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Sample records for isolated radio millisecond

  1. Millisecond radio pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verbunt, Frank; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Van Paradijs, Jan

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the number of millisecond radio pulsars, in globular clusters, should be larger than 100, applying the standard scenario that all the pulsars descend from low-mass X-ray binaries. Moreover, most of the pulsars are located in a small number of clusters. The prediction that Teran 5 and Liller 1 contain at least about a dozen millisecond radio pulsars each is made. The observations of millisecond radio pulsars in globular clusters to date, in particular the discovery of two millisecond radio pulsars in 47 Tuc, are in agreement with the standard scenario, in which the neutron star is spun up during the mass transfer phase.

  2. A Search for Radio Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, Ronald Winston

    1996-01-01

    We have built a data acquisition backend for radio pulsar search observations carried out at the NRAO 140 -foot telescope in Green Bank, West Virginia. Our system sampled 512 spectral channels over 40 MHz every 256 mus, reduced samples to one-bit precision, and wrote the resulting data stream onto magnetic tape for later, off-line processing. We have completed three surveys with this backend. In the first survey, we searched most of the Northern Hemisphere for millisecond radio pulsars. Previous surveys directed towards most of the region covered had not been as sensitive to pulsars with millisecond periods. We obtained high quality data for 15,876 deg^2 of sky. Eight new pulsars were discovered and 76 previously known pulsars were detected. Two of the eight new pulsars (PSR J1022+1001 and PSR J1518+4904) are millisecond pulsars in binary systems. PSR J1518+4904 is a 41 ms radio pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.25) 8.6 day orbit with another stellar object, probably another neutron star. It is only the fifth double neutron star system known. The system's relativistic advance of periastron has been measured to be ˙omega = 0.0112 +/- 0.0002 ^circ yr^{-1}, implying that the total mass of the pair of stars is 2.65 +/-0.07Modot. We have searched for radio pulsar companions to 40 nearby OB runaway stars. No pulsar companions to OB runaways were discovered. One previously unknown pulsar, PSR J2044+4614, was discovered while observing towards target O star BD+45,3260. However, follow-up timing observations reveal that the pulsar is not associated with the target O star. Assuming standard models for the pulsar beaming fraction and luminosity function, we conclude that most OB runaways do not have pulsar companions. We have completed a survey for pulsed radio signals towards 27 gamma-ray sources detected by the EGRET instrument of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. No new pulsars were discovered.

  3. Voyager observations of Jovian millisecond radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy data collected over 30-day intervals centered on the two close encounters with Jupiter were utilized to study the characteristics of millisecond-duration radio bursts (s-bursts) at frequencies between 5 and 15 MHz. In this frequency range, s-bursts are found to occur almost independently of Central Meridian Longitude and to depend entirely on the phase of Io with respect to the observer's planetocentric line of sight. Individual bursts typically cover a total frequency range of about 1.5 to 3 MHz, and they are usually strongly circularly polarized. Most bursts in a particular s-burst storm will exhibit the same polarization sense (either right-hand or left-hand), and there is some evidence for a systematic pattern in which one polarizations sense is preferred over the other as a function of Io phase and Central Meridian Longitude. These data are all suggestive of a radio source that is located along the instantaneous Io flux tube and that extends over a linear dimension of 5000 km along the field lines in both the northern and southern Hemispheres.

  4. Millisecond solar radio spikes observed at 1420 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, B. P.; Kus, A. J.

    We present results from observations of narrowband solar millisecond radio spikes at 1420 MHz. Observing data were collected between February 2000 and December 2001 with the 15-m radio telescope at the Centre for Astronomy Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Poland, equipped with a radio spectrograph that covered the 1352-1490 MHz frequency band. The radio spectrograph has 3 MHz frequency resolution and 80 microsecond time resolution. We analyzed the individual radio spike duration, bandwidth and rate of frequency drift. A part of the observed spikes showed well-outlined subtle structures. On dynamic radio spectrograms of the investigated events we notice complex structures formed by numerous individual spikes known as chains of spikes and distinctly different structure of columns. Positions of active regions connected with radio spikes emission were investigated. It turns out that most of them are located near the center of the solar disk, suggesting strong beaming of the spikes emission.

  5. Spin-down of radio millisecond pulsars at genesis.

    PubMed

    Tauris, Thomas M

    2012-02-01

    Millisecond pulsars are old neutron stars that have been spun up to high rotational frequencies via accretion of mass from a binary companion star. An important issue for understanding the physics of the early spin evolution of millisecond pulsars is the impact of the expanding magnetosphere during the terminal stages of the mass-transfer process. Here, I report binary stellar evolution calculations that show that the braking torque acting on a neutron star, when the companion star decouples from its Roche lobe, is able to dissipate >50% of the rotational energy of the pulsar. This effect may explain the apparent difference in observed spin distributions between x-ray and radio millisecond pulsars and help account for the noticeable age discrepancy with their young white dwarf companions. PMID:22301314

  6. Millisecond Radio Spikes in the Decimetric Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dąbrowski, B. P.; Rudawy, P.; Karlický, M.

    2011-11-01

    We present the results of the analysis of thirteen events consisting of dm-spikes observed in Toruń between 15 March 2000 and 30 October 2001. The events were obtained with a very high time resolution (80 microseconds) radio spectrograph in the 1352 - 1490 MHz range. These data were complemented with observations from the radio spectrograph at Ondřejov in the 0.8 - 2.0 GHz band. We evaluated the basic characteristics of the individual spikes (duration, spectral width, and frequency drifts), as well as their groups and chains, the location of their emission sources, and the temporal correlations of the emissions with various phases of the associated solar flares. We found that the mean duration and spectral width of the radio spikes are equal to 0.036 s and 9.96 MHz, respectively. Distributions of the duration and spectral widths of the spikes have positive skewness for all investigated events. Each spike shows positive or negative frequency drift. The mean negative and positive drifts of the investigated spikes are equal to -776 MHz s-1 and 1608 MHz s-1, respectively. The emission sources of the dm-spikes are located mainly at disk center. We have noticed two kinds of chains, with and without frequency drifts. The mean durations of the chains vary between 0.067 s and 0.509 s, while their spectral widths vary between 7.2 MHz and 17.25 MHz. The mean duration of an individual spike observed in a chain was equal to 0.03 s. While we found some agreement between the global characteristics of the groups of spikes recorded with the two instruments located in Toruń and Ondřejov, we did not find any one-to-one relation between individual spikes.

  7. Millisecond Radio Spikes in the Decimetric Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbrowski, B. P.; Rudawy, P.; Karlický, M.

    We present the results of the analysis of thirteen events consisting of dm-spikes observed in Toruń between 15 March 2000 and 30 October 2001. The events were obtained with a very high time resolution (80 microseconds) radio spectrograph in the 1352 - 1490 MHz range. These data were complemented with observations from the radio spectrograph at Ondřejov in the 0.8 - 2.0 GHz band. We evaluated the basic characteristics of the individual spikes (duration, spectral width, and frequency drifts), as well as their groups and chains, the location of their emission sources, and the temporal correlations of the emissions with various phases of the associated solar flares. We found that the mean duration and spectral width of the radio spikes are equal to 0.036 s and 9.96 MHz, respectively. Distributions of the duration and spectral widths of the spikes have positive skewness for all investigated events. Each spike shows positive or negative frequency drift. The mean negative and positive drifts of the investigated spikes are equal to -776 MHz s-1 and 1608 MHz s-1, respectively. The emission sources of the dm-spikes are located mainly at disk center. We have noticed two kinds of chains, with and without frequency drifts. The mean durations of the chains vary between 0.067 s and 0.509 s, while their spectral widths vary between 7.2 MHz and 17.25 MHz. The mean duration of an individual spike observed in a chain was equal to 0.03 s. While we found some agreement between the global characteristics of the groups of spikes recorded with the two instruments located in Toruń and Ondřejov, we did not find any one-to-one relation between individual spikes.

  8. RADIO AND GAMMA-RAY PULSED EMISSION FROM MILLISECOND PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Y. J.; Chen, D.; Qiao, G. J.

    2013-01-20

    Pulsed {gamma}-ray emission from millisecond pulsars (MSPs) has been detected by the sensitive Fermi space telescope, which sheds light on studies of the emission region and its mechanism. In particular, the specific patterns of radio and {gamma}-ray emission from PSR J0101-6422 challenge the popular pulsar models, e.g., outer gap and two-pole caustic models. Using the three-dimensional annular gap model, we have jointly simulated radio and {gamma}-ray light curves for three representative MSPs (PSR J0034-0534, PSR J0101-6422, and PSR J0437-4715) with distinct radio phase lags, and present the best simulated results for these MSPs, particularly for PSR J0101-6422 with complex radio and {gamma}-ray pulse profiles, and for PSR J0437-4715 with a radio interpulse. We have found that both the {gamma}-ray and radio emission originate from the annular gap region located in only one magnetic pole, and the radio emission region is not primarily lower than the {gamma}-ray region in most cases. In addition, the annular gap model with a small magnetic inclination angle instead of an 'orthogonal rotator' can account for the MSPs' radio interpulse with a large phase separation from the main pulse. The annular gap model is a self-consistent model not only for young pulsars but also MSPs, and multi-wavelength light curves can be fundamentally explained using this model.

  9. A bright millisecond radio burst of extragalactic origin.

    PubMed

    Lorimer, D R; Bailes, M; McLaughlin, M A; Narkevic, D J; Crawford, F

    2007-11-01

    Pulsar surveys offer a rare opportunity to monitor the radio sky for impulsive burst-like events with millisecond durations. We analyzed archival survey data and found a 30-jansky dispersed burst, less than 5 milliseconds in duration, located 3 degrees from the Small Magellanic Cloud. The burst properties argue against a physical association with our Galaxy or the Small Magellanic Cloud. Current models for the free electron content in the universe imply that the burst is less than 1 gigaparsec distant. No further bursts were seen in 90 hours of additional observations, which implies that it was a singular event such as a supernova or coalescence of relativistic objects. Hundreds of similar events could occur every day and, if detected, could serve as cosmological probes. PMID:17901298

  10. Six millisecond pulsars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope and the radio/gamma-ray connection of millisecond pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, C. M.; Guillemot, L.; Çelik, Ö.; Weltevrede, P.; Stappers, B. W.; Smith, D. A.; Kerr, M.; Zavlin, V. E.; Cognard, I.; Eatough, R. P.; Freire, P. C. C.; Janssen, G. H.; Camilo, F.; Desvignes, G.; Hewitt, J. W.; Hou, X.; Johnston, S.; Keith, M.; Kramer, M.; Lyne, A.; Manchester, R. N.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Shannon, R.; Theureau, G.; Webb, N.

    2013-03-01

    We report on the discovery of gamma-ray pulsations from five millisecond pulsars (MSPs) using the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and timing ephemerides provided by various radio observatories. We also present confirmation of the gamma-ray pulsations from a sixth source, PSR J2051-0827. Five of these six MSPs are in binary systems: PSRs J1713+0747, J1741+1351, J1600-3053 and the two black widow binary pulsars PSRs J0610-2100 and J2051-0827. The only isolated MSP is the nearby PSR J1024-0719, which is also known to emit X-rays. We present X-ray observations in the direction of PSRs J1600-3053 and J2051-0827. While PSR J2051-0827 is firmly detected, we can only give upper limits for the X-ray flux of PSR J1600-3053. There are no dedicated X-ray observations available for the other three objects. The MSPs mentioned above, together with most of the MSPs detected by Fermi, are used to put together a sample of 30 gamma-ray MSPs. This sample is used to study the morphology and phase connection of radio and gamma-ray pulse profiles. We show that MSPs with pulsed gamma-ray emission which is phase-aligned with the radio emission present the steepest radio spectra and the largest magnetic fields at the light cylinder among all MSPs. Also, we observe a trend towards very low, or undetectable, radio linear polarization levels. These properties could be attributed to caustic radio emission produced at a range of different altitudes in the magnetosphere. We note that most of these characteristics are also observed in the Crab pulsar, the only other radio pulsar known to exhibit phase-aligned radio and gamma-ray emission.

  11. Parkes Radio Searches of Fermi Gamma-Ray Sources and Millisecond Pulsar Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilo, F.; Kerr, M.; Ray, P. S.; Ransom, S. M.; Sarkissian, J.; Cromartie, H. T.; Johnston, S.; Reynolds, J. E.; Wolff, M. T.; Freire, P. C. C.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Ferrara, E. C.; Keith, M.; Michelson, P. F.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Wood, K. S.

    2015-09-01

    In a search with the Parkes radio telescope of 56 unidentified Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) gamma-ray sources, we have detected 11 millisecond pulsars (MSPs), 10 of them discoveries, of which five were reported by Kerr et al. We did not detect radio pulsations from six other pulsars now known in these sources. We describe the completed survey, which included multiple observations of many targets conducted to minimize the impact of interstellar scintillation, acceleration effects in binary systems, and eclipses. We consider that 23 of the 39 remaining sources may still be viable pulsar candidates. We present timing solutions and polarimetry for five of the MSPs and gamma-ray pulsations for PSR J1903-7051 (pulsations for five others were reported in the second Fermi-LAT catalog of gamma-ray pulsars). Two of the new MSPs are isolated and five are in \\gt 1 day circular orbits with 0.2-0.3 {M}⊙ presumed white dwarf companions. PSR J0955-6150, in a 24 day orbit with a ≈ 0.25 {M}⊙ companion but eccentricity of 0.11, belongs to a recently identified class of eccentric MSPs. PSR J1036-8317 is in an 8 hr binary with a \\gt 0.14 {M}⊙ companion that is probably a white dwarf. PSR J1946-5403 is in a 3 hr orbit with a \\gt 0.02 {M}⊙ companion with no evidence of radio eclipses.

  12. Inconsistency of Ulysses Millisecond Langmuir Spikes with Wave Collapse in Type 3 Radio Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Recent Ulysses observations of millisecond spikes superposed on broader Langmuir wave packets in type 3 radio sources are compared quantitatively with constraints from the theory of wave collapse. It is found that both the millisecond spikes and the wave packets have fields at least 10 times too small to be consistent with collapse, contrary to previous interpretations in terms of this process. Several alternative explanations are considered and it is argued that the spikes should be interpreted as either non-collapse phenomena or observational artifacts. To the extent the observations are representative, this rules out theories for type 3 bursts at approx. 1 - 4 AU that rely on collapse.

  13. RADIO DETECTION OF THE FERMI-LAT BLIND SEARCH MILLISECOND PULSAR J1311-3430

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, P. S.; Wood, K. S.; Ransom, S. M.; Cheung, C. C.; Giroletti, M.; Cognard, I.; Camilo, F.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Roy, J.; Romani, R. W.; Kerr, M.; Ferrara, E. C.; Guillemot, L.; Kramer, M.; Johnston, S.; Keith, M.; Pletsch, H. J.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.

    2013-01-20

    We report the detection of radio emission from PSR J1311-3430, the first millisecond pulsar (MSP) discovered in a blind search of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) gamma-ray data. We detected radio pulsations at 2 GHz, visible for <10% of {approx}4.5 hr of observations using the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Observations at 5 GHz with the GBT and at several lower frequencies with Parkes, Nancay, and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope resulted in non-detections. We also report the faint detection of a steep spectrum continuum radio source (0.1 mJy at 5 GHz) in interferometric imaging observations with the Jansky Very Large Array. These detections demonstrate that PSR J1311-3430 is not radio quiet and provide additional evidence that radio-quiet MSPs are rare. The radio dispersion measure of 37.8 pc cm{sup -3} provides a distance estimate of 1.4 kpc for the system, yielding a gamma-ray efficiency of 30%, typical of LAT-detected MSPs. We see apparent excess delay in the radio pulses as the pulsar appears from eclipse and we speculate on possible mechanisms for the non-detections of the pulse at other orbital phases and observing frequencies.

  14. Radio Detection of the Fermi-LAT Blind Search Millisecond Pulsar J1311-3430

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. S.; Ransom, S. M.; Cheung, C. C.; Giroletti, M.; Cognard, I.; Camilo, F.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Roy, J.; Romani, R. W.; Ferrara, E. C.; Guillemot, L.; Johnston, S.; Keith, M.; Kerr, M.; Kramer, M.; Pletsch, H. J.; Parkinson, P. M. Saz

    2013-01-01

    We report the detection of radio emission from PSR J1311.3430, the first millisecond pulsar (MSP) discovered in a blind search of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) gamma-ray data. We detected radio pulsations at 2 GHz, visible for less than 10% of approximately 4.5 hr of observations using the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Observations at 5 GHz with the GBT and at several lower frequencies with Parkes, Nan cay, and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope resulted in non-detections. We also report the faint detection of a steep spectrum continuum radio source (0.1 mJy at 5 GHz) in interferometric imaging observations with the Jansky Very Large Array. These detections demonstrate that PSR J1311.3430 is not radio quiet and provide additional evidence that radio-quiet MSPs are rare. The radio dispersion measure of 37.8 pc cm(exp -3) provides a distance estimate of 1.4 kpc for the system, yielding a gamma-ray efficiency of 30%, typical of LAT-detected MSPs. We see apparent excess delay in the radio pulses as the pulsar appears from eclipse and we speculate on possible mechanisms for the non-detections of the pulse at other orbital phases and observing frequencies.

  15. Jovian narrow-band as generator of the Jovian millisecond radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjada, M. Y.; Galopeau, P. H. M.; Rucker, H. O.; Lecacheux, A.

    2000-11-01

    We report on the narrow-band emissions observed in the dynamic spectra of the Jovian decametric radio emissions. Such narrow-band emissions are infrequent phenomena and are related to the Jovian millisecond radio bursts (S-bursts). From the Riihimaa catalogue (Riihimaa 1991) we select narrow-band events observed in Oulu (Finland) with an acousto-optic spectrograph (AOS) with a high time resolution of about 7 ms. The AOS receiver gives the possibility to study the relationship between the S-bursts and the Jovian narrow-band emissions. For this we use the Riihimaa classification which shows sketches of millisecond radio bursts as they appear on the dynamic spectra and allows to distinguish one S-burst from another. The analysis of the temporal evolution of the Jovian narrow-band leads to a new interpretation of the Riihimaa structures. We show that each individual structure could be decomposed in one, two or three components and related to the narrow-band. It appears that the temporal evolution of the narrow-band involves the presence of fine structures, i.e. S-bursts, with a short time duration of about few tens of milliseconds. The individual S-burst duration and the short time scale of the gap in the narrow-band account for a mechanism totally intrinsic to the radio source. Taking into consideration our new results, we show that two models, the feedback model (Calvert 1982) and filamentary model (Louarn 1997) could explain part but not the global observed features of the narrow-band. According to the previous models the drift rate of the individual S-bursts seems to associate the combined effect of the source width with the refractive index or the geometry of the source relatively to the observer.

  16. Discovery of millisecond pulsars in radio searches of southern Fermi Large Area Telescope sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, M. J.; Johnston, S.; Ray, P. S.; Ferrara, E. C.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Çelik, Ö.; Belfiore, A.; Donato, D.; Cheung, C. C.; Abdo, A. A.; Camilo, F.; Freire, P. C. C.; Guillemot, L.; Harding, A. K.; Kramer, M.; Michelson, P. F.; Ransom, S. M.; Romani, R. W.; Smith, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Weltevrede, P.; Wood, K. S.

    2011-06-01

    Using the Parkes Radio Telescope, we have carried out deep observations of 11 unassociated gamma-ray sources. Periodicity searches of these data have discovered two millisecond pulsars, PSR J1103-5403 (1FGL J1103.9-5355) and PSR J2241-5236 (1FGL J2241.9-5236), and a long-period pulsar, PSR J1604-44 (1FGL J1604.7-4443). In addition, we searched for but did not detect any radio pulsations from six gamma-ray pulsars discovered by the Fermi satellite to a level of ˜0.04 mJy (for pulsars with a 10 per cent duty cycle). The timing of the millisecond pulsar PSR J1103-5403 has shown that its position is 9 arcmin from the centroid of the gamma-ray source. Since these observations were carried out, independent evidence has shown that 1FGL J1103.9-5355 is associated with the flat spectrum radio source PKS 1101-536. It appears certain that the pulsar is not associated with the gamma-ray source, despite the seemingly low probability of a chance detection of a radio millisecond pulsar. We consider that PSR J1604-44 is a chance discovery of a weak, long-period pulsar and is unlikely to be associated with 1FGL J1604.7-4443. PSR J2241-5236 has a spin period of 2.2 ms and orbits a very low mass companion with a 3.5-h orbital period. The relatively high flux density and low dispersion measure of PSR J2241-5236 make it an excellent candidate for high precision timing experiments. The gamma rays of 1FGL J2241.9-5236 have a spectrum that is well modelled by a power law with an exponential cut-off, and phase binning with the radio ephemeris results in a multipeaked gamma-ray pulse profile. Observations with Chandra have identified a coincident X-ray source within 0.1 arcsec of the position of the pulsar obtained by radio timing.

  17. Five New Millisecond Pulsars from a Radio Survey of 14 Unidentified Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, M.; Camilo, F.; Johnson, T. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Guillemot, L.; Harding, A. K.; Hessels, J.; Johnson, S.; Keith, M.; Kramer, M.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Reynolds, J. E.; Sarkissian, J.; Wood, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    We have discovered five millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in a survey of 14 unidentified Ferm;'LAT sources in the southern sky using the Parkes radio telescope. PSRs J0101-6422, J1514-4946, and J1902-5105 reside in binaries, while PSRs J1658-5324 and J1747-4036 are isolated. Using an ephemeris derived from timing observations of PSR JOl01-6422 (P=2.57ms, DH=12pc/cubic cm ), we have detected gamma-ray pulsations and measured its proper motion. Its gamma-ray spectrum (a power law of Gamma = 0.9 with a cutoff at 1.6 GeV) and efficiency are typical of other MSPs, but its radio and gamma-ray light curves challenge simple geometric models of emission. The high success rate of this survey -- enabled by selecting gamma-ray sources based on their detailed spectral characteristics -- and other similarly successful searches indicate that a substantial fraction of the local population of MSPs may soon be known.

  18. FIVE NEW MILLISECOND PULSARS FROM A RADIO SURVEY OF 14 UNIDENTIFIED FERMI-LAT GAMMA-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, M.; Camilo, F.; Johnson, T. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Harding, A. K.; Guillemot, L.; Kramer, M.; Hessels, J.; Johnston, S.; Keith, M.; Reynolds, J. E.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Wood, K. S.; Sarkissian, J. E-mail: fernando@astro.columbia.edu

    2012-03-20

    We have discovered five millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in a survey of 14 unidentified Fermi Large Area Telescope sources in the southern sky using the Parkes radio telescope. PSRs J0101-6422, J1514-4946, and J1902-5105 reside in binaries, while PSRs J1658-5324 and J1747-4036 are isolated. Using an ephemeris derived from timing observations of PSR J0101-6422 (P = 2.57 ms, DM = 12 pc cm{sup -3}), we have detected {gamma}-ray pulsations and measured its proper motion. Its {gamma}-ray spectrum (a power law of {Gamma} = 0.9 with a cutoff at 1.6 GeV) and efficiency are typical of other MSPs, but its radio and {gamma}-ray light curves challenge simple geometric models of emission. The high success rate of this survey-enabled by selecting {gamma}-ray sources based on their detailed spectral characteristics-and other similarly successful searches indicate that a substantial fraction of the local population of MSPs may soon be known.

  19. Population synthesis of radio and gamma-ray millisecond pulsars using Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonthier, Peter L.; Koh, Yew-Meng; Kust Harding, Alice

    2016-04-01

    We present preliminary results of a new population synthesis of millisecond pulsars (MSP) from the Galactic disk using Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques to better understand the model parameter space. We include empirical radio and gamma-ray luminosity models that are dependent on the pulsar period and period derivative with freely varying exponents. The magnitudes of the model luminosities are adjusted to reproduce the number of MSPs detected by a group of thirteen radio surveys as well as the MSP birth rate in the Galaxy and the number of MSPs detected by Fermi. We explore various high-energy emission geometries like the slot gap, outer gap, two pole caustic and pair starved polar cap models. The parameters associated with the birth distributions for the mass accretion rate, magnetic field, and period distributions are well constrained. With the set of four free parameters, we employ Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations to explore the model parameter space. We present preliminary comparisons of the simulated and detected distributions of radio and gamma-ray pulsar characteristics. We estimate the contribution of MSPs to the diffuse gamma-ray background with a special focus on the Galactic Center.We express our gratitude for the generous support of the National Science Foundation (RUI: AST-1009731), Fermi Guest Investigator Program and the NASA Astrophysics Theory and Fundamental Program (NNX09AQ71G).

  20. Bastille Day Flare Multi-Spectral Characterization of Radio Emission Polarization from Milliseconds to Minutes Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Taboada, R. E.; Méndez Berhondo, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    In this work we pay attention to the characteristics of millisecond spikes in relation to the general activity in which they are included, processes with very different time scales. Observations were provided by the Trieste Astronomical Observatory (OAT) radio polarimeters in 237, 327, 408, 610, 1420 and 2695 MHz, with 100 Hz temporal resolution. Some complementary data were obtained from open sources in Internet (Goes X-R, SOHO images, etc.) The waiting time distribution between individual maxima (flux >10 sfu) was calculated searching for self-organized criticality. Left and right polarization components were analyzed separately. The analyzed temporal interval presents two activity periods. The first related to HXR and gamma emission with both polarization millisecond events, and the following activity period is dominated by the right polarized component events. This behavior is considered evidence of two different dominant generation mechanisms for millisecond events.

  1. PSR J1723–2837: AN ECLIPSING BINARY RADIO MILLISECOND PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Fronefield; Lyne, Andrew G.; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Kaplan, David L.; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Lorimer, Duncan R.; Freire, Paulo C. C.; Kramer, Michael; Burgay, Marta; D'Amico, Nichi; Possenti, Andrea; Camilo, Fernando; Faulkner, Andrew; Manchester, Richard N.; Steeghs, Danny

    2013-10-10

    We present a study of PSR J1723–2837, an eclipsing, 1.86 ms millisecond binary radio pulsar discovered in the Parkes Multibeam survey. Radio timing indicates that the pulsar has a circular orbit with a 15 hr orbital period, a low-mass companion, and a measurable orbital period derivative. The eclipse fraction of ∼15% during the pulsar's orbit is twice the Roche lobe size inferred for the companion. The timing behavior is significantly affected by unmodeled systematics of astrophysical origin, and higher-order orbital period derivatives are needed in the timing solution to account for these variations. We have identified the pulsar's (non-degenerate) companion using archival ultraviolet, optical, and infrared survey data and new optical photometry. Doppler shifts from optical spectroscopy confirm the star's association with the pulsar and indicate a pulsar-to-companion mass ratio of 3.3 ± 0.5, corresponding to a companion mass range of 0.4 to 0.7 M{sub ☉} and an orbital inclination angle range of between 30° and 41°, assuming a pulsar mass range of 1.4-2.0 M{sub ☉}. Spectroscopy indicates a spectral type of G for the companion and an inferred Roche-lobe-filling distance that is consistent with the distance estimated from radio dispersion. The features of PSR J1723–2837 indicate that it is likely a 'redback' system. Unlike the five other Galactic redbacks discovered to date, PSR J1723–2837 has not been detected as a γ-ray source with Fermi. This may be due to an intrinsic spin-down luminosity that is much smaller than the measured value if the unmeasured contribution from proper motion is large.

  2. MODELING PHASE-ALIGNED GAMMA-RAY AND RADIO MILLISECOND PULSAR LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Venter, C.; Johnson, T. J.; Harding, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of the first eight gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope, this population has been steadily expanding. Four of the more recent detections, PSR J0034-0534, PSR J1939+2134 (B1937+21; the first MSP ever discovered), PSR J1959+2048 (B1957+20; the first discovery of a black widow system), and PSR J2214+3000, exhibit a phenomenon not present in the original discoveries: nearly phase-aligned radio and gamma-ray light curves (LCs). To account for the phase alignment, we explore models where both the radio and gamma-ray emission originate either in the outer magnetosphere near the light cylinder or near the polar caps. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique to search for best-fit model parameters, we obtain reasonable LC fits for the first three of these MSPs in the context of 'altitude-limited' outer gap (alOG) and two-pole caustic (alTPC) geometries (for both gamma-ray and radio emission). These models differ from the standard outer gap (OG)/two-pole caustic (TPC) models in two respects: the radio emission originates in caustics at relatively high altitudes compared to the usual conal radio beams, and we allow both the minimum and maximum altitudes of the gamma-ray and radio emission regions to vary within a limited range (excluding the minimum gamma-ray altitude of the alTPC model, which is kept constant at the stellar radius, and that of the alOG model, which is set to the position-dependent null charge surface altitude). Alternatively, phase-aligned solutions also exist for emission originating near the stellar surface in a slot gap scenario ('low-altitude slot gap' (laSG) models). We find that the alTPC models provide slightly better LC fits than the alOG models, and both of these give better fits than the laSG models (for the limited range of parameters considered in the case of the laSG models). Thus, our fits imply that the phase-aligned LCs are likely of caustic origin, produced in the outer magnetosphere

  3. Modeling Phase-Aligned Gamma-Ray and Radio Millisecond Pulsar Light Curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venter, C.; Johnson, T.; Harding, A.

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of the first eight gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope, this population has been steadily expanding. Four of the more recent detections, PSR J00340534, PSR J1939+2134 (B1937+21; the first MSP ever discovered), PSR J1959+2048 (B1957+20; the first discovery of a black widow system), and PSR J2214+3000, exhibit a phenomenon not present in the original discoveries: nearly phase-aligned radio and gamma-ray light curves (LCs). To account for the phase alignment, we explore models where both the radio and gamma-ray emission originate either in the outer magnetosphere near the light cylinder or near the polar caps. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique to search for best-fit model parameters, we obtain reasonable LC fits for the first three of these MSPs in the context of altitude-limited outer gap (alOG) and two-pole caustic (alTPC) geometries (for both gamma-ray and radio emission). These models differ from the standard outer gap (OG)/two-pole caustic (TPC) models in two respects: the radio emission originates in caustics at relatively high altitudes compared to the usual conal radio beams, and we allow both the minimum and maximum altitudes of the gamma-ray and radio emission regions to vary within a limited range (excluding the minimum gamma-ray altitude of the alTPC model, which is kept constant at the stellar radius, and that of the alOG model, which is set to the position-dependent null charge surface altitude). Alternatively, phase-aligned solutions also exist for emission originating near the stellar surface in a slot gap scenario (low-altitude slot gap (laSG) models). We find that the alTPC models provide slightly better LC fits than the alOG models, and both of these give better fits than the laSG models (for the limited range of parameters considered in the case of the laSG models). Thus, our fits imply that the phase-aligned LCs are likely of caustic origin, produced in the outer magnetosphere, and

  4. Modeling and Maximum Likelihood Fitting of Gamma-Ray and Radio Light Curves of Millisecond Pulsars Detected with Fermi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. J.; Harding, A. K.; Venter, C.

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed gamma rays have been detected with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) from more than 20 millisecond pulsars (MSPs), some of which were discovered in radio observations of bright, unassociated LAT sources. We have fit the radio and gamma-ray light curves of 19 LAT-detected MSPs in the context of geometric, outermagnetospheric emission models assuming the retarded vacuum dipole magnetic field using a Markov chain Monte Carlo maximum likelihood technique. We find that, in many cases, the models are able to reproduce the observed light curves well and provide constraints on the viewing geometries that are in agreement with those from radio polarization measurements. Additionally, for some MSPs we constrain the altitudes of both the gamma-ray and radio emission regions. The best-fit magnetic inclination angles are found to cover a broader range than those of non-recycled gamma-ray pulsars.

  5. Discovery of the Millisecond Pulsar PSR J2043+1711 in a Fermi Source with the Nancay Radio Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillemot, L.; Freire, P. C. C.; Cognard, I.; Johnson, T. J.; Takahashi, Y.; Kataoka, J.; Desvignes, G.; Camilo, F.; Ferrara, E. C.; Harding, A. K.; Janssen, G. H.; Keith, M.; Kerr, M.; Kramer, M.; Parent, D.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Smith, D. A.; Stappers, W.; Theureau, G.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of the millisecond pulsar PSR J2043+1711 in a search of a Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) source with no known associations, with the Nancay Radio Telescope. The new pulsar, confirmed with the Green Bank Telescope, has a spin period of 2.38 ms, is relatively nearby (d approx. < 2 kpc) and is in a 1.48-d orbit around a low-mass companion, probably an He-type white dwarf. Using an ephemeris based on Arecibo, Nancay and Westerbork timing measurements, pulsed gamma-ray emission was detected in the data recorded by the Fermi LAT. The gamma-ray light curve and spectral properties are typical of other gamma-ray millisecond pulsars seen with Fermi. X-ray observations of the pulsar with Suzaku and the Swift X-ray Telescope yielded no detection. At 1.4 GHz, we observe strong flux density variations because of interstellar diffractive scintillation; however, a sharp peak can be observed at this frequency during bright scintillation states. At 327 MHz, the pulsar is detected with a much higher signal-to-noise ratio and its flux density is far more steady. However, at that frequency the Arecibo instrumentation cannot yet fully resolve the pulse profile. Despite that, our pulse time-of-arrival measurements have a post-fit residual rms of 2 micro s. This and the expected stability of this system have made PSR J2043+1711 one of the first new Fermi-selected millisecond pulsars to be added to pulsar gravitational wave timing arrays. It has also allowed a significant measurement of relativistic delays in the times of arrival of the pulses due to the curvature of space-time near the companion, but not yet with enough precision to derive useful masses for the pulsar and the companion. Nevertheless, a mass for the pulsar between 1.7 and 2.0 solar Mass can be derived if a standard millisecond pulsar formation model is assumed. In this paper, we also present a comprehensive summary of pulsar searches in Fermi LAT sources with the Nancay Radio Telescope to date.

  6. Pulsed Gamma Rays from the Original Millisecond and Black Widow Pulsars: A Case for Caustic Radio Emission?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillemot, L.; Johnson, T. J.; Venter, C.; Kerr, M.; Pancrazi, B.; Livingstone, M.; Janssen, G. H.; Jaroenjittichai, P.; Kramer, M.; Cognard, I.; Stappers, B. W.; Harding, A. K.; Camilo, F.; Espinoza, C. M.; Freire, P. C. C.; Gargano, F.; Grove, J. E.; Johnston, S.; Michelson, P. F.; Noutsos, A.; Parent, D.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Shannon, R.; Smith, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of pulsed gamma-ray emission from the fast millisecond pulsars (MSPs) B1937+21 (also known as J1939+2134) and B1957+20 (J1959+2048) using 18 months of survey data recorded by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and timing solutions based on radio observations conducted at the Westerbork and Nancay radio telescopes. In addition, we analyzed archival RXTE and XMM-Newton X-ray data for the two MSPs, confirming the X-ray emission properties of PSR B1937+21 and finding evidence (approx. 4(sigma)) for pulsed emission from PSR B1957+20 for the first time. In both cases the gamma-ray emission profile is characterized by two peaks separated by half a rotation and are in close alignment with components observed in radio and X-rays. These two pulsars join PSRs J0034..0534 and J2214+3000 to form an emerging class of gamma-ray MSPs with phase-aligned peaks in different energy bands. The modeling of the radio and gamma-ray emission pro les suggests co-located emission regions in the outer magnetosphere.

