infected patients (59%). In multivariable analyses, advanced age, comorbidities, and disease severity were significant predictors of 30-day mortality rates, whereas the K. pneumoniae susceptibility phenotype was not. Among CRKP infections, we observed a borderline significant association of increased mortality rates with ST258 and the wzi154 allele. Although the clonal spread of ST258 continues to contribute substantially to the dissemination of CRKP, non-ST258 strains appear to be evolving. Further investigations into the mechanisms promoting CRKP diversification and the effects of clonal backgrounds on outcomes are warranted

  5. Conus artery occlusion causing isolated right ventricular outflow tract infarction: novel application of cardiac magnetic resonance in anterior STEMI

    PubMed Central

    Lyle, Melissa; Tweet, Marysia; Young, Phillip M.; Best, Patricia J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Acute ST elevation in the anterior precordial leads typically suggests an anteroseptal infarction due to left anterior descending coronary artery obstruction, but the differential can be broad. Conus branch artery occlusion is a potentially overlooked cause of anteroseptal ST elevation myocardial infraction. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is an emerging technology which can differentiate the etiology of anterior ST elevation in patients with no apparent coronary abnormalities on coronary angiography and normal echocardiography. PMID:27280090

  6. In vitro activities of 21 antimicrobial agents alone and in combination with aminoglycosides or fluoroquinolones against extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates causing bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Cha, Min Kyeong; Kang, Cheol-In; Kim, So Hyun; Cho, Sun Young; Ha, Young Eun; Wi, Yu Mi; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the in vitro activity of various antimicrobials alone and in combination against 291 extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) isolates causing bacteremia in South Korean hospitals. Ceftazidime, cefepime, and piperacillin-tazobactam in combination with amikacin showed greater activity than found in combination with ciprofloxacin. In settings with a high prevalence of ESBL-producing pathogens, combination aminoglycoside antimicrobial therapy, especially with amikacin, may be considered for empirical therapy against suspected Gram-negative sepsis as a carbapenem-saving strategy. PMID:26124174

  7. [Diagnostic value of a novel nutrient medium for isolation and cultivation of pathogens causing enteric yersiniosis and pseudotuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Saiapina, L V; Anisimova, T I; Sergeeva, G M; Kasina, I V; Shvedun, G P; Khramov, M V

    2000-01-01

    A new nutrient medium for isolation and cultivation of the causative agents of enteric yersiniosis and pseudotuberculosis was found to have advantages over Endo medium in its differentiating and inhibiting properties. This medium permitted the easy differentiation of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis from Y. enterocolitica, as well as from Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. rhinoscleromatis, Hafnia, Enterobacter and Citrobacter by color; from Proteus inconstans by swarming. In addition, weakly swarming of P. vulgaris differed by their light bluish color and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, by the brilliance and size of colonies. Endo medium could be used only for differentiation of E. coli from lactose-negative Yersinia colonies, Klebsiella (by mucous growth) and, to a certain extent, all Proteus species (by swarming). The medium under test and the control medium inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast to Endo medium, the medium under test partially inhibited the growth of K. rhinoscleromatis and the swarming of P. inconstans. The new medium is now introduced into practice. PMID:11210625

  8. Isolated iliotibial band rupture after corticosteroid injection as a cause of subjective instability and knee pain in a military special warfare trainee.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Sandeep R; Solomon, Daniel J; Gross, Daniel J; Golijanin, Petar; Provencher, Matthew T

    2014-04-01

    Iliotibial band friction syndrome (ITBFS) of the knee is a common overuse injury in athletes, especially in runners. The syndrome occurs when the ITB, a lateral thickening of the fascia lata of the thigh moves repetitively over the lateral femoral condyle. A variety of nonoperative measures are used for ITBFS treatment, including stretching, core strengthening, and therapeutic injection. Isolated distal ITB rupture is a rare entity and has never yet to be reported in the orthopedic literature. We present a case of isolated ITB rupture as a cause of varus instability and knee pain in a Naval Special Warfare candidate diagnosed with ITBFS and previously treated with several local corticosteroid injections before ITB rupture. Because of continued knee pain and a sense of instability, along with an inability to return to his military special warfare duties, the ITB was surgically repaired. This case highlights the presentation and management of isolated distal ITB rupture and discusses some of the potential risk factors for rupture, including prior local corticosteroid injection. PMID:24690976

  9. Parrot Bornavirus (PaBV)-2 isolate causes different disease patterns in cockatiels than PaBV-4.

    PubMed

    Piepenbring, Anne K; Enderlein, Dirk; Herzog, Sibylle; Al-Ibadi, Basim; Heffels-Redmann, Ursula; Heckmann, Julia; Lange-Herbst, Hildburg; Herden, Christiane; Lierz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Psittaciform 1 bornavirus (PaBV) has already been shown to be the aetiologic agent of proventricular dilatation disease, a significant disease of birds. However, the pathogenesis of PaBV infection has not yet been resolved and valid data regarding the pathogenicity of different PaBV species are lacking. Thus, the present study was aimed to characterize the influence of two different PaBV species on the course of disease. Eighteen cockatiels were inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or intravenously (i.v.) with a PaBV-2 isolate under the same conditions as in a previous study using PaBV-4. Birds were surveyed and sampled for 33 weeks to analyse the course of infection and disease in comparison to that of PaBV-4. Similar to PaBV-4, PaBV-2 induced a persistent infection with seroconversion (from day 6 p.i. onwards) and shedding of viral RNA (from day 27 p.i. onwards). However, in contrast to PaBV-4, more birds displayed clinical signs and disease progression was more severe. After PaBV-2 infection, 12 birds exhibited clinical signs and 10 birds revealed a dilated proventriculus in necropsy. After PaBV-4 infection only four birds revealed clinical signs and seven birds showed a dilatation of the proventriculus. Clinically, different courses of disease were observed after PaBV-2 infection, mainly affecting the gastrointestinal tract. This had not been detected after PaBV-4 infection where more neurological signs were noted. The results provide evidence for different disease patterns according to different PaBV species, allowing the comparison between the infection with two PaBV species, and thus underlining the role of viral and individual host factors for disease outcome. PMID:27100150

  10. Coxa saltans caused by extraarticular synovial chondromatosis overlying an isolated osteochondroma of the greater trochanter: A rare aetiology.

    PubMed

    Gopisankar Balaji, G; Patil, Naveen Kumar; Menon, Jagdish

    2015-06-01

    Snapping hip is produced by intraarticular and extraarticular pathology. We describe a rare case of extraarticular snapping hip caused by bursal synovial chondromatosis overlying an osteochondroma. A 32-year-old male presented with swelling in his right gluteal region for 6 years associated with pain and snapping on movements since three months. On examination, he had an ill-defined 10 × 6 cm swelling over the posterolateral aspect of the greater trochanter. Plain radiographs revealed an osteochondroma arising from the greater trochanter. Further imaging showed exostosis with possible haemangioma, lipoma or liquefied haematoma overlying it. We proceeded with excision biopsy and intraoperatively found a bursa with synovial chondromatosis overlying the exostosis. At the end of ten months follow up, patient was asymptomatic and had no snapping. We present this case for its rarity, clinical and radiological diagnostic challenges and for its unique presentation. PMID:25983520

  11. Intracellular Na+ overload causes oxidation of CaMKII and leads to Ca2+ mishandling in isolated ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Viatchenko-Karpinski, Serge; Kornyeyev, Dmytro; El-Bizri, Nesrine; Budas, Grant; Fan, Peidong; Jiang, Zhan; Yang, Jin; Anderson, Mark E; Shryock, John C; Chang, Ching-Pin; Belardinelli, Luiz; Yao, Lina

    2014-11-01

    An increase of late Na(+) current (INaL) in cardiac myocytes can raise the cytosolic Na(+) concentration and is associated with activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and alterations of mitochondrial metabolism and Ca(2+) handling by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). We tested the hypothesis that augmentation of INaL can increase mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidation of CaMKII, resulting in spontaneous SR Ca(2+) release and increased diastolic Ca(2+) in myocytes. Increases of INaL and/or of the cytosolic Na(+) concentration led to mitochondrial ROS production and oxidation of CaMKII to cause dysregulation of Ca(2+) handling in rabbit cardiac myocytes. PMID:25252177

  12. A Missense Mutation in the Human Cytochrome b5 Gene causes 46,XY Disorder of Sex Development due to True Isolated 17,20 Lyase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Idkowiak, Jan; Randell, Tabitha; Dhir, Vivek; Patel, Pushpa; Shackleton, Cedric H. L.; Taylor, Norman F.; Krone, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Context: Isolated 17,20 lyase deficiency is commonly defined by apparently normal 17α-hydroxylase activity but severely reduced 17,20 lyase activity of the bifunctional enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme 17A1 (CYP17A1), resulting in sex steroid deficiency but normal glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid reserve. Cytochrome b5 (CYB5A) is thought to selectively enhance 17,20 lyase activity by facilitating the allosteric interaction of CYP17A1 with its electron donor P450 oxidoreductase (POR). Objective: We investigated a large consanguineous family including three siblings with 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) presenting with isolated 17,20 lyase deficiency. Design: We investigated the clinical and biochemical phenotype, conducted genetic analyses, and functionally characterized the identified CYB5A mutation in cell-based CYP17A1 coexpression assays. Results: All three siblings presented with 46,XY DSD, sex steroid deficiency, normal mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, and a urine steroid metabolome suggestive of isolated 17,20 lyase deficiency. CYP17A1 and POR sequences were normal, but we detected a homozygous CYB5A missense mutation (g.28,400A→T; p.H44L). Functional in vitro analysis revealed normal CYP17A1 17α-hydroxylase activity but severely impaired 17,20 lyase activity. In silico analysis suggested the disruption of CYB5A heme binding by p.H44L. Conclusion: We have identified the first human CYB5A missense mutation as the cause of isolated 17,20 lyase deficiency in three individuals with 46,XY DSD. Detailed review of previously reported cases with apparently isolated 17,20 lyase deficiency due to mutant CYP17A1 and POR reveals impaired 17α-hydroxylase activity as assessed by steroid metabolome analysis and short cosyntropin testing. This suggests that truly isolated 17,20 lyase deficiency is observed only in individuals with inactivating CYB5A mutations. PMID:22170710

  13. Isolated and Syndromic Retinal Dystrophy Caused by Biallelic Mutations in RCBTB1, a Gene Implicated in Ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Coppieters, Frauke; Ascari, Giulia; Dannhausen, Katharina; Nikopoulos, Konstantinos; Peelman, Frank; Karlstetter, Marcus; Xu, Mingchu; Brachet, Cécile; Meunier, Isabelle; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K; Tsika, Chrysanthi; Blazaki, Styliani V; Vergult, Sarah; Farinelli, Pietro; Van Laethem, Thalia; Bauwens, Miriam; De Bruyne, Marieke; Chen, Rui; Langmann, Thomas; Sui, Ruifang; Meire, Françoise; Rivolta, Carlo; Hamel, Christian P; Leroy, Bart P; De Baere, Elfride

    2016-08-01

    Inherited retinal dystrophies (iRDs) are a group of genetically and clinically heterogeneous conditions resulting from mutations in over 250 genes. Here, homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in a consanguineous family revealed a homozygous missense mutation, c.973C>T (p.His325Tyr), in RCBTB1. In affected individuals, it was found to segregate with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), goiter, primary ovarian insufficiency, and mild intellectual disability. Subsequent analysis of WES data in different cohorts uncovered four additional homozygous missense mutations in five unrelated families in whom iRD segregates with or without syndromic features. Ocular phenotypes ranged from typical RP starting in the second decade to chorioretinal dystrophy with a later age of onset. The five missense mutations affect highly conserved residues either in the sixth repeat of the RCC1 domain or in the BTB1 domain. A founder haplotype was identified for mutation c.919G>A (p.Val307Met), occurring in two families of Mediterranean origin. We showed ubiquitous mRNA expression of RCBTB1 and demonstrated predominant RCBTB1 localization in human inner retina. RCBTB1 was very recently shown to be involved in ubiquitination, more specifically as a CUL3 substrate adaptor. Therefore, the effect on different components of the CUL3 and NFE2L2 (NRF2) pathway was assessed in affected individuals' lymphocytes, revealing decreased mRNA expression of NFE2L2 and several NFE2L2 target genes. In conclusion, our study puts forward mutations in RCBTB1 as a cause of autosomal-recessive non-syndromic and syndromic iRD. Finally, our data support a role for impaired ubiquitination in the pathogenetic mechanism of RCBTB1 mutations. PMID:27486781

  14. An isolated epizootic of hemorrhagic-like fever in cats caused by a novel and highly virulent strain of feline calicivirus.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, N C; Elliott, J B; Glasgow, A; Poland, A; Keel, K

    2000-05-11

    An isolated epizootic of a highly fatal feline calicivirus (FCV) infection, manifested in its severest form by a systemic hemorrhagic-like fever, occurred over a 1-month period among six cats owned by two different employees and a client of a private veterinary practice. The infection may have started with an unowned shelter kitten that was hospitalized during this same period for a severe atypical upper respiratory infection. The causative agent was isolated from blood and nasal swabs from two cats; the electron microscopic appearance was typical for FCV and capsid gene sequencing showed it to be genetically similar to other less pathogenic field strains. An identical disease syndrome was recreated in laboratory cats through oral inoculation with tissue culture grown virus. During the course of transmission studies in experimental cats, the agent was inadvertently spread by caretakers to an adjoining room containing a group of four normal adult cats. One of the four older cats was found dead and a second was moribund within 48-72h in spite of symptomatic treatment; lesions in these animals were similar to those of the field cats but with the added feature of severe pancreatitis. The mortality in field cats, deliberately infected laboratory cats, and inadvertently infected laboratory cats ranged from 33-50%. This new isolate of calicivirus, named FCV-Ari, was neutralized at negligible to low titer by antiserum against the universal FCV-F9 vaccine strain. Cats orally immunized with FCV-F9, and then challenge-exposed shortly thereafter with FCV-Ari, developed a milder self-limiting form of disease, indicating partial protection. However, all of the field cats, including the three that died, had been previously immunized with parenteral FCV-F9 vaccine. FCV-Ari caused a disease that was reminiscent of Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease, a highly fatal calicivirus infection of older rabbits. PMID:10781727

  15. Prevalence, bacterial causes, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of mastitis isolates from cows in large-scale dairy farms of Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Haftu, Rgbe; Taddele, Habtamu; Gugsa, Getachew; Kalayou, Shewit

    2012-10-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of bovine mastitis, isolate mastitis causing bacteria, assess the association of some risk factors, and determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates in cows in large-scale dairy farms of Northern Ethiopia. A total of 305 lactating and nonlactating cows were included in the present study. The overall prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis was 3.6 and 33.8 %, respectively. The quarter level prevalence was 15.4 %; from which, 11.9 and 1.1 % were subclinical form and blind teat, respectively, while the remaining 2.4 % were of clinical form. Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 36 % of the isolates followed by Escherichia coli (27.3 %). Risk factors including age (p < 0.001), parity (p < 0.001), and lactation stage (p = 0.02) showed significant association with the occurrence of mastitis. Higher prevalence was observed in both groups of older cows (i.e., 6-9 years (odds ratio (OR) = 4.65, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.74-7.89) and >9 years (OR = 3.63, 95 % CI = 1.42-9.25)), cows with four to seven calves (OR = 3.39, 95 % CI = 2.06-5.60), and cows in late lactation stage (OR = 3.79, 95 % CI = 1.64-8.75). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, age (p = 0.005) and lactation stage (p = 0.027) showed statistically significant association with the occurrence of mastitis. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern showed high susceptibility of S. aureus to nalidixic acid (82.4 %) followed by chloramphenicol (58.8 %); however, these species were resistant to the rest of the antimicrobials tested. Highest resistance was observed against clindamycin and ampicillin. Coliform bacteria (E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) showed resistance to most of the antimicrobials used. Detailed investigation is needed to identify the interplay of managemental and environmental risk factors to design appropriate control measures. PMID:22476790

  16. The Genome of a Bacillus Isolate Causing Anthrax in Chimpanzees Combines Chromosomal Properties of B. cereus with B. anthracis Virulence Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Nattermann, Herbert; Brüggemann, Holger; Dupke, Susann; Wollherr, Antje; Franz, Tatjana; Pauli, Georg; Appel, Bernd; Liebl, Wolfgang; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Boesch, Christophe; Meyer, Frauke-Dorothee; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Grunow, Roland; Liesegang, Heiko

    2010-01-01

    Anthrax is a fatal disease caused by strains of Bacillus anthracis. Members of this monophyletic species are non motile and are all characterized by the presence of four prophages and a nonsense mutation in the plcR regulator gene. Here we report the complete genome sequence of a Bacillus strain isolated from a chimpanzee that had died with clinical symptoms of anthrax. Unlike classic B. anthracis, this strain was motile and lacked the four prohages and the nonsense mutation. Four replicons were identified, a chromosome and three plasmids. Comparative genome analysis revealed that the chromosome resembles those of non-B. anthracis members of the Bacillus cereus group, whereas two plasmids were identical to the anthrax virulence plasmids pXO1 and pXO2. The function of the newly discovered third plasmid with a length of 14 kbp is unknown. A detailed comparison of genomic loci encoding key features confirmed a higher similarity to B. thuringiensis serovar konkukian strain 97-27 and B. cereus E33L than to B. anthracis strains. For the first time we describe the sequence of an anthrax causing bacterium possessing both anthrax plasmids that apparently does not belong to the monophyletic group of all so far known B. anthracis strains and that differs in important diagnostic features. The data suggest that this bacterium has evolved from a B. cereus strain independently from the classic B. anthracis strains and established a B. anthracis lifestyle. Therefore we suggest to designate this isolate as “B. cereus variety (var.) anthracis”. PMID:20634886

  17. Photosynthetic inhibition and oxidative stress to the toxic Phaeocystis globosa caused by a diketopiperazine isolated from products of algicidal bacterium metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shuo; Hu, Xiaoli; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling

    2016-05-01

    Algicidal bacteria have been turned out to be available for inhibiting Phaeocystis globosa which frequently caused harmful algal blooms and threatened to economic development and ecological balance. A marine bacterium Bacillus sp. Ts-12 exhibited significant algicidal activity against P. globosa by indirect attack. In present study, an algicidal compound was isolated by silica gel column, Sephadex G-15 column and HPLC, further identified as hexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, cyclo-(Pro-Gly), by GC-MS and (1)H-NMR. Cyclo-(Pro-Gly) significantly increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within P. globosa cells, further activating the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA). The increase in methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) content showed that the surplus ROS induced lipid peroxidation on membrane system. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and flow cytometry (FCM) analysis revealed that cyclo-(Pro-Gly) caused reduction of Chl-a content, destruction of cell membrane integrity, chloroplasts and nuclear structure. Real-time PCR assay showed that the transcriptions of photosynthesis related genes (psbA, psbD, rbcL) were significantly inhibited. This study indicated that cyclo-(Pro-Gly) from marine Bacillus sp. Ts-12 exerted photosynthetic inhibition and oxidative stress to P. globosa and eventually led to the algal cells lysis. This algicidal compound might be potential bio-agent for controlling P. globosa red tide. PMID:27095455

  18. Acute abdomen due to group A streptococcus bacteremia caused by an isolate with a mutation in the csrS gene.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Masahiko; Maruta, Masaki; Shikata, Hisaharu; Hanayama, Masakazu; Ikebe, Tadayoshi

    2015-11-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) is an aerobic gram-positive coccus that causes infections ranging from non-invasive pharyngitis to severely invasive necrotizing fasciitis. Mutations in csrS/csrR and rgg, negative regulator genes of group A streptococcus, are crucial factors in the pathogenesis of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, which is a severe, invasive infection characterized by sudden onset of shock and multiorgan failure, resulting in a high mortality rate. Here we present a case of group A streptococcal bacteremia in a 28-year-old Japanese woman with no relevant previous medical history. The patient developed progressive abdominal symptoms that may have been due to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, followed by a state of shock, which did not fulfill the proposed criteria for streptococcal toxic shock. The isolate was found to harbor a mutation in the negative regulator csrS gene, whereas the csrR and rgg genes were intact. It was noteworthy that this strain carrying a csrS mutation had caused group A streptococcal bacteremia characterized by acute abdomen as the presenting symptom in a young individual who had been previously healthy. This case indicates that group A streptococcus with csrS mutations has potential virulence factors that are associated with the onset of group A streptococcal bacteremia that does not meet the diagnostic criteria for streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. PMID:26231317

  19. Isolated septic facet joint arthritis as a rare cause of acute and chronic low back pain – a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Klekot, Dominika; Zimny, Anna; Czapiga, Bogdan; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: The most common cause of low back pain is degenerative disease of the intervertebral disc and other structures of the lumbar spine. However, in some cases other less frequent causes of such pain can be seen, for example septic facet joint arthritis. Until now, only 40 cases of such inflammatory changes within the spine have been reported in the literature. The disease is probably underestimated due to improper diagnostic pathway. Case Report: The authors describe a case of a 53-year-old woman who was repeatedly hospitalized during a five-month period because of an acute, severe low back pain, with sphincter dysfunction, partially resembling sciatic symptoms. Physical examinations revealed also focal tenderness in the area of the lumbar spine. Inflammatory markers (ESR – erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP – C-reactive protein) were elevated. Conservative analgetic treatment brought only partial and temporary relief of the pain and symptoms. The final accurate diagnosis of isolated septic facet joint arthritis at the level of L5/S1 was established after several months from the onset of the first symptoms, after performing various imaging examinations, including bone scintigraphy as well as CT and MRI of the lumbosacral spine. The patient fully recovered after antibiotic therapy and surgery, which was proven in several follow-up examinations showing no relevant pathology of the lumbar spine. The authors broadly describe the etiology and clinical symptoms of the septic facet joint arthritis as well as the significant role of imaging methods, especially MRI, in diagnostic process. The authors also discuss currently available treatment options, both conservative and surgical. Conclusions: The diagnostic procedure of septic facet joint arthritis requires several steps to be taken. Establishing a correct diagnosis may be difficult, that is why it is important to remember about rare causes of low back pain and to perform detailed physical

  20. Where Should We Look for Clues to Resolve the Physical Mechanism Causing Deep Earthquakes? Consider: Deep Moonquakes, and Isolated Deep Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohlich, C.; Nakamura, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The physical mechanism responsible for deep earthquakes has been a puzzle since their discovery by Wadati 85 years ago. Today the three most widely accepted mechanisms are dehydration embrittlement (for depths above about 300 km), 'anticracks' in metastable olivine (for deeper events), and thermal runaway. Yet, the puzzle remains: no single mechanism seems satisfactory, and having three mechanisms seems contrary to Occams Razor. Where might we look for observations to help resolve this problem? One of the 20thcenturies greatest scientific surprises was when seismic data collected during the Apollo projects proved that the Moon was seismically active at depths of 850-1100 km. These deep moonquakes occurred repeatedly within clusters or "nests", with occurrence times strongly correlated with solid tides. Although they occur under temperature-pressure conditions highly similar to terrestrial earthquakes at depths of ~120 km, it seems unlikely they are caused by dehydration embrittlement, as there is no subduction on the Moon, and possibly little or no water. Must we propose a fourth mechanism for deep quakes? Or are our explanations for terrestrial deep quakes incorrect? The development of plate tectonics was one of the 20thcentury science's great paradigm shifts; one observation it helped explain was why numerous earthquakes with focal depths exceeding 400 km occurred in the mantle in areas like Tonga where very old, fast-moving plates converged. But some "isolated deep earthquakes" are exceptional; these earthquakes occur separated from neighboring events by hundreds of km. Some, like earthquakes in Spain in 1954 and Colombia in 1970, with Mw exceeding 7.5 are among the largest deep-focus earthquakes known, yet occurred singly without any fore- or aftershocks. What physical mechanism allows such large, isolated earthquakes to occur? The tendency is to focus attention on areas like Tonga where the majority of deep events occur. But understanding rare isolated events

  1. Isolated Loss of PMS2 Immunohistochemical Expression is Frequently Caused by Heterogenous MLH1 Promoter Hypermethylation in Lynch Syndrome Screening for Endometrial Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Kato, Aya; Sato, Naoki; Sugawara, Tae; Takahashi, Kazue; Kito, Masahiko; Makino, Kenichi; Sato, Toshiharu; Shimizu, Dai; Shirasawa, Hiromistu; Miura, Hiroshi; Sato, Wataru; Kumazawa, Yukiyo; Sato, Akira; Kumagai, Jin; Terada, Yukihiro

    2016-06-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is an autosomal-dominant inherited disorder mainly caused by a germline mutation in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) and is associated with increased risk for various cancers, particularly colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer (EC). Women with LS account for 2% to 6% of EC patients; it is clinically important to identify LS in such individuals for predicting and/or preventing additional LS-associated cancers. PMS2 germline mutation (PMS2-LS) is the rarest contribution to LS etiology among the 4 LS-associated MMR germline mutations, and its detection is complicated. Therefore, prudent screening for PMS2-LS is important as it leads to an efficient LS identification strategy. Immunohistochemistry is recommended as a screening method for LS in EC. Isolated loss of PMS2 (IL-PMS2) expression is caused not only by PMS2-LS but also by MLH1 germline mutation or MLH1 promoter hypermethylation (MLH-PHM). This study aimed to determine the association between MLH1-PHM and IL-PMS2 to avoid inappropriate genetic analysis. We performed MLH1 methylation analysis and MLH1/PMS2 germline mutation testing on the IL-PMS2 cases. By performing MMR-immunohistochemistry on 360 unselected ECs, we could select 8 (2.2%) cases as IL-PMS2. Heterogenous MLH1 staining and MLH1-PHM were detected in 4 of 8 (50%) IL-PMS2 tumors. Of the 5 IL-PMS2 patients who underwent genetic analysis, 1 had PMS2 germline mutation with normal MLH1 expression (without MLH1-PHM), and no MLH1 germline mutation was detected. We suggest that MLH1 promoter methylation analysis for IL-PMS2 EC should be performed to exclude sporadic cases before further PMS2 genetic testing. PMID:26848797

  2. Isolated Loss of PMS2 Immunohistochemical Expression is Frequently Caused by Heterogenous MLH1 Promoter Hypermethylation in Lynch Syndrome Screening for Endometrial Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Naoki; Sugawara, Tae; Takahashi, Kazue; Kito, Masahiko; Makino, Kenichi; Sato, Toshiharu; Shimizu, Dai; Shirasawa, Hiromistu; Miura, Hiroshi; Sato, Wataru; Kumazawa, Yukiyo; Sato, Akira; Kumagai, Jin; Terada, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is an autosomal-dominant inherited disorder mainly caused by a germline mutation in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) and is associated with increased risk for various cancers, particularly colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer (EC). Women with LS account for 2% to 6% of EC patients; it is clinically important to identify LS in such individuals for predicting and/or preventing additional LS-associated cancers. PMS2 germline mutation (PMS2-LS) is the rarest contribution to LS etiology among the 4 LS-associated MMR germline mutations, and its detection is complicated. Therefore, prudent screening for PMS2-LS is important as it leads to an efficient LS identification strategy. Immunohistochemistry is recommended as a screening method for LS in EC. Isolated loss of PMS2 (IL-PMS2) expression is caused not only by PMS2-LS but also by MLH1 germline mutation or MLH1 promoter hypermethylation (MLH-PHM). This study aimed to determine the association between MLH1-PHM and IL-PMS2 to avoid inappropriate genetic analysis. We performed MLH1 methylation analysis and MLH1/PMS2 germline mutation testing on the IL-PMS2 cases. By performing MMR-immunohistochemistry on 360 unselected ECs, we could select 8 (2.2%) cases as IL-PMS2. Heterogenous MLH1 staining and MLH1-PHM were detected in 4 of 8 (50%) IL-PMS2 tumors. Of the 5 IL-PMS2 patients who underwent genetic analysis, 1 had PMS2 germline mutation with normal MLH1 expression (without MLH1-PHM), and no MLH1 germline mutation was detected. We suggest that MLH1 promoter methylation analysis for IL-PMS2 EC should be performed to exclude sporadic cases before further PMS2 genetic testing. PMID:26848797

  3. Effect of pinaverium and other calcium channel blockers on contraction of isolated gastric antral smooth muscle cells caused by gastrointestinal hormones.

    PubMed

    Bobo, M H; Magous, R; Christen, M O; Bali, J P

    1994-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones, gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and motilin, are known to induce contraction of digestive smooth muscle cells from various species. In this paper, we studied the effect of calcium channel blockers, diltiazem, nicardipine, and pinaverium on the hormone-dependent contraction of smooth muscle cells isolated from rabbit antrum. Gastrin, CCK-8, and motilin caused dose-dependent contraction with EC-50 values in the physiological range (10-100 pM). This contractile effect was dependent upon extracellular calcium for gastrin and CCK-8 but not for motilin. When used alone, calcium channel blockers diltiazem, nicardipine, but not pinaverium, caused a weak but significant contraction of the cells. Pinaverium inhibited both gastrin- and CCK-8-induced contractions with IC-50 values of 1 nM and it was much less potent in the inhibition of motilin-induced contractions (IC-50 = 25 nM). The effect of pinaverium was equivalent to that of diltiazem in the inhibition of CCK-8- or gastrin-induced contractions. Both drugs were slightly more potent than nicardipine (IC-50 = 10 nM versus 1 nM for pineaverium and 5 nM for diltiazem). In contrast, diltiazem and pinaverium were less potent against motilin stimulation, diltiazem being 5 times more potent than pinaverium. In conclusion, it appears that since Ca2+ antagonists pinaverium, diltiazem and nicardipine inhibited contraction of smooth muscle cells stimulated by gastrointestinal hormones, "L-type" calcium channels of the plasma membrane might also be regulated through occupation of gastrin or CCK receptors. PMID:8201843

  4. Combination of IMP-4 metallo-beta-lactamase production and porin deficiency causes carbapenem resistance in a Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Rong; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Cai, Jia-Chang; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Gong-Xiang

    2009-10-01

    This study shows for the first time the mechanism of carbapenem resistance of a Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolate ZC101 recovered from a Zhejiang University Hospital in Hangzhou, China. MIC values of imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem for K. oxytoca ZC101 were 16, 16, and 128 microg/mL, respectively. Conjugation experiments demonstrated the transferability of a resistance determinant from K. oxytoca ZC101 to Escherichia coli EC600. Results from isoelectric focusing, polymerase chain reactions, and DNA sequencing confirmed that K. oxytoca ZC101 produced IMP-4 metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) and CTX-M-14 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, whereas E. coli transconjugant only produced the IMP-4. Amplification of integron revealed that bla(IMP-4) gene is located within a class I integron that was carried in a plasmid approximately 55 kb in size. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiling of outer membrane proteins of K. oxytoca ZC101 indicated lack of expression of the OmpK36 porin. DNA sequence analysis of ompK36 gene of K. oxytoca ZC101 showed the gene was disrupted by an insertion sequence IS5. In all, the results show that plasmid-mediated IMP-4 MBL production combined with the loss of OmpK36 porin caused the resistance in K. oxytoca ZC101 to carbapenems. PMID:19748427

  5. The Broom of the Sorcerer's Apprentice: The Fine Structure of a Chromosomal Region Causing Reproductive Isolation between Two Sibling Species of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Davis, A. W.; Wu, C. I.

    1996-01-01

    How many genes contribute to reproductive isolation between closely related species? We determined the number of genes located in the 9D-12B region of the Drosophila mauritiana X chromosome that cause hybrid male sterility in a D. simulans background. Previous low resolution studies suggested that a single hybrid sterility factor was associated with this region. In this study, by taking advantage of a cluster of visible and DNA markers, we identified three D. mauritiana factors in this region and then subjected one of them to detailed analysis. This factor again turned out to be comprised of three factors; one of which, mapped to within 200 kb, may in fact be two factors. The title refers to this exercise of splitting sterile introgressions into ever smaller ones, each of which retains partial or full sterility effects. In a region representing a mere 3% of the Drosophila genome, no fewer than six loci of hybrid sterility were identified between two sibling species that have not shown clear divergence at the molecular level. These results suggest that levels of genetic divergence between closely related species may be quite high for functionally important traits even when the opposite is true for randomly chosen loci. PMID:8807300

  6. Detection of KPC-2 in a Clinical Isolate of Proteus mirabilis and First Reported Description of Carbapenemase Resistance Caused by a KPC Beta-Lactamase in P. mirabilis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An isolate of Proteus mirabilis recovered from bacterial cultures was shown to be resistant to imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem by disk diffusion susceptibility testing. Amplification of whole cell and/or plasmid DNA recovered from the isolate using primers specific for the blaKPC carbapenemase g...

  7. Distribution of extended-spectrum β-lactamases, AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases among Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal infections in the Asia-Pacific region: results of the study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART).

    PubMed

    Sheng, Wang-Huei; Badal, Robert E; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2013-07-01

    The increasing trend of β-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide threat. Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal infections (IAI) from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) collected in 2008 and 2009 from the Asia-Pacific region were investigated. Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases was performed by multiplex PCR. A total of 699 Enterobacteriaceae isolates with positive genotypic results, included Escherichia coli (n = 443), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 187), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 45), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 9), Citrobacter freundii (n = 5), Proteus mirabilis (n = 3), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 2), Morganella morganii (n = 2), and one each of Enterobacter asburiae, Proteus vulgaris, and Providencia rettgeri were analyzed. Nearly 20% of these β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were from community-associated IAI. CTX-M (588 isolates, including 428 [72.8%] with CTX-M-15) was the most common ESBL, followed by SHV (n = 59) and TEM (n = 4). CMY (n = 110, including 102 [92.7%] with CMY-2) was the most common AmpC β-lactamase, followed by DHA (n = 46) and ACT/MIR (n = 40). NDM (n = 65, including 62 [95.4%] with NDM-1) was the most common carbapenemase, followed by IMP (n = 7) and OXA (n = 7). Isolates from hospital-associated IAI had more complicated β-lactamase combinations than isolates from the community. Carbapenemases were all exclusively detected in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from India, except that IMP β-lactamases were also detected in Philippines and Australia. CTX-M β-lactamases were the predominant ESBLs produced by Enterobacteriaceae causing IAI in the Asia-Pacific region. Emergence of CTX-M-15-, CMY-2-, and NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates is of major concern and highlights the need for further surveillance in this area. PMID:23587958

  8. Gain-of-function mutations in UPC2 are a frequent cause of ERG11 upregulation in azole-resistant clinical isolates of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Stephanie A; Barker, Katherine S; Berkow, Elizabeth L; Toner, Geoffrey; Chadwick, Sean G; Gygax, Scott E; Morschhäuser, Joachim; Rogers, P David

    2012-10-01

    In Candida albicans, Upc2 is a zinc-cluster transcription factor that targets genes, including those of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. To date, three documented UPC2 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations have been recovered from fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates that contribute to an increase in ERG11 expression and decreased fluconazole susceptibility. In a group of 63 isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole, we found that 47 overexpressed ERG11 by at least 2-fold over the average expression levels in 3 unrelated fluconazole-susceptible strains. Of those 47 isolates, 29 contained a mutation in UPC2, whereas the remaining 18 isolates did not. Among the isolates containing mutations in UPC2, we recovered eight distinct mutations resulting in putative single amino acid substitutions: G648D, G648S, A643T, A643V, Y642F, G304R, A646V, and W478C. Seven of these resulted in increased ERG11 expression, increased cellular ergosterol, and decreased susceptibility to fluconazole compared to the results for the wild-type strain. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis was performed for the four strongest Upc2 amino acid substitutions (A643V, G648D, G648S, and Y642F). Genes commonly upregulated by all four mutations included those involved in ergosterol biosynthesis, in oxidoreductase activity, the major facilitator efflux pump encoded by the MDR1 gene, and the uncharacterized ATP binding cassette transporter CDR11. These findings demonstrate that gain-of-function mutations in UPC2 are more prevalent among clinical isolates than previously thought and make a significant contribution to azole antifungal resistance, but the findings do not account for ERG11 overexpression in all such isolates of C. albicans. PMID:22923048

  9. Similarity and Divergence of Phylogenies, Antimicrobial Susceptibilities, and Virulence Factor Profiles of Escherichia coli Isolates Causing Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections That Persist or Result from Reinfection

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yanping; Ma, Yanning; Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Leili; Guo, Ling; Ye, Liyan; Zhang, Youjiang

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain a better molecular understanding of recurrent urinary tract infection (RUTI), we collected 75 cases with repeatedly occurring uncomplicated UTI. The genetic relationships among uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. While 39 (52%) of the RUTI cases were defined as “persistence” of the same strain as the primary infecting strain, 36 (48%) were characterized by “reinfection” with a new strain that is different from the primary strain. We then examined the antimicrobial susceptibilities and phylogenetic backgrounds of 39 persistence and 86 reinfection UPEC isolates, and screened 44 virulence factor (VF) genes. We found that isolates had significant differences in the following: placement in phylogenetic group B2 (41% versus 21%; P = 0.0193) and the presence of adhesin genes iha (49% versus 28%; P = 0.0233) and papG allele I′ (51% versus 24%; P = 0.003), iron uptake genes fyuA (85% versus 58%; P = 0.0037), irp-2 (87% versus 65%; P = 0.0109), and iutA (87% versus 58%; P = 0.0014), and an aggregate VF score (median, 11 versus 9; P = 0.0030). In addition, 41% of persistence strains harbored three adhesin genes simultaneously, whereas 22% of reinfection isolates did (P = 0.0289). Moreover, 59% versus 29% (P = 0.0014) of persistence and reinfection isolates contained seven types of iron uptake genes. Taken together, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of UPEC isolates had little effect on the RUTI. Compared with reinfection strains, persistence UPEC isolates exhibited higher VF scores and carried more VF genes than may be involved in the development and progression of RUTI. PMID:23035197

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Two Strains of Xanthomonas arboricola Isolated from Prunus persica Which Are Dissimilar to Strains That Cause Bacterial Spot Disease on Prunus spp.

