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Sample records for isolates including non-albicans

  1. Growth inhibition and ultrastructural alterations induced by Δ24(25)-sterol methyltransferase inhibitors in Candida spp. isolates, including non-albicans organisms

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Although Candida species are commensal microorganisms, they can cause many invasive fungal infections. In addition, antifungal resistance can contribute to failure of treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of inhibitors of Δ24(25)-sterol methyltransferase (24-SMTI), 20-piperidin-2-yl-5α-pregnan-3β-20(R)-diol (AZA), and 24(R,S),25-epiminolanosterol (EIL), against clinical isolates of Candida spp., analysing the ultrastructural changes. Results AZA and EIL were found to be potent growth inhibitors of Candida spp. isolates. The median MIC50 was 0.5 μg.ml-1 for AZA and 2 μg.ml-1 for EIL, and the MIC90 was 2 μg.ml-1 for both compounds. All strains used in this study were susceptible to amphotericin B; however, some isolates were fluconazole- and itraconazole-resistant. Most of the azole-resistant isolates were Candida non-albicans (CNA) species, but several of them, such as C. guilliermondii, C. zeylanoides, and C. lipolytica, were susceptible to 24-SMTI, indicating a lack of cross-resistance. Reference strain C. krusei (ATCC 6258, FLC-resistant) was consistently susceptible to AZA, although not to EIL. The fungicidal activity of 24-SMTI was particularly high against CNA isolates. Treatment with sub-inhibitory concentrations of AZA and EIL induced several ultrastructural alterations, including changes in the cell-wall shape and thickness, a pronounced disconnection between the cell wall and cytoplasm with an electron-lucent zone between them, mitochondrial swelling, and the presence of electron-dense vacuoles. Fluorescence microscopy analyses indicated an accumulation of lipid bodies and alterations in the cell cycle of the yeasts. The selectivity of 24-SMTI for fungal cells versus mammalian cells was assessed by the sulforhodamine B viability assay. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that inhibition of 24-SMT may be a novel approach to control Candida spp. infections, including those caused by azole

  2. High Recovery Rate of Non-albicans Candida Species Isolated From Burn Patients With Candidemia in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Nazanin; Shokohi, Tahereh; Nouranibaladezaei, Seyed Zahra; Nasrolahi Omran, Ayatollah; Kondori, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Blood stream infections (BSIs) are major causes of morbidity and mortality in burn patients. Microorganisms responsible for BSI are generally bacteria; however, Candida spp. are the infection agents in as many as 8% of all cases. Burn wound colonization and infections are generally the first steps to systemic infection. Candidemia in burn patients has been associated with high mortality and a prolonged hospital stay. Objectives: Candidemia in burn patients has been defined as a preterminal event, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates among these patients. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence of candidemia in burn patients in Iran. Patients and Methods: We consecutively collected 405 blood samples from 113 burn patients. The yeast isolates were identified to the species level using conventional procedures. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of the Candida isolates to amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin was performed using the Etest. Results: Twenty-seven samples (6.7%) of the blood cultures from 13 patients (12%) were positive for Candida species. Candida parapsilosis (38%) and C. tropicalis (38%) were the most commonly found Candida species, followed by C. albicans (15%) and C. guilliermondii (15%) in the patients. The incidence of candidemia was significantly correlated with increased duration of hospitalization, increased time of stay in the intensive care unit, and higher mortality. The antifungal susceptibility tests demonstrated that amphotericin B and voriconazole had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Candida spp. Conclusions: Non-albicans Candida should be considered as significant pathogens in burned patients with candidemia. PMID:26587207

  3. In vitro activities of voriconazole (UK-109, 496), fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B against 132 non-albicans bloodstream yeast isolates (CANARI study).

    PubMed

    Swinne, D; Watelle, M; Van der Flaes, M; Nolard, N

    2004-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the in vitro activity of voriconazole compared with those of amphotericin B, itraconazole and fluconazole against 132 bloodstream isolates of Candida non-albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae species. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by an adapted National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) M27-A method using RPMI 1640 as test medium supplemented with 2% glucose. MIC end-points were determined with a spectrophotometer after incubation for 48 h at 35 degrees C. Optical density data were used for the calculation of the MIC end-points. For amphotericin B, the end-point was defined as the minimal antifungal concentration that exerts 90% inhibition compared with the control well growth. For the azoles, the end-points were determined at 50% inhibition of growth. Amphotericin B is highly active with 97% of isolates inhibited by < or =1 microg ml(-1). Decreased susceptibility or resistance to fluconazole was the rule among C. krusei, which is intrinsically resistant to fluconazole. For C. glabrata isolates, resistance to fluconazole and itraconazole was measured in 13% and 17% of the isolates respectively. Voriconazole was quite active in vitro against all the isolates with a MIC90% of < or =1 microg ml(-1) and we conclude that it may be useful in the treatment of non-albicans bloodstream infections. PMID:15189180

  4. Non-albicans Candida Infection: An Emerging Threat

    PubMed Central

    Deorukhkar, Sachin C.; Saini, Santosh

    2014-01-01

    The very nature of infectious diseases has undergone profound changes in the past few decades. Fungi once considered as nonpathogenic or less virulent are now recognized as a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised and severely ill patients. Candida spp. are among the most common fungal pathogens. Candida albicans was the predominant cause of candidiasis. However, a shift toward non-albicans Candida species has been recently observed. These non-albicans Candida species demonstrate reduced susceptibility to commonly used antifungal drugs. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of non-albicans Candida spp. among Candida isolates from various clinical specimens and analysed their virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility profile. A total of 523 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens. Non-albicans Candida species were the predominant pathogens isolated. Non-albicans Candida species also demonstrated the production of virulence factors once attributed to Candida albicans. Non-albicans Candida demonstrated high resistance to azole group of antifungal agents. Therefore, it can be concluded that non-albicans Candida species have emerged as an important cause of infections. Their isolation from clinical specimen can no longer be ignored as a nonpathogenic isolate nor can it be dismissed as a contaminant. PMID:25404942

  5. Yeasts isolated from Algerian infants's feces revealed a burden of Candida albicans species, non-albicans Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Seddik, Hamza Ait; Ceugniez, Alexandre; Bendali, Farida; Cudennec, Benoit; Drider, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at showing the yeast diversity in feces of Algerian infants, aged between 1 and 24 months, hospitalized at Bejaia hospital (northeast side of the country). Thus, 20 colonies with yeast characteristics were isolated and identified using biochemical (ID32C Api system) and molecular (sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region) methods. Almost all colonies isolated (19 strains) were identified as Candida spp., with predominance of Candida albicans species, and one strain was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Screening of strains with inhibitory activities unveiled the potential of Candida parapsilosis P48L1 and Candida albicans P51L1 to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Further studies performed with these two Candida strains revealed their susceptibility to clinically used antifungal compounds and were then characterized for their cytotoxicity and hemolytic properties. On the other hand, Saccharomyces cerevisiae P9L1 isolated as well in this study was shown to be devoid of antagonism but resulted safe and overall usable as probiotic. PMID:26404657

  6. Mixed biofilms formed by C. albicans and non-albicans species: a study of microbial interactions.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jéssica Diane dos; Piva, Elisabete; Vilela, Simone Furgeri Godinho; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2016-01-01

    Most Candida infections are related to microbial biofilms often formed by the association of different species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interactions between Candida albicans and non-albicans species in biofilms formed in vitro. The non-albicans species studied were:Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. Single and mixed biofilms (formed by clinical isolates of C. albicans and non-albicans species) were developed from standardized suspensions of each strain (10(7) cells/mL), on flat-bottom 96-well microtiter plates for 48 hour. These biofilms were analyzed by counting colony-forming units (CFU/mL) in Candida HiChrome agar and by determining cell viability, using the XTT 2,3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino) carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide colorimetric assay. The results for both the CFU/mL count and the XTT colorimetric assay showed that all the species studied were capable of forming high levels of in vitro biofilm. The number of CFU/mL and the metabolic activity of C. albicans were reduced in mixed biofilms with non-albicans species, as compared with a single C. albicans biofilm. Among the species tested, C. krusei exerted the highest inhibitory action against C. albicans. In conclusion, C. albicans established antagonistic interactions with non-albicans Candida species in mixed biofilms. PMID:26981754

  7. Comparison of albicans vs. non-albicans candidemia in French intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Candidemia raises numerous therapeutic issues for intensive care physicians. Epidemiological data that could guide the choice of initial therapy are still required. This analysis sought to compare the characteristics of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with candidemia due to non-albicans Candida species with those of ICU patients with candidemia due to Candida albicans. Methods A prospective, observational, multicenter, French study was conducted from October 2005 to May 2006. Patients exhibiting candidemia developed during ICU stay and exclusively due either to one or more non-albicans Candida species or to C. albicans were selected. The data collected included patient characteristics on ICU admission and at the onset of candidemia. Results Among the 136 patients analyzed, 78 (57.4%) had candidemia caused by C. albicans. These patients had earlier onset of infection (11.1 ± 14.2 days after ICU admission vs. 17.4 ± 17.7, p = 0.02), higher severity scores on ICU admission (SOFA: 10.4 ± 4.7 vs. 8.6 ± 4.6, p = 0.03; SAPS II: 57.4 ± 22.8 vs. 48.7 ± 15.5, P = 0.015), and were less often neutropenic (2.6% vs. 12%, p = 0.04) than patients with candidemia due to non-albicans Candida species. Conclusions Although patients infected with Candida albicans differed from patients infected with non-albicans Candida species for a few characteristics, no clinical factor appeared pertinent enough to guide the choice of empirical antifungal therapy in ICU. PMID:20507569

  8. Scanning electron and confocal scanning laser microscopy imaging of the ultrastructure and viability of vaginal Candida albicans and non- albicans species adhered to an intrauterine contraceptive device.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Luciene C Farias; Donatti, Lucélia; Patussi, Eliana V; Svizdinski, Terezinha I E; Lopes-Consolaro, Márcia E

    2010-10-01

    Although bacterial biofilms have been studied in detail, adhesion of Candida albicans and non-albicans species to an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) is not clear. The objective of this study was to evaluate aspects of imaging of the ultrastructure and viability of vaginal yeasts adhered to different parts of an IUD, through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). We studied yeasts isolated from different patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis: C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. guillermondii, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A suspension of the each yeast was prepared and incubated with IUD parts (tail, without copper, and copper-covered). SEM and CSLM showed that all the vaginal yeasts adhered to all the parts of the IUD and demonstrated viability, including 30 days after contact for C. albicans. Possibly irregularities of IUD surface contribute to the adherence process. Although all of the IUD parts contribute to retention of yeasts in the genital tract, high concentration of yeast cells on the tail may indicate the importance of this segment in maintaining the colonization by yeast cells because the tail forms a bridge between the external environment, the vagina that is colonized by yeast cells, and the upper genital tract where there is no colonization. PMID:20804637

  9. Beyond Candida albicans: Mechanisms of immunity to non-albicans Candida species.

    PubMed

    Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-11-01

    The fungal genus Candida encompasses numerous species that inhabit a variety of hosts, either as commensal microbes and/or pathogens. Candida species are a major cause of fungal infections, yet to date there are no vaccines against Candida or indeed any other fungal pathogen. Our knowledge of immunity to Candida mainly comes from studies on Candida albicans, the most frequent species associated with disease. However, non-albicans Candida (NAC) species also cause disease and their prevalence is increasing. Although research into immunity to NAC species is still at an early stage, it is becoming apparent that immunity to C. albicans differs in important ways from non-albicans species, with important implications for treatment, therapy and predicted demographic susceptibility. This review will discuss the current understanding of immunity to NAC species in the context of immunity to C. albicans, and highlight as-yet unanswered questions. PMID:26276374

  10. Launch Lock Assemblies Including Axial Gap Amplification Devices and Spacecraft Isolation Systems Including the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Young, Ken (Inventor); Davis, Torey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of a launch lock assembly are provided, as are embodiments of a spacecraft isolation system including one or more launch lock assemblies. In one embodiment, the launch lock assembly includes first and second mount pieces, a releasable clamp device, and an axial gap amplification device. The releasable clamp device normally maintains the first and second mount pieces in clamped engagement; and, when actuated, releases the first and second mount pieces from clamped engagement to allow relative axial motion there between. The axial gap amplification device normally residing in a blocking position wherein the gap amplification device obstructs relative axial motion between the first and second mount pieces. The axial gap amplification device moves into a non-blocking position when the first and second mount pieces are released from clamped engagement to increase the range of axial motion between the first and second mount pieces.

  11. Drug resistance mechanisms and their regulation in non-albicans Candida species.

    PubMed

    Kołaczkowska, Anna; Kołaczkowski, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    Fungal pathogens use various mechanisms to survive exposure to drugs. Prolonged treatment very often leads to the stepwise acquisition of resistance. The limited number of antifungal therapeutics and their mostly fungistatic rather than fungicidal character facilitates selection of resistant strains. These are able to cope with cytotoxic molecules by acquisition of appropriate mutations, re-wiring gene expression and metabolic adjustments. Recent evidence points to the paramount importance of the permeability barrier and cell wall integrity in the process of adaptation to high drug concentrations. Molecular details of basal and acquired drug resistance are best characterized in the most frequent human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans Effector genes directly related to the acquisition of elevated tolerance of this species to azole and echinocandin drugs are well described. The emergence of high-level drug resistance against intrinsically lower susceptibility to azoles in yeast species other than C. albicans is, however, of particular concern. This is due to their steadily increasing contribution to high mortality rates associated with disseminated infections. Recent findings concerning underlying mechanisms associated with elevated drug resistance suggest a link to cell wall and plasma membrane metabolism in non-albicans Candida species. PMID:26801081

  12. Ceftaroline versus isolates from animal bite wounds: comparative in vitro activities against 243 isolates, including 156 Pasteurella species isolates.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L

    2012-12-01

    More than 5 million Americans are bitten by animals, usually dogs, annually. Bite patients comprise ∼1% of all patients who visit emergency departments (300,000/year), and approximately 10,000 require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Ceftaroline is the bioactive component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, which is FDA approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), including those containing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are no in vitro data about the activity of ceftaroline against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica, other Pasteurella spp., or other bite wound isolates. We therefore studied the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against 243 animal bite isolates. MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. Comparator drugs included cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Ceftaroline was the most active agent against all 5 Pasteurella species, including P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica, with a maximum MIC of ≤0.008 μg/ml; more active than ceftriaxone and ertapenem (MIC(90)s, ≤0.015 μg/ml); and more active than cefazolin (MIC(90), 0.5 μg/ml) doxycycline (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml), azithromycin (MIC(90), 0.5 μg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml), and SMX-TMP (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml). Ceftaroline was also very active against all S. aureus isolates (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml) and other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, with a maximum MIC of 0.125 μg/ml against all bite isolates tested. Ceftaroline has potential clinical utility against infections involving P. multocida, other Pasteurella species, and aerobic Gram-positive isolates, including S. aureus. PMID:23027193

  13. Ceftaroline versus Isolates from Animal Bite Wounds: Comparative In Vitro Activities against 243 Isolates, Including 156 Pasteurella Species Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L.

    2012-01-01

    More than 5 million Americans are bitten by animals, usually dogs, annually. Bite patients comprise ∼1% of all patients who visit emergency departments (300,000/year), and approximately 10,000 require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Ceftaroline is the bioactive component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, which is FDA approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), including those containing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are no in vitro data about the activity of ceftaroline against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica, other Pasteurella spp., or other bite wound isolates. We therefore studied the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against 243 animal bite isolates. MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. Comparator drugs included cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Ceftaroline was the most active agent against all 5 Pasteurella species, including P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica, with a maximum MIC of ≤0.008 μg/ml; more active than ceftriaxone and ertapenem (MIC90s, ≤0.015 μg/ml); and more active than cefazolin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml) doxycycline (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml), azithromycin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml), and SMX-TMP (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml). Ceftaroline was also very active against all S. aureus isolates (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml) and other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, with a maximum MIC of 0.125 μg/ml against all bite isolates tested. Ceftaroline has potential clinical utility against infections involving P. multocida, other Pasteurella species, and aerobic Gram-positive isolates, including S. aureus. PMID:23027193

  14. Comparison Between Biofilm Production, Phospholipase and Haemolytic Activity of Different Species of Candida Isolated from Dental Caries Lesions in Children

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Neetha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction C.albicans is the most commonly isolated fungal pathogen in the oral cavity, but isolation of non-albicans Candida is increasing in recent years. We wish to demonstrate the virulence factors of Candida spp. isolated from the dental caries lesion of the children as presence of virulence factors determines the pathogenic potential of any microorganism. Aim To compare biofilm production, phospholipase and haemolytic activity of C.albicans with that of non-albicans species of Candida isolated from dental caries lesions of children to evaluate the role of non- albicans species of Candida in formation of dental caries. Materials and Methods Oral swabs were collected from caries lesion of 100 school children of age 5-10 years with dental caries. Candida isolates were tested for biofilm production, phospholipase and haemolytic activity. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-Square test and Mann-Whitney U test wherever applicable using SPSS version 11.5. Results Out of the 100 children with dental caries 37 were positive for Candida by smear or culture and 31 by culture. C.albicans was the most prevalent isolate followed by C.krusei, C.tropicalis and C.albicans. Out of 21 C.albicans isolates, 10 (47.6%) showed phospholipase activity and 18 (85.71%) produced biofilm. Of the 10 non-albicans strains, 5 (50%) showed phospholipase activity and 6 (60%) produced biofilm. All isolates of Candida produced haemolysin (100%). Conclusion There was no statistically relevant difference between the virulence factor production by C.albicans and non-albicans species of Candida. In other words, our study shows that both C.albicans and non-albicans species of Candida isolated from caries lesions of the children, produce these virulence factors. So we can say that non-albicans species of Candida also are involved in caries formation. PMID:27190803

  15. Mounting Systems for Structural Members, Fastening Assemblies Thereof, and Vibration Isolation Systems Including the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Ken (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Mounting systems for structural members, fastening assemblies thereof, and vibration isolation systems including the same are provided. Mounting systems comprise a pair of mounting brackets, each clamped against a fastening assembly forming a mounting assembly. Fastening assemblies comprise a spherical rod end comprising a spherical member having a through opening and an integrally threaded shaft, first and second seating members on opposite sides of the spherical member and each having a through opening that is substantially coaxial with the spherical member through opening, and a partially threaded fastener that threadably engages each mounting bracket forming the mounting assembly. Structural members have axial end portions, each releasably coupled to a mounting bracket by the integrally threaded shaft. Axial end portions are threaded in opposite directions for permitting structural member rotation to adjust a length thereof to a substantially zero strain position. Structural members may be vibration isolator struts in vibration isolation systems.

  16. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Vagococcus fluvialis, including strains isolated from human sources.

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, L M; Carvalho, M G; Merquior, V L; Steigerwalt, A G; Brenner, D J; Facklam, R R

    1997-01-01

    This study presents phenotypic and genotypic data for seven isolates of Vagococcus fluvialis, including four strains recovered from human clinical sources, one strain isolated from an environmental source, and two strains isolated from pigs. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, most isolates were initially classified as "unidentified enterococci," because they resembled atypical arginine-negative enterococcal species. All seven strains as well as the type strain of V. fluvialis reacted with the AccuProbe Enterococcus genetic probe. The seven isolates had virtually indistinguishable whole-cell protein profiles that were similar to that of the V. fluvialis type strain and distinct from those of Enterococcus and Lactococcus species. DNA-DNA reassociation experiments confirmed that the strains were V. fluvialis. They were 71% or more related to the V. fluvialis type strain under optimum and stringent conditions, with 2.5% or less divergence within related sequences. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin and were resistant to clindamycin, lomefloxacin, and ofloxacin. Strain-to-strain variation was observed in relation to susceptibilities to 18 other antimicrobial agents. Chromosomal DNA was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digestion with SmaI. Distinctive PFGE patterns were generated, suggesting the nonclonal nature of V. fluvialis strains. Although the number of strains was small, this report provides molecular characterization of V. fluvialis and the first evidence of a possible connection of this species with human infections. PMID:9350732

  17. Comparative genome analysis of Pseudomonas genomes including Populus-associated isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Se Ran; Wassenaar, Trudy; Nookaew, Intawat; Hauser, Loren John; Wanchai, Visanu; Land, Miriam L.; Timm, Collin M.; Lu, Tse-Yuan S.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A; Ussery, David W

    2016-01-01

    The Pseudomonas genus contains a metabolically versatile group of organisms that are known to occupy numerous ecological niches including the rhizosphere and endosphere of many plants influencing phylogenetic diversity and heterogeneity. In this study, comparative genome analysis was performed on over one thousand Pseudomonas genomes, including 21 Pseudomonas strains isolated from the roots of native Populus deltoides. Based on average amino acid identity, genomic clusters were identified within the Pseudomonas genus, which showed agreements with clades by NCBI and cliques by IMG. The P. fluorescens group was organized into 20 distinct genomic clusters, representing enormous diversity and heterogeneity. The species P. aeruginosa showed clear distinction in their genomic relatedness compared to other Pseudomonas species groups based on the pan and core genome analysis. The 19 isolates of our 21 Populus-associated isolates formed three distinct subgroups within the P. fluorescens major group, supported by pathway profiles analysis, while two isolates were more closely related to P. chlororaphis and P. putida. The specific genes to Populus-associated subgroups were identified where genes specific to subgroup 1 include several sensory systems such as proteins which act in two-component signal transduction, a TonB-dependent receptor, and a phosphorelay sensor; specific genes to subgroup 2 contain unique hypothetical genes; and genes specific to subgroup 3 organisms have a different hydrolase activity. IMPORTANCE The comparative genome analyses of the genus Pseudomonas that included Populus-associated isolates resulted in novel insights into high diversity of Pseudomonas. Consistent and robust genomic clusters with phylogenetic homogeneity were identified, which resolved species-clades that are not clearly defined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis alone. The genomic clusters may be reflective of distinct ecological niches to which the organisms have adapted, but this

  18. Comparative genome analysis of Pseudomonas genomes including Populus-associated isolates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jun, Se Ran; Wassenaar, Trudy; Nookaew, Intawat; Hauser, Loren John; Wanchai, Visanu; Land, Miriam L.; Timm, Collin M.; Lu, Tse-Yuan S.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Doktycz, Mitchel John; et al

    2016-01-01

    The Pseudomonas genus contains a metabolically versatile group of organisms that are known to occupy numerous ecological niches including the rhizosphere and endosphere of many plants influencing phylogenetic diversity and heterogeneity. In this study, comparative genome analysis was performed on over one thousand Pseudomonas genomes, including 21 Pseudomonas strains isolated from the roots of native Populus deltoides. Based on average amino acid identity, genomic clusters were identified within the Pseudomonas genus, which showed agreements with clades by NCBI and cliques by IMG. The P. fluorescens group was organized into 20 distinct genomic clusters, representing enormous diversity and heterogeneity. The speciesmore » P. aeruginosa showed clear distinction in their genomic relatedness compared to other Pseudomonas species groups based on the pan and core genome analysis. The 19 isolates of our 21 Populus-associated isolates formed three distinct subgroups within the P. fluorescens major group, supported by pathway profiles analysis, while two isolates were more closely related to P. chlororaphis and P. putida. The specific genes to Populus-associated subgroups were identified where genes specific to subgroup 1 include several sensory systems such as proteins which act in two-component signal transduction, a TonB-dependent receptor, and a phosphorelay sensor; specific genes to subgroup 2 contain unique hypothetical genes; and genes specific to subgroup 3 organisms have a different hydrolase activity. IMPORTANCE The comparative genome analyses of the genus Pseudomonas that included Populus-associated isolates resulted in novel insights into high diversity of Pseudomonas. Consistent and robust genomic clusters with phylogenetic homogeneity were identified, which resolved species-clades that are not clearly defined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis alone. The genomic clusters may be reflective of distinct ecological niches to which the organisms have adapted, but

  19. PCR Analysis of Egyptian Respiratory Adenovirus Isolates, Including Identification of Species, Serotypes, and Coinfections

    PubMed Central

    Metzgar, David; Osuna, Miguel; Yingst, Samuel; Rakha, Magda; Earhart, Kenneth; Elyan, Diaa; Esmat, Hala; Saad, Magdi D.; Kajon, Adriana; Wu, Jianguo; Gray, Gregory C.; Ryan, Margaret A. K.; Russell, Kevin L.

    2005-01-01

    Eighty-eight adenovirus (Ad) isolates and associated clinical data were collected from walk-in patients with influenza-like illness in Egypt during routine influenza surveillance from 1999 through 2002. Respiratory Ad distributions are geographically variable, and serotype prevalence has not been previously characterized in this region. Serotype identity is clinically relevant because it predicts vaccine efficacy and correlates strongly with both clinical presentation and epidemiological pattern. Species and serotype identities were determined using several well-validated multiplex PCR protocols culled from the literature and supplemented with a few novel primer sets designed to identify rare types. The isolates included common species B1 serotypes (Ad3 and Ad7), common species C serotypes (Ad1, Ad2, and Ad5), the less common species B2 serotype Ad11, and three isolates of the rare species B1 serotype Ad16. Two isolates that appear to be variant Ad16 were also identified. Fifteen coinfections of multiple adenoviral types, primarily AdB/AdC and Ad3/Ad7 dual infections, were detected. The majority of these were verified using redundant PCR tests targeted at multiple genes. PCR is able to resolve coinfections, in contrast to traditional serum neutralization tests. PCR is also comparatively rapid and requires very little equipment. Application of the method allowed an inclusive determination of the serotypes found in the Egyptian respiratory sample set and demonstrated that coinfections are common and may play a previously unrecognized role in adenovirus pathogenesis, evolution, and epidemiology. In particular, coinfections may influence adenoviral evolution, as interserotypic recombination has been identified as a source of emerging strains. PMID:16272512

  20. [Isolation and physico-chemical properties of a protein, included in an endotoxin from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Fedoreeva, L I; Solov'eva, T F; Ovodov, Iu S

    1989-06-01

    A major protein of the endotoxin from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was isolated from the complex lipid A--protein by treatment with SDS and triton X-100 followed by gel-chromatography on Sephacryl S-300. Protein has apparent molecular mass 40 kDa and alanine as N-terminal amino acid residue. CD and IR spectroscopy conformational changes of the protein molecule in the process of its isolation. The thermal and pH stabilities of the protein were investigated by the methods of intrinsic fluorescence and differential scanning microcalorimetry. The isolated protein revealed two thermal transitions (at 30-35 and 50-55 degrees C), which depend on Ca2+ concentration. PMID:2783172

  1. Antifungal susceptibility of invasive Candida bloodstream isolates from the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Tan, Thean Yen; Hsu, Li Yang; Alejandria, Marissa M; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Chinniah, Terrence; Chayakulkeeree, Methee; Choudhury, Saugata; Chen, Yen Hsu; Shin, Jong Hee; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Mendoza, Myrna; Prabhu, Kavitha; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Tan, Ai Ling; Phan, Xuan Thi; Tran, Thi Thanh Nga; Nguyen, Gia Binh; Doan, Mai Phuong; Huynh, Van An; Nguyen, Su Minh Tuyet; Tran, Thanh Binh; Van Pham, Hung

    2016-07-01

    Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species are of increasing importance and associated with significant mortality. We performed a multi-centre prospective observational study to identify the species and antifungal susceptibilities of invasive bloodstream isolates of Candida species in the Asia-Pacific region. The study was carried out over a two year period, involving 13 centers from Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Identification of Candida species was performed at each study center, and reconfirmed at a central laboratory. Susceptibility testing was performed using a commercial broth dilution panel (Sensititre YeastOne YST-010, Thermofisher, United Kingdom) with susceptibility categorisation (S = susceptible, S-DD = susceptible dose-dependent) applied using breakpoints from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Eight hundred and sixty-one Candida isolates were included in the study. The most common species were C. albicans (35.9%), C. tropicalis (30.7%), C. parapsilosis (15.7%), and C. glabrata (13.6%). Non-albicans species exceeded C. albicans species in centers from all countries except Taiwan. Fluconazole susceptibility was almost universal for C. albicans (S = 99.7%) but lower for C. tropicalis (S = 75.8%, S-DD = 6.1%), C. glabrata (S-DD = 94.9%), and C. parapsilosis (S = 94.8%). Echinocandins demonstrated high rates of in vitro susceptibility (S>99%) against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis This study demonstrates that non-albicans species are the most common isolates from bloodstream infections in most countries in the Asia-Pacific region, with C. tropicalis as the predominant species. Because of the prevalence of reduced susceptibility to fluconazole in non-albicans species, the study indicates that echinocandins should be the antifungal of choice in clinically unstable or high-risk patients with documented candidemia. PMID:26868904

  2. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Staphylococci Isolates from Patients with Chronic Conjunctivitis: Including Associated Factors and Clinical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, María Ximena

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To determine species of staphylococci in chronic conjunctivitis, their antibiotic susceptibility pattern, patient treatments, clinical course, and clinical conditions. Methods In this prospective study, 243 conjunctival cultures were taken from 191 patients with chronic conjunctivitis, we obtained staphylococci susceptibility patterns with E-test, and they were analyzed in coagulase-positive and negative. The minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of isolates (MIC90) was determined for Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Additionally, clinical follow-up and associated factors of all patients were analyzed depending on methicillin resistance (MR) or susceptibility (MS) bacterial state. Results One hundred and eight (44%) cultures were positive; 81 positive cultures were Gram-positive of which, 77 were staphylococci, 29 coagulase-positive with S. aureus as the most prevalent, 89% MS, and 11% MR. And 48 were coagulase-negative with S. epidermidis as the most isolated with 36% of MS and 64% of MR. Poor susceptibility was found in the staphylococcus coagulase-negative/MR group. Moxifloxacin and vancomycin show the best in vitro activity for all isolates. The MIC90 of moxifloxacin and vancomycin were 0.064/1.5, 0.64/3.0, and 1/3.0 for S. aureus-MS, S. epidermidis-MS, and S. epidermidis-MR, respectively. The most frequently associated factors found in patients with positive culture for staphylococcus were exposure to the health care system 23 (29.87%) of 77 patients and dry eye 23 (29.87%) of 77 patients. Both with a proportion of 3 in 10. Conclusion Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequently isolated from the conjunctiva with 58.33% of MR; even though multiresistance was detected, their susceptibility to a fourth-generation fluoroquinolone, commonly used, such as moxifloxacin, was preserved. PMID:23944906

  3. Activity of faropenem tested against Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates including fluoroquinolone-resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ronald N; Critchley, Ian A; Whittington, William L H; Janjic, Nebojsa; Pottumarthy, Sudha

    2005-12-01

    We evaluated the anti-gonococcal potency of faropenem along with 7 comparator reference antimicrobials against a preselected collection of clinical isolates. The 265 isolates were inclusive of 2 subsets: 1) 76 well-characterized resistant phenotypes of gonococcal strains (53 quinolone-resistant strains--31 with documented quinolone resistance-determining region changes from Japan, 15 strains resistant to penicillin and tetracycline, and 8 strains with intermediate susceptibility to penicillin) and 2) 189 recent isolates from clinical specimens in 2004 from 6 states across the United States where quinolone resistance is prevalent. Activity of faropenem was adversely affected by l-cysteine hydrochloride in IsoVitaleX (4-fold increase in [minimal inhibitory concentration] MIC50; 0.06 versus 0.25 microg/mL). The rank order of potency of the antimicrobials for the entire collection was ceftriaxone (MIC90, 0.06 microg/mL) > faropenem (0.25 microg/mL) > azithromycin (0.5 microg/mL) > cefuroxime (1 microg/mL) > tetracycline (2 microg/mL) > penicillin = ciprofloxacin = levofloxacin (4 microg/mL). Using MIC90 for comparison, faropenem was 4-fold more potent than cefuroxime (0.25 versus 1 microg/mL), but was 4-fold less active than ceftriaxone (0.25 versus 0.06 microg/mL). Although the activity of faropenem was not affected by either penicillinase production (MIC90, 0.12 microg/mL, penicillinase-positive) or increasing ciprofloxacin MIC (0.25 microg/mL, ciprofloxacin-resistant), increasing penicillin MIC was associated with an increase in MIC90 values (0.016 microg/mL for penicillin-susceptible to 0.25 microg/mL for penicillin-resistant strains). Among the recent (2004) clinical gonococcal isolates tested, reduced susceptibility to penicillins, tetracycline, and fluoroquinolones was high (28.0-94.2%). Geographic distribution of the endemic resistance rates of gonococci varied considerably, with 16.7-66.7% of the gonococcal isolates being ciprofloxacin-resistant in Oregon

  4. Colonization and antifungals susceptibility patterns of Candida species isolated from hospitalized patients in ICUs and NICUs

    PubMed Central

    Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Navid, Mojgan; Torabizadeh, Mehdi; Mazdarani, Shahnam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown that there are an increasing in invasive candidiasis during 2-3 last decades. Although, Candida albicans is considered as the most common candidiasis agents, other non-albicans such as C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis were raised as infectious agents. Resistance to fluconazole among non-albicans species is an important problem for clinicians during therapy and prophylaxis. Objectives: The aim of current study was to detect the Candida species from hospitalized neonatal and children in intensive care units (ICUs) and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). In addition, the susceptibility of isolated agents were also evaluated against three antifungals. Materials and Methods: In the present study 298 samples including 98 blood samples, 100 urines and 100 swabs from oral cavity were inoculated on CHROMagar Candida. Initial detection was done according to the coloration colonies on CHROMagar Candida . Morphology on cornmeal agar, germ tube formation and growth at 45°C were confirmed isolates. Amphotericin B, fluconazole and terbinafine (Lamisil) were used for the susceptibility tests using microdilution method. Results: In the present study 21% and 34% of urines and swabs from oral cavity were positive for Candida species, respectively. The most common species was C. albicans (62.5%) followed by C. tropicalis (15.6%), C. glabrata (6.3%) and Candida species (15.6%). Our study indicated that the most tested species of Candida, 70.3% were sensitive to fluconazole at the concentration of ≤8 μg/mL. Whereas 9 (14.1%) of isolates were resistant to amphotericine B at ≥8 μg/mL. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the importance of species identification and antifungals susceptibility testing for hospitalized patients in ICUs and NICUs wards. PMID:26312235

  5. Activity of tigecycline tested against a global collection of Enterobacteriaceae, including tetracycline-resistant isolates.