  7. Isolation and Control of Spins in Silicon Carbide with Millisecond-Coherence Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christle, David J.; Falk, Abram L.; Andrich, Paolo; Klimov, Paul V.; Awschalom, David D.; Hassan, Jawad Ul; Son, Nguyen T.; Janzén, Erik; Ohshima, Takeshi

    2015-03-01

    The elimination of defects from silicon carbide (SiC) has facilitated its move to the forefront of the optoelectronics and power-electronics industries. Nonetheless, because the electronic states of SiC defects can have sharp optical and spin transitions, they are increasingly recognized as a valuable resource for quantum-information and nanoscale-sensing applications. We demonstrate that individual electronic spin states of the divacancy defect in highly purified monocrystalline 4H-SiC can be isolated and coherently controlled. This defect has analogous behavior to the prominent nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, yet exists in a material amenable to modern growth and microfabrication techniques. We spectroscopically identify the different forms of divacancies, and show that divacancy spins exhibit an exceptionally long ensemble Hahn-echo coherence time that exceeds one millisecond. Funding by NSF, AFOSR MURI, and the Knut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  8. HIGH-FIDELITY RADIO ASTRONOMICAL POLARIMETRY USING A MILLISECOND PULSAR AS A POLARIZED REFERENCE SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Van Straten, W.

    2013-01-15

    A new method of polarimetric calibration is presented in which the instrumental response is derived from regular observations of PSR J0437-4715 based on the assumption that the mean polarized emission from this millisecond pulsar remains constant over time. The technique is applicable to any experiment in which high-fidelity polarimetry is required over long timescales; it is demonstrated by calibrating 7.2 years of high-precision timing observations of PSR J1022+1001 made at the Parkes Observatory. Application of the new technique followed by arrival time estimation using matrix template matching yields post-fit residuals with an uncertainty-weighted standard deviation of 880 ns, two times smaller than that of arrival time residuals obtained via conventional methods of calibration and arrival time estimation. The precision achieved by this experiment yields the first significant measurements of the secular variation of the projected semimajor axis, the precession of periastron, and the Shapiro delay; it also places PSR J1022+1001 among the 10 best pulsars regularly observed as part of the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project. It is shown that the timing accuracy of a large fraction of the pulsars in the PPTA is currently limited by the systematic timing error due to instrumental polarization artifacts. More importantly, long-term variations of systematic error are correlated between different pulsars, which adversely affects the primary objectives of any pulsar timing array experiment. These limitations may be overcome by adopting the techniques presented in this work, which relax the demand for instrumental polarization purity and thereby have the potential to reduce the development cost of next-generation telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array.

  9. Timing and Fermi LAT Analysis of Four Millisecond Pulsars Discovered in Parkes Radio Searches of Gamma-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Paul S.; Ransom, Scott M.; Camilo, Fernando M.; Kerr, Matthew; Reynolds, John; Sarkissian, John; Freire, Paulo; Thankful Cromartie, H.; Barr, Ewan D.

    2016-01-01

    We present phase-connected timing solutions for four binary millisecond pulsars discovered in searches of Fermi LAT gamma-ray sources using the Parkes radio telescope. Follow-up timing observations of PSRs J0955-6150, J1012-4235, J1036-8317, and J1946-5403 have yielded timing models with precise orbital and astrometric parameters. For each pulsar, we also did a gamma-ray spectral analysis using LAT Pass 8 data and generated photon probabilities for use in a weighted H-test pulsation test. In all 4 cases, we detect significant gamma-ray pulsations, confirming the identification with the gamma-ray source originally targeted in the discovery observations. We describe the results of the pulse timing and gamma-ray spectral and timing analysis and the characteristics of each of the systems. The Fermi-LAT Collaboration acknowledges support for LAT development, operation and data analysis from NASA and DOE (United States), CEA/Irfu and IN2P3/CNRS (France), ASI and INFN (Italy), MEXT, KEK, and JAXA (Japan), and the K.A. Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council and the National Space Board (Sweden). Science analysis support in the operations phase from INAF (Italy) and CNES (France) is also gratefully acknowledged. NRL participation was funded by NASA.

  10. X-ray and γ-ray studies of the millisecond pulsar and possible X-ray binary/radio pulsar transition object PSR J1723-2837

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanov, Slavko; Esposito, Paolo; Crawford III, Fronefield; Possenti, Andrea; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Freire, Paulo

    2014-01-20

    We present X-ray observations of the 'redback' eclipsing radio millisecond pulsar (MSP) and candidate radio pulsar/X-ray binary transition object PSR J1723-2837. The X-ray emission from the system is predominantly non-thermal and exhibits pronounced variability as a function of orbital phase, with a factor of ∼2 reduction in brightness around superior conjunction. Such temporal behavior appears to be a defining characteristic of this variety of peculiar MSP binaries and is likely caused by a partial geometric occultation by the main-sequence-like companion of a shock within the binary. There is no indication of diffuse X-ray emission from a bow shock or pulsar wind nebula associated with the pulsar. We also report on a search for point source emission and γ-ray pulsations in Fermi Large Area Telescope data using a likelihood analysis and photon probability weighting. Although PSR J1723-2837 is consistent with being a γ-ray point source, due to the strong Galactic diffuse emission at its position a definitive association cannot be established. No statistically significant pulsations or modulation at the orbital period are detected. For a presumed detection, the implied γ-ray luminosity is ≲5% of its spin-down power. This indicates that PSR J1723-2837 is either one of the least efficient γ-ray producing MSPs or, if the detection is spurious, the γ-ray emission pattern is not directed toward us.

  11. Radio Detection Prospects for a Bulge Population of Millisecond Pulsars as Suggested by Fermi-LAT Observations of the Inner Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calore, F.; Di Mauro, M.; Donato, F.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Weniger, C.

    2016-08-01

    The dense stellar environment of the Galactic center has been proposed to host a large population of as-yet undetected millisecond pulsars (MSPs). Recently, this hypothesis has found support in an analysis of gamma-rays detected using the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite, which revealed an excess of diffuse GeV photons in the inner 15 deg about the Galactic center. The excess can be interpreted as the collective emission of thousands of MSPs in the Galactic bulge, with a spherical distribution strongly peaked toward the Galactic center. In order to fully establish the MSP interpretation, it is essential to find corroborating evidence in multi-wavelength searches, most notably through the detection of radio pulsations from individual bulge MSPs. Based on globular cluster observations and gamma-ray emission from the inner Galaxy, we investigate the prospects for detecting MSPs in the Galactic bulge. While previous pulsar surveys failed to identify this population, we demonstrate that upcoming large-area surveys of this region should lead to the detection of dozens of bulge MSPs. Additionally, we show that deep targeted searches of unassociated Fermi sources should be able to detect the first few MSPs in the bulge. The prospects for these deep searches are enhanced by a tentative gamma-ray/radio correlation that we infer from high-latitude gamma-ray MSPs. Such detections would constitute the first clear discoveries of field MSPs in the Galactic bulge, with far-reaching implications for gamma-ray observations, the formation history of the central Milky Way, and strategy optimization for future deep radio pulsar surveys.

  12. Gamma rays from hidden millisecond pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, Marco

    1992-01-01

    The properties were studied of a new class of gamma ray sources consisting of millisecond pulsars totally or partially surrounded by evaporating material from irradiated companion stars. Hidden millisecond pulsars offer a unique possibility to study gamma ray, optical and radio emission from vaporizing binaries. The relevance of this class of binaries for GRO observations and interpretation of COS-B data is emphasized.

  13. SDSS J102347.6+003841: A MILLISECOND RADIO PULSAR BINARY THAT HAD A HOT DISK DURING 2000-2001

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhongxiang; Archibald, Anne M.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Thorstensen, John R.; Lorimer, Duncan R.; Stairs, Ingrid; Ransom, Scott M.

    2009-10-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) source J102347.6+003841 was recently revealed to be a binary 1.69 ms radio pulsar with a 4.75 hr orbital period and a approx0.2 M {sub sun} companion. Here, we analyze the SDSS spectrum of the source in detail. The spectrum was taken on 2001 February 1, when the source was in a bright state and showed broad, double-peaked hydrogen and helium lines-dramatically different from the G-type absorption spectrum seen from 2002 May onward. The lines are consistent with emission from a disk around the compact primary. We derive properties of the disk by fitting the SDSS continuum with a simple disk model, and find a temperature range of 2000-34,000 K from the outer to inner edge of the disk. The disk inner and outer radii were approximately 10{sup 9} and 5.7x10{sup 10} cm, respectively. These results further emphasize the unique feature of the source: it is a system likely at the end of its transition from an X-ray binary to a recycled radio pulsar. The disk mass is estimated to have been approx10{sup 23} g, most of which would have been lost due to pulsar wind ablation (or due to the propeller effect if the disk had extended inside the light cylinder of the pulsar) before the final disk disruption event. The system could undergo repeated episodes of disk formation. Close monitoring of the source is needed to catch the system in its bright state again, so that this unusual example of a pulsar-disk interaction can be studied in much finer detail.

  14. The Velocity Distribution of Isolated Radio Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzoumanian, Z.; Chernoff, D. F.; Cordes, J. M.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We infer the velocity distribution of radio pulsars based on large-scale 0.4 GHz pulsar surveys. We do so by modelling evolution of the locations, velocities, spins, and radio luminosities of pulsars; calculating pulsed flux according to a beaming model and random orientation angles of spin and beam; applying selection effects of pulsar surveys; and comparing model distributions of measurable pulsar properties with survey data using a likelihood function. The surveys analyzed have well-defined characteristics and cover approx. 95% of the sky. We maximize the likelihood in a 6-dimensional space of observables P, dot-P, DM, absolute value of b, mu, F (period, period derivative, dispersion measure, Galactic latitude, proper motion, and flux density). The models we test are described by 12 parameters that characterize a population's birth rate, luminosity, shutoff of radio emission, birth locations, and birth velocities. We infer that the radio beam luminosity (i) is comparable to the energy flux of relativistic particles in models for spin-driven magnetospheres, signifying that radio emission losses reach nearly 100% for the oldest pulsars; and (ii) scales approximately as E(exp 1/2) which, in magnetosphere models, is proportional to the voltage drop available for acceleration of particles. We find that a two-component velocity distribution with characteristic velocities of 90 km/ s and 500 km/ s is greatly preferred to any one-component distribution; this preference is largely immune to variations in other population parameters, such as the luminosity or distance scale, or the assumed spin-down law. We explore some consequences of the preferred birth velocity distribution: (1) roughly 50% of pulsars in the solar neighborhood will escape the Galaxy, while approx. 15% have velocities greater than 1000 km/ s (2) observational bias against high velocity pulsars is relatively unimportant for surveys that reach high Galactic absolute value of z distances, but is severe for

  15. Birth of millisecond pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, J. E.; Bailyn, C. D.

    1988-01-01

    It is argued here that accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs in binaries can form millisecond pulsars directly without requiring a precursor low-mass X-ray binary stage. Ablation of the precollapse binary companion by the millisecond pulsar's radiation field, a process invoked to explain some of the characteristics of the recently discovered eclipsing millisecond pulsar, can then yield isolated neutron stars witout requiring an additional stellar encounter.

  16. The Disturbance of a Millisecond Pulsar Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, R. M.; Lentati, L. T.; Kerr, M.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Coles, W. A.; Dai, S.; Dempsey, J.; Hobbs, G.; Keith, M. J.; Lasky, P. D.; Levin, Y.; Manchester, R. N.; Osłowski, S.; Ravi, V.; Reardon, D. J.; Rosado, P. A.; Spiewak, R.; van Straten, W.; Toomey, L.; Wang, J.-B.; Wen, L.; You, X.-P.; Zhu, X.-J.

    2016-09-01

    Pulsar timing has enabled some of the strongest tests of fundamental physics. Central to the technique is the assumption that the detected radio pulses can be used to accurately measure the rotation of the pulsar. Here, we report on a broadband variation in the pulse profile of the millisecond pulsar J1643‑1224. A new component of emission suddenly appears in the pulse profile, decays over four months, and results in a permanently modified pulse shape. Profile variations such as these may be the origin of timing noise observed in other millisecond pulsars. The sensitivity of pulsar-timing observations to gravitational radiation can be increased by accounting for this variability.

  17. Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Han

    2011-09-30

    This project was undertaken in response to the Department of Energy's call to research and develop technologies 'that will reduce energy consumption, enhance economic competitiveness, and reduce environmental impacts of the domestic chemical industry.' The current technology at the time for producing 140 billion pounds per year of propylene from naphtha and Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) relied on energy- and capital-intensive steam crackers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) units. The propylene is isolated from the product stream in a costly separation step and subsequently converted to acrylic acid and other derivatives in separate production facilities. This project proposed a Short Contact Time Reactor (SCTR)-based catalytic oxydehydrogenation process that could convert propane to propylene and acrylic acid in a cost-effective and energy-efficient fashion. Full implementation of this technology could lead to sizeable energy, economic and environmental benefits for the U. S. chemical industry by providing up to 45 trillion BTUs/year, cost savings of $1.8 billion/year and a combined 35 million pounds/year reduction in environmental pollutants such as COx, NOx, and SOx. Midway through the project term, the program directive changed, which approval from the DOE and its review panel, from direct propane oxidation to acrylic acid at millisecond contact times to a two-step process for making acrylic acid from propane. The first step was the primary focus, namely the conversion of propane to propylene in high yields assisted by the presence of CO2. The product stream from step one was then to be fed directly into a commercially practiced propylene-to-acrylic acid tandem reactor system.

  18. NEW LIMITS ON RADIO EMISSION FROM X-RAY DIM ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kondratiev, V. I.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Lorimer, D. R.; Burgay, M.; Possenti, A.; Turolla, R.; Popov, S. B.; Zane, S. E-mail: maura.mclaughlin@mail.wvu.edu E-mail: burgay@ca.astro.it E-mail: roberto.turolla@pd.infn.it E-mail: sergepolar@gmail.com

    2009-09-01

    We have carried out a search for radio emission at 820 MHz from six X-ray dim isolated neutron stars (XDINSs) with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Radio Telescope. No transient or pulsed emission was found using fast folding, fast Fourier transform, and single-pulse searches. The corresponding flux limits are about 0.01 mJy for pulsed emission, depending on the integration time for the particular source and assuming a duty cycle of 2%, and 20 mJy for single dispersed pulses. These are the most sensitive limits to date on radio emission from XDINSs. There is no evidence for isolated radio pulses, as seen in a class of neutron stars known as rotating radio transients. Our results imply that either the radio luminosities of these objects are lower than those of any known radio pulsars, or they could simply be long-period nearby radio pulsars with high magnetic fields beaming away from the Earth. To test the latter possibility, we would need around 40 similar sources to provide a 1{sigma} probability of at least one of them beaming toward us. We also give a detailed description of our implementation of the Fast Folding Algorithm.

  19. NANOGrav Millisecond Pulsar Observing Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nice, David J.; Nanograv

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational waves from sources such as supermassive black hole binary systems are expected to perturb times-of-flight of signals traveling from pulsars to the Earth. The NANOGrav consortium aims to measure these perturbations in high precision millisecond pulsar timing measurements and thus to directly detect gravitational waves and characterize gravitational wave sources. By observing pulsars over time spans of many years, we are most sensitive to gravitational waves at nanohertz frequencies.In this presentation we describe the NANOGrav observing program. We presently observe an array of 45 millisecond pulsars, evenly divided between the Arecibo Observatory (for pulsars with declinations between -1 and 39 degrees) and the Green Bank Telescope (for other pulsars, with two pulsars overlapping with Arecibo). Observation of a large number of pulsars allows for searches of correlated perturbations between multiple pulsar signals, which will be crucial for achieving high-significance detection of gravitational waves in the face of uncorrelated noise (from gravitational waves and rotation noise) in the individual pulsars. As new high-quality pulsars are discovered, they are added to the program.Observations of each pulsar are made with cadence of 20 to 30 days, with observations of each pulsar in two separate radio bands. Arrival times for nearly all pulsars are measured with precision better than 1 microsecond (averaged over a typical observation of 20 minutes), and in the best cases the precision is better than 100 nanoseconds.We describe the NANOGrav nine-year data release, which contains time-of-arrival measurements and high quality timing solutions from 37 pulsars observed over spans ranging between 0.7 to 9.3 years.

  20. Millisecond pulsars - Nature's most stable clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Joseph H., Jr.

    1991-07-01

    The author describes the role pulsars might play in time and frequency technology. Millisecond pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars: spherical flywheels some 20 km in diameter, 1.4 times as massive as the Sun, and spinning as fast as several thousand radians per second. Radio noise generated in a pulsar's magnetosphere by a highly beamed process is detectable over interstellar distances, as a periodic sequence of pulses similar to the ticks of an excellent clock. High-precision comparisons between pulsar time and terrestrial atomic time show that over intervals of several years, some millisecond pulsars have fractional stabilities comparable to those of the best atomic clocks. The author briefly reviews the physics of pulsars, discusses the techniques of pulsar timing measurements, and summarizes the results of careful studies of pulsar stabilities.

  1. Ten Years Timing of Millisecond Pulsars at Kalyazin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyasov, Yu. P.; Oreshko, V. V.

    2006-08-01

    Precise timing of millisecond binary pulsars has been started at Kalyazin radio astronomical observatory since 1995. (Tver' region, Russia). Binary pulsars: J0613-02, J1020+10, J1640+22, J1643-12, J1713+07, J2145-07 and isolated millisecond pulsar B1937+21 have been included among the Kalayazin Pulsar Timing Array (KPTA). The Backer's pulsar B1937+21 is being monitored at Kalyazin observatory (0.6 GHz) and Kashima space research centre of the National Institute of Communication Technology (NICT, Japan) (2.2 GHz) simultaneously from 1996, as well. .At Kalyazin pulsars are observed at 0.6 GHz by a full steerable 64-m dish radio telescope RT-64 of the Special Research Bureau of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute. Filter-bank receiver of PRAO Lebedev Physical Institute is used for observations in two circular polarizations by 80 channels per each. Bandwidth per channel is 40 kHz, so total band is 3.2 MHz and time resolution is about 10 μs per channel. Now a perfect data base of pulses Time of Arrival (TOA) are collected with refer to the Solar system barycenter for about 10 years period. Main aim is: a) to study Pulsar Time and to establish a long-term standard of time based on pulsars ensemble as space long life clock alternative to atomic standards; b) to detect gravitational waves extremely low frequency belong to the Gravity Wave Background - GWB. After ten years monitoring of B1937+21 its timing noise is looking as "white phase noise" with RMS about 1.8 μs.( Fractional instability is about 6.10^-15). After these data and timing results of binary pulsar J1640+22 gravitational natural GWB upper limit should be reduced till to less than Ω[g]h^2 <10^-7-10^ -9 . Secular changes of DM toward millisecond pulsar B1937+21 was revealed after long time two frequency timing observations (Kalyazin -0,6 and Kashima -2.3).

  2. PSR J1024–0719: A Millisecond Pulsar in an Unusual Long-period Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, David L.; Kupfer, Thomas; Nice, David J.; Irrgang, Andreas; Heber, Ulrich; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Beklen, Elif; Crowter, Kathryn; DeCesar, Megan E.; Demorest, Paul B.; Dolch, Timothy; Ellis, Justin A.; Ferdman, Robert D.; Ferrara, Elizabeth C.; Fonseca, Emmanuel; Gentile, Peter A.; Jones, Glenn; Jones, Megan L.; Kreuzer, Simon; Lam, Michael T.; Levin, Lina; Lorimer, Duncan R.; Lynch, Ryan S.; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Miller, Adam A.; Ng, Cherry; Pennucci, Timothy T.; Prince, Tom A.; Ransom, Scott M.; Ray, Paul S.; Spiewak, Renee; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Stovall, Kevin; Swiggum, Joseph; Zhu, Weiwei

    2016-07-01

    PSR J1024–0719 is a millisecond pulsar that was long thought to be isolated. However, puzzling results concerning its velocity, distance, and low rotational period derivative have led to a reexamination of its properties. We present updated radio timing observations along with new and archival optical data which show that PSR J1024–0719 is most likely in a long-period (2–20 kyr) binary system with a low-mass (≈ 0.4 {M}ȯ ), low-metallicity (Z≈ -0.9 dex) main-sequence star. Such a system can explain most of the anomalous properties of this pulsar. We suggest that this system formed through a dynamical exchange in a globular cluster that ejected it into a halo orbit, which is consistent with the low observed metallicity for the stellar companion. Further astrometric and radio timing observations such as measurement of the third period derivative could strongly constrain the range of orbital parameters.

  3. High-Energy Emission From Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.; Usov, Vladimir V.; Muslimov, Alex G.

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray and gamma-ray spectrum of rotation-powered millisecond pulsars is investigated in a model for acceleration and pair cascades on open field lines above the polar caps. Although these pulsars have low surface magnetic fields, their short periods allow them to have large magnetospheric potential drops, but the majority do not produce sufficient pairs to completely screen the accelerating electric field. In these sources, the primary and secondary electrons continue to accelerate to high altitude and their Lorentz factors are limited by curvature and synchrotron radiation reaction. The accelerating particles maintain high Lorentz factors and undergo cyclotron resonant absorption of radio emission, that produces and maintains a large pitch angle, resulting in a strong synchrotron component. The resulting spectra consist of several distinct components: curvature radiation from primary electrons dominating from 1 - 100 GeV, synchrotron radiation from primary and secondary electrons dominating up to about 100 MeV, and much weaker inverse-Compton radiation from primary electrons a t 0.1 - 1 TeV. We find that the relative size of these components depends on pulsar period, period derivative, and neutron star mass and radius with the level of the synchrotron component also depending sensitively on the radio emission properties. This model is successful in describing the observed X-ray and gamma-ray spectrum of PSR J0218+4232 as synchrotron radiation, peaking around 100 MeV and extending up to a turnover around several GeV. The predicted curvature radiation components from a number of millisecond pulsars, as well as the collective emission from the millisecond pulsars in globular clusters, should be detectable with AGILE and GLAST. We also discuss a hidden population of X-ray-quiet and radio-quiet millisecond pulsars which have evolved below the pair death line, some of which may be detectable by telescopes sensitive above 1 GeV. Subject headings: pulsars: general

  4. Quark nova model for fast radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shand, Zachary; Ouyed, Amir; Koning, Nico; Ouyed, Rachid

    2016-05-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are puzzling, millisecond, energetic radio transients with no discernible source; observations show no counterparts in other frequency bands. The birth of a quark star from a parent neutron star experiencing a quark nova - previously thought undetectable when born in isolation - provides a natural explanation for the emission characteristics of FRBs. The generation of unstable r-process elements in the quark nova ejecta provides millisecond exponential injection of electrons into the surrounding strong magnetic field at the parent neutron star's light cylinder via β-decay. This radio synchrotron emission has a total duration of hundreds of milliseconds and matches the observed spectrum while reducing the inferred dispersion measure by approximately 200 cm‑3 pc. The model allows indirect measurement of neutron star magnetic fields and periods in addition to providing astronomical measurements of β-decay chains of unstable neutron rich nuclei. Using this model, we can calculate expected FRB average energies (∼ 1041 erg) and spectral shapes, and provide a theoretical framework for determining distances.

  5. Quark nova model for fast radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shand, Zachary; Ouyed, Amir; Koning, Nico; Ouyed, Rachid

    2016-05-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are puzzling, millisecond, energetic radio transients with no discernible source; observations show no counterparts in other frequency bands. The birth of a quark star from a parent neutron star experiencing a quark nova - previously thought undetectable when born in isolation - provides a natural explanation for the emission characteristics of FRBs. The generation of unstable r-process elements in the quark nova ejecta provides millisecond exponential injection of electrons into the surrounding strong magnetic field at the parent neutron star's light cylinder via β-decay. This radio synchrotron emission has a total duration of hundreds of milliseconds and matches the observed spectrum while reducing the inferred dispersion measure by approximately 200 cm-3 pc. The model allows indirect measurement of neutron star magnetic fields and periods in addition to providing astronomical measurements of β-decay chains of unstable neutron rich nuclei. Using this model, we can calculate expected FRB average energies (˜ 1041 erg) and spectral shapes, and provide a theoretical framework for determining distances.

  6. X-ray emission from two nearby millisecond pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorsett, S. E.

    1994-01-01

    This grant, titled 'X-Ray Emission from Two Nearby Millisecond Pulsars,' included ROSAT observations of the nearby pulsars PSR J2322+20 and PSR J2019+24. Neither was detected, although the observations were among the most sensitive ever made towards millisecond pulsars, reaching 1.5 x 10(exp 29) and 2.7 x 10(exp 29) erg s(exp -1) (0.1-2.4 keV), respectively. This is about, or slightly below, the predicted level of emission from the Seward and Wang empirical prediction, based on an extrapolation from slower pulsars. To understand the significance of this result, we have compared these limits with observations of four other millisecond pulsars, taken from the ROSAT archives. Except for the case of PSR B1821-21, where we identified a possible x-ray counterpart, only upper limits on x-ray flux were obtained. From these results, we conclude that x-ray emission beaming does not follow the same dependence on pulsar period as that of radio emission: while millisecond pulsars have beaming fractions near unity in the radio, x-ray emission is observed only for favorable viewing geometries.

  7. Clustering-based Filtering to Detect Isolated and Intermittent Pulses in Radio Astronomy Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri; Tang, B.; Lazio, T. J.; Spolaor, S.

    2013-01-01

    Radio-emitting neutron stars (pulsars) produce a series of periodic pulses at radio frequencies. Dispersion, caused by propagation through the interstellar medium, delays signals at lower frequencies more than higher frequencies. This well understood effect can be reversed though de-dispersion at the appropriate dispersion measure (DM). The periodic nature of a pulsar provides multiple samples of signals at the same DM, increasing the reliability of any candidate detection. However, existing methods for pulsar detection are ineffective for many pulse-emitting phenomena now being discovered. Sources exhibit a wide range of pulse repetition rates, from highly regular canonical pulsars to intermittent and nulling pulsars to rotating radio transients (RRATs) that may emit only a few pulses per hour. Other source types may emit only a few pulses, or even only a single pulse. We seek to broaden the scope of radio signal analysis to enable the detection of isolated and intermittent pulses. Without a requirement that detected sources be periodic, we find that a typical de-dispersion search yields results that are often dominated by spurious detections from radio frequency interference (RFI). These occur across the DM range, so filtering out DM-0 signals is insufficient. We employ DBSCAN data clustering to identify groups within the de-dispersion results, using information for each candidate about time, DM, SNR, and pulse width. DBSCAN is a density-based clustering algorithm that offers two advantages over other clustering methods: 1) the number of clusters need not to be specified, and 2) there is no model of expected cluster shape (such as the Gaussian assumption behind EM clustering). Each data cluster can be selectively masked or investigated to facilitate the process of sifting through hundreds of thousands of detections to focus on those of true interest. Using data obtained by the Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), we show how this approach can help separate RFI from

  8. String theories and millisecond pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, N.; Signore, M.

    1988-11-01

    We discuss the two ways of connecting string theories (cosmic, fundamental and the connection between them) to the observational reality: (i) radioastronomy observations (millisecond pulsar timing), and (ii) elementary particle phenomenology (compactification schemes). We study the limits imposed on the string parameter Gμ by recent millisecond pulsar timings. Cosmic strings derived from GUTs agree with (i). For cosmic strings derived from fundamental strings themselves there is contradiction between (i) and (ii). One of these scenarios connecting string theory to reality must be revised (or the transition from fundamental into cosmic strings rejected). Meanwhile, millisecond pulsar can select one scenario, or reject both of them. UA 336 Laboratoire Associé au CNRS, Observatoire de Meudon et Ecole Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05, France.

  9. An ultraluminous nascent millisecond pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluźniak, Włodek; Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    2015-03-01

    If the ultraluminous source (ULX) M82 X-2 sustains its measured spin-up value of dot{ν }= 10^{-10} s^{-2}, it will become a millisecond pulsar in less than 105 yr. The observed (isotropic) luminosity of 1040 erg s-1 also supports the notion that the neutron star will spin up to a millisecond period upon accreting about 0.1 M⊙ - the reported hard X-ray luminosity of this ULX, together with the spin-up value, implies torques consistent with the accretion disc extending down to the vicinity of the stellar surface, as expected for low values of the stellar dipole magnetic field (B ≲ 109 G). This suggests a new channel of millisecond pulsar formation - in high-mass X-ray binaries - and may have implications for studies of gravitational waves, and possibly for the formation of low-mass black holes through accretion-induced collapse.

  10. [Lesions of the distal radio-ulnar joint associated with isolated fractures of the radial shaft].

    PubMed

    Hattoma, N; Rafai, M; Zahar, A; Largab, A; Trafeh, M

    2002-12-01

    The authors have performed a retrospective study of 49 Galeazzi fractures treated between 1990 and 1998. This lesion is considered rare because it is often misdiagnosed as an isolated fracture of the radius. The mean age of the patients was 31 years. There was a male predominance with a sex ratio of 4/1. Road traffic accidents were the main etiology (45%). Galeazzi fracture type III in Mansat's classification represented 53%, followed by type II (33%), type I (8%) and equivalents of Galeazzi fracture (6%). The treatment was surgical in all cases. The radial fracture was internally fixed with a plate. Reduction of the distal radio-ulnar instability, achieved by manipulation, was maintained with radio-ulnar pin fixation in 53% and with plaster cast immobilization 45%. The results, evaluated according to Mikic's criteria were excellent in 87%. The prognosis of Galeazzi's fracture depends mainly on the initial treatment of the lesions of the distal radio-ulnar joint, which require for their diagnosis a meticulous clinical evaluation and a good radiological analysis. PMID:12584977

  11. Swings between rotation and accretion power in a binary millisecond pulsar.

    PubMed

    Papitto, A; Ferrigno, C; Bozzo, E; Rea, N; Pavan, L; Burderi, L; Burgay, M; Campana, S; Di Salvo, T; Falanga, M; Filipović, M D; Freire, P C C; Hessels, J W T; Possenti, A; Ransom, S M; Riggio, A; Romano, P; Sarkissian, J M; Stairs, I H; Stella, L; Torres, D F; Wieringa, M H; Wong, G F

    2013-09-26

    It is thought that neutron stars in low-mass binary systems can accrete matter and angular momentum from the companion star and be spun-up to millisecond rotational periods. During the accretion stage, the system is called a low-mass X-ray binary, and bright X-ray emission is observed. When the rate of mass transfer decreases in the later evolutionary stages, these binaries host a radio millisecond pulsar whose emission is powered by the neutron star's rotating magnetic field. This evolutionary model is supported by the detection of millisecond X-ray pulsations from several accreting neutron stars and also by the evidence for a past accretion disc in a rotation-powered millisecond pulsar. It has been proposed that a rotation-powered pulsar may temporarily switch on during periods of low mass inflow in some such systems. Only indirect evidence for this transition has hitherto been observed. Here we report observations of accretion-powered, millisecond X-ray pulsations from a neutron star previously seen as a rotation-powered radio pulsar. Within a few days after a month-long X-ray outburst, radio pulses were again detected. This not only shows the evolutionary link between accretion and rotation-powered millisecond pulsars, but also that some systems can swing between the two states on very short timescales. PMID:24067710

  12. Millisecond pulsars: Timekeepers of the cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaspi, Victoria M.

    1995-01-01

    A brief discussion on the characteristics of pulsars is given followed by a review of millisecond pulsar discoveries including the very first, PRS B1937+21, discovered in 1982. Methods of timing millisecond pulsars and the accuracy of millisecond pulsars as clocks are discussed. Possible reasons for the pulse residuals, or differences between the observed and predicted pulse arrival times for millisecond pulsars, are given.

  13. Binary millisecond pulsar discovery via gamma-ray pulsations.

    PubMed

    Pletsch, H J; Guillemot, L; Fehrmann, H; Allen, B; Kramer, M; Aulbert, C; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; de Angelis, A; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Borgland, A W; Bottacini, E; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Çelik, Ö; Charles, E; Chaves, R C G; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; Dermer, C D; Digel, S W; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Favuzzi, C; Ferrara, E C; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; den Hartog, P R; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hill, A B; Hou, X; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Jackson, M S; Jogler, T; Johnson, A S; Johnson, W N; Kataoka, J; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Massaro, F; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nemmen, R; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; de Palma, F; Paneque, D; Perkins, J S; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Romani, R W; Romoli, C; Sanchez, D A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Schulz, A; Sgrò, C; do Couto e Silva, E; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Troja, E; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S

    2012-12-01

    Millisecond pulsars, old neutron stars spun up by accreting matter from a companion star, can reach high rotation rates of hundreds of revolutions per second. Until now, all such "recycled" rotation-powered pulsars have been detected by their spin-modulated radio emission. In a computing-intensive blind search of gamma-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (with partial constraints from optical data), we detected a 2.5-millisecond pulsar, PSR J1311-3430. This unambiguously explains a formerly unidentified gamma-ray source that had been a decade-long enigma, confirming previous conjectures. The pulsar is in a circular orbit with an orbital period of only 93 minutes, the shortest of any spin-powered pulsar binary ever found. PMID:23112297

  14. An eccentric binary millisecond pulsar in the galactic plane.

    PubMed

    Champion, David J; Ransom, Scott M; Lazarus, Patrick; Camilo, Fernando; Bassa, Cees; Kaspi, Victoria M; Nice, David J; Freire, Paulo C C; Stairs, Ingrid H; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Stappers, Ben W; Cordes, James M; Hessels, Jason W T; Lorimer, Duncan R; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Backer, Don C; Bhat, N D Ramesh; Chatterjee, Shami; Cognard, Ismaël; Deneva, Julia S; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Gaensler, Bryan M; Han, Jinlin; Jenet, Fredrick A; Kasian, Laura; Kondratiev, Vlad I; Kramer, Michael; Lazio, Joseph; McLaughlin, Maura A; Venkataraman, Arun; Vlemmings, Wouter

    2008-06-01

    Binary pulsar systems are superb probes of stellar and binary evolution and the physics of extreme environments. In a survey with the Arecibo telescope, we have found PSR J1903+0327, a radio pulsar with a rotational period of 2.15 milliseconds in a highly eccentric (e = 0.44) 95-day orbit around a solar mass (M(middle dot in circle)) companion. Infrared observations identify a possible main-sequence companion star. Conventional binary stellar evolution models predict neither large orbital eccentricities nor main-sequence companions around millisecond pulsars. Alternative formation scenarios involve recycling a neutron star in a globular cluster, then ejecting it into the Galactic disk, or membership in a hierarchical triple system. A relativistic analysis of timing observations of the pulsar finds its mass to be 1.74 +/- 0.04 M solar symbol, an unusually high value. PMID:18483399

  15. An Eccentric Binary Millisecond Pulsar in the Galactic Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champion, David J.; Ransom, Scott M.; Lazarus, Patrick; Camilo, Fernando; Bassa, Cess; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Nice, David J.; Freire, Paulo C. C.; Stairs, Ingrid H.; vanLeeuwen, Joeri; Stappers, Ben W.; Cordes, James M.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Lorimer, Duncan R.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Backer, Don C.; Bhat, N. D. Ramesh; Chatterjee, Shami; Cognard, Ismael; Deneva, Julia S.; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Han, JinLin; Jenet, Fredrick A.; Kasian, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Binary pulsar systems are superb probes of stellar and binary evolution and the physics of extreme environments. In a survey with the Arecibo telescope, we have found PSR J1903+0327, a radio pulsar with a rotational period of 2.15 milliseconds in a highly eccentric (e = 0.44) 95-day orbit around a solar mass (M.) companion. Infrared observations identify a possible main-sequence companion star. Conventional binary stellar evolution models predict neither large orbital eccentricities nor main-sequence companions around millisecond pulsars. Alternative formation scenarios involve recycling a neutron star in a globular cluster, then ejecting it into the Galactic disk, or membership in a hierarchical triple system. A relativistic analysis of timing observations of the pulsar finds its mass to be 1.74 +/- 0.04 Solar Mass, an unusually high value.