    PubMed

    Garita-Cambronero, Jerson; Palacio-Bielsa, Ana; López, María M; Cubero, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequences of two strains of Xanthomonas arboricola, isolated from asymptomatic peach trees in Spain, are reported here. These strains are avirulent and do not belong to the same phylogroup as X. arboricola pv. pruni, a causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruits and almonds. PMID:27609931

  11. Clinical Characteristics, Laboratory Identification, and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Yarrowia (Candida) lipolytica Isolates Causing Fungemia: a Multicenter, Prospective Surveillance Study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wang, He; Guo, Dawen; Pan, Yuhong; Xiao, Yuling; Yue, Na; Chen, Jonathan Hon-Kwan; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui; Xu, Yingchun; Woo, Patrick Chiu-Yat

    2015-11-01

    Our case series showed that uncomplicated Yarrowia lipolytica fungemia might be treated with catheter removal alone. The Vitek 2 YST identification (ID) card system, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and internal transcribed spacer and 25S nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) gene sequencing provided reliable identification. All isolates had low MICs to voriconazole, echinocandins, and amphotericin B. PMID:26311865

  12. Outbreak caused by Proteus mirabilis isolates producing weakly expressed TEM-derived extended-spectrum β-lactamase in spinal cord injury patients with recurrent bacteriuria.

    PubMed

    Cremet, Lise; Bemer, Pascale; Rome, Joanna; Juvin, Marie-Emmanuelle; Navas, Dominique; Bourigault, Celine; Guillouzouic, Aurelie; Caroff, Nathalie; Lepelletier, Didier; Asseray, Nathalie; Perrouin-Verbe, Brigitte; Corvec, Stephane

    2011-12-01

    We performed a retrospective extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) molecular characterization of Proteus mirabilis isolates recovered from urine of spinal cord injury patients. A incorrectly detected TEM-24-producing clone and a new weakly expressed TEM-derived ESBL were discovered. In such patients, ESBL detection in daily practice should be improved by systematic use of a synergy test in strains of P. mirabilis resistant to penicillins. PMID:21888562

  13. Clinical Characteristics, Laboratory Identification, and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Yarrowia (Candida) lipolytica Isolates Causing Fungemia: a Multicenter, Prospective Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wang, He; Guo, Dawen; Pan, Yuhong; Xiao, Yuling; Yue, Na; Chen, Jonathan Hon-Kwan; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui

    2015-01-01

    Our case series showed that uncomplicated Yarrowia lipolytica fungemia might be treated with catheter removal alone. The Vitek 2 YST identification (ID) card system, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and internal transcribed spacer and 25S nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) gene sequencing provided reliable identification. All isolates had low MICs to voriconazole, echinocandins, and amphotericin B. PMID:26311865

  14. Isolation over 35 years in a heated biotest basin causes selection on MHC class IIß genes in the European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Björklund, Mats; Aho, Teija; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca

    2015-01-01

    Genes that play key roles in host immunity such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in vertebrates are expected to be major targets of selection. It is well known that environmental conditions can have an effect on host–parasite interactions and may thus influence the selection on MHC. We analyzed MHC class IIß variability over 35 years in a population of perch (Perca fluviatilis) from the Baltic Sea that was split into two populations separated from each other. One population was subjected to heating from cooling water of a nuclear power plant and was isolated from the surrounding environment in an artificial lake, while the other population was not subjected to any change in water temperature (control). The isolated population experienced a change of the allelic composition and a decrease in allelic richness of MHC genes compared to the control population. The two most common MHC alleles showed cyclic patterns indicating ongoing parasite–host coevolution in both populations, but the alleles that showed a cyclic behavior differed between the two populations. No such patterns were observed at alleles from nine microsatellite loci, and no genetic differentiation was found between populations. We found no indications for a genetic bottleneck in the isolated population during the 35 years. Additionally, differences in parasitism of the current perch populations suggest that a change of the parasite communities has occurred over the isolation period, although the evidence in form of in-depth knowledge of the change of the parasite community over time is lacking. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a selective sweep imposed by a change in the parasite community. PMID:25897384

  15. Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates Causing Invasive and Noninvasive Pneumococcal Diseases in Korea from 2008 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Il Kwon; Park, Dongchul; Kim, Na Young; Song, Sae Am; Urm, Sang-Hwa; Shin, Jeong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen with high morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of common serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of S. pneumoniae in Korea. Methods. A total of 378 pneumococcal isolates were collected from 2008 through 2014. We analyzed the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility for both invasive and noninvasive isolates. Results. Over the 7 years, 3 (13.5%), 35 (10.8%), 19A (9.0%), 19F (6.6%), 6A (6.1%), and 34 (5.6%) were common serotypes/serogroups. The vaccine coverage rates of PCV7, PCV10, PCV13, and PPSV23 were 21.4%, 23.3%, 51.9%, and 62.4% in all periods. The proportions of serotypes 19A and 19F decreased and nonvaccine serotypes increased between 2008 and 2010 and 2011 and 2014. Of 378 S. pneumoniae isolates, 131 (34.7%) were multidrug resistant (MDR) and serotypes 19A and 19F were predominant. The resistance rate to levofloxacin was significantly increased (7.2%). Conclusion. We found changes of pneumococcal serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility during the 7 years after introduction of the first pneumococcal vaccine. It is important to continuously monitor pneumococcal serotypes and their susceptibilities. PMID:27314035

  16. Rapid detection of a point mutation in thyroid-stimulating hormone beta-subunit gene causing congenital isolated thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mori, R; Sawai, T; Kinoshita, E; Baba, T; Matsumoto, T; Yoshimoto, M; Tsuji, Y; Satake, Y; Sawada, K

    1991-12-01

    Previous study showed that congenital isolated TSH deficiency in Japan is resulted exclusively from a G-A transition at nucleotide 145 in exon 2 of the TSH beta-subunit gene. All reported cases were from the inbred in Shikoku Island. We describe here a 10-year-old boy with hereditary TSH deficiency in the same area. The patient was born with a weight of 3,225 g to non-consanguineous parents. Evaluation at age 2 months revealed typical manifestations of cretinism without goiter. Serum T4, T3, and TSH values were 2.53 micrograms/dl, 107 ng/dl, and 0.5 microU/ml, respectively. A TRH stimulation test showed no increment of serum TSH value. Other anterior pituitary hormone levels were all within the normal range. Two oligonucleotide primers T1a and T1b were synthesized according to the sequence data. Amplified 169 bp nucleotides in exon 2 of the TSH beta gene with this primer set were digested with MaeI. Both the phenotypically normal brother and normal controls showed only the 169 bp fragment, whereas the proband showed 140 and 29 bp fragments and both parents showed three fragments; 169, 140, and 29 bp. These results were consistent with the point mutation of TSH beta gene in Japanese patients with congenital isolated TSH deficiency. Our PCR method with MaeI digestion contributes to the rapid detection of the homozygous patient and the heterozygous carrier. PMID:1811097

  17. Isolation and identification of a compound from avocado (Persea americana) leaves which causes necrosis of the acinar epithelium of the lactating mammary gland and the myocardium.

    PubMed

    Oelrichs, P B; Ng, J C; Seawright, A A; Ward, A; Schäffeler, L; MacLeod, J K

    1995-01-01

    It is well known that when lactating livestock eat avocado (Persea americana) leaves they may develop non-infectious mastitis and agalactia. This is associated with extensive coagulation necrosis of the secretory acinar epithelium and interstitial oedema, congestion, and haemorrhage. Similar lesions have been produced in mammary glands of lactating mice fed a diet containing a small percentage of freeze-dried avocado leaf. Tests using these animals have been used to isolate the active principle, termed "persin," from avocado leaves. The purified persin was examined using IR, NMR, and UV spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, and identified as (Z,Z)-1-(acetyloxy)-2-hydroxy-12,15-heneicosadien-4-one. Persin has previously been isolated from avocado leaves and shown to have antifungal properties and to be toxic to silkworms. Our tests have shown that persin at the dose rate of 60-100 mg/kg has the same effect on mammary glands in lactating mice as leaves from avocado. Enantioselective syntheses of the R and the S isomers of persin and related derivatives were carried out. These compounds were tested for activity required to induce widespread lactating mammary gland necrosis in mice, and only the R isomer was found active. At doses of persin above 100 mg/kg necrosis of myocardial fibres may occur and hydrothorax may be present in severely affected animals. The mechanism of action of persin on both the mammary gland and the myocardium remain to be resolved. PMID:8581318

  18. N-alkylation of exogenous haem analogues caused by drugs in isolated hepatocytes. Structural isomerism and chirality of the resulting porphyrins.

    PubMed Central

    De Matteis, F; Harvey, C; Martin, S R

    1986-01-01

    Isolated rat hepatocytes incubated with two suicide substrates of cytochrome P-450, 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide and 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-4-ethyl-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethylpyridine(4-ethyl-DD C), convert exogenous mesohaem and deuterohaem into N-alkylated mesoporphyrins and deuteroporphyrins respectively. The N-alkylated mesoporphyrins can be separated by h.p.l.c. from the corresponding N-alkylated protoporphyrins originating from endogenous haem; in this way the contribution of both endogenous and exogenous pools of haem can be studied in the same experiment. N-Alkylated mesoporphyrin exhibits chiral properties, and its isomeric composition and/or amount are dependent on the particular cytochrome P-450 enzyme predominating in the cell. These findings provide additional and more direct evidence that exchangeable haem is taken up by cytochrome P-450 before being N-alkylated. PMID:3800937

  19. Evidence of the formation of noctilucent clouds due to propagation of an isolated gravity wave caused by a tropospheric occluded front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, P.; Pogoreltsev, A.; Pertsev, N.; Perminov, V.; Shevchuk, N.; Dubietis, A.; Zalcik, M.; Kulikov, S.; Zadorozhny, A.; Kudabayeva, D.; Solodovnik, A.; Salakhutdinov, G.; Grigoryeva, I.

    2015-03-01

    We consider a unique case of a propagating internal gravity wave that has generated in situ a compact and thin layer of noctilucent clouds (NLC) at 82.7-85.2 km with a characteristic horizontal scale of 65-70 km, as observed in the Moscow region on the night of 18-19 July 2013. This particular transient isolated gravity wave together with the whole NLC layer suddenly appeared in the clear twilight sky and lasted about 1 h traveling eastward, which differs significantly from previously observed cases of gravity waves propagating through preexisting NLC layers. Our model studies demonstrate that the wave had a tropospheric source connected to the passage of an occluded front. The wave was likely generated due to strong horizontal wind shears at about 5 km altitude.

  20. Biocontrol ability and action mechanism of food-isolated yeast strains against Botrytis cinerea causing post-harvest bunch rot of table grape.

    PubMed

    Parafati, Lucia; Vitale, Alessandro; Restuccia, Cristina; Cirvilleri, Gabriella

    2015-05-01

    Strains belonging to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Aureobasidium pullulans, isolated from different food sources, were tested in vitro as biocontrol agents (BCAs) against the post-harvest pathogenic mold Botrytis cinerea. All yeast strains demonstrated antifungal activity at different levels depending on species and medium. Killer strains of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae showed the highest biocontrol in vitro activity, as demonstrated by largest inhibition halos. The competition for iron and the ability to form biofilm and to colonize fruit wounds were hypothesized as the main action mechanisms for M. pulcherrima. The production of hydrolytic enzymes and the ability to colonize the wounds were the most important mechanisms for biocontrol activity in A. pullulans and W. anomalus, which also showed high ability to form biofilm. The production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effect on pathogen growth was observed for the species W. anomalus, S. cerevisiae and M. pulcherrima. Our study clearly indicates that multiple modes of action may explain as M. pulcherrima provide excellent control of postharvest botrytis bunch rot of grape. PMID:25583341

  1. Full-length M and L RNA sequences of tospovirus isolate 2009-GZT, which causes necrotic ringspot on tomato in China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kuanyu; Liu, Hongguang; Yin, Yueyan; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Zhang, Zhongkai; Dong, Jiahong

    2016-05-01

    The virus isolate 2009-GZT, collected from tomato in Guizhou province of China, was identified as a new member of the genus Tospovirus based on its S RNA sequence. Because its provisional name, "tomato necrotic spot virus" (TNSV), was identical to an already existing member of the genus Ilarvirus, 2009-GZT was renamed "tomato necrotic spot-associated virus" (TNSaV). In this study, the full-length sequences of the genomic M and L RNAs of TNSaV were determined and analyzed. The M RNA has 4,773 nucleotides (nt), encoding the NSm protein of 309 aa (34.4 kDa) in the viral (v) strand and the glycoprotein precursor (Gn/Gc) of 1123 aa (128 kDa) in the viral complementary (vc) strand. The NSm and Gn/Gc of TNSaV share the highest aa sequence identity (86.2 % and 86.9 %, respectively) with those of tomato zonate spot virus. The L RNA contains 8,908 nt and codes for the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of 2885 aa (332 kDa) in the vc strand. The RdRp of TNSaV shares the highest aa sequence identity (85.2 %) with that of calla lily chlorotic spot virus (CCSV). Serological assays showed that TNSaV cross-reacts with rabbit antisera against watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) NP and CCSV NP, indicating that TNSaV is a member of the WSMoV serogroup. PMID:26887969

  2. Determinants of Disease Phenotype Differences Caused by Closely-Related Isolates of Begomovirus Betasatellites Inoculated with the Same Species of Helper Virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Dang, Mingqing; Huang, Qingqing; Qian, Yajuan

    2015-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) is a monopartite begomovirus associated with different betasatellites. In this study, we investigate two different isolates of Tomato yellow leaf curl China betasatellite (TYLCCNB) to determine what features of the viral genome are required for induction of characteristic phenotypic differences between closely-related betasatellite. When co-agroinoculated with TYLCCNV into Nicotiana spp. and tomato plants, TYLCCNB-Y25 induced only leaf curling on all hosts, while TYLCCNB-Y10 also induced enations, vein yellowing, and shoot distortions. Further assays showed that βC1 of TYLCCNB-Y25 differs from that of TYLCCNB-Y10 in symptom induction and transcriptional modulating. Hybrid satellites were constructed in which the βC1 gene or 200 nt partial promoter-like fragment upstream of the βC1 were exchanged. Infectivity assays showed that a TYLCCNB-Y25 hybrid with the intact TYLCCNB-Y10 βC1 gene was able to induce vein yellowing, shoot distortions, and a reduced size and number of enations. A TYLCCNB-Y10 hybrid with the intact TYLCCNB-Y25 βC1 gene produced only leaf curling. In contrast, the TYLCCNB-Y25 and TYLCCNB-Y10 hybrids with swapped partial promoter-like regions had little effect on the phenotypes induced by wild-type betasatellites. Further experiments showed that the TYLCCNB-Y25 hybrid carrying the C-terminal region of TYLCCNB-Y10 βC1 induced TYLCCNB-Y10-like symptoms. These findings indicate that the βC1 protein is the major symptom determinant and that the C-terminal region of βC1 plays an important role in symptom induction. PMID:26389936

  3. Formation of sulphidopeptide-leukotrienes by cell-cell interaction causes coronary vasoconstriction in isolated, cell-perfused heart of rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Sala, A.; Rossoni, G.; Buccellati, C.; Berti, F.; Folco, G.; Maclouf, J.

    1993-01-01

    1. We have studied the transcellular biosynthesis of bioactive leukotrienes (LTs), generated upon blood cell-vascular wall interactions and their functional consequences, in the spontaneously beating, cell-perfused, heart of the rabbit. Rabbit isolated hearts were perfused under recirculating conditions (50 ml) with 5 x 10(6) cells of unpurified (buffy coat) or purified human neutrophils (PMNL), and challenged with 0.5 microM A23187 for 30 min. Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP), heart rate (HR), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and left ventricular pressure (LVP) were monitored continuously. Leukotriene formation was measured by specific enzyme-immunoassay and confirmed by reversed phase h.p.l.c. and u.v. spectral analysis. 2. Basal CPP values averaged 44 +/- 1.4 mmHg; A23187 triggered a marked increase in CPP both in the presence of buffy coat cells (+100% above basal) and PMNL (+270% above basal); the latter change in CPP was accompanied by a rise in LVEDP (+138% above basal). 3. The increase in CPP was preceded by a statistically significant rise in iLTC4-D4 concentration in the circulating buffer. Pretreatment with two structurally unrelated LTD4 receptor antagonists, LY171883 and SKF104353 (10 microM), fully prevented the increase in CPP and LVEDP. A similar protection was also observed when the rabbit heart was perfused with PMNL that had been pretreated with MK886 (1 microM), a potent inhibitor of leukotriene biosynthesis. 4. The increased coronary tone was accompanied by a marked release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a marker of ischaemic damage; pretreatment of the heart with the LTD4 receptor antagonists as well as of the PMNL with MK886 resulted in a complete suppression of LDH activity release.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8298810

  4. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 exhibit strong antifungal effects against vulvovaginal candidiasis-causing Candida glabrata isolates

    PubMed Central

    Chew, SY; Cheah, YK; Seow, HF; Sandai, D; Than, LTL

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study investigates the antagonistic effects of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 against vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)-causing Candida glabrata. Methods and Results Growth inhibitory activities of Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains against C. glabrata were demonstrated using a spot overlay assay and a plate-based microtitre assay. In addition, these probiotic lactobacilli strains also exhibited potent candidacidal activity against C. glabrata, as demonstrated by a LIVE/DEAD yeast viability assay performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The metabolic activities of all C. glabrata strains were completely shut down in response to the challenges by the probiotic lactobacilli strains. In addition, both probiotic lactobacilli strains exhibited strong autoaggregation and coaggregation phenotypes in the presence of C. glabrata, which indicate that these lactobacilli strains may exert their probiotic effects through the formation of aggregates and, thus the consequent prevention of colonization by C. glabrata. Conclusions Probiotic Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains exhibited potent antagonistic activities against all of the tested C. glabrata strains. These lactobacilli exhibited antifungal effects, including those attributed to their aggregation abilities, and their presence caused the cessation of growth and eventual cell death of C. glabrata. Significance and Impact of the Study This is the first study to report on the antagonistic effects of these probiotic lactobacilli strains against the non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species C. glabrata. PMID:25688886

  5. Clinical Outcomes Among Persons With Pulmonary Tuberculosis Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates With Phenotypic Heterogeneity in Results of Drug-Susceptibility Tests

    PubMed Central

    Zetola, Nicola M.; Modongo, Chawangwa; Moonan, Patrick K.; Ncube, Ronald; Matlhagela, Keikantse; Sepako, Enoch; Collman, Ronald G.; Bisson, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis may have phenotypic heterogeneity in results of drug-susceptibility tests (DSTs). However, the impact of this on clinical outcomes among patients treated for MDR tuberculosis is unknown. Methods. Phenotypic DST heterogeneity was defined as presence of at least 1 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate susceptible to rifampicin and isoniazid recovered <3 months after MDR tuberculosis treatment initiation from a patient with previous documented tuberculosis due to M. tuberculosis resistant to at least rifampicin and isoniazid. The primary outcome was defined as good (ie, cure or treatment completion) or poor (ie, treatment failure, treatment default, or death). A secondary outcome was time to culture conversion. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the association between phenotypic DST heterogeneity and outcomes. Results. Phenotypic DST heterogeneity was identified in 33 of 475 patients (7%) with MDR tuberculosis. Poor outcome occurred in 126 patients (28%). Overall, patients with MDR tuberculosis who had phenotypic DST heterogeneity were at greater risk of poor outcome than those with MDR tuberculosis but no phenotypic DST heterogeneity (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–3.6). Among HIV-infected patients with MDR tuberculosis, the adjusted hazard for a poor outcome for those with phenotypic DST heterogeneity was 2.4 (95% CI, 1.3–4.2) times that for those without phenotypic DST heterogeneity, whereas among HIV-negative patients with MDR tuberculosis, the adjusted hazard for those with phenotypic DST heterogeneity was 1.5 (95% CI, .5–4.3) times that for those without phenotypic DST heterogeneity. HIV-infected patients with MDR tuberculosis with phenotypic DST heterogeneity also had a longer time to culture conversion than with HIV-infected patients with MDR tuberculosis without phenotypic DST heterogeneity (aHR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.4–6

  6. Genetic Characterization of Fungi Isolated from the Environmental Swabs collected from a Compounding Center Known to Cause Multistate Meningitis Outbreak in United States Using ITS Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, Irshad M.; Jacobs, Emily; Simpson, Steven; Kerdahi, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    A multistate fungal meningitis outbreak started in September of 2012 which spread in 20 states of the United States. The outbreak has been fatal so far, and has affected 751 individuals with 64 deaths among those who received contaminated spinal injections manufactured by a Compounding Center located in Massachusetts. In a preliminary study, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) investigated the outbreak in collaboration with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), state and local health departments, and identified four fungal and several bacterial contaminations in the recalled unopened injection vials. This follow-up study was carried out to assess DNA sequencing of the ITS1 region of rRNA gene for rapid identification of fungal pathogens during public health outbreak investigations. A total of 26 environmental swabs were collected from several locations at the manufacturing premises of the Compounding Center known to have caused the outbreak. The swab samples were initially examined by conventional microbiologic protocols and a wide range of fungal species were recovered. Species-identification of these microorganisms was accomplished by nucleotide sequencing of ITS1 region of rRNA gene. Analysis of data confirmed 14 additional fungal species in the swabs analyzed. PMID:25438021

  7. A Novel Sterol Isolated from a Plant Used by Mayan Traditional Healers Is Effective in Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Gaurav; Peine, Kevin J; Abdelhamid, Dalia; Snider, Heidi; Shelton, Andrew B; Rao, Latha; Kotha, Sainath R; Huntsman, Andrew C; Varikuti, Sanjay; Oghumu, Steve; Naman, C Benjamin; Pan, Li; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Papenfuss, Tracy L; Kinghorn, A Douglas; Bachelder, Eric M; Ainslie, Kristy M; Fuchs, James R; Satoskar, Abhay R

    2015-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, is a global health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. Treatment of VL largely depends on therapeutic drugs such as pentavalent antimonials, amphotericin B, and others, which have major drawbacks due to drug resistance, toxicity, and high cost. In this study, for the first time, we have successfully demonstrated the synthesis and antileishmanial activity of the novel sterol pentalinonsterol (PEN), which occurs naturally in the root of a Mexican medicinal plant, Pentalinon andrieuxii. In the experimental BALB/c mouse model of VL induced by infection with L. donovani, intravenous treatment with liposome-encapsulated PEN (2.5 mg/kg) led to a significant reduction in parasite burden in the liver and spleen. Furthermore, infected mice treated with liposomal PEN showed a strong host-protective TH1 immune response characterized by IFN-γ production and formation of matured hepatic granulomas. These results indicate that PEN could be developed as a novel drug against VL. PMID:27623316

  8. Are isolated wetlands isolated?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Loren M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Haukos, David A.

    2011-01-01

    While federal regulations during the past 10 years have treated isolated wetlands as unconnected to aquatic resources protected by the Clean Water Act, they provide critical ecosystem services to society that extend well beyond their wetland boundaries. The authors offer well-documented examples from the scientific literature on some of the ecosystem services provided by isolated wetlands to society and other ecosystems.

  9. Haemophilus haemolyticus Isolates Causing Clinical Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Briere, Elizabeth C.; Katz, Lee S.; Cohn, Amanda C.; Clark, Thomas A.; Messonnier, Nancy E.; Mayer, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    We report seven cases of Haemophilus haemolyticus invasive disease detected in the United States, which were previously misidentified as nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. All cases had different symptoms and presentations. Our study suggests that a testing scheme that includes reliable PCR assays and standard microbiological methods should be used in order to improve H. haemolyticus identification. PMID:22573587

  10. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions isolated growth hormone deficiency isolated growth hormone deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Isolated growth hormone deficiency is a condition caused by a severe ...

  11. [Myopathy caused by hypothyroidism].

    PubMed

    Paiva, C; Mouro, A M; Luís, M L; Fonseca, F; Quina, M

    1991-01-01

    The authors report a case of primary hypothyroidism where the main symptoms were caused by muscular lesions and disappeared after treatment with L-thyroxine. Based on this case study the authors then review both the clinical aspects and the diagnostical methods of hypothyroidism myopathy, noting its frequency, be it in terms of isolated laboratory changes or in terms of functional changes. PMID:1807095

  12. Occurrence of 4-tert-butylphenol (4-t-BP) biodegradation in an aquatic sample caused by the presence of Spirodela polyrrhiza and isolation of a 4-t-BP-utilizing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yuka; Toyama, Tadashi; Yu, Ning; Wang, Xuan; Sei, Kazunari; Ike, Michihiko

    2013-04-01

    Although 4-tert-butylphenol (4-t-BP) is a serious aquatic pollutant, its biodegradation in aquatic environments has not been well documented. In this study, 4-t-BP was obviously and repeatedly removed from water from four different environments in the presence of Spirodela polyrrhiza, giant duckweed, but 4-t-BP persisted in the environmental waters in the absence of S. polyrrhiza. Also, 4-t-BP was not removed from autoclaved pond water with sterilized S. polyrrhiza. These results suggest that the 4-t-BP removal from the environmental waters was caused by biodegradation stimulated by the presence of S. polyrrhiza rather than by uptake by the plant. Moreover, Sphingobium fuliginis OMI capable of utilizing 4-t-BP as a sole carbon and energy source was isolated from the S. polyrrhiza rhizosphere. Strain OMI degraded 4-t-BP via a meta-cleavage pathway, and also degraded a broad range of alkylphenols with linear or branched alkyl side chains containing two to nine carbon atoms. Root exudates of S. polyrrhiza stimulated 4-t-BP degradation and cell growth of strain OMI. Thus, the stimulating effects of S. polyrrhiza root exudates on 4-t-BP-degrading bacteria might have contributed to 4-t-BP removal in the environmental waters with S. polyrrhiza. These results demonstrate that the S. polyrrhiza-bacteria association may be applicable to the removal of highly persistent 4-t-BP from wastewaters or polluted aquatic environments. PMID:22777343

  13. Module isolation devices

    SciTech Connect

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Cooke, John Albert; Buzinski, Michael David

    2010-04-27

    A gas flow isolation device includes a gas flow isolation valve movable from an opened condition to a closed condition. The module isolation valve in one embodiment includes a rupture disk in flow communication with a flow of gas when the module isolation valve is in an opened condition. The rupture disk ruptures when a predetermined pressure differential occurs across it causing the isolation valve to close. In one embodiment the valve is mechanically linked to the rupture disk to maintain the valve in an opened condition when the rupture disk is intact, and which permits the valve to move into a closed condition when the rupture disk ruptures. In another embodiment a crushable member maintains the valve in an open condition, and the flow of gas passed the valve upon rupturing of the rupture disk compresses the crushable member to close the isolation valve.

  14. Jaundice causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver is unable to properly move into the digestive tract. Conditions that can cause jaundice include: Infections of the liver from a virus ( hepatitis A , hepatitis B , hepatitis C , hepatitis D , ...

  15. Vibration isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on vibration isolation are presented. Techniques to control and isolate centrifuge disturbances were identified. Topics covered include: disturbance sources in the microgravity environment; microgravity assessment criteria; life sciences centrifuge; flight support equipment for launch; active vibration isolation system; active balancing system; and fuzzy logic control.

  16. A gain-of-function mutation in the transcription factor Upc2p causes upregulation of ergosterol biosynthesis genes and increased fluconazole resistance in a clinical Candida albicans isolate.

    PubMed

    Dunkel, Nico; Liu, Teresa T; Barker, Katherine S; Homayouni, Ramin; Morschhäuser, Joachim; Rogers, P David

    2008-07-01

    In the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, the zinc cluster transcription factor Upc2p has been shown to regulate the expression of ERG11 and other genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis upon exposure to azole antifungals. ERG11 encodes lanosterol demethylase, the target enzyme of this antifungal class. Overexpression of UPC2 reduces azole susceptibility, whereas its disruption results in hypersusceptibility to azoles and reduced accumulation of exogenous sterols. Overexpression of ERG11 leads to the increased production of lanosterol demethylase, which contributes to azole resistance in clinical isolates of C. albicans, but the mechanism for this has yet to be determined. Using genome-wide gene expression profiling, we found UPC2 and other genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis to be coordinately upregulated with ERG11 in a fluconazole-resistant clinical isolate compared with a matched susceptible isolate from the same patient. Sequence analysis of the UPC2 alleles of these isolates revealed that the resistant isolate contained a single-nucleotide substitution in one UPC2 allele that resulted in a G648D exchange in the encoded protein. Introduction of the mutated allele into a drug-susceptible strain resulted in constitutive upregulation of ERG11 and increased resistance to fluconazole. By comparing the gene expression profiles of the fluconazole-resistant isolate and of strains carrying wild-type and mutated UPC2 alleles, we identified target genes that are controlled by Upc2p. Here we show for the first time that a gain-of-function mutation in UPC2 leads to the increased expression of ERG11 and imparts resistance to fluconazole in clinical isolates of C. albicans. PMID:18487346

  17. Secular trends (1990-2013) in serotypes and associated non-susceptibility of S. pneumoniae isolates causing invasive disease in the pre-/post-era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Spanish regions without universal paediatric pneumococcal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Fenoll, Asunción; Granizo, Juan-José; Giménez, María-José; Yuste, José; Aguilar, Lorenzo

    2015-10-13

    This study analyzed temporal trends of non-susceptibility/serotypes in invasive pneumococci from Spanish regions where pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) were not included in paediatric immunization programmes. All invasive pneumococcal isolates voluntarily sent to the Spanish Reference Laboratory for Pneumococci (January 1990-December 2013) from hospitals located in target study regions were analyzed by age group. The PCV estimated coverage in children <24 months was correlated with 13-valent PCV (PCV13) serotypes trends. A total of 28,124 invasive isolates were analyzed: 3138 (11.2%) from children <24 months, 2161 (7.7%) from children 24-59 months, 781 (2.8%) from children 5-14 years, and 22,044 (78.4%) from adults. The estimated coverage increased from 17.6% (2002) to around 40% (2010-2013). The percentage of PCV13 serotypes among all isolates over time followed a cubic significant trend (R(2)=0.884), with an increasing trend up to 2001 followed by a decrease (more prominent from 2010 onwards). The estimated PCVs coverage was significantly correlated with the decrease in the percentage of PCV13 isolates in children <24 months (r(2)=0.824) and in adults (r(2)=0.786), mainly due to decreases in serotypes 1 and 7F in adults, and in serogroup 6 and serotypes 7F and 19A in children <24 months. None of the non-PCV13 serotypes stood out with substantial increases in the last period. This study showed that the different serotypes (and its associated non-susceptibility trends) were not equally affected by low PCVs disposition. Lack of impact in certain serotypes as serotype 1 (in children 24-59 months), 6C (in all age groups), and 19A (in adults) suggests the need for increasing vaccine coverage in the target vaccine population to increase direct and indirect protection. PMID:26341563

  18. Genetics Home Reference: familial isolated hyperparathyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... bloodstream. In people with familial isolated hyperparathyroidism , the production of excess parathyroid hormone is caused by tumors ... a cancerous tumor called parathyroid carcinoma. Because the production of excess parathyroid hormone is caused by abnormalities ...

  19. An isolated case of lissencephaly caused by the insertion of a mitochondrial genome-derived DNA sequence into the 5' untranslated region of the PAFAH1B1 (LIS1) gene.

    PubMed

    Millar, David S; Tysoe, Carolyn; Lazarou, Lazarus P; Pilz, Daniela T; Mohammed, Shehla; Anderson, Katharine; Chuzhanova, Nadia; Cooper, David N; Butler, Rachel

    2010-08-01

    A 130 base pair (bp) insertion (g.-8delCins130) into the 5' untranslated region of the PAFAH1B1 (LIS1) gene, seven nucleotides upstream of the translational initiation site, was detected in an isolated case of lissencephaly. The inserted DNA sequence exhibited perfect homology to two non-contiguous regions of the mitochondrial genome (8479 to 8545 and 8775 to 8835, containing portions of two genes, ATP8 and ATP6 ), as well as near-perfect homology (1 bp mismatch) to a nuclear mitochondrial pseudogene (NUMT) sequence located on chromosome 1p36. This lesion was not evident on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequence analysis of either parent, indicating that the mutation had occurred de novo in the patient. Experiments designed to distinguish between a mitochondrial and a nuclear genomic origin for the inserted DNA sequence were, however, inconclusive. Mitochondrial genome sequences from both the patient and his parents were sequenced and found to be identical to the sequence inserted into the PAFAH1B1 gene. Analysis of parental PCR products from the chromosome 1-specific NUMT were also consistent with the interpretation that the inserted sequence had originated directly from the mitochondrial genome. The chromosome 1-specific NUMT in the patient proved to be refractory to PCR analysis, however, suggesting that this region of chromosome 1 could have been deleted or rearranged. Although it remains by far the most likely scenario, in the absence of DNA sequence information from the patient's own chromosome 1-specific NUMT, we cannot unequivocally confirm that the 130 bp insertion originated from mitochondrial genome rather than from the NUMT. PMID:20846927

  20. Isolation precautions

    MedlinePlus

    ... is also important to properly clean up afterward . Transmission-based Precautions Transmission-based precautions are extra steps to follow for illnesses that are caused by certain germs. Transmission-based precautions are followed in addition to standard ...

  1. Effect of light conditions on the resistance of current-year Fagus Crenata seedlings against fungal pathogens causing damping-off in a natural beech forest: fungus isolation and histological and chemical resistance.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, Yu; Yamaji, Keiko

    2009-09-01

    Forest gap dynamics affects light intensity on the forest floor, which in turn may influence defense and survival of tree seedlings. Current-year Fagus crenata seedlings show high mortality under the canopy caused by damping-off. In contrast, they survive pathogen attacks in gaps. However, defense mechanisms against damping-off have not been fully understood. In order to determine the resistance factors that affect mortality in current-year seedlings, we compared seedling survival and chemical and histological characteristics of the hypocotyls of seedlings from closed-stand and forest-edge plots. Damping-off occurred in the current-year seedlings mainly from the end of June to July; survival rate of the seedlings was higher in the forest-edge plot than in the closed-stand plot. By performing an inoculation test on the seedling hypocotyls, we identified Colletotrichum dematium and Cylindrocarpon sp. as the causative pathogens under low illumination only. In the beginning of July, only seedling hypocotyls from the forest-edge plot exhibited periderm formation. From mid-June to July, seedling hypocotyls from the forest-edge plot accumulated approximately twice the amount of total phenols as those accumulated by seedling hypocotyls from the closed-stand plot. The ethyl acetate phase of methanol extracts of hypocotyls showed antifungal activity. We conclude that seedlings from the forest-edge plot may resist pathogenic attack via periderm formation and increased phenol synthesis. Plant defense mechanisms that are controlled by light intensity may be important for promoting seedling regeneration in forest gap dynamics. PMID:19774414

  2. Infectious discitis caused by Enterobacter cloacae.

    PubMed Central

    Solans, R; Simeon, P; Cuenca, R; Fonollosa, V; Bago, J; Vilardell, M

    1992-01-01

    The case is reported of a patient who developed a vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Enterobacter cloacae. The organism was isolated in cultures of blood and vertebral puncture biopsy samples. The patient was satisfactorily treated with trimethroprim and sulphamethoxazole. Enterobacter cloacae, a Gram negative organism, has been confirmed as the cause of bacteremia in patients with burns, urinary infections, in adults with pneumonia, and in children with joint infections. Spondylodiscitis caused by Enterobacter cloacae has not previously been described. Images PMID:1632668

  3. Isolation, purification, and characterization of Phakopsora pachyrhizi isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first reported in the continental United States in November 2004, and is one of the most important foliar diseases of soybean worldwide. P. pachyrhizi isolates have been obtained from 2006 and 2007 across the U. S. and are being purified and maintai...

  4. Isolating causes of yield excursions with decision tress and commonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waksman, Peter

    2002-07-01

    The use of Decision Trees to analyze data is discussed as an approach to solving problems of Yield excursions in semiconductor manufacturing. The relation to equipment commonality is discussed along with some of the pitfalls of incautious use of general probability estimates. The paper introduces a Mixing Diagram to help visualize commonality issues, it introduces work around methods for resolving ambiguities in the commonality, it reviews Decision Trees algorithms, and it ends with a discussion of current limitations of the method along with recommendations for future research.

  5. [Meningoencephalitis caused by Pseudomonas cepacia].

    PubMed

    Pérez Monrás, Miriam Fina; Batlle Almodóvar, María del Carmen; González, Cernero; Tamargo Martínez, Isis; Meneses, Félix Dickinson

    2006-01-01

    A case of meningoencephalitis of bacterial etiology caused by Pseudomonas cepacia was described. The strain was received at the Reference Laboratory of Bacterial Acute Respiratory Infections of "Pedro Kouri" Institute of Tropical Medicine, where its microbiological identification was confirmed. This isolation was a finding in an adult immunocompetent patient. The evolution was favourable with no sequelae for his future life. Pseudomona cepacia has been associated with respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. Patients with Pseudomonas cepacia may be asymptomatic or present fatal acute and fulminant infection. PMID:23427437

  6. What Causes Cardiomyopathy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and can damage the organs, including the heart. Sarcoidosis : A disease that causes inflammation and can affect ... believe that an abnormal immune response may cause sarcoidosis. This abnormal response causes tiny lumps of cells ...

  7. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  8. What Causes Pericarditis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Pericarditis? In many cases, the cause of pericarditis (both acute and chronic) is unknown. Viral infections are likely a common cause of pericarditis, although the virus may never be ...