    PubMed

    Fritsche, Thomas R; Strabala, Patty A; Sader, Helio S; Dowzicky, Michael J; Jones, Ronald N

    2005-07-01

    Steadily increasing resistance among the Enterobacteriaceae to beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole has compromised the utility of these commonly used antimicrobial classes for many community- or hospital-acquired infections. The development of tigecycline, the sentinel representative of a novel class of broad-spectrum agents (the glycylcyclines), represents an important milestone in addressing this critical need. Resistance to tigecycline might be expected to occur via the same mechanisms that produce tetracycline resistance; however, tigecycline remains stable and largely unaffected by the commonly occurring efflux and ribosomal protection resistance mechanisms. In this study, an international collection of Enterobacteriaceae (11327 isolates; 32.8% tetracycline-resistant) from global surveillance studies (2000-2004) were evaluated against tigecycline and other comparator antimicrobials. Although the most active agents were the carbapenems and aminoglycosides (97.5-99.7% susceptible), tigecycline displayed high potency (MIC50 and MIC90, 0.25 and 1 microg/mL) with 95.7% of all strains being inhibited at < or =2 microg/mL. Despite higher MIC values observed with Serratia spp. and Proteae, between 90.5% and 97.5% of isolates were inhibited by < or =4 microg/mL of tigecycline. Tetracycline-resistant populations demonstrated only modest decreases in potency to tigecycline, which appeared to be species-dependent (up to 2-fold only for Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Panteoa agglomerans; and up to 4-fold for Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter spp.). Among E. coli (263 isolates) and Klebsiella spp. (356) that meet recognized screening definitions for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production, 100.0% and 94.4% were inhibited by tigecycline at 2 microg/mL, respectively. These findings confirm that tigecycline exhibits potency, breadth of spectrum, and stability to the

  6. Antibiotic sensitivity of Haemophilus influenzae strains including three recent chloramphenicol-resistant isolates.

    PubMed

    Zackrisson, G; Brorson, J E

    1980-08-01

    The antibiotic sensitivity of 100 recent isolates of Haemophilus influenzae was determined. Three strains were resistant to chloramphenicol with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 16 microgram/ml. Of these three resistant strains, one produced betalactamase and one was resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. The remaining strains were inhibited by 0.25-2.0 microgram/ml of chloramphenicol. Ampicillin and benzylpenicillin were found to inhibit all but the betalactamase-producing strains at low concentrations. Regarding sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim 96% had minimal inhibitory concentrations of 2.5-0.12 microgram/ml or less, while two strains were resistant. The invitro efficacy of erythromycin against H. influenzae was low. The majority of the strains was inhibited by low concentrations of doxycycline and cefuroxime while cefoxitin exhibited minimal inhibitory concentrations values usually exceeding 1 microgram/ml. The minimal inhibitory concentrations registered are compared to the concentrations of the different antibiotics attainable in certain body fluids. PMID:6968146

  7. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species isolated from urine culture.

    PubMed

    Toka Özer, Türkan; Durmaz, Süleyman; Yula, Erkan

    2016-09-01

    Candida spp. are the most common opportunistic mycosis worldwide. Although Candida albicans is the most common cause of urinary tract infections, the frequency of non-albicans Candida species is increasing with common use of antifungal in the prophylaxis and treatment. This may lead to difficulties in treatment. Antifungal tests should be applied with identification of species for effective treatment. In this study, identification of Candida species isolated from urine culture and investigation of susceptibility of these strains to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole was aimed. In this study, 58 Candida strains isolated from urine cultures at Osmaniye State Hospital between January 2012 and April 2013 were included. Urine culture and antifungal susceptibility tests were applied. Incidence rate of Candida spp. was determined as C. albicans (56.9%), Candida glabrata (20.6%), Candida tropicalis (10.3%), Candida parapsilosis (7%), Candida krusei (3.4%), Candida kefyr (1.8%). Most of the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole. Twenty three (39.7%) Candida strains were isolated from internal medical branches and Intensive Care Unit and 12 (20.6%) from the Surgical Medical Branches. C. albicans and C. glabrata species were isolated most frequently as a candiduria factor in this hospital between January 2012 and April 2013. The analysis of antifungal susceptibility profile shows no significant resistance to antifungals. PMID:27452427

  8. First isolation of Legionella species, including L. pneumophila serogroup 1, in Greek potting soils: possible importance for public health.

    PubMed

    Velonakis, E N; Kiousi, I M; Koutis, C; Papadogiannakis, E; Babatsikou, F; Vatopoulos, A

    2010-06-01

    A total of 21 Legionella isolates were recovered from six out of 22 samples of potting soil from the Athens area, Greece. Legionella pneumophila (serogroups 1 and 2-15) and species and serotypes included in the group of L. longbeachae serogroups 1 and 2, L. bozemanii serogroups 1 and 2, L. dumoffii, L. gormanii, L. jordanis, L. micdadei and L. anisa were isolated on BCYEalpha agar containing cysteine, GVPC and natamycin and on BCYEalpha agar containing cysteine, Wadowsky Yee supplement and natamycin. The bacterial load was 4000-120 000 CFU/g of potting soil. The isolation of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 from Greek potting soils is reported here for the first time. PMID:19747214

  9. NDM-1-producing Acinetobacter baumannii ST85 now in Turkey, including one isolate from a Syrian refugee.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Farzad; Mammina, Caterina; Koksal, Fatih

    2015-09-01

    New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1), an acquired class B carbapenemase, is a significant clinical threat owing to the extended hydrolysis of β-lactams including carbapenems. Here, to the best of our knowledge we describe for the first time in Turkey two NDM-1-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates recovered from intensive care unit patients. The presence of blaNDM-1 was detected by PCR and confirmed by sequencing. The clonal relationship was assessed by PFGE and multilocus sequence typing. Both isolates were positive for blaNDM-1 and were attributed with the sequence type 85. One isolate was from a Syrian refugee, whereas the second was from a patient who had never travelled outside Turkey. Our findings confirmed that the rapid spread of NDM-1-producing Gram-negative organisms could become a major challenge for the treatment and control of healthcare-associated infections in our geographical area. They suggest also that NDM-1-producing strains and/or their genetic determinants are probably being imported from Syria to neighbouring countries. PMID:26296677

  10. Hospital Isolates of Serratia marcescens Transferring Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, and Gentamicin Resistance to Other Gram-Negative Bacteria Including Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Olexy, Vera M.; Bird, Thomas J.; Grieble, Hans G.; Farrand, Stephen K.

    1979-01-01

    Thirteen independent isolates of Serratia marcescens associated with nosocomial urinary tract infections were obtained from the clinical microbiology laboratory at Hines Veterans Administration Hospital. The isolates were resistant to at least ampicillin, carbenicillin, gentamicin, and tobramycin. They could be divided into two groups on the basis of their antibiotypes. Group I (9 strains) showed resistance to 13 antibiotics, including 3 beta-lactams, 6 aminoglycosides, tetracycline, sulfonamide, trimethoprim, and polymyxin B. Group II (4 strains) was resistant to 11 antibiotics, including 3 beta-lactams, 5 aminoglycosides, sulfonamide, trimethoprim, and polymyxin B. Donors from both groups transferred resistance traits to Escherichia coli. Transconjugants from matings with group II donors all acquired resistance to nine antibiotics, including the three beta-lactams, five aminoglycosides, and sulfonamide. Transconjugants from matings with group I donors were of varied antibiotypes, inheriting resistance to up to 11 of the 13 antibiotics. Resistances to trimethoprim and polymyxin B were never observed to transfer. E. coli transconjugants of each group were capable of transferring multiple-antibiotic resistance to several other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. All group II S. marcescens and E. coli donors and all group I S. marcescens donors transferred carbenicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, and sisomicin resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results suggest that these S. marcescens strains harbor R factors of a broader host range than previously reported. PMID:106772

  11. American Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) Resist Infection by Multiple Isolates of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Including One Implicated in Wild Mass Mortality.

    PubMed

    Eskew, Evan A; Worth, S Joy; Foley, Janet E; Todd, Brian D

    2015-09-01

    The emerging amphibian disease chytridiomycosis varies in severity depending on host species. Within species, disease susceptibility can also be influenced by pathogen variation and environmental factors. Here, we report on experimental exposures of American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) to three different isolates of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), including one implicated in causing mass mortality of wild American bullfrogs. Exposed frogs showed low infection prevalence, relatively low infection load, and lack of clinical disease. Our results suggest that environmental cofactors are likely important contributors to Bd-associated American bullfrog mortality and that this species both resists and tolerates Bd infection. PMID:26065669

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from dental unit waterlines can be divided in two distinct groups, including one displaying phenotypes similar to isolates from cystic fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet, Myriam M.; Leduc, Annie; Nadeau, Christine; Barbeau, Jean; Charette, Steve J.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa displays broad genetic diversity, giving it an astonishing capacity to adapt to a variety of environments and to infect a wide range of hosts. While many P. aeruginosa isolates of various origins have been analyzed, isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have received the most attention. Less is known about the genetic and phenotypic diversity of P. aeruginosa isolates that colonize other environments where flourishing biofilms can be found. In the present study, 29 P. aeruginosa isolates from dental unit waterlines and CF patients were collected and their genetic and phenotypes profiles were compared to determine whether environmental and clinical isolates are related. The isolates were first classified using the random amplified polymorphic DNA method. This made it possible to distribute the isolates into one clinical cluster and two environmental clusters. The isolates in the environmental cluster that were genetically closer to the clinical cluster also displayed phenotypes similar to the clinical isolates. The isolates from the second environmental cluster displayed opposite phenotypes, particularly an increased capacity to form biofilms. The isolates in this cluster were also the only ones harboring genes that encoded specific epimerases involved in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides, which could explain their increased ability to form biofilms. In conclusion, the isolates from the dental unit waterlines could be distributed into two clusters, with some of the environmental isolates resembled the clinical isolates. PMID:25653647

  13. Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile-associated disease at University Hospital Basel including molecular characterisation of the isolates 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Fenner, L; Frei, R; Gregory, M; Dangel, M; Stranden, A; Widmer, A F

    2008-12-01

    A prospective study was conducted during a one-year period between 2006 and 2007 to describe the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) at University Hospital Basel, Switzerland (UHBS) and to determine phenotypic and genotypic features of C. difficile strains isolated at the Microbiology Laboratory UHBS including strains from regional non-university hospitals. We prospectively identified 78 CDAD cases at UHBS with an incidence of 2.65/1,000 hospitalised patients or 2.3/10,000 patient-days. Sixteen patients (20.5%) were infected with clindamycin-resistant strains of PCR-ribotype 027 during an outbreak at the geriatric hospital. Among 124 single-patient isolates, 28 (22.6%) were resistant to moxifloxacin and 34 (27.4%) were resistant to clindamycin, but all remained susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. Of 102 toxigenic isolates, 19 (18.7%) had an 18-bp deletion in the tcdC gene, eight (7.8%) a 39-bp deletion, and one (1.0%) a 54-bp deletion. Genes for binary toxin were present in 27 (21.8%). PCR-ribotype 027 was associated with older age (median age 83.5 vs. 65.5 years, p < 0.0001) and longer duration of hospitalisation before onset of disease (median 15.5 vs. 9 days, p = 0.014) with a trend towards higher crude mortality, more severe disease, and previous use of macrolides compared to ribotype non-027. Overall, severe disease correlated with use of a nasogastric tube and surprisingly shorter duration of hospitalisation before onset of disease. Today, laboratory-based and epidemiological surveillance systems are required to monitor CDAD cases and emergence of new epidemic strains. PMID:18560909

  14. Activity of Eravacycline against Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii, Including Multidrug-Resistant Isolates, from New York City

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Marie; Olafisoye, Olawole; Cortes, Christopher; Urban, Carl; Landman, David

    2014-01-01

    Eravacycline demonstrated in vitro activity against a contemporary collection of more than 4,000 Gram-negative pathogens from New York City hospitals, with MIC50/MIC90 values, respectively, for Escherichia coli of 0.12/0.5 μg/ml, Klebsiella pneumoniae of 0.25/1 μg/ml, Enterobacter aerogenes of 0.25/1 μg/ml, Enterobacter cloacae 0.5/1 μg/ml, and Acinetobacter baumannii of 0.5/1 μg/ml. Activity was retained against multidrug-resistant isolates, including those expressing KPC and OXA carbapenemases. For A. baumannii, eravacycline MICs correlated with increased expression of the adeB gene. PMID:25534744

  15. A molecular taxonomy for cricket paralysis virus including two new isolates from Australian populations of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, K N; Christian, P D

    1996-01-01

    Two new isolates of cricket paralysis virus, TAR and SIM, are described that were originally isolated from laboratory colonies of Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans respectively. Using a combination of biological, serological and molecular characters it was possible to distinguish the SIM isolate from all other isolates and it is thus described as a new strain; CrPVSIM. The TAR isolate however, was indistinguishable from the CrPV reference isolate CrPVVIC/GM/D2(2)/Gm/D2(2) (Teleogryllus commodus, Victoria, Australia, 1968). The molecular characters used in the present study were obtained by combining PCR and restriction endonuclease digestion of the amplified fragments. This work demonstrates that such molecular characters, when used in combination with others, provide a powerful set of taxonomic characters for classifying CrPV isolates and strains and assessing their genetic relatedness. PMID:8856030

  16. A poultry-intestinal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni produces a bacteriocin (CUV-3) active against a range of Gram positive bacterial pathogens including Clostridium perfringens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly isolated bacteriocin, CUV-3, produced by a poultry cecal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni strain CUV-3 had inhibitory activity against several Gram positive bacteria including Clostridium perfringens (38 strains), Staphylococcus aureus, Staph.epidermidis and Listeria monocytogenes. The pept...

  17. Prevalence and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from bulk tank milk from Minnesota dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Haran, K P; Godden, S M; Boxrud, D; Jawahir, S; Bender, J B; Sreevatsan, S

    2012-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common causative agent of bovine mastitis in dairy herds. The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals as well as the community is a significant and costly public health concern. S. aureus-related bovine mastitis is a common reason for therapeutic and/or prophylactic use of antibiotics on dairy farms. In this study, herd prevalence of S. aureus, including MRSA, was estimated from bulk tank milk (BTM) from Minnesota farms. A total of 150 pooled BTM samples from 50 farms, collected over 3 seasons (spring, summer, and fall of 2009), were assessed. Herd prevalence of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was 84%, while MRSA herd prevalence was 4%. A total of 93 MSSA isolates and 2 MRSA isolates were recovered from 150 BTM samples. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of S. aureus isolates showed pansusceptibility in 54 isolates, resistance to a single antibiotic class in 21 isolates, resistance to two antibiotic classes in 13 isolates, and resistance to ≥3 antibiotics classes and thus multidrug resistance in 5 isolates. The two MRSA isolates displayed resistance to β-lactams, cephalosporins, and lincosamides and were multiresistant. Staphylococcal protein A gene (spa) typing identified spa types t529 and t034 most frequently among methicillin-susceptible isolates, while t121 was observed in MRSA isolates. Seven isolates, including the two MRSA isolates, produced staphylococcal enterotoxins B, C, D, and E on overnight culture. MRSA isolates were further genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of the 2 MRSA isolates, one had a composite genotype profile of MLST ST 5-PFGE USA100-unknown spa type, which has been reported among hospital-associated MRSA isolates, while the second isolate carried the MLST ST 8-PFGE USA300-spa type t121 genotype, commonly identified among community-associated MRSA isolates. These results suggest that MRSA genotypes

  18. Classification of thermophilic actinobacteria isolated from arid desert soils, including the description of Amycolatopsis deserti sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Busarakam, Kanungnid; Brown, Ros; Bull, Alan T; Tan, Geok Yuan Annie; Zucchi, Tiago D; da Silva, Leonardo José; de Souza, Wallace Rafael; Goodfellow, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The taxonomic position of 26 filamentous actinobacteria isolated from a hyper-arid Atacama Desert soil and 2 from an arid Australian composite soil was established using a polyphasic approach. All of the isolates gave the diagnostic amplification product using 16S rRNA oligonucleotide primers specific for the genus Amycolatopsis. Representative isolates had chemotaxonomic and morphological properties typical of members of the genus Amycolatopsis. 16S rRNA gene analyses showed that all of the isolates belong to the Amycolatopsis methanolica 16S rRNA gene clade. The Atacama Desert isolates were assigned to one or other of two recognised species, namely Amycolatopsis ruanii and Amycolatopsis thermalba, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, DNA:DNA relatedness and phenotypic data; emended descriptions are given for these species. In contrast, the two strains from the arid Australian composite soil, isolates GY024(T) and GY142, formed a distinct branch at the periphery of the A. methanolica 16S rRNA phyletic line, a taxon that was supported by all of the tree-making algorithms and by a 100 % bootstrap value. These strains shared a high degree of DNA:DNA relatedness and have many phenotypic properties in common, some of which distinguished them from all of the constituent species classified in the A. methanolica 16S rRNA clade. Isolates GY024(T) and GY142 merit recognition as a new species within the A. methanolica group of thermophilic strains. The name proposed for the new species is Amycolatopsis deserti sp. nov.; the type strain is GY024(T) (=NCIMB 14972(T) = NRRL B-65266(T)). PMID:26809280

  19. Whole genome sequence analysis of circulating Bluetongue virus serotype 11 strains from the United States including two domestic canine isolates.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, Natasha N; Jasperson, Dane C; Dubovi, Edward J; Johnson, Donna J; Ostlund, Eileen N; Wilson, William C

    2015-07-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a vector-transmitted pathogen that typically infects and causes disease in domestic and wild ruminants. BTV is also known to infect domestic canines as discovered when dogs were vaccinated with a BTV-contaminated vaccine. Canine BTV infections have been documented through serological surveys, and natural infection by the Culicoides vector has been suggested. The report of isolation of BTV serotype 11 (BTV-11) from 2 separate domestic canine abortion cases in the states of Texas in 2011 and Kansas in 2012, were apparently unrelated to BTV-contaminated vaccination or consumption of BTV-contaminated raw meat as had been previously speculated. To elucidate the origin and relationship of these 2 domestic canine BTV-11 isolates, whole genome sequencing was performed. Six additional BTV-11 field isolates from Texas, Florida, and Washington, submitted for diagnostic investigation during 2011 and 2013, were also fully sequenced and analyzed. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that the BTV-11 domestic canine isolates are virtually identical, and both share high identity with 2 BTV-11 isolates identified from white-tailed deer in Texas in 2011. The results of the current study further support the hypothesis that a BTV-11 strain circulating in the Midwestern states could have been transmitted to the dogs by the infected Culicoides vector. Our study also expands the short list of available BTV-11 sequences, which may aid BTV surveillance and epidemiology. PMID:26069226

  20. Antimicrobial characterisation of CEM-101 activity against respiratory tract pathogens, including multidrug-resistant pneumococcal serogroup 19A isolates.

    PubMed

    Farrell, David J; Sader, Helio S; Castanheira, Mariana; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Rhomberg, Paul R; Jones, Ronald N

    2010-06-01

    CEM-101 is a novel fluorinated macrolide-ketolide with potent activity against bacterial pathogens that are susceptible or resistant to other macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B))-ketolide agents. CEM-101 is being developed for oral and parenteral use in moderate to moderately severe community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of CEM-101 and comparators against contemporary respiratory tract infection (RTI) isolates. A worldwide sample of organisms was used, including Streptococcus pneumoniae [n=168; 59.3% erythromycin-resistant and 18 multidrug-resistant (MDR) serogroup 19A strains], Moraxella catarrhalis (n=21; 11 beta-lactamase positive), Haemophilus influenzae (n=100; 48 beta-lactamase positive), Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus (n=12), and Legionella pneumophila (n=30). Testing and interpretation were performed using reference Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods. CEM-101 was very potent against S. pneumoniae [minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of the organisms (MIC90)=0.25 mg/L; highest MIC at 0.5 mg/L] and was 2- and > or =32-fold more active than telithromycin and clindamycin, respectively. CEM-101 also demonstrated potent activity against S. pneumoniae MDR-19A strains (MIC90=0.5 mg/L). CEM-101 was the most potent antimicrobial agent tested against L. pneumophila, with all MIC values at < or = 0.015 mg/L (telithromycin MIC90=0.03 mg/L). CEM-101 was as potent as azithromycin against Haemophilus spp. RTI pathogens (MIC90=2 mg/L), with no variations for beta-lactamase production. CEM-101 MIC values against M. catarrhalis were all at < or =0.5mg/L. Interestingly, CEM-101 potency was ca. 6 log(2) dilutions greater than telithromycin MIC results among 44 beta-haemolytic streptococci having telithromycin MICs > or = 2 mg/L. CEM-101 exhibited the greatest potency and widest spectrum of activity against RTI pathogens among the tested MLS(B)-ketolide agents

  1. Antifungal Susceptibility in Serum and Virulence Determinants of Candida Bloodstream Isolates from Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Seneviratne, Chaminda J.; Rajan, Suhasini; Wong, Sarah S. W.; Tsang, Dominic N. C.; Lai, Christopher K. C.; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.; Jin, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Candida bloodstream infections (CBI) are one of the most common nosocomial infections globally, and they account for a high mortality rate. The increasing global prevalence of drug-resistant Candida strains has also been posing a challenge to clinicians. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the biofilm formation and production of hemolysin and proteinase of 63 CBI isolates derived from a hospital setting in Hong Kong as well as their antifungal susceptibility both in the presence and in the absence of human serum, using standard methodology. Candida albicans was the predominant species among the 63 CBI isolates collected, and non-albicans Candida species accounted for approximately one third of the isolates (36.5%). Of them, Candida tropicalis was the most common non-albicans Candida species. A high proportion (31.7%) of the CBI isolates (40% of C. albicans isolates, 10% of C. tropicalis isolates, 11% of C. parapsilosis isolates, and 100% of C. glabrata isolates) were found to be resistant to fluconazole. One of the isolates (C. tropicalis) was resistant to amphotericin B. A rising prevalence of drug-resistance CBI isolates in Hong Kong was observed with reference to a previous study. Notably, all non-albicans Candida species, showed increased hemolytic activity relative to C. albicans, whilst C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis exhibited proteinase activities. Majority of the isolates were capable of forming mature biofilms. Interestingly, the presence of serum distorted the yeast sensitivity to fluconazole, but not amphotericin B. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that CBI isolates of Candida have the potential to express to varying extent their virulence attributes (e.g., biofilm formation, hemolysin production, and proteinase activity) and these, together with perturbations in their antifungal sensitivity in the presence of serum, may contribute to treatment complication in candidemia. The effect of serum on antifungal activity

  2. Antifungal Susceptibility in Serum and Virulence Determinants of Candida Bloodstream Isolates from Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Chaminda J; Rajan, Suhasini; Wong, Sarah S W; Tsang, Dominic N C; Lai, Christopher K C; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Jin, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Candida bloodstream infections (CBI) are one of the most common nosocomial infections globally, and they account for a high mortality rate. The increasing global prevalence of drug-resistant Candida strains has also been posing a challenge to clinicians. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the biofilm formation and production of hemolysin and proteinase of 63 CBI isolates derived from a hospital setting in Hong Kong as well as their antifungal susceptibility both in the presence and in the absence of human serum, using standard methodology. Candida albicans was the predominant species among the 63 CBI isolates collected, and non-albicans Candida species accounted for approximately one third of the isolates (36.5%). Of them, Candida tropicalis was the most common non-albicans Candida species. A high proportion (31.7%) of the CBI isolates (40% of C. albicans isolates, 10% of C. tropicalis isolates, 11% of C. parapsilosis isolates, and 100% of C. glabrata isolates) were found to be resistant to fluconazole. One of the isolates (C. tropicalis) was resistant to amphotericin B. A rising prevalence of drug-resistance CBI isolates in Hong Kong was observed with reference to a previous study. Notably, all non-albicans Candida species, showed increased hemolytic activity relative to C. albicans, whilst C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis exhibited proteinase activities. Majority of the isolates were capable of forming mature biofilms. Interestingly, the presence of serum distorted the yeast sensitivity to fluconazole, but not amphotericin B. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that CBI isolates of Candida have the potential to express to varying extent their virulence attributes (e.g., biofilm formation, hemolysin production, and proteinase activity) and these, together with perturbations in their antifungal sensitivity in the presence of serum, may contribute to treatment complication in candidemia. The effect of serum on antifungal activity

  3. Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials, Including Artemisone and Arterolane, against Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David L.; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Bathurst, Ian; Ding, Xavier C.; Tyner, Stuart D.

    2014-01-01

    Novel synthetic endoperoxides are being evaluated as new components of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) to treat artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. We conducted blinded ex vivo activity testing of fully synthetic (OZ78 and OZ277) and semisynthetic (artemisone, artemiside, artesunate, and dihydroartemisinin) endoperoxides in the histidine-rich protein 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against 200 P. falciparum isolates from areas of artemisinin-resistant malaria in western and northern Cambodia in 2009 and 2010. The order of potency and geometric mean (GM) 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were as follows: artemisone (2.40 nM) > artesunate (8.49 nM) > dihydroartemisinin (11.26 nM) > artemiside (15.28 nM) > OZ277 (31.25 nM) > OZ78 (755.27 nM). Ex vivo activities of test endoperoxides positively correlated with dihydroartemisinin and artesunate. The isolates were over 2-fold less susceptible to dihydroartemisinin than the artemisinin-sensitive P. falciparum W2 clone and showed sensitivity comparable to those with test endoperoxides and artesunate, with isolate/W2 IC50 susceptibility ratios of <2.0. All isolates had P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter mutations, with negative correlations in sensitivity to endoperoxides and chloroquine. The activities of endoperoxides (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, OZ277, and artemisone) significantly correlated with that of the ACT partner drug, mefloquine. Isolates had mutations associated with clinical resistance to mefloquine, with 35% prevalence of P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) amplification and 84.5% occurrence of the pfmdr1 Y184F mutation. GM IC50s for mefloquine, lumefantrine, and endoperoxides (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, OZ277, OZ78, and artemisone) correlated with pfmdr1 copy number. Given that current ACTs are failing potentially from reduced sensitivity to artemisinins and partner drugs, newly identified mutations associated with artemisinin resistance

  4. PRKAR1A in the development of cardiac myxoma: a study of 110 cases including isolated and syndromic tumors.

    PubMed

    Maleszewski, Joseph J; Larsen, Brandon T; Kip, Nefize Sertac; Castonguay, Mathieu C; Edwards, William D; Carney, J Aidan; Kipp, Benjamin R

    2014-08-01

    Cardiac myxoma usually occurs as a solitary mass, but occasionally develops as part of a familial syndrome, the Carney complex (CNC). Two thirds of CNC-associated cardiac myxomas exhibit mutations in PRKAR1A. PRKAR1A mutations occur in both familial and sporadic forms of CNC but have not been described in isolated (nonsyndromic) cardiac myxomas. A total of 127 consecutive cardiac myxomas surgically resected at Mayo Clinic (1993 to 2011) from 110 individuals were studied. Clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings were reviewed. Of these, 103 patients had isolated cardiac myxomas, and 7 patients had the tumor as a component of CNC. Age and sex distributions were different for CNC (mean 26 y, range 14 to 44 y, 71% female) and non-CNC (mean 62 y, range 18 to 92 y, 63% female) patients. PRKAR1A immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) was performed, and myxoma cell reactivity was graded semiquantitatively. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing was performed in 3 CNC patients and 29 non-CNC patients, to test for the presence of mutations in all coding regions and intron/exon boundaries of the PRKAR1A gene. IHC staining showed that all 7 CNC cases lacked PRKAR1A antigenicity and that 33 (32%) isolated cardiac myxomas were similarly nonreactive. Of tumors subjected to sequencing analysis, 2 (67%) CNC myxomas and 9 (31%) non-CNC myxomas had pathogenic PRKAR1A mutations. No germline mutations were found in 4 non-CNC cases tested. PRKAR1A appears to play a role in the development of both syndromic and nonsyndromic cardiac myxomas. Routine IHC evaluation of cardiac myxomas for PRKAR1A expression may be useful in excluding a diagnosis of CNC. PMID:24618615

  5. In vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against Gram-negative pathogens isolated from pneumonia in hospitalised patients, including ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Nichols, Wright W; Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    The activities of the novel β-lactam/non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftazidime/avibactam and comparators were evaluated against isolates from pneumonia in hospitalised patients including ventilated patients (PHP, pneumonia not designated as VABP; VABP, pneumonia in ventilated patients). Isolates were from the European-Mediterranean region (EuM), China and the USA collected in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program between 2009 and 2011 inclusive. A total of 2393 organisms from PHP were from the EuM, 888 from China and 3213 from the USA; from VABP patients there were 918, 97 and 692 organisms collected, respectively. Among Enterobacteriaceae from PHP, ceftazidime/avibactam MIC90 values against Escherichia coli ranged from 0.25-0.5mg/L and Klebsiella spp. MIC90 values were 0.5mg/L in each region. Among VABP isolates, MIC90 values for ceftazidime/avibactam against E. coli were 0.25mg/L; for Klebsiella spp. from VABP patients, MIC90 values were similar to those obtained against PHP isolates. The MIC of ceftazidime/avibactam was ≤8mg/L against 92-96% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from PHP patients. Isolates of P. aeruginosa from VABP patients were of lower susceptibility to all antibacterial agents (e.g. depending on region, meropenem susceptibilities were 51.2-69.4% in contrast to 68.3-76.7% among PHP patients). However, ceftazidime/avibactam inhibited 79.2-95.4% of VABP isolates at an MIC of ≤8mg/L. Acinetobacter spp. were resistant to many agents and only rates of susceptibility to colistin were >90% across all regions both for PHP and VABP isolates. Ceftazidime/avibactam was generally active against a high proportion of isolates resistant to ceftazidime from PHP and VAPB patients. PMID:26920105

  6. [Isolation and characterization of two strains of Streptomyces able to metabolize natural polysaccharides including mannan (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Charpentier, M; Percheron, F

    1976-10-01

    Two strains of aerobic and mesophilic microorganisms were isolated from palm-tree plantation sand. They grew on insoluble polysaccharides: mannan, cellulose, chitin as only source of carbon. This lytic activity was used for the purification of the two strains. The morphology of the organisms and the presence of LL-diaminopimetic acid in their cell-wall are characteristic of the genus Streptomyces. Investigations lead to: 1) the characterization of their specific polysaccharidase activity toward insoluble and natural beta-and alpha-glycans (mannan, cellulose, chitin, pectine and starch) and the formation of soluble saccharides (mannobiose, cellobiose, beta-D-N-acetylglucosamine, galacturonic acid, and maltose); 2) the research for antagonist, or synergic, effect on pathogenic bacteria and certain phytopathogenic microorganisms; only in the case of these latter was a weak lytic activity exerted by the two Streptomyces isolates, but one of them was shown to stimulate Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Phialophora cinerescens; 3) a study of antibiotic sensitivity; the two strains were sensitive to tetracycline and streptomycin, but they had native resistance to other aminosides (gentamicin, kanamycin), to erythromycin and to the beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin and cephalosporin); they possessed a beta-lactamase bound to the cell membrane. PMID:1020873

  7. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Ralstonia pickettii and Ralstonia insidiosa isolates from clinical and environmental sources including High-purity Water. Diversity in Ralstonia pickettii

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ralstonia pickettii is a nosocomial infectious agent and a significant industrial contaminant. It has been found in many different environments including clinical situations, soil and industrial High Purity Water. This study compares the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of a selection of strains of Ralstonia collected from a variety of sources. Results Ralstonia isolates (fifty-nine) from clinical, industrial and environmental origins were compared genotypically using i) Species-specific-PCR, ii) PCR and sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA Interspatial region (ISR) iii) the fliC gene genes, iv) RAPD and BOX-PCR and v) phenotypically using biochemical testing. The species specific-PCR identified fifteen out of fifty-nine designated R. pickettii isolates as actually being the closely related species R. insidiosa. PCR-ribotyping of the 16S-23S rRNA ISR indicated few major differences between the isolates. Analysis of all isolates demonstrated different banding patterns for both the RAPD and BOX primers however these were found not to vary significantly. Conclusions R. pickettii species isolated from wide geographic and environmental sources appear to be reasonably homogenous based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. R. insidiosa can at present only be distinguished from R. pickettii using species specific PCR. R. pickettii and R. insidiosa isolates do not differ significantly phenotypically or genotypically based on environmental or geographical origin. PMID:21878094

  8. Molecular characterization of hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolates, including identification of a novel recombinant, in patients with acute HBV infection attending an Irish hospital.