  16. A distinct class of isolated intracloud lightning discharges and their associated radio emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. A.; Shao, X. M.; Holden, D. N.; Rhodes, C. T.; Brook, M.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Stanley, M.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.

    1999-02-01

    Observations of radio emissions from thunderstorms were made during the summer of 1996 using two arrays of sensors located in northern New Mexico. The first array consisted of three fast electric field change meters separated by distances of 30 to 230 km. The second array consisted of three broadband (3 to 30 MHz) HF data acquisition systems separated by distances of 6 to 13 km. Differences in signal times of arrival at multiple stations were used to locate the sources of received signals. Relative times of arrival of signal reflections from the ionosphere and Earth were used to determine source heights. A distinct class of short-duration electric field change emissions was identified and characterized. The emissions have previously been termed narrow positive bipolar pulses (NPBPs). NPBPs were emitted from singular intracloud discharges that occurred in the most active regions of three thunderstorms located in New Mexico and west Texas. The discharges occurred at altitudes between 8 and 11 km above mean sea level. NEXRAD radar images show that the NPBP sources were located in close proximity to high reflectivity storm cores where reflectivity values were in excess of 40 dBZ. NPBP electric field change waveforms were isolated, bipolar, initially positive pulses with peak amplitudes comparable to those of return stroke field change waveforms. The mean FWHM (full width at half maximum) of initial NPBP field change pulses was 4.7 μs. The HF emissions associated with NPBPs were broadband noise-like radiation bursts with a mean duration of 2.8 μs and amplitudes 10 times larger than emissions from typical intracloud and cloud-to-ground lightning processes. Calculations indicate that the events represent a distinct class of singular, isolated lightning discharges that have limited spatial extents of 300 to 1000 m and occur in high electric field regions. The unique radio emissions produced by these discharges, in combination with their unprecedented physical

  17. Case studies of pre-engineered and manufactured sound isolation rooms for music practice and radio broadcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Ron N.; Rypka, Dann

    2005-09-01

    Pre-engineered and manufactured sound isolation rooms were developed to ensure guaranteed sound isolation while offering the unique ability to be disassembled and relocated without loss of acoustic performance. Case studies of pre-engineered sound isolation rooms used for music practice and various radio broadcast purposes are highlighted. Three prominent universities wrestle with the challenges of growth and expansion while responding to the specialized acoustic requirements of these spaces. Reduced state funding for universities requires close examination of all options while ensuring sound isolation requirements are achieved. Changing curriculum, renovation, and new construction make pre-engineered and manufactured rooms with guaranteed acoustical performance good investments now and for the future. An added benefit is the optional integration of active acoustics to provide simulations of other spaces or venues along with the benefit of sound isolation.

  18. X-Ray States of Redback Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares, M.

    2014-11-01

    Compact binary millisecond pulsars with main-sequence donors, often referred to as "redbacks," constitute the long-sought link between low-mass X-ray binaries and millisecond radio pulsars and offer a unique probe of the interaction between pulsar winds and accretion flows. We present a systematic study of eight nearby redbacks, using more than 100 observations obtained with Swift's X-ray Telescope. We distinguish between three main states: pulsar, disk, and outburst states. We find X-ray mode switching in the disk state of PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270-4859, similar to what was found in the other redback that showed evidence for accretion: rapid, recurrent changes in X-ray luminosity (0.5-10 keV, L X), between (6-9) × 1032 erg s-1 (disk-passive state) and (3-5) × 1033 erg s-1 (disk-active state). This strongly suggests that mode switching—which has not been observed in quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries—is universal among redback millisecond pulsars in the disk state. We briefly explore the implications for accretion disk truncation and find that the inferred magnetospheric radius in the disk state of PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270-4859 lies outside the light cylinder. Finally, we note that all three redbacks that have developed accretion disks have relatively high L X in the pulsar state (>1032 erg s-1).

  19. Observations and Modeling of Gamma-ray Millisecond Pulsars seen with the Fermi LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T. J.; Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.; Guillemot, L.

    2011-08-01

    We present a summary of gamma-ray millisecond pulsar (MSP) observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The radio and gamma-ray light curves of these MSPs have been modeled in the framework of the retarded vacuum dipole magnetic field. Likelihood fitting of the radio and gamma-ray light curves with geometric emission models allows us to give model-dependent confidence contours for the viewing geometry in these systems which are complementary to those from polarization measurements.

  20. Three Millisecond Pulsars in Fermi LAT Unassociated Bright Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Camilo, F.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Celik, O.; Wolff, M. T.; Cheung, C. C.; Kerr, M.; Pennucci, T.; DeCesar, M. E.; Cognard, I.; Lyne, A. G.; Stappers, B. W.; Freire, P. C. C.; Grove, J. E.; Abdo, A. A.; Desvignes, G.; Donato, D.; Ferrara, E. C.; Gehrels, N.; Guillemot, L.; Gwon, C.; Johnston, S.; Harding, A. K.; Thompson, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    We searched for radio pulsars in 25 of the non-variable, unassociated sources in the Fermi LAT Bright Source List with the Green Bank Telescope at 820 MHz. We report the discovery of three radio and gamma-ray millisecond pulsar (MSPs) from a high Galactic latitude subset of these sources. All of the pulsars are in binary systems, which would have made them virtually impossible to detect in blind gamma-ray pulsation searches. They seem to be relatively normal, nearby (<= 2 kpc) MSPs. These observations, in combination with the Fermi detection of gamma-rays from other known radio MSPs, imply that most, if not all, radio MSPs are efficient gamma-ray producers. The gamma-ray spectra of the pulsars are power law in nature with exponential cutoffs at a few Ge V, as has been found with most other pulsars. The MSPs have all been detected as X-ray point sources. Their soft X-ray luminosities of approx 10(exp 30) - 10(exp 31) erg/s are typical of the rare radio MSPs seen in X-rays.

  1. COHERENTLY DEDISPERSED GATED IMAGING OF MILLISECOND PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Jayanta; Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati

    2013-03-10

    Motivated by the need for rapid localization of newly discovered faint millisecond pulsars (MSPs), we have developed a coherently dedispersed gating correlator. This gating correlator accounts for the orbital motions of MSPs in binaries while folding the visibilities with a best-fit topocentric rotational model derived from a periodicity search in a simultaneously generated beamformer output. Unique applications of the gating correlator for sensitive interferometric studies of MSPs are illustrated using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) interferometric array. We could unambiguously localize five newly discovered Fermi MSPs in the on-off gated image plane with an accuracy of {+-}1''. Immediate knowledge of such a precise position enables the use of sensitive coherent beams of array telescopes for follow-up timing observations which substantially reduces the use of telescope time ({approx}20 Multiplication-Sign for the GMRT). In addition, a precise a priori astrometric position reduces the effect of large covariances in the timing fit (with discovery position, pulsar period derivative, and an unknown binary model), which in-turn accelerates the convergence to the initial timing model. For example, while fitting with the precise a priori position ({+-}1''), the timing model converges in about 100 days, accounting for the effect of covariance between the position and pulsar period derivative. Moreover, such accurate positions allow for rapid identification of pulsar counterparts at other wave bands. We also report a new methodology of in-beam phase calibration using the on-off gated image of the target pulsar, which provides optimal sensitivity of the coherent array removing possible temporal and spacial decoherences.

  2. Genesis stories for the millisecond pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruderman, M. A.; Shaham, J.

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical models proposed to explain the origin of the millisecond pulsar (MP) PSR 1937+214 are reviewed, examining their ability to explain its low surface dipole magnetic field (B), its low birth temperature (less than 10 to the 8th K), the absence of a companion or remnant, and its low velocity perpendicular to the Galactic plane. The models discussed are a single isolated explosion forming a rapidly spinning neutron star, spin-up of a dead pulsar by accretion from a companion, collapse of an accreting spinning white dwarf, and fusion of a tight binary composed of two old neutron stars. Although all of the models have difficulties in explaining one or more of the MP characteristics, the second model is found to be most probable in the light of present knowledge. The lack of a companion is explained by its tidal disruption after it had fed the accreting pre-pulsar for 1 Gyr or more and its mass had decreased to about 0.01 solar mass. Neutron stars accreting in this way have been observed in Galactic-bulge X-ray sources.

  3. A Chandra look at the X-ray faint millisecond pulsars in the globular cluster NGC 6752

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestell, L. M.; Heinke, C. O.; Cohn, H. N.; Lugger, P. M.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Bogdanov, S.; Cool, A. M.; Anderson, J.

    2014-06-01

    We combine new and archival Chandra observations of the globular cluster NGC 6752 to create a deeper X-ray source list, and study the faint radio millisecond pulsars (MSPs) of this cluster. We detect four of the five MSPs in NGC 6752, and present evidence for emission from the fifth. The X-rays from these MSPs are consistent with thermal emission from the neutron star surfaces, with significantly higher fitted blackbody temperatures than other globular cluster MSPs (though we cannot rule out contamination by non-thermal emission or other X-ray sources). NGC 6752 E is one of the lowest-LX MSPs known, with LX(0.3-8 keV) = 1.0^{+0.9}_{-0.5}× 10^{30} erg s-1. We check for optical counterparts of the three isolated MSPs in the core using new Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys images, finding no plausible counterparts, which is consistent with their lack of binary companions. We compile measurements of LX and spin-down power for radio MSPs from the literature, including errors where feasible. We find no evidence that isolated MSPs have lower LX than MSPs in binary systems, omitting binary MSPs showing emission from intrabinary wind shocks. We find weak evidence for an inverse correlation between the estimated temperature of the MSP X-rays and the known MSP spin period, consistent with the predicted shrinking of the MSP polar cap size with increasing spin period.

  4. What is causing the eclipse in the millisecond binary pulsar

    SciTech Connect

    Rasio, F.A.; Shapiro, S.L.; Teukolsky, S.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Possible physical mechanisms for explaining the radio eclipses in the millisecond binary pulsar PSR 1957 + 20 are discussed. If, as recent observations suggest, the duration of the eclipses depends on the observing frequency, a plausible mechanism is free-free absorption of the radio pulses by a low-density ionized wind surrounding the companion. Detailed numerical calculations are performed for this case, and it is found that all of the observations made at 430 MHz can be reliably reproduced, including the asymmetry in the excess time delay of the pulses. The model leads to definite predictions for the duration of the eclipse at other observing frequencies, as well as the radio intensity and excess time delay of the pulses as a function of orbital phase. If the duration of the eclipses were found to be independent of frequency, then the likely mechanism would be reflection of the radio signal at a contact discontinuity between a high-density wind and the pulsar radiation. In this case, however, it is difficult to explain the observed symmetry of the eclipse. 12 refs.

  5. Wideband Timing of Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennucci, Timothy; Demorest, Paul; Ransom, Scott M.; North American Nanohertz ObservatoryGravitational Waves (Nanograv)

    2015-01-01

    The use of backend instrumentation capable of real-time coherent dedispersion of relatively large fractional bandwidths has become commonplace in pulsar astronomy. However, along with the desired increase in sensitivity to pulsars' broadband signals, a larger instantaneous bandwidth brings a number of potentially aggravating effects that can lead to degraded timing precision. In the case of high-precision timing experiments, such as the one being carried out by the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav), subtle effects such as unmodeled intrinsic profile evolution with frequency, interstellar scattering, and dispersion measure variation are potentially capable of reducing the experiment's sensitivity to a gravitational wave signal. In order to account for some of these complications associated with wideband observations, we augmented the traditional algorithm by which the fundamental timing quantities are measured. Our new measurement algorithm accommodates an arbitrary two-dimensional model ``portrait'' of a pulsar's total intensity as a function of observing frequency and rotational phase, and simultaneously determines the time-of-arrival (TOA), the dispersion measure (DM), and per-frequency-channel amplitudes that account for interstellar scintillation. Our publicly available python code incorporates a Gaussian-component modeling routine that allows for independent component evolution with frequency, a ``fiducial component'', and the inclusion of scattering. Here, we will present results from the application of our wideband measurement scheme to the suite of NANOGrav millisecond pulsars, which aimed to determine the level at which the experiment is being harmed by unmodeled profile evolution. We have found thus far, and expect to continue to find, that our new measurements are at least as good as those from traditional techniques. At a minimum, by largely reducing the volume of TOAs we will decrease the computational demand

  6. X-ray states of redback millisecond pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Linares, M.

    2014-11-01

    Compact binary millisecond pulsars with main-sequence donors, often referred to as 'redbacks', constitute the long-sought link between low-mass X-ray binaries and millisecond radio pulsars and offer a unique probe of the interaction between pulsar winds and accretion flows. We present a systematic study of eight nearby redbacks, using more than 100 observations obtained with Swift's X-ray Telescope. We distinguish between three main states: pulsar, disk, and outburst states. We find X-ray mode switching in the disk state of PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270-4859, similar to what was found in the other redback that showed evidence for accretion: rapid, recurrent changes in X-ray luminosity (0.5-10 keV, L {sub X}), between (6-9) × 10{sup 32} erg s{sup –1} (disk-passive state) and (3-5) × 10{sup 33} erg s{sup –1} (disk-active state). This strongly suggests that mode switching—which has not been observed in quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries—is universal among redback millisecond pulsars in the disk state. We briefly explore the implications for accretion disk truncation and find that the inferred magnetospheric radius in the disk state of PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270-4859 lies outside the light cylinder. Finally, we note that all three redbacks that have developed accretion disks have relatively high L {sub X} in the pulsar state (>10{sup 32} erg s{sup –1}).

  7. FORMATION OF BLACK WIDOWS AND REDBACKS—TWO DISTINCT POPULATIONS OF ECLIPSING BINARY MILLISECOND PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hai-Liang; Chen, Xuefei; Han, Zhanwen; Tauris, Thomas M.

    2013-09-20

    Eclipsing binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs; the so-called black widows and redbacks) can provide important information about accretion history, pulsar irradiation of their companion stars, and the evolutionary link between accreting X-ray pulsars and isolated MSPs. However, the formation of such systems is not well understood, nor the difference in progenitor evolution between the two populations of black widows and redbacks. Whereas both populations have orbital periods between 0.1 and 1.0 days, their companion masses differ by an order of magnitude. In this paper, we investigate the formation of these systems via the evolution of converging low-mass X-ray binaries by employing the MESA stellar evolution code. Our results confirm that one can explain the formation of most of these eclipsing binary MSPs using this scenario. More notably, we find that the determining factor for producing either black widows or redbacks is the efficiency of the irradiation process, such that the redbacks absorb a larger fraction of the emitted spin-down energy of the radio pulsar (resulting in more efficient mass loss via evaporation) compared to that of the black widow systems. We argue that geometric effects (beaming) are responsible for the strong bimodality of these two populations. Finally, we conclude that redback systems do not evolve into black widow systems with time.

  8. Phase Coherent Observations and Millisecond Pulsar Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrauner, Jay Arthur

    1997-07-01

    We have built a new radio astronomical receiving system designed specifically for very high precision timing and polarimetry of fast pulsars. Unlike most detectors currently used to study pulsars, this instrument does not square the received signal at the time of observation. Instead, voltages proportional to the instantaneous electric vectors of incoming signals are digitized, time-tagged, and recorded on high speed magnetic media. During processing, the data streams are convolved with an inverse 'chirp' function that completely removes the phase retardation introduced by interstellar dispersion. The intrinsic time resolution of this system is the inverse of the system bandwidth, typically well under 1 μs. We have tested this and another phase-coherent observing-system in observations using the Arecibo 305 m and Green Bank 140 foot telescopes. With these two sets of observations we have studied giant pulses, performed high precision timing, and obtained high-resolution polarization profiles and accurate dispersion We have verified the existence of pulses with intensities hundreds of measures. times the mean for both the main pulse and interpulse of PSR B1937+21, and have established that the amplitudes of both types of giant pulses have similar power-law distributions. The giant pulses are narrower than the average pulses, systematically delayed by 40-50 μs, and many are nearly 100% circularly polarized. We have also conducted two searches of the Northern hemisphere for pulsars. The first used the original pulsar discovery telescope in Cambridge, England to search the entire Northern hemisphere at 81.5 MHz, with an average sensitivity to slow pulsars of 230 mJy. Although we obtained flux densities and pulse profiles of 20 known pulsars, no new pulsars were discovered. The second search effort covered a total of 384 deg2 of previously unsearched sky at 430 MHz using the Arecibo telescope, with an average sensitivity to slow pulsars of 0.83 mJy. We discovered 7

  9. High-Energy Emission at Shocks in Millisecond Pulsar Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kust Harding, Alice; Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Venter, Christo; Boettcher, Markus

    2016-04-01

    A large number of new Black Widow (BW) and Redback (RB) energetic millisecond pulsars have been discovered through radio searches of unidentified Fermi sources, increasing the known number of these systems from 4 to 28. We model the high-energy emission components from particles accelerated to several TeV in intrabinary shocks in BW and RB systems, and their predicted modulation at the binary orbital period. Synchrotron emission is expected at X-ray energies and such modulated emission has already been detected by Chandra and XMM. Inverse Compton emission from accelerated particles scattering the UV emission from the radiated companion star is expected in the Fermi and TeV bands. Detections or constraints on this emission will probe the unknown physics of pulsar winds.

  10. Radio-resistance in psychrotrophic Kocuria sp. ASB 107 isolated from Ab-e-Siah radioactive spring.

    PubMed

    Asgarani, Ezat; Soudi, Mohammad Reza; Borzooee, Faezeh; Dabbagh, Reza

    2012-11-01

    A new isolate, Kocuria sp. ASB 107 from the Ab-e-Siah mineral radioactive spring (Ramsar, Mazandaran Province, Iran) was characterized on the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics plus 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolate is most closely related to Kocuria rosea DSM 20447(T) (99.7% sequence similarity) and Kocuria polaris DSM 14382(T) (99.5%). This strain has some resistance to various genotoxic stresses, such as ionizing radiation, ultraviolet (256 nm- UV) and corona discharge. The 90% lethal doses (D(10)) for gamma-rays and 256 nm-UV are 2 kGy and 400 J m(-2), respectively, in definite cell concentration. Moreover, the resistance for a definite energy of corona discharge is 10 s, about 10 times greater than that of Escherichia coli. The growth temperature of the strain ASB 107 is 0-37 °C in TSB (tryptic soy broth). This study is the first report on the psychrotrophic radio-resistant bacteria belonging to the Kocuria genus isolated from Ab-e-Siah spring. PMID:22809716

  11. Radio Timing and Analysis of Black Widow Pulsar J2256-1024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowter, Kathryn; Stairs, Ingrid H.; McPhee, Christie A.; Archibald, Anne M.; Boyles, Jason; Hessels, Jason; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Kondratiev, Vlad I.; Lorimer, Duncan; Lynch, Ryan S.; McLaughlin, Maura; Pennucci, Timothy; Ransom, Scott M.; Roberts, Mallory; Stovall, Kevin; van Leeuwen, Joeri

    2015-01-01

    Pulsar J2256-1024, discovered in a 350MHz GBT drift-scan survey and subsequently detected by Fermi-LAT, is a black widow millisecond pulsar in an eclipsing binary system. Black widow pulsars have a rather interesting history. They started life in a binary system, were then spun up by their companions into millisecond pulsars but at some point started ablating those companions, slowly destroying them - thus the moniker "black widow". They are characterized by relatively short orbital periods, in this case 5.1 hours, a low companion mass and, if the inclination angle is right, eclipses. For J2256-1024 we see very clear radio eclipses. Black widow systems used to be few and far between but are now more common with at least 18 currently known. Black widows are interesting for a variety of reasons. They provide potential insight into the formation of isolated millisecond pulsars which must have formed in a binary but are now seen alone, and in eclipsing systems pulses travel through the magnetosphere of the companion providing a probe of that region. Here we present timing and polarization results for J2256-1024 based on radio observations with the GBT.

  12. Unique mechanization to fault isolate failures of an electron tube Radio Frequency (RF) amplifier and its high voltage power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. G.

    1986-03-01

    An electronics circuit for improving the fault isolation of failures between an electron tube radio frequency (RF) amplifier and its high voltage power supply is disclosed. High voltage power supplies control their output voltage by comparing a feedback voltage against a reference. This comparison is used to develop an error voltage which, in turn, drives a pulsewidth modulator that corrects the feedback voltage to the reference. The output of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) is used as the reference voltage. The DAC is driven by a counter which would count to the correct reference voltage represented by a specific count. The final count is determined by a comparator which compares the counter output to the desired final counter and stops the counter when it is reached.

  13. Millisecond Pulsars at Gamma-Ray Energies: Fermi Detections and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2011-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has revolutionized the study of pulsar physics with the discovery of new populations of radio quiet and millisecond gamma-ray pulsars. The Fermi Large Area Telescope has so far discovered approx.20 new gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs) by both folding at periods of known radio MSPs or by detecting them as gamma-ray sources that are followed up by radio pulsar searches. The second method has resulted in a phenomenally successful synergy, with -30 new radio MSPs (to date) having been discovered at Fermi unidentified source locations and the gamma-ray pulsations having then been detected in a number of these using the radio timing solutions. Many of the newly discovered MSPs may be suitable for addition to the collection of very stable MSPs used for gravitational wave detection. Detection of such a large number of MSPs was surprising, given that most have relatively low spin-down luminosity and surface field strength. I will discuss their properties and the implications for pulsar particle acceleration and emission, as well as their potential contribution to gamma-ray backgrounds and Galactic cosmic rays.

  14. Pulsed Gamma-Rays From the Millisecond Pulsar J0030+0451 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, Aous A.; Ackermann, M.; Atwood, W.B.; Axelsson, M. Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, Denis; Battelino, M.; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, Elliott D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, Thompson H.; /more authors..

    2011-11-17

    We report the discovery of gamma-ray pulsations from the nearby isolated millisecond pulsar PSR J0030+0451 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). This discovery makes PSR J0030+0451 the second millisecond pulsar to be detected in gamma-rays after PSR J0218+4232, observed by the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The spin-down power {dot E} = 3.5 x 10{sup 33} ergs s{sup -1} is an order of magnitude lower than the empirical lower bound of previously known gamma-ray pulsars. The emission profile is characterized by two narrow peaks, respectively 0.07 {+-} 0.01 and 0.08 {+-} 0.02 wide, separated by 0.44 {+-} 0.02 in phase. The first gamma-ray peak falls 0.15 {+-} 0.01 after the main radio peak. The pulse shape is similar to that of the 'normal' gamma-ray pulsars. An exponentially cut-off power-law fit of the emission spectrum leads to an integral photon flux above 100 MeV of (6.76 {+-} 1.05 {+-} 1.35) x 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with cut-off energy (1.7 {+-} 0.4 {+-} 0.5) GeV. Based on its parallax distance of (300 {+-} 90) pc, we obtain a gamma-ray efficiency L{sub {gamma}}/{dot E} {approx_equal} 15% for the conversion of spin-down energy rate into gamma-ray radiation, assuming isotropic emission.

  15. Millisecond Timescale Synchrony among Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Amarasingham, Asohan; Mizuseki, Kenji; Buzsáki, György

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory neurons in cortical circuits play critical roles in composing spike timing and oscillatory patterns in neuronal activity. These roles in turn require coherent activation of interneurons at different timescales. To investigate how the local circuitry provides for these activities, we applied resampled cross-correlation analyses to large-scale recordings of neuronal populations in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) and CA3 regions of the hippocampus of freely moving rats. Significant counts in the cross-correlation of cell pairs, relative to jittered surrogate spike-trains, allowed us to identify the effective couplings between neurons in CA1 and CA3 hippocampal regions on the timescale of milliseconds. In addition to putative excitatory and inhibitory monosynaptic connections, we uncovered prominent millisecond timescale synchrony between cell pairs, observed as peaks in the central 0 ms bin of cross-correlograms. This millisecond timescale synchrony appeared to be independent of network state, excitatory input, and γ oscillations. Moreover, it was frequently observed between cells of differing putative interneuronal type, arguing against gap junctions as the sole underlying source. Our observations corroborate recent in vitro findings suggesting that inhibition alone is sufficient to synchronize interneurons at such fast timescales. Moreover, we show that this synchronous spiking may cause stronger inhibition and rebound spiking in target neurons, pointing toward a potential function for millisecond synchrony of interneurons in shaping and affecting timing in pyramidal populations within and downstream from the circuit. PMID:25378164

  16. The coevolution of decimetric millisecond spikes and hard X-ray emission during solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Guedel, Manuel

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of an analysis of a comprehensive data set of 27 solar flares with decimetric millisecond spikes between 1980 and 1989, simultaneously observed with the Zuerich radio spectrometers and the Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer on the SMM spacecraft. Two contradictory relationships of the coevolution of hard X-ray and spiky radio emissions during flares are found: the temporal evolution of both emissions reveals a close functional dependence, but there is a substantial time delay between the two emissions. Five possible scenarios for the hard-X-ray-associated radio spike emission which may account for both their detailed coevolution and their substantial intervening time delay are discussed. All five scenarios are able to explain both the close coevolution of hard X-ray and radio emission as well as their mutual delay to some degree, but none of them can explain all observational aspects in a simple way.

  17. Discovery of near-ultraviolet counterparts to millisecond pulsars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Sandoval, Liliana E.

    2016-07-01

    Up to date 144 radio millisecond pulsars have been found in Galactic globular clusters, of which about two-thirds are in a binary. However, until recently only for 10 of those binary millisecond pulsars the companion has been firmly identified at optical wavelengths. We present the discovery of 2 likely He white dwarf companions to millisecond pulsars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, as well as the confirmation of 2 tentative identifications in the same cluster, using near-ultraviolet images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. This represents an important contribution to the total number of optical counterparts known in Galactic globular clusters so far. We have also analyzed optical observations taken with Hubble. From these images, we obtained H_α results for some of the counterparts. Based on our UV photometry and He WD cooling models we derived the ages, the masses and the bolometric luminosities for all the He WD companions. I will discuss our results and their implications in the context of the standard millisecond pulsar formation scenario.

  18. The High Time Resolution Radio Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, D.

    2013-11-01

    each orbit, PSR J1729-2117 which is an unusual isolated recycled pulsar, and PSR J2322-2650 which has a companion of very low mass - just 7 × 10^{-4} {M}_{⊙}, amongst others. I begin this thesis with the study of these pulsars and discuss their histories. In addition, I demonstrate that optical observations of the companions to some of the newly discovered pulsars in the High Time Resolution Universe survey may result in a measurement of their age and that of the pulsar. I have discovered five new extragalactic single radio bursts, confirming them as an astronomical population. These appear to occur frequently, with a rate of 1.0^{+0.6}_{-0.5} × 10^4 sky^{-1} day^{-1}. The sources are likely at cosmological distances - with redshifts between 0.45 and 1.45, making them more than half way to the Big Bang in the most distant case. This implies their luminosities must be enormous, 10^{31} to 10^{33} J emitted in just a few milliseconds. Their source is unknown but I present an analysis of the options. I also perform a population simulation of the bursts which demonstrates how their intrinsic spectrum could be measured, even for unlocalised FRBs: early indications are that the spectral index of FRBs < 0.

  19. A millisecond pulsar in an extremely wide binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassa, C. G.; Janssen, G. H.; Stappers, B. W.; Tauris, T. M.; Wevers, T.; Jonker, P. G.; Lentati, L.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Desvignes, G.; Graikou, E.; Guillemot, L.; Freire, P. C. C.; Lazarus, P.; Caballero, R. N.; Champion, D. J.; Cognard, I.; Jessner, A.; Jordan, C.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kramer, M.; Lazaridis, K.; Lee, K. J.; Liu, K.; Lyne, A. G.; McKee, J.; Osłowski, S.; Perrodin, D.; Sanidas, S.; Shaifullah, G.; Smits, R.; Theureau, G.; Tiburzi, C.; Zhu, W. W.

    2016-08-01

    We report on 22 yrs of radio timing observations of the millisecond pulsar J1024$-$0719 by the telescopes participating in the European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA). These observations reveal a significant second derivative of the pulsar spin frequency and confirm the discrepancy between the parallax and Shklovskii distances that has been reported earlier. We also present optical astrometry, photometry and spectroscopy of 2MASS J10243869$-$0719190. We find that it is a low-metallicity main-sequence star (K7V spectral type, $\\mathrm{[M/H]}=-1.0$, $T_\\mathrm{eff}=4050\\pm50$ K) and that its position, proper motion and distance are consistent with those of PSR J1024$-$0719. We conclude that PSR J1024$-$0719 and 2MASS J10243869$-$0719190 form a common proper motion pair and are gravitationally bound. The gravitational interaction between the main-sequence star and the pulsar accounts for the spin frequency derivatives, which in turn resolves the distance discrepancy. Our observations suggest that the pulsar and main-sequence star are in an extremely wide ($P_\\mathrm{b}>200$ yr) orbit. Combining the radial velocity of the companion and proper motion of the pulsar, we find that the binary system has a high spatial velocity of $384\\pm45$ km s$^{-1}$ with respect to the local standard of rest and has a Galactic orbit consistent with halo objects. Since the observed main-sequence companion star cannot have recycled the pulsar to millisecond spin periods, an exotic formation scenario is required. We demonstrate that this extremely wide-orbit binary could have evolved from a triple system that underwent an asymmetric supernova explosion, though find that significant fine-tuning during the explosion is required. Finally, we discuss the implications of the long period orbit on the timing stability of PSR J1024$-$0719 in light of its inclusion in pulsar timing arrays.

  20. A millisecond pulsar in a stellar triple system.

    PubMed

    Ransom, S M; Stairs, I H; Archibald, A M; Hessels, J W T; Kaplan, D L; van Kerkwijk, M H; Boyles, J; Deller, A T; Chatterjee, S; Schechtman-Rook, A; Berndsen, A; Lynch, R S; Lorimer, D R; Karako-Argaman, C; Kaspi, V M; Kondratiev, V I; McLaughlin, M A; van Leeuwen, J; Rosen, R; Roberts, M S E; Stovall, K

    2014-01-23

    Gravitationally bound three-body systems have been studied for hundreds of years and are common in our Galaxy. They show complex orbital interactions, which can constrain the compositions, masses and interior structures of the bodies and test theories of gravity, if sufficiently precise measurements are available. A triple system containing a radio pulsar could provide such measurements, but the only previously known such system, PSR B1620-26 (refs 7, 8; with a millisecond pulsar, a white dwarf, and a planetary-mass object in an orbit of several decades), shows only weak interactions. Here we report precision timing and multiwavelength observations of PSR J0337+1715, a millisecond pulsar in a hierarchical triple system with two other stars. Strong gravitational interactions are apparent and provide the masses of the pulsar M[Symbol: see text](1.4378(13), where M[Symbol: see text]is the solar mass and the parentheses contain the uncertainty in the final decimal places) and the two white dwarf companions (0.19751(15)M[Symbol: see text] and 0.4101(3))M[Symbol: see text], as well as the inclinations of the orbits (both about 39.2°). The unexpectedly coplanar and nearly circular orbits indicate a complex and exotic evolutionary past that differs from those of known stellar systems. The gravitational field of the outer white dwarf strongly accelerates the inner binary containing the neutron star, and the system will thus provide an ideal laboratory in which to test the strong equivalence principle of general relativity. PMID:24390352

  1. A millisecond pulsar in an extremely wide binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassa, C. G.; Janssen, G. H.; Stappers, B. W.; Tauris, T. M.; Wevers, T.; Jonker, P. G.; Lentati, L.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Desvignes, G.; Graikou, E.; Guillemot, L.; Freire, P. C. C.; Lazarus, P.; Caballero, R. N.; Champion, D. J.; Cognard, I.; Jessner, A.; Jordan, C.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kramer, M.; Lazaridis, K.; Lee, K. J.; Liu, K.; Lyne, A. G.; McKee, J.; Osłowski, S.; Perrodin, D.; Sanidas, S.; Shaifullah, G.; Smits, R.; Theureau, G.; Tiburzi, C.; Zhu, W. W.

    2016-08-01

    We report on 22 yr of radio timing observations of the millisecond pulsar J1024-0719 by the telescopes participating in the European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA). These observations reveal a significant second derivative of the pulsar spin frequency and confirm the discrepancy between the parallax and Shklovskii distances that has been reported earlier. We also present optical astrometry, photometry and spectroscopy of 2MASS J10243869-0719190. We find that it is a low-metallicity main-sequence star (K7V spectral type, [M/H] = -1.0, Teff = 4050 ± 50 K) and that its position, proper motion and distance are consistent with those of PSR J1024-0719. We conclude that PSR J1024-0719 and 2MASS J10243869-0719190 form a common proper motion pair and are gravitationally bound. The gravitational interaction between the main-sequence star and the pulsar accounts for the spin frequency derivatives, which in turn resolves the distance discrepancy. Our observations suggest that the pulsar and main-sequence star are in an extremely wide (Pb > 200 yr) orbit. Combining the radial velocity of the companion and proper motion of the pulsar, we find that the binary system has a high spatial velocity of 384 ± 45 km s-1 with respect to the local standard of rest and has a Galactic orbit consistent with halo objects. Since the observed main-sequence companion star cannot have recycled the pulsar to millisecond spin periods, an exotic formation scenario is required. We demonstrate that this extremely wide-orbit binary could have evolved from a triple system that underwent an asymmetric supernova explosion, though find that significant fine-tuning during the explosion is required. Finally, we discuss the implications of the long period orbit on the timing stability of PSR J1024-0719 in light of its inclusion in pulsar timing arrays.

  2. Search for Millisecond Pulsars for the Pulsar Timing Array project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milia, S.

    2012-03-01

    Pulsars are rapidly rotating highly magnetised neutron stars (i.e. ultra dense stars, where about one solar mass is concentrated in a sphere with a radius of ~ 10 km), which irradiate radio beams in a fashion similar to a lighthouse. As a consequence, whenever the beams cut our line of sight we perceive a radio pulses, one (or two) per pulsar rotation, with a frequency up to hundred of times a second. Owing to their compact nature, rapid spin and high inertia, pulsars are in general fairly stable rotators, hence the Times of Arrival (TOAs) of the pulses at a radio telescope can be used as the ticks of a clock. This holds true in particular for the sub­class of the millisecond pulsars (MSPs), having a spin period smaller than the conventional limit of 30 ms, whose very rapid rotation and relatively older age provide better rotational stability than the ordinary pulsars. Indeed, some MSPs rotate so regularly that they can rival the best atomic clocks on Earth over timespan of few months or years.This feature allows us to use MSPs as tools in a cosmic laboratory, by exploiting a procedure called timing, which consists in the repeated and regular measurement of the TOAs from a pulsar and then in the search for trends in the series of the TOAs over various timespans, from fraction of seconds to decades.For example the study of pulsars in binary systems has already provided the most stringent tests to date of General Relativity in strong gravitational fields and has unambiguously showed the occurrence of the emission of gravitational waves from a binary system comprising two massive bodies in a close orbit. In last decades a new exciting perspective has been opened, i.e. to use pulsars also for a direct detection of the so far elusive gravitational waves and thereby applying the pulsar timing for cosmological studies. In fact, the gravitational waves (GWs) going across our Galaxy pass over all the Galactic pulsars and the Earth, perturbing the space­time at the

  3. The origin of planets orbiting millisecond pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, Marco; Brookshaw, Leigh

    1992-01-01

    A model for the formation of planets around millisecond pulsar which no longer have stellar companions is suggested. Detailed hydrodynamical models are presented which suggest that planet formation can occur either in a low-mass X-ray binary progenitor to a progenitor of a star-vaporizing millisecond pulsar when the neutron star is accreting material driven off its companion by X-ray irradiation or after a pulsar has formed and is vaporizing its companion. In both cases a circumbinary disk is created in which planets can form on a timescale of 10 exp 5 to 10 exp 6 yrs and the planets can survive a second phase in which the companion star moves toward the pulsar and is completely vaporized.