  9. Renal Abscess Caused by Salmonella Typhi

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Amarjeet; Sarma, Smita; Kumar, Navin; Sengupta, Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella typhi is a true pathogen, which is capable of causing both intestinal and extraintestinal infections. Unusual presentations of Salmonella should always be kept in mind as this organism can cause disease in almost any organ of the body. S. typhi has been reported to cause the life-threatening infections such as meningitis, endocarditis, myocarditis, empyema, and hepatic abscess. Renal involvement by S. typhi is a relatively rare presentation. We report a case of renal abscess caused by S. typhi in an afebrile, 10-year-old child who did not have any clinical history of enteric fever. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of isolation of S. typhi from the renal abscess, and interestingly this isolate was found to be resistant to quinolones. PMID:26417164

  10. Case of Sepsis Caused by Bifidobacterium longum

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Gyoung Yim; Yang, Chang Heon; Kim, Heesoo; Chong, Yunsop

    1999-01-01

    We report a case of sepsis caused by Bifidobacterium longum in a 19-year-old male who had developed high fever, jaundice, and hepatomegaly after acupuncture therapy with small gold needles. Anaerobic, non-spore-forming, gram-positive bacilli were isolated from his blood and finally identified as B. longum. He recovered completely after treatment with ticarcillin and metronidazole. To our knowledge, this is the first report of incidental sepsis caused by B. longum. PMID:10074561

  11. Pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium malmoense.

    PubMed

    Alberts, W M; Chandler, K W; Solomon, D A; Goldman, A L

    1987-06-01

    Mycobacterium malmoense was isolated from pulmonary material from 4 patients. Two patients had repeatedly positive smears and cultures along with roentgenographic progression of pulmonary disease in the absence of another pathogen. These 2 patients therefore meet the criteria for diagnosis of pulmonary mycobacteriosis. Isolation of the organism may represent colonization in a third patient, and M. malmoense has been isolated from a fourth patient on 2 occasions. It is not yet definite, however, that the pulmonary process is due to mycobacterial disease. Although uncommon, pulmonary disease caused by this organism has been reported from Europe. Only 1 prior case of pulmonary disease caused by M. malmoense, however, has been reported in the United States. PMID:3592410

  12. Space Suit (Mobil Biological Isolation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A Houston five-year-old known as David is getting a "space suit," a vitally important gift that will give him mobility he has never known. David suffers from a rare malady called severe combined immune deficiency, which means that be was born without natural body defenses against disease; germs that would have little or no effect on most people could cause his death. As a result, he has spent his entire life in germ-free isolation rooms, one at Houston's Texas Children's hospital, another at his home. The "space suit" David is getting will allow him to spend four hours ata a time in a mobile sterile environment outside his isolation rooms. Built by NASA's Johnson Space Center, it is a specially-designed by product of Space Suit technology known as the mobile biological isolation system.

  13. Acinetobacter seifertii Isolated from China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunxing; Wang, Jianfeng; Fu, Ying; Ruan, Zhi; Yu, Yunsong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Clinical infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. have increasing public health concerns because of their global occurrence and ability to acquire multidrug resistance. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus–Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) complex encompasses A. calcoaceticus, A. baumannii, A. pittii (formerly genomic species 3), and A nosocomial (formerly genomic species 13TU), which are predominantly responsible for clinical pathogenesis in the Acinetobacter genus. In our previous study, a putative novel species isolated from 385 non-A. baumannii spp. strains based on the rpoB gene phylogenetic tree was reported. Here, the putative novel species was identified as A. seifertii based on the whole-genome phylogenetic tree. A. seifertii was recognized as a novel member of the ACB complex and close to A. baumannii and A. nosocomials. Furthermore, we studied the characteristics of 10 A. seifertii isolates, which were distributed widely in 6 provinces in China and mainly caused infections in the elderly or children. To define the taxonomic status and characteristics, the biochemical reactions, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and whole-genome sequence analysis were performed. The phenotypic characteristics failed to distinguish A. serfertii from other species in the ACB complex. Most of the A. seifertii isolates were susceptible to antibiotics commonly used for nosocomial Acinetobacter spp. infections, but one isolate (strain A362) was resistant to ampicillin/sulbactam, ceftazidime and amikacin. The different patterns of MLST and PFGE suggested that the 10 isolates were not identical and lacked clonal relatedness. Our study reported for the first time the molecular epidemiological and genomic features of widely disseminated A. seifertii in China. These observations could enrich the knowledge of infections caused by non-A. baumannii and may provide a scientific basis for future clinical

  14. Improved RF Isolation Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G. L.; Macconnell, J.

    1985-01-01

    Circuit has high reverse isolation and wide bandwidth. Wideband isolation amplifier has low intermodulation distortion and high reverse isolation. Circuit does not require selected or matched components or directional coupling device. Circuit used in applications requiring high reverse isolation such as receiver intermediate-frequency (IF) strips and frequency distribution systems. Also applicable in RF and video signaling.

  15. What Causes Anemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Anemia? The three main causes of anemia are: Blood ... the blood and can lead to anemia. Aplastic Anemia Some infants are born without the ability to ...

  16. What Causes Sarcoidosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Sarcoidosis? The cause of sarcoidosis isn't known. More ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  17. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension (PH) begins with inflammation and changes in the ... different types of PH. Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may have no known cause, or the ...

  18. What Causes Atherosclerosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Atherosclerosis? The exact cause of atherosclerosis isn't known. ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  19. What Causes Cystic Fibrosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Causes Cystic Fibrosis? A defect in the CFTR gene causes cystic fibrosis (CF). This gene makes ... and very salty sweat. Research suggests that the CFTR protein also affects the body in other ways. ...

  20. What Causes Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » What Causes Cancer? Cancer is a complex group of diseases with ... cancer. Learn About Cancer Topics Cancer Basics What Causes Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate ...

  1. What Causes Polycythemia Vera?

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Polycythemia Vera? Primary Polycythemia Polycythemia vera (PV) also ... in the body's JAK2 gene is the main cause of PV. The JAK2 gene makes a protein ...

  2. What Causes Menstrual Irregularities?

    MedlinePlus

    ... menstrual flow Smoking Depression Never having given birth Endometriosis Chronic uterine infection Additional causes of menstrual irregularity include 1 : Endometriosis Endocrine gland-related causes Poorly controlled diabetes Polycystic ...

  3. What Causes Cardiogenic Shock?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Cardiogenic Shock? Immediate Causes Cardiogenic shock occurs if the heart suddenly can't pump ... to the body. The most common cause of cardiogenic shock is damage to the heart muscle from a ...

  4. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Las alergias provocan asma? Do allergies cause asthma? The answer to that question is: yes and ...

  5. Acquired hemophilia A: A rare cause of gross hematuria

    PubMed Central

    Hosier, Gregory W.; Mason, Ross J.; Sue Robinson, K.; Bailly, Gregory G.

    2015-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A is a rare condition caused by spontaneous development of factor VIII inhibitor. This condition most commonly presents with multiple hemorrhagic symptoms and isolated hematuria is exceedingly rare. Early diagnosis is important, as this condition carries a high mortality rate (13–22%). We present a case of an 82-year-old man with isolated hematuria caused by a factor VIII inhibitor who was successfully treated with recombinant activated factor VII concentrate, as well as prednisone and cyclophosphamide. PMID:26834904

  6. Bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in urinary isolates.

    PubMed

    Muratani, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Tetsuro

    2004-09-01

    Escherichia coli accounted for about 80% of organisms in uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs), followed by Staphylococcus spp. especially Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Proteus mirabilis. Against E. coli isolates from patients with uncomplicated UTI, faropenem was the most effective. Up to 1999, fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were not observed in patients with uncomplicated UTI, but in 2001 fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli isolates emerged and accounted for about 8%. Various types of organisms were isolated in patients with complicated UTI. Enterococcus faecalis, E. coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the three most frequent organisms isolated. These three organisms accounted for 44.6%. Amongst oral agents, faropenem showed the lowest rate of resistance against E. coli followed by cephems. The rates of highly fluoroquinolone-resistant and cefpodoxime-resistant E. coli isolates increased rapidly from 1998 to 2001. Fluoroquinolone-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates accounted for about 40% in 2001. Against this species, amikacin was the most effective antimicrobials among all agents tested. About 17% of Pseudomonas were resistant to carbapenem. Eight milligram per litre of ampicillin inhibited all E. faecalis isolates; about 60% of Enterococcus faecium were resistant to ampicillin. The rates of levofloxacin-resistant isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium were 38 and 97% respectively. UTIs caused by vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) are rare in Japan. PMID:15364302

  7. Differentiation among bacteria isolated from turkeys with coryza (rhinotracheitis).

    PubMed

    Rimler, R B; Simmons, D G

    1983-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria isolated from turkeys with coryza in the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the Republic of South Africa were compared with known Alcaligenes species and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The turkey isolates were separated into three distinct groups based on biochemical and physiologic tests. Forty of the 68 isolates studied (group I) were different from Alcaligenes sp. and B. bronchiseptica. Isolates in group I produced a heat-labile hemagglutinin and did not grow on Simmons' citrate agar. Isolates in group II (25 isolates) were similar to A. faecalis and A. odorans, grew on Simmons' citrate agar, and did not produce a hemagglutinin. Isolates in group III were B. bronchiseptica. Isolates from groups I and II caused coryza in poults. Group III isolates were not pathogenic. PMID:6870724

  8. Causes and effects.

    PubMed

    Cone, Carol L; Feldman, Mark A; DaSilva, Alison T

    2003-07-01

    Most companies make charitable donations, but few approach their contributions with an eye toward enhancing their brands. Those that do take such an approach commit talent and know-how, not just dollars, to a pressing but carefully chosen social need and then tell the world about the cause and their service to it. Through the association, both the business and the cause benefit in ways they could not otherwise. Organizations such as Avon, ConAgra Foods, and Chevrolet have recognized that a sustained cause-branding program can improve their reputations, boost their employees' morale, strengthen relations with business partners, and drive sales. And the targeted causes receive far more money than they could have from direct corporate gifts alone. The authors examine these best practices and offer four principles for building successful cause-branding programs. First, they say, a company should select a cause that advances its corporate goals. That is, unless the competitive logic for supporting the cause is clear, a company shouldn't even consider putting its finite resources behind it. Second, a business should commit to a cause before picking its charitable partners. Otherwise, a cause-branding program may become too dependent on its partners. Third, a company should put all its assets to work, especially its employees. It should leverage the professional skills of its workers as well as its other assets such as distribution networks. And fourth, a company should promote its philanthropic initiatives through every possible channel. In addition to using the media, it should communicate its efforts through the Web, annual reports, direct mail, and so on. Cause branding is a way to turn the obligations of corporate citizenship into a valuable asset. When the cause is well chosen, the commitment genuine, and the program well executed, the cause helps the company, and the company helps the cause. PMID:12858714

  9. Single spore isolation and morphological characterization of local Malaysian isolates of rice blast fungus Magnoporthe grisea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ankitta; Ratnam, Wickneswari; Bhuiyan, Md Atiqur Rahman; Ponaya, Ariane; Jena, Khisord K.

    2015-09-01

    Rice blast is a destructive disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea. It causes considerable damage to rice and leads to crop loss in rice growing regions worldwide. Although fungicides can be used to control rice blast, they generate additional cost in rice production and contamination of environment and food. Therefore, the use of resistant varieties is thought to be one of the most economically and environmentally efficient ways of crop protection from the disease. Six new local Malaysian isolates of M. grisea were isolated using single spore isolation method. Five isolates were from infected leaf samples collected from Kompleks Latihan MADA, Kedah and one was from Kelantan. These isolates were identified using morphological characteristics and microscopic studies and later confirmed by ITSequences. These isolates were induced to sporulate and used for greenhouse screening on two differential rice varieties: Mahsuri (susceptible) and Pongsu Seribu 2 (resistant). Among the 6 isolates, isolate number 3 was found to be the most virulent showing high sporulation while isolate number 4 was very slow growing, and the least virulent.

  10. Comparative molecular analysis of ovine and bovine Streptococcus uberis isolates.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, T L; Smith, D G E; Fitzpatrick, J L; Zadoks, R N; Fontaine, M C

    2013-02-01

    Streptococcus uberis causes clinical and subclinical mastitis in cattle and sheep, but it is unknown whether the composition of Strep. uberis populations differs between host species. To address this, we characterized a collection of bovine and ovine Strep. uberis isolates with shared geographical and temporal origins by means of an expanded multilocus sequence typing scheme. Among 14 ovine and 35 bovine isolates, 35 allelic profiles were detected. Each allelic profile was associated with a single host species and all but one were new to the multilocus sequence typing database. The median number of new alleles per isolate was higher for ovine isolates than for bovine isolates. None of the ovine isolates belonged to the global clonal complexes 5 or 143, which are commonly associated with bovine mastitis and which have a wide geographical distribution. Ovine isolates also differed from bovine isolates in carriage of plasminogen activator genes, with significantly higher prevalence of pauB in ovine isolates. Isolates that were negative for yqiL, one of the targets of multilocus sequence typing, were found among ovine and bovine isolates and were not associated with a specific sequence type or global clonal complex. One bovine isolate carried a gapC allele that was probably acquired through lateral gene transfer, most likely from Streptococcus salivarius. We conclude that ovine isolates are distinct from bovine isolates of Strep. uberis, and that recombination between isolates from different host species or bacterial species could contribute to changes in virulence gene profiles with relevance for vaccine development. PMID:23200465

  11. Psychopathology of social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sang-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The most important defining factor of being human is the use of symbolic language. Language or communication problem occurs during the growth, the child will have a higher risk of social isolation and then the survival will be threatened constantly. Today, adolescents and youths are familiar with computer and smart-phone devices, and communication with others by these devices is easy than face-to-face communication. As adolescents and youths live in the comfortable and familiar cyber-world rather than actively participating real society, so they make social isolation. Extreme form of this isolation in adolescents and youths is so-called Socially Withdrawn Youth. In this study, the psychopathological factors inducing social isolation were discussed. Development stages of social isolation in relation with types of social isolation, Ego-syntonic isolation and Ego-dystonic isolation, were also considered. PMID:25061592

  12. What Causes Angina?

    MedlinePlus

    ... blocks the arteries, reducing blood flow to the heart muscle. Some plaque is hard and stable and causes the arteries ... This can greatly reduce blood flow to the heart and cause angina. Other plaque is soft and more likely to rupture (break ...

  13. What Causes Bad Breath?

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? Print A A A Text Size en ... Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  14. Neurological causes of taste disorders.

    PubMed

    Heckmann, J G; Lang, C J G

    2006-01-01

    In caring for patients with taste disorders, the clinical assessment should include complete examination of the cranial nerves and, in particular, gustatory testing. Neurophysiological methods such as blink reflex and masseter reflex allow the testing of trigeminofacial and trigeminotrigeminal pathways. Modern imaging methods (MRI and computed tomography) enable the delineation of the neuroanatomical structures which are involved in taste and their relation to the bony skull base. From a neurological point of view, gustatory disorders can result from damage at any location of the neural gustatory pathway from the taste buds via the peripheral (facial, glossopharyngeal and vagal nerve) and central nervous system (brainstem, thalamus) to its representation within the cerebral cortex. Etiopathogenetically, a large number of causes has to be considered, e.g. drugs and physical agents, cerebrovascular disorders including dissection of the carotid artery and pontine/thalamic lesions, space-occupying processes - in particular tumors compressing the cerebellopontine angle and the jugular foramen of the skull base - head trauma and skull base fractures, isolated cranial mononeuropathy (e.g. Bell's palsy) or polyneuropathy, epilepsy, dementia, multiple sclerosis and major depression. In addition to this, aging can also lead to diminished taste perception. Due to the broad differential diagnostic considerations, it is essential to look for additional, even mild, neurological signs and symptoms. Treatment must relate to the underlying cause. Zinc may be tried in idiopathic dysgeusia. PMID:16733343

  15. Clinically isolated syndromes.

    PubMed

    Miller, David H; Chard, Declan T; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2012-02-01

    Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) is a term that describes a first clinical episode with features suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). It usually occurs in young adults and affects optic nerves, the brainstem, or the spinal cord. Although patients usually recover from their presenting episode, CIS is often the first manifestation of MS. The most notable risk factors for MS are clinically silent MRI lesions and CSF oligoclonal bands; weak or uncertain risk factors include vitamin D deficiency, Epstein-Barr virus infection, smoking, HLA genes, and miscellaneous immunological abnormalities. Diagnostic investigations including MRI aim to exclude alternative causes and to define the risk for MS. MRI findings incorporated into diagnostic criteria in the past decade enable MS to be diagnosed at or soon after CIS presentation. The course of MS after CIS is variable: after 15-20 years, a third of patients have a benign course with minimal or no disability and a half will have developed secondary progressive MS with increasing disability. Prediction of the long-term course at disease onset is unreliable. Disease-modifying treatments delay the development from CIS to MS. Their use in CIS is limited by uncertain long-term clinical prognosis and treatment benefits and adverse effects, although they have the potential to prevent or delay future tissue damage, including demyelination and axonal loss. Targets for future therapeutic progress are to achieve safe and effective long-term immunomodulation with neuroprotection and repair. PMID:22265211

  16. New Ventilated Isolation Cage

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Reginald O.

    1968-01-01

    A multifunction lid has been developed for a commercially available transparent animal cage which permits feeding, watering, viewing, long-term holding, and local transport of laboratory rodents on experiment while isolating the surrounding environment. The cage is airtight except for its inlet and exhaust high-efficiency particulate air filters, and it is completely steam-sterilizable. Opening of the cage's feed and water ports causes an inrush of high velocity air which prevents back-migration of aerosols and permits feeding and watering while eliminating need for chemical vapor decontamination. Ventilation system design permits the holding in adjacent cages of animals infected with different organisms without danger of cross-contamination; leaves the animal room odor-free; reduces required bedding changes to twice a month or less, and provides investigators with capability to control precisely individual cage ventilation rates. Forty-eight cages can be conveniently placed on a standard NIH “shoebox” cage rack (60 inches wide × 28 inches deep × 74 inches high) fitted with a simple manifold exhaust system. The entire system is mobile, requiring only an electrical power outlet. Principal application of the caging system is in the area of preventing exposure of animal caretakers to pathogenic substances associated with the animal host, and in reducing handling of animals and their exposure to extraneous contamination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 9 PMID:5659368

  17. Leading Causes of Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Winter 2012 ... of the lenses in your eyes. They affect vision and are very common in older people. More ...

  18. Dyslexia: Causes, Symptoms, Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Albert J.

    1986-01-01

    The article reviews proposed causes and observable symptoms that characterize dyslexia, concluding that individualized analysis and specialized treatments are required and that, until an operational definition can be agreed upon, use of the label "dyslexia" is counterproductive. (DB)

  19. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  20. What Causes Bronchitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposed to tobacco smoke, dust, fumes, vapors, or air pollution raises your risk for the condition. These lung ... the major cause of the condition. Breathing in air pollution and dust or fumes from the environment or ...

  1. What Causes Hemochromatosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... each parent), you're at risk for iron overload and signs and symptoms of hemochromatosis. If you ... of another disease or condition that causes iron overload. Examples of such diseases and conditions include: Certain ...

  2. Frontotemporal Disorders: Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s Alzheimer's Basics Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Caregiving Other Dementias Publications FAQs Images and Video ...

  3. What Causes Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Varicose Veins? Weak or damaged valves in the veins can ... space. These are varicose veins. Normal Vein and Varicose Vein Figure A shows a normal vein with a ...

  4. Cause of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Cause About the Flu Virus Influenza, or flu, is a respiratory infection ... the virus. Influenza A virus. Credit: CDC Where Influenza Comes From In nature, the flu virus is ...

  5. Causes of Ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate to the National Ataxia Foundation Causes of Ataxia The hereditary ataxias are genetic, which means they ... the disease is inherited as a recessive gene. Ataxia Gene Identified in 1993 The first ataxia gene ...

  6. Causes of Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... impact critical functions like thought, comprehension, and speech. > Cerebral palsy CP is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain. > Friedreich’s ataxia An inherited disease that leads to ...

  7. What causes bone loss?

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions can cause osteoporosis. Some of these are: Hormone-blocking treatments for prostate cancer or breast cancer Some medicines that are used to treat seizures or epilepsy Steroid medicines, if they are taken by mouth every ...

  8. What Causes Cough?

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause a cough. Other irritants include air pollution, paint fumes, or scented products like perfumes or air fresheners. An allergen is something you're allergic to, such as dust, animal dander, mold, or pollens from trees, grasses, and ...

  9. Leading Causes of Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Summer 2008 ... of the lenses in your eyes. They affect vision and are very common in older people. More ...

  10. What Causes Respiratory Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... easily move oxygen into your blood and remove carbon dioxide from your blood (gas exchange). This can cause a low oxygen level or high carbon dioxide level, or both, in your blood. Respiratory failure ...

  11. [Does vaccination cause disease?].

    PubMed

    Zingg, W

    2005-10-01

    Not many inventions in medical history have influenced our society as much as vaccination. The concept is old and simple. When Edward Jenner published his work on cowpox, "variolation" was quite common. In this procedure, pus of patients with mild smallpox was transferred to healthy individuals. Meanwhile smallpox has been eradicated worldwide. Diseases such as poliomyelitis, diphtheria or tetanus almost disappeared in industrialized countries. The same happened with epiglottitis and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) after vaccination against Hib was introduced in Switzerland in 1990. This success was possible because of routine vaccination. Immunization is a save procedure and adverse events are much lower than complications in the natural course of the prevented diseases. However vaccinations were accused to cause diseases themselves such as asthma, multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic arthritis or autism. Hitherto no large cohort study or case-control-study was able to proof responsibility of vaccines in any of these diseases. Public media are eager to publish early data from surveillance reports or case reports which are descriptive and never a principle of cause and effect. In large controlled trials there was no proof that vaccination causes asthma, hepatitis-B-vaccination causes multiple sclerosis or macrophagic myofasciitis, Hib-vaccination causes diabetes mellitus, rubella-vaccination causes chronic arthritis, measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination causes gait disturbance or thiomersal causes autism. These results are rarely published in newspapers or television. Thus, many caring parents are left with negative ideas about immunization. Looking for the best for their children they withhold vaccination and give way to resurgence of preventable diseases in our communities. This must be prevented. There is more evidence than expected that vaccination is safe and this can and must be told to parents. PMID:16277033

  12. Secondary causes of dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Vodnala, Deepthi; Rubenfire, Melvyn; Brook, Robert D

    2012-09-15

    The causes of the lipid disorders in patients referred to specialty clinics for difficult-to-treat dyslipidemias are likely multifactorial. However, the importance of evaluating for secondary causes is unclear. The investigators performed a chart review of new patients referred to the University of Michigan Lipid Clinic from January 2004 to June 2011 (n = 824) to evaluate for the prevalence of several secondary causes of dyslipidemia. In addition to lipoproteins, new patients were assessed for secondary dyslipidemias by a standardized protocol consisting of laboratory testing, a nutritional evaluation, and medical history. These data were evaluated to determine the prevalence of several secondary causes of dyslipidemia. A total of 363 separate factors were identified in the 824 patients that were thought to be potential secondary causes of dyslipidemia. Because some patients (n = 83 [10%]) had multiple conditions, there were 230 (28% of the cohort) with ≥1 potential secondary dyslipidemias. The most common conditions were excessive alcohol intake (n = 82 [10%]), uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (n = 68 [8%]), and overt albuminuria. Although other causes occurred less frequently (each individually found in <5% of patients), altogether they were present in a substantial portion of patients (n = 102 [12%]). In conclusion, nearly 1/3 of patients referred to a specialty clinic had identifiable secondary conditions plausibly contributing to their dyslipidemia. Numerous disorders were identified, with diabetes mellitus and excessive alcohol being the most common. PMID:22658245

  13. Mutation and premating isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, R. C.; Thompson, J. N. Jr

    2002-01-01

    While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

  14. Isolation, pathogenicity, and H120 protection efficacy of infectious bronchitis viruses isolated in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, C H; Hsieh, M C; Chang, P C

    1996-01-01

    Seven isolates of infectious bronchitis (IB) virus (IBV) were isolated from two breeder farms and five broiler farms in Taiwan in 1992. The cardinal signs of disease in breeders were egg production drops and watery albumen, and those in broilers were respiratory distress and renal urate deposition or death. All diseased chickens had been vaccinated with IB vaccines (mostly H120). The viruses were isolated and identified by chicken embryo inoculation and electron microscopy. The genomes of the isolates were extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction; the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis suggested that the genotypes of the present IBV isolates were different from the eight reference strains. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free chicks were inoculated with the field isolates in order to test the virulence of those isolates. Respiratory distress and depression commenced at 24 hours after inoculation. Two of the seven isolates were found to be highly virulent, causing 50% or more mortality in inoculated chicks. Vaccine protection tests showed that H120 could protect chickens against challenges with four of six field isolates. PMID:8883793

  15. Rare causes of osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Marcucci, Gemma; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Summary Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by loss of bone mass and strength, resulting in increased risk of fractures. It is classically divided into primary (post-menopausal or senile), secondary and idiopathic forms. There are many rare diseases, that cause directly or indirectly osteoporosis. The identification and classification of most of these rare causes of osteoporosis is crucial for the specialists in endocrinology and not, in order to prevent this bone complication and to provide for an early therapy. Several pathogenic mechanisms are involved, including various aspects of bone metabolism such as: decreased bone formation, increased bone resorption, altered calcium, phosphorus and/or vitamin D homeostasis, and abnormal collagen synthesis. In this review, less common forms of primary and secondary osteoporosis are described, specifying, if applicable: genetic causes, epidemiology, clinical features, and pathogenic mechanisms causing osteoporosis. A greater awareness of all rare causes of osteoporosis could reduce the number of cases classified as idiopathic osteoporosis and allow the introduction of appropriate and timely treatments. PMID:26604941

  16. Broadband optical isolator based on helical metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hu; Yang, ZhenYu; Zhao, Ming; Wu, Lin; Zhang, Peng

    2015-05-01

    Based on helical metamaterials, a new broadband optical isolator with a triple-helix structure is proposed in this paper. The right-handed circularly polarized light can transmit through the isolator with its polarization unchanged. The reverse propagating light, which is caused by the reflection of the latter optical devices, is converted into left-handed circularly polarized light that is suppressed by the proposed isolator because of absorption. Our design has some unprecedented advantages such as broad frequency ranges and a compact structure; moreover, neither polarizers nor adscititious magnetic fields are required. Properties of the isolator are investigated using the finite-difference time-domain method, and this phenomenon is studied by the mechanism of helical antenna theory. PMID:26366900

  17. Champions of a cause

    SciTech Connect

    McChesney, S.

    1995-03-01

    As customer choice becomes more and more of an issue, utilities are looking at ways to differentiate their company and service. This article describes one tactic - cause-related marketing - for building customer loyalty to the utility brand. As utilities focus on marketing and are less able to justify short-term philanthropy, cause-related marketing may help them at once meet a social need and create competitive advantage. It may even help break down the organizational boundaries that inhibit the communication, flexibility, and creativity needed to succeed in a competitive market. Successful utilities likely will have service packages that are customized for different groups of customers. One or several of those groups, for example, may respond particularly to the utility`s attitude to the community or a particular cause.

  18. Self-protecting solid state isolated switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. C.; Gooder, S. T.

    1974-01-01

    Solid state switch has following capabilities: (1) Hybrid or IC from compatible with direct mounting on solar array substrate; (2) Continuous signal is not required to hold it in either on or off state; (3) Separate signal lines for on and off control; (4) Electrically isolated from input signals; and (5) Current surges will not cause switch failure.

  19. Genomics and isolation of emerging CHRO species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the genus Campylobacter have been isolated from a wide variety of environments, as well as multiple avian and mammalian hosts. Campylobacters have been implicated in disease in both livestock and humans, primarily causing gastroenteritis in the latter. Several Campylobacter species, predo...

  20. RHEOLOGY OF EXTRUDED WHEY PROTEIN ISOLATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whey protein isolate (WPI), a high-quality protein used to fortify a number of foods, may be texturized with a twin-screw extruder. Since extrusion of food is commonly performed above 70°C, which causes whey protein to denature, cold extrusion below 70°C was investigated to determine the effects on...

  1. Isolation and Laboratory Maintenance of Brachyspira Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brachyspira species are anaerobic spirochetes inhabiting intestinal tracts of animals and humans. Several species cause transmissible intestinal diseases of swine and birds. This unit describes methods for the isolation of Brachyspira from fecal samples, cultivation on liquid and solid media, and lo...

  2. Hybrid isolation of micro vibrations induced by reaction wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dae-Oen; Park, Geeyong; Han, Jae-Hung

    2016-02-01

    As the technology for precision satellite payloads continues to advance, the requirements for the pointing stability of the satellites are becoming extremely high. In many situations, even small amplitude disturbances generated by the onboard components may cause serious degradation in the performance of high precision payloads. In such situations, vibration isolators can be installed to reduce the vibration transmission. In this work, a hybrid vibration isolator comprising passive and active components is proposed to provide an effective solution to the vibration problems caused by the reaction wheel disturbances. Firstly, mathematical modeling and experimental study of a single axis vibration isolator having high damping and high roll-off rate for the high frequency region and active components that enhance isolation performance for narrow frequency bands are presented. This concept is then extended to multi-axis by forming Stewart platform and the performance is experimentally verified. The tests on a flexible testbed show effective vibration isolation by the proposed vibration isolator.

  3. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  4. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... not yet known. Certain changes in a person’s DNA can cause thyroid cells to become cancerous. DNA is the chemical in each of our cells ... parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA affects more than just how we ...

  5. What Causes Rett Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... is caused by mutations in X-linked MECP2 . Nature Genetics , Oct;23(2), 185–188. [top] Schollen, ... 1581. Retrieved June 23, 2012, from http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v17/n12/full/ejhg200995a.html [ ...

  6. Landslides - Cause and effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radbruch-Hall, D. H.; Varnes, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Landslides can cause seismic disturbances; landslides can also result from seismic disturbances, and earthquake-induced slides have caused loss of life in many countries. Slides can cause disastrous flooding, particularly when landslide dams across streams are breached, and flooding may trigger slides. Slope movement in general is a major process of the geologic environment that places constraints on engineering development. In order to understand and foresee both the causes and effects of slope movement, studies must be made on a regional scale, at individual sites, and in the laboratory. Areal studies - some embracing entire countries - have shown that certain geologic conditions on slopes facilitate landsliding; these conditions include intensely sheared rocks; poorly consolidated, fine-grained clastic rocks; hard fractured rocks underlain by less resistant rocks; or loose accumulations of fine-grained surface debris. Field investigations as well as mathematical- and physical-model studies are increasing our understanding of the mechanism of slope movement in fractured rock, and assist in arriving at practical solutions to landslide problems related to all kinds of land development for human use. Progressive failure of slopes has been studied in both soil and rock mechanics. New procedures have been developed to evaluate earthquake response of embankments and slopes. The finite element method of analysis is being extensively used in the calculation of slope stability in rock broken by joints, faults, and other discontinuities. ?? 1976 International Association of Engineering Geology.

  7. Teacher Dismissal for Cause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Brad; Schumacher, Gary; Hammonds, Craig

    2013-01-01

    This case presents a discussion of events that led to the dismissal of a teacher for cause. A first year high school principal is confronted with teacher behavior that creates a dangerous situation for students. The decision process to determine the appropriate organizational response involves a number of individuals and systems. The…

  8. Anaphylaxis caused by banana.

    PubMed

    Savonius, B; Kanerva, L

    1993-04-01

    An anaphylactic reaction following ingestion of banana occurred in a 32-year-old female cook. The sensitization to banana occurred simultaneously with the development of occupational asthma caused by grain flour. The patient was sensitized to a wide range of airborne and ingestible proteins but not to rubber latex. PMID:8506993

  9. What Causes Rainbows?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, John

    2004-01-01

    If one looks at a rain cloud with the Sun behind one's back, the sunlight and water drops may interact just right, revealing the familiar arc of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. Many of people have been pleasantly surprised to see a rainbow in the sky, but probably have not considered why they occur. Rainbows are caused by…

  10. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  11. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  12. Characterization of Recently Introduced HLB and CTV Isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Severe stem-pitting isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were found in Florida citrus 5 years ago, followed by the discovery 2 years later of the citrus greening disease (huanglongbing: HLB) caused by the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. The new CTV isolates are members of the VT grou...

  13. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    A positive isolation disconnect was developed for component replacement in serviced liquid and gaseous spacecraft systems. Initially a survey of feasible concepts was made to determine the optimum method for fluid isolation, sealing techniques, coupling concepts, and foolproofing techniques. The top concepts were then further evaluated, including the fabrication of a semifunctional model. After all tradeoff analyses were made, a final configuration was designed and fabricated for development testing. This resulted in a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) line and 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) line positive isolation disconnect, each unit consisting of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique was incorporated that prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation.

  14. Genetic characteristics of Japanese clinical Listeria monocytogenes isolates.

    PubMed

    Miya, Satoko; Takahashi, Hajime; Nakagawa, Miku; Kuda, Takashi; Igimi, Shizunobu; Kimura, Bon

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes causes foodborne illnesses through consumption of ready-to-eat foods. Although 135-201annual listeriosis cases have been estimated in Japan, the details regarding the clinical isolates such as infection source, virulence level, and other genetic characteristics, are not known. In order to uncover the trends of listeriosis in Japan and use the knowledge for prevention measures to be taken, the genetic characteristics of the past human clinical isolates needs to be elucidated. For this purpose, multilocus tandem-repeat sequence analysis (MLTSA) and multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST) were used in this study. The clinical isolates showed a variety of genetically distant genotypes, indicating they were from sporadic cases. However, the MVLST profiles of 7 clinical isolates were identical to those of epidemic clone (EC) I isolates, which have caused several serious outbreaks in other countries, suggesting the possibility that they have strong virulence potential and originated from a single outbreak. Moreover, 6 Japanese food isolates shared their genotypes with ECI isolates, indicating that there may be risks for listeriosis outbreak in Japan. This is the first investigational study on genetic characteristics of Japanese listeriosis isolates. The listeriosis cases happened in the past are presumably sporadic, but it is still possible that some isolates with strong virulence potential have caused listeriosis outbreaks, and future listeriosis risks also exist. PMID:25826318

  15. Advanced Technology for Isolating Payloads in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.

    1997-01-01

    One presumption of scientific microgravity research is that while in space disturbances are minimized and experiments can be conducted in the absence of gravity. The problem with this assumption is that numerous disturbances actually occur in the space environment. Scientists must consider all disturbances when planning microgravity experiments. Although small disturbances, such as a human sneeze, do not cause most researchers on earth much concern, in space, these minuscule disturbances can be detrimental to the success or failure of an experiment. Therefore, a need exists to isolate experiments and provide a quiescent microgravity environment. The objective of microgravity isolation is to quantify all possible disturbances or vibrations and then attenuate the transmission of the disturbance to the experiment. Some well-defined vibration sources are: experiment operations, pumps, fans, antenna movements, ventilation systems and robotic manipulators. In some cases, it is possible to isolate the source using simple vibration dampers, shock absorbers and other isolation devices. The problem with simple isolation systems is that not all vibration frequencies are attenuated, especially frequencies less than 0.1 Hz. Therefore, some disturbances are actually emitted into the environment. Sometimes vibration sources are not well defined, or cannot be controlled. These include thermal "creak," random acoustic vibrations, aerodynamic drag, crew activities, and other similar disturbances. On some "microgravity missions," such as the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML) and the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) missions, the goal was to create extended quiescent times and limit crew activity during these times. This might be possible for short periods, but for extended durations it is impossible due to the nature of the space environment. On the International Space Station (ISS), vehicle attitude readjustments are required to keep the vehicle in a minimum

  16. Actinomyces Species Isolated from Breast Infections

    PubMed Central

    Loh, S. F.; Morris, T.; Hughes, H.; Dixon, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by Actinomyces species characterized by abscess formation, tissue fibrosis, and draining sinuses. The spectrum of infections caused by Actinomyces species ranges from classical invasive actinomycosis to a less invasive form of superficial skin and soft tissue infection. We present a review detailing all Actinomyces species isolated from breast infections in NHS Lothian between 2005 and 2013, Actinomyces species isolated from breast infections referred to the United Kingdom Anaerobe Reference Unit between 1988 and 2014, and cases describing Actinomyces breast infections published in the medical literature since 1994. Actinomyces species are fastidious organisms which can be difficult to identify and are likely to be underascertained as a cause of breast infections. Due to improved diagnostic methods, they are increasingly associated with chronic, recurrent breast infections and may play a more significant role in these infections than has previously been appreciated. PMID:26224846

  17. Atypical causes of cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ken D; Sundaram, Vinay; Ayoub, Walid S

    2014-01-01

    Cholestatic liver disease consists of a variety of disorders. Primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis are the most commonly recognized cholestatic liver disease in the adult population, while biliary atresia and Alagille syndrome are commonly recognized in the pediatric population. In infants, the causes are usually congenital or inherited. Even though jaundice is a hallmark of cholestasis, it is not always seen in adult patients with chronic liver disease. Patients can have “silent” progressive cholestatic liver disease for years prior to development of symptoms such as jaundice and pruritus. In this review, we will discuss some of the atypical causes of cholestatic liver disease such as benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, Alagille Syndrome, biliary atresia, total parenteral nutrition induced cholestasis and cholestasis secondary to drug induced liver injury. PMID:25071336

  18. Prior Colonization with an Avirulent Haemophilus parasuis Isolate Prevents Disease from a Subsequent Virulent Challenge with a Heterologous Isolate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four groups of pigs were inoculated with a different isolate of Haemophilus parasuis intranasally (SW114, 12939, MN-H, and 29755), with a fifth group serving as sham inoculated controls. Three of the 4 isolates (12939, MN-H, and 29755) caused systemic disease, while the SW114 pigs remained healthy ...

  19. Particles causing lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.

    1984-04-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of an agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. 164 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  20. Pyelonephritis Caused Solely by Escherichia hermanii

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yan Qing; Xin, Bing; Sun, Shu Qing

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In contrast with Escherichia coli, the association of E. hermanii with urinary tract infections has not been described. Case Presentation: In this case, E. hermanii was the sole isolate recovered from urine specimens of a pyelonephritis patient. The organism was found to be susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefazolin, cefixime, aztreonam, gentamicin, tobramycin, imipenem, meropenem and amikacin, and resistant to amoxicillin. Antibiotic treatment was initiated with oral cefixime (400 mg every 24 hours). The symptoms were relieved within 72 hours after therapy. A urine sample was taken seven days after antibiotic therapy. E. hermanii was no longer isolated. Discussion: The present case demonstrates that the uropathogenic E. hermanii clone can cause destruction of the kidneys. During asymptomatic bacteriuria or cystitis, the bacteria remain in the urinary tract. Even when pyelonephritis develops, inflammatory response of the host is still restricted to the urinary tract. These signs mean that uropathogenic E. hermanii may be not very virulent. PMID:25147714

  1. [Phenotype characterization of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans isolates].