    PubMed

    Laoi, Bairbre Ni; Crowley, B

    2008-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is known to show significant genetic diversity. There are eight HBV genotypes (A-H) characterized by distinct geographical distribution. Mutations in the HBV genome, in particular precore (PC) and basal core promoter (BCP) mutations, may be important factors in the pathogenesis of disease. In this study genetic heterogeneity and phylogenetic analysis of HBV isolates from 32 naïve patients with acute HBV infection was investigated. Eleven patients presented with severe infection, while the remaining 21 had self-limiting illness. Only four isolates from patients with severe HBV infection harbored the G1896A stop codon mutation. One isolate (Irish-13), collected from a patient with acute asymptomatic infection, had a G1896A mutation and a 243 bp deletion of the polymerase gene. A triple mutation, T1753C/A1762T/G1764A was identified in only one isolate (Irish-3) associated with severe infection. The latter also had a mutation, A2339G, in the core gene, not previously reported in severe acute infection caused by genotype D. Variations within the S gene were identified in 6 isolates, including Gly145Ala, associated with vaccine immune escape, Asp144Glu, Ser143Leu and Phe134Leu, each associated with failure to detect HBsAg. Phylogenetic analysis was determined using amplicons of the S gene (678 bp) and distal-X/PC region (672 bp). Genotype A was the most common (75%), followed by genotype D (15.6%), and equal proportions of C, E, F, and H. A novel recombinant of genotypes D and E was identified in an isolate originating from West Africa. Genetic heterogeneity of HBV isolates of HBV isolates from patients with acute infection needs further study of its significance. PMID:18649329

  9. Anticoccidial efficacy of semduramicin. 2. Evaluation against field isolates including comparisons with salinomycin, maduramicin, and monensin in battery tests.

    PubMed

    Logan, N B; McKenzie, M E; Conway, D P; Chappel, L R; Hammet, N C

    1993-11-01

    The efficacy of semduramicin (AVIAX), a novel polyether ionophore, was profiled in a series of 57 battery tests conducted in the United States and the United Kingdom. The studies employed mixed and monospecific infections of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria mivati/Eimeria mitis, Eimeria brunetti, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria necatrix, and Eimeria tenella derived from North American and European field isolates. Ten-day-old broiler cockerels in pens of 8 to 10 birds were continuously medicated in feed beginning 24 h before challenge in tests of 6 to 8 days' duration. At the use level of 25 ppm, semduramicin effectively controlled mortality, lesions, and weight gain depression that occurred in unmedicated, infected controls for all species. In comparison with 60 ppm salinomycin, semduramicin significantly (P < .05) improved weight gain against E. brunetti and E. tenella, lesion control against E. brunetti and E. maxima, and the control of coccidiosis mortality against E. tenella. Salinomycin was superior (P < .05) to all treatments in maintenance of weight gain and control of lesions for E. acervulina. Maduramicin at 5 ppm was inferior (P < .05) to semduramicin in control of E. acervulina and E. maxima lesions, but was superior (P < .05) to all treatments in maintenance of weight gain and control of lesions in E. tenella infections. The data indicate that semduramicin at 25 ppm is well tolerated in broilers and possesses broad spectrum anticoccidial activity. PMID:8265495

  10. On-chip acoustophoretic isolation of microflora including S. typhimurium from raw chicken, beef and blood samples.

    PubMed

    Ngamsom, Bongkot; Lopez-Martinez, Maria J; Raymond, Jean-Claude; Broyer, Patrick; Patel, Pradip; Pamme, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Pathogen analysis in food samples routinely involves lengthy growth-based pre-enrichment and selective enrichment of food matrices to increase the ratio of pathogen to background flora. Similarly, for blood culture analysis, pathogens must be isolated and enriched from a large excess of blood cells to allow further analysis. Conventional techniques of centrifugation and filtration are cumbersome, suffer from low sample throughput, are not readily amenable to automation and carry a risk of damaging biological samples. We report on-chip acoustophoresis as a pre-analytical technique for the resolution of total microbial flora from food and blood samples. The resulting 'clarified' sample is expected to increase the performance of downstream systems for the specific detection of the pathogens. A microfluidic chip with three inlets, a central separation channel and three outlets was utilized. Samples were introduced through the side inlets, and buffer solution through the central inlet. Upon ultrasound actuation, large debris particles (10-100 μm) from meat samples were continuously partitioned into the central buffer channel, leaving the 'clarified' outer sample streams containing both, the pathogenic cells and the background flora (ca. 1 μm) to be collected over a 30 min operation cycle before further analysis. The system was successfully tested with Salmonella typhimurium-spiked (ca. 10(3)CFU mL(-1)) samples of chicken and minced beef, demonstrating a high level of the pathogen recovery (60-90%). When applied to S. typhimurium contaminated blood samples (10(7)CFU mL(-1)), acoustophoresis resulted in a high depletion (99.8%) of the red blood cells (RBC) which partitioned in the buffer stream, whilst sufficient numbers of the viable S. typhimurium remained in the outer channels for further analysis. These results indicate that the technology may provide a generic approach for pre-analytical sample preparation prior to integrated and automated downstream detection of

  11. Genome Sequencing of Four Strains of Rickettsia prowazekii, the Causative Agent of Epidemic Typhus, Including One Flying Squirrel Isolate.

    PubMed

    Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A; Ge, Hong; Butani, Amy; Osborne, Brian; Verratti, Kathleen; Mokashi, Vishwesh; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Pop, Mihai; Read, Timothy D; Richards, Allen L

    2013-01-01

    Rickettsia prowazekii is a notable intracellular pathogen, the agent of epidemic typhus, and a potential biothreat agent. We present here whole-genome sequence data for four strains of R. prowazekii, including one from a flying squirrel. PMID:23814035

  12. Resistance of halobacterial isolates from Permian rock salt to physico-chemical extremes, including heat and a simulated Martian atmosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuko, S.; Weidler, G.; Radax, C.; Stan-Lotter, H.

    2003-04-01

    Extremely halophilic archaebacteria (halobacteria) are found today in hypersaline surface waters, such as the brines in solar salterns, or the Dead Sea. However, from Alpine rock salt of Permo-Triassic age several species of halobacteria were isolated during the last years (1, 2). Halobacteria are not known to produce spores or dormant forms; thus it remains enigmatic how they survived in the salt sediments. Extraterrestrial halite has been detected in meteorites from Mars and from the asteroids; in addition, the Jovian moon Europa is thought to contain a salty ocean. Therefore halobacteria would be useful model organisms when considering the search for extraterrestrial life. We are developing experimental protocols to evaluate the effects of physico-chemical stress factors on halobacteria, in particular present-day Martian conditions. But the effect of higher temperatures is also of interest, since Mars may have been warmer in the past, and the Alpine salt sediments are known to have experienced local temperature peaks. Cells of Halococcus dombrowskii (2) and, for comparison, of Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 were grown in complex medium, containing up to 4 M NaCl (2). Aliquots of cultures were kept at minus 70oC for several days, or freeze-dried in a lyophilizer, or incubated at temperatures of 50 to 80oC for 24 hours, respectively. In addition, exposure experiments of halobacterial cells in a liquid nitrogen cooled Martian simulation chamber were begun. Survival of cells was evaluated by determining colony-forming units and by examination of cellular morphology by fluorescence microscopy, following staining with the LIVE-DEAD kit. Results indicated that the LIVE-DEAD kit can be successfully used in the presence of 4 M NaCl, although it was developed for tests at low ionic strength. Data will be presented which show that Hc. dombrowskii survived deep freezing, temperatures of up to 80 oC and Martian atmospheric conditions generally better than Halobacterium sp. NRC-1

  13. Risk Factor Analysis in Clinical Isolates of ESBL and MBL (Including NDM-1) Producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella Species in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Renu; Saxena, Sonal; Singhal, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Background Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) producing Gram negative organisms are emerging as a worldwide public health concern. Aim To elucidate risk factors for infection with ESBL and MBL (also NDM-1) producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp. Materials and Methods A prospective observational study was conducted from November 2010 to March 2012. ESBL production was detected using ESBL E-test, MBL by MBL E-test and NDM-1 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Risk factors analysed includes age, sex, clinical specimen, type of infection, duration of hospital stay prior to collection of sample, admitting ward, antimicrobial susceptibility, previous antibiotics used, co-morbid illnesses like diabetes mellitus, immunodeficiency, low birth weight, respiratory/neurological/cardiac/haematological/liver diseases, malignancy, urinary or central venous catheter, ventilatory support, surgical procedures and dialysis. Statistical analysis z-test or Fisher’s exact test. Results E. coli – ESBL producing isolates E. coli revealed female preponderance, equal incidence of hospital and community acquired infections, mostly from surgical wards, isolated from urine, age group among females >20-30 years and among males >28 days-1 year. They showed high resistance to cephalosporins, monobactam, penicillin but low resistance to carbapenems and aminoglycosides. Co-morbid conditions observed were surgery, urinary catheterisation, haematological disease, ventilatory support, diabetes mellitus and neurological disease. MBL producing strains were mainly from females, surgical wards, (including both NDM-1 isolates), hospital acquired infections, isolated from body fluids (NDM-1 positive), female genital tract specimen and urine (one NDM-1 positive). NDM-1 positive isolates belonged to age groups >5-10 year and >0-28 days and underwent surgery and urinary catheterisation. Klebsiella spp.- ESBL producing isolates showed female preponderance, hospital acquired

  14. Genomic Comparison of Escherichia coli O104:H4 Isolates from 2009 and 2011 Reveals Plasmid, and Prophage Heterogeneity, Including Shiga Toxin Encoding Phage stx2

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sanaa A.; Awosika, Joy; Baldwin, Carson; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Biswas, Biswajit; Broomall, Stacey; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Chertkov, Olga; Chokoshvili, Otar; Coyne, Susan; Davenport, Karen; Detter, J. Chris; Dorman, William; Erkkila, Tracy H.; Folster, Jason P.; Frey, Kenneth G.; George, Matroner; Gleasner, Cheryl; Henry, Matthew; Hill, Karen K.; Hubbard, Kyle; Insalaco, Joseph; Johnson, Shannon; Kitzmiller, Aaron; Krepps, Michael; Lo, Chien-Chi; Luu, Truong; McNew, Lauren A.; Minogue, Timothy; Munk, Christine A.; Osborne, Brian; Patel, Mohit; Reitenga, Krista G.; Rosenzweig, C. Nicole; Shea, April; Shen, Xiaohong; Strockbine, Nancy; Tarr, Cheryl; Teshima, Hazuki; van Gieson, Eric; Verratti, Kathleen; Wolcott, Mark; Xie, Gary

    2012-01-01

    In May of 2011, an enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4 strain that had acquired a Shiga toxin 2-converting phage caused a large outbreak of bloody diarrhea in Europe which was notable for its high prevalence of hemolytic uremic syndrome cases. Several studies have described the genomic inventory and phylogenies of strains associated with the outbreak and a collection of historical E. coli O104:H4 isolates using draft genome assemblies. We present the complete, closed genome sequences of an isolate from the 2011 outbreak (2011C–3493) and two isolates from cases of bloody diarrhea that occurred in the Republic of Georgia in 2009 (2009EL–2050 and 2009EL–2071). Comparative genome analysis indicates that, while the Georgian strains are the nearest neighbors to the 2011 outbreak isolates sequenced to date, structural and nucleotide-level differences are evident in the Stx2 phage genomes, the mer/tet antibiotic resistance island, and in the prophage and plasmid profiles of the strains, including a previously undescribed plasmid with homology to the pMT virulence plasmid of Yersinia pestis. In addition, multiphenotype analysis showed that 2009EL–2071 possessed higher resistance to polymyxin and membrane-disrupting agents. Finally, we show evidence by electron microscopy of the presence of a common phage morphotype among the European and Georgian strains and a second phage morphotype among the Georgian strains. The presence of at least two stx2 phage genotypes in host genetic backgrounds that may derive from a recent common ancestor of the 2011 outbreak isolates indicates that the emergence of stx2 phage-containing E. coli O104:H4 strains probably occurred more than once, or that the current outbreak isolates may be the result of a recent transfer of a new stx2 phage element into a pre-existing stx2-positive genetic background. PMID:23133618

  15. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Chlorogenic Acid against Clinical Isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia including the Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Resistant Strain

    PubMed Central

    Karunanidhi, Arunkumar; Thomas, Renjan; van Belkum, Alex; Neela, Vasanthakumari

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of chlorogenic acid against clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was investigated through disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), time-kill and biofilm assays. A total of 9 clinical S. maltophilia isolates including one isolate resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) were tested. The inhibition zone sizes for the isolates ranged from 17 to 29 mm, while the MIC and MBC values ranged from 8 to 16 μg mL−1 and 16 to 32 μg mL−1. Chlorogenic acid appeared to be strongly bactericidal at 4x MIC, with a 2-log reduction in viable bacteria at 10 h. In vitro antibiofilm testing showed a 4-fold reduction in biofilm viability at 4x MIC compared to 1x MIC values (0.085 < 0.397 A 490 nm) of chlorogenic acid. The data from this study support the notion that the chlorogenic acid has promising in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against S. maltophilia. PMID:23509719

  16. Species distribution & antifungal susceptibility pattern of oropharyngeal Candida isolates from human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Das, Partha Pratim; Saikia, Lahari; Nath, Reema; Phukan, Sanjib Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: The changing spectrum of Candida species in causation of oropharyngeal candidiasis and their antifungal susceptibility pattern among the HIV infected individuals has made the identification to species level mandatory and detection of drug resistance necessary for patient care. The present study was carried out to determine the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profile of oral Candida isolates colonizing or infecting both HIV seropositive and seronegative individuals. Methods: A case-control study was conducted including 141 consecutive, non-repeat HIV-seropositive individuals and an equal number of sex and age matched HIV-seronegative control. Speciation of the oropharyngeal Candida isolates was done using standard yeast identification protocol. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done by the disk-diffusion method as well as by Fungitest method. Results: From the 59 culture positive HIV seropositive cases, 61 Candida isolates were recovered; Candida albicans (n=47, 77.0%), C. dubliniensis (n=9, 14.7%), C. parapsilosis (n=2, 3.2%), C. glabrata (n=2, 3.2%), and C. famata (n=1, 1.6%). Candida colonization in HIV-seropositive individuals was significantly higher than that of HIV-seronegative (control) group. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed (n=6, 9.3%) C. albicans isolates resistant to voriconazole and fluconazole by disk-diffusion method whereas no resistance was seen by Fungitest method. Interpretation & conclusions: C. albicans was the commonest Candida species infecting or colonizing HIV seropositive individuals. Oropharyngeal Candida isolates had high level susceptibility to all the major antifungals commonly in use. Increased level of immunosuppression in HIV-seropositives and drug resistance of non-albicans Candida species makes identification and susceptibility testing of Candida species necessary in different geographical areas of the country. PMID:27377507

  17. Carriage and acquisition rates of Clostridium difficile in hospitalized horses, including molecular characterization, multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, C; Taminiau, B; Brévers, B; Avesani, V; Van Broeck, J; Leroux, A A; Amory, H; Delmée, M; Daube, G

    2014-08-01

    Clostridium difficile has been identified as a significant agent of diarrhoea and enterocolitis in both foals and adult horses. Hospitalization, antibiotic therapy or changes in diet may contribute to the development of C. difficile infection. Horses admitted to a care unit are therefore at greater risk of being colonized. The aim of this study was to investigate the carriage of C. difficile in hospitalized horses and the possible influence of some risk factors in colonization. During a seven-month period, faecal samples and data relating the clinical history of horses admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital were collected. C. difficile isolates were characterized through toxin profiles, cytotoxicity activity, PCR-ribotyping, antimicrobial resistance and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ten isolates were obtained with a total of seven different PCR-ribotypes, including PCR-ribotype 014. Five of them were identified as toxinogenic. A high resistance to gentamicin, clindamycin and ceftiofur was found. MLST revealed four different sequencing types (ST), which included ST11, ST26, ST2 and ST15, and phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the isolates clustered in the same lineage. Clinical history suggests that horses frequently harbour toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. difficile and that in most cases they are colonized regardless of the reason for hospitalization; the development of diarrhoea is more unusual. PMID:24894133

  18. The first familial case of inherited 2q37.3 interstitial deletion with isolated skeletal abnormalities including brachydactyly type E and short stature.

    PubMed

    Jean-Marçais, Nolwenn; Decamp, Matthieu; Gérard, Marion; Ribault, Virginie; Andrieux, Joris; Kottler, Marie-Laure; Plessis, Ghislaine

    2015-01-01

    Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO)-like syndrome is also known as brachydactyly-mental retardation syndrome (BDMR; OMIM 60040). This disorder includes intellectual disability in all patients, skeletal abnormalities, including brachydactyly E (BDE) in approximately half, obesity, and facial dysmorphism. Patients with 2q37 microdeletion or HDAC4 mutation are defined as having an AHO-like phenotype with normal stimulatory G (Gs) function. HDAC4 is involved in neurological, cardiac, and skeletal function. This paper reports the first familial case of 2q37.3 interstitial deletion affecting two genes, HDAC4 and TWIST2. Patients presented with BDE and short stature without intellectual disability, showing that haploinsufficiency of the HDAC4 critical region may lead to a spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from isolated brachydactyly type E to BDMR. PMID:25402011

  19. Fuel cell system including a unit for electrical isolation of a fuel cell stack from a manifold assembly and method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Kelley; Dana A. , Farooque; Mohammad , Davis; Keith

    2007-10-02

    A fuel cell system with improved electrical isolation having a fuel cell stack with a positive potential end and a negative potential, a manifold for use in coupling gases to and from a face of the fuel cell stack, an electrical isolating assembly for electrically isolating the manifold from the stack, and a unit for adjusting an electrical potential of the manifold such as to impede the flow of electrolyte from the stack across the isolating assembly.

  20. Absence of CTX-M Enzymes but High Prevalence of Clones, Including Clone ST131, among Fecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Healthy Subjects Living in the Area of Paris, France▿

    PubMed Central

    Leflon-Guibout, Véronique; Blanco, Jorge; Amaqdouf, Karim; Mora, Azucena; Guize, Louis; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène

    2008-01-01

    Quinolone-resistant and CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli isolates belonging to clone ST131 have been reported in the community. This study was designed to identify these E. coli isolates in the stools of 332 independent healthy subjects living in the area of Paris, France. Stools were plated on media without antibiotics, in order to obtain the dominant (Dm) fecal E. coli strain, and with nalidixic acid (NAL) and cefotaxime. Quinolone susceptibility, phylogenetic groups, and molecular profiles, including multilocus sequence types (ST), were determined for all NAL-resistant (NAL-R) isolates. Groups were also determined for the Dm strains from participants with NAL-R isolates and from a subgroup without NAL-R isolates. All B2 isolates were typed; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed for the ST131 isolates, and the results were compared with those for intercontinental clone ST131. Two participants (0.6%) had extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing (SHV-2, TEM-52) fecal E. coli isolates, and 51 (15%) had NAL-R isolates; 51% of NAL-R isolates belonged to phylogenetic group A, 31% to group D, 16% to group B2, and 2% to group B1. The Dm strain was NAL-R in 3.3% of the 332 subjects. Forty-nine percent of the NAL-R isolates belonged to clones: ST10 and ST606 for group A isolates, ST117 and ST393 for group D isolates. Of all B2 isolates studied from 100 subjects (8 NAL-R strains; 19 NAL-susceptible dominant strains), 52% belonged to three clones: ST131 (n = 7), ST95 (n = 4), and ST141 (n = 3). This is the first study to show the presence of fecal E. coli isolates of clone ST131 in 7% of independent healthy subjects not colonized by CTX-M-15-producing isolates. PMID:18842941

  1. Microbial Community Analysis in the Roots of Aquatic Plants and Isolation of Novel Microbes Including an Organism of the Candidate Phylum OP10

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Matsuzawa, Hiroaki; Nigaya, Masahiro; Mori, Kazuhiro; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    A number of molecular ecological studies have revealed complex and unique microbial communities in various terrestrial plant roots; however, little is known about the microbial communities of aquatic plant roots in spite of their potential use for water quality improvement in aquatic environments (e.g. floating treatment wetland system). Here, we report the microbial communities inhabiting the roots of emerged plants, reed (Phragmites australis) and Japanese loosestrife (Lythrum anceps), collected from a floating treatment wetland in a pond by both culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. Culture-independent analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the microbial compositions between the two aquatic plant roots were clearly different (e.g. the predominant microbe was Betaproteobacteria for reed and Alphaproteobacteria for Japanese loosestrife). In comparisons of microbial communities between the plant roots and pond water taken from near the plants, the microbial diversity in the plant roots (e.g. 4.40–4.26 Shannon-Weiner index) were higher than that of pond water (e.g. 3.15 Shannon-Weiner index). Furthermore, the plant roots harbored 2.5–3.5 times more phylogenetically novel clone phylotypes than pond water. The culture-dependent approach also revealed differences in the microbial composition and diversity among the two plant roots and pond water. More importantly, compared to pond water, we succeeded in isolating approximately two times more novel isolate phylotypes, including a bacterium of candidate phylum OP10 (recently named Armatimonadetes) from the plant roots. These findings suggest that aquatic plants roots are significant sources for a variety of novel organisms. PMID:22791047

  2. In vitro biofilm production of Candida bloodstream isolates: any association with clinical characteristics?

    PubMed

    Pongrácz, Júlia; Benedek, Kálmán; Juhász, Emese; Iván, Miklós; Kristóf, Katalin

    2016-04-01

    Candida spp. are a leading cause of bloodstream infection (BSI) and are associated with high mortality rates. Biofilm production is a virulence factor of Candida spp., and has been linked with poor clinical outcome. The aim of our study was to assess biofilm production of Candida bloodstream isolates at our institute, and to determine whether in vitro biofilm production is associated with any clinical characteristics of infection. During the four-year study period, 93 cases of Candida BSI were analysed. The most frequently isolated species was C. albicans (66.7 %), followed by C. glabrata (9.7 %), C. parapsilosis (9.7 %), C. tropicalis (9.7 %) and C. krusei (4.3 %). Biofilm production was more prevalent among non-albicans Candida spp. (77.4 %) than C. albicans (30.6 %) (P = 0.02). Abdominal surgery was identified as a risk factor of BSI caused by biofilm producing non-albicans Candida isolates. No risk factors predisposing to bloodstream infection caused by a biofilm producing C. albicans isolate were identified. Biofilm production was not verified as a risk factor of mortality. PMID:26678484

  3. Mycelium of fungi isolated from mouldy foods inhibits Staphylococcus aureus including MRSA - A rationale for the re-introduction of mycotherapy?

    PubMed

    Alnaimat, Sulaiman; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Salmen, Saleh H; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Al-Johny, Bassam O; Wainwright, M

    2015-09-01

    Fungal mycelium capable of producing antibacterial agents was isolated from samples of apple, beetroot, lemon and orange; the mycelium of all isolates produced penicillin, while the apple and beetroot samples also produced the antibacterial mycotoxin patulin. The known penicillin-producing fungi were shown to produce penicillin, but not patulin. The mycelial discs of all of fruit and vegetable isolates, as well as the two known penicillin producing fungi, inhibited Staphylococcus aureus, and mycelium of all isolates inhibited MRSA, in contrast, only one of the two known penicillin-producers did so. The results are discussed in relation to the possibility of using the mycelium of Penicillium species in mycotherapy. PMID:26288565

  4. Mycelium of fungi isolated from mouldy foods inhibits Staphylococcus aureus including MRSA – A rationale for the re-introduction of mycotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Alnaimat, Sulaiman; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Salmen, Saleh H.; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Al-Johny, Bassam O.; Wainwright, M.

    2015-01-01

    Fungal mycelium capable of producing antibacterial agents was isolated from samples of apple, beetroot, lemon and orange; the mycelium of all isolates produced penicillin, while the apple and beetroot samples also produced the antibacterial mycotoxin patulin. The known penicillin-producing fungi were shown to produce penicillin, but not patulin. The mycelial discs of all of fruit and vegetable isolates, as well as the two known penicillin producing fungi, inhibited Staphylococcus aureus, and mycelium of all isolates inhibited MRSA, in contrast, only one of the two known penicillin-producers did so. The results are discussed in relation to the possibility of using the mycelium of Penicillium species in mycotherapy. PMID:26288565

  5. Isolation of Different Species of Candida in Patients With Vulvovaginal Candidiasis From Sari, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hedayati, Mohammad Taghi; Taheri, Zahra; Galinimoghadam, Tahereh; Aghili, Seyed Reza; Yazdani Cherati, Jamshid; Mosayebi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC) is a frequent, complex and cumbersome condition that can cause physical and psychological distress for the involved individual. Candida albicans was reported as the most common agent of VVC yet it seems that we are recently encountering changes in the pattern of Candida species in VVC. Objectives: In this study we assessed different species of Candida isolated from patients with VVC, residing in Sari, Iran. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and thirty-four patients with vulvovaginitis were enrolled in this study. Samples were collected by a wet swab. Each vaginal swab was examined microscopically and processed for fungal culture. The identification of Candida species was done by morphological and physiological methods such as culture on CHROMagar Candida media and sugar assimilation test with the HiCandida identification kit (HiMedia, Mumbai, India). Results: Out of 234 patients with vulvovaginitis, 66 (28.2%) patients showed VVC. Of these patients, 16 (24.2%) had recurrent VVC (RVVC). The age group of 20 - 29 year-olds had the highest frequency of VVC (48.5%). Erythema concomitant with itching (40.9%) was the most prevalent sign in VVC patients. Fifty-seven (86.4%) of the collected samples had positive results from both microscopic examination and culture. In total, 73 colonies of Candida spp. were isolated from 66 patients with VVC. The most common identified species of Candida were C. albicans (42.5%), C. glabrata (21.9%) and C. dubliniensis (16.4%). In patients with RVVC and patients without recurrence, C. albicans and non-albicans species of Candida were frequent species, respectively. Conclusions: The results of our study showed that non-albicans species of Candida are more frequent than C. albicans in patients with VVC. This result is in line with some recent studies indicating that non-albicans species of Candida must be considered in gynecology clinics due to the reported azole resistance in these species. PMID

  6. Characterization of Five Zoonotic Streptococcus suis Strains from Germany, Including One Isolate from a Recent Fatal Case of Streptococcal Toxic Shock-Like Syndrome in a Hunter.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Hudemann, Christoph; Hossain, Hamid M; Hewer, Angela; Tello, Khodr; Bandorski, Dirk; Rohde, Manfred; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Baums, Christoph Georg

    2015-12-01

    A Streptococcus suis isolate from a German hunter with streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (STSLS) and four additional zoonotic isolates were genotyped as mrp(+) epf* (variant 1890) sly(+) cps2(+). All five zoonotic German strains were characterized by high multiplication in human blood samples ex vivo, but induction of only low levels of proinflammatory cytokines compared to a Chinese STSLS strain. PMID:26424844

  7. QUANTIFICATION OF SIDEROPHORE AND HEMOLYSIN FROM STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM STRAINS, INCLUDING A STRAIN ISOLATED FROM THE LUNG OF A CHILD WITH PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE AND HEMOSIDEROSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A strain of Stachybotrys chartarum was recently isolated from the lung of a pulmonary hemorrhage and hemosiderosis (PH) patient in Texas (designated the Houston strain). This is the first time that S. chartarum has been isolated from the lung of a PH patient. In this study, the ...

  8. Biological heterogeneity, including systemic replication in mice, of H5N1 influenza A virus isolates from humans in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Gao, P; Watanabe, S; Ito, T; Goto, H; Wells, K; McGregor, M; Cooley, A J; Kawaoka, Y

    1999-04-01

    An H5N1 avian influenza A virus was transmitted to humans in Hong Kong in 1997. Although the virus causes systemic infection and is highly lethal in chickens because of the susceptibility of the hemagglutinin to furin and PC6 proteases, it is not known whether it also causes systemic infection in humans. The clinical outcomes of infection in Hong Kong residents ranged widely, from mild respiratory disease to multiple organ failure leading to death. Therefore, to understand the pathogenesis of influenza due to these H5N1 isolates, we investigated their virulence in mice. The results identified two distinct groups of viruses: group 1, for which the dose lethal for 50% of mice (MLD50) was between 0.3 and 11 PFU, and group 2, for which the MLD50 was more than 10(3) PFU. One day after intranasal inoculation of mice with 100 PFU of group 1 viruses, the virus titer in lungs was 10(7) PFU/g or 3 log units higher than that for group 2 viruses. Both types of viruses had replicated to high titers (>10(6) PFU/g) in the lungs by day 3 and maintained these titers through day 6. More importantly, only the group 1 viruses caused systemic infection, replicating in nonrespiratory organs, including the brain. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the replication of a group 1 virus in brain neurons and glial cells and in cardiac myofibers. Phylogenetic analysis of all viral genes showed that both groups of Hong Kong H5N1 viruses had formed a lineage distinct from those of other viruses and that genetic reassortment between H5N1 and H1 or H3 human viruses had not occurred. Since mice and humans harbor both the furin and the PC6 proteases, we suggest that the virulence mechanism responsible for the lethality of influenza viruses in birds also operates in mammalian hosts. The failure of some H5N1 viruses to produce systemic infection in our model indicates that multiple, still-to-be-identified, factors contribute to the severity of H5N1 infection in mammals. In addition, the ability

  9. Characterizations of Clinical Isolates of Clostridium difficile by Toxin Genotypes and by Susceptibility to 12 Antimicrobial Agents, Including Fidaxomicin (OPT-80) and Rifaximin: a Multicenter Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chun-Hsing; Ko, Wen-Chien; Lu, Jang-Jih

    2012-01-01

    A total of 403 nonduplicate isolates of Clostridium difficile were collected at three major teaching hospitals representing northern, central, and southern Taiwan from January 2005 to December 2010. Of these 403 isolates, 170 (42.2%) were presumed to be nontoxigenic due to the absence of genes for toxins A or B or binary toxin. The remaining 233 (57.8%) isolates carried toxin A and B genes, and 39 (16.7%) of these also had binary toxin genes. The MIC90 of all isolates for fidaxomicin and rifaximin was 0.5 μg/ml (range, ≤0.015 to 0.5 μg/ml) and >128 μg/ml (range, ≤0.015 to >128 μg/ml), respectively. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole (MIC90 of 0.5 μg/ml; range, ≤0.03 to 4 μg/ml). Two isolates had reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (MICs, 4 μg/ml). Only 13.6% of isolates were susceptible to clindamycin (MIC of ≤2 μg/ml). Nonsusceptibility to moxifloxacin (n = 81, 20.1%) was accompanied by single or multiple mutations in gyrA and gyrB genes in all but eight moxifloxacin-nonsusceptible isolates. Two previously unreported gyrB mutations might independently confer resistance (MIC, 16 μg/ml), Ser416 to Ala and Glu466 to Lys. Moxifloxacin-resistant isolates were cross-resistant to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, but some moxifloxacin-nonsusceptible isolates remained susceptible to gemifloxacin or nemonoxacin at 0.5 μg/ml. This study found the diversity of toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains of C. difficile in the health care setting in Taiwan. All isolates tested were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. Fidaxomicin exhibited potent in vitro activity against all isolates tested, while the more than 10% of Taiwanese isolates with rifaximin MICs of ≥128 μg/ml raises concerns. PMID:22508299

  10. Characterizations of clinical isolates of clostridium difficile by toxin genotypes and by susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial agents, including fidaxomicin (OPT-80) and rifaximin: a multicenter study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chun-Hsing; Ko, Wen-Chien; Lu, Jang-Jih; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-07-01

    A total of 403 nonduplicate isolates of Clostridium difficile were collected at three major teaching hospitals representing northern, central, and southern Taiwan from January 2005 to December 2010. Of these 403 isolates, 170 (42.2%) were presumed to be nontoxigenic due to the absence of genes for toxins A or B or binary toxin. The remaining 233 (57.8%) isolates carried toxin A and B genes, and 39 (16.7%) of these also had binary toxin genes. The MIC(90) of all isolates for fidaxomicin and rifaximin was 0.5 μg/ml (range, ≤ 0.015 to 0.5 μg/ml) and >128 μg/ml (range, ≤ 0.015 to >128 μg/ml), respectively. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole (MIC(90) of 0.5 μg/ml; range, ≤ 0.03 to 4 μg/ml). Two isolates had reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (MICs, 4 μg/ml). Only 13.6% of isolates were susceptible to clindamycin (MIC of ≤ 2 μg/ml). Nonsusceptibility to moxifloxacin (n = 81, 20.1%) was accompanied by single or multiple mutations in gyrA and gyrB genes in all but eight moxifloxacin-nonsusceptible isolates. Two previously unreported gyrB mutations might independently confer resistance (MIC, 16 μg/ml), Ser416 to Ala and Glu466 to Lys. Moxifloxacin-resistant isolates were cross-resistant to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, but some moxifloxacin-nonsusceptible isolates remained susceptible to gemifloxacin or nemonoxacin at 0.5 μg/ml. This study found the diversity of toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains of C. difficile in the health care setting in Taiwan. All isolates tested were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. Fidaxomicin exhibited potent in vitro activity against all isolates tested, while the more than 10% of Taiwanese isolates with rifaximin MICs of ≥ 128 μg/ml raises concerns. PMID:22508299

  11. Adhesion and biofilm formation in artificial saliva and susceptibility of yeasts isolated from chronic kidney patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Paula Assis; Godoy, Janine Silva Ribeiro; Mendonça, Patrícia de Souza Bonfim; Pedroso, Raíssa Bocchi; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Negri, Melyssa

    2015-09-01

    Yeasts of the genera Candida and Saccharomyces are opportunist pathogens and cause oral lesions, especially in immunocompromised patients. This study assessed yeasts isolated from chronic kidney patients undergoing haemodialysis for their adhesion capacity, biofilm formation and susceptibility to antifungal agents. Ten isolates of Candida spp. and one isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were tested for adhesion to buccal epithelial cells (BECs), adhesion and formation of biofilm in artificial saliva and their susceptibility profile to antifungal agents. Adhesion and biofilm formation were undertaken in polystyrene plates with artificial saliva, whilst susceptibility to antifungal agents was evaluated by broth microdilution. Candida parapsilosis had the highest adhesion index in BECs (154.55 ± 22.13) and Candida rugosa was the species with the highest adhesion capacity (18 398  Abs cm(-2)) in abiotic surface with artificial saliva. Candida albicans provided the greatest biofilm formation (2035  Abs cm(-2) ± 0.09) but was revealed to be susceptible to the five antifungal agents under analysis. However, some non-albicans Candida isolates showed a lower susceptibility for the antifungal agents itraconazole, fluconazole and voriconazole. All of the species were sensitive to amphotericin B and nystatin. The current analysis showed that yeasts isolated from the mouth of chronic kidney patients undergoing haemodialysis varied significantly with regard to their capacity for adherence, biofilm formation and susceptibility to antifungal agents, underscoring the high virulence of non-albicans Candida species. PMID:26297016

  12. Recent Emergence of Clonal Group O25b:K1:H4-B2-ST131 ibeA Strains among Escherichia coli Poultry Isolates, Including CTX-M-9-Producing Strains, and Comparison with Clinical Human Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Azucena; Herrera, Alexandra; Mamani, Rosalia; López, Cecilia; Alonso, María Pilar; Blanco, Jesús E.; Blanco, Miguel; Dahbi, Ghizlane; García-Garrote, Fernando; Pita, Julia María; Coira, Amparo; Bernárdez, María Isabel; Blanco, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    To discern the possible spread of the Escherichia coli O25b:H4-ST131 clonal group in poultry and the zoonotic potential of avian strains, we made a retrospective search of our strain collection and compared the findings for those strains with the findings for current strains. Thus, we have characterized a collection of 19 avian O25b:H4-ST131 E. coli strains isolated from 1995 to 2010 which, interestingly, harbored the ibeA gene. Using this virulence gene as a criterion for selection, we compared those 19 avian strains with 33 human O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA-positive E. coli strains obtained from patients with extraintestinal infections (1993 to 2009). All 52 O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA-positive E. coli strains shared the fimH, kpsMII, malX, and usp genes but showed statistically significant differences in nine virulence factors, namely, papGIII, cdtB, sat, and kpsMII K5, which were associated with human strains, and iroN, kpsMII K1, cvaC, iss, and tsh, which were associated with strains of avian origin. The XbaI macrorestriction profiles of the 52 E. coli O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA-positive strains revealed 11 clusters (clusters I to XI) of >85% similarity, with four clusters including strains of human and avian origin. Cluster VII (90.9% similarity) grouped 10 strains (7 avian and 3 human strains) that mostly produced CTX-M-9 and that also shared the same virulence profile. Finally, we compared the macrorestriction profiles of the 12 CTX-M-9-producing O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA strains (7 avian and 5 human strains) identified among the 52 strains with those of 15 human O25b:H4-ST131 CTX-M-14-, CTX-M-15-, and CTX-M-32-producing strains that proved to be negative for ibeA and showed that they clearly differed in the level of similarity from the CTX-M-9-producing strains. In conclusion, E. coli clonal group O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA has recently emerged among avian isolates with the new acquisition of the K1 capsule antigen and includes CTX-M-9-producing strains. This clonal group represents a real

  13. Recent emergence of clonal group O25b:K1:H4-B2-ST131 ibeA strains among Escherichia coli poultry isolates, including CTX-M-9-producing strains, and comparison with clinical human isolates.