  4. Gravitational wave emission from oscillating millisecond pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, Mark G.; Schwenzer, Kai

    2015-02-01

    Neutron stars undergoing r-mode oscillation emit gravitational radiation that might be detected on the Earth. For known millisecond pulsars the observed spin-down rate imposes an upper limit on the possible gravitational wave signal of these sources. Taking into account the physics of r-mode evolution, we show that only sources spinning at frequencies above a few hundred Hertz can be unstable to r-modes, and we derive a more stringent universal r-mode spin-down limit on their gravitational wave signal. We find that this refined bound limits the gravitational wave strain from millisecond pulsars to values below the detection sensitivity of next generation detectors. Young sources are therefore a more promising option for the detection of gravitational waves emitted by r-modes and to probe the interior composition of compact stars in the near future.

  5. Radio-protective effect of polysaccharides isolated from Lactobacillus brevis-fermented Ecklonia cava.

    PubMed

    Lee, WonWoo; Ahn, Ginnae; Lee, Bae-Jin; Wijesinghe, W A J P; Kim, Daekyung; Yang, Hyemi; Kim, Young Mog; Park, Sun Joo; Jee, Youngheun; Jeon, You-Jin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the radioprotective effects of a polysaccharide isolated from enzymatic extracts of Ecklonia cava (E. cava) fermented by fungi and bacteria. We identified that the aqueous extract of the Lactobacillus brevis-fermented E. cava especially showed the highest proliferation effect. In addition, the enzymatic extract prepared by enzyme-assisted extraction using Viscozyme (VLFE) significantly increased cell proliferation. Further study indicated that the polysaccharides isolated from the >30 kDa fraction of VLFE (VLFEP) significantly enhanced survival and proliferation effects in γ-ray-irradiated cells. Also, VLFEP markedly reduced the DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species, and the percentage of Sub-G(1) DNA contents caused by γ-ray-irradiation. Moreover, VLFEP modulated the expression levels of p53, Bax, and Bcl-2 via inhibition of IκBα degradation and phosphorylation and NFκB p65 translocation into nuclei. These results demonstrate that VLFEP has radioprotective properties including the modulation of apoptosis via the inhibition of the NFκB signaling pathway. PMID:23068138

  6. A population of gamma-ray millisecond pulsars seen with the Fermi Large Area Telescope.

    PubMed

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Bignami, G F; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Camilo, F; Caraveo, P A; Carlson, P; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cognard, I; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Corbet, R; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; Desvignes, G; de Angelis, A; de Luca, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dormody, M; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Frailis, M; Freire, P C C; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hobbs, G; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Johnston, S; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kramer, M; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Manchester, R N; Marelli, M; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; McLaughlin, M A; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Ransom, S M; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Rea, N; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stappers, B W; Starck, J L; Striani, E; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Theureau, G; Thompson, D J; Thorsett, S E; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Van Etten, A; Vasileiou, V; Venter, C; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wallace, E; Wang, P; Watters, K; Webb, N; Weltevrede, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-08-14

    Pulsars are born with subsecond spin periods and slow by electromagnetic braking for several tens of millions of years, when detectable radiation ceases. A second life can occur for neutron stars in binary systems. They can acquire mass and angular momentum from their companions, to be spun up to millisecond periods and begin radiating again. We searched Fermi Large Area Telescope data for pulsations from all known millisecond pulsars (MSPs) outside of globular clusters, using rotation parameters from radio telescopes. Strong gamma-ray pulsations were detected for eight MSPs. The gamma-ray pulse profiles and spectral properties resemble those of young gamma-ray pulsars. The basic emission mechanism seems to be the same for MSPs and young pulsars, with the emission originating in regions far from the neutron star surface. PMID:19574349

  7. Transformation of a star into a planet in a millisecond pulsar binary.

    PubMed

    Bailes, M; Bates, S D; Bhalerao, V; Bhat, N D R; Burgay, M; Burke-Spolaor, S; D'Amico, N; Johnston, S; Keith, M J; Kramer, M; Kulkarni, S R; Levin, L; Lyne, A G; Milia, S; Possenti, A; Spitler, L; Stappers, B; van Straten, W

    2011-09-23

    Millisecond pulsars are thought to be neutron stars that have been spun-up by accretion of matter from a binary companion. Although most are in binary systems, some 30% are solitary, and their origin is therefore mysterious. PSR J1719-1438, a 5.7-millisecond pulsar, was detected in a recent survey with the Parkes 64-meter radio telescope. We show that this pulsar is in a binary system with an orbital period of 2.2 hours. The mass of its companion is near that of Jupiter, but its minimum density of 23 grams per cubic centimeter suggests that it may be an ultralow-mass carbon white dwarf. This system may thus have once been an ultracompact low-mass x-ray binary, where the companion narrowly avoided complete destruction. PMID:21868629

  8. Search for Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsars with the Fermi LAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2009-01-01

    Prior to the launch of Fermi, only weak gamma-ray pulsations from a single millisecond pulsar, PSR J0218+4232, had been reported. A firm detection of gamma rays from a member of this class of pulsar having periods near neutron star break-up and magnetic dipole moments well below those of normal pulsars would provide new insights into pulsar acceleration and emission. Using accurate ephemerides obtained from several radio telescopes as well as the unprecedented accuracy of the GPS-derived clocks used by Fermi and the LAT, we have searched for gamma-ray pulsations from known pulsars over a broad range of timing parameters. We will present some results from our search for pulsed gamma rays from millisecond pulsars.

  9. High-precision timing of 42 millisecond pulsars with the European Pulsar Timing Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desvignes, G.; Caballero, R. N.; Lentati, L.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Champion, D. J.; Stappers, B. W.; Janssen, G. H.; Lazarus, P.; Osłowski, S.; Babak, S.; Bassa, C. G.; Brem, P.; Burgay, M.; Cognard, I.; Gair, J. R.; Graikou, E.; Guillemot, L.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Jessner, A.; Jordan, C.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kramer, M.; Lassus, A.; Lazaridis, K.; Lee, K. J.; Liu, K.; Lyne, A. G.; McKee, J.; Mingarelli, C. M. F.; Perrodin, D.; Petiteau, A.; Possenti, A.; Purver, M. B.; Rosado, P. A.; Sanidas, S.; Sesana, A.; Shaifullah, G.; Smits, R.; Taylor, S. R.; Theureau, G.; Tiburzi, C.; van Haasteren, R.; Vecchio, A.

    2016-05-01

    We report on the high-precision timing of 42 radio millisecond pulsars (MSPs) observed by the European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA). This EPTA Data Release 1.0 extends up to mid-2014 and baselines range from 7-18 yr. It forms the basis for the stochastic gravitational-wave background, anisotropic background, and continuous-wave limits recently presented by the EPTA elsewhere. The Bayesian timing analysis performed with TEMPONEST yields the detection of several new parameters: seven parallaxes, nine proper motions and, in the case of six binary pulsars, an apparent change of the semimajor axis. We find the NE2001 Galactic electron density model to be a better match to our parallax distances (after correction from the Lutz-Kelker bias) than the M2 and M3 models by Schnitzeler. However, we measure an average uncertainty of 80 per cent (fractional) for NE2001, three times larger than what is typically assumed in the literature. We revisit the transverse velocity distribution for a set of 19 isolated and 57 binary MSPs and find no statistical difference between these two populations. We detect Shapiro delay in the timing residuals of PSRs J1600-3053 and J1918-0642, implying pulsar and companion masses m_p=1.22_{-0.35}^{+0.5} M_{⊙}, m_c = 0.21_{-0.04}^{+0.06} M_{⊙} and m_p=1.25_{-0.4}^{+0.6} M_{⊙}, m_c = 0.23_{-0.05}^{+0.07} M_{⊙}, respectively. Finally, we use the measurement of the orbital period derivative to set a stringent constraint on the distance to PSRs J1012+5307 and J1909-3744, and set limits on the longitude of ascending node through the search of the annual-orbital parallax for PSRs J1600-3053 and J1909-3744.

  10. New Neighbours: Modelling the Growing Population of gamma-ray Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.; Johnson, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope, in collaboration with several groups from the radio community. have had marvelous success at uncovering new gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs). In fact, MSPs now make up a sizable fraction of the total number of known gamma-ray pulsars. The MSP population is characterized by a variety of pulse profile shapes, peak separations, and radio-to-gamma phase lags, with some members exhibiting nearly phase-aligned radio and gamma-ray light curves (LCs). The MSPs' short spin periods underline the importance of including special relativistic effects in LC calculations, even for emission originating from near the stellar surface. We present results on modelling and classification of MSP LCs using standard pulsar model geometries.

  11. Discovery of near-ultraviolet counterparts to millisecond pulsars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Sandoval, L. E.; van den Berg, M.; Heinke, C. O.; Cohn, H. N.; Lugger, P. M.; Freire, P.; Anderson, J.; Serenelli, A. M.; Althaus, L. G.; Cool, A. M.; Grindlay, J. E.; Edmonds, P. D.; Wijnands, R.; Ivanova, N.

    2015-11-01

    We report the discovery of the likely white dwarf companions to radio millisecond pulsars 47 Tuc Q and 47 Tuc S in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. These blue stars were found in near-ultraviolet images from the Hubble Space Telescope for which we derived accurate absolute astrometry, and are located at positions consistent with the radio coordinates to within 0.016 arcsec (0.2σ). We present near-ultraviolet and optical colours for the previously identified companion to millisecond pulsar 47 Tuc U, and we unambiguously confirm the tentative prior identifications of the optical counterparts to 47 Tuc T and 47 Tuc Y. For the latter, we present its radio-timing solution for the first time. We find that all five near-ultraviolet counterparts have U300 - B390 colours that are consistent with He white dwarf cooling models for masses ˜0.16-0.3 M⊙ and cooling ages within ˜0.1-6 Gyr. The Hα - R625 colours of 47 Tuc U and 47 Tuc T indicate the presence of a strong Hα absorption line, as expected for white dwarfs with an H envelope.

  12. Is the sub-millisecond pulsar strange?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Olinto, Angela V.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility that the submillisecond pulsar from supernova 1987A is composed of strange matter is theoretically discussed. It is shown that for a range of hadron parameters, the maximum rotation rate of secularly stable strange stars may exceed that of the half-millisecond pulsar and the nonrotating maximum mass is greater than 1.52 solar mass. The low-mass companion(s) to SN1987A, inferred from the periodic modulations of the optical signal, can be accounted for by stable strange-matter lump(s) ejected from the young strange star.

  13. New Millisecond Isomer Lifetime Measurements at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, M. Nelson, R.O.; Fotiades, N.; O'Donnell, J.M.

    2014-06-15

    New half-life measurements have been made of the millisecond isomers {sup 71m}Ge, {sup 114m2}I, {sup 208m}Bi, {sup 88m1}Y, {sup 88m2}Y, and {sup 75m}As populated in neutron-induced reactions. These measurements were made using the unique time structure of the LANSCE/WNR neutron source, by observing the γ-ray decays of the isomers during the time between the LANSCE proton macropulses. Two different LANSCE proton beam time structures were used. The GEANIE array of HPGe detectors was used to detect the γ-ray decays.

  14. High-energy emission of the first millisecond pulsar

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, C.-Y.; Takata, J.; Leung, G. C. K.; Cheng, K. S.; Philippopoulos, P.

    2014-06-01

    We report on X-ray and gamma-ray observations of the millisecond pulsar (MSP) B1937+21 taken with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, XMM-Newton, and the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The pulsar X-ray emission shows a purely non-thermal spectrum with a hard photon index of 0.9 ± 0.1, and is nearly 100% pulsed. We found no evidence of varying pulse profile with energy as previously claimed. We also analyzed 5.5 yr of Fermi survey data and obtained much improved constraints on the pulsar's timing and spectral properties in gamma-rays. The pulsed spectrum is adequately fitted by a simple power-law with a photon index of 2.38 ± 0.07. Both the gamma-ray and X-ray pulse profiles show similar two-peak structure and generally align with the radio peaks. We found that the aligned profiles and the hard spectrum in X-rays seem to be common properties among MSPs with high magnetic fields at the light cylinder. We discuss a possible physical scenario that could give rise to these features.

  15. High-energy Emission of the First Millisecond Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, C.-Y.; Takata, J.; Leung, G. C. K.; Cheng, K. S.; Philippopoulos, P.

    2014-06-01

    We report on X-ray and gamma-ray observations of the millisecond pulsar (MSP) B1937+21 taken with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, XMM-Newton, and the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The pulsar X-ray emission shows a purely non-thermal spectrum with a hard photon index of 0.9 ± 0.1, and is nearly 100% pulsed. We found no evidence of varying pulse profile with energy as previously claimed. We also analyzed 5.5 yr of Fermi survey data and obtained much improved constraints on the pulsar's timing and spectral properties in gamma-rays. The pulsed spectrum is adequately fitted by a simple power-law with a photon index of 2.38 ± 0.07. Both the gamma-ray and X-ray pulse profiles show similar two-peak structure and generally align with the radio peaks. We found that the aligned profiles and the hard spectrum in X-rays seem to be common properties among MSPs with high magnetic fields at the light cylinder. We discuss a possible physical scenario that could give rise to these features.

  16. On Detecting Millisecond Pulsars at the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Kanekar, Nissim

    2015-06-01

    The lack of detected pulsars at the Galactic Center (GC) region is a long-standing mystery. We argue that the high stellar density in the central parsec around the GC is likely to result in a pulsar population dominated by millisecond pulsars (MSPs), similar to the situation in globular cluster environments. Earlier GC pulsar searches have been largely insensitive to such an MSP population, accounting for the lack of pulsar detections. We estimate the best search frequency for such an MSP population with present and upcoming broad-band radio telescopes for two possible scattering scenarios, the “weak-scattering” case suggested by the recent detection of a magnetar close to the GC, and the “strong-scattering” case, with the scattering screen located close to the GC. The optimal search frequencies are ≈8 GHz (weak-scattering) and ≈25 GHz (strong-scattering), for pulsars with periods 1-20 ms, assuming that GC pulsars have a luminosity distribution similar to that those in the rest of the Milky Way. We find that 10-30 hr integrations with the Very Large Array and the Green Bank Telescope would be sufficient to detect MSPs at the GC distance in the weak-scattering case. However, if the strong-scattering case is indeed applicable to the GC, observations with the full Square Kilometre Array would be needed to detect the putative MSP population.

  17. Cyclic spectroscopy of the millisecond pulsar, B1937+21

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Mark A.; Van Straten, Willem E-mail: pdemores@nrao.edu

    2013-12-20

    Cyclic spectroscopy is a signal processing technique that was originally developed for engineering applications and has recently been introduced into the field of pulsar astronomy. It is a powerful technique with many attractive features, not least of which is the explicit rendering of information about the relative phases in any filtering imposed on the signal, thus making holography a more straightforward proposition. Here we present methods for determining optimum estimates of both the filter itself and the statistics of the unfiltered signal, starting from a measured cyclic spectrum. In the context of radio pulsars these quantities tell us the impulse response of the interstellar medium (ISM) and the intrinsic pulse profile. We demonstrate our techniques by application to 428 MHz Arecibo data on the millisecond pulsar B1937+21, obtaining the pulse profile free from the effects of interstellar scattering. As expected, the intrinsic profile exhibits main- and inter-pulse components that are narrower than they appear in the scattered profile; it also manifests some weak, but sharp, features that are revealed for the first time at low frequency. We determine the structure of the received electric field envelope as a function of delay and Doppler shift. Our delay Doppler image has a high dynamic range and displays some pronounced, low-level power concentrations at large delays. These concentrations imply strong clumpiness in the ionized ISM, on AU-size scales, which must adversely affect the timing of B1937+21.

  18. DYNAMICAL FORMATION OF MILLISECOND PULSARS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, C. Y.; Cheng, K. S.; Taam, Ronald E.

    2010-05-10

    The cumulative luminosity distribution functions (CLFs) of radio millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in globular clusters (GCs) and in the Galactic field at a frequency of 1.4 GHz have been examined. Assuming a functional form, N {proportional_to} L{sup q} where N is the number of MSPs and L is the luminosity at 1.4 GHz, it is found that the CLFs significantly differ with a steeper slope, q = -0.83 {+-} 0.05, in GCs than in the Galactic field (q = -0.48 {+-} 0.04), suggesting a different formation or evolutionary history of MSPs in these two regions of the Galaxy. To probe the production mechanism of MSPs in clusters, a search of the possible relationships between the MSP population and cluster properties was carried out. The results of an investigation of nine GCs indicate positive correlations between the MSP population and the stellar encounter rate and metallicity. This provides additional evidence suggesting that stellar dynamical interactions are important in the formation of the MSP population in GCs.

  19. Cool white dwarf companions to four millisecond pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassa, C. G.; Antoniadis, J.; Camilo, F.; Cognard, I.; Koester, D.; Kramer, M.; Ransom, S. R.; Stappers, B. W.

    2016-02-01

    We report on photometric and spectroscopic observations of white dwarf companions to four binary radio millisecond pulsars, leading to the discovery of companions to PSRs J0614-3329, J1231-1411 and J2017+0603. We place limits on the brightness of the companion to PSR J0613-0200. Optical spectroscopy of the companion to PSR J0614-3329 identifies it as a DA-type white dwarf with a temperature of Teff = 6460 ± 80 K, a surface gravity log g = 7.0 ± 0.2 cgs and a mass of MWD = 0.24 ± 0.04 M⊙. We find that the distance to PSR J0614-3329 is smaller than previously estimated, removing the need for the pulsar to have an unrealistically high γ-ray efficiency. Comparing the photometry with predictions from white dwarf cooling models allows us to estimate temperatures and cooling ages of the companions to PSRs J0613-0200, J1231-1411 and J2017+0603. We find that the white dwarfs in these systems are cool Teff < 4000 K and old ≳ 5 Gyr. Thin hydrogen envelopes are required for these white dwarfs to cool to the observed temperatures, and we suggest that besides hydrogen shell flashes, irradiation driven mass loss by the pulsar may have been important.

  20. Identification of candidate millisecond pulsars from Fermi LAT observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xue-Jie; Wang, Zhong-Xiang; Vadakkumthani, Jithesh; Xing, Yi

    2016-06-01

    We report our detailed data analysis of 39 γ-ray sources selected from the 992 unassociated sources in the third Fermi Large Area Telescope Third Source Catalog. The selection criteria, which were set for finding candidate millisecond pulsars (MSPs), are non-variables with curved spectra and >5° Galactic latitudes. From our analysis, 24 sources were found to be point-like sources not contaminated by background or nearby unknown sources. Three of them, J1544.6–1125, J1625.1–0021 and J1653.6–0158, have been previously studied, indicating that they are likely MSPs. The spectra of J0318.1+0252 and J2053.9+2922 do not have properties similar to known γ-ray MSPs, and we thus suggest that they are not MSPs. Analysis of archival X-ray data for most of the 24 sources was also conducted. Four sources were found with X-ray objects in their error circles, and 16 with no detection. The ratios between the γ-ray fluxes and X-ray fluxes or flux upper limits are generally lower than those of known γ-ray MSPs, suggesting that if the γ-ray sources are MSPs, none of the X-ray objects are their counterparts. Deep X-ray or radio observations of these sources are needed in order to identify their MSP nature.

  1. MILLISECOND PULSAR SCINTILLATION STUDIES WITH LOFAR: INITIAL RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, Anne M.; Kondratiev, Vladislav I.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stinebring, Daniel R. E-mail: kondratiev@astron.nl E-mail: dan.stinebring@oberlin.edu

    2014-08-01

    High-precision timing of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) over years to decades is a promising technique for direct detection of gravitational waves at nanohertz frequencies. Time-variable, multi-path scattering in the interstellar medium is a significant source of noise for this detector, particularly as timing precision approaches 10 ns or better for MSPs in the pulsar timing array. For many MSPs, the scattering delay above 1 GHz is at the limit of detectability; therefore, we study it at lower frequencies. Using the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) radio telescope, we have analyzed short (5-20 minutes) observations of 3 MSPs in order to estimate the scattering delay at 110-190 MHz, where the number of scintles is large and, hence, the statistical uncertainty in the scattering delay is small. We used cyclic spectroscopy, still relatively novel in radio astronomy, on baseband-sampled data to achieve unprecedented frequency resolution while retaining adequate pulse-phase resolution. We detected scintillation structure in the spectra of the MSPs PSR B1257+12, PSR J1810+1744, and PSR J2317+1439 with diffractive bandwidths of 6 ± 3, 2.0 ± 0.3, and ∼7 kHz, respectively, where the estimate for PSR J2317+1439 is reliable to about a factor of two. For the brightest of the three pulsars, PSR J1810+1744, we found that the diffractive bandwidth has a power-law behavior Δν{sub d}∝ν{sup α}, where ν is the observing frequency and α = 4.5 ± 0.5, consistent with a Kolmogorov inhomogeneity spectrum. We conclude that this technique holds promise for monitoring the scattering delay of MSPs with LOFAR and other high-sensitivity, low-frequency arrays like the low-frequency component of the Square Kilometre Array.

  2. What the Timing of Millisecond Pulsars Can Teach us about Their Interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, Mark G.; Schwenzer, Kai

    2014-12-01

    The cores of compact stars reach the highest densities in nature and therefore could consist of novel phases of matter. We demonstrate via a detailed analysis of pulsar evolution that precise pulsar timing data can constrain the star's composition, through unstable global oscillations (r modes) whose damping is determined by microscopic properties of the interior. If not efficiently damped, these modes emit gravitational waves that quickly spin down a millisecond pulsar. As a first application of this general method, we find that ungapped interacting quark matter is consistent with both the observed radio and x-ray data, whereas for ordinary nuclear matter some additional enhanced damping mechanism is required.

  3. What the timing of millisecond pulsars can teach us about their interior.

    PubMed

    Alford, Mark G; Schwenzer, Kai

    2014-12-19

    The cores of compact stars reach the highest densities in nature and therefore could consist of novel phases of matter. We demonstrate via a detailed analysis of pulsar evolution that precise pulsar timing data can constrain the star's composition, through unstable global oscillations (r modes) whose damping is determined by microscopic properties of the interior. If not efficiently damped, these modes emit gravitational waves that quickly spin down a millisecond pulsar. As a first application of this general method, we find that ungapped interacting quark matter is consistent with both the observed radio and x-ray data, whereas for ordinary nuclear matter some additional enhanced damping mechanism is required. PMID:25554870

  4. A Possible X-Ray Detection of the Binary Millisecond Pulsar J1012+5307

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A possible X-ray detection of the newly discovered binary millisecond radio pulsar PSR J1012+5307 was obtained from an archival ROSAT observation. The 80 +/- 24 photons detected correspond to a 0.1 - 2.4 keV luminosity of approx. = 2.5 x 10(exp 30) erg/s at the nominal dispersion-measure distance of 520 pc. This luminosity is a factor of 2 less than that of PSR J0437-4715, a near twin of PSR J1012+5307 in its spin parameters and energetics, and the only millisecond pulsar from which pulsed X-rays have definitely been detected. PSR J1012+5307 is also within 6 deg of the "HI hole" in Ursa Major, providing a new estimate of the electron column density through this region which confirms that the ionized column density is also low. The small neutral column density to PSR J1012+5307, N(sub H) less than 7.5 x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, will facilitate future soft X-ray study, which will help to discriminate between thermal and nonthermal origins of the X-ray emission in millisecond pulsars.

  5. Accreting Millisecond Pulsars and Fundamental Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2005-01-01

    X-ray emission from the surfaces of rapidly rotating neutron stars encodes information about their global properties as well as physical conditions locally. Detailed modelling of, for example, the energy dependent pulse profiles observed from accreting millisecond pulsars and thermonuclear burst oscillations can be used to derive constraints on the masses and radii of neutron stars. These measurements provide direct information on the properties of the dense matter equation of state of the supranuclear density matter in their interiors. Study of absorption lines created in the surface layers can also provide measurements of masses and radii, and may be able to probe aspects of relativistic gravity, such as frame dragging. I will discuss the results of recent efforts to carry out such measurements and their implications for the properties of dense matter.

  6. Timing of millisecond pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Nichi; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Johnston, Simon; Kramer, Michael; Sarkissian, John; Lyne, Andrew; Burgay, Marta; Corongiu, Alessandro; Camilo, Fernando; Bailes, Matthew; van Straten, Willem

    2011-10-01

    Timing of the dozen pulsars discovered by us in P303 is ensuring high quality results: (a) the peculiarities (in position or projected acceleration) of all the 5 millisecond pulsars in NGC6752 suggested the presence of non thermal dynamics in the core, perhaps due to black-holes of intermediate mass; (b) the eclipsing pulsar in NGC6397 is a stereotype for studying the late evolution of exotic binaries. We propose to continue our timing project focusing mostly on NGC6752 at 20cm (in order to measure additional parameters useful to constrain the existence of a black-hole) and NGC6397 at 10cm (for studying the orbital secular evolution, the eclipse region, and the mechanisms leading to the ejection of matter from the binary system).

  7. Timing of millisecond pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Nichi; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Johnston, Simon; Kramer, Michael; Sarkissian, John; Lyne, Andrew; Burgay, Marta; Corongiu, Alessandro; Camilo, Fernando; Bailes, Matthew; van Straten, Willem

    2011-04-01

    Timing of the dozen pulsars discovered by us in P303 is ensuring high quality results: (a) the peculiarities (in position or projected acceleration) of all the 5 millisecond pulsars in NGC6752 suggested the presence of non thermal dynamics in the core, perhaps due to black-holes of intermediate mass; (b) the eclipsing pulsar in NGC6397 is a stereotype for studying the late evolution of exotic binaries. We propose to continue our timing project focusing mostly on NGC6752 at 20cm (in order to measure additional parameters useful to constrain the existence of a black-hole) and NGC6397 at 10cm (for studying the orbital secular evolution, the eclipse region, and the mechanisms leading to the ejection of matter from the binary system).

  8. Timing of millisecond pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Nichi; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Johnston, Simon; Kramer, Michael; Sarkissian, John; Lyne, Andrew; Burgay, Marta; Corongiu, Alessandro; Camilo, Fernando; Bailes, Matthew; van Straten, Willem

    2013-04-01

    Timing of the dozen pulsars discovered by us in P303 is ensuring high quality results: (a) the peculiarities (in position or projected acceleration) of all the 5 millisecond pulsars in NGC6752 suggested the presence of non thermal dynamics in the core, perhaps due to black-holes of intermediate mass; (b) the eclipsing pulsar in NGC6397 is a stereotype for studying the late evolution of exotic binaries. We propose to continue our timing project focusing mostly on NGC6752 at 20cm (in order to measure additional parameters useful to constrain the existence of a black-hole) and NGC6397 at 10cm (for studying the orbital secular evolution, the eclipse region, and the mechanisms leading to the ejection of matter from the binary system).

  9. Timing of millisecond pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Nichi; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Johnston, Simon; Kramer, Michael; Sarkissian, John; Lyne, Andrew; Burgay, Marta; Corongiu, Alessandro; Camilo, Fernando; Bailes, Matthew; van Straten, Willem

    2010-10-01

    Timing of the dozen pulsars discovered by us in P303 is ensuring high quality results: (a) the peculiarities (in position or projected acceleration) of all the 5 millisecond pulsars in NGC6752 suggested the presence of non thermal dynamics in the core, perhaps due to black-holes of intermediate mass; (b) the eclipsing pulsar in NGC6397 is a stereotype for studying the late evolution of exotic binaries. We propose to continue our timing project focusing mostly on NGC6752 at 20cm (in order to measure additional parameters useful to constrain the existence of a black-hole) and NGC6397 at 10cm (for studying the eclipse region and the orbital secular evolution).

  10. Timing of millisecond pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Nichi; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Johnston, Simon; Kramer, Michael; Sarkissian, John; Lyne, Andrew; Burgay, Marta; Corongiu, Alessandro; Camilo, Fernando; Bailes, Matthew; van Straten, Willem

    2014-10-01

    Timing of the dozen pulsars discovered by us in P303 is ensuring high quality results: (a) the peculiarities (in position or projected acceleration) of all the 5 millisecond pulsars in NGC6752 suggested the presence of non thermal dynamics in the core, perhaps due to black-holes of intermediate mass; (b) the eclipsing pulsar in NGC6397 is a stereotype for studying the late evolution of exotic binaries. We propose to continue our timing project focusing mostly on NGC6397 at 10cm, for studying the orbital secular evolution, the eclipse region, and the role played by the high energy photons released from the pulsar in the ejection of matter from the binary system.

  11. Timing of millisecond pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Nichi; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Johnston, Simon; Kramer, Michael; Sarkissian, John; Lyne, Andrew; Burgay, Marta; Corongiu, Alessandro; Camilo, Fernando; Bailes, Matthew; van Straten, Willem

    2012-10-01

    Timing of the dozen pulsars discovered by us in P303 is ensuring high quality results: (a) the peculiarities (in position or projected acceleration) of all the 5 millisecond pulsars in NGC6752 suggested the presence of non thermal dynamics in the core, perhaps due to black-holes of intermediate mass; (b) the eclipsing pulsar in NGC6397 is a stereotype for studying the late evolution of exotic binaries. We propose to continue our timing project focusing mostly on NGC6752 at 20cm (in order to measure additional parameters useful to constrain the existence of a black-hole) and NGC6397 at 10cm (for studying the orbital secular evolution, the eclipse region, and the mechanisms leading to the ejection of matter from the binary system).

  12. Timing of millisecond pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Nichi; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Johnston, Simon; Kramer, Michael; Sarkissian, John; Lyne, Andrew; Burgay, Marta; Corongiu, Alessandro; Camilo, Fernando; Bailes, Matthew; van Straten, Willem

    2013-10-01

    Timing of the dozen pulsars discovered by us in P303 is ensuring high quality results: (a) the peculiarities (in position or projected acceleration) of all the 5 millisecond pulsars in NGC6752 suggested the presence of non thermal dynamics in the core, perhaps due to black-holes of intermediate mass; (b) the eclipsing pulsar in NGC6397 is a stereotype for studying the late evolution of exotic binaries. We propose to continue our timing project focusing mostly on NGC6752 at 20cm (in order to measure additional parameters useful to constrain the existence of a black-hole) and NGC6397 at 10cm (for studying the orbital secular evolution, the eclipse region, and the role played by the high energy photons released from the pulsar in the ejection of matter from the binary system).

  13. Timing of millisecond pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Nichi; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Johnston, Simon; Kramer, Michael; Sarkissian, John; Lyne, Andrew; Burgay, Marta; Corongiu, Alessandro; Camilo, Fernando; Bailes, Matthew; van Straten, Willem

    2014-04-01

    Timing of the dozen pulsars discovered by us in P303 is ensuring high quality results: (a) the peculiarities (in position or projected acceleration) of all the 5 millisecond pulsars in NGC6752 suggested the presence of non thermal dynamics in the core, perhaps due to black-holes of intermediate mass; (b) the eclipsing pulsar in NGC6397 is a stereotype for studying the late evolution of exotic binaries. We propose to continue our timing project focusing mostly on NGC6752 at 20cm (in order to measure additional parameters useful to constrain the existence of a black-hole) and NGC6397 at 10cm (for studying the orbital secular evolution, the eclipse region, and the role played by the high energy photons released from the pulsar in the ejection of matter from the binary system).

  14. Timing of millisecond pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Nichi; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Johnston, Simon; Kramer, Michael; Sarkissian, John; Lyne, Andrew; Burgay, Marta; Corongiu, Alessandro; Camilo, Fernando; Bailes, Matthew; van Straten, Willem

    2012-04-01

    Timing of the dozen pulsars discovered by us in P303 is ensuring high quality results: (a) the peculiarities (in position or projected acceleration) of all the 5 millisecond pulsars in NGC6752 suggested the presence of non thermal dynamics in the core, perhaps due to black-holes of intermediate mass; (b) the eclipsing pulsar in NGC6397 is a stereotype for studying the late evolution of exotic binaries. We propose to continue our timing project focusing mostly on NGC6752 at 20cm (in order to measure additional parameters useful to constrain the existence of a black-hole) and NGC6397 at 10cm (for studying the orbital secular evolution, the eclipse region, and the mechanisms leading to the ejection of matter from the binary system).

  15. Serial Millisecond Crystallography of Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Kathrin; Dworkowski, Florian; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Milne, Christopher; Wang, Meitian; Standfuss, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) is a powerful method to determine high-resolution structures of pharmaceutically relevant membrane proteins. Recently, the technology has been adapted to carry out serial millisecond crystallography (SMX) at synchrotron sources, where beamtime is more abundant. In an injector-based approach, crystals grown in lipidic cubic phase (LCP) or embedded in viscous medium are delivered directly into the unattenuated beam of a microfocus beamline. Pilot experiments show the application of microjet-based SMX for solving the structure of a membrane protein and compatibility of the method with de novo phasing. Planned synchrotron upgrades, faster detectors and software developments will go hand-in-hand with developments at free-electron lasers to provide a powerful methodology for solving structures from microcrystals at room temperature, ligand screening or crystal optimization for time-resolved studies with minimal or no radiation damage. PMID:27553240

  16. Discovery of the optical counterparts to four energetic Fermi millisecond pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Breton, R. P.; Van Kerkwijk, M. H.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Camilo, F.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Stairs, I. H.

    2013-06-01

    In the last few years, over 43 millisecond radio pulsars have been discovered by targeted searches of unidentified γ-ray sources found by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. A large fraction of these millisecond pulsars are in compact binaries with low-mass companions. These systems often show eclipses of the pulsar signal and are commonly known as black widows and redbacks because the pulsar is gradually destroying its companion. In this paper, we report on the optical discovery of four strongly irradiated millisecond pulsar companions. All four sources show modulations of their color and luminosity at the known orbital periods from radio timing. Light curve modeling of our exploratory data shows that the equilibrium temperature reached on the companion's dayside with respect to their nightside is consistent with about 10%-30% of the available spin-down energy from the pulsar being reprocessed to increase the companion's dayside temperature. This value compares well with the range observed in other irradiated pulsar binaries and offers insights about the energetics of the pulsar wind and the production of γ-ray emission. In addition, this provides a simple way of estimating the brightness of irradiated pulsar companions given the pulsar spin-down luminosity. Our analysis also suggests that two of the four new irradiated pulsar companions are only partially filling their Roche lobe. Some of these sources are relatively bright and represent good targets for spectroscopic follow-up. These measurements could enable, among other things, mass determination of the neutron stars in these systems.

  17. Discovery of the Optical Counterparts to Four Energetic Fermi Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breton, R. P.; van Kerkwijk, M. H.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Camilo, F.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Stairs, I. H.

    2013-06-01

    In the last few years, over 43 millisecond radio pulsars have been discovered by targeted searches of unidentified γ-ray sources found by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. A large fraction of these millisecond pulsars are in compact binaries with low-mass companions. These systems often show eclipses of the pulsar signal and are commonly known as black widows and redbacks because the pulsar is gradually destroying its companion. In this paper, we report on the optical discovery of four strongly irradiated millisecond pulsar companions. All four sources show modulations of their color and luminosity at the known orbital periods from radio timing. Light curve modeling of our exploratory data shows that the equilibrium temperature reached on the companion's dayside with respect to their nightside is consistent with about 10%-30% of the available spin-down energy from the pulsar being reprocessed to increase the companion's dayside temperature. This value compares well with the range observed in other irradiated pulsar binaries and offers insights about the energetics of the pulsar wind and the production of γ-ray emission. In addition, this provides a simple way of estimating the brightness of irradiated pulsar companions given the pulsar spin-down luminosity. Our analysis also suggests that two of the four new irradiated pulsar companions are only partially filling their Roche lobe. Some of these sources are relatively bright and represent good targets for spectroscopic follow-up. These measurements could enable, among other things, mass determination of the neutron stars in these systems.