    PubMed

    Huérfano, Sandra; Cepero, Maria Caridad; Castañeda, Elizabeth

    2003-09-01

    Cryptococcosis is caused by the three varieties of C. neoformans with physiological and virulence differences, some of which have been studied to determine biological aspects of this microorganism. The phenotypical aspects of environmental isolates from varieties grubii and gattii were evaluated to establish differences associated with their life cycle and virulence. To this end, 28 and 31 strains of C. neoformans serotypes A (var. grubii) and C (var. gattii) were studied. The microscopic and macroscopic morphology on Sabouraud agar and soils, growth rate at 37 degrees C, production of 22 extracellular enzymes, haploid fructification, mating type, killer toxin sensitivity patterns and virulence in BALB/c mice were evaluated. No differences were observed between the two varieties regarding microscopic and macroscopic morphology or growth at 37 degrees C (p > 0.05). However, a decrease in the cellular and capsular sizes of yeast in soil, as compared to Sabouraud, was observed (p < 0.05). Additionally, higher enzimatic activity of proteases, phospholipases, phenoloxidase and beta-glucosidase was observed in var. grubii isolates as compared to var. gattii (p < 0.05). In both varieties, structures related with haploid fruitification were observed and all isolates were mating type alpha. Killer toxin sensitivity patterns of the isolates of var. grubii were I and II; in contrast, in var. gattii, seven different patterns were found: I, V, IX-XIII. In the animal model we found that 12 of 22 (54.5%) isolates of var. grubii caused the death of the mice during the observation period, while none of the 14 var. gattii isolates caused it. The decrease in capsular and cellular sizes of the yeast in soil and the frequency of mating type alpha with structures related to haploid fructification suggest an important mechanism of production of infectious particles in nature. Additionally, greater enzimatic activity of var. grubii can be associated with the virulence in the animal model

  2. Advanced Technology for Isolating Payloads in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.

    1997-01-01

    One presumption of scientific microgravity research is that while in space disturbances are minimized and experiments can be conducted in the absence of gravity. The problem with this assumption is that numerous disturbances actually occur in the space environment. Scientists must consider all disturbances when planning microgravity experiments. Although small disturbances, such as a human sneeze, do not cause most researchers on earth much concern, in space, these minuscule disturbances can be detrimental to the success or failure of an experiment. Therefore, a need exists to isolate experiments and provide a quiescent microgravity environment. The objective of microgravity isolation is to quantify all possible disturbances or vibrations and then attenuate the transmission of the disturbance to the experiment. Some well-defined vibration sources are: experiment operations, pumps, fans, antenna movements, ventilation systems and robotic manipulators. In some cases, it is possible to isolate the source using simple vibration dampers, shock absorbers and other isolation devices. The problem with simple isolation systems is that not all vibration frequencies are attenuated, especially frequencies less than 0.1 Hz. Therefore, some disturbances are actually emitted into the environment. Sometimes vibration sources are not well defined, or cannot be controlled. These include thermal "creak," random acoustic vibrations, aerodynamic drag, crew activities, and other similar disturbances. On some "microgravity missions," such as the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML) and the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) missions, the goal was to create extended quiescent times and limit crew activity during these times. This might be possible for short periods, but for extended durations it is impossible due to the nature of the space environment. On the International Space Station (ISS), vehicle attitude readjustments are required to keep the vehicle in a minimum

  3. Fault detection and isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernath, Greg

    1994-01-01

    In order for a current satellite-based navigation system (such as the Global Positioning System, GPS) to meet integrity requirements, there must be a way of detecting erroneous measurements, without help from outside the system. This process is called Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI). Fault detection requires at least one redundant measurement, and can be done with a parity space algorithm. The best way around the fault isolation problem is not necessarily isolating the bad measurement, but finding a new combination of measurements which excludes it.

  4. Molecular typing of Chinese Streptococcus pyogenes isolates.

    PubMed

    You, Yuanhai; Wang, Haibin; Bi, Zhenwang; Walker, Mark; Peng, Xianhui; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Haijian; Song, Yanyan; Tao, Xiaoxia; Kou, Zengqiang; Meng, Fanliang; Zhang, Menghan; Bi, Zhenqiang; Luo, Fengji; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes causes human infections ranging from mild pharyngitis and impetigo to serious diseases including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The objective of this study was to compare molecular emm typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) for genotyping of Chinese S. pyogenes isolates. Molecular emm typing and PFGE were performed using standard protocols. Seven variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci reported in a previous study were used to genotype 169 S. pyogenes geographically-diverse isolates from China isolated from a variety of disease syndromes. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis provided greater discrimination between isolates when compared to emm typing and PFGE. Removal of a single VNTR locus (Spy2) reduced the sensitivity by only 0.7%, which suggests that Spy2 was not informative for the isolates screened. The results presented support the use of MLVA as a powerful epidemiological tool for genotyping S. pyogenes clinical isolates. PMID:25843529

  5. Geographically isolated wetlands: Rethinking a misnomer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, David M.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Cohen, Matthew J.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie G.; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Walls, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the category “geographically isolated wetlands” (GIWs; i.e., wetlands completely surrounded by uplands at the local scale) as used in the wetland sciences. As currently used, the GIW category (1) hampers scientific efforts by obscuring important hydrological and ecological differences among multiple wetland functional types, (2) aggregates wetlands in a manner not reflective of regulatory and management information needs, (3) implies wetlands so described are in some way “isolated,” an often incorrect implication, (4) is inconsistent with more broadly used and accepted concepts of “geographic isolation,” and (5) has injected unnecessary confusion into scientific investigations and discussions. Instead, we suggest other wetland classification systems offer more informative alternatives. For example, hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classes based on well-established scientific definitions account for wetland functional diversity thereby facilitating explorations into questions of connectivity without an a priori designation of “isolation.” Additionally, an HGM-type approach could be used in combination with terms reflective of current regulatory or policymaking needs. For those rare cases in which the condition of being surrounded by uplands is the relevant distinguishing characteristic, use of terminology that does not unnecessarily imply isolation (e.g., “upland embedded wetlands”) would help alleviate much confusion caused by the “geographically isolated wetlands” misnomer.

  6. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Murthy, G; Hargens, A R; Lehman, S; Rempel, D M

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue. PMID:11398857

  7. Particles causing lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, K H

    1984-01-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of an agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response, appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. The insidious and probably most important human lung disease due to particles is bronchiolar obstruction and obliteration, producing progressive impairment of air flow. The responsible particle is the complex combination of poorly digestive lipids and complex carbohydrates with active chemicals which we call cigarette smoke. More research is needed to perfect, correct and

  8. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  9. Isolated sleep paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... from sleep. It is not associated with another sleep disorder. Symptoms Episodes of isolated sleep paralysis last from ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Sleep Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  10. Base isolation: Fresh insight

    SciTech Connect

    Shustov, V.

    1993-07-15

    The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the two basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.

  11. Pharmacological causes of hyperprolactinemia

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Daria La; Falorni, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common endocrinological disorder that may be caused by several physiological and pathological conditions. Several drugs may determine a significant increase in prolactin serum concentration that is frequently associated with symptoms. The so-called typical antipsychotics are frequently responsible for drug-related hyperprolactinemia. Risperidone is one of the atypical neuroleptics most likely to induce hyperprolactinemia, while other atypical drugs are unfrequenlty and only transiently associated with increase of prolactin levels. Women are more sensitive than men to the hyperprolactinemic effect of antipsychotics. Classical and risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia may be revert when a gradual antipsychotic drug discontinuation is combined with olanzapine or clozapine initiation. Antidepressant drugs with serotoninergic activity, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO-I) and some tricyclics, can cause hyperprolactinemia. A long list of other compounds may determine an increase in prolactin levels, including prokinetics, opiates, estrogens, anti-androgens, anti-hypertensive drugs, H2-receptor antagonists, anti-convulsivants and cholinomimetics. Finally, hyperprolactinemia has also been documented during conditioning and after autologous blood stem-cell transplantation and during chemotherapy, even though disturbances of prolactin seem to occur less frequently than impairments of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad/thyroid axis after intensive treatment and blood marrow transplantation. PMID:18473017

  12. Case of Onychomycosis Caused by Microsporum racemosum

    PubMed Central

    García-Martos, Pedro; Gené, Josepa; Solé, María; Mira, José; Ruíz-Henestrosa, Ricardo; Guarro, Josep

    1999-01-01

    We report the case of a Spanish 60-year-old female who presented in 1997 with onychomycosis of the left thumbnail following an injury caused by a fresh fish bone. Microsporum racemosum was repeatedly cultured from nail scrapings, and its identity was confirmed by sequencing the isolate’s ITS1/ITS2 and 5.8S rRNA regions. The patient was successfully treated with itraconazole, which was administered for 12 weeks. This represents the first case of onychomycosis due to M. racemosum and the first time that this species has been isolated from a human in Europe. PMID:9854108

  13. Pyoderma gangraenosum caused by Rhizopus arrhizus.

    PubMed

    Liao, W Q; Yao, Z R; Li, Z Q; Xu, H; Zhao, J

    1995-01-01

    A rare case of pyoderma gangraenosum caused by Rhizopus arrhizus is reported. The patient, a 50-year-old male farmer, was admitted to hospital complaining of gangrening and festering of the right upper arm with severe pain for nearly 2 months. A lesion was found on the inside of right upper arm. The central skin part of the lesion became black dry gangrenous, the periphery was deeply ulcerated with yellow-green pus. The necrotic crust, biceps, triceps and vessels inherited a histopathologically proven fungal infection. The fungus isolated was identified as Rhizopus arrhizus. The infection was successfully treated with itraconazole. PMID:7637685

  14. Isolated sleep paralysis.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Neena S; Parkar, Shubhangi R; Tambe, Ravindra

    2005-10-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a cardinal symptom of narcolepsy. However, little is available in the literature about isolated sleep paralysis. This report discusses the case of a patient with isolated sleep paralysis who progressed from mild to severe SP over 8 years. He also restarted drinking alcohol to be able to fall asleep and allay his anxiety symptoms. The patient was taught relaxation techniques and he showed complete remission of the symptoms of SP on follow up after 8 months. PMID:20711316

  15. Allovahlkampfia spelaea Causing Keratitis in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Tolba, Mohammed Essa Marghany; Huseein, Enas Abdelhameed Mahmoud; Farrag, Haiam Mohamed Mahmoud; Mohamed, Hanan El Deek; Kobayashi, Seiki; Suzuki, Jun; Ali, Tarek Ahmed Mohamed; Sugano, Sumio

    2016-01-01

    Background Free-living amoebae are present worldwide. They can survive in different environment causing human diseases in some instances. Acanthamoeba sp. is known for causing sight-threatening keratitis in humans. Free-living amoeba keratitis is more common in developing countries. Amoebae of family Vahlkampfiidae are rarely reported to cause such affections. A new genus, Allovahlkampfia spelaea was recently identified from caves with no data about pathogenicity in humans. We tried to identify the causative free-living amoeba in a case of keratitis in an Egyptian patient using morphological and molecular techniques. Methods Pathogenic amoebae were culture using monoxenic culture system. Identification through morphological features and 18S ribosomal RNA subunit DNA amplification and sequencing was done. Pathogenicity to laboratory rabbits and ability to produce keratitis were assessed experimentally. Results Allovahlkampfia spelaea was identified as a cause of human keratitis. Whole sequence of 18S ribosomal subunit DNA was sequenced and assembled. The Egyptian strain was closely related to SK1 strain isolated in Slovenia. The ability to induce keratitis was confirmed using animal model. Conclusions This the first time to report Allovahlkampfia spelaea as a human pathogen. Combining both molecular and morphological identification is critical to correctly diagnose amoebae causing keratitis in humans. Use of different pairs of primers and sequencing amplified DNA is needed to prevent misdiagnosis. PMID:27415799

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Isolate Staphylococcus aureus LHSKBClinical, Isolated from an Infected Hip

    PubMed Central

    Stipetic, Laurence H.; Hamilton, Graham; Dalby, Matthew J.; Davies, Robert L.; Meek, R. M. Dominic; Ramage, Gordon; Smith, David G. E.

    2015-01-01

    We report here the genome sequence of a clinical isolate of Staphylococcus aureus from an orthopedic infection. Phenotypically diverse Staphylococcus aureus strains are associated with orthopedic infections and subsequent implant failure, and some are highly resistant to antibiotics. This genome sequence will support further analyses of strains causing orthopedic infections. PMID:25931597

  17. Valproate causes metabolic disturbance in normal man.

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, D M; Dick, D J; Wilson, L; Sherratt, H S; Alberti, K G

    1986-01-01

    Valproate is an important anticonvulsant which is rarely associated with fatal hepatotoxicity. Previous experiments have shown that valproate inhibits several metabolic processes in isolated rat hepatocytes and when administered to starved rats causes a fall in the blood concentrations of glucose and ketone bodies. Since these changes may be related to the hepatotoxicity, the effect of valproate administration on intermediary metabolism in man was studied. One gram of valproate given orally to fasted normal humans caused a 78% fall in the concentration of 3-hydroxybutyrate and a 60% fall in total ketones. Also the concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, alanine and glycerol increased after valproate administration. Similar changes were observed after intravenous administration of 400 mg of valproate. Valproate clearly has a significant effect on intermediary metabolism in the liver and this is probably related to the mechanism of the hepatotoxicity. PMID:3084712

  18. Susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes, L. innocua, and L. welshimeri Isolated from Various Sources to Antibiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Listeriosis is a leading cause of death from foodborne illnesses in the United States. Emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains of Listeria monocytogenes could cause major public health concerns. Few studies have examined antimicrobial susceptibility of L. monocytogenes isolated fr...

  19. Empyema Caused by Pseudomonas luteola: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Farid; Shoja, Saeed; Honarvar, Negin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pseudomonas luteola is an uncommon opportunistic pathogen. It is recognized as an uncommon cause of infections in underlying medical disorders. Infections caused by this microorganism are health care associated. Case Presentation: The current study isolated P. luteola from empyema in a patient with tuberculous pleurisy, whose susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole differed from previous reports. Conclusions: P. luteola is resistant to TMP-SMX, but in the present case P. luteola was susceptible to TMP-SMX PMID:25368791

  20. Interaction of varying Fusarium oxysporum isolates with different sugarbeet lines.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium oxysporum can cause a wilt or yellows, as well as a root rot of sugar beet. Isolates that cause yellows symptoms on sugar beet are classified as F. oxysporum f. sp. betae (FOB). While host resistance to FOB is available, growers have reported variable results when using resistant material...

  1. Methanol shutdowns cause anxiety

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, N.

    1996-10-23

    European methanol players face an anxious few weeks as unscheduled outages combine with planned turnarounds to make an increasingly tight market. Global markets are also described as tightening, with production problems widely reported in North America. Several European producers were in the middle of shutdown periods when problems at Condea`s 400,000-m.t./year unit at Wesseling, Germany reportedly caused production to run at only 50% of capacity. In addition, the methanol plant at the Leuna refinery is said to be operating at only 60% of capacity, and one producer has had to extend a turnaround period. River levels in Germany are also low, putting pressure on shipments from Rotterdam. {open_quotes}This is a very difficult situation and we`re living hand to mouth,{close_quotes} says one producer. Producer sources report bids from consumers up to DM280/m.t. T2 fob Rotterdam, but they are unable to obtain extra product. Derivatives makers may also face problems: One methyl tert-butyl ether producer predicts prices {open_quotes}may hit the roof{close_quotes} once feedstock sourcing problems hit home.

  2. Burns caused by carburetors.

    PubMed

    Still, Joseph; Law, Edward; Orlet, Hermann; Wilson, Joan

    2003-01-01

    During a 10-year period 4645 patients were admitted to the Joseph M. Still Burn Center with acute burns. Of these, 83 (1.79%) were caused by carburetor-related accidents. There were 79 males and 4 females. Ages ranged from 10 to 72 years. Burn size ranged from 1 to 97.5% (mean, 12.3%). There was one death in the group. Eighteen patients required only topical care; 65 patients required a total of 108 operations for debridement and grafting. Length of stay ranged from 1 to 63 days (mean, 11 days). The mechanism of injury was usually the same; in 81 cases the accident occurred while someone was pouring gasoline into a carburetor. In 63 cases the vehicle was an automobile or pickup truck. Explosions resulted in 12 instances; in 65 instances fires were started. These injuries are serious, expensive, fairly common, and may be life threatening. Proper handling of gasoline is stressed. Newer vehicles have fuel injector systems, which may gradually eliminate the problem over time, because pouring gasoline is not required. PMID:12543992

  3. Clinical Islet Isolation.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Wayne J; Williams, Lindy; Chew, Yi Vee

    2016-01-01

    The overarching success of islet transplantation relies on the success in the laboratory to isolate the islets. This chapter focuses on the processes of human islet cell isolation and the ways to optimally provide islet cells for transplantation. The major improvements in regards to the choice of enzyme type, way the digested pancreas tissue is handled to best separate islets from the acinar and surrounding tissues, the various methods of purification of the islets, their subsequent culture and quality assurance to improve outcomes to culminate in safe and effective islet transplantation will be discussed. After decades of improvements, islet cell isolation and transplantation now clearly offer a safe, effective and feasible therapeutic treatment option for an increasing number of patients suffering from type 1 diabetes specifically for those with severe hypoglycaemic unawareness. PMID:27586424

  4. Strain isolated ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolokan, R. P.; Brady, J. B.; Jarrabet, G. P.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are used in gas turbine engines to improve component temperature capability and cooling air efficiency. A compliant metal fiber strain isolator between a plasma sprayed ceramic coating and a metal substrate improves ceramic durability while allowing thicker coatings for better insulation. Development of strain isolated coatings has concentrated on design and fabrication of coatings and coating evaluation via thermal shock testing. In thermal shock testing, five types of failure are possible: buckling failure im compression on heat up, bimetal type failure, isothermal expansion mismatch failure, mudflat cracking during cool down, and long term fatigue. A primary failure mode for thermally cycled coatings is designated bimetal type failure. Bimetal failure is tensile failure in the ceramic near the ceramic-metal interface. One of the significant benefits of the strain isolator is an insulating layer protecting the metal substrate from heat deformation and thereby preventing bimetal type failure.

  5. Nucleic acid isolation

    DOEpatents

    Longmire, J.L.; Lewis, A.K.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1988-01-21

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduces the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without effect on the protocol.

  6. Nucleic acid isolation process

    DOEpatents

    Longmire, Jonathan L.; Lewis, Annette K.; Hildebrand, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

  7. One hundred human pancreatic islet isolations at Baylor Research Institute.

    PubMed

    Takita, Morihito; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Shimoda, Masayuki; Chujo, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Koji; Itoh, Takeshi; Lamont, Jeffrey P; Lara, Luis F; Onaca, Nicholas; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Klintmalm, Goran B; Levy, Marlon F

    2010-10-01

    The effectiveness of pancreatic islet isolation must be maximized to make islet cell transplantation (ICT) a standard therapy. We have performed 100 human islet isolations at Baylor Research Institute including islet isolations for research, for clinical allogeneic transplantation, and for autologous islet transplantation. In this study, we analyzed the results of these isolations. First, we assessed 79 islet isolations using brain-dead donors to determine variables associated with successful islet isolation. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that seven variables influenced the success of islet isolation for allogeneic ICT: cause of death, mechanism of death, techniques for pancreas procurement and preservation, heavy fatty infiltration, collagenase type, dilution time, and islet purification method. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that only the current isolation protocol, the Baylor Islet Isolation Method (BIIM)-with its four required elements of pancreas procurement by the team, pancreatic ductal injection, the two-layer method with perfluorocarbon, and density-adjusted density gradient purification-had a significant positive impact on successful islet isolation (P = 0.02). Second, we compared allogeneic and autologous ICT using the BIIM. There were no significant differences in islet yields between allogeneic and autologous ICT using the BIIM; total islet yield after purification was 628 ± 84 × 10(3) IE in allogeneic ICT vs. 576 ± 49 × 10(3) IE in autologous ICT (P = 0.59). This retrospective study revealed that the BIIM provided favorable outcomes for both autologous and allogeneic ICT. PMID:20944753

  8. Genetic Characterization of Shigella flexneri Isolates in Guizhou Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shijun; Sun, Qiangzheng; Wei, Xiaoyu; Klena, John D.; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Ying; Tian, Kecheng; Luo, Xia; Ye, Changyun; Xu, Jianguo; Wang, Dingming; Tang, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Shigella flexneri is one of the major etiologic causes of shigellosis in Guizhou Province, China. However, the genetic characteristics of circulating isolates are unknown. Phenotypic and molecular profiles of 60 S. flexneri isolates recovered in Guizhou between 1972 to 1982 and 2008 to 2010 were determined. Nine serotypes (1a, 2a, 3a, 1b, 2b, X, Y, 4av and Yv) were identified. Multi-locus sequence typing differentiated the isolates into 20 sequence types (STs); 18 were novel. Four STs, ST 129, ST 100, ST 126 and ST 18, were most abundant, accounting for 65% of the isolates. Thirty-nine NotI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns (pulsotypes, PTs) were observed; eight PTs were represented by more than one isolate with six isolates sharing the PT 13 profile. Multi-locus variable-nucleotide tandem-repeat analysis recognized 44 different types (MTs); seven MTs were represented by more than one isolate and MT 1 was most commonly encountered. Correlation between genetic relationships and serotypes was observed among the isolates studied; the majority of isolates belonging to the same serotype from different years clustered together based on the molecular data. These clustered isolates were also from similar geographical origins. These results enhance our understanding of genetic relationships between S. flexneri in Guizhou Province and can be used to help understand the changing etiology of shigellosis in China. PMID:25617838

  9. Novel clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive disease in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Johanna M; Mohd Yusof, Mohd Yasim; Devi Sekaran, Shamala; Clarke, Stuart C

    2014-01-01

    Although Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of childhood disease in South East Asia, little has previously been reported regarding the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Malaysia and very few studies have explored pneumococcal epidemiology using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Here we describe serotype, multilocus sequence type (ST), and penicillin susceptibility of thirty pneumococcal invasive disease isolates received by the University of Malaya Medical Centre between February 2000 and January 2007 and relate this to the serotypes included in current pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. A high level of diversity was observed; fourteen serotypes and 26 sequence types (ST), (11 of which were not previously described) were detected from 30 isolates. Penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci accounted for 33% of isolates. The extent of molecular heterogeneity within carried and disease-causing Malaysian pneumococci remains unknown. Larger surveillance and epidemiological studies are now required in this region to provide robust evidence on which to base future vaccine policy. PMID:24941079

  10. Occurrence of Anthracnose on Chinese Mallow Caused by Colletotrichum malvarum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wan Gyu; Hong, Sung Kee; Kim, Jin Hee

    2008-06-01

    Anthracnose symptoms were frequently observed on leaves, petioles, and stems of Chinese mallow grown in Namyangju, Korea, during a disease survey performed in November, 2007. The disease incidence was as high as 30% in the 12 greenhouses investigated. A total of 38 isolates of the Colletotrichum species were obtained from the anthracnose symptoms, and all the isolates were identified as Colletotrichum malvarum based on their morphological and culture characteristics. Three isolates of the fungus caused anthracnose symptoms on leaves and stems following artificial inoculation, which were similar to those observed during the greenhouse survey. In this study, mycological and pathological characteristics of C. malvarum identified as causing anthracnose of Chinese mallow were clarified. PMID:23990748

  11. [Relapse: causes and consequences].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P

    2013-09-01

    Relapse after a first episode of schizophrenia is the recurrence of acute symptoms after a period of partial or complete remission. Due to its variable aspects, there is no operational definition of relapse able to modelise the outcome of schizophrenia and measure how the treatment modifies the disease. Follow-up studies based on proxys such as hospital admission revealed that 7 of 10 patients relapsed after a first episode of schizophrenia. The effectiveness of antipsychotic medications on relapse prevention has been widely demonstrated. Recent studies claim for the advantages of atypical over first generation antipsychotic medication. Non-adherence to antipsychotic represents with addictions the main causes of relapse long before some non-consensual factors such as premorbid functioning, duration of untreated psychosis and associated personality disorders. The consequences of relapse are multiple, psychological, biological and social. Pharmaco-clinical studies have demonstrated that the treatment response decreases with each relapse. Relapse, even the first one, will contribute to worsen the outcome of the disease and reduce the capacity in general functionning. Accepting the idea of continuing treatment is a complex decision in which the psychiatrist plays a central role besides patients and their families. The development of integrated actions on modifiable risk factors such as psychosocial support, addictive comorbidities, access to care and the therapeutic alliance should be promoted. Relapse prevention is a major goal of the treatment of first-episode schizophrenia. It is based on adherence to the maintenance treatment, identification of prodromes, family active information and patient therapeutical education. PMID:24084426

  12. Legionella spp. isolation and quantification from greywater.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Blanky, Marina; Friedler, Eran; Halpern, Malka

    2015-01-01

    Legionella, an opportunistic human pathogen whose natural environment is water, is transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Legionella has been isolated from a high diversity of water types. Due its importance as a pathogen, two ISO protocols have been developed for its monitoring. However, these two protocols are not suitable for analyzing Legionella in greywater (GW). GW is domestic wastewater excluding the inputs from toilets and kitchen. It can serve as an alternative water source, mainly for toilet flushing and garden irrigation; both producing aerosols that can cause a risk for Legionella infection. Hence, before reuse, GW has to be treated and its quality needs to be monitored. The difficulty of Legionella isolation from GW strives in the very high load of contaminant bacteria. Here we describe a modification of the ISO protocol 11731:1998 that enables the isolation and quantification of Legionella from GW samples. The following modifications were made:•To enable isolation of Legionella from greywater, a pre-filtration step that removes coarse matter is recommended.•Legionella can be isolated after a combined acid-thermic treatment that eliminates the high load of contaminant bacteria in the sample. PMID:26740925

  13. Legionella spp. isolation and quantification from greywater

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Blanky, Marina; Friedler, Eran; Halpern, Malka

    2015-01-01

    Legionella, an opportunistic human pathogen whose natural environment is water, is transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Legionella has been isolated from a high diversity of water types. Due its importance as a pathogen, two ISO protocols have been developed for its monitoring. However, these two protocols are not suitable for analyzing Legionella in greywater (GW). GW is domestic wastewater excluding the inputs from toilets and kitchen. It can serve as an alternative water source, mainly for toilet flushing and garden irrigation; both producing aerosols that can cause a risk for Legionella infection. Hence, before reuse, GW has to be treated and its quality needs to be monitored. The difficulty of Legionella isolation from GW strives in the very high load of contaminant bacteria. Here we describe a modification of the ISO protocol 11731:1998 that enables the isolation and quantification of Legionella from GW samples. The following modifications were made:•To enable isolation of Legionella from greywater, a pre-filtration step that removes coarse matter is recommended.•Legionella can be isolated after a combined acid-thermic treatment that eliminates the high load of contaminant bacteria in the sample. PMID:26740925

  14. Carbon utilization profiles of Fusarium virguliforme isolates.

    PubMed

    Tang, E; Hill, C B; Hartman, G L

    2010-12-01

    Fusarium virguliforme is the cause of sudden death syndrome in soybean. Physiological variability among isolates of the fungus is unknown. One way to measure physiologic variability is to analyze growth on different carbon sources. The carbon source utilization profiles of 18 F. virguliforme isolates were examined using the Biolog FF 96-well microplate, which contains 95 different carbon sources. The utilization of dextrin,D-mannitol, maltotriose,D-lactic acid methyl ester, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, salicin, D-trehalose, and L-alanine differed significantly among isolates (P = 0.05). Carbon sources were grouped into 3 clusters based on their ability to promote growth of F. virguliforme, after calculating Euclidean distances among them. About 12% of the carbon sources promoted a high amount of mycelial growth, 39% promoted a medium amount of growth, and 49% promoted a low amount of mycelial growth; the latter was not significantly different from the water blank control. A hierarchical tree diagram was produced for the 18 isolates based on their carbon source utilization profiles using Ward's hierarchical analysis method. Two main clusters of isolates were formed. One cluster represented greater average mycelial growth on all of the carbon sources than the other cluster. In this study, variability in carbon source utilization among F. virguliforme isolates was evident, but the results were not associated with geographic origin of the isolates, year collected, or published data on aggressiveness. Additional research is needed to determine if these carbon utilization profiles are associated with other biological characteristics, like spore germination, propagule formation, and saprophytic competitiveness. PMID:21164567

  15. [Isolated anterior cervical hypertrichosis].

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, B; Cabanillas, M; de las Heras, C; Cacharrón, J M

    2009-01-01

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis was described by Trattner and coworkers in 1991. It consists of a of hair at the anterior cervical level just above the laryngeal prominence. To date, only 28 cases of anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Although it is normally an isolated finding, it may be associated with mental retardation, hallux valgus, retinal disorders, other hair disorders, facial dysmorphism, or sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy. We report the case of a 27-year-old woman who presented with this condition as an isolated finding. PMID:19268113

  16. Bartonella Species as a Potential Cause of Epistaxis in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Maggi, Ricardo; Hawkins, Eleanor; Dyer, Page

    2005-01-01

    Infection with a Bartonella species was implicated in three cases of epistaxis in dogs, based upon isolation, serology, or PCR amplification. These cases, in conjunction with previously published reports, support a potential role for Bartonella spp. as a cause of epistaxis in dogs and potentially in other animals, including humans. PMID:15872304

  17. Case of Keratitis Caused by an Uncommon Fusarium Species

    PubMed Central

    Guarro, Josep; Rubio, Carmen; Gené, Josepa; Cano, Josep; Gil, Joaquina; Benito, Rafael; Moranderia, M. José; Miguez, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    Fusarium polyphialidicum caused a corneal ulcer in a Spanish man. Diagnosis was established by a histopathological study and repeated cultures. The isolate was clearly resistant in vitro to the antifungal agents tested. This is the first case of human or animal mycosis by this rare fungus. PMID:14662993

  18. Genotypic Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains Causing Traveler's Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Fulton P.; Medina, Anicia M.; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; Sangil, Anna; Gascon, Joaquim; Ochoa, Theresa J.; Vila, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to characterize the presence of virulence factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causing traveler's diarrhea. Among 52 ETEC isolates, the most common toxin type was STh, and the most frequent colonization factors (CFs) were CS21, CS6, and CS3. On the other hand, the nonclassical virulence factors EAST1 and EatA were frequently present. PMID:23224092

  19. Epidemic of Postsurgical Infections Caused by Mycobacterium massiliense▿

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Rafael Silva; Lourenço, Maria Cristina Silva; Fonseca, Leila de Souza; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Amorim, Efigenia de Lourdes T.; Rocha, Ingrid L. L.; Coelho, Fabrice Santana; Viana-Niero, Cristina; Gomes, Karen Machado; da Silva, Marlei Gomes; de Oliveira Lorena, Nádia Suely; Pitombo, Marcos Bettini; Ferreira, Rosa M. C.; de Oliveira Garcia, Márcio Henrique; de Oliveira, Gisele Pinto; Lupi, Otilia; Vilaça, Bruno Rios; Serradas, Lúcia Rodrigues; Chebabo, Alberto; Marques, Elizabeth Andrade; Teixeira, Lúcia Martins; Dalcolmo, Margareth; Senna, Simone Gonçalves; Sampaio, Jorge Luiz Mello

    2009-01-01

    An epidemic of infections after video-assisted surgery (1,051 possible cases) caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) and involving 63 hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, occurred between August 2006 and July 2007. One hundred ninety-seven cases were confirmed by positive acid-fast staining and/or culture techniques. Thirty-eight hospitals had cases confirmed by mycobacterial culture, with a total of 148 available isolates recovered from 146 patients. Most (n = 144; 97.2%) isolates presented a PRA-hsp65 restriction pattern suggestive of Mycobacterium bolletii or Mycobacterium massiliense. Seventy-four of these isolates were further identified by hsp65 or rpoB partial sequencing, confirming the species identification as M. massiliense. Epidemic isolates showed susceptibility to amikacin (MIC at which 90% of the tested isolates are inhibited [MIC90], 8 μg/ml) and clarithromycin (MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml) but resistance to ciprofloxacin (MIC90, ≥32 μg/ml), cefoxitin (MIC90, 128 μg/ml), and doxycycline (MIC90, ≥64 μg/ml). Representative epidemic M. massiliense isolates that were randomly selected, including at least one isolate from each hospital where confirmed cases were detected, belonged to a single clone, as indicated by the analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. They also had the same PFGE pattern as that previously observed in two outbreaks that occurred in other Brazilian cities; we designated this clone BRA100. All five BRA100 M. massiliense isolates tested presented consistent tolerance to 2% glutaraldehyde. This is the largest epidemic of postsurgical infections caused by RGM reported in the literature to date in Brazil. PMID:19403765

  20. Causes for "ghost" manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borok, S.; Goldfarb, I.; Gol'dshtein, V.

    2009-05-01

    ;71:359-82; Flockerzi D. Tutorial: intrinsic low-dimensional manifolds and slow attractors. Magdeburg: Max-Planck-Institut; 2001-2005. ; Flockerzi D, Heineken W. Comment on "Identification of low order manifolds: validating the algorithm of Maas and Pope". Chaos 1999;9:108-23; Flockerzi D, Heineken W. Comment on "Identification of low order manifolds: validating the algorithm of Maas and Pope". Chaos 2006;16:048101]. The present work studies the causes for the "ghost" manifolds appearance for the case of a two-dimensional singularly perturbed system.

  1. Characterization of Colletotrichum acutatum Causing Anthracnose of Anemone (Anemone coronaria L.)†

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Stanley; Shabi, Ezra; Katan, Talma

    2000-01-01

    Anthracnose, or leaf-curl disease of anemone, caused by Colletotrichum sp., has been reported to occur in Australia, western Europe, and Japan. Symptoms include tissue necrosis, corm rot, leaf crinkles, and characteristic spiral twisting of floral peduncles. Three epidemics of the disease have been recorded in Israel: in 1978, in 1990 to 1993, and in 1996 to 1998. We characterized 92 Colletotrichum isolates associated with anthracnose of anemone (Anemone coronaria L.) for vegetative compatibility (72 isolates) and for molecular genotype (92 isolates) and virulence (4 isolates). Eighty-six of the isolates represented the three epidemics in Israel, one isolate was from Australia, and five isolates originated from western Europe. We divided these isolates into three vegetative-compatibility groups (VCGs). One VCG (ANE-A) included all 10 isolates from the first and second epidemics, and 13 of 62 examined isolates from the third epidemic in Israel, along with the isolate from Australia and 4 of 5 isolates from Europe. Another VCG (ANE-F) included most of the examined isolates (49 of the 62) from the third epidemic, as well as Colletotrichum acutatum from strawberry, in Israel. Based on PCR amplification with species-specific primers, all of the anemone isolates were identified as C. acutatum. Anemone and strawberry isolates of the two VCGs were genotypically similar and indistinguishable when compared by arbitrarily primed PCR of genomic DNA. Only isolate NL-12 from The Netherlands, confirmed as C. acutatum but not compatible with either VCG, had a distinct genotype; this isolate represents a third VCG of C. acutatum. Isolates from anemone and strawberry could infect both plant species in artificial inoculations. VCG ANE-F was recovered from natural infections of both anemone and strawberry, but VCG ANE-A was recovered only from anemone. This study of C. acutatum from anemone illustrates the potential of VCG analysis to reveal distinct subspecific groups within a

  2. Phylogenetic grouping, epidemiological typing, analysis of virulence genes, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from healthy broilers in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was to investigate the possible etiology of avian colibacillosis by examining Escherichia coli isolates from fecal samples of healthy broilers. Findings Seventy-eight E. coli isolates from fecal samples of healthy broilers in Japan were subjected to analysis of phylogenetic background, virulence-associated gene profiling, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), and antimicrobial resistance profiling. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that 35 of the 78 isolates belonged to group A, 28 to group B1, one to group B2, and 14 to group D. Virulence-associated genes iutA, iss, cvaC, tsh, iroN, ompT, and hlyF were found in 23 isolates (29.5%), 16 isolates (20.5%), nine isolates (11.5%), five isolates (6.4%), 19 isolates (24.4%), 23 isolates (29.5%), and 22 isolates (28.2%) respectively. Although the genetic diversity of group D isolates was revealed by MLST, the group D isolates harbored iutA (10 isolates, 71.4%), iss (6 isolates, 42.9%), cvaC (5 isolates, 35.7%), tsh (3 isolates, 21.4%), hlyF (9 isolates, 64.3%), iroN (7 isolates, 50.0%), and ompT (9 isolates, 64.3%). Conclusions Our results indicated that E. coli isolates inhabiting the intestines of healthy broilers pose a potential risk of causing avian colibacillosis. PMID:25061511

  3. Biological Isolation Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A spinoff of astronaut's biological garment will allow hospital patients who are highly vulnerable to infection to leave their sterile habitats for several hours, carrying their germ free environment with them. Garments can be used in any of some 200 hospitals where isolation rooms are installed to treat leukemia.