    PubMed

    Mora, Azucena; Herrera, Alexandra; Mamani, Rosalia; López, Cecilia; Alonso, María Pilar; Blanco, Jesús E; Blanco, Miguel; Dahbi, Ghizlane; García-Garrote, Fernando; Pita, Julia María; Coira, Amparo; Bernárdez, María Isabel; Blanco, Jorge

    2010-11-01

    To discern the possible spread of the Escherichia coli O25b:H4-ST131 clonal group in poultry and the zoonotic potential of avian strains, we made a retrospective search of our strain collection and compared the findings for those strains with the findings for current strains. Thus, we have characterized a collection of 19 avian O25b:H4-ST131 E. coli strains isolated from 1995 to 2010 which, interestingly, harbored the ibeA gene. Using this virulence gene as a criterion for selection, we compared those 19 avian strains with 33 human O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA-positive E. coli strains obtained from patients with extraintestinal infections (1993 to 2009). All 52 O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA-positive E. coli strains shared the fimH, kpsMII, malX, and usp genes but showed statistically significant differences in nine virulence factors, namely, papGIII, cdtB, sat, and kpsMII K5, which were associated with human strains, and iroN, kpsMII K1, cvaC, iss, and tsh, which were associated with strains of avian origin. The XbaI macrorestriction profiles of the 52 E. coli O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA-positive strains revealed 11 clusters (clusters I to XI) of >85% similarity, with four clusters including strains of human and avian origin. Cluster VII (90.9% similarity) grouped 10 strains (7 avian and 3 human strains) that mostly produced CTX-M-9 and that also shared the same virulence profile. Finally, we compared the macrorestriction profiles of the 12 CTX-M-9-producing O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA strains (7 avian and 5 human strains) identified among the 52 strains with those of 15 human O25b:H4-ST131 CTX-M-14-, CTX-M-15-, and CTX-M-32-producing strains that proved to be negative for ibeA and showed that they clearly differed in the level of similarity from the CTX-M-9-producing strains. In conclusion, E. coli clonal group O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA has recently emerged among avian isolates with the new acquisition of the K1 capsule antigen and includes CTX-M-9-producing strains. This clonal group represents a real

  14. Genetic classification of Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b strains, including epidemic clones, isolated from retail meat in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Yoshitsugu; Mochizuki, Mariko; Yamada, Fumiya; Takano, Takashi; Hondo, Ryo; Ueda, Fukiko

    2014-01-01

    A food-borne pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b, has been frequently isolated from patients with listeriosis, and numerous outbreaks of listeriosis are associated with this serotype. In the present study, we performed subtyping of L. monocytogenes serotype 4b strains on the basis of genetic analyses. Thirty-four isolates of serotype 4b were classified into 8 genotypes, namely genotypes 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 23, 24, and 25, on the basis of the sequence for the partial iap gene. Genetic analyses revealed that genotype 16 and genotypes 24 and 25 belong to epidemic clone I (ECI) and ECII, respectively, which have been frequently associated with listeriosis outbreaks in the United States and Europe. The genotype isolated most frequently from retail meats in the Tokyo metropolitan area was genotype 12 (52%), followed by genotype 16 (29%), which belongs to ECI. We suggest that ECI is a common subtype of L. monocytogenes in retail meat in the area under investigation. On the other hand, ECII isolates were confirmed to be present in retail meat in Japan but were rare. PMID:25056070

  15. Yield of stool culture with isolate toxin testing versus a two-step algorithm including stool toxin testing for detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Reller, Megan E; Lema, Clara A; Perl, Trish M; Cai, Mian; Ross, Tracy L; Speck, Kathleen A; Carroll, Karen C

    2007-11-01

    We examined the incremental yield of stool culture (with toxin testing on isolates) versus our two-step algorithm for optimal detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Per the two-step algorithm, stools were screened for C. difficile-associated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and, if positive, tested for toxin by a direct (stool) cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). In parallel, stools were cultured for C. difficile and tested for toxin by both indirect (isolate) CCNA and conventional PCR if the direct CCNA was negative. The "gold standard" for toxigenic C. difficile was detection of C. difficile by the GDH screen or by culture and toxin production by direct or indirect CCNA. We tested 439 specimens from 439 patients. GDH screening detected all culture-positive specimens. The sensitivity of the two-step algorithm was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70 to 84%), and that of culture was 87% (95% CI, 80 to 92%). PCR results correlated completely with those of CCNA testing on isolates (29/29 positive and 32/32 negative, respectively). We conclude that GDH is an excellent screening test and that culture with isolate CCNA testing detects an additional 23% of toxigenic C. difficile missed by direct CCNA. Since culture is tedious and also detects nontoxigenic C. difficile, we conclude that culture is most useful (i) when the direct CCNA is negative but a high clinical suspicion of toxigenic C. difficile remains, (ii) in the evaluation of new diagnostic tests for toxigenic C. difficile (where the best reference standard is essential), and (iii) in epidemiologic studies (where the availability of an isolate allows for strain typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing). PMID:17804652

  16. The Phenotypic Spectrum of ZIC3 Mutations Includes Isolated d-Transposition of the Great Arteries and Double Outlet Right Ventricle

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessandro, Lisa C. A.; Latney, Brande C.; Paluru, Prasuna C.; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Disease causing mutations for heterotaxy syndrome were first identified in the X-linked laterality gene, ZIC3. Mutations typically result in males with situs ambiguus and complex congenital heart disease; however affected females and one male with isolated d-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) have been reported. We hypothesized that a subset of patients with heart defects common to heterotaxy but without laterality defects would have ZIC3 mutations. We also sought to estimate the prevalence of ZIC3 mutations in sporadic heterotaxy. Patients with TGA (n=169), double outlet right ventricle (DORV) (n=89), common atrioventricular canal (CAVC) (n= 41) and heterotaxy (n=54) underwent sequencing of ZIC3 exons. We tested 90 patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) to correlate genotype with phenotype. Three potentially disease-related missense mutations were detected: c.49G>T (Gly17Cys) in a female with isolated DORV, c.98C>T (Ala33Val) in a male with isolated d-TGA, and c.841C>T (His281Tyr) in a female with sporadic heterotaxy. We also identified a novel insertion (CPFP333ins) in a family with heterotaxy. All were absent in 200 control patients and the 1000 Genomes Project (n = 629). No significant mutations were found in patients with TOF. Functional studies demonstrated reduced transcriptional activity of the ZIC3 His281Tyr mutant protein. ZIC3 mutations were rarely identified in isolated DORV and d-TGA suggesting that a subset of DORV and d-TGA may fall within the spectrum of laterality defects. ZIC3 mutations were found in 3.7% of patients with sporadic heterotaxy; therefore testing should be considered in patients with heterotaxy. PMID:23427188

  17. Synergistic inhibition of replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, including that of a zidovudine-resistant isolate, by zidovudine and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Eron, J J; Johnson, V A; Merrill, D P; Chou, T C; Hirsch, M S

    1992-01-01

    The combination of zidovudine (AZT) and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine synergistically inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in vitro with AZT-sensitive and AZT-resistant clinical isolates and HIV-1IIIB. Synergy was determined by the median-effect principle and isobologram techniques. Cytotoxicity of the agents was not observed. Clinical trials are ongoing to define the combination's role in HIV-1 therapy. PMID:1324648

  18. Trends in the susceptibility of commonly encountered clinically significant anaerobes and susceptibilities of blood isolates of anaerobes to 16 antimicrobial agents, including fidaxomicin and rifaximin, 2008-2012, northern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, F D; Liao, C H; Lin, Y T; Sheng, W H; Hsueh, P R

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial resistance trends and profiles of clinical anaerobic isolates in northern Taiwan. Trends in the susceptibility of five commonly encountered clinical anaerobic isolates to seven agents from 2008 to 2012 were measured using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 16 antimicrobial agents, including fidaxomicin and rifaximin, against anaerobic blood isolates from two medical centers were determined using the agar dilution method. During the study period, susceptibility data on 11,105 isolates were evaluated. Metronidazole and chloramphenicol retained excellent activities. Around 20-30 % of isolates of Bacteroides and Prevotella species were resistant to ampicillin-sulbactam, cefmetazole, flomoxef, and clindamycin. Of the 507 tested blood isolates, the rates of resistance to commonly used agents were much higher, namely, 16.2 % for amoxicillin-clavulanate, 15.6 % for ampicillin-sulbactam, 24.7 % for cefmetazole, and 36.1 % for clindamycin. Notably, 13.5 % of B. fragilis isolates were resistant to ertapenem. Also, 15.2 % of B. uniformis, 17.2 % of other Bacteroides species, 14.3 % of Prevotella species, and 14 % of Clostridium other than C. perfringens isolates were resistant to moxifloxacin. Cefoperazone-sulbactam was active against most isolates, except for Clostridium species other than perfringens (resistance rate, 18.6 %). Fidaxomicin exerted poor activities against most anaerobes tested (MIC90 of >128 μg/ml for B. fragilis and all isolates), except for C. perfringens (MIC90 of 0.03 μg/ml) and Peptostreptococcus micros (MIC90 of 2 μg/ml). However, rifaximin showed a wide range of susceptibilities against the tested anaerobes (MIC90 of 0.5 μg/ml for B. fragilis). The emergence of resistance to ertapenem and moxifloxacin among bacteremic anaerobes highlights the need for continuous monitoring. PMID:24930042

  19. Oxidative Dimerization of Triarylamines Promoted by WCl6, Including the Solid State Isolation and the Crystallographic Characterization of a Triphenylammonium Salt.

    PubMed

    Bortoluzzi, Marco; Marchetti, Fabio; Pampaloni, Guido; Pinzino, Calogero; Zacchini, Stefano

    2016-01-19

    The triphenylammonium salt [NHPh3][WCl6], 1, and the product of the C-C dimerization of triphenylamine, Ph2N(C6H4)2NPh2, 2, were afforded from the reaction between WCl6 and NPh3 in CH2Cl2. Compound 2 was isolated in 43% yield upon hydrolysis of the reaction mixture. The X-ray structure of 1 provides the first crystallographic characterization of the triphenylammonium ion. Combined EPR and DFT studies gave insight into the reaction mechanism, and allowed the identification of WCl5···[Cl(C6H4)NPh2] as a presumable key intermediate. The reactions of WCl6 with 4-bromotriphenylamine, 4,4'-dimethyltriphenylamine, 9-phenylcarbazole, followed by hydrolytic treatment, led to the dimerization products 3-6, in admixture with variable amounts of the parent amines. N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(4-bromophenyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diamine, 3, was isolated in 60% yield from the reaction of WCl6 with 4,4'-dibromotriphenylamine. PMID:26701200

  20. Isolation of estrogen-degrading bacteria from an activated sludge bioreactor treating swine waste, including a strain that converts estrone to β-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Isabelle, Martine; Villemur, Richard; Juteau, Pierre; Lépine, François

    2011-07-01

    An estrogen-degrading bacterial consortium from a swine wastewater biotreatment was enriched in the presence of low concentrations (1 mg/L) of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (βE2), and equol (EQO) as sole carbon sources. The consortium removed 99% ± 1% of these three estrogens in 48 h. Estrogen removal occurred even in the presence of an ammonia monooxygenase inhibitor, suggesting that nitrifiers are not involved. Five strains showing estrogen-metabolizing activity were isolated from the consortium on mineral agar medium with estrogens as sole carbon source. They are related to four genera ( Methylobacterium (strain MI6.1R), Ochrobactrum (strains MI6.1B and MI9.3), Pseudomonas (strain MI14.1), and Mycobacterium (strain MI21.2)) distributed among three classes (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria). Depending on the culture medium, strains MI6.1B, MI9.3, MI14.1, and MI21.2 partially transform βE2 into E1, whereas Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R reduces E1 into βE2 under aerobic conditions, in contrast with the usually observed conversion of βE2 into E1. Since βE2 is a more potent endocrine disruptor than E1, it means that the presence of Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R (or other bacteria with the same E1-reducing activity) in a treatment could transiently increase the estrogenicity of the effluent. MI6.1R can also reduce the ketone group of 16-ketoestradiol, a hydroxylated analog of E1. All βE2 and E1 transformation activities were constitutive, and many of them are favoured in a rich medium than a medium containing no other carbon source. None of the isolated strains could degrade EQO. PMID:21770814

  1. Comparative Pathogenicity of United Kingdom Isolates of the Emerging Pathogen Candida auris and Other Key Pathogenic Candida Species.

    PubMed

    Borman, Andrew M; Szekely, Adrien; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Candida auris, first described in 2009, has since emerged as an important, multidrug-resistant, nosocomial agent of candidemia, with large outbreaks reported worldwide and high mortality rates associated with therapeutic failure. The current study employed C. auris isolates from a variety of centers in the United Kingdom to evaluate the pathogenicity of this emerging pathogen compared to that of other common pathogenic yeast species in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella infection model. We showed that C. auris isolates differ in their growth characteristics in vitro, with a proportion of isolates failing to release daughter cells after budding, resulting in the formation of large aggregates of cells that cannot be physically disrupted. Our results also demonstrate strain-specific differences in the behavior of C. auris in G. mellonella, with the aggregate-forming isolates exhibiting significantly less pathogenicity than their nonaggregating counterparts. Importantly, the nonaggregating isolates exhibited pathogenicity comparable to that of C. albicans, which is currently accepted as the most pathogenic member of the genus, despite the fact that C. auris isolates do not produce hyphae and produce only rudimentary pseudohyphae either in vitro or in G. mellonella. IMPORTANCE The incidence of invasive candidiasis, which includes candidemia and deep tissue infections, continues to rise and is associated with considerable mortality rates. Candida albicans remains the most common cause of invasive candidiasis, although the prevalence of non-albicans species has increased over recent years. Since its first description in 2009, Candida auris has emerged as a serious nosocomial health risk, with widespread outbreaks in numerous hospitals worldwide. However, despite receiving considerable attention, little is known concerning the pathogenicity of this emerging fungal pathogen. Here, using the Galleria mellonella insect systemic infection model, we show strain

  2. Comparative Pathogenicity of United Kingdom Isolates of the Emerging Pathogen Candida auris and Other Key Pathogenic Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Szekely, Adrien; Johnson, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida auris, first described in 2009, has since emerged as an important, multidrug-resistant, nosocomial agent of candidemia, with large outbreaks reported worldwide and high mortality rates associated with therapeutic failure. The current study employed C. auris isolates from a variety of centers in the United Kingdom to evaluate the pathogenicity of this emerging pathogen compared to that of other common pathogenic yeast species in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella infection model. We showed that C. auris isolates differ in their growth characteristics in vitro, with a proportion of isolates failing to release daughter cells after budding, resulting in the formation of large aggregates of cells that cannot be physically disrupted. Our results also demonstrate strain-specific differences in the behavior of C. auris in G. mellonella, with the aggregate-forming isolates exhibiting significantly less pathogenicity than their nonaggregating counterparts. Importantly, the nonaggregating isolates exhibited pathogenicity comparable to that of C. albicans, which is currently accepted as the most pathogenic member of the genus, despite the fact that C. auris isolates do not produce hyphae and produce only rudimentary pseudohyphae either in vitro or in G. mellonella. IMPORTANCE The incidence of invasive candidiasis, which includes candidemia and deep tissue infections, continues to rise and is associated with considerable mortality rates. Candida albicans remains the most common cause of invasive candidiasis, although the prevalence of non-albicans species has increased over recent years. Since its first description in 2009, Candida auris has emerged as a serious nosocomial health risk, with widespread outbreaks in numerous hospitals worldwide. However, despite receiving considerable attention, little is known concerning the pathogenicity of this emerging fungal pathogen. Here, using the Galleria mellonella insect systemic infection model, we show

  3. Morphological and phylogenetic studies on three members of the genus Pseudochilodonopsis (Ciliophora, Cyrtophoria) isolated from brackish waters in China, including a novel species, Pseudochilodonopsis quadrivacuolata sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhishuai; Pan, Hongbo; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Hu, Xiaozhong; Gao, Shan

    2015-12-01

    Three cyrtophorian ciliates isolated from brackish biotopes in China, Pseudochilodonopsis quadrivacuolata sp. nov., Pseudochilodonopsis fluviatilisFoissner, 1988 and Pseudochilodonopsis mutabilisFoissner, 1981, were investigated using living observation and protargol-staining methods. P. quadrivacuolata sp. nov. can be characterized as follows: cell size 50-70 × 30-40 μm in vivo; body oval with posterior end rounded; four tetragonally positioned contractile vacuoles; 12-15 nematodesmal rods; five right and six left somatic kineties; terminal fragment positioned apically on dorsal side, consisting of 11-14 basal bodies; four or five fragments in preoral kinety. P. fluviatilis and P. mutabilis were generally consistent with previous descriptions. In addition, a brief revision and a key to Pseudochilodonopsis are presented. The small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was also sequenced to support the identification of these species. Phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data indicate that the genera Pseudochilodonopsis and Chilodonella are closely related and both are well outlined; that is, all known congeners for which SSU rRNA gene sequence data are available group together, forming the core part of the family Chilodonellidae. PMID:26341631

  4. Isolation of major components from the roots of Godmania aesculifolia and determination of their antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Vásquez, Víctor; Ríos, María Isabel; Rodríguez, María Victoria; Solano, Godofredo; Zacchino, Susana; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2013-12-01

    From the methanol root extract of Godmania aesculifolia, a species selected in a multinational OAS program aimed at discovering antifungal compounds from Latin American plants, a new chavicol diglycoside (1), the known 3,4-dihydroxy-2-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H)-one (2), and lapachol (3) were isolated and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques. Only 3 exhibited fairly good activity against a panel of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC50 between 7.8 and 31.2 µg/mL) and moderate activities against Candida spp. and non-albicans Candida spp. PMID:24356871

  5. [New recurrent extended deletion, including GJB2 and GJB6 genes, results in isolated sensorineural hearing impairment with autosomal recessive type of inheritance].

    PubMed

    Bliznets, E A; Makienko, O N; Okuneva, E G; Markova, T G; Poliakov, A V

    2014-04-01

    Hereditary hearing loss with the autosomal recessive type of inheritance of the DFNB 1 genetic type, caused by mutations in the GJB2 gene, is the main reason of innate non-syndromal hearing impairment in most developed countries of the world (including Russia). Intragenic point mutations prevail among the GJB2 gene defectors; however, extended deletions in the DFNB1 locus are also found with considerable frequency in some populations (for example, Spain, Great Britain, France, United States, and Brazil). Among the four known extended deletions, only one deletion affects directly the GJB2 gene sequence and was described in a single family. A new extended deletion in the GJB2 and GJB6 gene sequences (approximately 101 kb in size; NC_000013.10:g.20,757,021_20,858,394del), detected in three unrelated Russian patients, was described and characterized. Ingush origin of this mutation is assumed. If the new deletion is frequent, its detection is very important for the genetic consulting of families with hereditary hearing impairment. PMID:25715449

  6. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    1998-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  7. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, G.J.; Sampayan, S.E.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1998-10-13

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface. 12 figs.

  8. Vibration isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on vibration isolation are presented. Techniques to control and isolate centrifuge disturbances were identified. Topics covered include: disturbance sources in the microgravity environment; microgravity assessment criteria; life sciences centrifuge; flight support equipment for launch; active vibration isolation system; active balancing system; and fuzzy logic control.

  9. Isolation of differentiated membrane domains from Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, including a fraction containing sites between the inner and outer membranes and Murein skeleton of the cell envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-05

    Cell envelopes of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli were disrupted in a French pressure cell and fractionated by successive cycles of sedimentation and floatation density gradient centrifugation. This permitted the identification and isolation of several membrane fractions in addition to the major inner membrane and murein-outer membrane fractions. One of these fractions (fraction OM/sub L/) accounted for about 10% of the total cell envelope protein, and is likely to include the murein-membrane adhesion zones that are seen in electron micrographs of plasmolyzed cells. Fraction OM/sub L/ contained inner membrane, murein, and outer membrane in an apparently normal configuration, was capable of synthesizing murein from UDP-(/sup 3/H)N-acetylglucosamine and UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-pentapeptide and covalently linking it to the endogenous murein of the preparation. It showed a labeling pattern in (/sup 3/H)galactose pulse-chase experiments that was consistent with its acting as an intermediate in the movement of newly synthesized lipopolysaccharide from inner membrane to outer membrane.

  10. Molecular characteristics and in vitro susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, including the des-fluoro(6) quinolone DX-619, of Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the community and hospitals.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Dohmae, Soshi; Saito, Kohei; Otsuka, Taketo; Takano, Tomomi; Chiba, Megumi; Fujikawa, Katsuko; Tanaka, Mayumi

    2006-12-01

    Highly virulent, community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) genes have been found increasingly worldwide. Among a total of 2,101 MRSA strains isolated from patients in hospitals in Japan, two were positive for PVL genes. One strain was identified as a community-acquired MRSA strain with genotype sequence type 30 (ST30) and spa (staphylococcal protein A gene) type 19 from Japan and was resistant only to beta-lactam antimicrobial agents. The other strain was closely related to PVL+ multidrug-resistant, hospital-acquired MRSA strains (ST30, spa type 43) derived from nosocomial outbreaks in the 1980s to 1990s in Japan but with a divergent sequence type, ST765 (a single-locus variant of ST30). Twenty-two PVL+ MRSA strains, including those from Japan and those from other countries with various sequence types (ST1, ST8, ST30, ST59, and ST80) and genotypes, were examined for susceptibility to 31 antimicrobial agents. Among the agents, DX-619, a des-fluoro(6) quinolone, showed the greatest activity, followed by rifampin and sitafloxacin, a fluoroquinolone. The data suggest that DX-619 exhibits a superior activity against PVL+ MRSA strains with various virulence genetic traits from the community as well as from hospitals. PMID:17043124

  11. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility of 186 Candida isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis in southern China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Li, Wen; Wang, Jie-Di; Huang, Wen-Ming; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2015-04-01

    There is limited information regarding the molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida isolates using the Neo-Sensitabs method in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). From August 2012 to March 2013, 301 non-pregnant patients aged 18-50 years with suspected VVC were prospectively screened at a teaching hospital in southern China. The vaginal isolates were identified by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer and the D1/D2 domain. Antifungal susceptibility testing of seven antifungal agents was performed using the Neo-Sensitabs tablet diffusion method. Candida species were isolated from 186 cases (61.79 %). The most common pathogen was Candida albicans (91.4 %), followed by Candida glabrata (4.3 %), Candida tropicalis (3.2 %) and Candida parapsilosis (1.1 %). The susceptibility rates to C. albicans were higher for caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole than those for itraconazole, miconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine (P<0.01). The resistance rates to C. albicans were 4.7, 6.5, 7.1, 7.6, 12.3, 27.7 and 74.7 % for caspofungin, miconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine, respectively. No drugs tested apart from fluconazole exhibited differences in resistance between C. albicans and non-albicans Candida isolates. The results demonstrate that, using DNA sequencing, C. albicans is the most common isolate from Chinese patients with VVC. Caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole may be preferable to other azoles and terbinafine in the treatment of VVC. PMID:25596116

  12. Isolation Frequency Characteristics of Candida Species from Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeon, Jae-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Candida spp. is an invasive infectious fungus, a major risk factor that can increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In this study, 2,508 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens collected from university hospitals from July 2011 to October 2014. They were identified in order to determine isolation frequencies and characteristics by specimen, gender, age group, year, season, and month. The strain-specific isolation rate of Candida spp. is in the order of Candida albicans (1,218 strains, 48.56%), Candida glabrata (416 strains, 16.59%), Candida utilis (305 strains, 12.16%), Candida tropicalis (304 strains, 12.12%), and Candida parapsilosis (116 strains, 4.63%) and these five species accounted for more than 94% of the total strains. Of the specimens, Candida spp. were most frequently isolated from urine-catheter, followed by urine-voided, blood, sputum, other, open pus, vaginal discharge, Tip, ear discharge, bronchial aspiration and bile, in that order. Looking at the age distribution, the detection rate of patients in their 60s and older was significantly higher at 75.8% (1,900/2,508). The detection rate of patients in their 20s and younger was shown to be very low at 2.55% (64/2,508). By year, the detection rate of non-albicans Candida spp. showed a tendency to gradually increase each year compared with C. albicans. As isolation of Candida spp. from clinical samples at the specie level can vary depending on characteristics of the patient, sample, season, etc., continual studies are required. PMID:27433120

  13. Comparison of Human and Soil Candida tropicalis Isolates with Reduced Susceptibility to Fluconazole

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yun-Liang; Lin, Chih-Chao; Chang, Te-Pin; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Chen, Hui-Ting; Lee, Ching-Fu; Hsieh, Chih-Wen; Chen, Pei-Chen; Lo, Hsiu-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Infections caused by treatment-resistant non-albicans Candida species, such as C. tropicalis, has increased, which is an emerging challenge in the management of fungal infections. Genetically related diploid sequence type (DST) strains of C. tropicalis exhibiting reduced susceptibility to fluconazole circulated widely in Taiwan. To identify the potential source of these wildly distributed DST strains, we investigated the possibility of the presence in soil of such C. tropicalis strains by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DST typing methods. A total of 56 C. tropicalis isolates were recovered from 26 out of 477 soil samples. Among the 18 isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole, 9 belonged to DST149 and 3 belonged to DST140. Both DSTs have been recovered from our previous studies on clinical isolates from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance of Yeasts (TSARY) program. Furthermore, these isolates were more resistant to agricultural azoles. We have found genetically related C. tropicalis exhibiting reduced susceptibility to fluconazole from the human hosts and environmental samples. Therefore, to prevent patients from acquiring C. tropicalis with reduced susceptibility to azoles, prudent use of azoles in both clinical and agricultural settings is advocated. PMID:22496832

  14. Filobacterium rodentium gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of Filobacteriaceae fam. nov. within the phylum Bacteroidetes; includes a microaerobic filamentous bacterium isolated from specimens from diseased rodent respiratory tracts.

    PubMed

    Ike, Fumio; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kajita, Ayako; Matsushita, Satoru; Kokubo, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Strain SMR-CT, which was originally isolated from rats as the SMR strain, had been named 'cilia-associated respiratory bacillus' ('CAR bacillus'). 'CAR bacillus' was a Gram-stain-negative, filamentous argentophilic bacterium without flagella. SMR-CT grew at 37 °C under microaerobic conditions, showed gliding activity, hydrolysed urea and induced chronic respiratory diseases in rodents. The dominant cellular fatty acids detected were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 47.7 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed SMR-CT and other strains of 'CAR bacillus' isolated from rodents all belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes. The nearest known type strain, with 86 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, was Chitinophaga pinensis DSM 2588T in the family Chitinophagaceae. Strain SMR-CT and closely related strains of 'CAR bacillus' rodent-isolates formed a novel family-level clade in the phylum Bacteroidetes with high bootstrap support (98-100 %). Based on these results, we propose a novel family, Filobacteriaceae fam. nov., in the order Sphingobacteriales as well as a novel genus and species, Filobacterium rodentium gen. nov., sp. nov., for strain SMR-CT. The type strain is SMR-CT ( = JCM 19453T = DSM 100392T). PMID:26476525

  15. Test plan: Sealing of the Disturbed Rock Zone (DRZ), including Marker Bed 139 (MB139) and the overlying halite, below the repository horizon, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Small-scale seal performance test-series F

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, E.H.

    1992-05-01

    This test plan describes activities intended to demonstrate equipment and techniques for producing, injecting, and evaluating microfine cementitious grout. The grout will be injected in fractured rock located below the repository horizon at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These data are intended to support the development of the Alcove Gas Barrier System (AGBS), the design of upcoming, large-scale seal tests, and ongoing laboratory evaluations of grouting efficacy. Degradation of the grout will be studied in experiments conducted in parallel with the underground grouting experiment.

  16. Test plan: Sealing of the Disturbed Rock Zone (DRZ), including Marker Bed 139 (MB139) and the overlying halite, below the repository horizon, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. [Cementitious grout into fractured WIPP rock

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, E.H.

    1992-05-01

    This test plan describes activities intended to demonstrate equipment and techniques for producing, injecting, and evaluating microfine cementitious grout. The grout will be injected in fractured rock located below the repository horizon at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These data are intended to support the development of the Alcove Gas Barrier System (AGBS), the design of upcoming, large-scale seal tests, and ongoing laboratory evaluations of grouting efficacy. Degradation of the grout will be studied in experiments conducted in parallel with the underground grouting experiment.