  18. Radio Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on radio galaxies. Topic areas addressed include: what produces the radio emission; radio telescopes; locating radio galaxies; how distances to radio galaxies are found; physics of radio galaxies; computer simulations of radio galaxies; and the evolution of radio galaxies with cosmic time. (JN)

  19. Discovery of an Unidentified Fermi Object as a Black Widow-Like Millisecond Pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, A. K. H.; Huang, R. H. H.; Cheng, K. S.; Takata, J.; Yatsu, Y.; Cheung, C. C.; Donato, D.; Lin, L. C. C.; Kataoka, J.; Takahashi, Y.; Maeda, K.; Hui, C. Y.; Tam, P. H. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has revolutionized our knowledge of the gamma-ray pulsar population, leading to the discovery of almost 100 gamma-ray pulsars and dozens of gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs). Although the outer-gap model predicts different sites of emission for the radio and gamma-ray pulsars, until now all of the known gamma-ray MSPs have been visible in the radio. Here we report the discovery of a radio-quiet" gamma-ray emitting MSP candidate by using Fermi, Chandra, Swift, and optical observations. The X-ray and gamma-ray properties of the source are consistent with known gamma-ray pulsars. We also found a 4.63-hr orbital period in optical and X-ray data. We suggest that the source is a black widow-like MSP with a approx. 0.1 Stellar Mass late-type companion star. Based on the profile of the optical and X-ray light-curves, the companion star is believed to be heated by the pulsar while the X-ray emissions originate from pulsar magnetosphere and/or from intra-binary shock. No radio detection of the source has been reported yet and although no gamma-ray/radio pulsation has been found, we estimated that the spin period of the MSP is approx. 3-5 ms based on the inferred gamma-ray luminosity.

  20. Pulsar searches: From radio to gamma-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Adam M.

    2003-08-01

    We report the results of four different pulsar searches, covering radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths. These searches targeted pulsars in virtually all of their guises: young and old, long-period and short-period, accretion-powered and rotation-powered. Ten new pulsars were discovered. There are very few known gamma-ray pulsars, all of which were found by folding gamma-ray data with a pulse period known from other wavelengths. Some emission models indicate that there may be a large number of gamma-ray pulsars that are undetectable at lower energies. We searched several of the brightest unidentified gamma-ray sources for pulsations. This was the first attempt to identify gamma-ray pulsars by directly searching gamma- ray data. No new identifications resulted; we report upper limits. Even more rare than gamma-ray pulsars are accreting millisecond pulsars. We searched for coherent pulsations from Aql X-1, a low-mass X-ray binary suspected of harboring such an object. No pulsations were detected, and we argue that the quiescent emission of this system has a thermal origin. The two radio searches included here were both designed to detect millisecond pulsars. First, we report the results of a large area survey from Arecibo. Five new slow pulsars were discovered, including an apparent orthogonal rotator and an extremely unusual bursting radio pulsar. No short-period pulsars were discovered and we place some of the first useful observational constraints on the limiting spin period of a neutron star. We also performed pointed searches of several globular clusters using the new Green Bank Telescope. Three new binary millisecond pulsars were found in M62. These were the first new objects found with the GBT, and they bring the total pulsar population in M62 to six. We also discovered two isolated pulsars, one each in NGC 6544 and NGC 6624. Many of the methods we developed will be relevant to future searches. Perhaps the most significant contribution is a dynamic power

  1. Where do the progenitors of millisecond pulsars come from?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taani, A.; Zhang, C. M.; Al-Wardat, M.; Zhao, Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of a large population of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) show a wide divergence in the orbital periods (from approximately hours to a few months). In the standard view, low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) are considered as progenitors for some MSPs during the recycling process. We present a systematic study that combines different types of compact objects in binaries such as cataclysmic variables (CVs), LMXBs, and MSPs. We plot them together in the so called Corbet diagram. Larger and different samples are needed to better constrain the result as a function of the environment and formations. A scale diagram showing the distribution of MSPs for different orbital periods and the aspects for their progenitors relying on accretion induced collapse (AIC) of white dwarfs in binaries. Thus massive CVs (M ≥ 1.1 M⊙) can play a vital role on binary evolution, as well as of the physical processes involved in the formation and evolution of neutron stars and their magnetic fields, and could turn into binary MSPs with different scales of orbital periods; this effect can be explained by the AIC process. This scenario also suggests that some fraction of isolated MSPs in the Galactic disk could be formed through the same channel, forming the contribution of some CVs to the single-degenerate progenitors of Type Ia supernova. Furthermore, we have refined the statistical distribution and evolution by using updated data. This implies that the significant studies of compact objects in binary systems can benefit from the Corbet diagram.

  2. Timing of Five Millisecond Pulsars Discovered in the PALFA Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, P.; Kaspi, V. M.; Lyne, A. G.; Stappers, B. W.; Bogdanov, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Ferdman, R. D.; Freire, P. C. C.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Lorimer, D. R.; Stairs, I. H.; Allen, B.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Cardoso, R. F.; Chatterjee, S.; Deneva, J. S.; Jenet, F. A.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Knispel, B.; Lazarus, P.; Lee, K. J.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lynch, R.; Madsen, E. C.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Ransom, S. M.; Siemens, X.; Spitler, L. G.; Stovall, K.; Swiggum, J. K.; Venkataraman, A.; Zhu, W. W.

    2015-02-01

    We present the discovery of five millisecond pulsars (MSPs) from the PALFA Galactic plane survey using Arecibo. Four of these (PSRs J0557+1551, J1850+0244, J1902+0300, and J1943+2210) are binary pulsars whose companions are likely white dwarfs, and one (PSR J1905+0453) is isolated. Phase-coherent timing solutions, ranging from ~1 to ~3 yr in length, and based on observations from the Jodrell Bank and Arecibo telescopes, provide precise determinations of spin, orbital, and astrometric parameters. All five pulsars have large dispersion measures (>100 pc cm-3, within the top 20% of all known Galactic field MSPs) and are faint (1.4 GHz flux density lsim0.1 mJy, within the faintest 5% of all known Galactic field MSPs), illustrating PALFA's ability to find increasingly faint, distant MSPs in the Galactic plane. In particular, PSR J1850+0244 has a dispersion measure of 540 pc cm-3, the highest of all known MSPs. Such distant, faint MSPs are important input for accurately modeling the total Galactic MSP population.

  3. Solar microwave millisecond spike at 2.84 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Qi-Jun; Jin, Sheng-Zhen; Zhao, Ren-Yang; Zheng, Le-Ping; Liu, Yu-Ying; Li, Xiao-Cong; Wang, Shu-Lan; Chen, Zhi-Jun; Hu, Chu-Min

    1986-01-01

    Using the high time resolution of 1 ms, the data of solar microwave millisecond spike (MMS) event was recorded more than two hundred times at the frequency of 2.84 GHz at Beijing (Peking) Observatory since May 1981. A preliminary analysis was made. It can be seen from the data that the MMS-events have a variety of the fast activities such as the dispersed and isolated spikes, the clusters of the crowded spikes, the weak spikes superimposed on the noise background, and the phenomena of absorption. The marked differences from that observed with lower time resolution are presented. Using the data, a valuable statistical analysis was made. There are close correlations between MMS-events and hard X-ray bursts, and fast drifting bursts. The MMS events are highly dependent on the type of active regions and the magnetic field configuration. It seems to be crucial to find out the accurate positions on the active region where the MMS-events happen and to make co-operative observations at different bands during the special period when specific active regions appear on the solar disk.

  4. Object-oriented millisecond timers for the PC.

    PubMed

    Hamm, J P

    2001-11-01

    Object-oriented programming provides a useful structure for designing reusable code. Accurate millisecond timing is essential for many areas of research. With this in mind, this paper provides a Turbo Pascal unit containing an object-oriented millisecond timer. This approach allows for multiple timers to be running independently. The timers may also be set at different levels of temporal precision, such as 10(-3) (milliseconds) or 10(-5) sec. The object also is able to store the time of a flagged event for later examination without interrupting the ongoing timing operation. PMID:11816457

  5. Physics of radio emission in gamma-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    > Propagation of radio emission in a pulsar magnetosphere is reviewed. The effects of polarization transfer, induced scattering and reprocessing to high energies are analysed with a special emphasis on the implications for the gamma-ray pulsars. The possibilities of the pulsar plasma diagnostics based on the observed radio pulse characteristics are also outlined. As an example, the plasma number density profiles obtained from the polarization data for the Vela and the gamma-ray millisecond pulsars J1446-4701, J1939+2134 and J1744-1134 are presented. The number densities derived tend to be the highest/lowest when the radio pulse leads/lags the gamma-ray peak. In the PSR J1939+2134, the plasma density profiles for the main pulse and interpulse appear to fit exactly the same curve, testifying to the origin of both radio components above the same magnetic pole and their propagation through the same plasma flow in opposite directions. The millisecond radio pulse components exhibiting flat position angle curves are suggested to result from the induced scattering of the main pulse by the same particles that generate gamma rays. This is believed to underlie the wide-sense radio/gamma-ray correlation in the millisecond pulsars. The radio quietness of young gamma-ray pulsars is attributed to resonant absorption, whereas the radio loudness to the radio beam escape through the periphery of the open field line tube.

  6. Observations of the Eclipsing Millisecond Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookbinder, Jay

    1990-12-01

    FRUCHTER et al. (1988a) HAVE RECENTLY DISCOVERED a 1.6 MSEC PULSAR (PSR 1957+20) IN A 9.2 HOUR ECLIPSING BINARY SYSTEM. THE UNUSUAL BEHAVIOR OF THE DISPERSION MEASURE AS A FUNCTION OF ORBITAL PHASE, AND THE DISAPPEARANCE OF THE PULSAR SIGNAL FOR 50 MINUTES DURING EACH ORBIT, IMPLIES THAT THE ECLIPSES ARE DUE TO A PULSAR-INDUCED WIND FLOWING OFF OF THE COMPANION. THE OPTICAL COUNTERPART IS A 21ST MAGNITUDE OBJECT WHICH VARIES IN INTENSITY OVER THE BINARY PERIOD; ACCURATE GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS ARE PREVENTED BY THE PROXIMITY (0.7") OF A 20TH MAGNITUDE K DWARF. WE PROPOSE TO OBSERVE THE OPTICAL COUNTERPART IN A TWO-PART STUDY. FIRST, THE WF/PC WILL PROVIDE ACCURATE MULTICOLOR PHOTOMETRY, ENABLING US TO DETERMINE UNCONTAMINATED MAGNITUDES AND COLORS BOTH AT MAXIMUM (ANTI-ECLIPSE) AS WELL AS AT MINIMUM (ECLIPSE). SECOND, WE PROPOSE TO OBSERVE THE EXPECTED UV LINE EMISSION WITH FOS, ALLOWING FOR AN INTIAL DETERMINATION OF THE TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY STRUCTURE AND ABUNDANCES OF THE WIND THAT IS BEING ABLATED FROM THE COMPANION. STUDY OF THIS UNIQUE SYSTEM HOLDS ENORMOUS POTENTIAL FOR THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE RADIATION FIELD OF A MILLISECOND PULSAR AND THE EVOLUTION OF LMXRBs AND MSPs IN GENERAL. WE EXPECT THESE OBSERVATIONS TO PLACE VERY SIGNIFICANT CONTRAINTS ON MODELS OF THIS UNIQUE OBJECT.

  7. Probing the Birth of Post-merger Millisecond Magnetars with X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling-Jun; Dai, Zi-Gao; Liu, Liang-Duan; Wu, Xue-Feng

    2016-05-01

    There is growing evidence that a stable magnetar could be formed from the coalescence of double neutron stars. In previous papers, we investigated the signature of formation of stable millisecond magnetars in radio and optical/ultraviolet bands by assuming that the central rapidly rotating magnetar deposits its rotational energy in the form of a relativistic leptonized wind. We found that the optical transient PTF11agg could be the first evidence for the formation of post-merger millisecond magnetars. To enhance the probability of finding more evidence for the post-merger magnetar formation, it is better to extend the observational channel to other photon energy bands. In this paper, we propose to search the signature of post-merger magnetar formation in X-ray and especially gamma-ray bands. We calculate the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission of the reverse shock powered by post-merger millisecond magnetars. We find that the SSC component peaks at 1 {GeV} in the spectral energy distribution and extends to ≳ 10 {TeV} for typical parameters. These energy bands are quite suitable for Fermi Large Area Telescope and Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), which, with their current observational sensitivities, can detect the SSC emission powered by post-merger magnetars up to 1 {Gpc}. NuSTAR, which is sensitive in X-ray bands, can detect the formation of post-merger millisecond magnetars at redshift z∼ 1. Future improvements in the sensitivity of CTA can also allow us to probe the birth of post-merger millisecond magnetars at redshift z∼ 1. However, because of the γ‑γ collisions, strong high-energy emission is clearly predicted only for ejecta masses lower than {10}-3 {M}ȯ .

  8. Cosmic-ray Positrons from Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venter, C.; Kopp, A.; Harding, A. K.; Gonthier, P. L.; Büsching, I.

    2015-07-01

    Observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope of γ-ray millisecond pulsar (MSP) light curves imply copious pair production in their magnetospheres, and not exclusively in those of younger pulsars. Such pair cascades may be a primary source of Galactic electrons and positrons, contributing to the observed enhancement in positron flux above ∼10 GeV. Fermi has also uncovered many new MSPs, impacting Galactic stellar population models. We investigate the contribution of Galactic MSPs to the flux of terrestrial cosmic-ray electrons and positrons. Our population synthesis code predicts the source properties of present-day MSPs. We simulate their pair spectra invoking an offset-dipole magnetic field. We also consider positrons and electrons that have been further accelerated to energies of several TeV by strong intrabinary shocks in black widow (BW) and redback (RB) systems. Since MSPs are not surrounded by pulsar wind nebulae or supernova shells, we assume that the pairs freely escape and undergo losses only in the intergalactic medium. We compute the transported pair spectra at Earth, following their diffusion and energy loss through the Galaxy. The predicted particle flux increases for non-zero offsets of the magnetic polar caps. Pair cascades from the magnetospheres of MSPs are only modest contributors around a few tens of GeV to the lepton fluxes measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, PAMELA, and Fermi, after which this component cuts off. The contribution by BWs and RBs may, however, reach levels of a few tens of percent at tens of TeV, depending on model parameters.

  9. CONSTRAINTS ON THE EMISSION GEOMETRIES AND SPIN EVOLUTION OF GAMMA-RAY MILLISECOND PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T. J.; Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.; Çelik, Ö.; Ferrara, E. C.; Guillemot, L.; Smith, D. A.; Hou, X.; Den Hartog, P. R.; Lande, J.; Ray, P. S. E-mail: Christo.Venter@nwu.ac.za

    2014-07-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are a growing class of gamma-ray emitters. Pulsed gamma-ray signals have been detected from more than 40 MSPs with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The wider radio beams and more compact magnetospheres of MSPs enable studies of emission geometries over a broader range of phase space than non-recycled radio-loud gamma-ray pulsars. We have modeled the gamma-ray light curves of 40 LAT-detected MSPs using geometric emission models assuming a vacuum retarded-dipole magnetic field. We modeled the radio profiles using a single-altitude hollow-cone beam, with a core component when indicated by polarimetry; however, for MSPs with gamma-ray and radio light curve peaks occurring at nearly the same rotational phase, we assume that the radio emission is co-located with the gamma rays and caustic in nature. The best-fit parameters and confidence intervals are determined using a maximum likelihood technique. We divide the light curves into three model classes, with gamma-ray peaks trailing (Class I), aligned (Class II), or leading (Class III) the radio peaks. Outer gap and slot gap (two-pole caustic) models best fit roughly equal numbers of Class I and II, while Class III are exclusively fit with pair-starved polar cap models. Distinguishing between the model classes based on typical derived parameters is difficult. We explore the evolution of the magnetic inclination angle with period and spin-down power, finding possible correlations. While the presence of significant off-peak emission can often be used as a discriminator between outer gap and slot gap models, a hybrid model may be needed.

  10. Constraints On the Emission Geometries and Spin Evolution Of Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. J.; Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.; Guillemot, L.; Smith, D. A.; Kramer, M.; Celik, O.; den Hartog, P. R.; Ferrara, E. C.; Hou, X.; Lande, J.; Ray, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are a growing class of gamma-ray emitters. Pulsed gamma-ray signals have been detected from more than 40 MSPs with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The wider radio beams and more compact magnetospheres of MSPs enable studies of emission geometries over a broader range of phase space than non-recycled radio-loud gamma-ray pulsars. We have modeled the gamma-ray light curves of 40 LAT-detected MSPs using geometric emission models assuming a vacuum retarded-dipole magnetic field. We modeled the radio profiles using a single-altitude hollow-cone beam, with a core component when indicated by polarimetry; however, for MSPs with gamma-ray and radio light curve peaks occurring at nearly the same rotational phase, we assume that the radio emission is co-located with the gamma rays and caustic in nature. The best-fit parameters and confidence intervals are determined using amaximum likelihood technique.We divide the light curves into three model classes, with gamma-ray peaks trailing (Class I), aligned (Class II), or leading (Class III) the radio peaks. Outer gap and slot gap (two-pole caustic) models best fit roughly equal numbers of Class I and II, while Class III are exclusively fit with pair-starved polar cap models. Distinguishing between the model classes based on typical derived parameters is difficult. We explore the evolution of the magnetic inclination angle with period and spin-down power, finding possible correlations. While the presence of significant off-peak emission can often be used as a discriminator between outer gap and slot gap models, a hybrid model may be needed.

  11. The contribution of millisecond pulsars to the Galactic cosmic-ray lepton spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venter, Christo; Kopp, Andreas; Harding, Alice K.; Gonthier, Peter L.; Büsching, Ingo

    2015-03-01

    Pulsars are believed to be sources of relativistic electrons and positrons. The abundance of detections of γ -ray millisecond pulsars by Fermi Large Area Telescope coupled with their light curve characteristics that imply copious pair production in their magnetospheres, motivated us to investigate this old pulsar population as a source of Galactic electrons and positrons and their contribution to the enhancement in cosmic-ray positron flux at GeV energies. We use a population synthesis code to predict the source properties (number, position, and power) of the present-day Galactic millisecond pulsars, taking into account the latest Fermi and radio observations to calibrate the model output. Next, we simulate pair cascade spectra from these pulsars using a model that invokes an offset-dipole magnetic field. We assume free escape of the pairs from the pulsar environment. We then compute the cumulative spectrum of transported electrons and positrons at Earth, following their diffusion and energy losses as they propagate through the Galaxy. Our results indicate that the predicted particle flux increases for non-zero offsets of the magnetic polar caps. Comparing our predicted local interstellar spectrum and positron fraction to measurements by AMS-02, PAMELA, and Fermi, we find that millisecond pulsars are only modest contributors at a few tens of GeV, after which this leptonic spectral component cuts off. The positron fraction is therefore only slightly enhanced above 10 GeV relative to a background flux model. This implies that alternative sources such as young, nearby pulsars and supernova remnants should contribute additional primary positrons within the astrophysical scenario.

  12. The NANOGrav Nine-year Data Set: Astrometric Measurements of 37 Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Allison M.; Nice, David J.; Fonseca, Emmanuel; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Crowter, Kathryn; Demorest, Paul B.; Dolch, Timothy; Ellis, Justin A.; Ferdman, Robert D.; Gonzalez, Marjorie E.; Jones, Glenn; Jones, Megan L.; Lam, Michael T.; Levin, Lina; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Pennucci, Timothy T.; Ransom, Scott M.; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Stovall, Kevin; Swiggum, Joseph K.; Zhu, Weiwei

    2016-02-01

    Using the nine-year radio-pulsar timing data set from the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav), collected at Arecibo Observatory and the Green Bank Telescope, we have measured the positions, proper motions, and parallaxes for 37 millisecond pulsars. We report twelve significant parallax measurements and distance measurements, and eighteen lower limits on distance. We compare these measurements to distances predicted by the NE2001 interstellar electron density model and find them to be in general agreement. We use measured orbital-decay rates and spin-down rates to confirm two of the parallax distances and to place distance upper limits on other sources; these distance limits agree with the parallax distances with one exception, PSR J1024-0719, which we discuss at length. Using the proper motions of the 37 NANOGrav pulsars in combination with other published measurements, we calculate the velocity dispersion of the millisecond pulsar population in Galactocentric coordinates. We find the radial, azimuthal, and perpendicular dispersions to be 46, 40, and 24 {km} {{{s}}}-1, respectively, in a model that allows for high-velocity outliers; or 81, 58, and 62 {km} {{{s}}}-1 for the full population. These velocity dispersions are far smaller than those of the canonical pulsar population, and are similar to older Galactic disk populations. This suggests that millisecond pulsar velocities are largely attributable to their being an old population rather than being artifacts of their birth and evolution as neutron star binary systems. The components of these velocity dispersions follow similar proportions to other Galactic populations, suggesting that our results are not biased by selection effects.

  13. Detection of Pulsed Emission from the Millisecond Pulsar PSR J2145-0750 Below 100 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Gregory B.; Dowell, J.; Wavelength Array, Long

    2014-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MPSs) are distinguished from normal pulsars by faster rotation periods, weaker magnetic fields, and flux density spectra that are well fit by a single power law down to 100 MHz. Below 100 MHz some MSPs show a break in the power law, however, additional observations, particularly of the pulse profile, are needed in this frequency range to provide better constraints on emission mechanisms. The first station of the Long Wavelength Array, LWA1, is a low frequency telescope that is ideally suited to address these questions. We present recent results from LWA1 on the millisecond pulsar PSR J2145-0750. Using coherent dedispersion we detected pulsed emission between 37 and 85 MHz. From this we derive flux densities and pulse profiles at 41, 57, 65, 73, and 81 MHz. We find that the flux density spectrum of PSR J2145-0750 appears to flatten below 100 MHz relative to the spectral index of ~-1.6 found in the literature. We also find that the pulse profile shows little evolution over this frequency range and is similar to profiles found at 102 MHz. We also discuss the prospects for precision dispersion measure monitoring at these frequencies. Construction of the LWA has been supported by the Office of Naval Research under Contract N00014-07-C-0147. Support for operations and continuing development of the LWA1 is provided by the National Science Foundation under grants AST-1139963 and AST-1139974 of the University Radio Observatory program.

  14. AN ASTEROID BELT INTERPRETATION FOR THE TIMING VARIATIONS OF THE MILLISECOND PULSAR B1937+21

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, R. M.; Cordes, J. M.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Jessner, A.; Kramer, M.; Lazaridis, K. E-mail: cordes@astro.cornell.edu

    2013-03-20

    Pulsar timing observations have revealed companions to neutron stars that include other neutron stars, white dwarfs, main-sequence stars, and planets. We demonstrate that the correlated and apparently stochastic residual times of arrival from the millisecond pulsar B1937+21 are consistent with the signature of an asteroid belt having a total mass {approx}< 0.05 M{sub Circled-Plus }. Unlike the solar system's asteroid belt, the best fit pulsar asteroid belt extends over a wide range of radii, consistent with the absence of any shepherding companions. We suggest that any pulsar that has undergone accretion-driven spin-up and subsequently evaporated its companion may harbor orbiting asteroid mass objects. The resulting timing variations may fundamentally limit the timing precision of some of the other millisecond pulsars. Observational tests of the asteroid belt model include identifying periodicities from individual asteroids, which are difficult; testing for statistical stationarity, which becomes possible when observations are conducted over a longer observing span; and searching for reflected radio emission.

  15. A New High-Frequency Search for Galactic Center Millisecond Pulsars using DSS-43

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemley, Cameron; Prince, Thomas Allen; Majid, Walid A.; Murchikova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The primary 70-meter Deep Space Network antenna (DSS-43) in Canberra, Australia was equipped with a new high-frequency (18-28 GHz) receiver system in May 2015 for use in a search for Galactic Center (GC) millisecond pulsars. The primary motivation for this search is that a pulsar in the Galactic Center region (especially one that is gravitationally bound to the massive black hole at the GC) would provide unprecedented tests of gravity in the strong-field regime and would offer an entirely new tool for probing the characteristics of the Galactic Center region. Preparation for the GC pulsar search has involved the development of a single-pulse search pipeline that integrates tools from both Fortran and Python as well as the implementation of this pipeline on high performance CPUs. The original version of the search pipeline was developed using Vela Pulsar data from DSS-43, and a more refined version that relies upon chi-squared fitting techniques was ultimately developed using Crab Pulsar data. Future work will involve continued testing of the single-pulse search pipeline using data from the rotating radio transient (RRAT) J1819-1458, the characterization of RRAT pulses using high time resolution data from the new receiver system on DSS-43, and ultimately the analysis of high-frequency data using the existing pipeline to search for millisecond pulsars in the Galactic Center.

  16. A PARALLAX DISTANCE AND MASS ESTIMATE FOR THE TRANSITIONAL MILLISECOND PULSAR SYSTEM J1023+0038

    SciTech Connect

    Deller, A. T.; Archibald, A. M.; Kaspi, V. M.; Brisken, W. F.; Chatterjee, S.; Janssen, G. H.; Lyne, A. G.; Stappers, B.; Lorimer, D.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Ransom, S.; Stairs, I. H.

    2012-09-10

    The recently discovered transitional millisecond pulsar system J1023+0038 exposes a crucial evolutionary phase of recycled neutron stars for multiwavelength study. The system, comprising the neutron star itself, its stellar companion, and the surrounding medium, is visible across the electromagnetic spectrum from the radio to X-ray/gamma-ray regimes and offers insight into the recycling phase of millisecond pulsar evolution. Here, we report on multiple-epoch astrometric observations with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) which give a system parallax of 0.731 {+-} 0.022 milliarcseconds (mas) and a proper motion of 17.98 {+-} 0.05 mas yr{sup -1}. By combining our results with previous optical observations, we are able to use the parallax distance of 1368{sup +42}{sub -{sub 39}} pc to estimate the mass of the pulsar to be 1.71 {+-} 0.16 M{sub Sun }, and we are also able to measure the three-dimensional space velocity of the system to be 126 {+-} 5 km s{sup -1}. Despite the precise nature of the VLBA measurements, the remaining {approx}3% distance uncertainty dominates the 0.16 M{sub Sun} error on our mass estimate.

  17. X-Radiation from the Millisecond Pulsar J0437-4715

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavlin, V. E.; Pavlov, G. G.; Sanwal, D.; Manchester, R. N.; Truemper, J.; Halpern, J. P.; Becker, W.

    2002-01-01

    We report on spectral and timing observations of the nearest millisecond pulsar, 50437-471 5, with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The pulsar spectrum, detected up to 7 keV, cannot be described by a simple one-component model. We suggest that it consists of two components: a nonthermal power-law spectrum generated in the pulsar magnetosphere, with a photon index gamma approx. = 2, and a thermal spectrum emitted by heated polar caps, with a temperature decreasing outward from 2 to 0.5 MK. The lack of spectral features in the thermal component suggests that the neutron star surface is covered by a hydrogen (or helium) atmosphere. The timing analysis shows one X-ray pulse per period, with a pulsed fraction of about 40% and the peak at the same pulse phase as the radio peak. No synchrotron pulsar-wind nebula is seen in X-rays.

  18. High-energy emission from the eclipsing millisecond pulsar PSR 1957+20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arons, Jonathan; Tavani, Marco

    1993-01-01

    The properties of the high-energy emission expected from the eclipsing millisecond pulsar system PSR 1957+20 are investigated. Emission is considered by both the relativistic shock produced by the pulsar wind in the nebula surrounding the binary and by the shock constraining the mass outflow from the companion star of PSR 1957+20. On the basis of the results of microscopic plasma physical models of relativistic shocks it is suggested that the high-energy radiation is produced in the range from X-rays to MeV gamma rays in the binary and in the range from 0.01 eV to about 40 keV in the nebula. Doppler boost of the emission in the radiating wind suggests the flux should vary on the orbital time scale, with the largest flux observed roughly coincident with the pulsar's radio eclipse.

  19. Turn-over in pulsar spectra: From young pulsars to millisecond ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijak, J.; Lewandowski, W.; Serylak, M.

    2008-02-01

    The evidence for turn-over in young pulsar radio spectra at high frequencies is presented. The frequency at which a spectrum shows the maximum flux density is called the peak frequency. This peak frequency appears to depend on pulsar age and dispersion measure. A possible relation with pulsar age is interesting. Millisecond pulsars, which are very old objects, may show no evidence for spectral turn-over down to 100 MHz. Some studied pulsars with turn-over at high frequencies have been shown to have very interesting interstellar environments. This could suggest that the turn-over phenomenon is associated with the enviromental conditions around the neutron stars, rahter than being related intrinsically with the radio emission mechanism. Although there are no earlier reports of such a connection, a more detailed study on larger sample of pulsars is needed to address this idea more quantitatively. In this context, future observations below 200 MHz using LOFAR will allow us to investigate turn-over in radio pulsar spectra.

  20. Heating Before Eating: X-Ray Observations of Redback Millisecond Pulsar Systems in the Ablation State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Mallory; McLaughlin, Maura; Ray, Paul S.; Ransom, Scott M.; Hessels, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Redbacks are eclipsing millisecond radio pulsars in close orbits around companions which are non-degenerate and nearly Roche-lobe filling. Several have been observed to transition between a state where the radio pulsar is visible and there is X-ray emission from a shock between the pulsar wind and the ablated material off of the companion, and a state where there appears to be an accretion disk and the radio pulsations are not visible. Here we present X-Ray studies of two recently discovered systems. A Chandra observation of PSR J1628-3205 over its entire 5 hour orbit with Chandra shows little evidence for X-Ray variability. An XMM-Newton observation of PSR J2129-0429 over its 15.2 hour orbit shows strong orbital variability with an intriguing two peaked light curve. We compare these systems' X-Ray properties to other redbacks and comment on the differences between their properities and those of black widows.

  1. [Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Field Effect on the State of Na+/Ca2+ Exchange in the Isolated Rat Heart].

    PubMed

    Alabovsky, V V; Kudryshov, Yu B; Vinokurov, A A; Bogacheva, E V; Maslov, O V; Perov, S Yu

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that a single exposure to 171 MHz electromagnetic field with 180 V/m electric field strength and 0.04 mW/kg specific absorption rate significantly alters the Na+/Ca2+ exchange in the isolated rat heart. It is assumed that enhancement of the Na+/Ca2+ exchange towards removing Ca2+ from the cardiomyocytes electromagnetic field exposure is a result of Ca2+ extraction from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the increase of its intracellular level. PMID:27534068

  2. Thermoluminescence measurement technique using millisecond temperature pulses.

    PubMed

    Manfred, Michael E; Gabriel, Nicholas T; Yukihara, Eduardo G; Talghader, Joseph J

    2010-06-01

    A measurement technique, pulsed thermoluminescence, is described which uses short thermal pulses to excite trapped carriers leading to radiative recombination. The pulses are obtained using microstructures with approximately 500 micros thermal time constants. The technique has many of the advantages of pulsed optically stimulated luminescence without the need for optical sources and filters to isolate the luminescent signal. Charge carrier traps in alpha-Al(2)O(3):C particles on microheaters were filled using 205 nm light. Temperature pulses of 10 and 50 ms were applied to the heaters and compared with a standard thermoluminescence curve taken at a ramp rate of 5 K s(-1). This produced curves of intensity verses temperature similar to standard thermoluminescence except shifted to higher temperatures. The luminescence of single particles was read multiple times with negligible loss of population. The lower limit of the duration of useful pulses appears to be limited by particle size and thermal contact between the particle and heater. PMID:20522565

  3. ATCA radio observations of Swift J1756.9-2508 in outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudose, V.; Tzioumis, A.; Patruno, A.; Linares, M.; Soleri, P.; Russell, D.

    2009-07-01

    Swift J1756.9-2508 was discovered by the X-ray satellite Swift during an outburst in 2007 (ATEL #1105) and recognized immediately as an accretion-driven millisecond X-ray pulsar (ATEL #1108). No radio pulsations (ATEL #1129) and no continuum radio emission (ATEL #1128) were detected then. While the radio pulsation search was performed during the outburst, the continuum observations were carried out when the X-ray flux levels already decreased below the detection limit of Swift.

  4. Fast Radio Burst Discovered in the Arecibo Pulsar ALFA Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitler, L. G.; Cordes, J. M.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Lorimer, D. R.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Chatterjee, S.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J. S.; Kaspi, V. M.; Wharton, R. S.; Allen, B.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Freire, P. C. C.; Jenet, F. A.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Knispel, B.; Lazarus, P.; Lee, K. J.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lynch, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Scholz, P.; Siemens, X.; Stairs, I. H.; Stovall, K.; Swiggum, J. K.; Venkataraman, A.; Zhu, W. W.; Aulbert, C.; Fehrmann, H.

    2014-08-01

    Recent work has exploited pulsar survey data to identify temporally isolated, millisecond-duration radio bursts with large dispersion measures (DMs). These bursts have been interpreted as arising from a population of extragalactic sources, in which case they would provide unprecedented opportunities for probing the intergalactic medium; they may also be linked to new source classes. Until now, however, all so-called fast radio bursts (FRBs) have been detected with the Parkes radio telescope and its 13-beam receiver, casting some concern about the astrophysical nature of these signals. Here we present FRB 121102, the first FRB discovery from a geographic location other than Parkes. FRB 121102 was found in the Galactic anti-center region in the 1.4 GHz Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) survey with the Arecibo Observatory with a DM = 557.4 ± 2.0 pc cm-3, pulse width of 3.0 ± 0.5 ms, and no evidence of interstellar scattering. The observed delay of the signal arrival time with frequency agrees precisely with the expectation of dispersion through an ionized medium. Despite its low Galactic latitude (b = -0.°2), the burst has three times the maximum Galactic DM expected along this particular line of sight, suggesting an extragalactic origin. A peculiar aspect of the signal is an inverted spectrum; we interpret this as a consequence of being detected in a sidelobe of the ALFA receiver. FRB 121102's brightness, duration, and the inferred event rate are all consistent with the properties of the previously detected Parkes bursts.

  5. Fast radio burst discovered in the Arecibo pulsar ALFA survey

    SciTech Connect

    Spitler, L. G.; Freire, P. C. C.; Lazarus, P.; Lee, K. J.; Cordes, J. M.; Chatterjee, S.; Wharton, R. S.; Brazier, A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Lorimer, D. R.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J. S.; Kaspi, V. M.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Allen, B.; Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F.; Jenet, F. A.; Knispel, B.; and others

    2014-08-01

    Recent work has exploited pulsar survey data to identify temporally isolated, millisecond-duration radio bursts with large dispersion measures (DMs). These bursts have been interpreted as arising from a population of extragalactic sources, in which case they would provide unprecedented opportunities for probing the intergalactic medium; they may also be linked to new source classes. Until now, however, all so-called fast radio bursts (FRBs) have been detected with the Parkes radio telescope and its 13-beam receiver, casting some concern about the astrophysical nature of these signals. Here we present FRB 121102, the first FRB discovery from a geographic location other than Parkes. FRB 121102 was found in the Galactic anti-center region in the 1.4 GHz Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) survey with the Arecibo Observatory with a DM = 557.4 ± 2.0 pc cm{sup –3}, pulse width of 3.0 ± 0.5 ms, and no evidence of interstellar scattering. The observed delay of the signal arrival time with frequency agrees precisely with the expectation of dispersion through an ionized medium. Despite its low Galactic latitude (b = –0.°2), the burst has three times the maximum Galactic DM expected along this particular line of sight, suggesting an extragalactic origin. A peculiar aspect of the signal is an inverted spectrum; we interpret this as a consequence of being detected in a sidelobe of the ALFA receiver. FRB 121102's brightness, duration, and the inferred event rate are all consistent with the properties of the previously detected Parkes bursts.