  4. Isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Poolman, Rudolf W; van Kampen, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose The optimal treatment for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is unclear at present. We systematically reviewed the highest level of available evidence on the nonoperative and operative treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis to develop an evidenced-based discussion of treatment options. Methods A systematic computerized database search (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (PubMed), and EMBASE) was performed in March 2009. The quality of the studies was assessed independently by two authors using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Results We extracted data from 44 articles. The best available evidence for treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is sparse and of generally low methodological quality. Nonoperative treatment using physiotherapy (GRADE: high quality, weak recommendation for use), taping (GRADE: moderate quality, weak recommendation for use), or injection therapy (GRADE: very low quality, weak recommendation for use) may result in short-term relief. Joint-preserving surgical treatment may result in insufficient, unpredictable, or only short-term improvement (GRADE: low quality, weak recommendation against use). Total knee replacement with patellar resurfacing results in predictable and good, durable results (GRADE: low quality, weak recommendation for use). Outcome after patellofemoral arthroplasty in selected patients is good to excellent (GRADE: low quality, weak recommendation for use). Interpretation Methodologically good quality comparative studies, preferably using a patient-relevant outcome instrument, are needed to establish the optimal treatment strategy for patients with isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis. PMID:20175647

  5. Chiral fiber optical isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Victor I.; Zhang, Guoyin; Zhang, Sheng; Genack, Azriel Z.; Neugroschl, Dan

    2009-02-01

    We propose an in-fiber chiral optical isolator based on chiral fiber polarizer technology and calculate its performance by incorporating the magnetic field into the scattering matrix. The design will be implemented in a special preform, which is passed through a miniature heat zone as it is drawn and twisted. The birefringence of the fiber is controlled by adjusted the diameter of a dual-core optical fiber. By adjusting the twist, the fiber can convert linear to circular polarization and reject one component of circular polarization. In the novel central portion of the isolator, the fiber diameter is large. The effective birefringence of the circular central core with high Verdet constant embedded in an outer core of slightly smaller index of refraction is small. The central potion is a non-reciprocal polarization converter which passes forward traveling left circularly polarized (LCP) light as LCP, while converting backward propagating LCP to right circularly polarized (RCP) light. Both polarizations of light traveling backwards are scattered out of the isolator. Since it is an all-glass structure, we anticipate that the isolator will be able to handle several watts of power and will be environmentally robust.

  6. Biological isolation garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spross, F. R.

    1968-01-01

    Biological Isolation Garment /BIG/ is a one-piece loose fitting garment fabricated from a tightly woven, permeable, 100 percent-cotton fabric. Its headpiece, incorporates an integral oronsal respirator with 0.3-micron-particle filters, and a full width visor. All fabrication seams are sealed on the inside of the garment.

  7. Breaking Down Racial Isolation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Lloyd A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the "Across the Lines" project involving an interchange between students and teachers of two racially isolated schools in the Hartford (Connecticut) area. A racial mix of 50/50 was achieved through planned science museum visits, randomly paired pen pals, and an MCI electronic mail connection between schools. (MLH)

  8. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of

  9. Whole Genome Analysis of Epidemiologically Closely Related Staphylococcus aureus Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Schijffelen, Maarten; Konstantinov, Sergey R.; Lina, Gérard; Spiliopoulou, Iris; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Brouwer, Ellen C.; Fluit, Ad C.

    2013-01-01

    The change of the bacteria from colonizers to pathogens is accompanied by a drastic change in expression profiles. These changes may be due to environmental signals or to mutational changes. We therefore compared the whole genome sequences of four sets of S. aureus isolates. Three sets were from the same patients. The isolates of each pair (S1800/S1805, S2396/S2395, S2398/S2397, an isolate from colonization and an isolate from infection, respectively) were obtained within <30 days of each other and the isolate from infection caused skin infections. The isolates were then compared for differences in gene content and SNPs. In addition, a set of isolates from a colonized pig and a farmer from the same farm at the same time (S0462 and S0460) were analyzed. The isolates pair S1800/S1805 showed a difference in a prophage, but these are easily lost or acquired. However, S1805 contained an integrative conjugative element not present in S1800. In addition, 92 SNPs were present in a variety of genes and the isolates S1800 and S1805 were not considered a pair. Between S2395/S2396 two SNPs were present: one was in an intergenic region and one was a synonymous mutation in a putative membrane protein. Between S2397/S2398 only one synonymous mutation in a putative lipoprotein was found. The two farm isolates were very similar and showed 12 SNPs in genes that belong to a number of different functional categories. However, we cannot pinpoint any gene that explains the change from carrier status to infection. The data indicate that differences between the isolate from infection and the colonizing isolate for S2395/S2396 and S2397/S2398 exist as well as between isolates from different hosts, but S1800/S1805 are not clonal. PMID:24205205

  10. Isolation and molecular characterization of a new Neospora caninum isolate from cattle in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Campero, L M; Venturini, M C; Moore, D P; Massola, L; Lagomarsino, H; García, B; Bacigalupe, D; Rambeaud, M; Pardini, L; Leunda, M R; Schares, G; Campero, C M

    2015-08-01

    Neospora caninum is one of the most important causes of bovine abortion, but isolation of live parasites from infected tissue is difficult. The aims of the present study were to obtain new isolates of N. caninum from congenitally infected asymptomatic newborn cattle in Argentina and to perform characterization by multilocus-microsatellite analysis. Five clinically normal born calves, with demonstrable N. caninum antibodies in precolostrum serum by indirect fluorescent antibody test, were euthanized and their brain samples were processed for histopathological, immunohistochemical, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, and for bioassay in γ-interferon knockout (GKO) mice. Although N. caninum DNA was detected in brain from all the calves by PCR, viable N. caninum was isolated in GKO mice from only one calf. Neospora caninum tachyzoites of this Argentinean isolate, designated NC-Argentina LP1, were propagated in VERO cell cultures seeded with tachyzoites from the infected GKO mice tissues. Multilocus-microsatellite typing on DNA derived from cell cultured tachyzoites revealed a unique genetic pattern, different from reported isolates. This is the first bovine isolation and genetic characterization of N. caninum in Argentina. PMID:25913666

  11. Characterization of Bacteroides forsythus isolates.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, T; Kurihara, H; Dahlen, G

    1997-06-01

    Fifteen Bacteroides forsythus strains freshly isolated from patients with periodontitis were used together with three collection strains and one type strain for characterization of growth on various media; determination of enzymatic profiles, antibiotic susceptibility profiles, 16S rRNA ribotypes, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) outer membrane protein profiles, and pathogenicity; and gas chromatography analysis by using a wound chamber model in rabbits. All strains were stimulated by N-acetylmuramic acid, while one strain needed a further supplement such as yeast extract for optimal growth. All strains showed trypsin-like activity. While 10 different ribotypes were found, the SDS-PAGE profiles revealed similar patterns for all strains. All strains were sensitive to penicillin G (MICs, <0.5 microg/ml), ampicillin (MICs, <1.0 microg/ml), amoxicillin (MICs, <0.38 microg/ml), metronidazole (MICs, <0.005 microg/ml), tetracycline (MICs, <0.19 microg/ml), doxycycline (MICs, 0.05 microg/ml), erythromycin (MICs, <0.4 microg/ml), and clindamycin (MICs, <0.016 microg/ml), while they were less sensitive to ciprofloxacin (MICs, <4 microg/ml). B. forsythus did not cause abscess formation by monoinoculation. B. forsythus coinoculated with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 10953 caused abscess formation in 75% of rabbits, while it caused abscess formation in 100% of rabbits when it was coinoculated with Porphyromonas gingivalis FDC 381. In the case of the latter combination, four of six rabbits died of sepsis after 6 to 7 days, and P. gingivalis and B. forsythus were recovered from the heart blood at a proportion of 10:1. B. forsythus strains were highly virulent and invasive in combination with P. gingivalis. PMID:9163447

  12. Characterization of Bacteroides forsythus isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, T; Kurihara, H; Dahlen, G

    1997-01-01

    Fifteen Bacteroides forsythus strains freshly isolated from patients with periodontitis were used together with three collection strains and one type strain for characterization of growth on various media; determination of enzymatic profiles, antibiotic susceptibility profiles, 16S rRNA ribotypes, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) outer membrane protein profiles, and pathogenicity; and gas chromatography analysis by using a wound chamber model in rabbits. All strains were stimulated by N-acetylmuramic acid, while one strain needed a further supplement such as yeast extract for optimal growth. All strains showed trypsin-like activity. While 10 different ribotypes were found, the SDS-PAGE profiles revealed similar patterns for all strains. All strains were sensitive to penicillin G (MICs, <0.5 microg/ml), ampicillin (MICs, <1.0 microg/ml), amoxicillin (MICs, <0.38 microg/ml), metronidazole (MICs, <0.005 microg/ml), tetracycline (MICs, <0.19 microg/ml), doxycycline (MICs, 0.05 microg/ml), erythromycin (MICs, <0.4 microg/ml), and clindamycin (MICs, <0.016 microg/ml), while they were less sensitive to ciprofloxacin (MICs, <4 microg/ml). B. forsythus did not cause abscess formation by monoinoculation. B. forsythus coinoculated with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 10953 caused abscess formation in 75% of rabbits, while it caused abscess formation in 100% of rabbits when it was coinoculated with Porphyromonas gingivalis FDC 381. In the case of the latter combination, four of six rabbits died of sepsis after 6 to 7 days, and P. gingivalis and B. forsythus were recovered from the heart blood at a proportion of 10:1. B. forsythus strains were highly virulent and invasive in combination with P. gingivalis. PMID:9163447

  13. Genetic defect causing familial Alzheimer's disease maps on chromosome 21

    SciTech Connect

    St. George-Hyslop, P.H.; Tanzi, R.E.; Polinsky, R.J.; Haines, J.L.; Nee, L.; Watkins, P.C.; Myers, R.H.; Feldman, R.G.; Pollen, D.; Drachman, D.; Growdon, J.

    1987-02-20

    Alzheimer's disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Several families have been described in which Alzheimer's disease is caused by an autosomal dominant gene defect. The chromosomal location of this defective gene has been discovered by using genetic linkage to DNA markers on chromosome 21. The localization on chromosome 21 provides an explanation for the occurrence of Alzheimer's disease-like pathology in Down syndrome. Isolation and characterization of the gene at this locus may yield new insights into the nature of the defect causing familial Alzheimer's disease and possibly, into the etiology of all forms of Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Comparison of Pathogenicity of Various Isolates of Bordetella Bronchiseptica in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Richard F.; Switzer, William P.; Duncan, J. Robert

    1967-01-01

    Eight groups of 12-to 24-hour-old pigs were procured from a respiratory disease-free herd of swine and reared in isolation using a box-rearing procedure. They were inoculated intranasally at 3 days of age with different isolates of Bordetella bronchiseptica. It was found at necropsy 4 weeks post-inoculation that 4 isolates of swine origin, an isolate of rabbit origin and an isolate of cat origin caused mild to moderate turbinate atrophy in 22 of 24 pigs. An isolate of rat origin caused mild turbinate atrophy in 1 of 4 pigs and an isolate of dog origin caused no turbinate atrophy. Pneumonia was present in most of the pigs inoculated with the swine, cat and rabbit isolates. Bordetella bronchiseptica was recovered in heavy growth from the nasal and tracheal exudate collected at necropsy from pigs inoculated with the 4 isolates of swine origin and the isolate of cat origin. Fewer organisms were isolated from nasal exudate collected from pigs inoculated with the rat, dog and rabbit isolates. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5. PMID:4226661

  15. Drugs that may cause impotence

    MedlinePlus

    Impotence caused by medications; Drug-induced erectile dysfunction; Prescription medicines and impotence ... Many medicines and recreational drugs can affect a man's sexual arousal and sexual performance. What causes impotence in one ...

  16. Drugs that may cause impotence

    MedlinePlus

    Impotence caused by medications; Drug-induced erectile dysfunction; Prescription medicines and impotence ... Many medicines and recreational drugs can affect a man's sexual ... What causes impotence in one man may not affect another man. ...

  17. Causes of chronic bronchitis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is caused most often by exposure to airborne pollutants such as cigarette smoke, excessive dust in the ... becomes inflamed and the constant exposure to such pollutants begins to cause damage in the bronchioles (the ...

  18. What Causes Sickle Cell Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Sickle Cell Disease? Abnormal hemoglobin, called hemoglobin S , causes sickle cell ... that hemoglobin works. ( See Overview. ) How Is Sickle Cell Disease Inherited? When the hemoglobin S gene is inherited ...

  19. What Causes Coronary Microvascular Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Angina Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors ... Microvascular Disease? The same risk factors that cause atherosclerosis may cause coronary microvascular disease. Atherosclerosis is a ...

  20. Other Causes of Leg Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues Special Section Other Causes of Leg Pain Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For ... a crowd of people walking. Photo: iStock Leg pain can come from a variety of causes. Your ...

  1. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  2. Isolated Painless Foot Drop due to Cerebral Infarction Mimicking Lumbar Radiculopathy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Yong; Kim, Do Keun

    2015-01-01

    Although they usually originate from peripheral problems, foot drop is caused by lesions affecting the neural pathway related to dorsiflexor muscles, whether of central or peripheral origin. We present a patient with sudden isolated foot drop caused by a small infarct in the primary motor cortex mimicking a peripheral origin. This report indicates that patients presenting isolated foot drop should be managed carefully and the possibility of both central and peripheral causes should be considered. To our knowledge, this is the first report of sudden isolated foot drop caused by a cortical infarction mimicking lumbar radiculopathy. PMID:26512287

  3. Clonality of Bacterial Pathogens Causing Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Pudová, V; Htoutou Sedláková, M; Kolář, M

    2016-09-01

    Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is one of the most serious complications in patients staying in intensive care units. This multicenter study of Czech patients with HAP aimed at assessing the clonality of bacterial pathogens causing the condition. Bacterial isolates were compared using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Included in this study were 330 patients hospitalized between May 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014 at departments of anesthesiology and intensive care medicine of four big hospitals in the Czech Republic. A total of 531 bacterial isolates were obtained, of which 267 were classified as etiological agents causing HAP. Similarity or identity was assessed in 231 bacterial isolates most frequently obtained from HAP patients. Over the study period, no significant clonal spread was noted. Most isolates were unique strains, and the included HAP cases may therefore be characterized as mostly endogenous. Yet there were differences in species and potential identical isolates between the participating centers. In three hospitals, Gram-negative bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) prevailed as etiological agents, and Staphylococcus aureus was most prevalent in the fourth center. PMID:27170306

  4. Bacillus odysseyi isolate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri (Inventor); La Duc, Myron Thomas (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus odysseyi isolate with high adherence and sterilization resistant properties. B. odysseyi is a round spore forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and the type strain is 34hs-1.sup.T (=ATCC PTA-4993.sup.T=NRRL B-30641.sup.T=NBRC 100172.sup.T). The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of strain 34hs-1.sup.T is AF526913.

  5. High voltage isolation transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

  6. Pump isolation valve

    DOEpatents

    Kinney, Calvin L.; Wetherill, Todd M.

    1983-08-02

    The pump isolation valve provides a means by which the pump may be selectively isolated from the remainder of the coolant system while being compatible with the internal hydraulic arrangement of the pump during normal operation of the pump. The valve comprises a valve cylinder disposed around the pump and adjacent to the last pump diffuser with a turning vane attached to the lower end of the valve cylinder in a manner so as to hydraulically match with the discharge diffuser. The valve cylinder is connected to a drive means for sliding the valve cylinder relative to the diffuser support cylinder so as to block flow in either direction through the discharge diffuser when the valve is in the closed position and to aid in the flow of the coolant from the discharge diffuser by means of the turning vane when the valve is in the open position.

  7. Ultrasonic thermometer isolation standoffs

    DOEpatents

    Arave, Alvin E.

    1977-01-01

    A method is provided for minimizing sticking of the transmission line to the protective sheath and preventing noise echoes from interfering with signal echoes in an improved high temperature ultrasonic thermometer which includes an ultrasonic transmission line surrounded by a protective sheath. Small isolation standoffs are mounted on the transmission line to minimize points of contact between the transmission line and the protective sheath, the isolation standoffs serving as discontinuities mounted on the transmission line at locations where a signal echo is desired or where an echo can be tolerated. Consequently any noise echo generated by the sticking of the standoff to the protective sheath only adds to the amplitude of the echo generated at the standoff and does not interfere with the other signal echoes.

  8. Cycle isolation monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Svensen, L.M. III; Zeigler, J.R.; Todd, F.D.; Alder, G.C.

    2009-07-15

    There are many factors to monitor in power plants, but one that is frequently overlooked is cycle isolation. Often this is an area where plant personnel can find 'low hanging fruit' with great return on investment, especially high energy valve leakage. This type of leakage leads to increased heat rate, potential valve damage and lost generation. The fundamental question to ask is 'What is 100 Btu/kW-hr of heat rate worth to your plant? On a 600 MW coal-fired power plant, a 1% leakage can lead to an 81 Btu/kW-hr impact on the main steam cycle and a 64 Btu/kW-hr impact on the hot reheat cycle. The article gives advice on methods to assist in detecting leaking valves and to monitor cycle isolation. A software product, TP. Plus-CIM was designed to estimate flow rates of potentially leaking valves.

  9. [Isolation frequency of the Mycobacterium genus in urine samples].

    PubMed

    Mederos, Lilian M; Sardiñas, Misleidis; García, Grechen; Martínez, María Rosarys; Reyes, Angélica; Díaz, Raúl

    2015-10-01

    Kidney infections caused by Mycobacterium genus are torpid and chronic evolution. In this study were analyzed 177 urine samples (included 110 from HIV patients) received between January 2006 and July 2014 in the National Reference Laboratory of Tuberculosis at Tropical Medicine Institute "Pedro Kourí" (IPK). The results were 17 isolates Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and 30 isolates of nontuberculous mycobacteria were detected. This study confirms the diagnostic importance of these infections especially in HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:26633121

  10. First report of Streptomyces stelliscabiei causing potato common scab in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptomyces scabies has been reported as the predominant cause of potato scab in Michigan. In a 2007 survey of common scab in Michigan, however, isolates were collected from a field that did not fit the description for S. scabies. Tests using species-specific PCR primers indicated isolates were S. ...

  11. Infective endocarditis caused by Klebsiella oxytoca in an intravenous drug user with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Connor; Hatch, Michael; Ayan, Mohamed; Winn, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Infective endocarditis caused by Klebsiella species is rare, with most isolates being K. pneumoniae. We report the case of a 24-year-old intravenous drug user with newly diagnosed seminoma who developed K. oxytoca endocarditis. In addition to having K. oxytoca isolated from blood culture, cultures of that species were obtained from a retroperitoneal metastasis found on original presentation. PMID:27034562

  12. Far East Scarlet-Like Fever Caused by a Few Related Genotypes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Timchenko, Nelly F.; Adgamov, Ruslan R.; Popov, Alexander F.; Psareva, Ekaterina K.; Sobyanin, Konstantin A.; Gintsburg, Alexander L.

    2016-01-01

    We used multivirulence locus sequence typing to analyze 68 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolated in Russia during 1973–2014, including 41 isolates from patients with Far East scarlet-like fever. Four genotypes were found responsible, with 1 being especially prevalent. Evolutionary analysis suggests that epidemiologic advantages could cause this genotype’s dominance. PMID:26889961

  13. Endocrine causes of calcium disorders.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2012-11-01

    Endocrine diseases that may cause hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia include hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, thyroid disorders, hyperadrenocorticism, hypoadrenocorticism, and less commonly pheochromocytoma and multiple endocrine neoplasias. The differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia may include malignancy (lymphoma, anal sac carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma), hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D intoxication, chronic renal disease, hypoadrenocorticism, granulomatous disorders, osteolysis, or spurious causes. Hypocalcemia may be caused by puerperal tetany, pancreatitis, intestinal malabsorption, ethlyene glycol intoxication, acute renal failure, hypopararthyroidism, hypovitaminosis D, hypomagnesemia, and low albumin. This article focuses on the endocrine causes of calcium imbalance and provides diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for identifying the cause of hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia in veterinary patients. PMID:23415381

  14. Genetics of population isolates.

    PubMed

    Arcos-Burgos, M; Muenke, M

    2002-04-01

    Genetic isolates, as shown empirically by the Finnish, Old Order Amish, Hutterites, Sardinian and Jewish communities among others, represent a most important and powerful tool in genetically mapping inherited disorders. The main features associated with that genetic power are the existence of multigenerational pedigrees which are mostly descended from a small number of founders a short number of generations ago, environmental and phenotypic homogeneity, restricted geographical distribution, the presence of exhaustive and detailed records correlating individuals in very well ascertained pedigrees, and inbreeding as a norm. On the other hand, the presence of a multifounder effect or admixture among divergent populations in the founder time (e.g. the Finnish and the Paisa community from Colombia) will theoretically result in increased linkage disequilibrium among adjacent loci. The present review evaluates the historical context and features of some genetic isolates with emphasis on the basic population genetic concepts of inbreeding and genetic drift, and also the state-of-the-art in mapping traits, both Mendelian and complex, on genetic isolates. PMID:12030885

  15. Isolation of neuromelanin granules.

    PubMed

    Tribl, Florian

    2008-12-01

    Neuromelanin granules are pigmented organelles in the human midbrain that give name to a brain area, substantia nigra pars compacta, which macroscopically appears as a dark brown region in the midbrain due to the insoluble pigment neuromelanin. The substantia nigra pars compacta massively degenerates in Parkinson's disease and gives rise to severely disabling movement symptoms. It has been suggested that neuromelanin granules play an important role in the neurodegenerative events in Parkinson's disease: redox-active iron is bound to neuromelanin and thereby retained within this compartment, but in Parkinson's disease it is thought to be increasingly released into the cytosol, promoting oxidative stress. This unit includes a methodological workflow for the isolation of neuromelanin granules from the human midbrain. This top-down approach (describes an approach that reduces the complexity of the sample stepwise from the level of tissue to cell, and from cell to organelle) encompasses the organelle isolation by sequential density gradient centrifugation and the assessment of the isolation efficacy by western blotting. PMID:19085988

  16. Isolated persistent hypermethioninemia.

    PubMed Central

    Mudd, S H; Levy, H L; Tangerman, A; Boujet, C; Buist, N; Davidson-Mundt, A; Hudgins, L; Oyanagi, K; Nagao, M; Wilson, W G

    1995-01-01

    New information has been obtained on 30 patients with isolated persistent hypermethioninemia, most of them previously unreported. Biopsies to confirm the presumptive diagnosis of partially deficient activity of ATP: L-methionine S-adenosyltransferase (MAT; E.C.2.5.1.6) in liver were not performed on most of these patients. However, none showed the clinical findings or the extreme elevations of serum folate previously described in other patients with isolated hypermethioninemia considered not to have hepatic MAT deficiency. Patients ascertained on biochemical grounds had no neurological abnormalities, and 27/30 had IQs or Bayley development-index scores within normal limits or were judged to have normal mental development. Methionine transamination metabolites accumulated abnormally only when plasma methionine concentrations exceeded 300-350 microM and did so more markedly after 0.9 years of age. Data were obtained on urinary organic acids as well as plasma creatinine concentrations. Patterns of inheritance of isolated hypermethioninemia were variable. Considerations as to the optimal management of this group of patients are discussed. PMID:7573050

  17. Characterization of toxin plasmids in Clostridium perfringens type C isolates.

    PubMed

    Gurjar, Abhijit; Li, Jihong; McClane, Bruce A

    2010-11-01

    Clostridium perfringens type C isolates cause enteritis necroticans in humans or necrotizing enteritis and enterotoxemia in domestic animals. Type C isolates always produce alpha toxin and beta toxin but often produce additional toxins, e.g., beta2 toxin or enterotoxin. Since plasmid carriage of toxin-encoding genes has not been systematically investigated for type C isolates, the current study used Southern blot hybridization of pulsed-field gels to test whether several toxin genes are plasmid borne among a collection of type C isolates. Those analyses revealed that the surveyed type C isolates carry their beta toxin-encoding gene (cpb) on plasmids ranging in size from ∼65 to ∼110 kb. When present in these type C isolates, the beta2 toxin gene localized to plasmids distinct from the cpb plasmid. However, some enterotoxin-positive type C isolates appeared to carry their enterotoxin-encoding cpe gene on a cpb plasmid. The tpeL gene encoding the large clostridial cytotoxin was localized to the cpb plasmids of some cpe-negative type C isolates. The cpb plasmids in most surveyed isolates were found to carry both IS1151 sequences and the tcp genes, which can mediate conjugative C. perfringens plasmid transfer. A dcm gene, which is often present near C. perfringens plasmid-borne toxin genes, was identified upstream of the cpb gene in many type C isolates. Overlapping PCR analyses suggested that the toxin-encoding plasmids of the surveyed type C isolates differ from the cpe plasmids of type A isolates. These findings provide new insight into plasmids of proven or potential importance for type C virulence. PMID:20823204

  18. System Safety Common Cause Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-03-10

    The COMCAN fault tree analysis codes are designed to analyze complex systems such as nuclear plants for common causes of failure. A common cause event, or common mode failure, is a secondary cause that could contribute to the failure of more than one component and violates the assumption of independence. Analysis of such events is an integral part of system reliability and safety analysis. A significant common cause event is a secondary cause common tomore » all basic events in one or more minimal cut sets. Minimal cut sets containing events from components sharing a common location or a common link are called common cause candidates. Components share a common location if no barrier insulates any one of them from the secondary cause. A common link is a dependency among components which cannot be removed by a physical barrier (e.g.,a common energy source or common maintenance instructions).« less

  19. Persistent Primitive Trigeminal Artery: An Unusual Cause of Vascular Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Arundeep; Jana, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Pulsatile tinnitus is generally of vascular origin and can be due to arterial, venous, or systemic causes. While certain congenital anatomical variants and arterial vascular loops have been commonly found in symptomatic patients undergoing imaging, persistent primitive trigeminal artery in association with isolated tinnitus is unusual. Thus we report a patient with unilateral isolated pulsatile tinnitus who was evaluated with magnetic resonance angiography and was found to have a persistent primitive trigeminal artery. We also briefly discuss vascular tinnitus as well as the embryology, imaging, and classification of persistent primitive trigeminal artery with the clinical implications. PMID:24459596

  20. Persistent primitive trigeminal artery: an unusual cause of vascular tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Panda, Ananya; Arora, Arundeep; Jana, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Pulsatile tinnitus is generally of vascular origin and can be due to arterial, venous, or systemic causes. While certain congenital anatomical variants and arterial vascular loops have been commonly found in symptomatic patients undergoing imaging, persistent primitive trigeminal artery in association with isolated tinnitus is unusual. Thus we report a patient with unilateral isolated pulsatile tinnitus who was evaluated with magnetic resonance angiography and was found to have a persistent primitive trigeminal artery. We also briefly discuss vascular tinnitus as well as the embryology, imaging, and classification of persistent primitive trigeminal artery with the clinical implications. PMID:24459596

  1. Acute pyelonephritis and secondary bacteraemia caused by Veillonella during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yagihashi, Yusuke; Arakaki, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of pyelonephritis and secondary bacteraemia caused by Veillonella species during pregnancy. Veillonella is part of the normal flora from the oral cavity, gut and vagina. However, because Veillonella is usually isolated from cultures of clinical specimens as part of commensal flora, it is frequently regarded as a contaminant. In the present case, Veillonella was isolated from the patient's urine and blood samples that showed evidence of pyelonephritis and secondary bacteraemia. We found that ureteral stenting is an extremely effective therapeutic option for pregnant woman with hydronephrosis and clear signs and symptoms of urosepsis. PMID:23125301

  2. Acute pyelonephritis and secondary bacteraemia caused by Veillonella during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Yagihashi, Yusuke; Arakaki, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of pyelonephritis and secondary bacteraemia caused by Veillonella species during pregnancy. Veillonella is part of the normal flora from the oral cavity, gut and vagina. However, because Veillonella is usually isolated from cultures of clinical specimens as part of commensal flora, it is frequently regarded as a contaminant. In the present case, Veillonella was isolated from the patient's urine and blood samples that showed evidence of pyelonephritis and secondary bacteraemia. We found that ureteral stenting is an extremely effective therapeutic option for pregnant woman with hydronephrosis and clear signs and symptoms of urosepsis. PMID:23125301

  3. Isolation and identification of hexaketides from a pigmented Monosporascus cannonballus isolate.

    PubMed

    Stipanovic, Robert D; Zhang, Jiuxu; Bruton, Benny D; Wheeler, Michael H

    2004-06-30

    Monosporascus cannonballus causes severe production losses to muskmelon and watermelon in the United States and other countries. Wild types of the fungus produce no pigments when grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA). After long-term storage on soil/oat hull mix, however, some isolates of the fungus produce yellow to brown pigments and no perithecia when grown on PDA. Five colored metabolites from pigmented cultures of M. cannonballus isolate TX923038 have now been identified. Two of these, monosporascone and dehydroxyarthrinone, have been isolated from other fungi, and three, demethylcerdarin, monosporascol A and azamonosporascone, have not previously been reported. The (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR of all five compounds are reported. PMID:15212455

  4. Do the causes of psychotic symptoms matter?

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Ludwig Fred; Macculloch, Tony

    2009-11-01

    There needs to be a better understanding of how psychoses and other serious mental illnesses develop. They do not develop in isolation but are connected with subsequent events that impose themselves on the individual. Predispositions, via heredity, starts the process, but it is what happens subsequently in the environment that leads to interactions that are dynamic. Hence knowledge into what causes psychosis is not helpful when treating the condition. An analysis of the remitting symptoms leading to the treatment of the symptoms offers a better chance of remedying the condition. There is a need for as early an intervention as possible, ideally, if possible, avoiding the use of medication and concentrating on the use of CBT or CT. PMID:19874103

  5. Bacterial endocarditis caused by Oerskovia turbata.

    PubMed

    Reller, L B; Maddoux, G L; Eckman, M R; Pappas, G

    1975-11-01

    Oerskovia turbata is a yellow, motile actinomycete, which before now has only been found in soil and has not been known to cause disease in man or animals. It was isolated from 29 cultures of blood taken during 6 months from an urban pensioner after homograft replacement of his aortic valve. The combination of ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim was lethal for O. turbata in vitro; however, antimicrobial therapy alone failed to eradicate the patient's infection. Cure was achieved after the infected homograft was replaced with a prosthetic aortic valve. Although the source of O. turbata in this patient is unknown, sterilization of homograft valves with antimicrobial solutions is difficult. Moreover, environmental contamination during cardiopulmonary bypass is common. Oerskovia turbata is another opportunistic pathogen of man. PMID:1200499

  6. [A rare cause of pneumonia: Shewanella putrefaciens].

    PubMed

    Durdu, Bülent; Durdu, Yasemin; Güleç, Nuray; Islim, Filiz; Biçer, Mualla

    2012-01-01

    Shewanella putrefaciens is a gram-negative, non-fermentative, oxidase positive, motile bacillus that produces hydrogen sulphide. It is found widely in the nature especially in marine environments. Although it is accepted as saprophytic, different clinical syndromes, most commonly skin or soft tissue infections, have been associated with S.putrefaciens, mainly in immunocompromised cases and patients with underlying diseases. However, pneumonia cases due to S.putrefaciens are quite limited in the literature. In this report, a case of pneumonia caused by S.putrefaciens was presented. A 43-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of fever, cough, sputum and weakness. The patient has had brochiectasis since childhood and has used periodical antibiotic therapies due to pneumoniae episodes. She was diagnosed to have pneumonia based on the clinical, radiological and laboratory findings, and empirical antibiotic treatment with ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime combination was initiated. Gram-stained smear of sputum yielded abundant leucocytes and gram-negative bacteria, and the isolate grown in the sputum culture was identified as S.putrefaciens by conventional methods and API 20 NE (BioMerieux, France) system. The isolate was found susceptible to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, cephoperazon-sulbactam, imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin and trimethoprime-sulphametoxazole; whereas resistant to ampicillin, amoxycillin-clavulanate, cefazolin and cefuroxime, by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. According to the antibiogram results, the therapy was changed to ceftriaxone (1 x 2 g, intravenous). The patient was discharged with complete cure after 14 days of therapy. In conclusion, S.putrefaciens should be considered in patients with predisposing factors as an unusual cause of pneumonia and the characteristics such as H2S production and sensitivity to third generation cephalosporins and penicillins should be used

  7. Prevalence of Enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens Isolates in Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) Area Soils and Home Kitchens▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jihong; Sayeed, Sameera; McClane, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    In the United States and Europe, food poisoning due to Clostridium perfringens type A is predominantly caused by C. perfringens isolates carrying a chromosomal enterotoxin gene (cpe). Neither the reservoir for these isolates nor the point in the food chain where these bacteria contaminate foods is currently understood. Therefore, the current study investigated whether type A isolates carrying a chromosomal cpe gene are present in two potential reservoirs, i.e., soil and home kitchen surfaces. No C. perfringens isolates were recovered from home kitchen surfaces, but most surveyed soil samples contained C. perfringens. The recovered soil isolates were predominantly type A, but some type C, D, and E soil isolates were also identified. All cpe-positive isolates recovered from soil were genotyped as type A, with their cpe genes on cpe plasmids rather than the chromosome. However, two cpe-positive soil isolates did not carry a classical cpe plasmid. Both of those atypical cpe-positive soil isolates were sporulation capable yet failed to produce C. perfringens enterotoxin, possibly because of differences in their upstream promoter regions. Collectively these results suggest that neither soil nor home kitchen surfaces represent major reservoirs for type A isolates with chromosomal cpe that cause food poisoning, although soil does appear to be a reservoir for cpe-positive isolates causing non-food-borne gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:17905877

  8. Isolated Retropancreatic Tuberculous Lymphadenitis Mimicking Carcinoma: A Diagnostic Challenge.

    PubMed

    Kuriry, H; Alenezi, R; Alghamdi, A; Swied, A M

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis as a cause of obstructive jaundice is a rare entity with only a few cases reported in the literature. Patients with this condition usually present with a protracted illness, jaundice, and weight loss, which may be confused with malignancies. We are reporting unusual case of isolated enlarged tuberculous lymph node compressing the common bile duct in the retropancreatic region and causing obstructive jaundice in an immunocompetent patient which to the best of our knowledge is the first case of isolated retropancreatic tuberculous lymphadenitis in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27313915

  9. Isolated Retropancreatic Tuberculous Lymphadenitis Mimicking Carcinoma: A Diagnostic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Alenezi, R.; Alghamdi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis as a cause of obstructive jaundice is a rare entity with only a few cases reported in the literature. Patients with this condition usually present with a protracted illness, jaundice, and weight loss, which may be confused with malignancies. We are reporting unusual case of isolated enlarged tuberculous lymph node compressing the common bile duct in the retropancreatic region and causing obstructive jaundice in an immunocompetent patient which to the best of our knowledge is the first case of isolated retropancreatic tuberculous lymphadenitis in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27313915

  10. [Isolation of Escherichia vulneris in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Le Querler, L; Donnio, P Y; Poisson, M; Rouzet-Gras, S; Avril, J L

    1997-01-01

    Over a 2-year period, we performed 33 bacteriological controls of drinking water supplied by refrigerated fountains located in a nursing home. Amongst 24 strains of gram-negative bacilli isolated from 16 samples. 10 were identified as belonging to the species Escherichia vulneris. Viable bacterial counts were always less than 10 ufc/100 ml. During the same period no clinical isolate of E. vulneris was recovered from the nursing home. The signification of E. vulneris in drinking water is unknown. However, considering that E. vulneris has been implicated as cause of various infections, its presence in potable water supply systems would seem to be a potential risk factor for severely immunocompromised patients. PMID:9099249

  11. Isolator fragmentation and explosive initiation tests

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, Peter; Rae, Philip John; Foley, Timothy J.; Novak, Alan M.; Armstrong, Christopher Lee; Baca, Eva V.; Gunderson, Jake Alfred

    2015-09-30

    Three tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of firing an isolator in proximity to a barrier or explosive charge. The tests with explosive were conducted without barrier, on the basis that since any barrier will reduce the shock transmitted to the explosive, bare explosive represents the worst-case from an inadvertent initiation perspective. No reaction was observed. The shock caused by the impact of a representative plastic material on both bare and cased PBX9501 is calculated in the worst-case, 1-D limit, and the known shock response of the HE is used to estimate minimum run-to-detonation lengths. The estimates demonstrate that even 1-D impacts would not be of concern and that, accordingly, the divergent shocks due to isolator fragment impact are of no concern as initiating stimuli.

  12. Alicyclobacillus spoilage and isolation--a review.

    PubMed

    Smit, Yvette; Cameron, Michelle; Venter, Pierre; Witthuhn, R Corli

    2011-05-01

    Until recently, acidic products such as fruit juice and fruit based products were generally thought to be susceptible to spoilage by yeasts, mycelia fungi and lactic acid bacteria, as the low pH of these products acts as natural control measures against spoilage by most bacteria. Alicyclobacillus seem to be prevalent in fruit based products as they survive the acidic fruit juice environment, even when they are exposed to pasteurisation temperatures during production. In this review the historical background of the discovery of these bacteria is summarised. The bacterial characteristics and the reported spoilage incidences caused by members of this genus are discussed. As the isolation methods for these bacteria are controversial, this review includes a discussion of the various media that have been reported in the literature for the use in the isolation and enumeration of members of the genus Alicyclobacillus. PMID:21356436

  13. Isolated tuberculous lymphadenitis presenting as bilateral buboes

    PubMed Central

    Palanisamy, Arun Prasath; Samuel, Soumya; Vadivel, Sivasubramanian; Kothandapany, Srivenkateswaran

    2015-01-01

    Inguinal and femoral buboes are defined as localized enlargement of lymph nodes in the groin that are painful, and may or may not be fluctuant. We report a case of 42-year-old female who presented with bilateral inguinal swelling of 6 months duration. After a complete evaluation, she was found to be a case of isolated inguinal tuberculous lymphadenitis. There was complete resolution with standard antituberculous therapy. Isolated inguinal tuberculous lymphadenitis though a rare entity in developed countries is not uncommon in developing nations. In this era of syndromic management of sexually transmitted diseases, which carries its own pros and cons, this case report emphasizes the need to look beyond the venereal causes and calls for thorough evaluation and management. PMID:26392662

  14. Windsurfing hazard caused by needlefish.

    PubMed

    Rouvillain, J L; Donica, A; Gane, C; Zekhnini, C; Garron, E; Uzel, A P

    2013-11-01

    Very amusing and entertaining for the traveler, marine activities in tropical countries can be dangerous. More and more trauma caused by hazardous marine animals have been reported in recent years in the world, after maritime accidents including water sports like windsurfing, kite surfing, swimming, diving, and injuries caused by sting or contact with a marine animal. Rays and stone-fish frequently cause trauma, but there are not many cases of injury by needlefish. This case reports a case of penetrating wound of the left foot caused by a Caribbean needlefish occurred during a session of windsurfing in Martinique. PMID:23412165

  15. How isolated is Antarctica?

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Barnes, David K A; Hodgson, Dominic A

    2005-01-01

    The traditional view of Antarctica and the surrounding Southern Ocean as an isolated system is now being challenged by the recent discovery at the Antarctic Peninsula of adult spider crabs Hyas areneus from the North Atlantic and of larvae of subpolar marine invertebrates. These observations question whether the well described biogeographical similarities between the benthic fauna of the Antarctic Peninsula and the Magellan region of South America result from history (the two regions were once contiguous), or from a previously unrecognized low level of faunal exchange. Such exchange might be influenced by regional climate change, and also exacerbated by changes in human impact. PMID:16701330

  16. Nucleic acid isolation process

    SciTech Connect

    Longmire, J.L.; Lewis, A.K.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1990-05-01

    This patent describes a process for preparing DNA from cellular materials for use in genetic studies of eukaryotic systems, a process for isolating DNA fragments from proteolytic digestion products and detergent products in a solution with the DNA fragments produced in stripping undesired cellular constituents from the DNA. It comprises the step of dialyzing a solution containing the DNA fragments, detergent products, and proteolytic digestion products against a solution containing PEG for a time effective to yield DNA sufficiently pure of the genetic studies.