  17. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern and Evaluation of Metallo-Beta Lactamase Genes Including bla-IMP and bla-VIM Types in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Patients in Tehran Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Aghamiri, Samira; Amirmozafari, Nour; Fallah Mehrabadi, Jalil; Fouladtan, Babak; Samadi Kafil, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Beta-lactamase producing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are important etiological agents of hospital infections. Carbapenems are among the most effective antibiotics used against Pseudomonas infections, but they can be rendered infective by group B β-lactamase, commonly called metallo-beta lactamase. In this study, the antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from 9 different hospitals in Tehran, Iran, as well as the prevalence of MBLs genes (bla-VIM and bla-IMP) were determined. A total of 212 strains of P. aeruginosa recovered from patients in hospitals in Tehran were confirmed by both biochemical methods and PCR. Their antimicrobial sensitivity patterns were determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Following MIC determination, imipenem resistant strains were selected by DDST method which was followed by PCR tests for determination of MBLs genes: bla-IMP and bla-VIM. The results indicated that, in the DDST phenotypic method, among the 100 imipenem resistant isolates, 75 strains were MBLs positive. The PCR test indicated that 70 strains (33%) carried bla-VIM gene and 20 strains (9%) harbored bla-IMP. The results indicated that the extent of antibiotic resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa is on the rise. This may be due to production of MBLs enzymes. Therefore, determination of antibiotic sensitivity patterns and MBLs production by these bacteria, can be important in control of clinical Pseudomonas infection. PMID:24944839

  18. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  19. Are isolated wetlands isolated?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Loren M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Haukos, David A.

    2011-01-01

    While federal regulations during the past 10 years have treated isolated wetlands as unconnected to aquatic resources protected by the Clean Water Act, they provide critical ecosystem services to society that extend well beyond their wetland boundaries. The authors offer well-documented examples from the scientific literature on some of the ecosystem services provided by isolated wetlands to society and other ecosystems.

  20. Rapid Identification of Medically Important Candida Isolates Using High Resolution Melting Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nemcova, Eva; Cernochova, Michaela; Ruzicka, Filip; Malisova, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    An increasing trend in non albicans infections and various susceptibility patterns to antifungal agents implies a requirement for the quick and reliable identification of a number of medically important Candida species. Real-time PCR followed by high resolution melting analysis (HRMA) was developed, tested on 25 reference Candida collection strains and validated on an additional 143 clinical isolates in this study. All reference strains and clinical isolates inconclusive when using phenotypic methods and/or HRMA were analysed using ITS2 sequencing. Considering reference and clinical strains together, 23 out of 27 Candida species could be clearly distinguished by HRMA, while the remaining 4 species were grouped in 2 pairs, when applying the mean Tm ± 3 SD values, the shape of the derivative melting curve (dMelt curve) and, in some cases, the normalized and temperature—shifted difference plot against C. krusei. HRMA as a simple, rapid and inexpensive tool was shown to be useful in identifying a wide spectrum of clinically important Candida species. It may complement the current clinical diagnostic approach based on commercially available biochemical kits. PMID:25689781

  1. Assessment of competitive and mechanism-based inhibition by clarithromycin: use of domperidone as a CYP3A probe-drug substrate and various enzymatic sources including a new cell-based assay with freshly isolated human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Veronique; Turgeon, Jacques

    2010-04-01

    Clarithromycin is involved in a large number of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions. Discrepancies are observed between the magnitude of drug interactions predicted from in vitro competitive inhibition studies and changes observed clinically in the plasma levels of affected CYP3A substrates. The formation of metabolic-intermediate complexes has been proposed to explain these differences. The objectives of our study were: 1) to determine the competitive inhibition potency of clarithromycin on the metabolism of domperidone as a CYP3A probe drug using human recombinant CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 isoenzymes, human liver microsomes and cultured human hepatocytes; 2) to establish the modulatory role of cytochrome b5 on the competitive inhibition potency of clarithromycin; 3) to demonstrate the clarithromycin-induced formation of CYP450 metabolic-intermediate complexes in human liver microsomes; and 4) to determine the extent of CYP3A inhibition due to metabolic-intermediate complex formation using human liver microsomes and cultured human hepatocytes. At high concentrations (100 µM), clarithromycin had weak competitive inhibition potency towards CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Inhibition potency was further decreased by the addition of cytochrome b5 (9-19%). Clarithromycin-induced metabolic-intermediate complexes were revealed by spectrophotometry analysis using human liver microsomes while time- and concentration-dependent mechanism-based inhibitions were quantified using isolated hepatocytes. These results indicate that mechanism-based but not competitive inhibition of CYP3As is the major underlying mechanism of drug-drug interactions observed clinically with clarithromycin. Drug interactions between clarithromycin and several CYP3A substrates are predicted to be insidious; the risk of severe adverse events should increase over time and persist for a few days after cessation of the drug. PMID:20446912

  2. Antifungal drug resistance pattern of Candida. spp isolated from vaginitis in Ilam-Iran during 2013-2014

    PubMed Central

    Mohamadi, Jasem; Havasian, Mohamad Reza; Panahi, Jafar; Pakzad, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal Candidiasis is the most common and important opportunistic fungal infection in women. By increasing use of antifungal drugs in recent years, it has caused drug resistance. This study aims to evaluate antifungal drugs susceptibility of Candida. spp isolated of women with vaginitis from Ilam-Iran during 2013-2014. samples were collected and cultured from 385 women with vaginitis, then Candida.spp was diagnosed by standard method. Antifungal drug susceptibility test for nystatin 100 unit/disk, fluconazole 10µg/disk, itraconazole 10µg/disk, ketoconazole 10µg/disk, amphotericinB 20µg/disk, clotrimazole 10µg/disk, posaconazole 5µg/disk, and voriconazole 1µg/disk were carried out by M44-A method(CLSI). From all culture positive samples, 150 isolates were Candida albicans and 89 isolates were non-albicans. The resistance to fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, nystatin and amphotericin B was 76%, 62%, 72%, 55%, 6%, 7%, 1% and 0%. The highest resistance was seen for fluconazole , itraconazole, and the highest susceptible was seen for nystatin and amphotericin B. These results indicate nystatin and amphotericin B can be used as the first line for empirical therapy of vaginal candidiasis in the district. PMID:26124561

  3. The Role of Social Isolation in Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Deborah L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the literature which relates to the role of social isolation in suicide. Major areas reviewed include theories on suicide and social isolation, measures of social isolation, and empirical studies which concern the relationship of social isolation to suicide. (Author)

  4. Antifungal activity of cathelicidin peptides against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Candida species isolated from vaginal infections.

    PubMed

    Scarsini, Michele; Tomasinsig, Linda; Arzese, Alessandra; D'Este, Francesca; Oro, Debora; Skerlavaj, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a frequent gynecological condition caused by Candida albicans and a few non-albicans Candida spp. It has a significant impact on the quality of life of the affected women also due to a considerable incidence of recurrent infections that are difficult to treat. The formation of fungal biofilm may contribute to the problematic management of recurrent VVC due to the intrinsic resistance of sessile cells to the currently available antifungals. Thus, alternative approaches for the prevention and control of biofilm-related infections are urgently needed. In this regard, the cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of the innate immunity are potential candidates for the development of novel antimicrobials as many of them display activity against biofilm formed by various microbial species. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antifungal activities of the cathelicidin peptides LL-37 and BMAP-28 against pathogenic Candida spp. also including C. albicans, isolated from vaginal infections, and against C. albicans SC5314 as a reference strain. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against planktonic and biofilm-grown Candida cells by using microdilution susceptibility and XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] reduction assays and, in the case of established biofilms, also by CFU enumeration and fluorescence microscopy. BMAP-28 was effective against planktonically grown yeasts in standard medium (MIC range, 2-32μM), and against isolates of C. albicans and Candida krusei in synthetic vaginal simulated fluid (MIC range 8-32μM, depending on the pH of the medium). Established 48-h old biofilms formed by C. albicans SC5314 and C. albicans and C. krusei isolates were 70-90% inhibited within 24h incubation with 16μM BMAP-28. As shown by propidium dye uptake and CFU enumeration, BMAP-28 at 32μM killed sessile C. albicans SC5314 by membrane permeabilization with a faster killing kinetics

  5. Concordance between isolated cleft palate in mice and alterations within a region including the gene encoding the [beta][sub 3] subunit of the type A [gamma]-aminobutyric acid receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Culiat, C.T.; Stubbs, L.; Nicholls, R.D.; Montgomery, C.S.; Russell, L.B.; Johnson, D.K. ); Rinchik, E.M. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville )

    1993-06-01

    Genetic and molecular analyses of a number of radiation-induced deletion mutations of the pink-eyed dilution (p) locus in mouse chromosome 7 have identified a specific interval on the genetic map associated with a neonatally lethal mutation that results in cleft palate. This interval, closely linked and distal to p, and bracketed by the genes encoding the [alpha][sub 5] and [beta][sub 3] subunits of the type A [gamma]-aminobutyric acid receptor (Gabra5 and Gabrb3, respectively), contains a gene(s) (cp1; cleft palate 1) necessary for normal palate development. The cp1 interval extends from the distal breakpoint of the prenatally lethal p[sup 83FBFo] deletion to the Gabrb3 locus. Among 20 p deletions tested, there was complete concordance between alterations at the Gabrb3 transcription unit and inability to complement the cleft-palate defect. These mapping data, along with previously described in vivo and in vitro teratological effects of [gamma]-aminobutyric acid or its agonists on palate development, suggest the possibility that a particular type A [gamma]-aminobutyric acid receptor that includes the [beta][sub 3] subunit may be necessary for normal palate development. The placement of the cp1 gene within a defined segment of the larger D15S12h (p)-D15S9h-1 interval in the mouse suggests that the highly homologous region of the human genome, 15q11-q13, be evaluated for a role(s) in human fetal facial development. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  7. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  8. Module isolation devices

    SciTech Connect

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Cooke, John Albert; Buzinski, Michael David

    2010-04-27

    A gas flow isolation device includes a gas flow isolation valve movable from an opened condition to a closed condition. The module isolation valve in one embodiment includes a rupture disk in flow communication with a flow of gas when the module isolation valve is in an opened condition. The rupture disk ruptures when a predetermined pressure differential occurs across it causing the isolation valve to close. In one embodiment the valve is mechanically linked to the rupture disk to maintain the valve in an opened condition when the rupture disk is intact, and which permits the valve to move into a closed condition when the rupture disk ruptures. In another embodiment a crushable member maintains the valve in an open condition, and the flow of gas passed the valve upon rupturing of the rupture disk compresses the crushable member to close the isolation valve.

  9. Itraconazole-resistant Candida auris with phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity from a case of vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Banerjee, Tuhina; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Tilak, Ragini

    2015-04-01

    Since the emergence of pathogenic non-albicans Candida species, a number of new isolates have been added to the list. One such unusual species is Candida auris (C. auris), recently isolated and studied in few reports. In this study, a case of vulvovaginitis caused by Candida auris incidentally identified by molecular methods using internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction (ITS PCR) is described. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed the isolate to be resistant to itraconazole (MIC ≥ 2 µg/ml) and expressed important virulence factors including phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity. The patient was successfully treated with oral fluconazole and did not have any invasive fungemia. Very few cases of this emerging pathogen have been reported. However, its isolation from clinical specimens reveals the significance of non-albicans candida species over C. albicans and the diversity of Candida spp causing infections. PMID:25881537

  10. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  11. Different Candida parapsilosis clinical isolates and lipase deficient strain trigger an altered cellular immune response

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Renáta; Alonso, Maria F.; Bain, Judith M.; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Erwig, Lars-Peter; Gácser, Attila

    2015-01-01

    Numerous human diseases can be associated with fungal infections either as potential causative agents or as a result of changed immune status due to a primary disease. Fungal infections caused by Candida species can vary from mild to severe dependent upon the site of infection, length of exposure, and past medical history. Patients with impaired immune status are at increased risk for chronic fungal infections. Recent epidemiologic studies have revealed the increasing incidence of candidiasis caused by non-albicans species such as Candida parapsilosis. Due to its increasing relevance we chose two distinct C. parapsilosis strains, to describe the cellular innate immune response toward this species. In the first section of our study we compared the interaction of CLIB 214 and GA1 cells with murine and human macrophages. Both strains are commonly used to investigate C. parapsilosis virulence properties. CLIB 214 is a rapidly pseudohyphae-forming strain and GA1 is an isolate that mainly exists in a yeast form. Our results showed, that the phagocyte response was similar in terms of overall uptake, however differences were observed in macrophage migration and engulfment of fungal cells. As C. parapsilosis releases extracellular lipases in order to promote host invasion we further investigated the role of these secreted components during the distinct stages of the phagocytic process. Using a secreted lipase deficient mutant strain and the parental strain GA1 individually and simultaneously, we confirmed that fungal secreted lipases influence the fungi's virulence by detecting altered innate cellular responses. In this study we report that two isolates of a single species can trigger markedly distinct host responses and that lipase secretion plays a role on the cellular level of host–pathogen interactions. PMID:26528256

  12. Candida tropicalis as a Predominant Isolate from Clinical Specimens and its Antifungal Susceptibility Pattern in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Mohanram, Kalyani

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of infections caused by Candida species has increased considerably over the past three decades mainly due to the rise of the AIDS epidemic, an increasingly aged population, higher numbers of immunocompromised patients and the more widespread use of indwelling medical devices. Candida tropicalis is emerging pathogenic yeast among non-albicans species. Recently drug-resistant C.tropicalis was also reported in hospitals. Aim and Objective The present study aimed to isolate and speciate C. tropicalis from various clinical samples and to determine its antifungal susceptibility profile. Materials and Methods Clinical samples such as urine, blood, exudates and vaginal swab which were submitted to the Microbiology laboratory during the year 2013 were screened for the growth of Candidia species, which then identified as C.tropicalis by the routine microbiological procedures such as germ tube formation, assimilation and fermentation of sugars and colony color on HICHROM Candida agar. Antifungal susceptibility was performed by disc diffusion method with the drugs Amphotericin-B, Itraconazole, Ketaconazole and Fluconazole on C. tropicalis isolates. Results A total number of 112 Candida isolates were isolated during the year 2012 from various clinical specimens. Among them 61 (54.3%) were identified as C.tropicalis. All the C. tropicalis isolates were sensitive to Amphotericin-B (100%) but 23 isolates (37.7%) were resistant to Fluconazole. Conclusion We conclude that identification of Candida species is important to know the prevalent species in the clinical setup and routine antifungal susceptibility should be performed to avoid inappropriate treatment. PMID:26393128

  13. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    A positive isolation disconnect was developed for component replacement in serviced liquid and gaseous spacecraft systems. Initially a survey of feasible concepts was made to determine the optimum method for fluid isolation, sealing techniques, coupling concepts, and foolproofing techniques. The top concepts were then further evaluated, including the fabrication of a semifunctional model. After all tradeoff analyses were made, a final configuration was designed and fabricated for development testing. This resulted in a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) line and 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) line positive isolation disconnect, each unit consisting of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique was incorporated that prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation.

  14. Isolated resonator gyroscope with isolation trimming using a secondary element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope including an isolated resonator. One or more flexures support the isolated resonator and a baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the flexures. Drive and sense elements are affixed to the baseplate and used to excite the resonator and sense movement of the gyroscope. In addition, at least one secondary element (e.g., another electrode) is affixed to the baseplate and used for trimming isolation of the resonator. The resonator operates such that it transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited. Typically, the isolated resonator comprises a proof mass and a counterbalancing plate.

  15. Vapor-barrier Vacuum Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system includes a collimated beam source within a vacuum chamber, a condensable barrier gas, cooling material, a pump, and isolation chambers cooled by the cooling material to condense the barrier gas. Pressure levels of each isolation chamber are substantially greater than in the vacuum chamber. Coaxially-aligned orifices connect a working chamber, the isolation chambers, and the vacuum chamber. The pump evacuates uncondensed barrier gas. The barrier gas blocks entry of atmospheric vapor from the working chamber into the isolation chambers, and undergoes supersonic flow expansion upon entering each isolation chamber. A method includes connecting the isolation chambers to the vacuum chamber, directing vapor to a boundary with the working chamber, and supersonically expanding the vapor as it enters the isolation chambers via the orifices. The vapor condenses in each isolation chamber using the cooling material, and uncondensed vapor is pumped out of the isolation chambers via the pump.

  16. Micro cell isolation column for allergic diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Koichiro; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yanase, Yuhki; Hide, Michihiro; Miyake, Ryo

    2016-03-01

    We suggest a new micro cell isolation column of basophils for an allergic diagnostic system for detecting human basophils activations. Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) biosensors using human basophils allow allergic diagnosis of less than 1 ml of peripheral blood. However, an isolation of basophils from a small amount of blood is not easy. In this study, we constructed a new micro cell isolation column for basophils with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microflow pass including magnetic particles. Furthermore, we determined whether leukocytes were captured by the micro cell isolation column from a small amount of blood. We can isolate basophils from other leukocytes by using the micro cell isolation column.

  17. NASDA's activities on vibration isolation technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The National Space Development Agency's (NASDA) activities in providing various vibration isolation technologies for the Space Station Mission are covered in viewgraph form. Technologies covered include an active vibration isolation system for extra sensitive missions in the low frequency range, a passive damping system consisting of a damping rack for the reduction of resonance amplification, and an isolator for vibration isolation from low frequencies. Information is given in viewgraph form on the active vibration isolation concept, voice coil type electromagnetic suspension, a profile of an active vibration isolation system, a three degree of freedom ground experiment, and acceleration feedback.

  18. Seismic, shock, and vibration isolation - 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H. ); Mostaghel, N. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference on pressure vessels and piping. Topics covered include: Design of R-FBI bearings for seismic isolation; Benefits of vertical and horizontal seismic isolation for LMR nuclear reactor units; and Some remarks on the use and perspectives of seismic isolation for fast reactors.

  19. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, F.E.

    1992-12-08

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

  20. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, Franklin E.

    1992-01-01

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

  1. Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, W.D.

    1999-06-15

    Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions. 4 figs.

  2. Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, William D.

    1999-01-01

    Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions.

  3. Isolation precautions

    MedlinePlus

    ... the anticipated exposure, types of PPE required include: Gloves Masks and goggles Aprons, gowns, and shoe covers ... in the room should wear a gown and gloves. Droplet precautions are used to prevent contact with ...

  4. Ultrasonic thermometer isolation standoffs

    DOEpatents

    Arave, Alvin E.

    1977-01-01

    A method is provided for minimizing sticking of the transmission line to the protective sheath and preventing noise echoes from interfering with signal echoes in an improved high temperature ultrasonic thermometer which includes an ultrasonic transmission line surrounded by a protective sheath. Small isolation standoffs are mounted on the transmission line to minimize points of contact between the transmission line and the protective sheath, the isolation standoffs serving as discontinuities mounted on the transmission line at locations where a signal echo is desired or where an echo can be tolerated. Consequently any noise echo generated by the sticking of the standoff to the protective sheath only adds to the amplitude of the echo generated at the standoff and does not interfere with the other signal echoes.

  5. Compact Radar Transceiver with Included Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLinden, Matthew; Rincon, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR) is an eight-channel phased array radar system that employs solid-state radar transceivers, a microstrip patch antenna, and a reconfigurable waveform generator and processor unit. The original DBSAR transceiver design utilizes connectorized electronic components that tend to be physically large and heavy. To achieve increased functionality in a smaller volume, PCB (printed circuit board) transceivers were designed to replace the large connectorized transceivers. One of the most challenging problems designing the transceivers in a PCB format was achieving proper performance in the calibration path. For a radar loop-back calibration path, a portion of the transmit signal is coupled out of the antenna feed and fed back into the receiver. This is achieved using passive components for stability and repeatability. Some signal also leaks through the receive path. As these two signal paths are correlated via an unpredictable phase, the leakage through the receive path during transmit must be 30 dB below the calibration path. For DBSAR s design, this requirement called for a 100-dB isolation in the receiver path during transmit. A total of 16 solid-state L-band transceivers on a PCB format were designed. The transceivers include frequency conversion stages, T/R switching, and a calibration path capable of measuring the transmit power-receiver gain product during transmit for pulse-by-pulse calibration or matched filtering. In particular, this calibration path achieves 100-dB isolation between the transmitted signal and the low-noise amplifier through the use of a switching network and a section of physical walls achieving attenuation of radiated leakage. The transceivers were designed in microstrip PCBs with lumped elements and individually packaged components for compactness. Each transceiver was designed on a single PCB with a custom enclosure providing interior walls and compartments to isolate transceiver

  6. GOES-R Dual Isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freesland, Doug; Carter, Delano; Chapel, Jim; Clapp, Brian; Howat, John; Krimchansky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R) is the first of the next generation geostationary weather satellites, scheduled for delivery in late 2015. GOES-R represents a quantum increase in Earth and solar weather observation capabilities, with 4 times the resolution, 5 times the observation rate, and 3 times the number of spectral bands for Earth observations. With the improved resolution, comes the instrument suite's increased sensitive to disturbances over a broad spectrum 0-512 Hz. Sources of disturbance include reaction wheels, thruster firings for station keeping and momentum management, gimbal motion, and internal instrument disturbances. To minimize the impact of these disturbances, the baseline design includes an Earth Pointed Platform (EPP), a stiff optical bench to which the two nadir pointed instruments are collocated together with the Guidance Navigation & Control (GN&C) star trackers and Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). The EPP is passively isolated from the spacecraft bus with Honeywell D-Strut isolators providing attenuation for frequencies above approximately 5 Hz in all six degrees-of-freedom. A change in Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA) vendors occurred very late in the program. To reduce the risk of RWA disturbances impacting performance, a secondary passive isolation system manufactured by Moog CSA Engineering was incorporated under each of the six 160 Nms RWAs, tuned to provide attenuation at frequencies above approximately 50 Hz. Integrated wheel and isolator testing was performed on a Kistler table at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. High fidelity simulations were conducted to evaluate jitter performance for four topologies: 1) hard mounted no isolation, 2) EPP isolation only, 2) RWA isolation only, and 4) dual isolation. Simulation results demonstrate excellent performance relative to the pointing stability requirements, with dual isolated Line of Sight (LOS) jitter less than 1 micron rad.

  7. Neoclassical Transport Including Collisional Nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.; Belli, E. A.

    2011-06-10

    In the standard {delta}f theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction {delta}f is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlueter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  8. Families classification including multiopposition asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Andrea; Spoto, Federica; Knežević, Zoran; Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of our new classification of asteroid families, upgraded by using catalog with > 500,000 asteroids. We discuss the outcome of the most recent update of the family list and of their membership. We found enough evidence to perform 9 mergers of the previously independent families. By introducing an improved method of estimation of the expected family growth in the less populous regions (e.g. at high inclination) we were able to reliably decide on rejection of one tiny group as a probable statistical fluke. Thus we reduced our current list to 115 families. We also present newly determined ages for 6 families, including complex 135 and 221, improving also our understanding of the dynamical vs. collisional families relationship. We conclude with some recommendations for the future work and for the family name problem.

  9. Isolation of neuromelanin granules.

    PubMed

    Tribl, Florian

    2008-12-01

    Neuromelanin granules are pigmented organelles in the human midbrain that give name to a brain area, substantia nigra pars compacta, which macroscopically appears as a dark brown region in the midbrain due to the insoluble pigment neuromelanin. The substantia nigra pars compacta massively degenerates in Parkinson's disease and gives rise to severely disabling movement symptoms. It has been suggested that neuromelanin granules play an important role in the neurodegenerative events in Parkinson's disease: redox-active iron is bound to neuromelanin and thereby retained within this compartment, but in Parkinson's disease it is thought to be increasingly released into the cytosol, promoting oxidative stress. This unit includes a methodological workflow for the isolation of neuromelanin granules from the human midbrain. This top-down approach (describes an approach that reduces the complexity of the sample stepwise from the level of tissue to cell, and from cell to organelle) encompasses the organelle isolation by sequential density gradient centrifugation and the assessment of the isolation efficacy by western blotting. PMID:19085988

  10. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Namhai Chua; Kush, A.

    1993-02-16

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids.

  11. Improved RF Isolation Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G. L.; Macconnell, J.

    1985-01-01

    Circuit has high reverse isolation and wide bandwidth. Wideband isolation amplifier has low intermodulation distortion and high reverse isolation. Circuit does not require selected or matched components or directional coupling device. Circuit used in applications requiring high reverse isolation such as receiver intermediate-frequency (IF) strips and frequency distribution systems. Also applicable in RF and video signaling.

  12. ISOLATION OF MOUSE NEUTROPHILS

    PubMed Central

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Luo, Yi; Dorf, Martin E.; Lionakis, Michail S.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils represent the first line of defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Indeed, patients with inherited and acquired qualitative and quantitative neutrophil defects are at high risk for developing bacterial and fungal infections and suffering adverse outcomes from these infections. Therefore, research aiming at defining the molecular factors that modulate neutrophil effector function under homeostatic conditions and during infection is essential for devising strategies to augment neutrophil function and improve the outcome of infected individuals. This unit describes a reproducible density gradient centrifugation-based protocol that can be applied in any laboratory to harvest large numbers of highly enriched and highly viable neutrophils from the bone marrow of mice both at the steady state and following infection with Candida albicans as described in UNIT 19.6. In another protocol, we also present a method that combines gentle enzymatic tissue digestion with a positive immunomagnetic selection technique or Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to harvest highly pure and highly viable preparations of neutrophils directly from mouse tissues such as the kidney, the liver or the spleen. Finally, methods for isolating neutrophils from mouse peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood are included. Mouse neutrophils isolated by these protocols can be used for examining several aspects of cellular function ex vivo including pathogen binding, phagocytosis and killing, neutrophil chemotaxis, oxidative burst, degranulation and cytokine production, and for performing neutrophil adoptive transfer experiments. PMID:26237011

  13. Extremely Isolated Galaxies in the Nearby Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, Michael N.; Marcum, P. M.; Fuse, C.; Aars, C.

    2007-12-01

    Highly isolated systems provide a framwork for exploring the role of interactions within galaxy evolution. We use the spectroscopic component of the Sloan Sky Survey to select extremely isolated galaxies in the nearby universe. Redshifts derived from the Sloan spectra permit a three-dimensional assessment of the local environment surrounding candidate isolated systems. The lack of redshifts has strongly limited prior searches for isolated systems. We have constructed a searchable database for the 600K objects contained in the Sloan Survey.. Isolated systems are chosen utilizing a range of criteria, including projected physical separations, differential velocities, and luminosity limits for potential dwarf companions. We describe the morphological, photometric and star formation properties of the most isolated systems found within the SDSS footprint. Highly isolated systems are extremely rare, most are blue, and exhibit ongoing star formation. One object appears to be a merging compact group. We acknowledge support from NASA's Astrophysical Data Program, grant #NNG05C53G.

  14. Magnetically coupled signal isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, Jr., William C. (Inventor); Hermann, Theodore M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A current determiner having an output at which representations of input currents are provided having an input conductor for the input current and a current sensor supported on a substrate electrically isolated from one another but with the sensor positioned in the magnetic fields arising about the input conductor due to any input currents. The sensor extends along the substrate in a direction primarily perpendicular to the extent of the input conductor and is formed of at least a pair of thin-film ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic conductive layer. The sensor can be electrically connected to electronic circuitry formed in the substrate including a nonlinearity adaptation circuit to provide representations of the input currents of increased accuracy despite nonlinearities in the current sensor, and can include further current sensors in bridge circuits.

  15. High-Voltage Isolation Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    Arcing and field-included surface erosion reduced by electrostatic shields around windings and ferromagnetic core of 80-kilovolt isolation transformer. Fabricated from high-resistivity polyurethane-based material brushed on critical surfaces, shields maintained at approximately half potential difference of windings.

  16. Helicopter gearbox isolation using periodically layered fluidic isolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szefi, Joseph Thomas

    2003-07-01

    In rotorcraft transmissions, vibration generation by meshing gear pairs is a significant source of vibration and cabin noise. This high-frequency gearbox noise is primarily transmitted to the fuselage through rigid connections, which do not appreciably attenuate vibratory energy. The high-frequency vibrations typically include discrete gear-meshing frequencies in the range of 500--2000 Hz, and are often considered irritating and can reduce pilot effectiveness and passenger comfort. Periodically-layered isolators were identified as potential passive attenuators of these high frequency vibrations. Layered isolators exhibit transmissibility "stop bands," or frequency ranges in which there is very low transmissibility. An axisymmetric model was developed to accurately predict the location of these stop bands for isolators in compression. A Ritz approximation method was used to model the axisymmetric elastic behavior of layered cylindrical isolators. This model of layered isolators was validated with experiments. The physical design constraints of the proposed helicopter gearbox isolators were then estimated. Namely, constraints associated with isolator mass, axial stiffness, geometry, and elastomeric fatigue were determined. The passive performance limits of layered isolators were then determined using a design optimization methodology employing a simulated annealing algorithm. The results suggest that layered isolators cannot always meet frequency targets given a certain set of design constraints. Many passive and active design enhancements were considered to address this problem, and the use of embedded inertial amplifiers was found to exhibit a combination of advantageous effects. The first benefit was a lowering of the beginning stop band frequency, and thus a widening of the original stop band. The second was a tuned absorber effect, where the elastomer layer stiffness and the amplified tuned mass combined to act as a vibration absorber within the stop band. The

  17. Seismic isolation systems designed with distinct multiple frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Two systems for seismic base isolation are presented. The main feature of these system is that, instead of only one isolation frequency as in conventional isolation systems, they are designed to have two distinct isolation frequencies. When the responses during an earthquake exceed the design value(s), the system will automatically and passively shift to the secondly isolation frequency. Responses of these two systems to different ground motions including a harmonic motion with frequency same as the primary isolation frequency, show that no excessive amplification will occur. Adoption of these new systems certainly will greatly enhance the safety and reliability of an isolated superstructure against future strong earthquakes. 3 refs.

  18. Seismic isolation systems designed with distinct multiple frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1991-12-31

    Two systems for seismic base isolation are presented. The main feature of these system is that, instead of only one isolation frequency as in conventional isolation systems, they are designed to have two distinct isolation frequencies. When the responses during an earthquake exceed the design value(s), the system will automatically and passively shift to the secondly isolation frequency. Responses of these two systems to different ground motions including a harmonic motion with frequency same as the primary isolation frequency, show that no excessive amplification will occur. Adoption of these new systems certainly will greatly enhance the safety and reliability of an isolated superstructure against future strong earthquakes. 3 refs.

  19. Psychopathology of social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sang-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The most important defining factor of being human is the use of symbolic language. Language or communication problem occurs during the growth, the child will have a higher risk of social isolation and then the survival will be threatened constantly. Today, adolescents and youths are familiar with computer and smart-phone devices, and communication with others by these devices is easy than face-to-face communication. As adolescents and youths live in the comfortable and familiar cyber-world rather than actively participating real society, so they make social isolation. Extreme form of this isolation in adolescents and youths is so-called Socially Withdrawn Youth. In this study, the psychopathological factors inducing social isolation were discussed. Development stages of social isolation in relation with types of social isolation, Ego-syntonic isolation and Ego-dystonic isolation, were also considered. PMID:25061592

  20. DC isolation and protection system and circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Charles A. (Inventor); Kellogg, Gary V. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A precision analog electronic circuit that is capable of sending accurate signals to an external device that has hostile electric characteristics, including the presence of very large common mode voltages. The circuit is also capable of surviving applications of normal mode overvoltages of up to 120 VAC/VDC for unlimited periods of time without damage or degradation. First, the circuit isolates the DC signal output from the computer. Means are then provided for amplifying the isolated DC signal. Further means are provided for stabilizing and protecting the isolating and amplifying means, and the isolated and amplified DC signal which is output to the external device, against overvoltages and overcurrents.