  6. The Annular Gap: Gamma-Ray & Radio Emission of Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, G. J.; Du, Y. J.; Han, J. L.; Xu, R. X.

    2013-01-01

    Pulsars have been found more than 40 years. Observations from radio to gamma-rays present abundant information. However, the radiation mechanism is still an open question. It is found that the annular gap could be formed in the magnetosphere of pulsars (neutron stars or quark stars), which combines the advantages of the polar cap, slot gap and outer gap models. It is emphasized that observations of some radio pulsars, normal and millisecond gamma-ray pulsars (MSGPs) show that the annular gap would play a very important role. Here we show some observational and theoretical evidences about the annular gap. For example, bi-drifting sub-pulses; radio and gamma-ray millisecond pulsars and so on.

  7. MILLISECOND PULSAR AGES: IMPLICATIONS OF BINARY EVOLUTION AND A MAXIMUM SPIN LIMIT

    SciTech Connect

    Kiziltan, Buelent; Thorsett, Stephen E.

    2010-05-20

    In the absence of constraints from the binary companion or supernova remnant, the standard method for estimating pulsar ages is to infer an age from the rate of spin-down. While the generic spin-down age may give realistic estimates for normal pulsars, it can fail for pulsars with very short periods. Details of the spin-up process during the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) phase pose additional constraints on the period (P) and spin-down rates ( P-dot ) that may consequently affect the age estimate. Here, we propose a new recipe to estimate millisecond pulsar (MSP) ages that parametrically incorporates constraints arising from binary evolution and limiting physics. We show that the standard method can be improved by this approach to achieve age estimates closer to the true age while the standard spin-down age may overestimate or underestimate the age of the pulsar by more than a factor of {approx}10 in the millisecond regime. We use this approach to analyze the population on a broader scale. For instance, in order to understand the dominant energy loss mechanism after the onset of radio emission, we test for a range of plausible braking indices. We find that a braking index of n = 3 is consistent with the observed MSP population. We demonstrate the existence and quantify the potential contributions of two main sources of age corruption: the previously known 'age bias' due to secular acceleration and 'age contamination' driven by sub-Eddington progenitor accretion rates. We explicitly show that descendants of LMXBs that have accreted at very low rates ( m-dot << M-dot{sub Edd}) will exhibit ages that appear older than the age of the Galaxy. We further elaborate on this technique, the implications and potential solutions it offers regarding MSP evolution, the underlying age distribution, and the post-accretion energy loss mechanism.

  8. Accreting Millisecond Pulsars: Neutron Star Masses and Radii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2004-01-01

    High amplitude X-ray brightness oscillations during thermonuclear X-ray bursts were discovered with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in early 1996. Spectral and timing evidence strongly supports the conclusion that these oscillations are caused by rotational modulation of the burst emission and that they reveal the spin frequency of neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries. The recent discovery of X-ray burst oscillations from two accreting millisecond pulsars has confirmed this basic picture and provided a new route to measuring neutron star properties and constraining the dense matter equation of state. I will briefly summarize the current observational understanding of accreting millisecond pulsars, and describe recent attempts to determine the mass and radius of the neutron star in XTE J1814-338.

  9. Timing and searching millisecond pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Nichi; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Johnston, Simon; Kramer, Michael; Sarkissian, John; Lyne, Andrew; Burgay, Marta; Corongiu, Alessandro; Camilo, Fernando; Bailes, Matthew

    2009-10-01

    Timing the dozen pulsars discovered in P303 is ensuring high quality results: (a) the peculiarities (in position or projected acceleration) of all the 5 millisecond pulsars in NGC6752 suggested the presence of non thermal dynamics in the core, perhaps due to black-holes of intermediate mass; (b) the eclipsing pulsar in NGC6397 is a stereotype for studying the late evolution of exotic binaries. We propose to continue our timing project focusing mostly on NGC6752 at 20cm (in order to measure additional parameters useful to constrain the existence of a black-hole) and NGC6397 at 10cm (for studying the eclipse region and the orbital secular evolution). We also request time for performing pilot observations for a new deeper than ever search for millisecond pulsars in a subset of suitable clusters. This revamped search (as well as the requested timing observations) will exploit the new back-ends (APSR and DFB4) now available at Parkes.

  10. Timing and searching millisecond pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Nichi; Possenti, Andrea; Manchester, Dick; Johnston, Simon; Kramer, Michael; Sarkissian, John; Lyne, Andrew; Burgay, Marta; Corongiu, Alessandro; Camilo, Fernando; Bailes, Matthew; van Straten, Willem

    2010-04-01

    Timing the dozen pulsars discovered in P303 is ensuring high quality results: (a) the peculiarities (in position or projected acceleration) of all the 5 millisecond pulsars in NGC6752 suggested the presence of non thermal dynamics in the core, perhaps due to black-holes of intermediate mass; (b) the eclipsing pulsar in NGC6397 is a stereotype for studying the late evolution of exotic binaries. We propose to continue our timing project focusing mostly on NGC6752 at 20cm (in order to measure additional parameters useful to constrain the existence of a black-hole) and NGC6397 at 10cm (for studying the eclipse region and the orbital secular evolution). We also request time for performing observations for a new deeper than ever search for millisecond pulsars in a subset of suitable clusters. This revamped search (as well as the requested timing observations) will exploit the new back-ends (APSR and DFB4) now available at Parkes.

  11. A portable millisecond-integration-time photoelectric photometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgraw, J. T.; Wells, D. C.; Wiant, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Portable equipment for recording millisecond-integration-time photoelectric photometric data is described. Digital data are reliably recorded on standard 6.35 mm audio grade magnetic tape via a quadradial audio grade tape deck. The system is designed specifically for recording lunar occulations of stars, but the data recording technique is independent of the data source. Recovery of the data is made via minicomputer.

  12. Probing Millisecond Pulsar Emission Geometry Using Light Curves From the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venter, Christo; Harding, Alice; Guillemot, L.

    2009-01-01

    An interesting new high-energy pulsar sub-population is emerging following early discoveries of gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We present results from 3D emission modeling, including the Special Relativistic effects of aberration and time-of-flight delays and also rotational sweepback of 13-field lines, in the geometric context of polar cap (PC), slot gap (SG), outer gap (OG), and two-pole caustic (TPC) pulsar models. In contrast to the general belief that these very old, rapidly-rotating neutron stars (NSs) should have largely pair-starved magnetospheres due to the absence of significant pair production, we find that most of the light curves are best fit by SG and OG models, which indicates the presence of narrow accelerating gaps limited by robust pair production -- even in these pulsars with very low spin-down luminosities. The gamma-ray pulse shapes and relative phase lags with respect to the radio pulses point to high-altitude emission being dominant for all geometries. We also find exclusive differentiation of the current gamma-ray MSP population into two MSP sub-classes: light curve shapes and lags across wavebands impose either pair-starved PC (PSPC) or SG / OG-type geometries. In the first case, the radio pulse has a small lag with respect to the single gamma-ray pulse, while the (first) gamma-ray peak usually trails the radio by a large phase offset in the latter case. Finally, we find that the flux correction factor as a function of magnetic inclination and observer angles is typically of order unity for all models. Our calculation of light curves and flux correction factor f(_, _, P) for the case of MSPs is therefore complementary to the "ATLAS paper" of Watters et al. for younger pulsars.

  13. A glitch in the millisecond pulsar J0613-0200

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, J. W.; Janssen, G. H.; Stappers, B. W.; Lyne, A. G.; Caballero, R. N.; Lentati, L.; Desvignes, G.; Jessner, A.; Jordan, C. A.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kramer, M.; Cognard, I.; Champion, D. J.; Graikou, E.; Lazarus, P.; Osłowski, S.; Perrodin, D.; Shaifullah, G.; Tiburzi, C.; Verbiest, J. P. W.

    2016-09-01

    We present evidence for a small glitch in the spin evolution of the millisecond pulsar J0613-0200, using the EPTA Data Release 1.0, combined with Jodrell Bank analogue filterbank times of arrival (TOAs) recorded with the Lovell telescope and Effelsberg Pulsar Observing System TOAs. A spin frequency step of 0.82(3) nHz and frequency derivative step of -1.6(39) × 10-19 Hz s-1 are measured at the epoch of MJD 50888(30). After PSR B1821-24A, this is only the second glitch ever observed in a millisecond pulsar, with a fractional size in frequency of Δν/ν = 2.5(1) × 10-12, which is several times smaller than the previous smallest glitch. PSR J0613-0200 is used in gravitational wave searches with pulsar timing arrays, and is to date only the second such pulsar to have experienced a glitch in a combined 886 pulsar-years of observations. We find that accurately modelling the glitch does not impact the timing precision for pulsar timing array applications. We estimate that for the current set of millisecond pulsars included in the International Pulsar Timing Array, there is a probability of ˜50 per cent that another glitch will be observed in a timing array pulsar within 10 years.

  14. Millisecond measurement of transport during and after an electroporation pulse.

    PubMed Central

    Prausnitz, M R; Corbett, J D; Gimm, J A; Golan, D E; Langer, R; Weaver, J C

    1995-01-01

    Electroporation involves the application of an electric field pulse that creates transient aqueous pathways in lipid bilayer membranes. Transport through these pathways can occur by different mechanisms during and after a pulse. To determine the time scale of transport and the mechanism(s) by which it occurs, efflux of a fluorescent molecule, calcein, across erythrocyte ghost membranes was measured with a fluorescence microscope photometer with millisecond time resolution during and after electroporation pulses several milliseconds in duration. One of four outcomes was typically observed. Ghosts were: (1) partially emptied of calcein, involving efflux primarily after the pulse; (2) completely emptied of calcein, involving efflux primarily after the pulse; (3) completely emptied of calcein, involving efflux both during and after the pulse; or (4) completely emptied of calcein, involving efflux primarily during the pulse. Partial emptying, involving significant efflux during the pulse, was generally not observed. We conclude that under some conditions transport caused by electroporation occurs predominantly by electrophoresis and/or electroosmosis during a pulse, although under other conditions transport occurs in part or almost completely by diffusion within milliseconds to seconds after a pulse. PMID:7612828

  15. tpipe: Searching radio interferometry data for fast, dispersed transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Casey J.

    2016-03-01

    Visibilities from radio interferometers have not traditionally been used to study the fast transient sky. Millisecond transients (e.g., fast radio bursts) and periodic sources (e.g., pulsars) have been studied with single-dish radio telescopes and a software stack developed over the past few decades. tpipe is an initial attempt to develop the fast transient algorithms for visibility data. Functions exist for analysis of visibilties, such as reading data, flagging data, applying interferometric gain calibration, and imaging. These functions are given equal footing as time-domain techniques like filters and dedispersion.

  16. A repeating fast radio burst.

    PubMed

    Spitler, L G; Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-03-10

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star. PMID:26934226

  17. A repeating fast radio burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitler, L. G.; Scholz, P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J.; Ferdman, R. D.; Freire, P. C. C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Madsen, E. C.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Patel, C.; Ransom, S. M.; Seymour, A.; Stairs, I. H.; Stappers, B. W.; van Leeuwen, J.; Zhu, W. W.

    2016-03-01

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  18. Educational Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arafeh, Sousan

    1999-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of the radio in education and the crucial role of the radio in distance education in first half of the 20th century; dramatic social changes in the 1960s that led to a review of educational institutions and of educational media; and the radio today as a neglected but inexpensive medium of communication that should be…

  19. K-ART (Korea Array Radio Telescope) and Monitoring of Radio Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Sook; Lim, Soon-Wook; Park, Yong-Sun

    2010-12-01

    Korea Array Radio Telescope (K-ART), a proto-type radio array telescope, is designed for 300-450 MHz wavebands. The system is located in the Jeju Island of the South Korea, and is currently in its testing mode since last mid-October 2010. It is primarily designed for monitoring solar activity and radio transients. K-ART has a capacity to monitor transients for about 2 hours per day, with a spatial resolution of about 10 minutes and a timing resolution of milliseconds. The sensitivity is expected to be a few mJy or less. We propose to monitor radio transients such as X-ray binaries, cataclysmic variables and quasars, on the target-of-opportunity mode, in addition to the scheduled observation.

  20. Firefighters' Radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Public Technology Inc. asked for NASA assistance to devise the original firefighter's radio. Good short-range radio communications are essential during a fire to coordinate hose lines, rescue victims, and otherwise increase efficiency. Useful firefighting tool is lower cost, more rugged short range two-way radio. Inductorless electronic circuit replaced inductances and coils in radio circuits with combination of transistors and other low-cost components. Substitution promises reduced circuit size and cost. Enhanced electrical performance made radio more durable and improved maintainability by incorporating modular construction.

  1. CVs and millisecond pulsar progenitors in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, J. E.; Cool, A. M.; Bailyn, C. D.

    1991-01-01

    The recent discovery of a large population of millisecond pulsars in globular clusters, together with earlier studies of both low luminosity X-ray sources and LMXBs in globulars, suggest there should be significant numbers of CVs in globulars. Although they have been searched for without success in selected cluster X-ray source fields, systematic surveys are lacking and would constrain binary production and both stellar and dynamical evolution in globular clusters. We describe the beginnings of such a search, using narrow band H-alpha imaging, and the sensitivities it might achieve.

  2. Co-cracking of ethane and naphtha in millisecond furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Nowowiejski, G.B.; Petterson, W.C.; Kii, T.; Suwa, A.

    1982-05-01

    This paper presents results of an experimental program in which the process of short contact pyrolysis of mixtures of ethane and naphthas has been investigated as an economic alternative way to the production of olefins. The benefits of co-cracking of ethane recycle with naphtha feed in millisecond furnace are demonstrated. There is a directional improvement is selectivity to ethylene product which would result in about 2% less naphtha consumption at constant ethylene production. There is greater operating flexibility in terms of processing additional fresh ethane or LPG, when the furnace area is designed with the co-cracking concept.

  3. Radio imaging of Jupiter's magnetosphere with LOFAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarka, P.

    2003-04-01

    Jupiter emits intense decameter radio waves, detectable from the ground in the range ~10 to 40 MHz. They are produced by energetic electron precipitations in its auroral regions, as well as near the magnetic footprints of the galilean satellite Io. Radio imaging imaging of these decameter emissions with arcsecond angular resolution and millisecond time resolution should give access to: - an improved mapping of the surface planetary magnetic field, deduced from the highest frequency of radio emission coming from a given point above the ionosphere (emission is produced at the local electron cyclotron frequency, proportional to the magnetic field amplitude) ; - detailed information on the Io-Jupiter electrodynamic interaction: imaging will allow to measure the angle between the field line instantaneously threading through Io and the one(s) emitting radio waves at that time, which is a strong constraint of the interaction mechanism (current circuit or Alfvèn waves) ; when performed at millisecond time resolution, imaging should allow to "see" the electron bunches thought to be at the origin of the sporadic drifting decameter bursts, and to follow them along magnetic field lines, measuring thus their speed and energy, and revealing possible electric potential drops along magnetic field lines ; - correlation of radio images with ultraviolet and infrared images of the aurora as well as of the galilean satellite footprints will provide complementary information on the precipitated energy and an interesting input to magnetospheric dynamics ; - imaging of decameter radio sources through the Io plasma torus will allow to probe for the first time the torus electron density as a function of longitude through analysis of the Faraday rotation of decameter waves crossing the torus ; diffraction effects that may be at the origin of observed fringe patterns could also be studied. Very fast imaging should be allowed by the very high intensity of Jovian decameter bursts, up to

  4. The source location of Jovian millisecond radio bursts with respect to Jupiter's magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Francoise; Calvert, Wynne

    1988-01-01

    The location of the source of the Jovian S bursts was studied by comparing the high-frequency limit of these emissions, recorded in Nancay, to the surface gyrofrequency at the foot of the magnetic field lines which intersect Io's orbit, according to the O4 magnetic field model. For this purpose, the statistical occurrence of the S bursts was examined, both in central meridian longitude versus Io phase and as a function of the relative phase of Io with respect to Jupiter. The S bursts and the Io-dependent L emissions were found to originate from approximately the same locations at Jupiter, and probably under similar conditions of excitation by Io, although the beaming of these S emissions, which is indicated by the compactness of the occurrence patterns, was somewhat narrower than for the corresponding L emissions. Also, like the L emissions, an apparent delay of up to 70 deg was found to occur between the predicted instanteneous Io flux tube and the apparent source field line. The possible origin of this 70 deg delay is discussed.

  5. Multi-wavelength modeling of globular clusters–the millisecond pulsar scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, A.; Venter, C.; Büsching, I.; De Jager, O. C.

    2013-12-20

    The potentially large number of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in globular cluster (GC) cores makes these parent objects ideal laboratories for studying the collective properties of an ensemble of MSPs. Such a population is expected to radiate several spectral components in the radio through γ-ray waveband. First, pulsed emission is expected via curvature and synchrotron radiation (CR and SR) and possibly even via inverse Compton (IC) scattering inside the pulsar magnetospheres. Second, unpulsed emission should transpire through the continuous injection of relativistic leptons by the MSPs into the ambient region, which in turn produce SR and IC emission when they encounter the cluster magnetic field, as well as several background photon components. In this paper we continue to develop the MSP scenario for explaining the multi-wavelength properties of GCs by considering the entire modeling chain, including the full transport equation, refined emissivities of stellar and Galactic background photons, integration of the flux along the line of sight, and comparison with observations. As an illustration, we apply the model to Terzan 5, where we can reasonably fit both the (line-of-sight-integrated) X-ray surface flux and spectral energy density data, using the first to constrain the leptonic diffusion coefficient within the GC. We lastly discuss possible future extensions to and applications of this maturing model.

  6. Microarcsecond VLBI Pulsar Astrometry with PSRπ. I. Two Binary Millisecond Pulsars with White Dwarf Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deller, A. T.; Vigeland, S. J.; Kaplan, D. L.; Goss, W. M.; Brisken, W. F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Janssen, G. H.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Petrov, L.; Stappers, B. W.; Lyne, A.

    2016-09-01

    Model-independent distance constraints to binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are of great value to both the timing observations of the radio pulsars and multiwavelength observations of their companion stars. Astrometry using very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) can be employed to provide these model-independent distances with very high precision via the detection of annual geometric parallax. Using the Very Long Baseline Array, we have observed two binary MSPs, PSR J1022+1001 and J2145–0750, over a two-year period and measured their distances to be {700}-10+14 pc and {613}-14+16 pc respectively. We use the well-calibrated distance in conjunction with revised analysis of optical photometry to tightly constrain the nature of their massive (M˜ 0.85 {M}ȯ ) white dwarf companions. Finally, we show that several measurements of the parallax and proper motion of PSR J1022+1001 and PSR J2145–0750 obtained by pulsar timing array projects are incorrect, differing from the more precise VLBI values by up to 5σ. We investigate possible causes for the discrepancy, and find that imperfect modeling of the solar wind is a likely candidate for the errors in the timing model given the low ecliptic latitude of these two pulsars.

  7. DISCOVERY OF AN ULTRACOMPACT GAMMA-RAY MILLISECOND PULSAR BINARY CANDIDATE

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Albert K. H.; Jin, Ruolan; Yen, T.-C.; Tam, P. H. T.; Lin, L. C. C.; Hu, C.-P.; Hui, C. Y.; Park, S. M.; Takata, J.; Cheng, K. S.; Kim, C. L.

    2014-10-20

    We report multi-wavelength observations of the unidentified Fermi object 2FGL J1653.6-0159. With the help of high-resolution X-ray observations, we have identified an X-ray and optical counterpart to 2FGL J1653.6-0159. The source exhibits a periodic modulation of 75 minutes in the optical and possibly also in the X-ray. We suggest that 2FGL J1653.6-0159 is a compact binary system with an orbital period of 75 minutes. Combining the gamma-ray and X-ray properties, 2FGL J1653.6-0159 is potentially a black-widow-/redback-type gamma-ray millisecond pulsar (MSP). The optical and X-ray light curve profiles show that the companion is mildly heated by the high-energy emission and that the X-rays are from intrabinary shock. Although no radio pulsation has yet been detected, we estimated that the spin period of the MSP is ∼ 2 ms based on a theoretical model. If pulsation can be confirmed in the future, 2FGL J1653.6-0159 will become the first ultracompact rotation-powered MSP.

  8. Microarcsecond VLBI Pulsar Astrometry with PSRπ. I. Two Binary Millisecond Pulsars with White Dwarf Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deller, A. T.; Vigeland, S. J.; Kaplan, D. L.; Goss, W. M.; Brisken, W. F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Janssen, G. H.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Petrov, L.; Stappers, B. W.; Lyne, A.

    2016-09-01

    Model-independent distance constraints to binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are of great value to both the timing observations of the radio pulsars and multiwavelength observations of their companion stars. Astrometry using very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) can be employed to provide these model-independent distances with very high precision via the detection of annual geometric parallax. Using the Very Long Baseline Array, we have observed two binary MSPs, PSR J1022+1001 and J2145–0750, over a two-year period and measured their distances to be {700}-10+14 pc and {613}-14+16 pc respectively. We use the well-calibrated distance in conjunction with revised analysis of optical photometry to tightly constrain the nature of their massive (M∼ 0.85 {M}ȯ ) white dwarf companions. Finally, we show that several measurements of the parallax and proper motion of PSR J1022+1001 and PSR J2145–0750 obtained by pulsar timing array projects are incorrect, differing from the more precise VLBI values by up to 5σ. We investigate possible causes for the discrepancy, and find that imperfect modeling of the solar wind is a likely candidate for the errors in the timing model given the low ecliptic latitude of these two pulsars.

  9. On the Formation of Eccentric Millisecond Pulsars with Helium White-dwarf Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadis, John

    2014-12-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) orbiting helium white dwarfs (WDs) in eccentric orbits challenge the established binary-evolution paradigm that predicts efficient orbital circularization during the mass-transfer episode that spins up the pulsar. Freire & Tauris recently proposed that these binary MSPs may instead form from the rotationally delayed accretion-induced collapse of a massive WD. However, their hypothesis predicts that eccentric systems preferably host low-mass pulsars and travel with small systemic velocities—in tension with new observational constraints. Here, I show that a substantial growth in eccentricity may alternatively arise from the dynamical interaction of the binary with a circumbinary disk. Such a disk may form from ejected donor material during hydrogen flash episodes, when the neutron star is already an active radio pulsar and tidal forces can no longer circularize the binary. I demonstrate that a short-lived (104-105 yr) disk can result in eccentricities of e ~= 0.01-0.15 for orbital periods between 15 and 50 days. Finally, I propose that, more generally, the disk hypothesis may explain the lack of circular binary pulsars for the aforementioned orbital-period range.

  10. ON THE FORMATION OF ECCENTRIC MILLISECOND PULSARS WITH HELIUM WHITE-DWARF COMPANIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniadis, John

    2014-12-20

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) orbiting helium white dwarfs (WDs) in eccentric orbits challenge the established binary-evolution paradigm that predicts efficient orbital circularization during the mass-transfer episode that spins up the pulsar. Freire and Tauris recently proposed that these binary MSPs may instead form from the rotationally delayed accretion-induced collapse of a massive WD. However, their hypothesis predicts that eccentric systems preferably host low-mass pulsars and travel with small systemic velocities—in tension with new observational constraints. Here, I show that a substantial growth in eccentricity may alternatively arise from the dynamical interaction of the binary with a circumbinary disk. Such a disk may form from ejected donor material during hydrogen flash episodes, when the neutron star is already an active radio pulsar and tidal forces can no longer circularize the binary. I demonstrate that a short-lived (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} yr) disk can result in eccentricities of e ≅ 0.01-0.15 for orbital periods between 15 and 50 days. Finally, I propose that, more generally, the disk hypothesis may explain the lack of circular binary pulsars for the aforementioned orbital-period range.

  11. How to get the reduced B fields of millisecond pulsars: Flux expulsion by spindown before the LMXB phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpar, Mehmet Ali; Gügercinoǧlu, Erbil

    2016-07-01

    The physical interaction between quantized flux lines of the Type II proton superconductor and the quantized vortex lines of the neutron superfluid is re-visited. Srinivasan et al. (1990) had proposed that this interaction led to reduction of the magnetic field to the B ˜10^9 G range as the flux lines were expelled together with vortex lines during the spindown of the neutron star in an early epoch of binary evolution. The model is discussed with reference to spindown by the wind from the companion prior to the Roche lobe filling LMXB phase. An evolutionary model for the magnetic field and the rotation rate is presented, with application to the 11 Hz accreting pulsar in the LMXB IGR J17480-2446 in Terzan 5 (Patruno et al 2012) as well as 'standard' accreting and radio millisecond pulsar evolution.

  12. Keck Spectroscopy of Millisecond Pulsar J2215+5135: A Moderate-MNS, High-inclination Binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romani, Roger W.; Graham, Melissa L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kerr, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    We present Keck spectroscopic measurements of the millisecond pulsar binary J2215+5135. These data indicate a neutron-star (NS) mass {M}{NS}=1.6 {M}⊙ , much less than previously estimated. The pulsar heats the companion face to {T}D≈ 9000 K; the large heating efficiency may be mediated by the intrabinary shock dominating the X-ray light curve. At the best-fit inclination i = 88.°8, the pulsar should be eclipsed. We find weak evidence for such eclipses in the pulsed gamma-rays; an improved radio ephemeris allows use of up to five times more Fermi-Large Area Telescope gamma-ray photons for a definitive test of this picture. If confirmed, the gamma-ray eclipse provides a novel probe of the dense companion wind and the pulsar magnetosphere.

  13. Radio wave.

    PubMed

    Elkin, V

    1992-01-01

    In developing countries with high rates of poverty and illiteracy, radio is emerging as an excellent medium for delivering information on health issues, family planning, nutrition, and agricultural development. Since radio does not require wired electricity, it can reach remote rural populations. Surveys have found that between 50-75% of poor rural households in developing countries own radios, and the majority listen to educational radio at least once a week. A program that reaches the urban poor outside of Lima, Peru, has been instrumental in controlling the spread of cholera. A Bolivian station broadcasts 8 hours of literacy, health, agricultural, and cultural programming a day to an audience of more than 2 million Aymara Indians. Small village radio stations with a broadcast range of 15 miles can be established for under US$400 and can generally achieve sustainability through local fundraising events such as raffles. In many cases, listeners have become broadcasters at their local radio stations. PMID:12286181

  14. DISCOVERY OF THE OPTICAL/ULTRAVIOLET/GAMMA-RAY COUNTERPART TO THE ECLIPSING MILLISECOND PULSAR J1816+4510

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D. L.; Kotulla, R.; Biwer, C. M.; Day, D. F.; Stovall, K.; Dartez, L.; Ford, A. J.; Garcia, A.; Jenet, F. A.; Ransom, S. M.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Archibald, A. M.; Karako, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Lynch, R. S.; Boyles, J.; Lorimer, D. R.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kondratiev, V. I.; and others

    2012-07-10

    The energetic, eclipsing millisecond pulsar J1816+4510 was recently discovered in a low-frequency radio survey with the Green Bank Telescope. With an orbital period of 8.7 hr and a minimum companion mass of 0.16 M{sub Sun }, it appears to belong to an increasingly important class of pulsars that are ablating their low-mass companions. We report the discovery of the {gamma}-ray counterpart to this pulsar and present a likely optical/ultraviolet counterpart as well. Using the radio ephemeris, we detect pulsations in the unclassified {gamma}-ray source 2FGL J1816.5+4511, implying an efficiency of {approx}25% in converting the pulsar's spin-down luminosity into {gamma}-rays and adding PSR J1816+4510 to the large number of millisecond pulsars detected by Fermi. The likely optical/UV counterpart was identified through position coincidence (<0.''1) and unusual colors. Assuming that it is the companion, with R = 18.27 {+-} 0.03 mag and effective temperature {approx}> 15,000 K, it would be among the brightest and hottest of low-mass pulsar companions and appears qualitatively different from other eclipsing pulsar systems. In particular, current data suggest that it is a factor of two larger than most white dwarfs of its mass but a factor of four smaller than its Roche lobe. We discuss possible reasons for its high temperature and odd size, and suggest that it recently underwent a violent episode of mass loss. Regardless of origin, its brightness and the relative unimportance of irradiation make it an ideal target for a mass, and hence a neutron star mass, determination.

  15. Observations of Millisecond Variability from Accreting Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    1997-04-01

    Observations carried out over the past year by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) have revealed both quasiperiodic and nearly coherent oscillations with frequencies from 300 - 1200 Hz in at least 10 low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) systems. The X-ray luminosity from these systems is the result of accretion of matter into the deep gravitational potential well of a neutron star. Four of these sources show nearly coherent oscillations during some thermonuclear X-ray bursts which very likely reveal the long sought millisecond spin periods of neutron stars in at least some LMXB. The millisecond timescales of the quasiperiodic oscillations (QPO) are characteristic of processes occuring in the immediate vicinity of the neutron star and provide a new means to investigate the physics of neutron stars and their environs. I will review the discovery and current understanding of these kHz QPO, as they have come to be known, and briefly discuss what their study can teach us about neutron stars.

  16. On neutron star structure and the millisecond pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    The recently discovered millisecond pulsar (PSR1937-214) is observed to be rotating close to the limit of dynamical instability for a neutron star. Despite its extremely rapid rotation, measurements of the period derivative put a stringent upper limit on the energy loss from gravitational radiation, thus requiring that the quadrupole moment be quite small. The pulsar must also be rotating below the critical frequency at which its equilibrium configuration would become non-axisymmetric, since the lifetime of this configuration against decay by gravitational radiation is very short. This critical frequency, given by the theory of rotating ellipsoids, imposes a restriction on the rotation rate more severe than the break-up frequency and may be used to set a lower limit, rho 2 x 10 to the 14th power g/cu cm, on the density of the star. If the mass is 0.5 - 1.5 solar mass, several of the stiffer neutron star equations of state may be ruled out, and the radius should be less than 16 km. The condition for axisymmetry also imposes an upper limit on the rotation rate to which neutron stars may be spun up by accretion disks in binary systems, a model recently proposed for the evolution of the millisecond pulsar.

  17. Millisecond burning of confined energetic materials during cookoff

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, R.G.; Baer, T.A.

    1997-11-01

    The response of a system containing an energetic material (EM) to an abnormal thermal environment is termed cookoff. To predict the violence of reaction of confined energetic materials during cookoff requires a description of the relevant physical processes that occur on time scales Ranging from days to submicroseconds. The time-to-ignition can be characterized accurately using heat transfer with chemistry and quasistatic mechanics. After ignition the energetic material deflagrates on a millisecond time scale. During this time the mechanical processes become dynamic. If the confinement survives burning then accelerated deflagration can lead to shock formation and deflagration to detonation transition. The focus of this work is the dynamic combustion regime in the millisecond time domain. Due to the mathematical stiffness of the chemistry equations and the prohibitively fine spatial resolution requirements needed to resolve the structure of the flame, an interface tracking approach is used to propagate the burn front. Demonstrative calculations are presented that illustrate the dynamic interaction of the deflagrating energetic material with its confinement.

  18. Studying enzymatic bioreactions in a millisecond microfluidic flow mixer

    PubMed Central

    Buchegger, Wolfgang; Haller, Anna; van den Driesche, Sander; Kraft, Martin; Lendl, Bernhard; Vellekoop, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the pre-steady state development of enzymatic bioreactions using a microfluidic mixer is presented. To follow such reactions fast mixing of reagents (enzyme and substrate) is crucial. By using a highly efficient passive micromixer based on multilaminar flow, mixing times in the low millisecond range are reached. Four lamination layers in a shallow channel reduce the diffusion lengths to a few micrometers only, enabling very fast mixing. This was proven by confocal fluorescence measurements in the channel’s cross sectional area. Adjusting the overall flow rate in the 200 μm wide and 900 μm long mixing and observation channel makes it possible to investigate enzyme reactions over several seconds. Further, the device enables changing the enzyme/substrate ratio from 1:1 up to 3:1, while still providing high mixing efficiency, as shown for the enzymatic hydrolysis using β-galactosidase. This way, the early kinetics of the enzyme reaction at multiple enzyme/substrate concentrations can be collected in a very short time (minutes). The fast and easy handling of the mixing device makes it a very powerful and convenient instrument for millisecond temporal analysis of bioreactions. PMID:22662071

  19. Radio receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankov, V. N.; Barulin, L. G.; Zhodzishskii, M. I.; Malyshev, I. V.; Petrusinskii, V. V.

    The book is concerned with the design of microelectronic radio receivers and their components based on semiconductor and hybrid integrated circuits. Topics discussed include the hierarchical structure of radio receivers, the synthesis of structural schemes, the design of the principal functional units, and the design of radio receiver systems with digital signal processing. The discussion also covers the integrated circuits of multifunctional amplifiers, analog multipliers, charge-transfer devices, frequency filters, piezoelectronic devices, and microwave amplifiers, filters, and mixers.

  20. Fast radio bursts and white hole signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrau, Aurélien; Rovelli, Carlo; Vidotto, Francesca

    2014-12-01

    Quantum gravity effects could make a black hole explode in a time shorter than the Hawking radiation time, via local tunneling through a white hole solution. Here we estimate the size of a primordial black hole exploding today via this process, using a simple generic model. Fast radio bursts, strong signals with millisecond duration, which are probably of extragalactic origin and have an unknown source, have wavelengths not far from the expected size of the exploding hole. We also discuss the high-energy component of the signal. These results suggest a new window for quantum gravity phenomenology.

  1. Advances in solar radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the observations and interpretations of the sun's radio emission covering the entire radio spectrum from millimeter wavelengths to hectometer and kilometer wavelengths is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the progress made in solar radio physics as a result of recent advances in plasma and radiation theory. It is noted that the capability now exists of observing the sun with a spatial resolution of approximately a second of arc and a temporal resolution of about a millisecond at centimeter wavelengths and of obtaining fast multifrequency two-dimensional pictures of the sun at meter and decameter wavelengths. A summary is given of the properties of nonflaring active regions at millimeter, centimeter, and meter-decameter wavelengths. The properties of centimeter wave bursts are discussed in connection with the high spatial resolution observations. The observations of the preflare build-up of an active region are reviewed. High spatial resolution observations (a few seconds of arc to approximately 1 arcsec) are discussed, with particular attention given to the one- and two-dimensional maps of centimeter-wavelength burst sources.