  17. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Aeromonas spp. Isolated from Environmental Sources▿

    PubMed Central

    Huddleston, Jennifer R.; Zak, John C.; Jeter, Randall M.

    2006-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous aquatic bacteria that cause serious infections in both poikilothermic and endothermic animals, including humans. Clinical isolates have shown an increasing incidence of antibiotic and antimicrobial drug resistance since the widespread use of antibiotics began. A total of 282 Aeromonas pure cultures were isolated from both urban and rural playa lakes in the vicinity of Lubbock, Texas, and several rivers in West Texas and New Mexico. Of these, at least 104 were subsequently confirmed to be independent isolates. The 104 isolates were identified by Biolog and belonged to 11 different species. The MICs of six metals, one metalloid, five antibiotics, and two antimicrobial drugs were determined. All aeromonads were sensitive to chromate, cobalt, copper, nickel, zinc, cefuroxime, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, ofloxacin, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole. Low incidences of trimethoprim resistance, mercury resistance, and arsenite resistance were found. Dual resistances were found in 5 of the 104 Aeromonas isolates. Greater numbers of resistant isolates were obtained from samples taken in March versus July 2002 and from sediment versus water. Plasmids were isolated from selected strains of the arsenite- and mercury-resistant organisms and were transformed into Escherichia coli XL1-Blue MRF′. Acquisition of the resistance phenotypes by the new host showed that these resistance genes were carried on the plasmids. Mercury resistance was found to be encoded on a conjugative plasmid. Despite the low incidence of resistant isolates, the six playa lakes and three rivers that were sampled in this study can be considered a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:16950901

  18. Genetic Polymorphism Characteristics of Brucella canis Isolated in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Heng; Zhao, Hongyan; Piao, Dongri; Tian, Lili; Tian, Guozhong; Kang, Jingli; Mao, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Du, Pengfei; Zhu, Lin; Zhao, Zhuo; Mao, Lingling; Yao, Wenqing; Guan, Pingyuan; Fan, Weixing; Jiang, Hai

    2014-01-01

    In China, brucellosis is an endemic disease typically caused by Brucella melitensis infection (biovars 1 and 3). Brucella canis infection in dogs has not traditionally recognized as a major problem. In recent years however, brucellosis resulting from Brucella canis infection has also been reported, suggesting that infections from this species may be increasing. Data concerning the epidemiology of brucellosis resulting from Brucella canis infection is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the diversity among Chinese Brucella canis strains for epidemiological purposes. First, we employed a 16-marker VNTR assay (Brucella MLVA-16) to assess the diversity and epidemiological relationship of 29 Brucella canis isolates from diverse locations throughout China with 38 isolates from other countries. MLVA-16 analysis separated the 67 Brucella canis isolates into 57 genotypes that grouped into five clusters with genetic similarity coefficients ranging from 67.73 to 100%. Moreover, this analysis revealed a new genotype (2-3-9-11-3-1-5-1:118), which was present in two isolates recovered from Guangxi in 1986 and 1987. Second, multiplex PCR and sequencing analysis were used to determine whether the 29 Chinese Brucella canis isolates had the characteristic BMEI1435 gene deletion. Only two isolates had this deletion. Third, amplification of the omp25 gene revealed that 26 isolates from China had a T545C mutation. Collectively, this study reveals that considerable diversity exists among Brucella canis isolates in China and provides resources for studying the genetic variation and microevolution of Brucella. PMID:24465442

  19. Investigation of mercury thruster isolators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Mercury ion thruster isolator lifetime tests were performed using different isolator materials and geometries. Tests were performed with and without the flow of mercury through the isolators in an oil diffusion pumped vacuum facility and cryogenically pumped bell jar. The onset of leakage current in isolators occurred in time intervals ranging from a few hours to many hundreds of hours. In all cases, surface contamination was responsible for the onset of leakage current and subsequent isolator failure. Rate of increase of leakage current and the leakage current level increased approximately exponentially with isolator temperature. Careful attention to shielding techniques and the elimination of sources of metal oxides appear to have eliminated isolator failures as a thruster life limiting mechanism.

  20. Genotypic analyses and virulence characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from crayfish (Procambarus clarkii).

    PubMed

    Li, Jinquan; Du, Pujun; Li, Zhi; Zhou, Yang; Cheng, Wei; Wu, Si; Chen, Fusheng; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause invasive illness in humans and farm animals. It is frequently isolated from dairy products and poultry. However, there have been few literatures on the genetic diversity and virulence potential of L. monocytogenes from freshwater animal. Thirty-nine L. monocytogenes strains from crayfish were isolated and identified in this study. Molecular subtyping and polymorphism of each isolate were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). MLST divided the isolates into eight sequence types (STs), six of which from crayfish were the same with the isolates from environment and clinic. PCR detection of the eight genes related to virulence and multiplex PCR for serotyping showed that the eight virulence factors were present in the isolates and all the isolates belonged to four major L. monocytogenes serotype groups (1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b) frequently isolated from patients. In vivo pathogenicity of isolates was also evaluated in murine model and survival curve of infected mice suggested that ST1, ST4, and ST9 isolates were as virulent as the reference strain EGDe. This study provides preliminary insights into the genetic diversity of L. monocytogenes from crayfish and the genetic correlation between crayfish and clinical L. monocytogenes isolates. The results indicate the contamination in aquaculture could be the source of Listeria contamination and the isolates are likely to cause human listeriosis. PMID:25586079

  1. [A case of urinary tract infection caused by Flavimonas oryzihabitans].

    PubMed

    Topkaya, Aynur E; Ozakkaş, Fatma; Aksungar, Fehime B; Tülbek, Yaşar

    2007-01-01

    Flavimonas oryzihabitans is an uncommon bacterial species isolated from clinical specimens. In this report, a 53 years old female patient who had been followed up with the diagnosis of rectum cancer and renal failure for five and two years, respectively, was presented. F. oryzihabitans was isolated from the urine culture of the patient, and the clinical response to ofloxacin therapy was excellent even the urinary catheter has not been removed. Although this pathogen is mostly community aquired, it was found resistant to most of the antimicrobial agents tested. Since it was susceptible to fluoroquinolones and carbapenems, these antibiotics could be the drug of choice for the treatment of infections caused by F. oryzihabitans. The aim of this presentation was to withdraw attention to this bacterium which is thought to be the first urine isolate in our country. PMID:17427563

  2. Pseudoradial Nerve Palsy Caused by Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Hassan; Daruwalla, Vistasp; Meisel, Jeremy; Kodsi, Samir E

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoperipheral palsy has been used to characterize isolated monoparesis secondary to stroke. Isolated hand nerve palsy is a rare presentation for acute cerebral stroke. Our patient presented with clinical features of typical peripheral radial nerve palsy and a normal computed tomography scan of the head, which, without a detailed history and neurological examination, could have been easily misdiagnosed as a peripheral nerve lesion deferring further investigation for a stroke. We stress the importance of including cerebral infarction as a critical differential diagnosis in patients presenting with sensory-motor deficit in an isolated peripheral nerve pattern. A good history and physical exam can differentiate stroke from peripheral neuropathy as the cause of radial nerve palsy. PMID:27493976

  3. Pseudoradial Nerve Palsy Caused by Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Hassan; Daruwalla, Vistasp; Meisel, Jeremy; Kodsi, Samir E.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoperipheral palsy has been used to characterize isolated monoparesis secondary to stroke. Isolated hand nerve palsy is a rare presentation for acute cerebral stroke. Our patient presented with clinical features of typical peripheral radial nerve palsy and a normal computed tomography scan of the head, which, without a detailed history and neurological examination, could have been easily misdiagnosed as a peripheral nerve lesion deferring further investigation for a stroke. We stress the importance of including cerebral infarction as a critical differential diagnosis in patients presenting with sensory-motor deficit in an isolated peripheral nerve pattern. A good history and physical exam can differentiate stroke from peripheral neuropathy as the cause of radial nerve palsy. PMID:27493976

  4. Isolation of tumorigenic circulating melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie; Lin, Jennifer Y.; Alloo, Allireza; Wilson, Brian J.; Schatton, Tobias; Zhan, Qian; Murphy, George F.; Waaga-Gasser, Ana-Maria; Gasser, Martin; Hodi, F. Stephen; Frank, Natasha Y.; Frank, Markus H.

    2010-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTC) have been identified in several human malignancies, including malignant melanoma. However, whether melanoma CTC are tumorigenic and cause metastatic progression is currently unknown. Here we isolate for the first time viable tumorigenic melanoma CTC and demonstrate that this cell population is capable of metastasis formation in human-to-mouse xenotransplantation experiments. The presence of CTC among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of murine recipients of subcutaneous (s.c.) human melanoma xenografts could be detected based on mRNA expression for human GAPDH and/or ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 5 (ABCB5), a marker of malignant melanoma-initiating cells previously shown to be associated with metastatic disease progression in human patients. ABCB5 expression could also be detected in PBMC preparations from human stage IV melanoma patients but not healthy controls. The detection of melanoma CTC in human-to-mouse s.c. tumor xenotransplantation models correlated significantly with pulmonary metastasis formation. Moreover, prospectively isolated CTC from murine recipients of s.c. melanoma xenografts were capable of primary tumor initiation and caused metastasis formation upon xenotransplantation to secondary murine NOD-scid IL2Rγnull recipients. Our results provide initial evidence that melanoma CTC are tumorigenic and demonstrate that CTC are capable of causing metastatic tumor progression. These findings suggest a need for CTC eradication to inhibit metastatic progression and provide a rationale for assessment of therapeutic responses of this tumorigenic cell population to promising emerging melanoma treatment modalities. PMID:20977885

  5. ISOLATION OF MOUSE NEUTROPHILS

    PubMed Central

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Luo, Yi; Dorf, Martin E.; Lionakis, Michail S.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils represent the first line of defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Indeed, patients with inherited and acquired qualitative and quantitative neutrophil defects are at high risk for developing bacterial and fungal infections and suffering adverse outcomes from these infections. Therefore, research aiming at defining the molecular factors that modulate neutrophil effector function under homeostatic conditions and during infection is essential for devising strategies to augment neutrophil function and improve the outcome of infected individuals. This unit describes a reproducible density gradient centrifugation-based protocol that can be applied in any laboratory to harvest large numbers of highly enriched and highly viable neutrophils from the bone marrow of mice both at the steady state and following infection with Candida albicans as described in UNIT 19.6. In another protocol, we also present a method that combines gentle enzymatic tissue digestion with a positive immunomagnetic selection technique or Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to harvest highly pure and highly viable preparations of neutrophils directly from mouse tissues such as the kidney, the liver or the spleen. Finally, methods for isolating neutrophils from mouse peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood are included. Mouse neutrophils isolated by these protocols can be used for examining several aspects of cellular function ex vivo including pathogen binding, phagocytosis and killing, neutrophil chemotaxis, oxidative burst, degranulation and cytokine production, and for performing neutrophil adoptive transfer experiments. PMID:26237011

  6. Mechanical strain isolator mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Gordon E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Certain devices such as optical instruments must preserve their alignmental integrity while being subjected to mechanical strain. A mechanical strain isolator mount is provided to preserve the alignmental integrity of an alignment sensitive instrument. An alignment sensitive instrument is mounted on a rectangular base. Flexural legs are connected at their proximal ends to the rectangular base. Flexural legs are also spaced parallel to the sides. Mounting pads are connected to the legs at the distal end and the mechanical strain isolator mount is attached to the substrate by means of threaded bolts. When a mounting pad and its respective leg is subjected to lateral strain in either the X or Y direction via the substrate, the respective leg relieves the strain by bending in the direction of the strain. An axial strain on a mounting pad in the Z direction is relieved by a rotational motion of the legs in the direction of the strain. When the substrate is stress free, the flexural legs return to their original condition and thus preserve the original alignment integrity of the alignment sensitive instrument.

  7. Isolation and Physiological Analysis of Mouse Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Gretchen M.; Bader, David M.; Pfaltzgraff, Elise R.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes, the workhorse cell of the heart, contain exquisitely organized cytoskeletal and contractile elements that generate the contractile force used to pump blood. Individual cardiomyocytes were first isolated over 40 years ago in order to better study the physiology and structure of heart muscle. Techniques have rapidly improved to include enzymatic digestion via coronary perfusion. More recently, analyzing the contractility and calcium flux of isolated myocytes has provided a vital tool in the cellular and sub-cellular analysis of heart failure. Echocardiography and EKGs provide information about the heart at an organ level only. Cardiomyocyte cell culture systems exist, but cells lack physiologically essential structures such as organized sarcomeres and t-tubules required for myocyte function within the heart. In the protocol presented here, cardiomyocytes are isolated via Langendorff perfusion. The heart is removed from the mouse, mounted via the aorta to a cannula, perfused with digestion enzymes, and cells are introduced to increasing calcium concentrations. Edge and sarcomere detection software is used to analyze contractility, and a calcium binding fluorescent dye is used to visualize calcium transients of electrically paced cardiomyocytes; increasing understanding of the role cellular changes play in heart dysfunction. Traditionally used to test drug effects on cardiomyocytes, we employ this system to compare myocytes from WT mice and mice with a mutation that causes dilated cardiomyopathy. This protocol is unique in its comparison of live cells from mice with known heart function and known genetics. Many experimental conditions are reliably compared, including genetic or environmental manipulation, infection, drug treatment, and more. Beyond physiologic data, isolated cardiomyocytes are easily fixed and stained for cytoskeletal elements. Isolating cardiomyocytes via perfusion is an extremely versatile method, useful in studying cellular changes

  8. Methanogenic archaea isolated from Taiwan's Chelungpu fault.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sue-Yao; Lai, Mei-Chin

    2011-02-01

    Terrestrial rocks, petroleum reservoirs, faults, coal seams, and subseafloor gas hydrates contain an abundance of diverse methanoarchaea. However, reports on the isolation, purification, and characterization of methanoarchaea in the subsurface environment are rare. Currently, no studies investigating methanoarchaea within fault environments exist. In this report, we succeeded in obtaining two new methanogen isolates, St545Mb(T) of newly proposed species Methanolobus chelungpuianus and Methanobacterium palustre FG694aF, from the Chelungpu fault, which is the fault that caused a devastating earthquake in central Taiwan in 1999. Strain FG694aF was isolated from a fault gouge sample obtained at 694 m below land surface (mbls) and is an autotrophic, mesophilic, nonmotile, thin, filamentous-rod-shaped organism capable of using H(2)-CO(2) and formate as substrates for methanogenesis. The morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that this isolate belongs to Methanobacterium palustre. The mesophilic strain St545Mb(T), isolated from a sandstone sample at 545 mbls, is a nonmotile, irregular, coccoid organism that uses methanol and trimethylamine as substrates for methanogenesis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain St545Mb(T) was 99.0% similar to that of Methanolobus psychrophilus strain R15 and was 96 to 97.5% similar to the those of other Methanolobus species. However, the optimal growth temperature and total cell protein profile of strain St545Mb(T) were different from those of M. psychrophilus strain R15, and whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridization revealed less than 20% relatedness between these two strains. On the basis of these observations, we propose that strain St545Mb(T) (DSM 19953(T); BCRC AR10030; JCM 15159) be named Methanolobus chelungpuianus sp. nov. Moreover, the environmental DNA database survey indicates that both Methanolobus chelungpuianus and Methanobacterium palustre are widespread in the

  9. Covering Causes of Social Upheaval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martindale, Carolyn

    Noting that not much research has addressed critics' observations that the press devotes little attention to the underlying causes of social protest and upheaval, a study was conducted to examine five newspapers' coverage of civil rights protests--and their causes--during the 1960s. Four leading newspapers from different geographical areas--the…

  10. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2014.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2016-06-01

    Objectives-This report presents final 2014 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2014," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. PMID:27376998

  11. Keratomycosis caused by Cylindrocarpon lichenicola.

    PubMed

    Mangiaterra, M; Giusiano, G; Smilasky, G; Zamar, L; Amado, G; Vincentín, C

    2001-02-01

    We present a case of keratomycosis caused by Cylindrocarpon lichenicola in a 30-year-old immunocompetent male patient living in a rural area of Formosa Province (north-eastern Argentina). No ocular trauma is reported in his case history. There are no previous reports of infections caused by this fungus in Argentina. PMID:11270403

  12. Bacteremia caused by Desulfovibrio fairfieldensis.

    PubMed

    Urata, Teruo; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hino, Taro; Yoda, Yusuke; Tamai, Kiyoko; Kodaira, Yoshiya; Hitomi, Shigemi

    2008-10-01

    Desulfovibrio species are anaerobic gram-negative, pleomorphic bacilli rarely causing infection in humans. In the present report, we describe a case of bacteremia caused by Desulfovibrio fairfieldensis. The patient, for whom biapenem was administered, rapidly improved without any sequelae. As far as we know, this is the first case report of infection by Desulfovibrio species in Japan. PMID:18936890

  13. Analysis on donor and isolation-related factors of successful isolation of human islet of Langerhans from human cadaveric donors.

    PubMed

    Kim, S C; Han, D J; Kang, C H; We, Y M; Back, J H; Kim, Y H; Kim, J H; Lim, D G

    2005-10-01

    We analyzed the preexisting donor factors and isolation variables that affected isolation of human islets of Langerhans. Sixty-nine pancreata from cadaveric donors were analyzed for donor factors of age, gender, body mass index, cause of death as well as graft factors of cold ischemia time, pancreas status, distensibility during intraductal collagenase distension and time of collagenase expansion and digestion. Islet isolations that recovered >100,000 IEQ (n = 53) were compared to those generating less than 100,000 IEQ (n = 16) to analyze the factors affecting islet yield during donor harvest and isolation procedures. The mean islet recovery was 216.0 x 10(3) (IEQ) or 2840 (IEQ) per gram of pancreas. Mean purity was 54%. The success rate of islet isolation was 76%. Mean age was 31 years, and mean cold ischemia time was 6.9 hours. In univariate analysis, the status of the pancreas was the only significant factor for successful isolation, and gender, time of collagenase expansion and digestion were marginal factors. In stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis of donor and isolation-related factors, donor gender, pancreas status and digestion time were significant factors. During the same period we performed three cases of clinical islet allotransplantation and one autotransplantation. This study confirmed that the same donor factors and variables in the isolation process can affect the ability to obtain successful human islet isolation. Enough experience and pertinent review of donor and isolation factors can make islet isolation consistent, supporting clinical islet transplantation without unnecessary cost. PMID:16298607

  14. Genomic divergence during speciation: causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Nosil, Patrik; Feder, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Speciation is a fundamental process responsible for the diversity of life. Progress has been made in detecting individual ‘speciation genes’ that cause reproductive isolation. In contrast, until recently, less attention has been given to genome-wide patterns of divergence during speciation. Thus, major questions remain concerning how individual speciation genes are arrayed within the genome, and how this affects speciation. This theme issue is dedicated to exploring this genomic perspective of speciation. Given recent sequencing and computational advances that now allow genomic analyses in most organisms, the goal is to help move the field towards a more integrative approach. This issue draws upon empirical studies in plants and animals, and theoretical work, to review and further document patterns of genomic divergence. In turn, these studies begin to disentangle the role that different processes, such as natural selection, gene flow and recombination rate, play in generating observed patterns. These factors are considered in the context of how genomes diverge as speciation unfolds, from beginning to end. The collective results point to how experimental work is now required, in conjunction with theory and sequencing studies, to move the field from descriptive studies of patterns of divergence towards a predictive framework that tackles the causes and consequences of genome-wide patterns. PMID:22201163

  15. FLNA genomic rearrangements cause periventricular nodular heterotopia

    PubMed Central

    Clapham, K.R.; Yu, T.W.; Ganesh, V.S.; Barry, B.; Chan, Y.; Mei, D.; Parrini, E.; Funalot, B.; Dupuis, L.; Nezarati, M.M.; du Souich, C.; van Karnebeek, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify copy number variant (CNV) causes of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) in patients for whom FLNA sequencing is negative. Methods: Screening of 35 patients from 33 pedigrees on an Affymetrix 6.0 microarray led to the identification of one individual bearing a CNV that disrupted FLNA. FLNA-disrupting CNVs were also isolated in 2 other individuals by multiplex ligation probe amplification. These 3 cases were further characterized by high-resolution oligo array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and the precise junctional breakpoints of the rearrangements were identified by PCR amplification and sequencing. Results: We report 3 cases of PNH caused by nonrecurrent genomic rearrangements that disrupt one copy of FLNA. The first individual carried a 113-kb deletion that removes all but the first exon of FLNA. A second patient harbored a complex rearrangement including a deletion of the 3′ end of FLNA accompanied by a partial duplication event. A third patient bore a 39-kb deletion encompassing all of FLNA and the neighboring gene EMD. High-resolution oligo array CGH of the FLNA locus suggests distinct molecular mechanisms for each of these rearrangements, and implicates nearby low copy repeats in their pathogenesis. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that FLNA is prone to pathogenic rearrangements, and highlight the importance of screening for CNVs in individuals with PNH lacking FLNA point mutations. Neurology® 2012;78:269–278 PMID:22238415

  16. Clinical review: Bacteremia caused by anaerobic bacteria in children

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Itzhak

    2002-01-01

    This review describes the microbiology, diagnosis and management of bacteremia caused by anaerobic bacteria in children. Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcus sp., Clostridium sp., and Fusobacterium sp. were the most common clinically significant anaerobic isolates. The strains of anaerobic organisms found depended, to a large extent, on the portal of entry and the underlying disease. Predisposing conditions include: malignant neoplasms, immunodeficiencies, chronic renal insufficiency, decubitus ulcers, perforation of viscus and appendicitis, and neonatal age. Organisms identical to those causing anaerobic bacteremia can often be recovered from other infected sites that may have served as a source of persistent bacteremia. When anaerobes resistant to penicillin are suspected or isolated, antimicrobial drugs such as clindamycin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, cefoxitin, a carbapenem, or the combination of a beta-lactamase inhibitor and a penicillin should be administered. The early recognition of anaerobic bacteremia and administration of appropriate antimicrobial and surgical therapy play a significant role in preventing mortality and morbidity in pediatric patients. PMID:12133179

  17. Fatal cerebral mycoses caused by the ascomycete Chaetomium strumarium.

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, S P; Sigler, L; McAleer, R; McGough, D A; Rinaldi, M G; Mizell, G

    1995-01-01

    Three cases of fatal cerebral mycosis in males with prior histories of intravenous drug use from the United States and Australia are reported. Infection in each case was limited to brain abscess; no other sites of infection were observed. The fungus seen by histopathology and isolated from the brain tissue in each case was identified as Chaetomium strumarium. This is the first report of human infection by this species, and C. strumarium is the second species of Chaetomium known to cause primary brain infection. Chaetomium strumarium is unusual among members of the genus Chaetomium in forming ascocarps covered with pale, thin-walled, flexuous hairs, a feature leading to its original placement in the genus Achaetomium. Presence of pinkish exudate droplets and/or crystals associated with hyphae or ascocarps, sometimes accompanied by a pinkish diffusible pigment; good growth at 42 degrees C; and production of small conidia further distinguish this species. The brain abscess isolates were compared with isolates from prior cases of cerebral infection which had been identified as either Chaetomium atrobrunneum or Chaetomium globosum. With reidentification of one isolate originally identified as C. globosum to C. atrobrunneum, only C. strumarium and C. atrobrunneum have been confirmed to cause infection involving the brain. PMID:8567907

  18. The Role of Social Isolation in Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Deborah L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the literature which relates to the role of social isolation in suicide. Major areas reviewed include theories on suicide and social isolation, measures of social isolation, and empirical studies which concern the relationship of social isolation to suicide. (Author)

  19. Electrical isolation of RF plasma discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.A.; Anderson, H.; Splichal, M.P.

    1992-12-01

    Plasmas excited by radio-frequency (rf) power have nonlinear impedance characteristics. This causes the plasma state to depend on the nature of the circuitry that supplies electrical power to the plasma. This dependency occurs because the harmonics of the drive frequency, which are generated by the plasma nonlinearity, interact with the impedance of the external circuitry at the harmonic frequencies. The authors describe the use of a low-pass rf filter in the power feed to the plasma in the GEC RF Reference Cell. The filter successfully isolates the plasma and eliminates its sensitivity to changes in the rf generator, cable plant, and matching network.

  20. Occurrence of Anthracnose on Highbush Blueberry Caused by Colletotrichum Species in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung Kee; Choi, Hyo Won; Lee, Young Kee

    2009-01-01

    A total of 82 isolates of Colletotrichum species were obtained from anthracnose symptoms of highbush blueberry trees grown in the Gochang area of Korea during a disease survey in 2008. Out of the isolates, 75 were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the others as C. acutatum based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Twenty six of C. gloeosporioides isolates produced their teleomorph Glomerella cingulata in PDA culture. Three isolates of each C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum caused anthracnose symptoms on the leaves by artificial inoculation, which were similar to what was observed in the orchards. Previously in Korea, only C. gloeosporioides has been reported as causing anthracnose in blueberries. This is the first report that C. acutatum causes anthracnose in the highbush blueberry in Korea. PMID:23983555

  1. Isolated resonator gyroscope with isolation trimming using a secondary element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope including an isolated resonator. One or more flexures support the isolated resonator and a baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the flexures. Drive and sense elements are affixed to the baseplate and used to excite the resonator and sense movement of the gyroscope. In addition, at least one secondary element (e.g., another electrode) is affixed to the baseplate and used for trimming isolation of the resonator. The resonator operates such that it transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited. Typically, the isolated resonator comprises a proof mass and a counterbalancing plate.

  2. An unusual skin lesion caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae

    PubMed Central

    Papacostas, Lindsey J.; Henderson, Andrew; Choong, Keat; Sowden, David

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of subcutaneous infection as a result of traumatic implantation caused by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae. It was isolated in multiple swabs from the foot of an active healthy male. The fungus was identified by traditional mycology culture methods though this was slow with much time required for sporulation on only one of the agars used. Identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The patient was successfully treated with Voriconizole. PMID:25893164

  3. Externa otitis caused by the Graphium stage of Pseudallescheria apiosperma

    PubMed Central

    Neji, Sourour; Ines, Hadrich; Houaida, Trabelsi; Malek, Mnejja; Fatma, Cheikhrouhou; Hayet, Sellami; Fattouma, Makni; Mounôm, Ghorbel; Ali, Ayadi

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of otomycosis caused by the Graphium stage of Pseudallescheria apiosperma in an immunocompetent 32 years old man who was suffering from hypoacusia and purulent otorrhea. Isolates were identified as Graphium stage of Pseudallescheria sp. on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Pseudallescheria apiosperma was correctly identified by PCR sequencing of ITS regions and β-tubulin gene. In this case the contamination could be due to intensive activity of gardening with poor hygiene. PMID:24432231

  4. First Spanish case of onychomycosis caused by Chaetomium globosum.

    PubMed

    Aspiroz, Carmen; Gené, Josepa; Rezusta, Antonio; Charlez, Luis; Summerbell, Richard C

    2007-05-01

    Members of the fungal genus Chaetomium usually colonize cellulose-containing plant remains but on rare occasions may cause opportunistic mycoses and cutaneous infection in otherwise healthy individuals. To our knowledge, there have been only five credible descriptions of onychomycosis caused by members of this genus and only two of these contained information on therapy. We describe the first case of Chaetomium globosum onychomycosis recorded in Spain. The etiologic significance of the fungus was confirmed by its repeated isolation at different times, to the exclusion of dermatophytes. Clinically, the affected nails showed an excellent response to terbinafine and complete cure appeared to have been attained. PMID:17464849

  5. Mandibular dysostosis without microphthalmia caused by OTX2 deletion.

    PubMed

    Latypova, Xénia; Bordereau, Sylvain; Bleriot, Alice; Pichon, Olivier; Poulain, Damien; Briand, Annaïg; Le Caignec, Cédric; Isidor, Bertrand

    2016-09-01

    Mutations in OTX2 are mostly identified in patients with anophthalmia/microphthalmia with variable severity. The OTX2 homeobox gene plays a crucial role in craniofacial morphogenesis during early embryo development. We report for the first time a patient with a mandibular dysostosis caused by a 120 kb deletion including the entire coding sequence of OTX2, identified by array CGH. No ocular malformations were identified after extended ophthalmologic examination. Our data refine the clinical spectrum associated with OTX2 mutations and suggests that OTX2 haploinsufficiency should be considered as a possible cause for isolated mandibular dysostosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27378064

  6. Cutaneous abscess caused by Corynebacterium lactis in a companion dog.

    PubMed

    Antunes, João Marcelo Azevedo de Paula; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Demoner, Larissa de Castro; Ramos, Juliana Nunes; Baio, Paulo Victor Pereira; Simpson-Louredo, Liliane; Santos, Cíntia Silva; Hirata, Raphael; Ferioli, Raquel Beneton; Romera, Adriana Resmond Cruz; Vieira, Verônica Viana; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza

    2015-07-01

    Many new, emerging and re-emerging diseases of humans are caused by pathogens which originate from animals or products of animal origin. Corynebacterium lactis, a recently described species of the genus Corynebacterium, was first isolated from milk of asymptomatic cows. In the present study a cutaneous abscess caused by C. lactis in a dog was recognized by cytologic and histologic examination in addition to 16S rRNA gene analysis of the microorganism. Therefore, C. lactis should be included among other bacterial species recognized as emerging pathogens for companion animals. PMID:25937144

  7. Colletotrichum truncatum: an Unusual Pathogen Causing Mycotic Keratitis and Endophthalmitis▿

    PubMed Central

    Shivaprakash, M. R.; Appannanavar, Suma B.; Dhaliwal, Manpreet; Gupta, Amit; Gupta, Sunita; Gupta, Amod; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the well-known plant pathogens of the Colletotrichum genus were increasingly reported to cause ophthalmic infections in humans. Among 66 species in the Colletotrichum genus, only a few are known to be pathogenic for humans. We report here five cases of ophthalmic infections due to Colletotrichum truncatum, a species never reported earlier to cause human infection. The isolates were identified by morphological characteristics and the sequencing of internal spacer regions of ribosomal DNA. The progress of lesions in those patients was slow compared to that of lesions caused by Aspergillus or Fusarium infections. The surgical management included total penetrating keratoplasty in patients with keratitis and pars plana vitrectomy in endophthalmitis. Two patients were treated additionally with intravitreal amphotericin B deoxycholate, one patient with oral itraconazole, and another patient with oral and topical fluconazole therapy. The present series therefore highlights the expanding spectrum of agents causing eye infections and the inclusion of C. truncatum as a human pathogen. PMID:21653772

  8. Pulmonary Tuberculosis Caused by Mycobacterium bovis in China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guanglu; Wang, Guirong; Chen, Suting; Yu, Xia; Wang, Xiaobo; Zhao, Liping; Ma, Yifeng; Dong, Lingling; Huang, Hairong

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in humans in China is unknown. In this study, pulmonary tuberculosis caused by M. bovis in China was studied. A total of 4069 clinical strains isolated from sputa during the 2007–2009 nationwide surveillance of drug-resistant tuberculosis in China were analyzed. M. bovis was identified by para-nitrobenzoic acid and thiophen-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide growth tests, spoligotyping and multiplex PCR amplification. In addition, a total of 1828 clinical specimens were recruited from Beijing Chest Hospital (Beijing, China) for Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture, both on standard LJ medium and LJ medium containing 4.5 mg/ml(W/V) sodium pyruvate, the latter being the preferred medium for M. bovis growth. The isolates which demonstrated more vigorous on pyruvate containing medium than on standard LJ medium were then identified by multiplex PCR amplification. Only 1 isolate from the nationwide surveillance was confirmed as M. bovis-BCG. The isolate belonged to a predominant spoligotype SB0120 (ST482). In addition, no M. bovis isolate was acquired by the continuous screening step in Beijing Chest Hospital. M. bovis has a negligible contribution to pulmonary tuberculosis in China, so neither laboratory identification nor clinical treatment of M. bovis infection need be considered in routine work. PMID:25736338

  9. Biopathologic Characterization of Three Mixed Poultry Eimeria spp. Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Arabkhazaeli, F; Nabian, S; Modirsaneii, M; Mansoori, B; Rahbari, S

    2011-01-01

    Background Coccidiosis of domestic fowl, caused by species of the Genus Eimeria, is responsible for important economic losses in poultry production. Because different species and/or strains can vary in pathogenicity and other biological parameters, their precise characterization is important for epizootiological studies. Methods Fifty samples from litter, whole intestinal tract and feces were collected from poultry houses located in different provinces of Iran. One hundred twenty male day-old broiler chicks were challenged with three selected isolates. Data on weight gain, Food Conversion Ratio (FCR), food intake, lesion scoring and shedding of oocysts per gram of feces were recorded and analyzed by the Duncan's test. Results In all treatments, the challenged groups had statistically significant lower weight gain than that of unchallenged control group. Isolate three caused the lowest weight gain and food intake and the worst lesion score as well as FCR. Despite originating from close geographical regions for isolates 1 and 2, the difference in biopathologic factors may be either due to different proportion of identified species or the different pathogenicity of the species present in the isolates. Conclusion The results highlight the importance of considering various species of Eimeria in designing the preventive, control and treatment strategies to prevent coccidiosis in different regions of Iran. Further characterization of each isolate would be the next step to provide a basis for coccidiosis research with well-characterized local isolates. PMID:22347310

  10. Material isolation enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Martell, Calvin J.; Dahlby, Joel W.; Gallimore, Bradford F.; Comer, Bob E.; Stone, Water A.; Carlson, David O.

    1993-01-01

    An enclosure similar to a glovebox for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

  11. Material isolation enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Martell, C.J.; Dahlby, J.W.; Gallimore, B.F.; Comer, B.E.; Stone, W.A.; Carlson, D.O.

    1993-04-27

    An enclosure is described, similar to a glove box, for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

  12. Isolated post resonator mesogyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, Dorian; Peay, Chris; Wellman, Joanne; Shcheglov, Kirill; Hayworth, Ken; Wiberg, Dean; Yee, Karl; Sipppola, Clayton

    2004-01-01

    A new symmetric vibratory gyroscope principle has been devised in which a central post proof mass is counter-rocked against an outer sensing plate such that the motion is isolated from the gyroscope case. Prototype gyroscopes have been designed and fabricated with micromachined silicon at mesoscale (20-cm resonator width), vs. microscale (e.g., 2-mm resonator width) to achieve higher sensitivity and machined precision. This novel mesogyro design arose out of an ongoing technical cooperation between JPL and Boeing begun in 1997 to advance the design of micro-inertial sensors for low-cost space applications. This paper describes the theory of operation of the mesogyro and relationships with other vibratory gyroscopes, the mechanical design, closed loop electronics design, bulk silicon fabrication and packaged gyroscope assembly and test methods. The initial packaged prototype test results are reported for what is believed to be the first silicon mesogyroscope.

  13. Thermally isolated well instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Engelder, P.D.

    1984-04-03

    A well instrument is isolated from the high temperatures of a surrounding earth formation by enclosing the instrument within a heat insulative jacket structure, preferably a dewar having spaced walls with a vacuum therebetween, with a heat sink contained in the jacket above the instrument assembly, and with a heat pipe extending upwardly from the instrument assembly to the heat sink and containing a fluid which by evaporation at a lower point and condensation at a higher point will conduct heat upwardly from the instrument assembly to the heat sink but not downwardly therebetween. The heat pipe preferably projects upwardly beyond a top portion of the insulating jacket to the location of a convector element which is exposed to the temperature of fluid or air at the outside of the insulating jacket to transmit heat from within the jacket to its exterior but not in a reverse direction.

  14. Magnetically coupled signal isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, Jr., William C. (Inventor); Hermann, Theodore M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A current determiner having an output at which representations of input currents are provided having an input conductor for the input current and a current sensor supported on a substrate electrically isolated from one another but with the sensor positioned in the magnetic fields arising about the input conductor due to any input currents. The sensor extends along the substrate in a direction primarily perpendicular to the extent of the input conductor and is formed of at least a pair of thin-film ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic conductive layer. The sensor can be electrically connected to electronic circuitry formed in the substrate including a nonlinearity adaptation circuit to provide representations of the input currents of increased accuracy despite nonlinearities in the current sensor, and can include further current sensors in bridge circuits.