  1. Large plasmids of avian Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Doetkott, D M; Nolan, L K; Giddings, C W; Berryhill, D L

    1996-01-01

    The plasmid DNA of 30 Escherichia coli isolates from chickens was extracted and examined using techniques designed to isolate large plasmids. This plasmid DNA was examined for the presence of certain known virulence-related genes including cvaC, traT, and some aerobactin-related sequences. Seventeen of the 30 isolates contained from one to four plasmids greater than 50 kb in size. Eleven of these 17 strains possessed plasmids greater than 100 kb in size. Therefore, E. coli isolates of chickens frequently contain large plasmids, and many of these plasmids are likely to contain virulence-related sequences. PMID:8980827

  2. Assessing Social Isolation: Pilot Testing Different Methods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Harry Owen; Herbers, Stephanie; Talisman, Samuel; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation is a significant public health problem among many older adults; however, most of the empirical knowledge about isolation derives from community-based samples. There has been less attention given to isolation in senior housing communities. The objectives of this pilot study were to test two methods to identify socially isolated residents in low-income senior housing and compare findings about the extent of isolation from these two methods. The first method, self-report by residents, included 47 out of 135 residents who completed in-person interviews. To determine self-report isolation, residents completed the Lubben Social Network Scale 6 (LSNS-6). The second method involved a staff member who reported the extent of isolation on all 135 residents via an online survey. Results indicated that 26% of residents who were interviewed were deemed socially isolated by the LSNS-6. Staff members rated 12% of residents as having some or a lot of isolation. In comparing the two methods, staff members rated 2% of interviewed residents as having a lot of isolation. The combination of self-report and staff report could be more informative than just self-report alone, particularly when participation rates are low. However, researchers should be aware of the potential discrepancy between these two methods. PMID:27276687

  3. Clinically isolated syndromes.

    PubMed

    Miller, David H; Chard, Declan T; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2012-02-01

    Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) is a term that describes a first clinical episode with features suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). It usually occurs in young adults and affects optic nerves, the brainstem, or the spinal cord. Although patients usually recover from their presenting episode, CIS is often the first manifestation of MS. The most notable risk factors for MS are clinically silent MRI lesions and CSF oligoclonal bands; weak or uncertain risk factors include vitamin D deficiency, Epstein-Barr virus infection, smoking, HLA genes, and miscellaneous immunological abnormalities. Diagnostic investigations including MRI aim to exclude alternative causes and to define the risk for MS. MRI findings incorporated into diagnostic criteria in the past decade enable MS to be diagnosed at or soon after CIS presentation. The course of MS after CIS is variable: after 15-20 years, a third of patients have a benign course with minimal or no disability and a half will have developed secondary progressive MS with increasing disability. Prediction of the long-term course at disease onset is unreliable. Disease-modifying treatments delay the development from CIS to MS. Their use in CIS is limited by uncertain long-term clinical prognosis and treatment benefits and adverse effects, although they have the potential to prevent or delay future tissue damage, including demyelination and axonal loss. Targets for future therapeutic progress are to achieve safe and effective long-term immunomodulation with neuroprotection and repair. PMID:22265211

  4. Isolation usage in a pediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Kim, M H; Mindorff, C; Patrick, M L; Gold, R; Ford-Jones, E L

    1987-05-01

    In a prospective 12-month study at a university-affiliated pediatric hospital, isolation usage was quantitated by ward/service, season, isolation category and type of infection (community-acquired vs nosocomial). Such information may be helpful in designing hospitals, recognizing time utilization of the pediatric infection control nurse, and defining educational and isolation needs. Hospitals with multiple bed rooms and inadequate numbers of single rooms may be unable to meet current federal isolation guidelines. The mean number of isolation days was 153 per 1000 patient days or 15.3% of bed days used. This ranged from 18.5% on the infant/toddler/preschool medical ward to 2.8% on child/teenage orthopedic surgery. Isolation requirements vary seasonally and rose to 32% in winter on one ward. Proportional frequencies of isolation category included enteric--29%, protective--28%, strict--16%, barrier (contact)--10%, multiply resistant organism (MRO)--8%, wound--5%, pregnant women (careful handwashing)--3%, blood and body fluid precautions--1%. Isolation of patients with and contacts of nosocomial infections account for 32% of isolation usage. During one third of the 365-day year, the hospital is unable to provide adequate numbers of single rooms for one to 20 patients. PMID:3647940

  5. Vibration isolation mounting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Sam D. (Inventor); Bastin, Paul H. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A system is disclosed for mounting a vibration producing device onto a spacecraft structure and also for isolating the vibration forces thereof from the structure. The system includes a mount on which the device is securely mounted and inner and outer rings. The rings and mount are concentrically positioned. The system includes a base (secured to the structure) and a set of links which are interconnected by a set of torsion bars which allow and resist relative rotational movement therebetween. The set of links are also rotatably connected to a set of brackets which are rigidly connected to the outer ring. Damped leaf springs interconnect the inner and outer rings and the mount allow relative translational movement therebetween in X and Y directions. The links, brackets and base are interconnected and configured so that they allow and resist translational movement of the device in the Z direction so that in combination with the springs they provide absorption of vibrational energy produced by the device in all three dimensions while providing rotational stiffness about all three axes to prevent undesired rotational motions.

  6. Mutation and premating isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, R. C.; Thompson, J. N. Jr

    2002-01-01

    While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

  7. Patterns of reproductive isolation in Nolana (Chilean bellflower).

    PubMed

    Jewell, Cathleen; Papineau, Amy Douglas; Freyre, Rosanna; Moyle, Leonie C

    2012-08-01

    We examined reproductive isolating barriers at four postmating stages among 11 species from the morphologically diverse genus Nolana (Solanaceae). At least one stage was positively correlated with both genetic and geographic distance between species. Postzygotic isolation was generally stronger and faster evolving than postmating prezygotic isolation. In addition, there was no evidence for mechanical isolation, or for reproductive character displacement in floral traits that can influence pollinator isolation. In general, among the potential isolating stages examined here, postzygotic barriers appear to be more effective contributors to reducing gene flow, including between sympatric species. PMID:22834759

  8. FEDERAL FACILITY COMPLIANCE AGREEMENT (FFCA) STACK ISOLATION PROJECT FUNCTIONS & REQUIREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    TRANBARGER, R.K.

    2003-12-16

    This document delineates the functions and requirements for the FFCA Stack Isolation Project for the 244-A, 244-BX, 244-5, and 244-TX DCRTs. The isolation of each ventilation system and stack includes the electrical, instrumentation, and mechanical isolation of the ventilation system and the installation of primary and annulus breather filters to provide passive ventilation to meet the FFCA requirements.

  9. Environmental Sustainability - Including Land and Water Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessments of environmental sustainability can be conducted in many ways with one of the most quantitative methods including Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). While historically LCIA has included a comprehensive list of impact categories including: ozone depletion, global c...

  10. Adaptive Control for Microgravity Vibration Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Bong-Jun; Calise, Anthony J.; Craig, James I.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    Most active vibration isolation systems that try to a provide quiescent acceleration environment for space science experiments have utilized linear design methods. In this paper, we address adaptive control augmentation of an existing classical controller that employs a high-gain acceleration feedback together with a low-gain position feedback to center the isolated platform. The control design feature includes parametric and dynamic uncertainties because the hardware of the isolation system is built as a payload-level isolator, and the acceleration Sensor exhibits a significant bias. A neural network is incorporated to adaptively compensate for the system uncertainties, and a high-pass filter is introduced to mitigate the effect of the measurement bias. Simulations show that the adaptive control improves the performance of the existing acceleration controller and keep the level of the isolated platform deviation to that of the existing control system.

  11. Lung isolation, one-lung ventilation and hypoxaemia during lung isolation

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Atul; Bhargava, Suresh; Mangal, Vandana; Parashar, Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Lung isolation is being used more frequently in both adult and paediatric age groups due to increasing incidence of thoracoscopy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in these patients. Various indications for lung isolation and one-lung ventilation include surgical and non-surgical reasons. Isolation can be achieved by double-lumen endotracheal tubes or bronchial blocker. Different issues arise in prone and semi-prone position. The management of hypoxia with lung isolation is a stepwise drill of adding inhaled oxygen, adding positive end-expiratory pressure to ventilated lung and continuous positive airway pressure to non-ventilated side. PMID:26556920

  12. Recent advances in nonlinear passive vibration isolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, R. A.

    2008-07-01

    The theory of nonlinear vibration isolation has witnessed significant developments due to pressing demands for the protection of structural installations, nuclear reactors, mechanical components, and sensitive instruments from earthquake ground motion, shocks, and impact loads. In view of these demands, engineers and physicists have developed different types of nonlinear vibration isolators. This article presents a comprehensive assessment of recent developments of nonlinear isolators in the absence of active control means. It does not deal with other means of linear or nonlinear vibration absorbers. It begins with the basic concept and features of nonlinear isolators and inherent nonlinear phenomena. Specific types of nonlinear isolators are then discussed, including ultra-low-frequency isolators. For vertical vibration isolation, the treatment of the Euler spring isolator is based on the post-buckling dynamic characteristics of the column elastica and axial stiffness. Exact and approximate analyses of axial stiffness of the post-buckled Euler beam are outlined. Different techniques of reducing the resonant frequency of the isolator are described. Another group is based on the Gospodnetic-Frisch-Fay beam, which is free to slide on two supports. The restoring force of this beam resembles to a great extent the restoring roll moment of biased ships. The base isolation of buildings, bridges, and liquid storage tanks subjected to earthquake ground motion is then described. Base isolation utilizes friction elements, laminated-rubber bearings, and the friction pendulum. Nonlinear viscoelastic and composite material springs, and smart material elements are described in terms of material mechanical characteristics and the dependence of their transmissibility on temperature and excitation amplitude. The article is closed by conclusions, which highlight resolved and unresolved problems and recommendations for future research directions.

  13. Isolation of renal brush borders.

    PubMed

    Morré, D James; Hammond, Timothy

    2007-03-01

    Methods are described to isolate intact brush borders and brush border membranes from renal cell homogenates. A rapid method yields sealed vesicles that reconstitute renal brush border transport. In one variation of this protocol, 10 to 20 mM CaCl2 or MgCl2 is added to aggregate non-brush border structures for subsequent removal by centrifugation. For analytical studies, guidance is provided for subsequent purification steps including preparative free-flow and aqueous two-phase partition. Marker enzymes and morphological parameters are included for assessment of yield and fraction purity. PMID:18228514

  14. agr function in clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    PubMed Central

    Traber, Katrina E.; Lee, Elsie; Benson, Sarah; Corrigan, Rebecca; Cantera, Mariela; Shopsin, Bo; Novick, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    The accessory gene regulator (agr) of Staphylococcus aureus is a global regulator of the staphylococcal virulon, which includes secreted virulence factors and surface proteins. The agr locus is important for virulence in a variety of animal models of infection, and has been assumed by inference to have a major role in human infection. Although most human clinical S. aureus isolates are agr+, there have been several reports of agr-defective mutants isolated from infected patients. Since it is well known that the agr locus is genetically labile in vitro, we have addressed the question of whether the reported agr-defective mutants were involved in the infection or could have arisen during post-isolation handling. We obtained a series of new staphylococcal isolates from local clinical infections and handled these with special care to avoid post-isolation mutations. Among these isolates, we found a number of strains with non-haemolytic phenotypes owing to mutations in the agr locus, and others with mutations elsewhere. We have also obtained isolates in which the population was continuously heterogeneous with respect to agr functionality, with agr+ and agr− variants having otherwise indistinguishable chromosomal backgrounds. This finding suggested that the agr− variants arose by mutation during the course of the infection. Our results indicate that while most clinical isolates are haemolytic and agr+, non-haemolytic and agr− strains are found in S. aureus infections, and that agr+ and agr− variants may have a cooperative interaction in certain types of infections. PMID:18667559

  15. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1993-02-16

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a pu GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

  16. Active thermal isolation for temperature responsive sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinson, Scott D. (Inventor); Gray, David L. (Inventor); Carraway, Debra L. (Inventor); Reda, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A temperature responsive sensor is located in the airflow over the specified surface of a body and is maintained at a constant temperature. An active thermal isolator is located between this temperature responsive sensor and the specified surface of the body. The temperature of this isolator is controlled to reduce conductive heat flow from the temperature responsive sensor to the body. This temperature control includes: (1) operating the isolator at the same temperature as the constant temperature of the sensor and (2) establishing a fixed boundary temperature which is either less than or equal to or slightly greater than the sensor constant temperature.

  17. Advanced Technology for Isolating Payloads in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.

    1997-01-01

    One presumption of scientific microgravity research is that while in space disturbances are minimized and experiments can be conducted in the absence of gravity. The problem with this assumption is that numerous disturbances actually occur in the space environment. Scientists must consider all disturbances when planning microgravity experiments. Although small disturbances, such as a human sneeze, do not cause most researchers on earth much concern, in space, these minuscule disturbances can be detrimental to the success or failure of an experiment. Therefore, a need exists to isolate experiments and provide a quiescent microgravity environment. The objective of microgravity isolation is to quantify all possible disturbances or vibrations and then attenuate the transmission of the disturbance to the experiment. Some well-defined vibration sources are: experiment operations, pumps, fans, antenna movements, ventilation systems and robotic manipulators. In some cases, it is possible to isolate the source using simple vibration dampers, shock absorbers and other isolation devices. The problem with simple isolation systems is that not all vibration frequencies are attenuated, especially frequencies less than 0.1 Hz. Therefore, some disturbances are actually emitted into the environment. Sometimes vibration sources are not well defined, or cannot be controlled. These include thermal "creak," random acoustic vibrations, aerodynamic drag, crew activities, and other similar disturbances. On some "microgravity missions," such as the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML) and the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) missions, the goal was to create extended quiescent times and limit crew activity during these times. This might be possible for short periods, but for extended durations it is impossible due to the nature of the space environment. On the International Space Station (ISS), vehicle attitude readjustments are required to keep the vehicle in a minimum

  18. Complete Genome Sequences of Three Outbreak-Associated Legionella pneumophila Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shatavia S.; Desai, Heta P.; Mercante, Jeffrey W.; Lapierre, Pascal; Raphael, Brian H.; Musser, Kimberlee

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequences of three Legionella pneumophila isolates that are associated with a Legionnaires’ disease outbreak in New York in 2012. Two clinical isolates (D7630 and D7632) and one environmental isolate (D7631) were recovered from this outbreak. A single isolate-specific virulence gene was found in D7632. These isolates were included in a large study evaluating the genomic resolution of various bioinformatics approaches for L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates. PMID:27445383

  19. Complete Genome Sequences of Three Outbreak-Associated Legionella pneumophila Isolates.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shatavia S; Desai, Heta P; Mercante, Jeffrey W; Lapierre, Pascal; Raphael, Brian H; Musser, Kimberlee; Winchell, Jonas M

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequences of three Legionella pneumophila isolates that are associated with a Legionnaires' disease outbreak in New York in 2012. Two clinical isolates (D7630 and D7632) and one environmental isolate (D7631) were recovered from this outbreak. A single isolate-specific virulence gene was found in D7632. These isolates were included in a large study evaluating the genomic resolution of various bioinformatics approaches for L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates. PMID:27445383

  20. Fault detection and isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernath, Greg

    1994-01-01

    In order for a current satellite-based navigation system (such as the Global Positioning System, GPS) to meet integrity requirements, there must be a way of detecting erroneous measurements, without help from outside the system. This process is called Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI). Fault detection requires at least one redundant measurement, and can be done with a parity space algorithm. The best way around the fault isolation problem is not necessarily isolating the bad measurement, but finding a new combination of measurements which excludes it.

  1. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  2. A Survey of Active Vibration Isolation Systems for Microgravity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    In view of the utility of space vehicles as orbiting science laboratories, the need for vibration isolation systems for acceleration sensitive experiments has gained increasing visibility. To date, three active microgravity vibration isolation systems have successfully been demonstrated in flight. This paper provides a tutorial discussion of the microgravity vibration isolation problem including a description of the acceleration environment of the International Space Station and attenuation requirements as well as a comparison of the dynamics of passive isolation, active rack-level isolation, and active payload-level isolation. This paper also surveys the flight test results of the three demonstrated systems: Suppression of Transient Accelerations By Levitation (STABLE); the Microgravity Vibration Isolation Mount (MIM); and the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS).

  3. Survey of Active Vibration Isolation Systems for Microgravity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    In view of the utility of space vehicles as orbiting science laboratories, the need for vibration isolation systems for acceleration-sensitive experiments has gained increasing visibility. To date, three active microgravity vibration isolation systems have successfully been demonstrated in flight. A tutorial discussion of the microgravity vibration isolation problem, including a description of the acceleration environment of the International Space Station and attenuation requirements, as well as a comparison or the dynamics of passive isolation, active rack-level isolation, and active payload-level isolation is provided. The flight test results of the three demonstrated systems: suppression of transient accelerations by levitation, the microgravity vibration isolation mount, and the active rack isolation system are surveyed.

  4. Genetic diversity among sea otter isolates of Toxoplasma gondii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundar, N.; Cole, R.A.; Thomas, N.J.; Majumdar, D.; Dubey, J.P.; Su, C.

    2008-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) have been reported to become infected with Toxoplasma gondii and at times succumb to clinical disease. Here, we determined genotypes of 39 T. gondii isolates from 37 sea otters in two geographically distant locations (25 from California and 12 from Washington). Six genotypes were identified using 10 PCR-RFLP genetic markers including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico, and by DNA sequencing of loci SAG1 and GRA6 in 13 isolates. Of these 39 isolates, 13 (33%) were clonal Type II which can be further divided into two groups at the locus Apico. Two of the 39 isolates had Type II alleles at all loci except a Type I allele at locus L358. One isolate had Type II alleles at all loci except the Type I alleles at loci L358 and Apico. One isolate had Type III alleles at all loci except Type II alleles at SAG2 and Apico. Two sea otter isolates had a mixed infection. Twenty-one (54%) isolates had an unique allele at SAG1 locus. Further genotyping or DNA sequence analysis for 18 of these 21 isolates at loci SAG1 and GRA6 revealed that there were two different genotypes, including the previously identified Type X (four isolates) and a new genotype named Type A (14 isolates). The results from this study suggest that the sea otter isolates are genetically diverse.

  5. Isolated sleep paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... from sleep. It is not associated with another sleep disorder. Symptoms Episodes of isolated sleep paralysis last from ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Sleep Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  6. Base isolation: Fresh insight

    SciTech Connect

    Shustov, V.

    1993-07-15

    The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the two basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.

  7. Ground Isolation Circuit for Isolating a Transmission Line from Ground Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Craig A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention relates generally to a system for isolating ground interference from a transmission line, e.g., a ground isolation circuit for isolating a wideband transmission signal (such as a video signal) from ground by modulating the base signal on a carrier signal to permit the transmission signal to be isolated. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a pair of matched mixer circuits, each of which receives a carrier signal from the same oscillator circuit. The first mixer circuit also receives the baseband signal input, after appropriate conditioning, and modulates the baseband signal onto the carrier signal. In a preferred embodiment the carrier signal has a predetermined frequency which is at least two times the frequency of the baseband signal. The modulated signal (which can comprise an rf signal) is transmitted via an rf transmission line to the second mixer, which demodulates the rf signal to recover the baseband signal. Each port of the mixer connects to an isolation transformer to ensure isolation from ground interference. The circuit is considered to be of commercial value in that it can provide isolation between transmitting and receiving circuits, e.g., ground isolation for television circuits or high frequency transmitters, without the need for video transformers or optical isolators, thereby reducing the complexity, power consumption, and weight of the system.

  8. Advanced Technology for Isolating Payloads in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.

    1997-01-01

    One presumption of scientific microgravity research is that while in space disturbances are minimized and experiments can be conducted in the absence of gravity. The problem with this assumption is that numerous disturbances actually occur in the space environment. Scientists must consider all disturbances when planning microgravity experiments. Although small disturbances, such as a human sneeze, do not cause most researchers on earth much concern, in space, these minuscule disturbances can be detrimental to the success or failure of an experiment. Therefore, a need exists to isolate experiments and provide a quiescent microgravity environment. The objective of microgravity isolation is to quantify all possible disturbances or vibrations and then attenuate the transmission of the disturbance to the experiment. Some well-defined vibration sources are: experiment operations, pumps, fans, antenna movements, ventilation systems and robotic manipulators. In some cases, it is possible to isolate the source using simple vibration dampers, shock absorbers and other isolation devices. The problem with simple isolation systems is that not all vibration frequencies are attenuated, especially frequencies less than 0.1 Hz. Therefore, some disturbances are actually emitted into the environment. Sometimes vibration sources are not well defined, or cannot be controlled. These include thermal "creak," random acoustic vibrations, aerodynamic drag, crew activities, and other similar disturbances. On some "microgravity missions," such as the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML) and the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) missions, the goal was to create extended quiescent times and limit crew activity during these times. This might be possible for short periods, but for extended durations it is impossible due to the nature of the space environment. On the International Space Station (ISS), vehicle attitude readjustments are required to keep the vehicle in a minimum

  9. Isolated sleep paralysis.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Neena S; Parkar, Shubhangi R; Tambe, Ravindra

    2005-10-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a cardinal symptom of narcolepsy. However, little is available in the literature about isolated sleep paralysis. This report discusses the case of a patient with isolated sleep paralysis who progressed from mild to severe SP over 8 years. He also restarted drinking alcohol to be able to fall asleep and allay his anxiety symptoms. The patient was taught relaxation techniques and he showed complete remission of the symptoms of SP on follow up after 8 months. PMID:20711316

  10. Mycobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay fish.

    PubMed

    Stine, C B; Kane, A S; Baya, A M

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis in fish can result in ulcers, emaciation, and in some cases death. Mycobacteria have been previously isolated from a variety of Chesapeake Bay fish species, and the current study was designed to identify potential host specificity and location fidelity of mycobacterial isolates. Mycobacteria were isolated from wild fish of the Chesapeake Bay collected from the Upper Bay, the Choptank River, Herring Bay, the Chicamacomico River, the Pocomoke River and the Potomac River in 2003-2006. Mycobacterial isolates were recovered from striped bass, Morone saxatilis, Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, white perch, Morone americana, summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, common carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, killifish, Fundulus sp., blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis, American gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum and American silver perch, Bairdiella chrysoura. Twenty-nine well-defined mycobacterial groups resulted from gas chromatography dendrogram clustering of isolates. The majority of groups included more than one host species and more than one site of collection. However, four groups contained only striped bass isolates, three of which were similar to M. shottsii. Therefore, multiple Chesapeake Bay fish species are colonized with multiple mycobacterial isolates, of which few appear to be host or location specific. PMID:19909394

  11. Are Isolated Indigenous Populations Headed toward Extinction?

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Hill, Kim R.

    2016-01-01

    At least 50 indigenous groups spread across lowland South America remain isolated and have only intermittent and mostly hostile interactions with the outside world. Except in emergency situations, the current policy of governments in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru towards isolated tribes is a “leave them alone” strategy, in which isolated groups are left uncontacted. However, these no-contact policies are based on the assumption that isolated populations are healthy and capable of persisting in the face of mounting external threats, and that they can maintain population viability in the long-term. Here, we test this assumption by tracking the sizes and movements of cleared horticultural areas made by 8 isolated groups over the last 10–14 years. We used deforestation data derived from remote sensing Landsat satellite sensors to identify clearings, and those were then validated and assessed with high-resolution imagery. We found only a single example of a relatively large and growing population (c. 50 cleared ha and 400 people), whereas all of the other 7 groups exhibited much smaller villages and gardens with no sizable growth through time. These results indicated that the smaller groups are critically endangered, and it prompts an urgent re-thinking of policies toward isolated populations, including plans for well-organized contacts that may help save lives and rescue isolated indigenous populations from imminent extinction. PMID:26954672

  12. EMPLACEMENT DRIFT ISOLATION DOOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    N.T. Raczka

    1998-09-17

    The purpose of this analysis is to review and refine key design concepts related to the control system presently under consideration for remotely operating the emplacement drift isolation doors at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis will discuss the key design concepts of the control system that may be utilized for remotely monitoring, opening, and closing the emplacement drift isolation doors. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Discuss the purpose and function of the isolation doors (Presented in Section 7.1). (2) Review the construction of the isolation door and other physical characteristics of the doors that the control system will interface with (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Discuss monitoring and controlling the operation of the isolation doors with a digital control system (either a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) system or a Distributed Control System (DCS)) (Presented in Section 7.3). (4) Discuss how all isolation doors can be monitored and controlled from a subsurface central control center (Presented in Section 7.4). This analysis will focus on the development of input/output (I/O) counts including the types of I/O, redundancy and fault tolerance considerations, and processor requirements for the isolation door control system. Attention will be placed on operability, maintainability, and reliability issues for the system operating in the subsurface environment with exposure to high temperatures and radiation.

  13. Are Isolated Indigenous Populations Headed toward Extinction?

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert S; Kesler, Dylan C; Hill, Kim R

    2016-01-01

    At least 50 indigenous groups spread across lowland South America remain isolated and have only intermittent and mostly hostile interactions with the outside world. Except in emergency situations, the current policy of governments in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru towards isolated tribes is a "leave them alone" strategy, in which isolated groups are left uncontacted. However, these no-contact policies are based on the assumption that isolated populations are healthy and capable of persisting in the face of mounting external threats, and that they can maintain population viability in the long-term. Here, we test this assumption by tracking the sizes and movements of cleared horticultural areas made by 8 isolated groups over the last 10-14 years. We used deforestation data derived from remote sensing Landsat satellite sensors to identify clearings, and those were then validated and assessed with high-resolution imagery. We found only a single example of a relatively large and growing population (c. 50 cleared ha and 400 people), whereas all of the other 7 groups exhibited much smaller villages and gardens with no sizable growth through time. These results indicated that the smaller groups are critically endangered, and it prompts an urgent re-thinking of policies toward isolated populations, including plans for well-organized contacts that may help save lives and rescue isolated indigenous populations from imminent extinction. PMID:26954672

  14. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  15. Responses of an isolation system with distinct multiple frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Base isolation systems are generally designed with a single natural frequency. A major concern for these isolation systems is that, if the dominant frequency of a future earthquake is equal or close to the system's natural frequency, the ground motion will be greatly amplified because of resonance,and the superstructure would suffer severe damages. This paper present an isolation system designed with two distinct frequencies. Its responses to different ground motions, including a harmonic motion, show that no excessive amplification will occur. Adoption of this isolation system would greatly enhance the safety of an isolated superstructure against future strong earthquakes. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Thermodynamic laws in isolated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Stefan; Hänggi, Peter; Dunkel, Jörn

    2014-12-01

    The recent experimental realization of exotic matter states in isolated quantum systems and the ensuing controversy about the existence of negative absolute temperatures demand a careful analysis of the conceptual foundations underlying microcanonical thermostatistics. Here we provide a detailed comparison of the most commonly considered microcanonical entropy definitions, focusing specifically on whether they satisfy or violate the zeroth, first, and second laws of thermodynamics. Our analysis shows that, for a broad class of systems that includes all standard classical Hamiltonian systems, only the Gibbs volume entropy fulfills all three laws simultaneously. To avoid ambiguities, the discussion is restricted to exact results and analytically tractable examples.

  17. Thermodynamic laws in isolated systems.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Stefan; Hänggi, Peter; Dunkel, Jörn

    2014-12-01

    The recent experimental realization of exotic matter states in isolated quantum systems and the ensuing controversy about the existence of negative absolute temperatures demand a careful analysis of the conceptual foundations underlying microcanonical thermostatistics. Here we provide a detailed comparison of the most commonly considered microcanonical entropy definitions, focusing specifically on whether they satisfy or violate the zeroth, first, and second laws of thermodynamics. Our analysis shows that, for a broad class of systems that includes all standard classical Hamiltonian systems, only the Gibbs volume entropy fulfills all three laws simultaneously. To avoid ambiguities, the discussion is restricted to exact results and analytically tractable examples. PMID:25615053

  18. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Included items. 65.820 Section 65.820... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.820 Included items. (a... allowance either by performing a lead-lag study of interstate revenue and expense items or by using...

  19. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Included items. 65.820 Section 65.820... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.820 Included items. (a... allowance either by performing a lead-lag study of interstate revenue and expense items or by using...

  20. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Included items. 65.820 Section 65.820... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.820 Included items. (a... allowance either by performing a lead-lag study of interstate revenue and expense items or by using...

  1. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Included items. 65.820 Section 65.820 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.820 Included items....

  2. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Included items. 65.820 Section 65.820 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.820 Included items....

  3. 47 CFR 1.9005 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... below 470 MHz, including those licensed pursuant to 47 CFR 90.187(b)(2)(v)); (z) The 218-219 MHz band... Spectrum Leasing Scope and Authority § 1.9005 Included services. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 48533, August 15, 2014. The spectrum leasing policies and rules of this subpart apply to the...

  4. Random vibrations measurements with isolated accelerometers

    SciTech Connect

    Paez, T.L.; Gibson, B.W.

    1992-04-01

    Isolated accelerometer measurement systems are used to measure environments composed of a wide spectrum of frequencies including the natural frequency of the isolated accelerometer. Because the isolated accelerometer measurement system is a nonlinear system, it is subject to the potential for chaotic vibrations. it is clear that this potential if realized, affects the response of the measurement system to vibration input and perhaps to shock input also. This paper explores the effects that the potential for chaotic vibrations and nonlinear response, in general, has on the random vibration response of the isolated accelerometer measurement system. Specifically, the system response to white noise is investigated and assessed in terms of response histogram and response spectral density. 6 refs.

  5. Random vibrations measurements with isolated accelerometers

    SciTech Connect

    Paez, T.L. ); Gibson, B.W. )

    1992-01-01

    Isolated accelerometer measurement systems are used to measure environments composed of a wide spectrum of frequencies including the natural frequency of the isolated accelerometer. Because the isolated accelerometer measurement system is a nonlinear system, it is subject to the potential for chaotic vibrations. it is clear that this potential if realized, affects the response of the measurement system to vibration input and perhaps to shock input also. This paper explores the effects that the potential for chaotic vibrations and nonlinear response, in general, has on the random vibration response of the isolated accelerometer measurement system. Specifically, the system response to white noise is investigated and assessed in terms of response histogram and response spectral density. 6 refs.

  6. Microfabricated structures with electrical isolation and interconnections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, William A. (Inventor); Juneau, Thor N. (Inventor); Roessig, Allen W. (Inventor); Lemkin, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The invention is directed to a microfabricated device. The device includes a substrate that is etched to define mechanical structures at least some of which are anchored laterally to the remainder of the substrate. Electrical isolation at points where mechanical structures are attached to the substrate is provided by filled isolation trenches. Filled trenches may also be used to electrically isolate structure elements from each other at points where mechanical attachment of structure elements is desired. The performance of microelectromechanical devices is improved by 1) having a high-aspect-ratio between vertical and lateral dimensions of the mechanical elements, 2) integrating electronics on the same substrate as the mechanical elements, 3) good electrical isolation among mechanical elements and circuits except where electrical interconnection is desired.

  7. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... create difficulties in communication. (e) Respiratory therapy services. (1) Respiratory therapy services... cardiopulmonary function. (2) Respiratory therapy services include the following: (i) Application of techniques...-language pathology services and respiratory therapy services. (i) Nursing care services. Nursing...

  8. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... create difficulties in communication. (e) Respiratory therapy services. (1) Respiratory therapy services... cardiopulmonary function. (2) Respiratory therapy services include the following: (i) Application of techniques...-language pathology services and respiratory therapy services. (i) Nursing care services. Nursing...

  9. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... create difficulties in communication. (e) Respiratory therapy services. (1) Respiratory therapy services... cardiopulmonary function. (2) Respiratory therapy services include the following: (i) Application of techniques...-language pathology services and respiratory therapy services. (i) Nursing care services. Nursing...

  10. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... create difficulties in communication. (e) Respiratory therapy services. (1) Respiratory therapy services... cardiopulmonary function. (2) Respiratory therapy services include the following: (i) Application of techniques...-language pathology services and respiratory therapy services. (i) Nursing care services. Nursing...

  11. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... create difficulties in communication. (e) Respiratory therapy services. (1) Respiratory therapy services... cardiopulmonary function. (2) Respiratory therapy services include the following: (i) Application of techniques...-language pathology services and respiratory therapy services. (i) Nursing care services. Nursing...

  12. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthcare Professionals Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  13. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... is considered invasive. Symptoms of pneumonia usually include: Fever and chills Cough Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing Sweating ... the blood. It can cause symptoms such as: Fever and chills Excessive tiredness Pain in the belly Nausea with ...

  14. Communications circuit including a linear quadratic estimator

    DOEpatents

    Ferguson, Dennis D.

    2015-07-07

    A circuit includes a linear quadratic estimator (LQE) configured to receive a plurality of measurements a signal. The LQE is configured to weight the measurements based on their respective uncertainties to produce weighted averages. The circuit further includes a controller coupled to the LQE and configured to selectively adjust at least one data link parameter associated with a communication channel in response to receiving the weighted averages.

  15. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  16. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  17. Clinical Islet Isolation.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Wayne J; Williams, Lindy; Chew, Yi Vee

    2016-01-01

    The overarching success of islet transplantation relies on the success in the laboratory to isolate the islets. This chapter focuses on the processes of human islet cell isolation and the ways to optimally provide islet cells for transplantation. The major improvements in regards to the choice of enzyme type, way the digested pancreas tissue is handled to best separate islets from the acinar and surrounding tissues, the various methods of purification of the islets, their subsequent culture and quality assurance to improve outcomes to culminate in safe and effective islet transplantation will be discussed. After decades of improvements, islet cell isolation and transplantation now clearly offer a safe, effective and feasible therapeutic treatment option for an increasing number of patients suffering from type 1 diabetes specifically for those with severe hypoglycaemic unawareness. PMID:27586424

  18. Strain isolated ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolokan, R. P.; Brady, J. B.; Jarrabet, G. P.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are used in gas turbine engines to improve component temperature capability and cooling air efficiency. A compliant metal fiber strain isolator between a plasma sprayed ceramic coating and a metal substrate improves ceramic durability while allowing thicker coatings for better insulation. Development of strain isolated coatings has concentrated on design and fabrication of coatings and coating evaluation via thermal shock testing. In thermal shock testing, five types of failure are possible: buckling failure im compression on heat up, bimetal type failure, isothermal expansion mismatch failure, mudflat cracking during cool down, and long term fatigue. A primary failure mode for thermally cycled coatings is designated bimetal type failure. Bimetal failure is tensile failure in the ceramic near the ceramic-metal interface. One of the significant benefits of the strain isolator is an insulating layer protecting the metal substrate from heat deformation and thereby preventing bimetal type failure.

  19. Nucleic acid isolation

    DOEpatents

    Longmire, J.L.; Lewis, A.K.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1988-01-21

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduces the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without effect on the protocol.