  2. X-Ray Emission from the Millisecond Pulsar J1012+5307

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Wang, F. Y.-H.; Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The recently discovered 5.3 ms pulsar J1012+5307 at a distance of 520 pc is in an area of the sky which is particularly deficient in absorbing gas. The column density along the line of sight is less than 7.5 x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, which facilitates soft X-ray observations. Halpern reported a possible ROSAT PSPC detection of the pulsar in a serendipitous, off-axis observation. We have now confirmed the X-ray emission of PSR J1012+5307 in a 23 ksec observation with the ROSAT HRI. A point source is detected within 3 sec. of the radio position. Its count rate of 1.6 +/- 0.3 x 10(exp -3)/s corresponds to an unabsorbed 0.1 - 2.4 keV flux of 6.4 x 10(exp -14) ergs/sq cm s, similar to that reported previously. This counts-to-flux conversion is valid for N(sub H) = 5 x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, and either a power-law spectrum of photon index 2.5 or a blackbody of kT = 0.1 keV. The implied X-ray luminosity of 2.0 x 10(exp 30) ergs/ s is 5 x 10(exp -4) of the pulsar's spin-down power E, and similar to that of the nearest millisecond pulsar J0437-4715, which is nearly a twin of J1012+5307 in P and E. We subjected the 37 photons (and 13 background counts) within the source region to a pulsar search, but no evidence for pulsation was found. The pulsar apparently emits over a large fraction of its rotation cycle, and the absence of sharp modulation can be taken as evidence for surface thermal emission, as favored for PSR J0437-4715, rather than magnetospheric X-ray emission which is apparent in the sharp pulses of the much more energetic millisecond pulsar B1821-24. A further test of of the interpretation will be made with a longer ROSAT observation, which will increase the number of photons collected by a factor of 5, and permit a more sensitive examination of the light curve for modulation due to emission from heated polar caps. If found, such modulation will be further evidence that surface reheating by the impact of particles accelerated along open field lines operates in these approx

  3. Educational Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This report summarizes information about the history, technology, and operation of educational radio in the U.S. Also presented are the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) rules and regulations concerning the licensing and channel assignment of educational radio, and its auxiliary special broadcast services. Included are the application…

  4. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolken, P. R.; Schaffer, R. D.; Gorenstein, M. V.

    1981-01-01

    The activities of the Deep Space Network in support of Radio Astronomy Operations during April and May 1981 are reported. Work in progres in support of an experiment selected for use of the DSN by the Radio Astronomy Experiment Selection Panel, Twin Quasi-Stellar Object VLBI, is reported.

  5. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. M.; Manchester, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Deep Space Network in support of radio and radar astronomy operations during July and August 1980 are reported. A brief update on the OSS-sponsored planetary radio astronomy experiment is provided. Also included are two updates, one each from Spain and Australia on current host country activities.

  6. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, R. D.; Wolken, P. R.; Gulkis, S.

    1981-01-01

    The activities of the Deep Space Network in support of radio astronomy operations during the first quarter of 1981 are reported. Results of the use of a low noise maser are presented, as well as updates in DSN support of experiments sanctioned by the Radio Astronomy Experiment Selection Panel.

  7. Radio Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, R. D.; Wolken, P. R.; Niell, A. E.

    1981-01-01

    The activities of the DSN in support of Radio and Radar Astronomy Operations during September through December 1980 are described. Emphasis is on a report of an experiment selected for use of the DSN by the radio Astronomy Experiment Selection Panel: that of VLBI observations of the energetic galactic object SS-433.

  8. Radio stars.

    PubMed

    Hjellming, R M; Wade, C M

    1971-09-17

    Up to the present time six classes of radio stars have been established. The signals are almost always very faint and drastically variable. Hence their discovery has owed as much to serendipity as to the highly sophisticated equipment and techniques that have been used. When the variations are regular, as with the pulsars, this characteristic can be exploited very successfully in the search for new objects as well as in the detailed study of those that are already known. The detection of the most erratically variable radio stars, the flare stars and the x-ray stars, is primarily a matter of luck and patience. In the case of the novas, one at least knows where and oughly when to look for radio emission. A very sensitive interferometer is clearly the best instrument to use in the initial detection of a radio star. The fact that weak background sources are frequently present makes it essential to prove that the position of a radio source agrees with that of a star to within a few arc seconds. The potential of radio astronomy for the study of radio stars will not be realized until more powerful instruments than those that are available today can be utilized. So far, we have been able to see only the most luminous of the radio stars. PMID:17836594

  9. College Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauls, Samuel J.

    As with commercial stations, the underlying premise of the college radio station is to serve the community, whether it be the campus community or the community at large, but in unique ways often geared to underserved niches of the population. Much of college radio's charm lies in its unpredictable nature and constant mutations. The stations give…

  10. Challenges in explaining the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess with millisecond pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cholis, Ilias; Hooper, Dan; Linden, Tim

    2015-06-01

    Millisecond pulsars have been discussed as a possible source of the gamma-ray excess observed from the region surrounding the Galactic Center. With this in mind, we use the observed population of bright low-mass X-ray binaries to estimate the number of millisecond pulsars in the Inner Galaxy. This calculation suggests that only ~ 1-5% of the excess is produced by millisecond pulsars. We also use the luminosity function derived from local measurements of millisecond pulsars, along with the number of point sources resolved by Fermi, to calculate an upper limit for the diffuse emission from such a population. While this limit is compatible with the millisecond pulsar population implied by the number of low-mass X-ray binaries, it strongly excludes the possibility that most of the excess originates from such objects.

  11. Millisecond-Scale Motor Encoding in a Cortical Vocal Area

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Claire; Chehayeb, Diala; Srivastava, Kyle; Nemenman, Ilya; Sober, Samuel J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of motor control have almost universally examined firing rates to investigate how the brain shapes behavior. In principle, however, neurons could encode information through the precise temporal patterning of their spike trains as well as (or instead of) through their firing rates. Although the importance of spike timing has been demonstrated in sensory systems, it is largely unknown whether timing differences in motor areas could affect behavior. We tested the hypothesis that significant information about trial-by-trial variations in behavior is represented by spike timing in the songbird vocal motor system. We found that neurons in motor cortex convey information via spike timing far more often than via spike rate and that the amount of information conveyed at the millisecond timescale greatly exceeds the information available from spike counts. These results demonstrate that information can be represented by spike timing in motor circuits and suggest that timing variations evoke differences in behavior. PMID:25490022

  12. X-ray flares from postmerger millisecond pulsars.

    PubMed

    Dai, Z G; Wang, X Y; Wu, X F; Zhang, B

    2006-02-24

    Recent observations support the suggestion that short-duration gamma-ray bursts are produced by compact star mergers. The x-ray flares discovered in two short gamma-ray bursts last much longer than the previously proposed postmerger energy-release time scales. Here, we show that they can be produced by differentially rotating, millisecond pulsars after the mergers of binary neutron stars. The differential rotation leads to windup of interior poloidal magnetic fields and the resulting toroidal fields are strong enough to float up and break through the stellar surface. Magnetic reconnection-driven explosive events then occur, leading to multiple x-ray flares minutes after the original gamma-ray burst. PMID:16497927

  13. The orbital eccentricities of binary millisecond pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasio, Frederic A.; Heggie, Douglas C.

    1995-01-01

    Low-mass binary millisecond pulsars (LMBPs) are born with very small orbital eccentricities, typically of order e(sub i) approximately 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -3). In globular clusters, however, higher eccentricities e(sub f) much greater than e(sub i) can be induced by dynamical interactions with passing stars. Here we show that the cross section for this process is much larger than previously estimated. This is becuse, even for initially circular binaries, the induced eccentricity e(sub f) for an encounter with pericenter separation r(sub p) beyond a few times the binary semimajor axis a declines only as a power law (e(sub f) varies as (r(sub p)/a)(exp -5/2), and not as an exponential. We find that all currently known LMBPs in clusters were probably affected by interactions, with their current eccentricities typically greater than at birth by an order of magnitude or more.

  14. Millisecond optical photometry of the DQ Herculis objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, James N.; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.

    1988-01-01

    The results of millisecond optical photometry of the DQ Herculis stars EX Hya, H2252-035, V1223 Sgr, and AE Aqr obtained at the Las Campanas Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory during the years 1985, 1986, and 1987 are reported. The data for coherent and incoherent features are searched for. Coherent features (other than those previously known) were not detected for frequencies between 0.1 and 250 Hz at 4-sigma upper limits of 0.05-0.4 percent. Evidence is not found for 1-3 s, quasi-coherent features. Such features have been detected in the optical emission of the AM Her objects AN UMa, EF Eri, and E1405-451. Because of the similarities between AM Her and DQ Her objects, it was suggested that such quasi-coherent features might also be found in the DQ Her objects.

  15. Lipidic cubic phase serial millisecond crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Nogly, Przemyslaw; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; White, Thomas A.; Zatsepin, Nadia; Shilova, Anastasya; Nelson, Garrett; Liu, Haiguang; Johansson, Linda; Heymann, Michael; Jaeger, Kathrin; Metz, Markus; Wickstrand, Cecilia; Wu, Wenting; Båth, Petra; Berntsen, Peter; Oberthuer, Dominik; Panneels, Valerie; Cherezov, Vadim; Chapman, Henry; Schertler, Gebhard; Neutze, Richard; Spence, John; Moraes, Isabel; Burghammer, Manfred; Standfuss, Joerg; Weierstall, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Lipidic cubic phases (LCPs) have emerged as successful matrixes for the crystallization of membrane proteins. Moreover, the viscous LCP also provides a highly effective delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). Here, the adaptation of this technology to perform serial millisecond crystallography (SMX) at more widely available synchrotron microfocus beamlines is described. Compared with conventional microcrystallography, LCP-SMX eliminates the need for difficult handling of individual crystals and allows for data collection at room temperature. The technology is demonstrated by solving a structure of the light-driven proton-pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR) at a resolution of 2.4 Å. The room-temperature structure of bR is very similar to previous cryogenic structures but shows small yet distinct differences in the retinal ligand and proton-transfer pathway. PMID:25866654

  16. Millisecond-scale motor encoding in a cortical vocal area.

    PubMed

    Tang, Claire; Chehayeb, Diala; Srivastava, Kyle; Nemenman, Ilya; Sober, Samuel J

    2014-12-01

    Studies of motor control have almost universally examined firing rates to investigate how the brain shapes behavior. In principle, however, neurons could encode information through the precise temporal patterning of their spike trains as well as (or instead of) through their firing rates. Although the importance of spike timing has been demonstrated in sensory systems, it is largely unknown whether timing differences in motor areas could affect behavior. We tested the hypothesis that significant information about trial-by-trial variations in behavior is represented by spike timing in the songbird vocal motor system. We found that neurons in motor cortex convey information via spike timing far more often than via spike rate and that the amount of information conveyed at the millisecond timescale greatly exceeds the information available from spike counts. These results demonstrate that information can be represented by spike timing in motor circuits and suggest that timing variations evoke differences in behavior. PMID:25490022

  17. Quantum memory with millisecond coherence in circuit QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagor, Matthew; Pfaff, Wolfgang; Axline, Christopher; Heeres, Reinier W.; Ofek, Nissim; Sliwa, Katrina; Holland, Eric; Wang, Chen; Blumoff, Jacob; Chou, Kevin; Hatridge, Michael J.; Frunzio, Luigi; Devoret, Michel H.; Jiang, Liang; Schoelkopf, Robert J.

    2016-07-01

    Significant advances in coherence render superconducting quantum circuits a viable platform for fault-tolerant quantum computing. To further extend capabilities, highly coherent quantum systems could act as quantum memories for these circuits. A useful quantum memory must be rapidly addressable by Josephson-junction-based artificial atoms, while maintaining superior coherence. We demonstrate a superconducting microwave cavity architecture that is highly robust against major sources of loss that are encountered in the engineering of circuit QED systems. The architecture allows for storage of quantum superpositions in a resonator on the millisecond scale, while strong coupling between the resonator and a transmon qubit enables control, encoding, and readout at MHz rates. This extends the maximum available coherence time attainable in superconducting circuits by almost an order of magnitude compared to earlier hardware. Our design is an ideal platform for studying coherent quantum optics and marks an important step towards hardware-efficient quantum computing in Josephson-junction-based quantum circuits.

  18. Millisecond newly born pulsars as efficient accelerators of electrons.

    PubMed

    Osmanov, Zaza; Mahajan, Swadesh; Machabeli, George; Chkheidze, Nino

    2015-01-01

    The newly born millisecond pulsars are investigated as possible energy sources for creating ultra-high energy electrons. The transfer of energy from the star rotation to high energy electrons takes place through the Landau damping of centrifugally driven (via a two stream instability) electrostatic Langmuir waves. Generated in the bulk magnetosphere plasma, such waves grow to high amplitudes, and then damp, very effectively, on relativistic electrons driving them to even higher energies. We show that the rate of transfer of energy is so efficient that no energy losses might affect the mechanism of particle acceleration; the electrons might achieve energies of the order of 10(18) eV for parameters characteristic of a young star. PMID:26403155

  19. Millisecond newly born pulsars as efficient accelerators of electrons

    PubMed Central

    Osmanov, Zaza; Mahajan, Swadesh; Machabeli, George; Chkheidze, Nino

    2015-01-01

    The newly born millisecond pulsars are investigated as possible energy sources for creating ultra-high energy electrons. The transfer of energy from the star rotation to high energy electrons takes place through the Landau damping of centrifugally driven (via a two stream instability) electrostatic Langmuir waves. Generated in the bulk magnetosphere plasma, such waves grow to high amplitudes, and then damp, very effectively, on relativistic electrons driving them to even higher energies. We show that the rate of transfer of energy is so efficient that no energy losses might affect the mechanism of particle acceleration; the electrons might achieve energies of the order of 1018 eV for parameters characteristic of a young star. PMID:26403155

  20. HIGH-PRECISION TIMING OF FIVE MILLISECOND PULSARS: SPACE VELOCITIES, BINARY EVOLUTION, AND EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M. E.; Stairs, I. H.; Ferdman, R. D.; Lyne, A. G.; Freire, P. C. C.; Kramer, M.; Nice, D. J.; Demorest, P. B.; Ransom, S. M.; Camilo, F.; Hobbs, G.; Manchester, R. N.

    2011-12-20

    We present high-precision timing of five millisecond pulsars (MSPs) carried out for more than seven years; four pulsars are in binary systems and one is isolated. We are able to measure the pulsars' proper motions and derive an estimate for their space velocities. The measured two-dimensional velocities are in the range 70-210 km s{sup -1}, consistent with those measured for other MSPs. We also use all the available proper motion information for isolated and binary MSPs to update the known velocity distribution for these populations. As found by earlier works, we find that the velocity distribution of binary and isolated MSPs are indistinguishable with the current data. Four of the pulsars in our observing program are highly recycled with low-mass white dwarf companions and we are able to derive accurate binary parameters for these systems. For three of these binary systems, we are able to place initial constraints on the pulsar masses with best-fit values in the range 1.0-1.6 M{sub Sun }. The implications of the results presented here to our understanding of binary pulsar evolution are discussed. The updated parameters for the binary systems studied here, together with recently discovered similar systems, allowed us to update previous limits on the violation of the strong equivalence principle through the parameter |{Delta}| to 4.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} (95% confidence) and the violation of Lorentz invariance/momentum conservation through the parameter |{alpha}-hat3| to 5.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -20} (95% confidence).

  1. Radio Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beskin, V. S.; Chernov, S. V.; Gwinn, C. R.; Tchekhovskoy, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Almost 50 years after radio pulsars were discovered in 1967, our understanding of these objects remains incomplete. On the one hand, within a few years it became clear that neutron star rotation gives rise to the extremely stable sequence of radio pulses, that the kinetic energy of rotation provides the reservoir of energy, and that electromagnetic fields are the braking mechanism. On the other hand, no consensus regarding the mechanism of coherent radio emission or the conversion of electromagnetic energy to particle energy yet exists. In this review, we report on three aspects of pulsar structure that have seen recent progress: the self-consistent theory of the magnetosphere of an oblique magnetic rotator; the location, geometry, and optics of radio emission; and evolution of the angle between spin and magnetic axes. These allow us to take the next step in understanding the physical nature of the pulsar activity.

  2. Radio Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolken, P. R.; Shaffer, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    Deep Space Network (DSN) 26- and 64-meter antenna stations were utilized in support of Radio Astronomy Experiment Selection Panel experiments. Within a time span of 10 days, in May 1983 (267.75 hours total), nine RAES experiments were supported. Most of these experiments involved multifacility interferometry using Mark 3 data recording terminals and as many as six non-DSN observatories. Investigations of black holes, quasars, galaxies, and radio sources are discussed.

  3. A 24 Hr Global Campaign to Assess Precision Timing of the Millisecond Pulsar J1713+0747

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolch, T.; Lam, M. T.; Cordes, J.; Chatterjee, S.; Bassa, C.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Champion, D. J.; Cognard, I.; Crowter, K.; Demorest, P. B.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Janssen, G.; Jenet, F. A.; Jones, G.; Jordan, C.; Karuppusamy, R.; Keith, M.; Kondratiev, V.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Lee, K. J.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Roy, J.; Shannon, R. M.; Stairs, I.; Stovall, K.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Madison, D. R.; Palliyaguru, N.; Perrodin, D.; Ransom, S.; Stappers, B.; Zhu, W. W.; Dai, S.; Desvignes, G.; Guillemot, L.; Liu, K.; Lyne, A.; Perera, B. B. P.; Petroff, E.; Rankin, J. M.; Smits, R.

    2014-10-01

    The radio millisecond pulsar J1713+0747 is regarded as one of the highest-precision clocks in the sky and is regularly timed for the purpose of detecting gravitational waves. The International Pulsar Timing Array Collaboration undertook a 24 hr global observation of PSR J1713+0747 in an effort to better quantify sources of timing noise in this pulsar, particularly on intermediate (1-24 hr) timescales. We observed the pulsar continuously over 24 hr with the Arecibo, Effelsberg, GMRT, Green Bank, LOFAR, Lovell, Nançay, Parkes, and WSRT radio telescopes. The combined pulse times-of-arrival presented here provide an estimate of what sources of timing noise, excluding DM variations, would be present as compared to an idealized \\sqrt{N} improvement in timing precision, where N is the number of pulses analyzed. In the case of this particular pulsar, we find that intrinsic pulse phase jitter dominates arrival time precision when the signal-to-noise ratio of single pulses exceeds unity, as measured using the eight telescopes that observed at L band/1.4 GHz. We present first results of specific phenomena probed on the unusually long timescale (for a single continuous observing session) of tens of hours, in particular interstellar scintillation, and discuss the degree to which scintillation and profile evolution affect precision timing. This paper presents the data set as a basis for future, deeper studies.

  4. A 24 hr global campaign to assess precision timing of the millisecond pulsar J1713+0747

    SciTech Connect

    Dolch, T.; Lam, M. T.; Cordes, J.; Chatterjee, S.; Bassa, C.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Janssen, G.; Kondratiev, V.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Jordan, C.; Keith, M.; Champion, D. J.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; Cognard, I.; Demorest, P. B.; Jenet, F. A.; Jones, G.; and others

    2014-10-10

    The radio millisecond pulsar J1713+0747 is regarded as one of the highest-precision clocks in the sky and is regularly timed for the purpose of detecting gravitational waves. The International Pulsar Timing Array Collaboration undertook a 24 hr global observation of PSR J1713+0747 in an effort to better quantify sources of timing noise in this pulsar, particularly on intermediate (1-24 hr) timescales. We observed the pulsar continuously over 24 hr with the Arecibo, Effelsberg, GMRT, Green Bank, LOFAR, Lovell, Nançay, Parkes, and WSRT radio telescopes. The combined pulse times-of-arrival presented here provide an estimate of what sources of timing noise, excluding DM variations, would be present as compared to an idealized √N improvement in timing precision, where N is the number of pulses analyzed. In the case of this particular pulsar, we find that intrinsic pulse phase jitter dominates arrival time precision when the signal-to-noise ratio of single pulses exceeds unity, as measured using the eight telescopes that observed at L band/1.4 GHz. We present first results of specific phenomena probed on the unusually long timescale (for a single continuous observing session) of tens of hours, in particular interstellar scintillation, and discuss the degree to which scintillation and profile evolution affect precision timing. This paper presents the data set as a basis for future, deeper studies.

  5. Optical Identification of He White Dwarfs Orbiting Four Millisecond Pulsars in the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadelano, M.; Pallanca, C.; Ferraro, F. R.; Salaris, M.; Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B.; Freire, P. C. C.

    2015-10-01

    We used ultra-deep UV observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope to search for optical companions to binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. We identified four new counterparts (to MSPs 47TucQ, 47TucS, 47TucT, and 47TucY) and confirmed those already known (to MSPs 47TucU and 47TucW). In the color-magnitude diagram, the detected companions are located in a region between the main sequence and the CO white dwarf (WD) cooling sequences, consistent with the cooling tracks of He WDs with masses between 0.15 M⊙ and 0.20 M⊙. For each identified companion, mass, cooling age, temperature, and pulsar mass (as a function of the inclination angle) have been derived and discussed. For 47TucU we also found that the past accretion history likely proceeded at a sub-Eddington rate. The companion to the redback 47TucW is confirmed to be a non-degenerate star, with properties particularly similar to those observed for black widow systems. Two stars have been identified within the 2σ astrometric uncertainty from the radio positions of 47TucH and 47TucI, but the available data prevent us from firmly assessing whether they are the true companions of these two MSPs. Based on observations collected with the NASA/ESA HST (Prop. 12950), obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  6. TWO MILLISECOND PULSARS DISCOVERED BY THE PALFA SURVEY AND A SHAPIRO DELAY MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Deneva, J. S.; Camilo, F.; Freire, P. C. C.; Champion, D. J.; Desvignes, G.; Cordes, J. M.; Brazier, A.; Chatterjee, S.; Lyne, A. G.; Ransom, S. M.; Cognard, I.; Nice, D. J.; Stairs, I. H.; Allen, B.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bogdanov, S.; Crawford, F.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Jenet, F. A.; Kaspi, V. M.; and others

    2012-09-20

    We present two millisecond pulsar discoveries from the PALFA survey of the Galactic plane with the Arecibo telescope. PSR J1955+2527 is an isolated pulsar with a period of 4.87 ms, and PSR J1949+3106 has a period of 13.14 ms and is in a 1.9 day binary system with a massive companion. Their timing solutions, based on 4 years of timing measurements with the Arecibo, Green Bank, Nancay, and Jodrell Bank telescopes, allow precise determination of spin and astrometric parameters, including precise determinations of their proper motions. For PSR J1949+3106, we can clearly detect the Shapiro delay. From this we measure the pulsar mass to be 1.47{sup +0.43}{sub -0.31} M{sub Sun }, the companion mass to be 0.85{sup +0.14}{sub -0.11} M{sub Sun }, and the orbital inclination to be i = 79.9{sup -1.9}{sub +1.6} deg, where uncertainties correspond to {+-}1{sigma} confidence levels. With continued timing, we expect to also be able to detect the advance of periastron for the J1949+3106 system. This effect, combined with the Shapiro delay, will eventually provide very precise mass measurements for this system and a test of general relativity.

  7. The Millisecond Magnetar Central Engine in Short GRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Hou-Jun; Zhang, Bing; Lei, Wei-Hua; Li, Ye; Lasky, Paul D.

    2015-06-01

    One favored progenitor model for short duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the coalescence of two neutron stars (NS-NS). One possible outcome of such a merger would be a rapidly spinning, strongly magnetized neutron star (known as a millisecond magnetar). These magnetars may be “supra-massive,” implying that they would collapse to black holes after losing centrifugal support due to magnetic dipole spin down. By systematically analyzing the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT)-XRT light curves of all short GRBs detected by Swift, we test how consistent the data are with this central engine model of short GRBs. We find that the so-called “extended emission” feature observed with BAT in some short GRBs is fundamentally the same component as the “internal X-ray plateau” observed in many short GRBs, which is defined as a plateau in the light curve followed by a very rapid decay. Based on how likely a short GRB is to host a magnetar, we characterize the entire Swift short GRB sample into three categories: the “internal plateau” sample, the “external plateau” sample, and the “no plateau” sample. Based on the dipole spin-down model, we derive the physical parameters of the putative magnetars and check whether these parameters are consistent with expectations from the magnetar central engine model. The derived magnetar surface magnetic field {{B}p} and the initial spin period P0 fall into a reasonable range. No GRBs in the internal plateau sample have a total energy exceeding the maximum energy budget of a millisecond magnetar. Assuming that the beginning of the rapid fall phase at the end of the internal plateau is the collapse time of a supra-massive magnetar to a black hole, and applying the measured mass distribution of NS-NS systems in our Galaxy, we constrain the neutron star equation of state (EOS). The data suggest that the NS EOS is close to the GM1 model, which has a maximum non-rotating NS mass of {{M}TOV}˜ 2.37 {{M}⊙ }.

  8. Experimental study on photodiode damage by millisecond pulse laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhi; Jin, Guangyong; Tan, Yong; Wang, Di

    2015-10-01

    The photoelectric detector is a very significance part in laser and its application system, but when photoelectric detector irradiated by high energy laser, the laser may cause thermal damage to the photoelectric detector, when the temperature more than its melting point and vaporization point, there will be a permanent damage in PIN photodetector, leading to the failure of photoelectric detector. In order to study the photodiode damage mechanism by millisecond pulse laser irradiation, a set of experimental system has been built, choosing appropriate pulsed laser parameters to irradiate silicon-based PIN photodiode and monitoring the surface temperature in the process of irradiation, until the PIN photodiode complete failure. The measurement results of real-time temperature, responsivity change and damage morphology were analyzed to conclude the failure reason of the PIN photodiode. The results showed that with the increase of laser energy, the PIN photodiode surface temperature would be also increased accordingly. Before the laser irradiation, the responsivity of PIN photodiode was the same. But after the laser irradiation, the responsivity of the PIN photodiode would be changed and with the increase of laser energy, the decline extent of responsivity would be also increased. Judging from the ablation, crack and fold zone on the surface of PIN photodiode after the laser irradiation, the damage was for thermal stress effect. The continuity of material confined its free expansion. Therefore, the uneven thermal expansion induced the great thermal stress. At the same time, the silicon transited from brittle to ductile and the yield strength dramatically decreased. Once the maximum thermal stress exceeded the critical stress, the plastic deformation and the brittle cracks of silicon would be generated. With the increase of laser energy, the thermal stress damage extent of PIN photodiode would be also increased accordingly and the black area of laser ablation would be

  9. The gamma-ray millisecond pulsar deathline, revisited. New velocity and distance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemot, L.; Smith, D. A.; Laffon, H.; Janssen, G. H.; Cognard, I.; Theureau, G.; Desvignes, G.; Ferrara, E. C.; Ray, P. S.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) represent nearly half of the more than 160 currently known γ-ray pulsars detected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi satellite, and a third of all known MSPs are seen in γ rays. The least energetic γ-ray MSPs enable us to probe the so-called deathline for high-energy emission, i.e., the spin-down luminosity limit under which pulsars (PSRs) cease to produce detectable high-energy radiation. Characterizing the MSP luminosity distribution helps to determine their contribution to the Galactic diffuse γ-ray emission. Aims: Because of the Shklovskii effect, precise proper motion and distance measurements are key ingredients for determining the spin-down luminosities of MSPs accurately. Our aim is to obtain new measurements of these parameters for γ-ray MSPs when possible, and clarify the relationship between the γ-ray luminosity of pulsars and their spin-down luminosity. Detecting low spin-down luminosity pulsars in γ rays and characterizing their spin properties is also particularly interesting for constraining the deathline for high-energy emission. Methods: We made use of the high-quality pulsar timing data recorded at the Nançay Radio Telescope over several years to characterize the properties of a selection of MSPs. For one of the pulsars, the dataset was complemented with Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope observations. The rotation ephemerides derived from this analysis were also used to search the LAT data for new γ-ray MSPs. Results: For the MSPs considered in this study, we obtained new transverse proper motion measurements or updated the existing ones, and placed new distance constraints for some of them, with four new timing parallax measurements. We discovered significant GeV γ-ray signals from four MSPs, i.e., PSRs J0740+6620, J0931-1902, J1455-3330, and J1730-2304. The latter is now the least energetic γ-ray pulsar found to date. Despite the improved Ė and Lγ estimates, the relationship between these

  10. Electromagnetic Spindown of a Transient Accreting Millisecond Pulsar During Quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melatos, A.; Mastrano, A.

    2016-02-01

    The measured spindown rates in quiescence of the transient accreting millisecond pulsars IGR J00291+5934, XTE J1751-305, SAX J1808.4-3658, and Swift J1756.9-2508 have been used to estimate the magnetic moments of these objects assuming standard magnetic dipole braking. It is shown that this approach leads to an overestimate if the amount of residual accretion is enough to distort the magnetosphere away from a force-free configuration through magnetospheric mass loading or crushing, so that the lever arm of the braking torque migrates inside the light cylinder. We derive an alternative spindown formula and calculate the residual accretion rates where the formula is applicable. As a demonstration we apply the alternative spindown formula to produce updated magnetic moment estimates for the four objects above. We note that based on current uncertain observations of quiescent accretion rates, magnetospheric mass loading and crushing are neither firmly indicated nor ruled out in these four objects. Because quiescent accretion rates are not measured directly (only upper limits are placed), without more data it is impossible to be confident about whether the thresholds for magnetospheric mass loading or crushing are reached or not.

  11. Independent Population Coding of Speech with Sub-Millisecond Precision

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lazaro, Jose A.; Belliveau, Lucile A. C.

    2013-01-01

    To understand the strategies used by the brain to analyze complex environments, we must first characterize how the features of sensory stimuli are encoded in the spiking of neuronal populations. Characterizing a population code requires identifying the temporal precision of spiking and the extent to which spiking is correlated, both between cells and over time. In this study, we characterize the population code for speech in the gerbil inferior colliculus (IC), the hub of the auditory system where inputs from parallel brainstem pathways are integrated for transmission to the cortex. We find that IC spike trains can carry information about speech with sub-millisecond precision, and, consequently, that the temporal correlations imposed by refractoriness can play a significant role in shaping spike patterns. We also find that, in contrast to most other brain areas, the noise correlations between IC cells are extremely weak, indicating that spiking in the population is conditionally independent. These results demonstrate that the problem of understanding the population coding of speech can be reduced to the problem of understanding the stimulus-driven spiking of individual cells, suggesting that a comprehensive model of the subcortical processing of speech may be attainable in the near future. PMID:24305831

  12. Electron-cyclotron maser and solar microwave millisecond spike emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Hong-Wei; Li, Chun-Sheng; Fu, Qi-Jun

    1986-01-01

    An intense solar microwave millisecond spike emission (SMMSE) event was observed on May 16, 1981 by Zhao and Jin at Beijing Observatory. The peak flux density of the spikes is high to 5 x 100,000 s.f.u. and the corresponding brightness temperature (BT) reaches approx. 10 to the 15th K. In order to explain the observed properties of SMMSE, it is proposed that a beam of electrons with energy of tens KeV injected from the acceleration region downwards into an emerging magnetic arch forms so-called hollow beam distribution and causes electron-cyclotron maser (ECM) instability. The growth rate of second harmonic X-mode is calculated and its change with time is deduced. It is shown that the saturation time of ECM is t sub s approx. equals 0.42 ms and only at last short stage (delta t less than 0.2 t sub s) the growth rate decreases to zero rather rapidly. So a SMMSE with very high BT will be produced if the ratio of number density of nonthermal electrons to that of background electrons, n sub s/n sub e, is larger than 4 x .00001.

  13. Millisecond-Scale Motor Encoding in a Cortical Vocal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemenman, Ilya; Tang, Claire; Chehayeb, Diala; Srivastava, Kyle; Sober, Samuel

    2015-03-01

    Studies of motor control have almost universally examined firing rates to investigate how the brain shapes behavior. In principle, however, neurons could encode information through the precise temporal patterning of their spike trains as well as (or instead of) through their firing rates. Although the importance of spike timing has been demonstrated in sensory systems, it is largely unknown whether timing differences in motor areas could affect behavior. We tested the hypothesis that significant information about trial-by-trial variations in behavior is represented by spike timing in the songbird vocal motor system. We found that neurons in motor cortex convey information via spike timing far more often than via spike rate and that the amount of information conveyed at the millisecond timescale greatly exceeds the information available from spike counts. These results demonstrate that information can be represented by spike timing in motor circuits and suggest that timing variations evoke differences in behavior. This work was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, and James S. McDonnell Foundation

  14. DNA/Fusogenic Lipid Nanocarrier Assembly: Millisecond Structural Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Angelov, Borislav; Angelova, Angelina; Filippov, Sergey K; Narayanan, Theyencheri; Drechsler, Markus; Štěpánek, Petr; Couvreur, Patrick; Lesieur, Sylviane

    2013-06-01

    Structural changes occurring on a millisecond time scale during uptake of DNA by cationic lipid nanocarriers are monitored by time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) coupled to a rapid-mixing stopped-flow technique. Nanoparticles (NPs) of nanochannel organization are formed by PEGylation, hydration, and dispersion of a lipid film of the fusogenic lipid monoolein in a mixture with positively charged (DOMA) and PEGylated (DOPE-PEG2000) amphiphiles and are characterized by the inner cubic structure of very large nanochannels favorable for DNA upload. Ultrafast structural dynamics of complexation and assembly of these cubosome particles with neurotrophic plasmid DNA (pDNA) is revealed thanks to the high brightness of the employed synchrotron X-ray beam. The rate constant of the pDNA/lipid NP complexation is estimated from dynamic roentgenograms recorded at 4 ms time resolution. pDNA upload into the vastly hydrated channels of the cubosome carriers leads to a fast nanoparticle-nanoparticle structural transition and lipoplex formation involving tightly packed pDNA. PMID:26283134

  15. Millisecond-scale biochemical response to change in strain.

    PubMed

    Bickham, Dale C; West, Timothy G; Webb, Martin R; Woledge, Roger C; Curtin, Nancy A; Ferenczi, Michael A

    2011-11-16

    Muscle fiber contraction involves the cyclical interaction of myosin cross-bridges with actin filaments, linked to hydrolysis of ATP that provides the required energy. We show here the relationship between cross-bridge states, force generation, and Pi release during ramp stretches of active mammalian skeletal muscle fibers at 20°C. The results show that force and Pi release respond quickly to the application of stretch: force rises rapidly, whereas the rate of Pi release decreases abruptly and remains low for the duration of the stretch. These measurements show that biochemical change on the millisecond timescale accompanies the mechanical and structural responses in active muscle fibers. A cross-bridge model is used to simulate the effect of stretch on the distribution of actomyosin cross-bridges, force, and Pi release, with explicit inclusion of ATP, ADP, and Pi in the biochemical states and length-dependence of transitions. In the simulation, stretch causes rapid detachment and reattachment of cross-bridges without release of Pi or ATP hydrolysis. PMID:22098743

  16. THE NEAREST MILLISECOND PULSAR REVISITED WITH XMM-NEWTON: IMPROVED MASS-RADIUS CONSTRAINTS FOR PSR J0437-4715

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanov, Slavko

    2013-01-10

    I present an analysis of the deepest X-ray exposure of a radio millisecond pulsar (MSP) to date, an X-ray Multi Mirror-Newton European Photon Imaging Camera spectroscopic and timing observation of the nearest known MSP, PSR J0437-4715. The timing data clearly reveal a secondary broad X-ray pulse offset from the main pulse by {approx}0.55 in rotational phase. In the context of a model of surface thermal emission from the hot polar caps of the neutron star, this can be plausibly explained by a magnetic dipole field that is significantly displaced from the stellar center. Such an offset, if commonplace in MSPs, has important implications for studies of the pulsar population, high energy pulsed emission, and the pulsar contribution to cosmic-ray positrons. The continuum emission shows evidence for at least three thermal components, with the hottest radiation most likely originating from the hot magnetic polar caps and the cooler emission from the bulk of the surface. I present pulse phase-resolved X-ray spectroscopy of PSR J0437-4715, which for the first time properly accounts for the system geometry of a radio pulsar. Such an approach is essential for unbiased measurements of the temperatures and emission areas of polar cap radiation from pulsars. Detailed modeling of the thermal pulses, including relativistic and atmospheric effects, provides a constraint on the redshift-corrected neutron star radius of R > 11.1 km (at 3{sigma} conf.) for the current radio timing mass measurement of 1.76 M {sub Sun }. This limit favors 'stiff' equations of state.