  15. Acoustic trauma caused by lightning.

    PubMed

    Mora-Magaña, I; Collado-Corona, M A; Toral-Martiñòn, R; Cano, A

    1996-03-01

    Lesions produced by exposure to noise are frequent in everyday life. Injuries may be found in all systems of the human body, from the digestive to the endocrine, from the cardiovascular to the nervous system. Many organs may be damaged, the ear being one of them. It is known that noise produced by factories, airports, musical instruments and even toys can cause auditory loss. Noises in nature can also cause acoustic trauma. This report is the case history of acoustic trauma caused by lightning. The patient was studied with CAT scan, electroencephalogram, and brain mapping, impedance audiometry with tympanogram and acoustic reflex, audiometry and evoked otoacoustics emissions: distortion products and transients. PMID:8882110

  16. Isolated Northern Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 81 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. In this region, the dunes are isolated from each other. The dunes are just starting to emerge from the winter frost covering appearing dark with bright crests. These dunes are located on top of ice.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.1, Longitude 191.3 East (168.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Mycobacterium abscessus isolated from municipal water - a potential source of human infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing mycobacterium responsible for progressive pulmonary disease, soft tissue and wound infections. The incidence of disease due to M. abscessus has been increasing in Queensland. In a study of Brisbane drinking water, M. abscessus was isolated from ten different locations. The aim of this study was to compare genotypically the M. abscessus isolates obtained from water to those obtained from human clinical specimens. Methods Between 2007 and 2009, eleven isolates confirmed as M. abscessus were recovered from potable water, one strain was isolated from a rainwater tank and another from a swimming pool and two from domestic taps. Seventy-four clinical isolates referred during the same time period were available for comparison using rep-PCR strain typing (Diversilab). Results The drinking water isolates formed two clusters with ≥97% genetic similarity (Water patterns 1 and 2). The tankwater isolate (WP4), one municipal water isolate (WP3) and the pool isolate (WP5) were distinctly different. Patient isolates formed clusters with all of the water isolates except for WP3. Further patient isolates were unrelated to the water isolates. Conclusion The high degree of similarity between strains of M. abscessus from potable water and strains causing infection in humans from the same geographical area, strengthens the possibility that drinking water may be the source of infection in these patients. PMID:23705674

  18. A hybrid base isolation system

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, G.C.; Lobo, R.F.; Srinivasan, M.; Asher, J.W.

    1995-12-01

    This paper proposes a new analysis procedure for hybrid base isolation buildings when considering the displacement response of a base isolated building to wind loads. The system is considered hybrid because of the presence of viscous dampers in the building above the isolator level. The proposed analysis approach incorporates a detailed site specific wind study combined with a dynamic nonlinear analysis of the building response.

  19. Genetic and biological diversity among isolates of Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Schock, A; Innes, E A; Yamane, I; Latham, S M; Wastling, J M

    2001-07-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes bovine abortion. The epidemiology of N. caninum is poorly understood and little is known about the genetic diversity of the parasite, or whether individual isolates differ in virulence. Such diversity may, among other factors, underlie the range of pathologies seen in cattle. In this study we analysed biological and genetic variation in 6 isolates of N. caninum originating from canine and bovine hosts by measurement of growth rate in vitro, Western blotting and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). This comparative analysis of intra-species diversity demonstrated that heterogeneity exists within the species. The relative growth rate in vitro, as assessed by 3[H]uracil uptake, showed significant variation between isolates. However, no significant differences were detected between the antigenic profiles of each isolate by Western blotting. RAPD-PCR was performed on DNA from the 6 Neospora isolates; 3 strains of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium parvum were also analysed. Twenty-six RAPD primers gave rise to 434 markers of which 222 were conserved between all the Neospora isolates and distinguished them from the other Apicomplexa. An additional 54 markers were unique for Neospora but were polymorphic within the species and able to differentiate between the individual isolates. The RAPD data were subjected to pair-wise similarity and cluster analysis and showed that the Neospora isolates clustered together as a group, with T. gondii as their nearest neighbour. N. caninum isolates showed no clustering with respect either to host or geographical origin. The genetic similarity between Neospora isolates from cattle and dogs suggests that these hosts may be epidemiologically related, although further analysis of bovine and canine field samples are required. The genetic and biological diversity observed in this study may have important implications for our understanding of the pathology and

  20. Genotypes and antibiotic resistance of canine Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    PubMed

    Amar, Chantal; Kittl, Sonja; Spreng, David; Thomann, Andreas; Korczak, Bożena M; Burnens, André P; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-01-10

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. It is a commensal in many wild and domestic animals, including dogs. Whereas genotypes of human and chicken C. jejuni isolates have been described in some detail, only little information on canine C. jejuni genotypes is available. To gain more information on genotypes of canine C. jejuni and their zoonotic potential, isolates from routine diagnostics of diarrheic dogs as well as isolates of a prevalence study in non-diarrheic dogs were analyzed. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter among non-diarrheic dogs was 6.3% for C. jejuni, 5.9% for Campylobacter upsaliensis and 0.7% for Campylobacter coli. The C. jejuni isolates were genotyped by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB typing. Resistance to macrolides and quinolones was genetically determined in parallel. Within the 134 genotyped C. jejuni isolates 57 different sequence types (ST) were found. Five STs were previously unrecognized. The most common STs were ST-48 (11.2%), ST-45 (10.5%) and ST-21 (6.0%). Whereas no macrolide resistance was found, 28 isolates (20.9%) were resistant to quinolones. ST-45 was significantly more prevalent in diarrheic than in non-diarrheic dogs. Within the common time frame of isolation 94% of the canine isolates had a ST that was also found in human clinical isolates. In conclusion, prevalence of C. jejuni in Swiss dogs is low but there is a large genetic overlap between dog and human isolates. Given the close contact between human and dogs, the latter should not be ignored as a potential source of human campylobacteriosis. PMID:24210812

  1. First Human Case of Fungal Keratitis Caused by a Putatively Novel Species of Lophotrichus.

    PubMed

    Eghrari, Allen O; Gibas, Connie; Watkins, Tonya; Vahedi, Sina; Lee, Rick; Houle, Elizabeth; Suarez, Maria Jose; Eberhart, Charles; Sutton, Deanna A; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Sikder, Shameema; Zhang, Sean X

    2015-09-01

    We report an aggressive fungal keratitis caused by a putatively novel species of Lophotrichus in a patient with traumatic injury to the cornea from a dog paw. The organism was isolated from the patient's necrotic cornea, which perforated despite coverage with hourly fortified broad-spectrum topical antibiotic therapy. This report represents the first case of human infection caused by this species. PMID:26109445

  2. First Human Case of Fungal Keratitis Caused by a Putatively Novel Species of Lophotrichus

    PubMed Central

    Eghrari, Allen O.; Gibas, Connie; Watkins, Tonya; Vahedi, Sina; Lee, Rick; Houle, Elizabeth; Suarez, Maria Jose; Eberhart, Charles; Sutton, Deanna A.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.

    2015-01-01

    We report an aggressive fungal keratitis caused by a putatively novel species of Lophotrichus in a patient with traumatic injury to the cornea from a dog paw. The organism was isolated from the patient's necrotic cornea, which perforated despite coverage with hourly fortified broad-spectrum topical antibiotic therapy. This report represents the first case of human infection caused by this species. PMID:26109445

  3. Meningococcal Disease: Causes and Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccine Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Sepsis Causes & Transmission Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Vaccine Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Sepsis File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  4. Causes of secondary headache (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Temporomandibular joint, or TMJ, dysfunction, can be a cause of secondary headache. Secondary headaches result from underlying disorders which produce pain as a symptom. The TMJ may become painful and dysfunctional as a result ...

  5. What Causes Sudden Cardiac Arrest?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a few minutes. Other problems with the heart's electrical system also can cause SCA. For example, SCA can occur if the rate of the heart's electrical signals becomes very slow and stops. SCA also ...

  6. Onychomycosis caused by Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Hattori, N; Shirai, A; Sugiura, Y; Li, W; Yokoyama, K; Misawa, Y; Okuzumi, K; Tamaki, K

    2005-09-01

    Fusarium infections in humans are usually opportunistic, but the fungus sometimes infects healthy persons, causing keratomycosis or onychomycosis. Onychomycosis is usually caused by F. solani or F. oxysporum. We report the first two cases of onychomycosis caused by F. proliferatum, and discuss methods of diagnosis and effective treatment. Nail samples from the two patients were examined by direct microscopy, cultured, and identified morphologically and genetically as F. proliferatum. Both patients were treated successfully with oral itraconazole, even though the minimum inhibitory concentration of itraconazole was relatively high in Patient 1. This is the first report of F. proliferatum as an agent of onychomycosis. Itraconazole may be effective in the treatment of onychomycosis caused by F. proliferatum. PMID:16120158

  7. What Causes Thrombocythemia and Thrombocytosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Hemolytic Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Stroke Von Willebrand Disease Send a link ...

  8. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Causes of High Blood Pressure Changes, either from genes or the environment, in ... and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in ...

  9. Dementia due to metabolic causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... may cause confusion and changes in thinking or reasoning. These changes may be short-term or lasting. ... Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2012: ...

  10. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ross River Fever, a mosquito-borne tropical disease Coxiella burnetti , the agent that causes Q fever Human ... with Epstein-Barr virus, Ross River virus, and Coxiella burnetti will lead to a post-infective condition ...

  11. Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility? This fact sheet was ... with The Society of Reproductive Surgeons What is endometriosis? When tissue like the tissue that normally lines ...

  12. What Causes Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura? A lack of activity in the ADAMTS13 enzyme ( ... This leads to hemolytic anemia . Inherited Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura In inherited TTP, the ADAMTS13 gene is faulty. ...

  13. Research Areas: Causes of Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Understanding the exposures and risk factors that cause cancer, as well as the genetic abnormalities associated with the disease, has helped us to reduce certain exposures and to ameliorate their harmful effects.

  14. Symptoms and Causes of Constipation

    MedlinePlus

    ... slow movement of stool through the colon delayed emptying of the colon from pelvic disorders, especially in ... can cause constipation include antacids —used to neutralize stomach acid—that contain aluminum and calcium anticholinergics —used ...

  15. Molecular analysis of Vibrio vulnificus isolated from cockles and patients in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Mala, Wanida; Chomvarin, Chariya; Alam, Munirul; Rashed, Shah M; Faksri, Kiatichai; Angkititrakul, Sunpetch

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus can cause septicemia, wound infection and gastroenteritis. The most severe infections are related to consumption of raw or undercooked seafood. Virulence genes, biomarkers, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic relationships among V vulnificus isolated from clinical and environmental sources in Thailand have not hitherto been investigated. ViuB encoding vulnibactin siderophore was detected in 33% and 50% of clinical and environmental (cockle) V. vulnificus isolates, respectively, and capsular polysaccharide allele 1 in 67% and 75% of clinical and environmental isolates, respectively. Analysis of the 16 S rDNA gene revealed that type B was the most frequent in both clinical and environmental isolates (67%) whereas the non type-able (30%) was detected only in environmental isolates. The virulence-correlated gene (vcg) with both type C and E together was the most frequently found among the clinical (67%) and environmental (72%) isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis differentiated V vulnificus into 2 clusters; most cockle samples (83%) and all clinical isolates grouped into cluster II, indicating a possible clonal relationship between V. vulnificus isolated from patients and cockles. Only 20% of environmental isolates were resistant to ampicillin. These studies suggest that V vulnificus isolated from cockles has virulence genes similar to those in clinical isolates and thus may have the potential of causing disease. PMID:24964659

  16. Isolation and characterization of pigmented algicidal bacteria from seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaima, A.; Gires, U.; Asmat, A.

    2014-09-01

    Some dinoflagellate species are toxic and widely distributed in Malaysian marines ecosystems. They can cause many problems to aquatic life due to the production of various potential and natural toxins that accumulate in filter feeding shellfish and cause food poisoning to human. In recent decades, bacteria have been widely used as a biological control against these harmful algae. In the present study, pigmented bacteria isolated from marine water of Port Dickson beach was studied for their anti-algal activity towards toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. Four isolates were studied and only one was capable of inhibiting algal growth when treated with bacterial culture. The algilytic effect on dinoflagellate was evaluated based on direct cell count under the microscope. Results showed that only isolate Sdpd-310 with orange colour has an inhibitory effect on A. minutum growth. This study demonstrated the rapid algicidal activity of a marine pigmented bacteria against the toxic dinoflagellate A. minutum.

  17. Science 101: What Causes Wind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    There's a quick and easy answer to this question. The Sun causes wind. Exactly how the Sun causes wind takes a bit to explain. We'll begin with what wind is. You've no doubt heard that wind is the motion of air molecules, which is true. Putting aside the huge leap of faith it takes for us to believe that we are experiencing the motion of millions…

  18. Dorsal Raphe Dopamine Neurons Represent the Experience of Social Isolation.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Gillian A; Nieh, Edward H; Vander Weele, Caitlin M; Halbert, Sarah A; Pradhan, Roma V; Yosafat, Ariella S; Glober, Gordon F; Izadmehr, Ehsan M; Thomas, Rain E; Lacy, Gabrielle D; Wildes, Craig P; Ungless, Mark A; Tye, Kay M

    2016-02-11

    The motivation to seek social contact may arise from either positive or negative emotional states, as social interaction can be rewarding and social isolation can be aversive. While ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons may mediate social reward, a cellular substrate for the negative affective state of loneliness has remained elusive. Here, we identify a functional role for DA neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), in which we observe synaptic changes following acute social isolation. DRN DA neurons show increased activity upon social contact following isolation, revealed by in vivo calcium imaging. Optogenetic activation of DRN DA neurons increases social preference but causes place avoidance. Furthermore, these neurons are necessary for promoting rebound sociability following an acute period of isolation. Finally, the degree to which these neurons modulate behavior is predicted by social rank, together supporting a role for DRN dopamine neurons in mediating a loneliness-like state. PAPERCLIP. PMID:26871628

  19. Dorsal Raphe Dopamine Neurons Represent the Experience of Social Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Gillian A.; Nieh, Edward H.; Vander Weele, Caitlin M.; Halbert, Sarah A.; Pradhan, Roma V.; Yosafat, Ariella S.; Glober, Gordon F.; Izadmehr, Ehsan M.; Thomas, Rain E.; Lacy, Gabrielle D.; Wildes, Craig P.; Ungless, Mark A.; Tye, Kay M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The motivation to seek social contact may arise from either positive or negative emotional states, as social interaction can be rewarding and social isolation can be aversive. While ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons may mediate social reward, a cellular substrate for the negative affective state of loneliness has remained elusive. Here, we identify a functional role for DA neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), in which we observe synaptic changes following acute social isolation. DRN DA neurons show increased activity upon social contact following isolation, revealed by in vivo calcium imaging. Optogenetic activation of DRN DA neurons increases social preference but causes place avoidance. Furthermore, these neurons are necessary for promoting rebound sociability following an acute period of isolation. Finally, the degree to which these neurons modulate behavior is predicted by social rank, together supporting a role for DRN dopamine neurons in mediating a loneliness-like state. PaperClip PMID:26871628

  20. Multilocus microsatellite analysis of European and African Candida glabrata isolates.

    PubMed

    Chillemi, V; Lo Passo, C; van Diepeningen, A D; Rharmitt, S; Delfino, D; Cascio, A; Nnadi, N E; Cilo, B D; Sampaio, P; Tietz, H-J; Pemán, J; Criseo, G; Romeo, O; Scordino, F

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the genetic relatedness and epidemiology of 127 clinical and environmental Candida glabrata isolates from Europe and Africa using multilocus microsatellite analysis. Each isolate was first identified using phenotypic and molecular methods and subsequently, six unlinked microsatellite loci were analyzed using automated fluorescent genotyping. Genetic relationships were estimated using the minimum-spanning tree (MStree) method. Microsatellite analyses revealed the existence of 47 different genotypes. The fungal population showed an irregular distribution owing to the over-representation of genetically different infectious haplotypes. The most common genotype was MG-9, which was frequently found in both European and African isolates. In conclusion, the data reported here emphasize the role of specific C. glabrata genotypes in human infections for at least some decades and highlight the widespread distribution of some isolates, which seem to be more able to cause disease than others. PMID:26946511

  1. Process fault isolation based on transfer entropy algorithm.

    PubMed

    Hajihosseini, Payman; Salahshoor, Karim; Moshiri, Behzad

    2014-03-01

    Complexity of industrial plants and their stringent environmental and safety regulations have necessitated early detection and isolation of process faults. All the existing fault isolation methods can be categorized into two general groups: model-based and data-based. Transfer entropy is a data-based method for measuring propagation direction of disturbance and finding its root cause. In this paper, a new transfer entropy-based method is proposed to isolate different process faults. The novelty of this paper lies in using the transfer entropy idea to generate distinct patterns of information flow among process variables, recognize their correlations in the context of the transferred information in any abnormal condition, and finally isolate different process faults. The experimental results clearly demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method to the conventional methods. PMID:24315057

  2. Molecular characterization of Prototheca strains isolated from Italian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Ricchi, M; Goretti, M; Branda, E; Cammi, G; Garbarino, C A; Turchetti, B; Moroni, P; Arrigoni, N; Buzzini, P

    2010-10-01

    One hundred sixty-one Prototheca spp. strains isolated from composite milk and barn-surrounding environmental samples (bedding, feces, drinking, or washing water, surface swabs) of 24 Italian dairy herds were characterized by genotype-specific PCR analysis. Overall, 97.2% of strains isolated from composite milk samples were characterized as Prototheca zopfii genotype 2, confirming its role as the main mastitis pathogen, whereas Prototheca blaschkeae was only sporadically isolated (2.8%). Regarding environmental sampling, 84.9% of isolates belonged to P. zopfii genotype 2, 13.2% to P. blaschkeae, and 1.9% to P. zopfii genotype 1. The data herein contradict previous hypotheses about the supposed exclusive role of P. zopfii genotype 2 as the causative agent of protothecal mastitis and, on the contrary, confirm the hypothesis that such pathology could be caused by P. blaschkeae in a few instances. PMID:20854996

  3. Isolation of five Rubrobacter strains from biodeteriorated monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laiz, L.; Miller, A. Z.; Jurado, V.; Akatova, E.; Sanchez-Moral, S.; Gonzalez, J. M.; Dionísio, A.; Macedo, M. F.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years, the microbial colonisation of mural paintings in ancient monuments has been attracting the attention of microbiologists and conservators. The genus Rubrobacter is commonly found in biodeteriorated monuments, where it has been reported to cause rosy discolouration. However, to date, only three species of this genus have been isolated, all from thermophilic environments. In this paper, we studied three monuments: the Servilia and Postumio tombs in the Roman Necropolis of Carmona (Spain), and Vilar de Frades church (Portugal), in search of Rubrobacter strains. In all cases, biodeterioration and the formation of efflorescences were observed, and five Rubrobacter strains were isolated. These isolates showed different physiology and migration in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, suggesting they might represent new species within this genus. The isolates reproduced some biodeterioration processes in the laboratory and revealed their biomediation in crystal formation.

  4. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis Disease-Causing Strains in Argentina, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Sorhouet-Pereira, Cecilia; Efron, Adriana; Gagetti, Paula; Faccone, Diego; Regueira, Mabel; Corso, Alejandra; Gabastou, Jean-Marc; Ibarz-Pavón, Ana Belén

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of 133 isolates of Neisseria meningitidis obtained from meningococcal disease cases in Argentina during 2010 were performed by the National Reference Laboratory as part of a project coordinated by the PAHO within the SIREVA II network. Serogroup, serotype, serosubtype and MLST characterization were performed. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration to penicillin, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, rifampin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were determined and interpreted according to CLSI guidelines. Almost 49% of isolates were W135, and two serotype:serosubtype combinations, W135∶2a:P1.5,2:ST-11 and W135∶2a:P1.2:ST-11 accounted for 78% of all W135 isolates. Serogroup B accounted for 42.1% of isolates, and was both phenotypically and genotypically diverse. Serogroup C isolates represented 5.3% of the dataset, and one isolate belonging to the ST-198 complex was non-groupable. Isolates belonged mainly to the ST-11 complex (48%) and to a lesser extent to the ST-865 (18%), ST-32 (9,8%) and the ST-35 complexes (9%). Intermediate resistance to penicillin and ampicillin was detected in 35.4% and 33.1% of isolates respectively. Two W135∶2a:P1.5,2:ST-11:ST-11 isolates presented resistance to ciprofloxacin associated with a mutation in the QRDR of gyrA gene Thr91-Ile. These data show serogroup W135 was the first cause of disease in Argentina in 2010, and was strongly associated with the W135∶2a:P1.5,2:ST-11 epidemic clone. Serogroup B was the second cause of disease and isolates belonging to this serogroup were phenotypically and genotypically diverse. The presence of isolates with intermediate resistance to penicillin and the presence of fluorquinolone-resistant isolates highlight the necessity and importance of maintaining and strengthening National Surveillance Programs. PMID:23483970

  5. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O78:H10, the Cause of an Outbreak of Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Scheutz, Flemming; Andersen, Rebecca L.; Menard, Megan; Boisen, Nadia; Johnston, Brian; Hansen, Dennis S.; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Nataro, James P.; Johnson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In 1991, multiresistant Escherichia coli O78:H10 strains caused an outbreak of urinary tract infections in Copenhagen, Denmark. The phylogenetic origin, clonal background, and virulence characteristics of the outbreak isolates, and their relationship to nonoutbreak O78:H10 strains according to these traits and resistance profiles, are unknown. Accordingly, we extensively characterized 51 archived E. coli O78:H10 isolates (48 human isolates from seven countries, including 19 Copenhagen outbreak isolates, and 1 each of calf, avian, and unknown-source isolates), collected from 1956 through 2000. E. coli O78:H10 was clonally heterogeneous, comprising one dominant clonal group (61% of isolates, including all 19 outbreak isolates) from ST10 (phylogenetic group A) plus several minor clonal groups (phylogenetic groups A and D). All ST10 isolates, versus 25% of non-ST10 isolates, were identified by molecular methods as enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) (P < 0.001). Genes present in >90% of outbreak isolates included fimH (type 1 fimbriae; ubiquitous in E. coli); fyuA, traT, and iutA (associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli [ExPEC]); and sat, pic, aatA, aggR, aggA, ORF61, aaiC, aap, and ORF3 (associated with EAEC). An outbreak isolate was lethal in a murine subcutaneous sepsis model and exhibited characteristic EAEC “stacked brick” adherence to cultured epithelial cells. Thus, the 1991 Copenhagen outbreak was caused by a tight, non-animal-associated subset within a broadly disseminated O78:H10 clonal group (ST10; phylogenetic group A), members of which exhibit both ExPEC and EAEC characteristics, whereas O78:H10 isolates overall are phylogenetically diverse. Whether ST10 O78:H10 EAEC strains are both uropathogenic and diarrheagenic warrants further investigation. PMID:22972830

  6. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE RATES IN CAMPYLOBACTER ISOLATES DERIVED FROM SWINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter, a microaerophilic gram-negative rod, is a major foodborne pathogen and commonly present in swine intestinal tract without causing any clinical disease. In this project, we investigated the antimicrobial resistance profiles of fecal Campylobacter isolates (n= 194) obtained from a swin...

  7. Effective vibration isolation system for perfect-crystal neutron interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, J.

    1985-01-01

    Perfect-crystal neutron interferometers are subject to degradation of their performance caused by vibrational accelerations. It is shown that the most seriously offending accelerations are rotational, and an effective and simple vibration isolation system that has been developed at the MIT Neutron Diffraction Laboratory is described.

  8. Characterization and phylogenic analysis of Mexican Newcastle disease virus isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was isolated in Mexico for the first time in 1946 and the last report of a field outbreak caused by a highly virulent strain dates from year 2000, when 13.6 million birds were slaughtered and 93 farms quarantined. Mean Death Time test resulted in velogenic classificati...

  9. Novel Arenavirus Isolates from Namaqua Rock Mice, Namibia, Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kallies, René; Hoveka, Julia; Auste, Brita; Ithete, Ndapewa L.; Šoltys, Katarína; Szemes, Tomáš; Drosten, Christian; Preiser, Wolfgang; Klempa, Boris; Mfune, John K.E.; Kruger, Detlev H.

    2015-01-01

    Arenaviruses are feared as agents that cause viral hemorrhagic fevers. We report the identification, isolation, and genetic characterization of 2 novel arenaviruses from Namaqua rock mice in Namibia. These findings extend knowledge of the distribution and diversity of arenaviruses in Africa. PMID:26079174

  10. Isolation and characterization of outer membrane vesicles from Haemophilus parasuis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haemophilus parasuis is a small, pleomorphic Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the upper respiratory tract of swine. Numerous strains of this organism are capable of causing systemic disease, resulting in high morbidity and mortality in the host. H. parasuis isolates display a wide range of vir...

  11. Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging pathogen to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia, multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a human neonatal meningitis clinical case causes disease signs and mortality in N...

  12. Cotton roll isolation versus Vac-Ejector isolation.

    PubMed

    Wood, A J; Saravia, M E; Farrington, F H

    1989-01-01

    A visible-light-cured, white pit-and-fissure sealant was applied to 523 teeth in school children using either cotton rolls or a VacEjector for isolation. After a minimum of six months, the patients were recalled and the retention of the sealants was evaluated. No significant difference in sealant retention was found between the two isolation methods. PMID:2530257

  13. cis-Regulatory Mutations Are a Genetic Cause of Human Limb Malformations

    PubMed Central

    VanderMeer, Julia E.; Ahituv, Nadav

    2011-01-01

    The underlying mutations that cause human limb malformations are often difficult to determine, particularly for limb malformations that occur as isolated traits. Evidence from a variety of studies shows that cis-regulatory mutations, specifically in enhancers, can lead to some of these isolated limb malformations. Here, we provide a review of human limb malformations that have been shown to be caused by enhancer mutations and propose that cis-regulatory mutations will continue to be identified as the cause of additional human malformations as our understanding of regulatory sequences improves. PMID:21509892

  14. Specific Gene Loci of Clinical Pseudomonas putida Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Lázaro; Udaondo, Zulema; Duque, Estrella; Fernández, Matilde; Bernal, Patricia; Roca, Amalia; de la Torre, Jesús; Ramos, Juan Luis

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida are ubiquitous inhabitants of soils and clinical isolates of this species have been seldom described. Clinical isolates show significant variability in their ability to cause damage to hosts because some of them are able to modulate the host’s immune response. In the current study, comparisons between the genomes of different clinical and environmental strains of P. putida were done to identify genetic clusters shared by clinical isolates that are not present in environmental isolates. We show that in clinical strains specific genes are mostly present on transposons, and that this set of genes exhibit high identity with genes found in pathogens and opportunistic pathogens. The set of genes prevalent in P. putida clinical isolates, and absent in environmental isolates, are related with survival under oxidative stress conditions, resistance against biocides, amino acid metabolism and toxin/antitoxin (TA) systems. This set of functions have influence in colonization and survival within human tissues, since they avoid host immune response or enhance stress resistance. An in depth bioinformatic analysis was also carried out to identify genetic clusters that are exclusive to each of the clinical isolates and that correlate with phenotypical differences between them, a secretion system type III-like was found in one of these clinical strains, a determinant of pathogenicity in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26820467

  15. The AMIGA sample of isolated galaxies. X. A first look at isolated galaxy colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Lorenzo, M.; Sulentic, J.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Ruiz, J. E.; Sabater, J.; Sánchez, S.

    2012-04-01

    Context. The basic properties of galaxies can be affected by both nature (internal processes) or nurture (interactions and effects of environment). Deconvolving the two effects is an important current effort in astrophysics. Observed properties of a sample of isolated galaxies should be mainly the result of internal (natural) evolution. It follows that nurture-induced galaxy evolution can only be understood through a comparative study of galaxies in different environments. Aims: We take a first look at SDSS (g - r) colors of galaxies in the AMIGA sample, which consists of many of the most isolated galaxies in the local Universe. This alerted us at the same time to the pitfalls of using automated SDSS colors. Methods: We focused on median values for the principal morphological subtypes found in the AMIGA sample (E/S0 and Sb-Sc) and compared them with equivalent measures obtained for galaxies in denser environments. Results: We find a weak tendency for AMIGA spiral galaxies to be redder than objects in close pairs. We find no clear difference when we compared this with galaxies in other (e.g. group) environments. However, the (g - r) color of isolated galaxies shows a Gaussian distribution, as might be expected assuming nurture-free evolution. We find a smaller median absolute deviation in colors for isolated galaxies compared to both wide and close pairs. The majority of the deviation on median colors for spiral subtypes is caused by a color-luminosity correlation. Surprisingly, isolated and non-isolated early-type galaxies show similar (g - r). We see little evidence for a green valley in our sample because most spirals redder than (g - r) = 0.7 have spurious colors. Conclusions: The redder colors of AMIGA spirals and lower color dispersions for AMIGA subtypes - compared with close pairs - are likely caused by a more passive star formation in very isolated galaxies. Full Tables 1 and 2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130

  16. Achromobacter causing a thrombophlebitis and osteomyelitis combination: a rare cause.

    PubMed

    Pamuk, Gizem; Aygun, Deniz; Barut, Kenan; Kasapcopur, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacillus, present in normal human flora of the skin and gastrointestinal tract. Infections due to Achromobacter are infrequent and have mostly been reported in immunocompromised patients. Rarely, however, the microorganism can cause soft tissue infections even in healthy subjects with a history of trauma. We report thrombophlebitis complicated with osteomyelitis secondary to Achromobacter in a 15-year-old girl with a history of purulent discharge from the ankle due to local trauma caused by tight fitting shoes. PMID:26347234

  17. Whole genome sequence of an unusual Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolate

    SciTech Connect

    Casjens, S.R.; Dunn, J.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.; Mongodin, E. F.; Qiu, W. G.; Luft, B. J.; Schutzer, S. E.

    2011-03-01

    Human Lyme disease is caused by a number of related Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species. We report here the complete genome sequence of Borrelia sp. isolate SV1 from Finland. This isolate is to date the closest known relative of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, but it is sufficiently genetically distinct from that species that it and its close relatives warrant its candidacy for new-species status. We suggest that this isolate should be named 'Borrelia finlandensis.'

  18. Isolation and genetic characterization of a tembusu virus strain isolated from mosquitoes in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y; Diao, Y; Chen, H; Ou, Q; Liu, X; Gao, X; Yu, C; Wang, L

    2015-04-01

    Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a flavivirus, presumed to be a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Ntaya virus subgroup. To date, however, there have been no reports indicating that mosquitoes are involved in the spread of TMUV. In this study, we report the first isolation of TMUV from Culex mosquitoes. We describe the isolation and characterization of a field strain of TMUV from mosquitoes collected in Shandong Province, China. The virus isolate, named TMUV-SDMS, grows well in mosquito cell line C6/36, in Vero and duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cell lines, and causes significant cytopathic effects in these cell cultures. The TMUV-SDMS genome is a single-stranded RNA, 10 989 nt in length, consisting of a single open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3410 amino acids, with 5' and 3' untranslated regions of 142 and 617 nt, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the E and NS5 genes revealed that the TMUV-SDMS is closely related to the TMUV YY5 and BYD strains which cause severe egg-drop in ducks. The 3'NTR of TMUV-SDMS contains two pairs of tandem repeat CS and one non-duplicate CS, which have sequence similarities to the same repeats in the YY5 and BYD strains. Our findings indicate that mosquitoes carrying the TMUV may play an important role in the spread of this virus and in disease outbreak. PMID:23711093

  19. Infections Caused by Scedosporium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Karoll J.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Quiroz-Telles, Flavio; Meletiadis, Joseph; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Knudsen, Tena; Buchanan, Wendy; Milanovich, Jeffrey; Sutton, Deanna A.; Fothergill, Annette; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Shea, Yvonne R.; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Kottilil, Shyam; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Scedosporium spp. are increasingly recognized as causes of resistant life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Scedosporium spp. also cause a wide spectrum of conditions, including mycetoma, saprobic involvement and colonization of the airways, sinopulmonary infections, extrapulmonary localized infections, and disseminated infections. Invasive scedosporium infections are also associated with central nervous infection following near-drowning accidents. The most common sites of infection are the lungs, sinuses, bones, joints, eyes, and brain. Scedosporium apiospermum and Scedosporium prolificans are the two principal medically important species of this genus. Pseudallescheria boydii, the teleomorph of S. apiospermum, is recognized by the presence of cleistothecia. Recent advances in molecular taxonomy have advanced the understanding of the genus Scedosporium and have demonstrated a wider range of species than heretofore recognized. Studies of the pathogenesis of and immune response to Scedosporium spp. underscore the importance of innate host defenses in protection against these organisms. Microbiological diagnosis of Scedosporium spp. currently depends upon culture and morphological characterization. Molecular tools for clinical microbiological detection of Scedosporium spp. are currently investigational. Infections caused by S. apiospermum and P. boydii in patients and animals may respond to antifungal triazoles. By comparison, infections caused by S. prolificans seldom respond to medical therapy alone. Surgery and reversal of immunosuppression may be the only effective therapeutic options for infections caused by S. prolificans. PMID:18202441

  20. Vibration isolation mounting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Sam D. (Inventor); Bastin, Paul H. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A system is disclosed for mounting a vibration producing device onto a spacecraft structure and also for isolating the vibration forces thereof from the structure. The system includes a mount on which the device is securely mounted and inner and outer rings. The rings and mount are concentrically positioned. The system includes a base (secured to the structure) and a set of links which are interconnected by a set of torsion bars which allow and resist relative rotational movement therebetween. The set of links are also rotatably connected to a set of brackets which are rigidly connected to the outer ring. Damped leaf springs interconnect the inner and outer rings and the mount allow relative translational movement therebetween in X and Y directions. The links, brackets and base are interconnected and configured so that they allow and resist translational movement of the device in the Z direction so that in combination with the springs they provide absorption of vibrational energy produced by the device in all three dimensions while providing rotational stiffness about all three axes to prevent undesired rotational motions.

  1. Transverse Magnetic Field Propellant Isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2000-01-01

    An alternative high voltage isolator for electric propulsion and ground-based ion source applications has been designed and tested. This design employs a transverse magnetic field that increases the breakdown voltage. The design can greatly enhance the operating range of laboratory isolators used for high voltage applications.

  2. Isolated transfer of analog signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezdek, T.

    1974-01-01

    Technique transfers analog signal levels across high isolation boundary without circuit performance being affected by magnetizing reactance or leakage inductance. Transfers of analog information across isolated boundary are made by interrupting signal flow, with switch, in such a manner as to produce alternating signal which is applied to transformer.

  3. Detection of Enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens Type A Isolates in American Retail Foods

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Qiyi; McClane, Bruce A.

    2004-01-01

    Currently there is only limited understanding of the reservoirs for Clostridium perfringens type A food poisoning. A recent survey (Y.-T. Lin and R. Labbe, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:1642-1646, 2003) of non-outbreak American retail foods did not identify the presence of a single C. perfringens isolate carrying the enterotoxin gene (cpe) necessary for causing food poisoning. The present study revisited this issue, using revised methodology and food sampling strategies. In our survey, cpe-positive C. perfringens isolates were detected in ∼1.4% of ∼900 surveyed non-outbreak American retail foods. Interestingly, those enterotoxigenic isolates in non-outbreak foods appear indistinguishable from C. perfringens isolates known to cause food poisoning outbreaks: i.e., the enterotoxigenic retail food isolates all carry a chromosomal cpe gene, are classified as type A, and exhibit exceptional heat resistance. Collectively, these findings indicate that some American foods are contaminated, at the time of retail purchase, with C. perfringens isolates having full potential to cause food poisoning. Furthermore, demonstrating that type A isolates carrying a chromosomal cpe gene are the enterotoxigenic isolates most commonly present in foods helps to explain why these isolates (rather than type A isolates carrying a plasmid cpe gene or cpe-positive type C or D isolates) are strongly associated with food poisoning outbreaks. Finally, since type A chromosomal cpe isolates present in the surveyed raw foods exhibited strong heat resistance, it appears that exceptional heat resistance is not a survivor trait selected for by cooking but is instead an intrinsic trait possessed by many type A chromosomal cpe isolates. PMID:15128519

  4. Antimicrobial potential of Halophilic actinomycetes against multi drug resistant (MDR) ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Sana; Sajid, Imran

    2016-03-01

    A collection of forty halophilic actinomycetes isolated from water and mud samples of the saline lake at Kalar Kahar, salt range, Pakistan, was screened to investigate their antimicrobial potential against multi drug resistant (MDR) ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacterial pathogens. The isolates exhibited significant tolerance to alkaline conditions and grew well at pH 9-11. The taxonomic status of the isolated strains was determined by morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization and by 16s rRNA gene sequencing. The results revealed that majority of the isolates (90%) belong to the genus Streptomyces. Most of the isolates exhibited remarkable antimicrobial activity up to 20mm zone of inhibition against MDR ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter spp. Additionally the isolates showed moderate to high cytotoxicity in the range of 40 to 80% larval mortality against Artemia salina in a micro well cytotoxicity assay. The chemical screening or the so called metabolic fingerprinting of the methanolic extracts of each isolate, by thin layer chromatography (TLC) using various staining reagents and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV), indicated an impressive diversity of the compounds produced by these strains. The study reveals that these halophilic actinomycetes are a promising source of bioactive compounds. The preparative scale fermentation, isolation, purification and structure elucidation of the compounds produced by them may yield novel antimicrobial or chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:27087086

  5. Characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kongrueng, J; Yingkajorn, M; Bunpa, S; Sermwittayawong, N; Singkhamanan, K; Vuddhakul, V

    2015-11-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus was isolated from shrimp of five farms located in the Pattani and Songkhla provinces of southern Thailand. Using a PCR method targeted to the unique DNA sequences derived from the plasmid (AP2 primers) and the toxin gene (AP3 primers) of V. parahaemolyticus that caused acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), a total of 33 of 108 isolates were positive. In contrast, all 63 and 66 isolates of clinical and environmental V. parahaemolyticus, respectively, obtained previously from 2008 to 2014 from the same area were negative. This implied that these strains were likely to be the cause of the outbreak of AHPND in this area. Intestinal samples proved to be a better source for the isolation of V. parahaemolyticus AHPND than the hepatopancreas. All isolates were investigated for haemolytic activity, virulence genes, serotypes, genotypes and antibiotic susceptibility. All the AHPND isolates had a unique O antigen, but small variations of the K antigens were detected from different farms. In addition, the DNA profiles of V. parahaemolyticus AHPND isolates were similar, but distinct from those clinical and environmental isolates. It is postulated that the causative agent of AHPND might have originated from one clone and then slightly different serotypes subsequently developed. PMID:25287127

  6. Invasion Assays and Genomotyping to Investigate Differences in Virulence of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Iceland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Epithelial cell invasion is thought to be essential for Campylobacter spp. infection. Previous invasion studies with intestinal epithelial cells revealed that the ability of different Campylobacter jejuni isolates to inva...