  20. Nucleic acid isolation process

    DOEpatents

    Longmire, Jonathan L.; Lewis, Annette K.; Hildebrand, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

  1. Does vaginal douching affect the type of candidal vulvovaginal infection?

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Omar M; Abbas, Ahmed M; Moharram, Ahmad M; Farhan, Mohammed M; Hassanen, Ibrahim H

    2015-11-01

    The normal vaginal microbiota is a dynamic system that continually fluctuates under the environmental changes and different physiological conditions. Yeast infections of the vagina are caused by one of the species of fungus called Candida (C.). The study aimed to evaluate the types of mycobiota in women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) who were performing vaginal douching (VD) or not. Furthermore, it studied the antifungal sensitivity toward different fungi isolated from the vagina. In a cross-sectional study conducted in Assiut University Hospital, Egypt, women with VVC were interviewed regarding relevant history including the habit of VD. Vaginal swabs were obtained and processed by direct microscope and by culture on CHROMagar Candida and other differential media. The types of Candida in women with the habit of VD were compared with those not having this habit. We found that VD habit was practiced by 67.4% of women with VVC, and Candida albicans was the commonest (78.3%) type observed. There was no significant difference in the percentage of non-albicans types between women performing VD (23.6%) and those not reporting this habit (18.9%). Harboring non-albicans types were significantly increased in regular performers of VD compared with those who had this procedure only after sexual intercourse or after the end of menstruation (36.8%,12.5%, and 16.7%, respectively) (P = .048). Thus, vaginal douching does not influence the type of Candida infection involved in VVC. Frequent performance of VD increases the likelihood of having non-albicans types and the resistance to the common antifungal agents. PMID:26129887

  2. [Isolated anterior cervical hypertrichosis].

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, B; Cabanillas, M; de las Heras, C; Cacharrón, J M

    2009-01-01

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis was described by Trattner and coworkers in 1991. It consists of a of hair at the anterior cervical level just above the laryngeal prominence. To date, only 28 cases of anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Although it is normally an isolated finding, it may be associated with mental retardation, hallux valgus, retinal disorders, other hair disorders, facial dysmorphism, or sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy. We report the case of a 27-year-old woman who presented with this condition as an isolated finding. PMID:19268113

  3. Power inverter with optical isolation

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Paul G.; Schroeder, John Alan

    2005-12-06

    An optically isolated power electronic power conversion circuit that includes an input electrical power source, a heat pipe, a power electronic switch or plurality of interconnected power electronic switches, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the input power source, a mechanism for connecting comprising an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or input bus bars, an optically isolated drive circuit connected to the switch, a heat sink assembly upon which the power electronic switch or switches is mounted, an output load, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the output load, the mechanism for connecting including an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or output bus bars, at least one a fiber optic temperature sensor mounted on the heat sink assembly, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar, and at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar.

  4. Scramjet including integrated inlet and combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Kutschenreuter, P.H. Jr.; Blanton, J.C.

    1992-02-04

    This patent describes a scramjet engine. It comprises: a first surface including an aft facing step; a cowl including: a leading edge and a trailing edge; an upper surface and a lower surface extending between the leading edge and the trailing edge; the cowl upper surface being spaced from and generally parallel to the first surface to define an integrated inlet-combustor therebetween having an inlet for receiving and channeling into the inlet-combustor supersonic inlet airflow; means for injecting fuel into the inlet-combustor at the step for mixing with the supersonic inlet airflow for generating supersonic combustion gases; and further including a spaced pari of sidewalls extending between the first surface to the cowl upper surface and wherein the integrated inlet-combustor is generally rectangular and defined by the sidewall pair, the first surface and the cowl upper surface.

  5. Production of slime by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from clinical and subclinical mastitis in cows.

    PubMed

    Bochniarz, M; Wawron, W; Szczubiał, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the slime-producing ability of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from clinical and subclinical mastitis in cows. The study was carried out on 100 isolates of CNS obtained from milk of 86 cows from farms located in the Lublin region (Poland). Slime-producing ability was observed in over half of coagulase-negative staphylococci (54.0% of isolated CNS), including 19 isolates of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (95.5% of all MRCNS). Of 22 isolates of CNS responsible for the clinical form of mastitis, 20 isolates (90.9%) produced slime: S. xylosus (7 isolates), S. haemolyticus (6 isolates), S. chromogenes (4 isolates), and S. sciuri (3 isolates), including 9 isolates of MRCNS (45.0%). The remaining 34 isolates of CNS (43.6%) with the ability to produce this exopolysaccharide were isolated from the milk of cows with subclinical form of mastitis: S. xylosus (12 isolates), S. sciuri (9 isolates), S. chromogenes (6 isolates), S. haemolyticus (3 isolates), S. warneri (3 isolates) and S. saprophyticus (1 isolate), including 10 isolates of MRCNS (12.8%). PMID:25286652

  6. Standard line broadening impact theory for hydrogen including penetrating collisions.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, S; Poquérusse, A

    2005-10-01

    In recent years there has been significant interest in the emission spectra from high-density plasmas, as manifested by a number of experiments. At these high densities short range (small impact parameter) interactions become important and these cannot be adequately handled by the standard theory, whose predictions depend on some cutoffs, necessary to preserve unitarity, the long range approximation, and to ensure the validity of a semiclassical picture. Very recently, as a result of a debate concerning the broadening of isolated ion lines, the importance of penetration of bound electron wave functions by plasma electrons has been realized. By softening the interaction, penetration makes perturbative treatments more valid. The penetration effect has now been included analytically into the standard theory. It turns out that the integrations may be done in closed form in terms of the modified Bessel functions K0 and K1. This work develops the new theory and applies it to experimental measurements. PMID:16383542

  7. Weather information network including graphical display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Daniel R. (Inventor); Burdon, David (Inventor); Son, Robert S. (Inventor); Martin, Kevin D. (Inventor); Harrison, John (Inventor); Hughes, Keith R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus for providing weather information onboard an aircraft includes a processor unit and a graphical user interface. The processor unit processes weather information after it is received onboard the aircraft from a ground-based source, and the graphical user interface provides a graphical presentation of the weather information to a user onboard the aircraft. Preferably, the graphical user interface includes one or more user-selectable options for graphically displaying at least one of convection information, turbulence information, icing information, weather satellite information, SIGMET information, significant weather prognosis information, and winds aloft information.

  8. Transmission line including support means with barriers

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1982-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line includes an elongated outer sheath, a plurality of inner conductors disposed within and extending along the outer sheath, and an insulating gas which electrically insulates the inner conductors from the outer sheath. A support insulator insulatably supports the inner conductors within the outer sheath, with the support insulator comprising a main body portion including a plurality of legs extending to the outer sheath, and barrier portions which extend between the legs. The barrier portions have openings therein adjacent the main body portion through which the inner conductors extend.

  9. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  10. Isolation, propagation, and analysis of biological nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Linnes, Michael P; Shiekh, Farooq A; Hunter, Larry W; Miller, Virginia M; Lieske, John C

    2011-01-01

    Calcifying biologic nanoparticles (NPs) have been implicated as nucleation points for a number of -pathologic events that include vascular calcification and the formation of kidney stones. In order to study these potential relationships, reproducible isolation of well-characterized biologic NPs is a necessity. Our group has isolated and propagated calcifying NPs from several human tissues and renal stones. Specific proteins that could nucleate a calcium phosphate shell under physiologic conditions have been identified as part of their structure, including elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and fetuin-A. Visualization, using advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunofluorescence microscopy, and nuclear and antibody staining in conjunction with flow cytometry, can further elucidate NPs composition and their role in pathology. In order to allow uniform investigation by others, the isolation, culture, and handling procedures for biologic NPs from human calcified vascular tissue and kidney stones are reported in detail. PMID:21948421

  11. Spectroscopy of Isolated Prebiotic Nucleobases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svadlenak, Nathan; Callahan, Michael P.; Ligare, Marshall; Gulian, Lisa; Gengeliczki, Zsolt; Nachtigallova, Dana; Hobza, Pavel; deVries, Mattanjah

    2011-01-01

    We use multiphoton ionization and double resonance spectroscopy to study the excited state dynamics of biologically relevant molecules as well as prebiotic nucleobases, isolated in the gas phase. Molecules that are biologically relevant to life today tend to exhibit short excited state lifetimes compared to similar but non-biologically relevant analogs. The mechanism is internal conversion, which may help protect the biologically active molecules from UV damage. This process is governed by conical intersections that depend very strongly on molecular structure. Therefore we have studied purines and pyrimidines with systematic variations of structure, including substitutions, tautomeric forms, and cluster structures that represent different base pair binding motifs. These structural variations also include possible alternate base pairs that may shed light on prebiotic chemistry. With this in mind we have begun to probe the ultrafast dynamics of molecules that exhibit very short excited states and search for evidence of internal conversions.

  12. Molecular typing of Chinese Streptococcus pyogenes isolates.

    PubMed

    You, Yuanhai; Wang, Haibin; Bi, Zhenwang; Walker, Mark; Peng, Xianhui; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Haijian; Song, Yanyan; Tao, Xiaoxia; Kou, Zengqiang; Meng, Fanliang; Zhang, Menghan; Bi, Zhenqiang; Luo, Fengji; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes causes human infections ranging from mild pharyngitis and impetigo to serious diseases including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The objective of this study was to compare molecular emm typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) for genotyping of Chinese S. pyogenes isolates. Molecular emm typing and PFGE were performed using standard protocols. Seven variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci reported in a previous study were used to genotype 169 S. pyogenes geographically-diverse isolates from China isolated from a variety of disease syndromes. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis provided greater discrimination between isolates when compared to emm typing and PFGE. Removal of a single VNTR locus (Spy2) reduced the sensitivity by only 0.7%, which suggests that Spy2 was not informative for the isolates screened. The results presented support the use of MLVA as a powerful epidemiological tool for genotyping S. pyogenes clinical isolates. PMID:25843529

  13. Apelin Levels In Isolated Coronary Artery Ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, İbrahim; Yıldız, Abdulkadir; Akıl, Mehmet Ata; Acet, Halit; Yüksel, Murat; Polat, Nihat; Aydın, Mesut; Oylumlu, Mustafa; Ertaș, Faruk; Kaya, Hasan; Alan, Sait

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives The etiopathogenesis of coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is not known completely. In most of the cases, CAE is associated with atherosclerosis; however, isolated CAE has a nonatherosclerotic mechanism. The association between atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and apelin has been examined in previous studies. However, the role of plasma apelin in isolated coronary artery ectasia has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the relationship between plasma apelin levels and isolated coronary artery ectasia. Subjects and Methods The study population included a total of 54 patients. Twenty-six patients had isolated CAE (53.6±8.1 years); 28 patients with normal coronary arteries (51.6±8.8 years) and with similar risk factors and demographic characteristics served as the control group. Apelin levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay kit. Results Apelin level in the CAE group was significantly lower (apelin=0.181±0.159 ng/mL) than that in the control group (apelin=0.646±0.578 ng/mL) (p=0.033). Glucose, creatinine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion In this study, we showed that patients with isolated CAE have decreased plasma apelin levels compared with the control group. Based on the data, a relationship between plasma apelin and isolated CAE was determined. PMID:26413106

  14. Active thermal isolation for temperature responsive sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinson, Scott D. (Inventor); Gray, David L. (Inventor); Carraway, Debra L. (Inventor); Reda, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The detection of flow transition between laminar and turbulent flow and of shear stress or skin friction of airfoils is important in basic research for validation of airfoil theory and design. These values are conventionally measured using hot film nickel sensors deposited on a polyimide substrate. The substrate electrically insulates the sensor and underlying airfoil but is prevented from thermally isolating the sensor by thickness constraints necessary to avoid flow contamination. Proposed heating of the model surface is difficult to control, requires significant energy expenditures, and may alter the basic flow state of the airfoil. A temperature responsive sensor is located in the airflow over the specified surface of a body and is maintained at a constant temperature. An active thermal isolator is located between this temperature responsive sensor and the specific surface of the body. The total thickness of the isolator and sensor avoid any contamination of the flow. The temperature of this isolator is controlled to reduce conductive heat flow from the temperature responsive sensor to the body. This temperature control includes (1) operating the isolator at the same temperature as the constant temperature of the sensor; and (2) establishing a fixed boundary temperature which is either less than or equal to, or slightly greater than the sensor constant temperature. The present invention accordingly thermally isolates a temperature responsive sensor in an energy efficient, controllable manner while avoiding any contamination of the flow.

  15. A Multiwavelength View of Isolated Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdes-Montenegro, L.

    2014-03-01

    In the last few years interest in isolated galaxies has been renewed within a context regarding secular evolution. This adds to their value as a control sample for environmental studies of galaxies. This presentation will review important results from recent studies of isolated galaxies. I will emphasize work involving statistically significant samples of isolated galaxies culminating with refinement of the CIG in the AMIGA program. The AMIGA project (Analysis of the interstellar Medium of Isolated Galaxies, http://amiga.iaa.es) has identified a significant sample of the most isolated (Tcc(nearest-neighbor) ˜ 2-3Gyr) galaxies in the local Universe and revealed that they have different properties than galaxies in richer environments. Our analysis of a multiwavelength database includes quantification of degree of isolation, morphologies, as well as FIR and radio line/continuum properties. Properties usually regarded as susceptible to interaction enhancement show lower averages in AMIGA-lower than any galaxy sample yet identified. We find lower MIR/ FIR measures, low levels of radio continuum emission, no radio excess above the radio-FIR correlation, a small number of AGN, and lower molecular gas content. The late-type spiral majority in our sample show very small bulge/total ratios (largely < 0.1) and Sersic indices consistent with an absence of classical bulges. They have redder g-r colors and lower color dispersion for AMIGA subtypes and larger disks, and present the narrowest (Gaussian) distribution of HI profile asymmetries of any sample yet studied.

  16. Microgravity isolation system design: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Many acceleration-sensitive, microgravity science experiments will require active vibration isolation from manned orbiters on which they will be mounted. The isolation problem, especially in the case of a tethered payload, is a complex three-dimensional one that is best suited to modern-control design methods. In this paper, extended H(sub 2) synthesis is used to design an active isolator (i.e., controller) for a realistic single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) microgravity vibration isolation problem. Complex mu-analysis methods are used to analyze the isolation system with respect to sensor, actuator, and umbilical uncertainties. The paper fully discusses the design process employed and the insights gained. This design case study provides a practical approach for isolation problems of greater complexity. Issues addressed include a physically intuitive state-space description of the system, disturbance and noise filters, filters for frequency weighting, and uncertainty models. The controlled system satisfies all the performance specifications and is robust with respect to model uncertainties.

  17. Foil bearing lubrication theory including compressibility effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy; Catalano, Daniel A.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis is presented to determine the film thickness in a foil bearing. Using the Reynolds equation and including the compressibility effects of the gas, an equation was developed applicable to the film thickness in a foil bearing. The bearing was divided into three regions, namely, the entrance region, middle region and exit region. Solutions are obtained for the film thickness in each region.

  18. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record... by a § 20.32(a) offense. These exclusions may not be applicable to criminal history...

  19. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record... by a § 20.32(a) offense. These exclusions may not be applicable to criminal history...

  20. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record... by a § 20.32(a) offense. These exclusions may not be applicable to criminal history...

  1. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record... by a § 20.32(a) offense. These exclusions may not be applicable to criminal history...

  2. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record... by a § 20.32(a) offense. These exclusions may not be applicable to criminal history...

  3. 42 CFR 409.10 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... an inpatient of a participating hospital or of a participating CAH or, in the case of emergency... not include the following types of services: (1) Posthospital SNF care, as described in § 409.20... HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Inpatient Hospital Services and Inpatient Critical Access Hospital...

  4. 42 CFR 409.10 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Included services. 409.10 Section 409.10 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Inpatient Hospital Services and Inpatient Critical Access Hospital...

  5. 42 CFR 409.10 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Included services. 409.10 Section 409.10 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Inpatient Hospital Services and Inpatient Critical Access Hospital...

  6. 42 CFR 409.10 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Included services. 409.10 Section 409.10 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Inpatient Hospital Services and Inpatient Critical Access Hospital...

  7. Multicultural Resources: Including Technology and the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    In the fourteen years since the 1990 MENC pre-conference symposium on Multicultural Approaches to Music Education in Washington, D.C., music educators have come to recognize the need to include a variety of world musics in all music curricula, from elementary classrooms to advanced performing ensembles. Accordingly, a significant increase in the…

  8. 42 CFR 441.520 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Community-Based Attendant Services and Supports State Plan Option (Community First Choice) § 441.520 Included services. (a) If a State elects to provide Community First Choice, the State must provide all...

  9. 42 CFR 441.520 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Community-Based Attendant Services and Supports State Plan Option (Community First Choice) § 441.520 Included services. (a) If a State elects to provide Community First Choice, the State must provide all...

  10. Nuclear Chemistry: Include It in Your Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwood, Charles H.; Sheline, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the topics that might be included in a nuclear chemistry section are explored. Offers radioactivity, closed shells in nuclei, energy of nuclear processes, nuclear reactions, and fission and fusion as topics of interest. Provided are ideas and examples for each. (MVL)

  11. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ...

  12. 46 CFR 289.2 - Vessels included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vessels included. 289.2 Section 289.2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS INSURANCE OF CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD...

  13. 46 CFR 289.2 - Vessels included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vessels included. 289.2 Section 289.2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS INSURANCE OF CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD...

  14. 46 CFR 289.2 - Vessels included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels included. 289.2 Section 289.2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS INSURANCE OF CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD...

  15. 46 CFR 289.2 - Vessels included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vessels included. 289.2 Section 289.2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS INSURANCE OF CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD...

  16. 46 CFR 289.2 - Vessels included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vessels included. 289.2 Section 289.2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS INSURANCE OF CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD...

  17. 47 CFR 1.9005 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to 47 CFR 90.187(b)(2)(v)); (z) The 218-219 MHz band (part 95 of this chapter); (aa) The Local... Spectrum Leasing Scope and Authority § 1.9005 Included services. The spectrum leasing policies and rules...

  18. 47 CFR 1.9005 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to 47 CFR 90.187(b)(2)(v)); (z) The 218-219 MHz band (part 95 of this chapter); (aa) The Local... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing Scope and Authority § 1.9005 Included services. The spectrum leasing policies and rules of this subpart apply to...

  19. 47 CFR 1.9005 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to 47 CFR 90.187(b)(2)(v)); (z) The 218-219 MHz band (part 95 of this chapter); (aa) The Local... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing Scope and Authority § 1.9005 Included services. The spectrum leasing policies and rules of this subpart apply to...

  20. 47 CFR 1.9005 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to 47 CFR 90.187(b)(2)(v)); (z) The 218-219 MHz band (part 95 of this chapter); (aa) The Local... Spectrum Leasing Scope and Authority § 1.9005 Included services. The spectrum leasing policies and rules...

  1. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  2. Biological Isolation Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A spinoff of astronaut's biological garment will allow hospital patients who are highly vulnerable to infection to leave their sterile habitats for several hours, carrying their germ free environment with them. Garments can be used in any of some 200 hospitals where isolation rooms are installed to treat leukemia.

  3. Isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Poolman, Rudolf W; van Kampen, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose The optimal treatment for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is unclear at present. We systematically reviewed the highest level of available evidence on the nonoperative and operative treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis to develop an evidenced-based discussion of treatment options. Methods A systematic computerized database search (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (PubMed), and EMBASE) was performed in March 2009. The quality of the studies was assessed independently by two authors using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Results We extracted data from 44 articles. The best available evidence for treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is sparse and of generally low methodological quality. Nonoperative treatment using physiotherapy (GRADE: high quality, weak recommendation for use), taping (GRADE: moderate quality, weak recommendation for use), or injection therapy (GRADE: very low quality, weak recommendation for use) may result in short-term relief. Joint-preserving surgical treatment may result in insufficient, unpredictable, or only short-term improvement (GRADE: low quality, weak recommendation against use). Total knee replacement with patellar resurfacing results in predictable and good, durable results (GRADE: low quality, weak recommendation for use). Outcome after patellofemoral arthroplasty in selected patients is good to excellent (GRADE: low quality, weak recommendation for use). Interpretation Methodologically good quality comparative studies, preferably using a patient-relevant outcome instrument, are needed to establish the optimal treatment strategy for patients with isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis. PMID:20175647

  4. Chiral fiber optical isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Victor I.; Zhang, Guoyin; Zhang, Sheng; Genack, Azriel Z.; Neugroschl, Dan

    2009-02-01

    We propose an in-fiber chiral optical isolator based on chiral fiber polarizer technology and calculate its performance by incorporating the magnetic field into the scattering matrix. The design will be implemented in a special preform, which is passed through a miniature heat zone as it is drawn and twisted. The birefringence of the fiber is controlled by adjusted the diameter of a dual-core optical fiber. By adjusting the twist, the fiber can convert linear to circular polarization and reject one component of circular polarization. In the novel central portion of the isolator, the fiber diameter is large. The effective birefringence of the circular central core with high Verdet constant embedded in an outer core of slightly smaller index of refraction is small. The central potion is a non-reciprocal polarization converter which passes forward traveling left circularly polarized (LCP) light as LCP, while converting backward propagating LCP to right circularly polarized (RCP) light. Both polarizations of light traveling backwards are scattered out of the isolator. Since it is an all-glass structure, we anticipate that the isolator will be able to handle several watts of power and will be environmentally robust.

  5. Biological isolation garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spross, F. R.

    1968-01-01

    Biological Isolation Garment /BIG/ is a one-piece loose fitting garment fabricated from a tightly woven, permeable, 100 percent-cotton fabric. Its headpiece, incorporates an integral oronsal respirator with 0.3-micron-particle filters, and a full width visor. All fabrication seams are sealed on the inside of the garment.

  6. Breaking Down Racial Isolation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Lloyd A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the "Across the Lines" project involving an interchange between students and teachers of two racially isolated schools in the Hartford (Connecticut) area. A racial mix of 50/50 was achieved through planned science museum visits, randomly paired pen pals, and an MCI electronic mail connection between schools. (MLH)

  7. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of

  8. Subterranean barriers including at least one weld

    DOEpatents

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Sloan, Paul A.; Richardson, John G.; Walsh, Stephanie; Kostelnik, Kevin M.

    2007-01-09

    A subterranean barrier and method for forming same are disclosed, the barrier including a plurality of casing strings wherein at least one casing string of the plurality of casing strings may be affixed to at least another adjacent casing string of the plurality of casing strings through at least one weld, at least one adhesive joint, or both. A method and system for nondestructively inspecting a subterranean barrier is disclosed. For instance, a radiographic signal may be emitted from within a casing string toward an adjacent casing string and the radiographic signal may be detected from within the adjacent casing string. A method of repairing a barrier including removing at least a portion of a casing string and welding a repair element within the casing string is disclosed. A method of selectively heating at least one casing string forming at least a portion of a subterranean barrier is disclosed.

  9. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  10. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    DOEpatents

    Rouse, Carl A.; Simnad, Massoud T.

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

  11. Jet-calculus approach including coherence effects

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.M.; Migneron, R.; Narayanan, K.S.S.

    1987-01-01

    We show how integrodifferential equations typical of jet calculus can be combined with an averaging procedure to obtain jet-calculus-based results including the Mueller interference graphs. Results in longitudinal-momentum fraction x for physical quantities are higher at intermediate x and lower at large x than with the conventional ''incoherent'' jet calculus. These results resemble those of Marchesini and Webber, who used a Monte Carlo approach based on the same dynamics.

  12. Temporary agency contracts: what should they include?

    PubMed

    Sferrella, Sheila M

    2002-01-01

    The AHRA Board committed to provide some tools to help our members with agency contracts. This article provides the sections for a contract and what they should include. Of course, the language will have to comply with your organization's requirements. To comply with HIPAA regulations for contracts, I've also included language for business associates. JCAHO requires that the following documentation be on file for all contracted personnel: 1. Hospital job description or formal contract outlining the job responsibilities. 2. All licenses, certifications and registrations are reviewed and a process is developed to ensure that they remain current. 3. Competency is evaluated and maintained. 4. Evidence that personnel received a general orientation. 5. Evidence that personnel received a departmental orientation. 6. Safety and infection control standards must be met. In order to aid with compliance when utilizing contracted personnel, my organization developed a Contractor Personnel Administrative Compliance Checklist, which identifies requirements for compliance, a reference for assistance, and places to record that the requirement has been met for each of the areas listed in the previous item. Our standard contract includes sections on general definition of engagement, credentials and work experience; health, including immunization and drug testing; corporation; JCAHO; terms of the contract; and, non-disclosure of information. A business associate agreement may be necessary to comply with HIPAA regulations. Using the template has made my job much easier than trying to read each contract that crosses my desk. If an agency refuses to sign our contract, then we do not conduct business with that company. If an agency requests changes to the contract, depending on the language, we may or may not agree to it. This information is not intended to be legal advice, but rather an educational overview. As with any contract, the reader should consult with legal counsel at his or her

  13. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  14. Power generation method including membrane separation

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

  15. Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil

    DOEpatents

    Snitchler, Gregory L.; Gamble, Bruce B.; Voccio, John P.

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.

  16. New secondary metabolites isolated from dondonae viscosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Dodonaea viscosa Linn. from Egypt, resulted in the isolation and identification of three new compounds, including two new clerodane diterpenoids and a new myo-inositol derivative, along with nine...

  17. Isolated prompt photon production at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Maas, P.A. )

    1992-11-01

    This note describes measurements of isolated prompt photon production at [radical]s = 1.8 TeV using the CDF experiment. The measurements are compared to recent NLO QCD calculations, including recently obtained parton distribution functions. Qualitatively, the QCD calculation with the new parton distribution functions agrees better with the data than the previous parton distribution functions.

  18. Genomic Diversity of Escherichia Isolates from Diverse Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Yoder-Himes, Deborah R.; Tiedje, James M.; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the Escherichia genus is heavily biased toward pathogenic or commensal isolates from human or animal hosts. Recent studies have recovered Escherichia isolates that persist, and even grow, outside these hosts. Although the environmental isolates are typically phylogenetically distinct, they are highly related to and phenotypically indistinguishable from their human counterparts, including for the coliform test. To gain insights into the genomic diversity of Escherichia isolates from diverse habitats, including freshwater, soil, animal, and human sources, we carried out comparative DNA-DNA hybridizations using a multi-genome E. coli DNA microarray. The microarray was validated based on hybridizations with selected strains whose genome sequences were available and used to assess the frequency of microarray false positive and negative signals. Our results showed that human fecal isolates share two sets of genes (n>90) that are rarely found among environmental isolates, including genes presumably important for evading host immune mechanisms (e.g., a multi-drug transporter for acids and antimicrobials) and adhering to epithelial cells (e.g., hemolysin E and fimbrial-like adhesin protein). These results imply that environmental isolates are characterized by decreased ability to colonize host cells relative to human isolates. Our study also provides gene markers that can distinguish human isolates from those of warm-blooded animal and environmental origins, and thus can be used to more reliably assess fecal contamination in natural ecosystems. PMID:23056556

  19. Inverse transonic airfoil design including viscous interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical technique was developed for the analysis of specified transonic airfoils or for the design of airfoils having a prescribed pressure distribution, including the effect of weak viscous interaction. The method uses the full potential equation, a stretched Cartesian coordinate system, and the Nash-MacDonald turbulent boundary layer method. Comparisons with experimental data for typical transonic airfoils show excellent agreement. An example shows the application of the method to design a thick aft-cambered airfoil, and the effects of viscous interaction on its performance are discussed.

  20. Shape optimization including finite element grid adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kikuchi, N.; Taylor, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    The prediction of optimal shape design for structures depends on having a sufficient level of precision in the computation of structural response. These requirements become critical in situations where the region to be designed includes stress concentrations or unilateral contact surfaces, for example. In the approach to shape optimization discussed here, a means to obtain grid adaptation is incorporated into the finite element procedures. This facility makes it possible to maintain a level of quality in the computational estimate of response that is surely adequate for the shape design problem.

  1. Fuel delivery system including heat exchanger means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A fuel delivery system is presented wherein first and second heat exchanger means are each adapted to provide the transfer of heat between the fuel and a second fluid such as lubricating oil associated with the gas turbine engine. Valve means are included which are operative in a first mode to provide for flow of the second fluid through both first and second heat exchange means and further operative in a second mode for bypassing the second fluid around the second heat exchanger means.

  2. Should family planning include STD services?

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1994-05-01

    Recent reviews suggest that the addition of programs aimed at preventing and controlling sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), specifically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), to existing family planning programs does not necessarily dilute overall program effectiveness. In Colombia, Mexico, and Jamaica, where condom distribution and/or information to prevent HIV transmission was integrated into the activities of family planning field workers, no negative effect on the image of condoms as a pregnancy prevention method was observed and there was a great demand on the part of family planning clients for information about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In Brazil, family planning staff are receiving training in HIV risk assessment and the counseling of women in partner negotiation skills. However, steps must be taken to reach men since it is their high-risk behavior that puts most women at risk of HIV. Both separate STD clinics for men and condom social marketing projects have yielded promising results. Obstacles to the addition of STD services to family planning programs include the need to treat male partners as well as female clients, a shortage of diagnostic tools and antibiotics for treatment, and the fact that the majority of women with STDs are asymptomatic. Indicative of the increased attention being given this approach, however, is the recent release of guidelines by the US Agency for International Development Office of Population on how family planning programs should approach integration. Suggested activities include condom promotion, behavior change, counseling, information, contraceptive development, and selected efforts at STD treatment. PMID:12287744

  3. Aerosol simulation including chemical and nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Marwil, E.S.; Lemmon, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The numerical simulation of aerosol transport, including the effects of chemical and nuclear reactions presents a challenging dynamic accounting problem. Particles of different sizes agglomerate and settle out due to various mechanisms, such as diffusion, diffusiophoresis, thermophoresis, gravitational settling, turbulent acceleration, and centrifugal acceleration. Particles also change size, due to the condensation and evaporation of materials on the particle. Heterogeneous chemical reactions occur at the interface between a particle and the suspending medium, or a surface and the gas in the aerosol. Homogeneous chemical reactions occur within the aersol suspending medium, within a particle, and on a surface. These reactions may include a phase change. Nuclear reactions occur in all locations. These spontaneous transmutations from one element form to another occur at greatly varying rates and may result in phase or chemical changes which complicate the accounting process. This paper presents an approach for inclusion of these effects on the transport of aerosols. The accounting system is very complex and results in a large set of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The techniques for numerical solution of these ODEs require special attention to achieve their solution in an efficient and affordable manner. 4 refs.

  4. Bacillus odysseyi isolate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri (Inventor); La Duc, Myron Thomas (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus odysseyi isolate with high adherence and sterilization resistant properties. B. odysseyi is a round spore forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and the type strain is 34hs-1.sup.T (=ATCC PTA-4993.sup.T=NRRL B-30641.sup.T=NBRC 100172.sup.T). The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of strain 34hs-1.sup.T is AF526913.

  5. High voltage isolation transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

  6. Pump isolation valve

    DOEpatents

    Kinney, Calvin L.; Wetherill, Todd M.

    1983-08-02

    The pump isolation valve provides a means by which the pump may be selectively isolated from the remainder of the coolant system while being compatible with the internal hydraulic arrangement of the pump during normal operation of the pump. The valve comprises a valve cylinder disposed around the pump and adjacent to the last pump diffuser with a turning vane attached to the lower end of the valve cylinder in a manner so as to hydraulically match with the discharge diffuser. The valve cylinder is connected to a drive means for sliding the valve cylinder relative to the diffuser support cylinder so as to block flow in either direction through the discharge diffuser when the valve is in the closed position and to aid in the flow of the coolant from the discharge diffuser by means of the turning vane when the valve is in the open position.

  7. Cycle isolation monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Svensen, L.M. III; Zeigler, J.R.; Todd, F.D.; Alder, G.C.

    2009-07-15

    There are many factors to monitor in power plants, but one that is frequently overlooked is cycle isolation. Often this is an area where plant personnel can find 'low hanging fruit' with great return on investment, especially high energy valve leakage. This type of leakage leads to increased heat rate, potential valve damage and lost generation. The fundamental question to ask is 'What is 100 Btu/kW-hr of heat rate worth to your plant? On a 600 MW coal-fired power plant, a 1% leakage can lead to an 81 Btu/kW-hr impact on the main steam cycle and a 64 Btu/kW-hr impact on the hot reheat cycle. The article gives advice on methods to assist in detecting leaking valves and to monitor cycle isolation. A software product, TP. Plus-CIM was designed to estimate flow rates of potentially leaking valves.