  17. The Nearest Millisecond Pulsar Revisited with XMM-Newton: Improved Mass-radius Constraints for PSR J0437-4715

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Slavko

    2013-01-01

    I present an analysis of the deepest X-ray exposure of a radio millisecond pulsar (MSP) to date, an X-ray Multi Mirror-Newton European Photon Imaging Camera spectroscopic and timing observation of the nearest known MSP, PSR J0437-4715. The timing data clearly reveal a secondary broad X-ray pulse offset from the main pulse by ~0.55 in rotational phase. In the context of a model of surface thermal emission from the hot polar caps of the neutron star, this can be plausibly explained by a magnetic dipole field that is significantly displaced from the stellar center. Such an offset, if commonplace in MSPs, has important implications for studies of the pulsar population, high energy pulsed emission, and the pulsar contribution to cosmic-ray positrons. The continuum emission shows evidence for at least three thermal components, with the hottest radiation most likely originating from the hot magnetic polar caps and the cooler emission from the bulk of the surface. I present pulse phase-resolved X-ray spectroscopy of PSR J0437-4715, which for the first time properly accounts for the system geometry of a radio pulsar. Such an approach is essential for unbiased measurements of the temperatures and emission areas of polar cap radiation from pulsars. Detailed modeling of the thermal pulses, including relativistic and atmospheric effects, provides a constraint on the redshift-corrected neutron star radius of R > 11.1 km (at 3σ conf.) for the current radio timing mass measurement of 1.76 M ⊙. This limit favors "stiff" equations of state.

  18. The host galaxy of a fast radio burst.

    PubMed

    Keane, E F; Johnston, S; Bhandari, S; Barr, E; Bhat, N D R; Burgay, M; Caleb, M; Flynn, C; Jameson, A; Kramer, M; Petroff, E; Possenti, A; van Straten, W; Bailes, M; Burke-Spolaor, S; Eatough, R P; Stappers, B W; Totani, T; Honma, M; Furusawa, H; Hattori, T; Morokuma, T; Niino, Y; Sugai, H; Terai, T; Tominaga, N; Yamasaki, S; Yasuda, N; Allen, R; Cooke, J; Jencson, J; Kasliwal, M M; Kaplan, D L; Tingay, S J; Williams, A; Wayth, R; Chandra, P; Perrodin, D; Berezina, M; Mickaliger, M; Bassa, C

    2016-02-25

    In recent years, millisecond-duration radio signals originating in distant galaxies appear to have been discovered in the so-called fast radio bursts. These signals are dispersed according to a precise physical law and this dispersion is a key observable quantity, which, in tandem with a redshift measurement, can be used for fundamental physical investigations. Every fast radio burst has a dispersion measurement, but none before now have had a redshift measurement, because of the difficulty in pinpointing their celestial coordinates. Here we report the discovery of a fast radio burst and the identification of a fading radio transient lasting ~6 days after the event, which we use to identify the host galaxy; we measure the galaxy's redshift to be z = 0.492 ± 0.008. The dispersion measure and redshift, in combination, provide a direct measurement of the cosmic density of ionized baryons in the intergalactic medium of ΩIGM = 4.9 ± 1.3 per cent, in agreement with the expectation from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, and including all of the so-called 'missing baryons'. The ~6-day radio transient is largely consistent with the radio afterglow of a short γ-ray burst, and its existence and timescale do not support progenitor models such as giant pulses from pulsars, and supernovae. This contrasts with the interpretation of another recently discovered fast radio burst, suggesting that there are at least two classes of bursts. PMID:26911781

  19. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Heeschen, David; Backer, Donald C.; Cohen, Marshall H.; Davis, Michael; Depater, Imke; Deyoung, David; Dulk, George A.; Fisher, J. R.; Goss, W. Miller

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) scientific opportunities (millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength astronomy; meter to hectometer astronomy; the Sun, stars, pulsars, interstellar masers, and extrasolar planets; the planets, asteroids, and comets; radio galaxies, quasars, and cosmology; and challenges for radio astronomy in the 1990's); (2) recommendations for new facilities (the millimeter arrays, medium scale instruments, and small-scale projects); (3) continuing activities and maintenance, upgrading of telescopes and instrumentation; (4) long range programs and technology development; and (5) social, political, and organizational considerations.

  20. Fast Radio Bursts and Radio Transients from Black Hole Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingarelli, Chiara M. F.; Levin, Janna; Lazio, T. Joseph W.

    2015-12-01

    Most black holes (BHs) will absorb a neutron star (NS) companion fully intact without tidal disruption, suggesting the pair will remain dark to telescopes. Even without tidal disruption, electromagnetic (EM) luminosity is generated from the battery phase of the binary when the BH interacts with the NS magnetic field. Originally, the luminosity was expected to be in high-energy X-rays or gamma-rays, however, we conjecture that some of the battery power is emitted in the radio bandwidth. While the luminosity and timescale are suggestive of fast radio bursts (FRBs; millisecond-scale radio transients) NS-BH coalescence rates are too low to make these a primary FRB source. Instead, we propose that the transients form a FRB sub-population, distinguishable by a double peak with a precursor. The rapid ramp-up in luminosity manifests as a precursor to the burst which is 20%-80% as luminous given 0.5 ms timing resolution. The main burst arises from the peak luminosity before the merger. The post-merger burst follows from the NS magnetic field migration to the BH, causing a shock. NS-BH pairs are especially desirable for ground-based gravitational wave (GW) observatories since the pair might not otherwise be detected, with EM counterparts greatly augmenting the scientific leverage beyond the GW signal. The EM signal’s ability to break degeneracies in the parameters encoded in the GW and probe the NS magnetic field strength is quite valuable, yielding insights into open problems in NS magnetic field decay.

  1. Fast Radio Bursts and Radio Transients from Black Hole Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingarelli, Chiara M. F.; Levin, Janna; Lazio, T. Joseph W.

    2015-12-01

    Most black holes (BHs) will absorb a neutron star (NS) companion fully intact without tidal disruption, suggesting the pair will remain dark to telescopes. Even without tidal disruption, electromagnetic (EM) luminosity is generated from the battery phase of the binary when the BH interacts with the NS magnetic field. Originally, the luminosity was expected to be in high-energy X-rays or gamma-rays, however, we conjecture that some of the battery power is emitted in the radio bandwidth. While the luminosity and timescale are suggestive of fast radio bursts (FRBs; millisecond-scale radio transients) NS–BH coalescence rates are too low to make these a primary FRB source. Instead, we propose that the transients form a FRB sub-population, distinguishable by a double peak with a precursor. The rapid ramp-up in luminosity manifests as a precursor to the burst which is 20%–80% as luminous given 0.5 ms timing resolution. The main burst arises from the peak luminosity before the merger. The post-merger burst follows from the NS magnetic field migration to the BH, causing a shock. NS–BH pairs are especially desirable for ground-based gravitational wave (GW) observatories since the pair might not otherwise be detected, with EM counterparts greatly augmenting the scientific leverage beyond the GW signal. The EM signal’s ability to break degeneracies in the parameters encoded in the GW and probe the NS magnetic field strength is quite valuable, yielding insights into open problems in NS magnetic field decay.

  2. Oscillations millisecondes des binaires X : La révolution de RXTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive, Jean-Francois

    2001-01-01

    In this lecture for the ``23ieme Ecole CNRS de Goutelas'' on binary systems, I review the RXTE observations of new neutron- star phenomena, namely the coherent pulsations from the first accreting millisecond pulsar, the coherent oscillations during X-ray bursts and kiloHertz quasi-periodic oscillations. I describe the ways in which study these millisecond phenomena could help to distinguish between models of dense matter and advance our understanding of general relativity in strong gravitational fields.

  3. ASSESSING THE ROLE OF SPIN NOISE IN THE PRECISION TIMING OF MILLISECOND PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, Ryan M.; Cordes, James M. E-mail: cordes@astro.cornell.ed

    2010-12-20

    We investigate rotational spin noise (referred to as timing noise) in non-accreting pulsars: millisecond pulsars, canonical pulsars, and magnetars. Particular attention is placed on quantifying the strength and non-stationarity of timing noise in millisecond pulsars because the long-term stability of these objects is required to detect nanohertz gravitational radiation. We show that a single scaling law is sufficient to characterize timing noise in millisecond and canonical pulsars while the same scaling law underestimates the levels of timing noise in magnetars. The scaling law, along with a detailed study of the millisecond pulsar B1937+21, leads us to conclude that timing noise is latent in most millisecond pulsars and will be measurable in many objects when better arrival time estimates are obtained over long data spans. The sensitivity of a pulsar timing array to gravitational radiation is strongly affected by any timing noise. We conclude that detection of proposed gravitational wave backgrounds will require the analysis of more objects than previously suggested over data spans that depend on the spectra of both the gravitational wave background and of the timing noise. It is imperative to find additional millisecond pulsars in current and future surveys in order to reduce the effects of timing noise.

  4. High-Precision Timing of Several Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdman, R. D.; Stairs, I. H.; Backer, D. C.; Ramachandran, R.; Demorest, P.; Nice, D. J.; Lyne, A. G.; Kramer, M.; Lorimer, D.; McLaughlin, M.; Manchester, D.; Camilo, F.; D'Amico, N.; Possenti, A.; Burgay, M.; Joshi, B. C.; Freire, P. C.

    2004-12-01

    The highest precision pulsar timing is achieved by reproducing as accurately as possible the pulse profile as emitted by the pulsar, in high signal-to-noise observations. The best profile reconstruction can be accomplished with several-bit voltage sampling and coherent removal of the dispersion suffered by pulsar signals as they traverse the interstellar medium. The Arecibo Signal Processor (ASP) and its counterpart the Green Bank Astronomical Signal Processor (GASP) are flexible, state-of-the-art wide-bandwidth observing systems, built primarily for high-precision long-term timing of millisecond and binary pulsars. ASP and GASP are in use at the 300-m Arecibo telescope in Puerto Rico and the 100-m Green Bank Telescope in Green Bank, West Virginia, respectively, taking advantage of the enormous sensitivities of these telescopes. These instruments result in high-precision science through 4 and 8-bit sampling and perform coherent dedispersion on the incoming data stream in real or near-real time. This is done using a network of personal computers, over an observing bandwidth of 64 to 128 MHz, in each of two polarizations. We present preliminary results of timing and polarimetric observations with ASP/GASP for several pulsars, including the recently-discovered relativistic double-pulsar binary J0737-3039. These data are compared to simultaneous observations with other pulsar instruments, such as the new "spigot card" spectrometer on the GBT and the Princeton Mark IV instrument at Arecibo, the precursor timing system to ASP. We also briefly discuss several upcoming observations with ASP/GASP.

  5. Extragalactic Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailes, Matthew; Johnston, Simon; Bhat, Ramesh; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Barnes, David; van Straten, Willem

    2008-04-01

    We propose a sky monitoring survey that will piggy-back multibeam observations of other scientific programmes; the intent of our search is to intercept and analyse millisecond-duration, single, impulsive bursts from transient events in the extragalactic sky.

  6. Extragalactic Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Johnston, Simon; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Barnes, David; van Straten, Willem

    2008-10-01

    We propose a sky monitoring survey that will piggy-back multibeam observations of other scientific programmes; the intent of our search is to intercept and analyse millisecond-duration, single, impulsive bursts from transient events in the extragalactic sky.

  7. Recent Radio Results on X-ray Binaries and Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupen, M. P.; Dhawan, V.; Mioduszewski, A. J.

    2003-03-01

    We present recent results from observations with the Very Large Array (VLA) and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) on a number of recent X-ray transients, and a few old friends. In addition to any new X-ray transients discovered between now and the HEAD meeting, we discuss the radio counterpart to XTE J1720-318; the recent resurgence of XTE J1908+094 and GRS 1758-258; the connection between the radio and X-ray emission in the millisecond X-ray pulsars XTE J0929-314 and SAX J1808.4-3658; and VLBA imaging of the 1999 outburst of the microquasar V4641 Sgr, confirming the rapid expansion seen with the VLA. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  8. Fast Radio Bursts: The Search for Their Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke Spolaor, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are millisecond-duration radio signals whose swept-frequency signals indicate a non-local origin.FRB science has been building rapidly since the first discovery of an FRB in 2007; proof of an FRB population in 2013 (Thornton et al.) was quickly followed by further evidence of their likely, although not yet definite, extragalactic origin (e.g. Kulkarni et al. 2014, Burke-Spolaor & Bannister 2014). Until recently, only circumstantial evidence allowed statements on what progenitors FRBs might arise from, and whether they are local, Galactic, or extragalactic. However, we are now able to detect FRB events in real-time, and have the capability to detect FRBs with radio interferometers. This has opened up the possibility to understand their origins through arcsecond localization and the identification of multi-wavelength counterparts. I will describe what we currently know about FRBs, and the status of the FRB hunt for their enigmatic origins.

  9. The importance of source positions during radio fine structure observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, Guennadi P.; Yan, Yi-Hua; Fu, Qi-Jun

    2014-07-01

    The measurement of positions and sizes of radio sources in the observations of the fine structure of solar radio bursts is a determining factor for the selection of the radio emission mechanism. The identical parameters describing the radio sources for zebra structures (ZSs) and fiber bursts confirm there is a common mechanism for both structures. It is very important to measure the size of the source in the corona to determine if it is distributed along the height or if it is point-like. In both models of ZSs (the double plasma resonance (DPR) and the whistler model) the source must be distributed along the height, but by contrast to the stationary source in the DPR model, in the whistler model the source should be moving. Moreover, the direction of the space drift of the radio source must correlate with the frequency drift of stripes in the dynamic spectrum. Some models of ZSs require a local source, for example, the models based on the Bernstein modes, or on explosive instability. The selection of the radio emission mechanism for fast broadband pulsations with millisecond duration also depends on the parameters of their radio sources.

  10. A NuSTAR Observation of the Gamma-ray-emitting X-ray Binary and Transitional Millisecond Pulsar Candidate 1RXS J154439.4–112820

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Slavko

    2016-07-01

    I present a 40 ks Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observation of the recently identified low-luminosity X-ray binary and transitional millisecond pulsar (tMSP) candidate 1RXS J154439.4‑112820, which is associated with the high-energy γ-ray source 3FGL J1544.6‑1125. The system is detected up to ˜30 keV with an extension of the same power-law spectrum and rapid large-amplitude variability between two flux levels observed in soft X-rays. These findings provide further evidence that 1RXS J154439.4‑112820 belongs to the same class of objects as the nearby bona fide tMSPs PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270‑4859 and therefore almost certainly hosts a millisecond pulsar accreting at low luminosity. I also examine the long-term accretion history of 1RXS J154439.4‑112820 based on archival optical, ultraviolet, X-ray, and γ-ray light curves covering approximately the past decade. Throughout this period, the source has maintained similar flux levels at all wavelengths, which is an indication that it has not experienced prolonged episodes of a non-accreting radio pulsar state but may spontaneously undergo such events in the future.

  11. A NuSTAR Observation of the Gamma-ray-emitting X-ray Binary and Transitional Millisecond Pulsar Candidate 1RXS J154439.4–112820

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Slavko

    2016-07-01

    I present a 40 ks Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observation of the recently identified low-luminosity X-ray binary and transitional millisecond pulsar (tMSP) candidate 1RXS J154439.4‑112820, which is associated with the high-energy γ-ray source 3FGL J1544.6‑1125. The system is detected up to ∼30 keV with an extension of the same power-law spectrum and rapid large-amplitude variability between two flux levels observed in soft X-rays. These findings provide further evidence that 1RXS J154439.4‑112820 belongs to the same class of objects as the nearby bona fide tMSPs PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270‑4859 and therefore almost certainly hosts a millisecond pulsar accreting at low luminosity. I also examine the long-term accretion history of 1RXS J154439.4‑112820 based on archival optical, ultraviolet, X-ray, and γ-ray light curves covering approximately the past decade. Throughout this period, the source has maintained similar flux levels at all wavelengths, which is an indication that it has not experienced prolonged episodes of a non-accreting radio pulsar state but may spontaneously undergo such events in the future.

  12. The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials

  13. Fast Radio Bursts and Their Gamma-Ray or Radio Afterglows as Kerr–Newman Black Hole Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tong; Romero, Gustavo E.; Liu, Mo-Lin; Li, Ang

    2016-07-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are radio transients lasting only about a few milliseconds. They seem to occur at cosmological distances. We propose that these events can originate in the collapse of the magnetospheres of Kerr–Newman black holes (KNBHs). We show that the closed orbits of charged particles in the magnetospheres of these objects are unstable. After examining the dependencies on the specific charge of the particle and the spin and charge of the KNBH, we conclude that the resulting timescale and radiation mechanism fit well with extant observations of FRBs. Furthermore, we argue that the merger of a KNBH binary is a plausible central engine for the potential gamma-ray or radio afterglow following certain FRBs and can also account for gravitational wave (GW) events like GW 150914. Our model leads to predictions that can be tested by combined multi-wavelength electromagnetic and GW observations.

  14. Progenitor neutron stars of the lightest and heaviest millisecond pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, M.; Bejger, M.; Haensel, P.; Zdunik, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The recent mass measurements of two binary millisecond pulsars, PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0751+1807 with a mass M = 1.97 ± 0.04 M⊙ and M = 1.26 ± 0.14 M⊙, respectively, indicate a wide range of masses for such objects and possibly also a broad spectrum of masses of neutron stars born in core-collapse supernovae. Aims: Starting from the zero-age main sequence binary stage, we aim at inferring the birth masses of PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0751+1807 by taking the differences in the evolutionary stages preceding their formation into account. Methods: Using simulations for the evolution of binary stars, we reconstruct the evolutionary tracks leading to the formation of PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0751+1807. We analyse in detail the spin evolution due to the accretion of matter from a disk in the intermediate-mass/low-mass X-ray binary. We consider two equations of state of dense matter, one for purely nucleonic matter and the other one including a high-density softening due to the appearance of hyperons. Stationary and axisymmetric stellar configurations in general relativity are used, together with a recent magnetic torque model and observationally-motivated laws for the decay of magnetic field. Results: The estimated birth mass of the neutron stars PSR J0751+1807 and PSR J1614-2230 could be as low as 1.0 M⊙ and as high as 1.9 M⊙, respectively. These values depend weakly on the equation of state and the assumed model for the magnetic field and its accretion-induced decay. Conclusions: The masses of progenitor neutron stars of recycled pulsars span a broad interval from 1.0 M⊙ to 1.9 M⊙. Including the effect of a slow Roche-lobe detachment phase, which could be relevant for PSR J0751+1807, would make the lower mass limit even lower. A realistic theory for core-collapse supernovæ should account for this wide range of mass.

  15. Space Telecommunications Radio System STRS Cognitive Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briones, Janette C.; Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    Radios today are evolving from awareness toward cognition. A software defined radio (SDR) provides the most capability for integrating autonomic decision making ability and allows the incremental evolution toward a cognitive radio. This cognitive radio technology will impact NASA space communications in areas such as spectrum utilization, interoperability, network operations, and radio resource management over a wide range of operating conditions. NASAs cognitive radio will build upon the infrastructure being developed by Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) SDR technology. This paper explores the feasibility of inserting cognitive capabilities in the NASA STRS architecture and the interfaces between the cognitive engine and the STRS radio. The STRS architecture defines methods that can inform the cognitive engine about the radio environment so that the cognitive engine can learn autonomously from experience, and take appropriate actions to adapt the radio operating characteristics and optimize performance.

  16. Optical counterparts of two Fermi millisecond pulsars: PSR J1301+0833 and PSR J1628–3205

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Miao; Halpern, Jules P.; Thorstensen, John R.

    2014-11-10

    Using the 1.3 m and 2.4 m Telescopes of the MDM Observatory, we identified the close companions of two eclipsing millisecond radio pulsars that were discovered by the Green Bank Telescope in searches of Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope sources, and measured their light curves. PSR J1301+0833 is a black widow pulsar in a 6.5 hr orbit whose companion star is strongly heated on the side facing the pulsar. It varies from R = 21.8 to R > 24 around the orbit. PSR J1628–3205 is a 'redback', a nearly Roche-lobe-filling system in a 5.0 hr orbit whose optical modulation in the range 19.0 < R < 19.4 is dominated by strong ellipsoidal variations, indicating a large orbital inclination angle. PSR J1628–3205 also shows evidence for a long-term variation of about 0.2 mag, and an asymmetric temperature distribution possibly due to either off-center heating by the pulsar wind, or large starspots. Modeling of its light curve restricts the inclination angle to i > 55°, the mass of the companion to 0.16 < M{sub c} < 0.30 M {sub ☉}, and the effective temperature to 3560 < T {sub eff} < 4670 K. As is the case for several redbacks, the companion of PSR J1628–3205 is less dense and hotter than a main-sequence star of the same mass.

  17. Optical Counterparts of Two Fermi Millisecond Pulsars: PSR J1301+0833 and PSR J1628-3205

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miao; Halpern, Jules P.; Thorstensen, John R.

    2014-11-01

    Using the 1.3 m and 2.4 m Telescopes of the MDM Observatory, we identified the close companions of two eclipsing millisecond radio pulsars that were discovered by the Green Bank Telescope in searches of Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope sources, and measured their light curves. PSR J1301+0833 is a black widow pulsar in a 6.5 hr orbit whose companion star is strongly heated on the side facing the pulsar. It varies from R = 21.8 to R > 24 around the orbit. PSR J1628-3205 is a "redback," a nearly Roche-lobe-filling system in a 5.0 hr orbit whose optical modulation in the range 19.0 < R < 19.4 is dominated by strong ellipsoidal variations, indicating a large orbital inclination angle. PSR J1628-3205 also shows evidence for a long-term variation of about 0.2 mag, and an asymmetric temperature distribution possibly due to either off-center heating by the pulsar wind, or large starspots. Modeling of its light curve restricts the inclination angle to i > 55°, the mass of the companion to 0.16 < Mc < 0.30 M ⊙, and the effective temperature to 3560 < T eff < 4670 K. As is the case for several redbacks, the companion of PSR J1628-3205 is less dense and hotter than a main-sequence star of the same mass.

  18. The NANOGrav Nine-year Data Set: Observations, Arrival Time Measurements, and Analysis of 37 Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The NANOGrav Collaboration; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Brazier, Adam; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Chamberlin, Sydney; Chatterjee, Shami; Christy, Brian; Cordes, James M.; Cornish, Neil; Crowter, Kathryn; Demorest, Paul B.; Dolch, Timothy; Ellis, Justin A.; Ferdman, Robert D.; Fonseca, Emmanuel; Garver-Daniels, Nathan; Gonzalez, Marjorie E.; Jenet, Fredrick A.; Jones, Glenn; Jones, Megan L.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Koop, Michael; Lam, Michael T.; Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Levin, Lina; Lommen, Andrea N.; Lorimer, Duncan R.; Luo, Jing; Lynch, Ryan S.; Madison, Dustin; McLaughlin, Maura A.; McWilliams, Sean T.; Nice, David J.; Palliyaguru, Nipuni; Pennucci, Timothy T.; Ransom, Scott M.; Siemens, Xavier; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Stinebring, Daniel R.; Stovall, Kevin; Swiggum, Joseph K.; Vallisneri, Michele; van Haasteren, Rutger; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Weiwei

    2015-11-01

    We present high-precision timing observations spanning up to nine years for 37 millisecond pulsars monitored with the Green Bank and Arecibo radio telescopes as part of the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) project. We describe the observational and instrumental setups used to collect the data, and methodology applied for calculating pulse times of arrival; these include novel methods for measuring instrumental offsets and characterizing low signal-to-noise ratio timing results. The time of arrival data are fit to a physical timing model for each source, including terms that characterize time-variable dispersion measure and frequency-dependent pulse shape evolution. In conjunction with the timing model fit, we have performed a Bayesian analysis of a parameterized timing noise model for each source, and detect evidence for excess low-frequency, or “red,” timing noise in 10 of the pulsars. For 5 of these cases this is likely due to interstellar medium propagation effects rather than intrisic spin variations. Subsequent papers in this series will present further analysis of this data set aimed at detecting or limiting the presence of nanohertz-frequency gravitational wave signals.

  19. A Shapiro Delay Detection in the Binary System Hosting the Millisecond Pulsar PSR J1910-5959A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corongiu, A.; Burgay, M.; Possenti, A.; Camilo, F.; D'Amico, N.; Lyne, A. G.; Manchester, R. N.; Sarkissian, J. M.; Bailes, M.; Johnston, S.; Kramer, M.; van Straten, W.

    2012-12-01

    PSR J1910-5959A is a binary pulsar with a helium white dwarf (HeWD) companion located about 6 arcmin from the center of the globular cluster NGC 6752. Based on 12 years of observations at the Parkes radio telescope, the relativistic Shapiro delay has been detected in this system. We obtain a companion mass MC = 0.180 ± 0.018 M ⊙ (1σ) implying that the pulsar mass lies in the range 1.1 M ⊙ <= MP <= 1.5 M ⊙. We compare our results with previous optical determinations of the companion mass and examine prospects for using this new measurement for calibrating the mass-radius relation for HeWDs and for investigating their evolution in a pulsar binary system. Finally, we examine the set of binary systems hosting a millisecond pulsar and a low-mass HeWD for which the mass of both stars has been measured. We confirm that the correlation between the companion mass and the orbital period predicted by Tauris & Savonije reproduces the observed values but find that the predicted MP -PB correlation overestimates the neutron star mass by about 0.5 M ⊙ in the orbital period range covered by the observations. Moreover, a few systems do not obey the observed MP -PB correlation. We discuss these results in the framework of the mechanisms that inhibit the accretion of matter by a neutron star during its evolution in a low-mass X-ray binary.

  20. Multi-wavelength emissions from the millisecond pulsar binary PSR J1023+0038 during an accretion active state

    SciTech Connect

    Takata, J.; Leung, Gene C. K.; Wu, E. M. H.; Cheng, K. S.; Li, K. L.; Kong, A. K. H.; Tam, P. H. T.; Hui, C. Y.; Xing, Yi; Wang, Zhongxiang; Cao, Yi; Tang, Sumin E-mail: akong@phys.nthu.edu.tw

    2014-04-20

    Recent observations strongly suggest that the millisecond pulsar binary PSR J1023+0038 has developed an accretion disk since 2013 June. We present a multi-wavelength analysis of PSR J1023+0038, which reveals that (1) its gamma-rays suddenly brightened within a few days in 2013 June/July and has remained at a high gamma-ray state for several months; (2) both UV and X-ray fluxes have increased by roughly an order of magnitude; and (3) the spectral energy distribution has changed significantly after the gamma-ray sudden flux change. Time variabilities associated with UV and X-rays are on the order of 100-500 s and 50-100 s, respectively. Our model suggests that a newly formed accretion disk, due to the sudden increase of the stellar wind, could explain the changes of all these observed features. The increase of UV is emitted from the disk, and a new component in gamma-rays is produced by inverse Compton scattering between the new UV component and pulsar wind. The increase of X-rays results from the enhancement of injection pulsar wind energy into the intra-binary shock due to the increase of the stellar wind. We also predict that the radio pulses may be blocked by the evaporated winds from the disk, and the pulsar is still powered by rotation.

  1. Discovery of a Millisecond Pulsar in the 5.4 day Binary 3FGL J1417.5-4402: Observing the Late Phase of Pulsar Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilo, F.; Reynolds, J. E.; Ransom, S. M.; Halpern, J. P.; Bogdanov, S.; Kerr, M.; Ray, P. S.; Cordes, J. M.; Sarkissian, J.; Barr, E. D.; Ferrara, E. C.

    2016-03-01

    In a search of the unidentified Fermi gamma-ray source 3FGL J1417.5-4402 with the Parkes radio telescope, we discovered PSR J1417-4402, a 2.66 ms pulsar having the same 5.4 day orbital period as the optical and X-ray binary identified by Strader et al. The existence of radio pulsations implies that the neutron star is currently not accreting. Substantial outflows from the companion render the radio pulsar undetectable for more than half of the orbit, and may contribute to the observed Hα emission. Our initial pulsar observations, together with the optically inferred orbit and inclination, imply a mass ratio of 0.171 ± 0.002, a companion mass of {M}2=0.33+/- 0.03 M⊙, and a neutron star mass in the range 1.77≤slant {M}1≤slant 2.13 M⊙. However, there remains a discrepancy between the distance of 4.4 kpc inferred from the optical properties of the companion and the smaller radio dispersion measure distance of 1.6 kpc. The smaller distance would reduce the inferred Roche-lobe filling factor, increase the inferred inclination angle, and decrease the masses. As a wide binary, PSR J1417-4402 differs from the radio-eclipsing black widow and redback pulsars being discovered in large numbers by Fermi. It is probably a system that began mass transfer onto the neutron star after the companion star left the main sequence. The companion should end its evolution as a He white dwarf in a 6-20 day orbit, i.e., as a typical binary millisecond pulsar companion.

  2. RADIO ALTIMETERS

    DOEpatents

    Bogle, R.W.

    1960-11-22

    A radio ranging device is described which utilizes a superregenerative oscillator having alternate sending and receiving phases with an intervening ranging interval between said phases, means for varying said ranging interval, means responsive to an on-range noise reduction condition for stopping said means for varying the ranging interval and indicating means coupled to the ranging interval varying means and calibrated in accordance with one-half the product of the ranging interval times the velocity of light whereby the range is indicated.

  3. Routine Access to Millisecond Time Scale Events with Accelerated Molecular Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we critically assess the ability of the all-atom enhanced sampling method accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) to investigate conformational changes in proteins that typically occur on the millisecond time scale. We combine aMD with the inherent power of graphics processor units (GPUs) and apply the implementation to the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). A 500 ns aMD simulation is compared to a previous millisecond unbiased brute force MD simulation carried out on BPTI, showing that the same conformational space is sampled by both approaches. To our knowledge, this represents the first implementation of aMD on GPUs and also the longest aMD simulation of a biomolecule run to date. Our implementation is available to the community in the latest release of the Amber software suite (v12), providing routine access to millisecond events sampled from dynamics simulations using off the shelf hardware. PMID:22984356

  4. Prospects for neutron star equation of state constraints using "recycled" millisecond pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Slavko

    2016-02-01

    "Recycled" millisecond pulsars are a variety of rapidly spinning neutron stars that typically show thermal X-ray radiation due to the heated surface of their magnetic polar caps. Detailed numerical modeling of the rotation-induced thermal X-ray pulsations observed from recycled millisecond pulsars, including all relevant relativistic and stellar atmospheric effects, has been identified as a promising approach towards an astrophysical determination of the true neutron star mass-radius relation, and by extension the state of cold matter at densities exceeding those of atomic nuclei. Herein, I review the basic model and methodology commonly used to extract information regarding neutron star structure from the pulsed X-ray radiation observed from millisecond pulsars. I also summarize the results of past X-ray observations of these objects and the prospects for precision neutron star mass-radius measurements with the upcoming Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) X-ray timing mission.

  5. Exploring the Progenitors of Fast Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Kramer, Michael; Bhat, Ramesh; Kulkarni, S. R.; Keller, Stefan; Champion, David; Flynn, Chris; Kasliwal, Mansi

    2014-10-01

    Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are millisecond bursts that are broadly evidenced to arise from extragalactic, but yet unknown, progenitors. They have presented a true mystery in that so far no progenitor theory can adequately account for their observed properties. We request observations that will glean basic information on FRB progenitors. Our observations will execute a specific test of whether FRBs originate in nearby galaxies. We have also designed our target field and time request to enable a thorough exploration of optical counterparts before, during, and after any detected FRB episode. Additionally, with a number depending on the typical distance to FRBs, our observations will raise the running list of total FRB discoveries by 10-60%.

  6. Millisecond temporal structure in Cyg X-1. [including X ray variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, R. E.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the X-ray variability of Cyg X-1 on time scales down to a millisecond. Several bursts of millisecond duration are observed. The duty cycle for bursting is estimated to be approximately greater than. 0002 averaged over the entire 49. second exposure, although the maximum burst activity is associated with a region of enhanced emission lasting about 1/3 second. Such bursts may be associated with turbulence in disk accretion at the innermost orbits for a black hole.

  7. DETECTION AND FLUX DENSITY MEASUREMENTS OF THE MILLISECOND PULSAR J2145–0750 BELOW 100 MHz

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, J.; Taylor, G. B.; Craig, J.; Henning, P. A.; Schinzel, F.; Ray, P. S.; Blythe, J. N.; Clarke, T.; Helmboldt, J. F.; Ellingson, S. W.; Wolfe, C. N.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Stovall, K.

    2013-09-20

    We present flux density measurements and pulse profiles for the millisecond pulsar PSR J2145–0750 spanning 37 to 81 MHz using data obtained from the first station of the Long Wavelength Array. These measurements represent the lowest frequency detection of pulsed emission from a millisecond pulsar to date. We find that the pulse profile is similar to that observed at 102 MHz. We also find that the flux density spectrum between ≈40 MHz to 5 GHz is suggestive of a break and may be better fit by a model that includes spectral curvature with a rollover around 730 MHz rather than a single power law.

  8. Multi-Timescale Radio Observations of Multi-Wavelength GRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Horst, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are a broadband phenomenon, with emission detected across the electromagnetic spectrum from low-frequency radio waves to high-energy gamma-rays. Besides this extremely broad spectral range, they are also observed over a very large range of timescales, from millisecond variability in gamma-rays to the afterglows at radio frequencies that can sometimes be observed for years after the initial gamma-ray trigger. Our current understanding of gamma-ray bursts is based on these multi-frequency and multi-timescale observations. In this talk I will show the role that radio observations have played and will play in putting together a broadband picture of the physics behind the observed emission, the progenitors, and their environment. I will highlight some recent discoveries and developments, in particular the searches for early radio emission within the first minutes after gamma-ray triggers; the increasing number of radio-detected, optically dark bursts; and the possibilities that several new and upgraded radio observatories offer to obtain a better understanding of the macro- and microphysics behind these enigmatic phenomena.

  9. Radio Jove: Jupiter Radio Astronomy for Citizens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Charles; Thieman, J. R.; Flagg, R.; Reyes, F. J.; Sky, J.; Greenman, W.; Brown, J.; Typinski, D.; Ashcraft, T.; Mount, A.

    2014-01-01

    Radio JOVE is a hands-on educational activity that brings the radio sounds of the Sun, Jupiter, the Milky Way Galaxy, and terrestrial radio noise to students, teachers, and the general public. Participants may build a simple radio telescope kit, make scientific observations, and interact with professional radio observatories in real-time over the Internet. Our website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) includes science information, construction manuals, observing guides, and education resources for teachers and students. Radio Jove is continually expanding its participants with over 1800 kits sold to more than 70 countries worldwide. Recently some of our most dedicated observers have upgraded their Radio Jove antennas to semi-professional observatories. We have spectrographs and wide band antennas, some with 8 MHz bandwidth and some with dual polarization capabilities. In an effort to add to the science literature, these observers are coordinating their efforts to pursue some basic questions about Jupiter’s radio emissions (radio source locations, spectral structure, long term changes, etc.). We can compare signal and ionosphere variations using the many Radio Jove observers at different locations. Observers are also working with members of the Long Wavelength Array Station 1 (LWA1) radio telescope to coordinate observations of Jupiter; Radio Jove is planning to make coordinated observations while the Juno Mission is active beginning in 2015. The Radio Jove program is overviewed, its hardware and software are highlighted, recent sample observations are shown, and we demonstrate that we are capable of real citizen science.

  10. Radio tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, J. C.; Komarek, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    The principles and techniques of deep space radio tracking are described along with the uses of tracking data in navigation and radio science. Emphasis is placed on the measurement functions of radio tracking.