  7. Next-Generation Whole-Genome Sequencing of Eight Strains of Bacillus cereus, Isolated from Food

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Antonina O.; de Jong, Anne; Eijlander, Robyn T.; Berendsen, Erwin M.; Holsappel, Siger; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus can contaminate food and cause emetic and diarrheal foodborne illness. Here, we report whole-genome sequences of eight strains of B. cereus, isolated from different food sources. PMID:26679589

  8. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AEROMONAS ISOLATES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Members of the bacterial genus Aeromonas are commonly isolated from both fresh and salt waters worldwide and some are believed to cause infections in humans, including gastroenteritis and wound infections. Currently, aeromonads are on the United States Environmental Protection A...

  9. Expect the Unexpected: A Case of Isolated Eosinophilic Meningitis in Toxocariasis

    PubMed Central

    Sick, Christian; Hennerici, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a young police officer suffering from headache without other neurological symptoms caused by isolated eosinophilic meningitis, which resulted from an infection with Toxocara cati, along with a discussion of the differential diagnosis. PMID:25535488

  10. Nile Tilapia Infectivity by Genomically Diverse Streptoccocus agalactiae Isolates from Multiple Hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), is recognized for causing cattle mastitis, human neonatal meningitis, and fish meningo-encephalitis. We investigated the genomic diversity of GBS isolates from different phylogenetic hosts and geographical regions using serological t...

  11. Virulence, transmission, and heterologous protection of four isolates of Haemophilus parasuis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haemophilus parasuis causes Glässer's disease, a syndrome of polyserositis, meningitis, and arthritis in swine. Previous studies with H. parasuis have revealed virulence disparity among isolates and inconsistent heterologous protection. In this study, virulence, direct transmission, and heterologous...

  12. ISOLATION OF VIABLE TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM NATURALLY-INFECTED ABORTED BOVINE FETUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are related parasites. The former is a common cause of abortion in dairy cattle. The latter has not been conclusively demonstrated in bovine fetuses. During the course of attempts to isolate N. caninum from aborted fetuses, T. gondii was isolated from 2 abor...

  13. Baseline Sensitivity to Fluopicolide in Phytophthora Capsici Isolates from the Eastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluopicolide was registered in 2007 to control diseases caused by Oomycete pathogens such as Phytophthora capsici on cucurbits and peppers. In this study, 69 isolates of P. capsici from Michigan (24 isolates), South Carolina (17), Georgia (14), Florida (11), and North Carolina (3) recovered from wa...

  14. From Teacher Isolation to Teacher Collaboration: Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostovar-Nameghi, Seyyed Ali; Sheikhahmadi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at: (1) reviewing the underlying causes of teacher isolation; (2) unrevealing the negative effects of isolation on teachers' professional and personal life; (2) illustrating different modes of voluntary collaboration among teachers; (4) presenting substantive evidence is support of collaboration as an efficient mode of professional…

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolate Spoligotype SIT745/EAI1-MYS.

    PubMed

    Suraiya, S; Semail, N; Ismail, M F; Abdullah, J M

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is known to cause pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. This organism showed special phylogeographical specificity. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of M. tuberculosis clinical isolate spoligotype SIT745/EAI1-MYS, which was isolated from a Malaysian tuberculosis patient. PMID:27198011

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the First Pathogenic Leptospira Isolates from Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Barragan, Veronica; Sahl, Jason W.; Wiggins, Kristin; Chiriboga, Jorge; Salinas, Ana; Cantos, Nancy E.; Loor, Mariana N.; Intriago, Bertha I.; Morales, Melba; Trueba, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp. cause leptospirosis upon contact with mucosa through wounds or ingestion, leading to headaches, fever, jaundice, kidney or liver failure, or death in about 1.3 million people each year. Here, we present the draft genomes of one L. santarosai isolate and two L. interrogans isolates from Ecuador. PMID:27151788

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of the First Pathogenic Leptospira Isolates from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Barragan, Veronica; Sahl, Jason W; Wiggins, Kristin; Chiriboga, Jorge; Salinas, Ana; Cantos, Nancy E; Loor, Mariana N; Intriago, Bertha I; Morales, Melba; Trueba, Gabriel; Pearson, Talima

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp. cause leptospirosis upon contact with mucosa through wounds or ingestion, leading to headaches, fever, jaundice, kidney or liver failure, or death in about 1.3 million people each year. Here, we present the draft genomes of one L. santarosai isolate and two L. interrogans isolates from Ecuador. PMID:27151788

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of an Environmental trh+ Vibrio parahaemolyticus K23 Strain Isolated from Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakaran, Divya Meparambu; Chowdhury, Goutam; Pazhani, Gururaja Perumal; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-related gastroenteritis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a trh+ strain, V. parahaemolyticus K23, isolated from seafood. The sequence will be useful for comparative analysis between environmental and clinical isolates of V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:27081143

  19. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, F.E.

    1992-12-08

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

  20. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, Franklin E.

    1992-01-01

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

  1. High performance rotational vibration isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunderland, Andrew; Blair, David G.; Ju, Li; Golden, Howard; Torres, Francis; Chen, Xu; Lockwood, Ray; Wolfgram, Peter

    2013-10-01

    We present a new rotational vibration isolator with an extremely low resonant frequency of 0.055 ± 0.002 Hz. The isolator consists of two concentric spheres separated by a layer of water and joined by very soft silicone springs. The isolator reduces rotation noise at all frequencies above its resonance which is very important for airborne mineral detection. We show that more than 40 dB of isolation is achieved in a helicopter survey for rotations at frequencies between 2 Hz and 20 Hz. Issues affecting performance such as translation to rotation coupling and temperature are discussed. The isolator contains almost no metal, making it particularly suitable for electromagnetic sensors.

  2. Experimental susceptibility of European sea bass and Senegalese sole to different betanodavirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Souto, S; Lopez-Jimena, B; Alonso, M C; García-Rosado, E; Bandín, I

    2015-05-15

    The susceptibility of juvenile European sea bass and Senegalese sole to three VNNV isolates (a reassortant RGNNV/SJNNV, as well as the parental RGNNV and SJNNV genotypes) has been evaluated by challenges using two inoculation ways (bath and intramuscular injection). The results demonstrate that these two fish species are susceptible to all the VNNV isolates tested. In European sea bass, RGNNV caused the highest cumulative mortality, reaching maximum values of viral RNA and titres. Although the SJNNV isolate did not provoke mortality or clinical signs of disease in this fish species, viral production in survivor fish was determined; on the other hand the reassortant isolate did cause mortality and clinical signs of disease, although less evident than those recorded after RGNNV infection. These results suggest that the changes suffered by the SJNNV RNA2 segment of the reassortant isolate, compared to the parental SJNNV, may have involved host-specificity and/or virulence determinants for European sea bass. Regarding Senegalese sole, although the three isolates caused 100% mortality, the reassortant strain provoked the most acute symptoms, and more quickly, especially in the bath challenge. This was also the isolate showing less difference between the number of RNA copies and viral titre, reaching the highest titres of infective viral particles in nervous tissue of infected animals. The RGNNV isolate produced the lowest values of infective viral particles. All these results suggest that the RGNNV and the reassortant isolates are the most suited for infecting European sea bass and Senegalese sole, respectively. PMID:25770892

  3. Verminous aneurysm caused by filaria.

    PubMed

    Toledo, F V; de Araújo, A P; da Cunha, A M; Sidow, J R; Pavão, S G; de Araújo, E D

    1983-06-01

    Aneurysms caused by atherosclerosis are relatively frequent, as a consequence of the high incidence of this degenerative disease of the arteries. Other types of aneurysm, for example, those of infectious etiology, are more uncommon. Bacterias and fungi are able to cause aneurysms in several parts of the arterial tree. Stengel et al (1943), in a review of world literature described 217 cases of mycotic aneurysms. The Stedman's Medical Dictionary refers to a special type of aneurysm observed in horses, caused by intra-vascular migration of a worm, the Strongylus vulgaris. It has been named verminous aneurysm and generally involves the mesenteric arteries. We haven't found in medical literature any similar observations refering to human cases. The purpose of this paper is to describe a case of aneurysm the etiology of which we have imputed to the filaria (Wuchereria bancrofti). This case was observed in Marcilio Dias Naval Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:6346961

  4. Sciatica caused by pseudomyxoma peritonei.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Lin; Chen, Jung-Tsung; Liu, Yu-Fang; Cho, Der-Yang

    2009-01-01

    Many etiologies may cause sciatica, and intra-abdominal masses usually affect the lumbosacral plexus by local invasion or distal metastases. Lumbosacral plexopathy caused by compression of intra-abdominal tumors instead of invasion is rarely seen. A 67-year-old woman had a 3-month history of progressive neurogenic claudication, lumbago and left L5 radiculopathy with foot drop. Nocturia and progressive abdominal distension with voiding dysfunction were also noted. Imaging studies showed a huge pelvic mass with severe compression of the left lumbosacral trunk. There was no direct invasion of the lumbosacral plexus by the pelvic mass noted in the preoperative imaging studies or intraoperative findings. Bilateral ovarian borderline mucinous cystic tumor with pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) was diagnosed, and the sciatica was improved dramatically after subsequent abdominal debulking surgery. Although rare, neural compression caused by PMP and intra-abdominal masses needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of sciatica. PMID:19181596

  5. Estimating avoidable causes of cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, D L; Muir, C

    1995-01-01

    Evidence that much cancer is preventable derives from observations of time trends and geographic patterns of cancer, birth cohort changes, high risks in groups with well-defined exposures, and experimental studies. In an effort to identify additional opportunities for reducing the impact of cancer on society, this conference assessed avoidable causes of cancer. The magnitude and extent of preventable causes of cancer are subjects of intense debate, with discrepancies often related to the use of different time frames and different weights for epidemiologic and toxicologic evidence. There is much agreement, however, about the exposures that increase risk, notably tobacco, alcohol, diet, radiation, medications, occupational exposures, general environmental exposures, and infectious agents. Interactions between carcinogenic exposures and genetic susceptibility are also important. Concerted efforts are needed to identify avoidable causes of cancer and to apply knowledge already obtained to reduce the cancer burden. PMID:8741803

  6. Fungemia caused by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, H; Chtara, K; Khemakhem, N; Néji, S; Cheikhrouhou, F; Sellami, H; Guidara, R; Makni, F; Bouaziz, M; Ayadi, A

    2015-06-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is weakly pathogenic yeast, which is rarely isolated from the blood. We report unusual cases of Y. lipolytica fungemia occurred between October 2012 and June 2014 in the intensive care unit (ICU) of the UH Habib Bourguiba Sfax. During this period, 55 cases of Y. lipolytica septicemia were diagnosed. There were 44 men and 11 women (sex ratio = 4).The median age was 43 years. The broad-spectrum antibiotics (100 %), the catheterization (96 %), and the prolonged hospitalization in ICU (91 %) were the main risk factors. Patients were hospitalized in ICU, mostly, for polytraumatism (45.4 %), pneumopathy (9 %), and post-operative complications (7 %). Fever unresponsive to broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy was the predominant sign of infection (83.6 %). Y. lipolytica was isolated in one or several blood cultures (14.5 %) and in the catheter tip culture of nine patients (16.3 %).Treatment was based on intravenous amphotericin B (58.2 %), fluconazole (45.4 %) and/or removal catheter (69 %). Apyrexia or blood cultures sterilization was obtained for 34 patients (61.8 %). Y. lipolytica candidemia is an opportunistic and emerging human yeast pathogen. It can reach to the bloodstream of immunocompromised or critically ill patients during hospitalization through intravascular catheterization. Further clinical data need to be evaluated for formulating management strategies of seriously ill patients infected with uncommon fungal agents. PMID:25614084

  7. Clinical management of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Valverde, Mercedes; Sojo-Dorado, Jesús; Pascual, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae showing resistance to cephalosporins due to extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) or plasmid-mediated AmpC enzymes, and those producing carbapenemases have spread worldwide during the last decades. Many of these isolates are also resistant to other first-line agents such as fluoroquinolones or aminoglycosides, leaving few available options for therapy. Thus, older drugs such as colistin and fosfomycin are being increasingly used. Infections caused by these bacteria are associated with increased morbidity and mortality compared with those caused by their susceptible counterparts. Most of the evidence supporting the present recommendations is from in vitro data, animal studies, and observational studies. While carbapenems are considered the drugs of choice for ESBL and AmpC producers, recent data suggest that certain alternatives may be suitable for some types of infections. Combined therapy seems superior to monotherapy in the treatment of invasive infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Optimization of dosage according to pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics data is important for the treatment of infections caused by isolates with borderline minimum inhibitory concentration due to low-level resistance mechanisms. The increasing frequency and the rapid spread of multidrug resistance among the Enterobacteriaceae is a true and complex public health problem. PMID:25165544

  8. Erysipelas Outbreaks in Flocks of Geese in Poland--Biochemical and Genetic Analyses of the Isolates.

    PubMed

    Bobrek, Kamila; Gaweł, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae causes erysipelas in many vertebrate species. Severe disease outbreaks have been noted in many poultry species--chickens, ducks, emus, pheasants, pigeons, and geese. This article describes the biochemical and genetic analyses of six E. rhusiopathiae strains isolated from geese for meat production. The isolates came from birds kept in different poultry houses on one farm, and were collected during two erysipelas outbreaks. We analyzed and compared the isolates by random amplified polymorphic DNA with the use of NK6 primer and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with the restriction enzyme SmaI. Biochemical examination was performed with API Coryne test. Analyses showed that the three strains isolated during the first outbreak differed, whereas the three isolates from the second outbreak were identical to one another, but distinct from the isolates from the first outbreak. The results of biochemical and genetic analyses of E. rhusiopathiae strains isolated from geese suggest different sources of infection for the erysipelas outbreaks. PMID:26478164

  9. Seismic shock and vibration isolation 1995. Part I: Theory, analysis, and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, G.C.; Chung, H.H.

    1995-07-11

    Two basic engineering strategies for the protection of equipment and structures from damages caused by seismic shock and vibration loadings are, namely, strengthening and isolation. They work on almost totally different principles; the strengthening strategy aims primarily at increasing the capacity or the ability of the structure to withstand the dynamic loading by incorporating additional structural materials and components, while the isolation strategy focuses on reducing the demand or the transmitted loading on the structure by adding an isolator or isolation system between the structure and the source of the loading. The isolation strategy is often used for filtering out unwanted vibrations and noises. In practice, the isolation strategy has the advantage of not depending on alterations to the isolated structure and is often the preferred method for applications in equipment and in some structures.

  10. Clinical presentation of infective endocarditis caused by different groups of non-beta haemolytic streptococci.

    PubMed

    Nilson, B; Olaison, L; Rasmussen, M

    2016-02-01

    Streptococci are common causes of infective endocarditis (IE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has provided a practical tool for their species determination. We aimed to investigate if particular groups of non-beta heamolytic streptococci were associated with IE or to specific presentations thereof. The Swedish Registry of Infective Endocarditis was used to identify cases of IE caused by streptococci and a local database to identify cases of streptococcal bacteremia. The bacteria were grouped using MALDI-TOF MS and the clinical characteristics of IE caused by different groups were compared. We identified a group of 201 streptococcal IE isolates: 18 isolates belonged to the anginosus, 19 to the bovis, 140 to the mitis, 17 to the mutans, and seven to the salivarius groups. The mitis and mutans groups were significantly more common and the anginosus group less common among IE cases as compared to all cause bacteremia. Patients infected with the bovis group isolates were older, had more cardiac devices, and had more commonly prosthetic valve IE compared to IE caused by streptococci of the other groups. Twenty-one percent of patients needed surgery, and in-hospital mortality was 8% with no significant differences between the groups. Grouping of non-beta haemolytic streptococci using MALDI-TOF MS can provide a basis for decision-making in streptococcal bacteremia. IE caused by bovis group isolates have clinical characteristics distinguishing them from IE caused by other groups of Streptococcus. PMID:26610338

  11. Pediatric genetic diseases causing glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Ichhpujani, Parul; Singh, Rohan B.

    2014-01-01

    Glaucomatous optic neuropathy may be considered as an endpoint of multiple systemic factors. Genetic conditions commonly causing glaucoma in children and adolescents include Axenfeld-Reiger syndrome, aniridia, Marfan syndrome, Weill-Marchessani syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, nevus of Ota, congenital rubella and neurofibromatosis type 1. In the recent years, with the advancements in genetic research our understanding of the fundamental causes of glaucoma associated with inherited disorders has improved. In addition to intraocular pressure reduction, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with the multiple systemic associations with glaucoma, to re-evaluate treatment frequently, and to target the underlying disease process, if present.

  12. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  13. Occupational asthma caused by ethanolamines.

    PubMed

    Savonius, B; Keskinen, H; Tuppurainen, M; Kanerva, L

    1994-12-01

    Amino alcohols are used in various industries, often as minor constituents of compounds to modify the properties of the compound. Generally, they are considered to be safe, but they have been known to cause local skin irritation at higher concentrations in solutions. We report on three cases of occupational asthma caused by ethanolamines: two metal workers exposed to a cutting fluid containing triethanolamine, and one cleaner exposed to a detergent containing monoethanolamine. The diagnosis was based on work-related symptoms and on a chamber challenge with the suspected agent. Persistence of the symptoms after exposure ended was a common feature of the three cases. PMID:7709998

  14. New Paenibacillus larvae bacterial isolates from honey bee colonies infected with American foulbrood disease in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Masry, Saad Hamdy Daif; Kabeil, Sanaa Soliman; Hafez, Elsayed Elsayed

    2014-01-01

    The American foulbrood disease is widely distributed all over the world and causes a serious problem for the honeybee industry. Different infected larvae were collected from different apiaries, ground in phosphate saline buffer (PSB) and bacterial isolation was carried out on nutrient agar medium. Different colonies were observed and were characterized biologically. Two bacterial isolates (SH11 and SH33) were subjected to molecular identification using 16S rRNA gene and the sequence analysis revealed that the two isolates are Paenibacillus larvae with identity not exceeding 83%. The DNA sequence alignment between the other P. larvae bacterial strains and the two identified bacterial isolates showed that all the examined bacterial strains have the same ancestor, i.e. they have the same origin. The SH33 isolate was closely related to the P. larvae isolated from Germany, whereas the isolate SH11 was close to the P. larvae isolated from India. The phylogenetic tree constructed for 20 different Bacillus sp. and the two isolates SH11 and SH33 demonstrated that the two isolates are Bacillus sp. and they are new isolates. The bacterial isolates will be subjected to more tests for more confirmations. PMID:26740757

  15. The First Macrolide-Resistant Bordetella pertussis Strains Isolated From Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Nakhost Lotfi, Masoumeh; Nikbin, Vajiheh Sadat; Shooraj, Fahimeh; Azizian, Reza; Parzadeh, Masoumeh; Allahyar Torkaman, Mohammad Reza; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whooping cough was considered as one of the major causes of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Resistant isolates of Bordetella pertussis to macrolides in some countries have been recently reported. Objectives: Recent reports on macrolide-resistant B. pertussis isolates and lack of evidence for such resistance in clinical isolates of the Iranian patients led the authors of the current study to study antibiotic susceptibility of the collected isolates in the country. Susceptibility of the B. pertussis isolates to three antibiotics was studied. Relatedness of the strains recovered in this research was also examined. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activities of erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin antibiotics against the recovered isolates of 779 nasopharyngeal swabs were examined using MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) method. Relationship of the strains was characterized by Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: Among the specimens, 11 cases (1.4%) were culture-positive. Among these isolates, only two isolates had high MIC values for erythromycin and clarithromycin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the isolates revealed 6 PFGE profiles (A-F) among which three and two isolates had the same patterns in profiles A and B, respectively. Conclusions: Azithromycin can be a good drug of choice to treat patients infected by B. pertussis in Iran. Clonal relationship of the isolates showed that the same B. pertussis strains were isolated from different patients in Iran. PMID:25371806

  16. Enteric Bacteria Isolated from Diarrheal Patients in Korea in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nan-Ok; Jung, Su-Mi; Na, Hae-Young; Chung, Gyung Tae; Yoo, Cheon-Kwon; Seong, Won Keun; Hong, Sahyun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to characterize the pathogens responsible for causing diarrhea according to season, region of isolation, patient age, and sex as well as to provide useful data for the prevention of diarrheal disease. Methods Stool specimens from 14,886 patients with diarrhea were collected to identify pathogenic bacteria from January 2014 to December 2014 in Korea. A total of 3,526 pathogenic bacteria were isolated and analyzed according to season, region of isolation, and the age and sex of the patient. Results The breakdown of the isolated pathogenic bacteria were as follows: Salmonella spp. 476 (13.5%), pathogenic Escherichia coli 777 (22.0%), Vibrio parahaemolyticus 26 (0.74%), Shigella spp. 13 (0.37%), Campylobacter spp. 215 (6.10%), Clostridium perfringens 508 (14.4%), Staphylococcus aureus 1,144 (32.4%), Bacillus cereus 356 (10.1%), Listeria monocytogenes 1 (0.03%), and Yersinia enterocolitica 10 (0.3%). The isolation rate trend showed the highest ratio in the summer season from June to September for most of the pathogenic bacteria except the Gram-positive bacteria. The isolation rate of most of the pathogenic bacteria by patient age showed highest ratio in the 0–19 year age range. For isolation rate by region, 56.2% were isolated from cities and 43.8% were isolated from provinces. Conclusion Hygiene education should be addressed for diarrheal disease-susceptible groups, such as those younger than 10 years, aged 10–19 years, and older than 70 years, and monitoring for the pathogens is still required. In addition, an efficient laboratory surveillance system for infection control should be continued. PMID:26473090

  17. Morphological, genetic, and pathogenic characterization of Colletotrichum acutatum, the cause of anthracnose of almond in Australia.

    PubMed

    McKay, Suzanne F; Freeman, Stanley; Minz, Dror; Maymon, Marcel; Sedgley, Margaret; Collins, Graham C; Scott, Eileen S

    2009-08-01

    Almond anthracnose was reported for the first time in Australia in 1998 and has since been observed in all of the major almond-growing regions. The organism causing anthracnose was confirmed as Colletotrichum acutatum using taxon-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three main morphotypes of C. acutatum from almond in Australia were identified (namely, pink, orange, and cream colony color) and the optimum temperature for mycelial growth of representative isolates was 25 degrees C. Australian isolates of C. acutatum were more similar morphologically to the pink subpopulation of C. acutatum from California than to the gray Californian subpopulation and the isolates of Colletotrichum from Israel. Inter-simple-sequence-repeat (ISSR) PCR analysis revealed that the majority of Australian isolates shared an identical banding pattern whereas Australian isolates of C. acutatum from almond were distinct from isolates of the pink and gray subpopulations of C. acutatum from almond in California and of Colletotrichum spp. from almond in Israel. Sequence analysis of the internally transcribed spacer (ITS1-2) ribosomal DNA region of representative isolates differed from the results of ISSR-PCR in that polymorphisms were revealed among isolates, indicating that some genetic variation may be present. Pathogenicity experiments on detached leaves and fruit revealed pathogenic variation among representative isolates of C. acutatum from almond in Australia, California, and Israel; however, all isolates tested caused disease. Distinct subgroups among Australian isolates of C. acutatum from almond were not supported on the basis of morphology, mycelial growth rates, ISSR-PCR, and pathogenicity. PMID:19594318

  18. Sequence analysis and genetic diversity of five new Indian isolates of cucumber mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Gautam, K K; Raj, S K

    2015-12-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is an important virus since it causes severe losses to many economically important crops worldwide. Five new isolates of CMV were isolated from naturally infected Hippeastrum hybridum, Dahlia pinnata, Hemerocallis fulva, Acorus calamus and Typhonium trilobatum plants, all exhibiting severe leaf mosaic symptoms. For molecular identification and sequence analyses, the complete coat protein (CP) gene of these isolates was amplified by RT-PCR. The resulting amplicons were cloned and sequenced and isolates were designated as HH (KP698590), DP (JF682239), HF (KP698589), AC (KP698588) and TT (JX570732). For study of genetic diversity among these isolates, the sequence data were analysed by BLASTn, multiple alignment and generating phylogenetic trees along with the respective sequences of other CMV isolates available in GenBank Database were done. The isolates under study showed 82-99% sequence diversity among them at nucleotide and amino acid levels; however they showed close relationships with CMV isolates of subgroup IB. In alignment analysis of amino acid sequences of HH and AC isolates, we have found fifteen and twelve unique substitutions, compared to HF, DP and TT isolates, suggesting the cause of high genetic diversity. PMID:26666188

  19. Molecular and Pathogenic Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Isolates from Spain

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Raquel; Barral, Marta; Pérez, Azucena; Vitutia, M. Mar; García-Pérez, Ana L.; Jiménez, Santos; Sellek, Ricela E.; Anda, Pedro

    2000-01-01

    Fifteen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from questing ticks and skin biopsy specimens from erythema migrans patients in three different areas of Spain were characterized. Four different genospecies were found (nine Borrelia garinii, including the two human isolates, three B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, two B. valaisiana, and one B. lusitaniae), showing a diverse spectrum of B. burgdorferi sensu lato species. B. garinii isolates were highly variable in terms of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern and OspA serotype, with four of the seven serotypes described. One of the human isolates was OspA serotype 5, the same found in four of seven tick isolates. The second human isolate was OspA serotype 3, which was not present in ticks from the same area. Seven B. garinii isolates were able to disseminate through the skin of C3H/HeN mice and to cause severe inflammation of joints. One of the two B. valaisiana isolates also caused disease in mice. Only one B. burgdorferi sensu stricto isolate was recovered from the urinary bladder. One isolate each of B. valaisiana and B. lusitaniae were not able to disseminate through the skin of mice or to infect internal organs. In summary, there is substantial diversity in the species and in the pathogenicity of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in areas in northern Spain where Lyme disease is endemic. PMID:11060064

  20. Bacteremia Caused by Kerstersia gyiorum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cecelia; Manninen, Katja; Touchberry, Joanne; Greene, Shermalyn R.; Holland, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Kerstersia spp. are an unusual cause of human infections. We report the first known case of bacteremia and sepsis due to Kerstersia gyiorum, in a patient with chronic lower-extremity ulcers, and we review the literature on this uncommon pathogen. PMID:25809974

  1. Orbital Causes of Incomitant Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Lueder, Gregg T.

    2015-01-01

    Strabismus may result from abnormal innervation, structure, or function of the extraocular muscles. Abnormalities of the orbital bones or masses within the orbit may also cause strabismus due to indirect effects on the extraocular muscles. This paper reviews some disorders of the orbit that are associated with strabismus, including craniofacial malformations, orbital masses, trauma, and anomalous orbital structures. PMID:26180465

  2. Cyberbullying: Causes, Effects, and Remedies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Dianne L.; Mitchell, Sidney N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present research exploring the pervasiveness and causes of cyberbullying, the psychological impact on students, and the responses to cyberbullying from students and administrators. The goal is to give school leaders a greater understanding of this phenomenon and suggest steps to deal with this challenging…

  3. Acid Precipitation: Causes and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, Harvey; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This article is the first of three articles in a series on the acid rain problem in recent years. Discussed are the causes of acid precipitation and its consequences for the abiotic and biotic components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and for man-made materials. (Author/SA)

  4. Other Causes of Leg Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the same position for a long time Injuries caused by: A torn or overstretched muscle (strain) Hairline crack in the bone (stress fracture) Inflamed tendon (tendinitis) Shin splints—pain in the front of your leg related to overuse or repetitive pounding Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) , which occurs when ...

  5. Disease Outbreaks Caused by Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Gunther F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the disease outbreaks caused by drinking polluted water, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the waterborn outbreaks included are: (1) cholera; (2) gastroenteritis; (3) giardiasis; and (4) typhoid fever and salmonellosis. A list of 66 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Disturbance caused by aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josse, R.

    1980-01-01

    Noise pollution caused by the presence of airfields adjacent to residential areas is studied. Noise effects on the sleep of residents near airports and the degree of the residents noise tolerance are evaluated. What aircraft noises are annoying and to what extent the annoyance varies with sound level are discussed.

  7. Science 101: What Causes Friction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Defining friction and asking what causes it might seem like a trivial question. Friction seems simple enough to understand. Friction is a force between surfaces that pushes against things that are moving or tending to move, and the rougher the surfaces, the greater the friction. Bill Robertson answers this by saying, "Well, not exactly".…

  8. Organizational Conflict: Causes and Manifestations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    No group (within an organization) can be entirely harmonious, but conflict is not an altogether disruptive factor. A delicate balance is required to obtain the advantages and restrict the disadvantages of organizational conflict. The causes and forms of organizational conflict are examined. (JMD)

  9. Pyorrhoea as cause of pyrexia.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, E; Silver, J

    1976-01-01

    Three patients with fever and malaise, one of whom also had joint pains, were extensively investigated before their condition was attributed to dental sepsis. Each patient recovered fully after appropriate dental treatment. Dental sepsis should be added to the list of possible causes of pyrexia of undetermined origin, and a routine dental examination should be carried out in each case. PMID:1000197

  10. Endocarditis Caused by Rhodotorula Infection

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Matthew S.; Somersan, Selin; Singh, Harjot K.; Hartman, Barry; Wickes, Brian L.; Jenkins, Stephen G.; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Rhodotorula is an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen that is rarely reported to cause endocarditis. We describe a case involving a patient who developed endocarditis due to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis, proven by culture and histopathology. The case illustrates the unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges relevant to Rhodotorula spp. PMID:24197888

  11. What Caused the Great Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  12. Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandberg, Carl

    Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

  13. Can Infections Cause Alzheimer's Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Mawanda, Francis; Wallace, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of dementia among older adults, yet more than a century of research has not determined why this disease develops. One prevailing hypothesis is that late-onset AD is caused by infectious pathogens, an idea widely studied in both humans and experimental animal models. This review examines the infectious AD etiology hypothesis and summarizes existing evidence associating infectious agents with AD in humans. The various mechanisms through which different clinical and subclinical infections could cause or promote the progression of AD are considered, as is the concordance between putative infectious agents and the epidemiology of AD. We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, and EBSCO databases for research articles pertaining to infections and AD and systematically reviewed the evidence linking specific infectious pathogens to AD. The evidence compiled from the literature linking AD to an infectious cause is inconclusive, but the amount of evidence suggestive of an association is too substantial to ignore. Epidemiologic, clinical, and basic science studies that could improve on current understanding of the associations between AD and infections and possibly uncover ways to control this highly prevalent and debilitating disease are suggested. PMID:23349428

  14. Superantigens in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from prosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choon K; Karau, Melissa J; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Tilahun, Ashenafi Y; David, Chella S; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Patel, Robin; Rajagopalan, Govindarajan

    2015-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). The prevalence of superantigens (SAgs) among PJI-associated S. aureus is unknown. Eighty-four S. aureus isolates associated with PJI isolated between 1999 and 2006 were studied. SAg genes, sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, and tst, were assayed by PCR. Seventy-eight (92.9%) isolates carried at least 1 SAg gene studied, with 61 (72.6%) harboring more than 1. seg was most commonly (70.2%), and seh was least frequently (4.8%) detected. tst-positive isolates were associated with early infection and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate at diagnosis (P=0.006 and P=0.021, respectively). seg and sei were associated with methicillin resistance (P=0.008 and P=0.002, respectively). A majority of PJI-associated isolates studied produced biologically active SAgs in both planktonic and biofilm growth modes. SAg genes are prevalent in S. aureus causing PJI. PMID:25619753

  15. Superantigens in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from prosthetic joint infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Choon K.; Karau, Melissa J.; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Tilahun, Ashenafi Y.; David, Chella S.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Patel, Robin; Rajagopalan, Govindarajan

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). The prevalence of superantigens (SAgs) among PJI-associated S. aureus is unknown. Eighty-four S. aureus isolates associated with PJI isolated between 1999 and 2006 were studied. SAg genes, sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei and tst, were assayed by PCR. Seventy-eight (92.9%) isolates carried at least one SAg gene studied, with 61 (72.6%) harboring more than one. seg was most commonly (70.2%) and seh was least frequently (4.8%) detected. tst-positive isolates were associated with early infection and increased ESR at diagnosis (P = 0.006 and P = 0.021, respectively). seg and sei were associated with methicillin resistance (P = 0.008 and 0.002, respectively). SAg genes are prevalent in S. aureus causing PJI; a majority of PJI-associated isolates produce biologically active SAgs in both planktonic and biofilm growth modes. PMID:25619753

  16. The period gene and allochronic reproductive isolation in Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Takahisa; Matsumoto, Akira; Matsuyama, Takashi; Ueda, Hiroki R; Toyosato, Tetsuya; Tanimura, Teiichi

    2002-12-01

    Clock genes that pleiotropically control circadian rhythm and the time of mating may cause allochronic reproductive isolation in the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Flies with a shorter circadian period (ca. 22 h of locomotor activity rhythm) mated 5 h earlier in the day than those with a longer circadian period (ca. 30 h). Mate-choice tests demonstrated significant pre-mating isolation between populations with short and long circadian periods. Pre-mating isolation did not occur when the mating time was synchronized between the two populations by photoperiodic controls, indicating that reproductive isolation is due to variations in the time of mating and not any unidentified ethological difference between the two populations. We cloned the period (per) gene of B. cucurbitae that is homologous to the per gene in Drosophila. The relative level of per mRNA in the melon fly exhibited a robust daily fluctuation under light : dark conditions. The fluctuation of per expression under dark : dark conditions is closely correlated to the locomotor rhythm in B. cucurbitae. These results suggest that clock genes can cause reproductive isolation via the pleiotropic effect as a change of mating time. PMID:12495490

  17. Bacterial agents as a cause of infertility in humans.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Melania; Cannas, Sara; Cubeddu, Marina; Molicotti, Paola; Piras, Gennarina Laura; Dessole, Salvatore; Zanetti, Stefania

    2016-09-01

    Infertility is a problem affecting almost 15% of couples. There are many causes for this condition, among which urogenital bacterial infections seem to play an important role. Many studies have explained the mechanisms by which bacteria cause infertility both in men and women. Therefore we undertook this study to evaluate the presence of genito-urinary infections in infertile couples who sought counselling to investigate their condition. Microbiological analysis was performed on semen and vaginal/cervical samples of both partners of each couple. The percentage of individuals affected by a urogenital bacterial infection was between 14 and 20%. More significantly, most of the species isolated both in men and women have been described in the literature as potential causes of infertility. PMID:27602419

  18. Cholinergic pesticides cause mushroom body neuronal inactivation in honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Mary J.; Moffat, Christopher; Saranzewa, Nastja; Harvey, Jenni; Wright, Geraldine A.; Connolly, Christopher N.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides that target cholinergic neurotransmission are highly effective, but their use has been implicated in insect pollinator population decline. Honeybees are exposed to two widely used classes of cholinergic pesticide: neonicotinoids (nicotinic receptor agonists) and organophosphate miticides (acetylcholinesterase inhibitors). Although sublethal levels of neonicotinoids are known to disrupt honeybee learning and behaviour, the neurophysiological basis of these effects has not been shown. Here, using recordings from mushroom body Kenyon cells in acutely isolated honeybee brain, we show that the neonicotinoids imidacloprid and clothianidin, and the organophosphate miticide coumaphos oxon, cause a depolarization-block of neuronal firing and inhibit nicotinic responses. These effects are observed at concentrations that are encountered by foraging honeybees and within the hive, and are additive with combined application. Our findings demonstrate a neuronal mechanism that may account for the cognitive impairments caused by neonicotinoids, and predict that exposure to multiple pesticides that target cholinergic signalling will cause enhanced toxicity to pollinators. PMID:23535655

  19. Neurovascular Compression Caused by Popliteus Muscle Enlargement Without Discrete Trauma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Popliteal entrapment syndrome caused by isolated popliteus muscle enlargement is very rare, although its occurrence has been reported after discrete trauma. However, popliteal artery stenosis with combined peroneal and proximal tibial neuropathy caused by popliteus muscle enlargement without preceding trauma has not been reported. A 57-year-old man presented with a tingling sensation and pain in his left calf. He had no previous history of an injury. The symptoms were similar to those of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Calf pain became worse despite treatment, and the inability to flex his toes progressed. Computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance imaging of the lower extremity showed popliteal artery stenosis caused by popliteus muscle enlargement and surrounding edema. An electrodiagnostic study confirmed combined peroneal and proximal tibial neuropathy at the popliteal fossa. Urgent surgical decompression was performed because of the progressive neurologic deficit and increasing neuropathic pain. The calf pain disappeared immediately after surgery, and he was discharged after the neurologic functions improved. PMID:27446794

  20. Correlation between azole susceptibilities, genotypes, and ERG11 mutations in Candida albicans isolates associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis in China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shu-Hua; Wan, Zhe; Li, Juan; Xu, Jianping; Li, Ruo-Yu; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2010-08-01

    The relationship between susceptibilities to fluconazole and itraconazole and microsatellite CAI genotypes were examined from a total of 154 Candida albicans isolates (97 isolates causing vulvovaginitis in Chinese women and 6 vaginal isolates and 51 oral cavity isolates from asymptomatic carriers). The two dominant genotypes, CAI 30-45 (45 isolates) and CAI 32-46 (33 isolates), associated with vulvovaginitis showed significantly different azole susceptibility patterns with strong statistical support. CAI 32-46 isolates were usually less susceptible to both fluconazole and itraconazole than CAI 30-45 isolates and than the oral isolates with other diversified CAI genotypes. Remarkably different mutation patterns in the azole target gene ERG11 were correspondingly observed among C. albicans isolates representing different genotypes and sources. Isolates with the same or similar CAI genotypes usually possessed identical or phylogenetically closely related ERG11 sequences. Loss of heterozygosity in ERG11 was observed in all the CAI 32-46 isolates but not in the CAI 30-45 isolates and most of the oral isolates sequenced. Compared with the ERG11 sequence of strain SC5314 (X13296), two homozygous missense mutations (G487T and T916C) leading to two amino acid changes (A114S and Y257H) in Erg11p were found in CAI 32-46 isolates. The correlation between azole susceptibility and C. albicans genotype may be of potential therapeutic significance. PMID:20516286