  8. Genetics of population isolates.

    PubMed

    Arcos-Burgos, M; Muenke, M

    2002-04-01

    Genetic isolates, as shown empirically by the Finnish, Old Order Amish, Hutterites, Sardinian and Jewish communities among others, represent a most important and powerful tool in genetically mapping inherited disorders. The main features associated with that genetic power are the existence of multigenerational pedigrees which are mostly descended from a small number of founders a short number of generations ago, environmental and phenotypic homogeneity, restricted geographical distribution, the presence of exhaustive and detailed records correlating individuals in very well ascertained pedigrees, and inbreeding as a norm. On the other hand, the presence of a multifounder effect or admixture among divergent populations in the founder time (e.g. the Finnish and the Paisa community from Colombia) will theoretically result in increased linkage disequilibrium among adjacent loci. The present review evaluates the historical context and features of some genetic isolates with emphasis on the basic population genetic concepts of inbreeding and genetic drift, and also the state-of-the-art in mapping traits, both Mendelian and complex, on genetic isolates. PMID:12030885

  9. Isolated persistent hypermethioninemia.

    PubMed Central

    Mudd, S H; Levy, H L; Tangerman, A; Boujet, C; Buist, N; Davidson-Mundt, A; Hudgins, L; Oyanagi, K; Nagao, M; Wilson, W G

    1995-01-01

    New information has been obtained on 30 patients with isolated persistent hypermethioninemia, most of them previously unreported. Biopsies to confirm the presumptive diagnosis of partially deficient activity of ATP: L-methionine S-adenosyltransferase (MAT; E.C.2.5.1.6) in liver were not performed on most of these patients. However, none showed the clinical findings or the extreme elevations of serum folate previously described in other patients with isolated hypermethioninemia considered not to have hepatic MAT deficiency. Patients ascertained on biochemical grounds had no neurological abnormalities, and 27/30 had IQs or Bayley development-index scores within normal limits or were judged to have normal mental development. Methionine transamination metabolites accumulated abnormally only when plasma methionine concentrations exceeded 300-350 microM and did so more markedly after 0.9 years of age. Data were obtained on urinary organic acids as well as plasma creatinine concentrations. Patterns of inheritance of isolated hypermethioninemia were variable. Considerations as to the optimal management of this group of patients are discussed. PMID:7573050

  10. Freedom from Social Isolation for Young Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Diane; Smith-Canter, Lora Lee; Voytecki, Karen S.

    2007-01-01

    Currently, students in early childhood special education programs experience social isolation. To ameliorate the inappropriate behaviors that often contribute to this isolation, it is imperative that educators begin to include instruction in appropriate social interaction in the general education early childhood curriculum for children with…

  11. Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter

    DOEpatents

    Baldasaro, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

  12. Drapery assembly including insulated drapery liner

    DOEpatents

    Cukierski, Gwendolyn

    1983-01-01

    A drapery assembly is disclosed for covering a framed wall opening, the assembly including drapery panels hung on a horizontal traverse rod, the rod having a pair of master slides and means for displacing the master slides between open and closed positions. A pair of insulating liner panels are positioned behind the drapery, the remote side edges of the liner panels being connected with the side portions of the opening frame, and the adjacent side edges of the liner panels being connected with a pair of vertically arranged center support members adapted for sliding movement longitudinally of a horizontal track member secured to the upper horizontal portion of the opening frame. Pivotally arranged brackets connect the center support members with the master slides of the traverse rod whereby movement of the master slides to effect opening and closing of the drapery panels effects simultaneous opening and closing of the liner panels.

  13. Optical panel system including stackable waveguides

    DOEpatents

    DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

    2007-11-20

    An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

  14. Optical panel system including stackable waveguides

    DOEpatents

    DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

    2007-03-06

    An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

  15. Including eddies in global ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semtner, Albert J.; Chervin, Robert M.

    The ocean is a turbulent fluid that is driven by winds and by surface exchanges of heat and moisture. It is as important as the atmosphere in governing climate through heat distribution, but so little is known about the ocean that it remains a “final frontier” on the face of the Earth. Many ocean currents are truly global in extent, such as the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the “conveyor belt” that connects the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans by flows around the southern tips of Africa and South America. It has long been a dream of some oceanographers to supplement the very limited observational knowledge by reconstructing the currents of the world ocean from the first principles of physics on a computer. However, until very recently, the prospect of doing this was thwarted by the fact that fluctuating currents known as “mesoscale eddies” could not be explicitly included in the calculation.

  16. Characterization of reticuloendotheliosis virus isolates obtained from chickens, turkeys and prairie chickens in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) isolates obtained from chickens, turkeys and prairie chickens in the United States were characterized using ploymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect immunofluoresence (IFA) assays. This study included five REV isolates from Prairie chickens in Texas, two ...

  17. Vibration isolation system for the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, T.; Kunz, N.

    1988-01-01

    The Vibration Isolation System for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is studied. Included are discussions of the various concepts, design goals, concerns, and the proposed configuration for the Vibration Isolation System.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Sclerienone C from Scleria striatinux.

    PubMed

    Nyongbela, Kennedy D; Makolo, Felix L; Hoye, Thomas R; Efange, Simon M N

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report the isolation and characterization of sclerienone C, a novel sesquiterpene isolated from the methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) extract of Scleria striatinux that we have deduced to have structure 1. This medicinal spice of Cameroon has been shown to display antimicrobial and antiplasmodial activities. The isolation and purification involved a combination of methods including silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20, and semi-prep HPLC separations. Structure elucidation was carried-out by means of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with previously isolated sesquiterpene derivatives from the plant. PMID:26996004

  19. Propellant isolation shutoff valve program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis and design effort directed to advancing the state-of-the-art of space storable isolation valves for control of flow of the propellants liquid fluorine/hydrazine and Flox/monomethylhydrazine is discussed. Emphasis is on achieving zero liquid leakage and capability of withstanding missions up to 10 years in interplanetary space. Included is a study of all-metal poppet sealing theory, an evaluation of candidate seal configurations, a valve actuator trade-off study and design description of a pneumo-thermally actuated soft metal poppet seal valve. The concepts and analysis leading to the soft seal approach are documented. A theoretical evaluation of seal leakage versus seal loading, related finishes and yield strengths of various materials is provided. Application of a confined soft aluminum seal loaded to 2 to 3 times yield strength is recommended. Use of either an electro-mechanical or pneumatic actuator appears to be feasible for the application.

  20. Analysis of Smart Composite Structures Including Debonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Seeley, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    Smart composite structures with distributed sensors and actuators have the capability to actively respond to a changing environment while offering significant weight savings and additional passive controllability through ply tailoring. Piezoelectric sensing and actuation of composite laminates is the most promising concept due to the static and dynamic control capabilities. Essential to the implementation of these smart composites are the development of accurate and efficient modeling techniques and experimental validation. This research addresses each of these important topics. A refined higher order theory is developed to model composite structures with surface bonded or embedded piezoelectric transducers. These transducers are used as both sensors and actuators for closed loop control. The theory accurately captures the transverse shear deformation through the thickness of the smart composite laminate while satisfying stress free boundary conditions on the free surfaces. The theory is extended to include the effect of debonding at the actuator-laminate interface. The developed analytical model is implemented using the finite element method utilizing an induced strain approach for computational efficiency. This allows general laminate geometries and boundary conditions to be analyzed. The state space control equations are developed to allow flexibility in the design of the control system. Circuit concepts are also discussed. Static and dynamic results of smart composite structures, obtained using the higher order theory, are correlated with available analytical data. Comparisons, including debonded laminates, are also made with a general purpose finite element code and available experimental data. Overall, very good agreement is observed. Convergence of the finite element implementation of the higher order theory is shown with exact solutions. Additional results demonstrate the utility of the developed theory to study piezoelectric actuation of composite

  1. Dynamic stall simulation including turbulence modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Allet, A.; Halle, S.; Paraschivoiu, I.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the two-dimensional unsteady flow around an airfoil undergoing a Darrieus motion in dynamic stall conditions. For this purpose, a numerical solver based on the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations expressed in a streamfunction-vorticity formulation in a non-inertial frame of reference was developed. The governing equations are solved by the streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin finite element method (FEM). Temporal discretization is achieved by second-order-accurate finite differences. The resulting global matrix system is linearized by the Newton method and solved by the generalized minimum residual method (GMRES) with an incomplete triangular factorization preconditioning (ILU). Turbulence effects are introduced in the solver by an eddy viscosity model. The investigation centers on an evaluation of the possibilities of several turbulence models, including the algebraic Cebeci-Smith model (CSM) and the nonequilibrium Johnson-King model (JKM). In an effort to predict dynamic stall features on rotating airfoils, first the authors present some testing results concerning the performance of both turbulence models for the flat plate case. Then, computed flow structure together with aerodynamic coefficients for a NACA 0015 airfoil in Darrieus motion under stall conditions are presented.

  2. Extending Newtonian Dynamics to Include Stochastic Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2009-01-01

    A paper presents further results of continuing research reported in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles, the two most recent being Stochastic Representations of Chaos Using Terminal Attractors (NPO-41519), [Vol. 30, No. 5 (May 2006), page 57] and Physical Principle for Generation of Randomness (NPO-43822) [Vol. 33, No. 5 (May 2009), page 56]. This research focuses upon a mathematical formalism for describing post-instability motions of a dynamical system characterized by exponential divergences of trajectories leading to chaos (including turbulence as a form of chaos). The formalism involves fictitious control forces that couple the equations of motion of the system with a Liouville equation that describes the evolution of the probability density of errors in initial conditions. These stabilizing forces create a powerful terminal attractor in probability space that corresponds to occurrence of a target trajectory with probability one. The effect in configuration space (ordinary three-dimensional space as commonly perceived) is to suppress exponential divergences of neighboring trajectories without affecting the target trajectory. As a result, the post-instability motion is represented by a set of functions describing the evolution of such statistical quantities as expectations and higher moments, and this representation is stable.

  3. Design philosophy for reliable systems, including control

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    In the past, use of computers and software to manage physical plant has usually involved systems similar to the clockwork automata of the 17th century. The next generation of plant control will include intelligent systems - computer systems having knowledge of the plant and being capable of intelligent behavior, even though only some control functions will need such expertise. This report develops a framework for a universe of discourse usable by such non-human experts. It is based on the idea that a design has many features of a contract and may be described as a contract between humans and a machine, defining what each must do to attain a goal. Several points are discussed: the use of techniques in analytical redundancy and their place as analogues in administrative control for conventional techniques in physical control; the use of redundant computer systems to protect against hardware faults; the necessity to prove properties of software used in redundant hardware, because software faults are common modes across redundant hardware; and some issues in choosing a programming language for provable control software. Because proof of correctness is costly, it should be used only where necessary. This report concludes that the degree of reliability needed by the plant model used in analytic redundancy protection need not be nearly as reliable as the mechanism to detect discrepancy between plant and model.

  4. Full potential unsteady computations including aeroelastic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, Vijaya; Ide, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    A unified formulation is presented based on the full potential framework coupled with an appropriate structural model to compute steady and unsteady flows over rigid and flexible configurations across the Mach number range. The unsteady form of the full potential equation in conservation form is solved using an implicit scheme maintaining time accuracy through internal Newton iterations. A flux biasing procedure based on the unsteady sonic reference conditions is implemented to compute hyperbolic regions with moving sonic and shock surfaces. The wake behind a trailing edge is modeled using a mathematical cut across which the pressure is satisfied to be continuous by solving an appropriate vorticity convection equation. An aeroelastic model based on the generalized modal deflection approach interacts with the nonlinear aerodynamics and includes both static as well as dynamic structural analyses capability. Results are presented for rigid and flexible configurations at different Mach numbers ranging from subsonic to supersonic conditions. The dynamic response of a flexible wing below and above its flutter point is demonstrated.

  5. Articles including thin film monolayers and multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, DeQuan; Swanson, Basil I.

    1995-01-01

    Articles of manufacture including: (a) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, and a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, (b) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, and a metal species attached to the multidentate ligand, (c) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, a metal species attached to the multidentate ligand, and a multifunctional organic ligand attached to the metal species, and (d) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, a metal species attached to the multidentate ligand, a multifunctional organic ligand attached to the metal species, and a second metal species attached to the multifunctional organic ligand, are provided, such articles useful in detecting the presence of a selected target species, as nonliear optical materials, or as scavengers for selected target species.

  6. Future ultraviolet experiments, including FUSE/COLUMBUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggess, A.

    1984-01-01

    Several new facilities for ultraviolet astronomy are under construction or study for launch within the coming decade. These include the Hubble Space Telescope to be launched in 1986 with instruments for spectroscopy, imaging, and photopolarimetry in the ultraviolet; the ASTRO Spacelab payload, also to be launched in 1986 with a similar range of instrumentation; STARLAB, a combined Canadian, Australian and U.S. mission concentrating primarily on imagery; and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), which was renamed COLUMBUS. COLUMBUS is currently under study by NASA and ESA as a future joint mission for spectroscopic studies of astrophysical plasmas covering a temperature range from approximately 10 to the 3rd power to approximately 10 to the 7th power k. In order to achieve this objective, the optics should be optimized for wavelengths below 1200 Angstroms, with a total wavelength range from approximately 2000 to approximately 100 Angstroms. The operational concept will be based on experience with IUE, but changes in communications techniques since IUE was designed suggest some interesting new approaches to observing.

  7. [Contracts including performance and management of uncertainty].

    PubMed

    Duru, G; Garassus, P; Auray, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Since many decades in France, the most important part of ambulatory health care expenditure is represented by drug consumption. By the fact, French patient is indeed the greatest world consumer of pharmaceuticals treatments. Therefore, the regulation authorities by successive strategies, attempt to limit or even restrict market access for new drugs in the health care sector secured by public social insurance coverage. Common objectives are to assess the reimbursement to scientific studies and to fix the price of therapeutics at an acceptable level for both industries and government. New trends try then to determine recently the drug price in a dual approach, as a component of global and effective contract, including performance and outcome. The first diffusion authorization is diffusion concerned, but this concept takes into account the eventual success of new produces in long-term survey. Signed for a fixed period as reciprocal partnership between regulation authorities and pharmaceutics industries, the contract integrates two dimensions of incertitude. The first one is represented by the strategy of new treatments development according to efficacy and adapted price, and the second one is linked to the result of diffusion and determines adapted rules if eventual non-respects of the previous engagement are registered. This paper discusses problems related to this new dimension of incertitude affected by conditional drug prices in market access strategy and the adapted follow-up of new treatment diffusion fixed by "outcome" contract between French regulation administration and pharmaceutics industries in our recent economic context. PMID:24075704

  8. Engine lubrication circuit including two pumps

    DOEpatents

    Lane, William H.

    2006-10-03

    A lubrication pump coupled to the engine is sized such that the it can supply the engine with a predetermined flow volume as soon as the engine reaches a peak torque engine speed. In engines that operate predominately at speeds above the peak torque engine speed, the lubrication pump is often producing lubrication fluid in excess of the predetermined flow volume that is bypassed back to a lubrication fluid source. This arguably results in wasted power. In order to more efficiently lubricate an engine, a lubrication circuit includes a lubrication pump and a variable delivery pump. The lubrication pump is operably coupled to the engine, and the variable delivery pump is in communication with a pump output controller that is operable to vary a lubrication fluid output from the variable delivery pump as a function of at least one of engine speed and lubrication flow volume or system pressure. Thus, the lubrication pump can be sized to produce the predetermined flow volume at a speed range at which the engine predominately operates while the variable delivery pump can supplement lubrication fluid delivery from the lubrication pump at engine speeds below the predominant engine speed range.

  9. One hundred human pancreatic islet isolations at Baylor Research Institute.

    PubMed

    Takita, Morihito; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Shimoda, Masayuki; Chujo, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Koji; Itoh, Takeshi; Lamont, Jeffrey P; Lara, Luis F; Onaca, Nicholas; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Klintmalm, Goran B; Levy, Marlon F

    2010-10-01

    The effectiveness of pancreatic islet isolation must be maximized to make islet cell transplantation (ICT) a standard therapy. We have performed 100 human islet isolations at Baylor Research Institute including islet isolations for research, for clinical allogeneic transplantation, and for autologous islet transplantation. In this study, we analyzed the results of these isolations. First, we assessed 79 islet isolations using brain-dead donors to determine variables associated with successful islet isolation. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that seven variables influenced the success of islet isolation for allogeneic ICT: cause of death, mechanism of death, techniques for pancreas procurement and preservation, heavy fatty infiltration, collagenase type, dilution time, and islet purification method. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that only the current isolation protocol, the Baylor Islet Isolation Method (BIIM)-with its four required elements of pancreas procurement by the team, pancreatic ductal injection, the two-layer method with perfluorocarbon, and density-adjusted density gradient purification-had a significant positive impact on successful islet isolation (P = 0.02). Second, we compared allogeneic and autologous ICT using the BIIM. There were no significant differences in islet yields between allogeneic and autologous ICT using the BIIM; total islet yield after purification was 628 ± 84 × 10(3) IE in allogeneic ICT vs. 576 ± 49 × 10(3) IE in autologous ICT (P = 0.59). This retrospective study revealed that the BIIM provided favorable outcomes for both autologous and allogeneic ICT. PMID:20944753

  10. The Genotypic Characterization of Cronobacter spp. Isolated in China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jinghua; Du, Xiaoli; Liu, Hui; Hu, Guangchun; Lv, Guoping; Xu, Baohong; Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Wei; Cui, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) is an important pathogen contaminating powdered infant formula (PIF). To describe the genotypic diversity of Cronobacter isolated in China, we identified the isolates using fusA allele sequencing, and subtyped all of the isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). A total of 105 isolates were identified, which included C. sakazakii (58 isolates), C. malonaticus (30 isolates), C. dublinensis (11 isolates), C. turicensis (5 isolates), and C. muytjensii (1 isolate). These isolates were showed to have 85 PFGE-patterns, 71 sequence types (STs), and 55 MLVA-patterns. Comparisons among the three molecular subtyping methods revealed that the PFGE method was the most distinguishable tool in identifying clusters of Cronobacter spp. through DNA fingerprinting, and MLST method came second. However, ESTR-1, ESTR-2, ESTR-3, and ESTR-4 were not effective loci for subtyping Cronobacter spp. such that the MLVA method requires further improvement. PMID:25029018

  11. Deterministic sequential isolation of floating cancer cells under continuous flow.

    PubMed

    Tran, Quang D; Kong, Tian Fook; Hu, Dinglong; Marcos; Lam, Raymond H W

    2016-08-01

    Isolation of rare cells, such as circulating tumor cells, has been challenging because of their low abundance and limited timeframes of expressions of relevant cell characteristics. In this work, we devise a novel hydrodynamic mechanism to sequentially trap and isolate floating cells in biosamples. We develop a microfluidic device for the sequential isolation of floating cancer cells through a series of microsieves to obtain up to 100% trapping yield and >95% sequential isolation efficiency. We optimize the trappers' dimensions and locations through both computational and experimental analyses using microbeads and cells. Furthermore, we investigated the functional range of flow rates for effective sequential cell isolation by taking the cell deformability into account. We verify the cell isolation ability using the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 with perfect agreement with the microbead results. The viability of the isolated cells can be maintained for direct identification of any cell characteristics within the device. We further demonstrate that this device can be applied to isolate the largest particles from a sample containing multiple sizes of particles, revealing its possible applicability in isolation of circulating tumor cells in cancer patients' blood. Our study provides a promising sequential cell isolation strategy with high potential for rapid detection and analysis of general floating cells, including circulating tumor cells and other rare cell types. PMID:27387093

  12. Enterotoxin gene profiles among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw milk

    PubMed Central

    Nazari, R; Godarzi, H; Rahimi Baghi, F; Moeinrad, M

    2014-01-01

    Milk is considered a nutritious food because it contains several important nutrients including proteins and vitamins. Conversely, it can be a vehicle for several pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of genes encoding the nine Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) and enterotoxin gene profiles in S. aureus isolates derived from raw bovine milk. A total of 52 S. aureus isolates were obtained from 246 milk samples of 246 dairy cows from eight different farms in Qom, Iran. On the basis of cultural and biochemical properties as well as by amplification of the 23S rRNA specific to S. aureus, all isolates could be identified as S. aureus. Of the 52 isolates studied, 80.7% were positive for one or more genes encoding the enterotoxins, and 12 different genotypes were identified. The gene encoding for enterotoxin A (Sea) was the most frequent (16 isolates, 30.7%), followed by Seb (14 isolates, 26.9%) and Sed (8 isolates, 15.37%). Among the genes encoding the other enterotoxins, Seg and Seh were the most frequently observed (8 isolates each, 15.38%), followed by Sej (6 isolates, 11.5%) and Sei (1 isolates, 3.84%). With the recent identification of new SEs, the frequency of enterotoxigenic strains has increased, suggesting that the pathogenic potential of Staphylococci may be higher than previously thought. These results of enterotoxin genes positivity of milk-derived Staphylococci constitute a potential risk for consumers’ health. PMID:27175141

  13. Linezolid resistance in Enterococcus faecium isolated in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Patel, Samir N; Memari, Nader; Shahinas, Dea; Toye, Baldwin; Jamieson, Frances B; Farrell, David J

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have described linezolid-resistant MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) occurring worldwide, including an outbreak of linezolid-resistant MRSA. The objective of this study was to determine if linezolid-resistant enterococci are present in clinical isolates in Ontario, Canada. From January 2010 to June 2012, all enterococcal isolates submitted to the Public Health Ontario Laboratory (PHOL) for confirmation of VRE and susceptibility testing were included in this study. Of 2829 enterococcal isolates tested, 12 Enterococcus faecium were found to be resistant to linezolid. All linezolid-resistant isolates were also resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin. In addition, 33% of isolates were non-susceptible to daptomycin, whereas 41% were resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin. Molecular characterization of these isolates showed that 8/12 isolates (66.7%) contained the mutation G2576T in 23S rRNA, which has been associated with linezolid resistance. Amplification and sequencing of L3- and L4-coding genes did not reveal mutations associated with linezolid resistance. One isolate contained the cfr gene, which is associated with linezolid resistance, and has been found in staphylococcal species and E. faecalis. These data show that occurrence of linezolid resistance is still rare among enterococcal isolates referred to PHOL though detection of cfr in E. faecium is concerning as it has the potential to disseminate among other enterococci. PMID:24095643

  14. Review on Recent Advances in the Analysis of Isolated Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Satori, Chad P.; Kostal, Vratislav; Arriaga, Edgar A.

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of isolated organelles is one of the pillars of modern bioanalytical chemistry. This review describes recent developments on the isolation and characterization of isolated organelles both from living organisms and cell cultures. Salient reports on methods to release organelles focused on reproducibility and yield, membrane isolation, and integrated devices for organelle release. New developments on organelle fractionation after their isolation were on the topics of centrifugation, immunocapture, free flow electrophoresis, flow field-flow fractionation, fluorescence activated organelle sorting, laser capture microdissection, and dielectrophoresis. New concepts on characterization of isolated organelles included atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers combined with Raman spectroscopy, organelle sensors, flow cytometry, capillary electrophoresis, and microfluidic devices. PMID:23107131

  15. Rare cell isolation and analysis in microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuchao; Li, Peng; Huang, Po-Hsun; Xie, Yuliang; Mai, John D.; Wang, Lin; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    Rare cells are low-abundance cells in a much larger population of background cells. Conventional benchtop techniques have limited capabilities to isolate and analyze rare cells because of their generally low selectivity and significant sample loss. Recent rapid advances in microfluidics have been providing robust solutions to the challenges in the isolation and analysis of rare cells. In addition to the apparent performance enhancements resulting in higher efficiencies and sensitivity levels, microfluidics provides other advanced features such as simpler handling of small sample volumes and multiplexing capabilities for high-throughput processing. All of these advantages make microfluidics an excellent platform to deal with the transport, isolation, and analysis of rare cells. Various cellular biomarkers, including physical properties, dielectric properties, as well as immunoaffinities, have been explored for isolating rare cells. In this Focus article, we discuss the design considerations of representative microfluidic devices for rare cell isolation and analysis. Examples from recently published works are discussed to highlight the advantages and limitations of the different techniques. Various applications of these techniques are then introduced. Finally, a perspective on the development trends and promising research directions in this field are proposed. PMID:24406985

  16. Passive earthquake-resistance through base isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ting-Shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1990-04-01

    Base isolation is an effective approach in mitigating the seismic forces transmitted to the superstructure. It is able to provide reliable protection for the superstructure, its contents and occupants. With base isolation, dynamic characteristics of the superstructure and its contents become more predictable and controllable. In recent years, different base isolation systems have been installed in various new and existing buildings, including office buildings, computer centers, buildings for high technology industries, emergency and communication centers, buildings for high technology industries, emergency and communication centers. The concept of seismic isolation is also under active investigation for nuclear power plants, where safety and reliability of these systems are of utmost importance. One such system uses laminated high-damping rubber and steel shim plates vulcanized into a solid bearing. Under a joint program between Shimizu of Japan and Argonne National Laboratory of the United States, such high-damping rubber bearings were installed in the spring of 1989 in a three-story full size test building at the Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. Within a period of six months after their installation, this test building and the bearings have experienced more than fifteen earthquakes. Valuable information on the performance of the isolation bearings and the building has been (and is continuing to be) gathered and analyzed. Simulation studies of the effects of these earthquakes using lumped mass systems have been conducted, and are in close agreement with the actual observed responses. 3 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Entomopathogenicity of Simplicillium lanosoniveum Isolated in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung Yeol; Lee, Sehee; Kong, Hyun Gi; Lee, Jungkwan

    2014-12-01

    Fruiting bodies similar to those of the ascomycete fungi Podostroma cornu-damae and Cordyceps militaris were collected from Mt. Seunghak in Busan, Korea on August 21, 2012. The fruiting bodies were cylindrical, with tapered ends and golden red in color. The fruiting bodies contained abundant conidiophores bearing single-celled conidia, but no perithecia or asci. Pure culture of the fungal isolates was obtained through single-spore isolation. Analyses of morphological characteristics, including conidia shape, and phylogenetic traits, using internal transcribed spacer sequences, showed that these isolates belonged to the species Simplicillium lanosoniveum. Although this fungal species is known to be mycoparasitic, the isolates obtained in this study were unable to infect fungi. However, silkworms (Bombyx mori) inoculated with the fungal isolates died during the larval or pupal stages, as has been shown for the strongly entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. This study is the first report of the entomopathogenicity of S. lanosoniveum and indicates its potential for use in biological control of insects. PMID:25606002

  18. 14 CFR 23.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... section. (b) For turbine engines— (1) The compressor and accessory sections; (2) The combustor, turbine... complete powerplant compartment in which there is no isolation between compressor, accessory,...

  19. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  20. A standard bacterial isolate set for research on contemporary dairy spoilage.

    PubMed

    Trmčić, A; Martin, N H; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

    2015-08-01

    Food spoilage is an ongoing issue that could be dealt with more efficiently if some standardization and unification was introduced in this field of research. For example, research and development efforts to understand and reduce food spoilage can greatly be enhanced through availability and use of standardized isolate sets. To address this critical issue, we have assembled a standard isolate set of dairy spoilers and other selected nonpathogenic organisms frequently associated with dairy products. This publicly available bacterial set consists of (1) 35 gram-positive isolates including 9 Bacillus and 15 Paenibacillus isolates and (2) 16 gram-negative isolates including 4 Pseudomonas and 8 coliform isolates. The set includes isolates obtained from samples of pasteurized milk (n=43), pasteurized chocolate milk (n=1), raw milk (n=1), cheese (n=2), as well as isolates obtained from samples obtained from dairy-powder production (n=4). Analysis of growth characteristics in skim milk broth identified 16 gram-positive and 13 gram-negative isolates as psychrotolerant. Additional phenotypic characterization of isolates included testing for activity of β-galactosidase and lipolytic and proteolytic enzymes. All groups of isolates included in the isolate set exhibited diversity in growth and enzyme activity. Source data for all isolates in this isolate set are publicly available in the FoodMicrobeTracker database (http://www.foodmicrobetracker.com), which allows for continuous updating of information and advancement of knowledge on dairy-spoilage representatives included in this isolate set. This isolate set along with publicly available isolate data provide a unique resource that will help advance knowledge of dairy-spoilage organisms as well as aid industry in development and validation of new control strategies. PMID:26026752

  1. Full Boltzmann equations for leptogenesis including scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn-Woernle, F.; Plümacher, M.; Wong, Y.Y.Y. E-mail: pluemi@mppmu.mpg.de

    2009-08-01

    We study the evolution of a cosmological baryon asymmetry produced via leptogenesis by means of the full classical Boltzmann equations, without the assumption of kinetic equilibrium and including all quantum statistical factors. Beginning with the full mode equations, we derive the usual equations of motion for the right-handed neutrino number density and integrated lepton asymmetry, and show explicitly the impact of each assumption on these quantities. For the first time, we investigate also the effects of scattering of the right-handed neutrino with the top quark to leading order in the Yukawa couplings by means of the full Boltzmann equations. We find that in our full Boltzmann treatment the final lepton asymmetry can be suppressed by as much as a factor of ∼ 1.5 in the weak wash-out regime (K ∼< 1), compared to the usual integrated approach which assumes kinetic equilibrium and neglects quantum statistics. This suppression is in contrast with the enhancement seen in some previous studies that considered only decay and inverse decay of the right-handed neutrino. However, this suppression quickly decreases as we increase K. In the strong wash-out regime (K ∼> 1), the full Boltzmann treatment and the integrated approach give nearly identical final lepton asymmetries (within 10% of each other at K > 3). Finally, we show that the opposing effects of quantum statistics on decays/inverse decays and the scattering processes tend to reduce the net importance of scattering on leptogenesis in the full treatment compared to the integrated approach.

  2. Collision and impact simulations including porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, Willy; Jutzi, Martin

    2007-05-01

    We present a numerical tool based on the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) method which can be used to model impacts and collisions involving small solid bodies in a strength-dominated regime. This method was already successfully tested at different scales. At small scales, the method was validated by simulating laboratory impacts. Our model predicts shapes, locations and velocities of the largest fragment with hight accuracy (Benz and Asphaug, 1994). A natural laboratory for studying collision physics at larger scales is provided by the twenty or more asteroid families identified in the asteroid belt. By simulating classes of collisions, our model was able to reproduce the main characteristics of such families (e.g. Michel et al. 2003). Spacecraft missions and ground-based observations are providing increasing evidence that many or even most asteroids are porous (Housenand Holsapple 2003). Porosity may also play an important role in the formation of planets as the dissipative properties of porous media will enhance the collisional sticking mechanism required to build planetesimals. We have developed a numerical model suitable for the calculation of shock dynamics and fracture In porous media. It is based on the so called P-alpha model (Herrmann 1969) which was adapted for implementation in our SPH impact code (Jutzi 2004). We are now capable of performing SPH simulations including fracture AND porosity and can report some very encouraging results. References: Benz and Asphaug (1994), Icarus 107, 98-116 Herrmann W. (1969), J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2490-2499 Michel P., Benz W, Richardson D.C. (2003), Nature 421, 608-611 Housen K.R. and Holsapple K.A., (2003) Icarus 163, 102- 119 Jutzi M. (2004), Diploma thesis, University of Bern.

  3. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    SciTech Connect

    C. Tsang

    2004-09-22

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  4. Including Tidal Effects in Tsunami Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcas, D.; Moore, C. W.; Spillane, M. C.; Bernard, E. N.

    2014-12-01

    Recently a new tsunami forecast system SIFT (Short-term Inundation and Forecasting of Tsunamis) has been declared operational by the National Weather Service (NWS) Tsunami Warning Centers. The SIFT system assimilates real-time information from a network of observing systems deployed in the open ocean, to produce on-the-fly estimates of tsunami impact at specific coastal communities. These estimates are computed via the tsunami simulation code MOST (Method of Splitting Tsunami) and include forecast products such as tsunami arrival time, duration of the event, predicted tsunami currents, maximum sea surface elevation and expected inundation areas. These computations are performed under the assumption that the mean sea level remains constant at Mean High Water (MHW) during the entire tsunami event. This assumption produces conservative tsunami forecasts that tend to err on the side of caution with the possibility of substantial overestimates of the inundation areas. To avoid this problem and produce more accurate, operational tsunami forecasts, we investigate the interaction of tsunamis with a longer period water level variation due to tidal forcing, by comparing simulations of the 2011 Japan event at different at different locations with and without tidal effects. Our results demonstrate that while non-linear effects resulting from this interaction are minimal in water surface elevation, they can have a significant effect on inundation areas. Based on these findings we propose a simple, first-order correction to the standard MHW forecast, that can be performed on-the-fly by the SIFT system without the need for complex tidal models.

  5. How isolated is Antarctica?

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Barnes, David K A; Hodgson, Dominic A

    2005-01-01

    The traditional view of Antarctica and the surrounding Southern Ocean as an isolated system is now being challenged by the recent discovery at the Antarctic Peninsula of adult spider crabs Hyas areneus from the North Atlantic and of larvae of subpolar marine invertebrates. These observations question whether the well described biogeographical similarities between the benthic fauna of the Antarctic Peninsula and the Magellan region of South America result from history (the two regions were once contiguous), or from a previously unrecognized low level of faunal exchange. Such exchange might be influenced by regional climate change, and also exacerbated by changes in human impact. PMID:16701330

  6. Nucleic acid isolation process

    SciTech Connect

    Longmire, J.L.; Lewis, A.K.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1990-05-01

    This patent describes a process for preparing DNA from cellular materials for use in genetic studies of eukaryotic systems, a process for isolating DNA fragments from proteolytic digestion products and detergent products in a solution with the DNA fragments produced in stripping undesired cellular constituents from the DNA. It comprises the step of dialyzing a solution containing the DNA fragments, detergent products, and proteolytic digestion products against a solution containing PEG for a time effective to yield DNA sufficiently pure of the genetic studies.

  7. Investigation of mercury thruster isolators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Mercury ion thruster isolator lifetime tests were performed using different isolator materials and geometries. Tests were performed with and without the flow of mercury through the isolators in an oil diffusion pumped vacuum facility and cryogenically pumped bell jar. The onset of leakage current in isolators occurred in time intervals ranging from a few hours to many hundreds of hours. In all cases, surface contamination was responsible for the onset of leakage current and subsequent isolator failure. Rate of increase of leakage current and the leakage current level increased approximately exponentially with isolator temperature. Careful attention to shielding techniques and the elimination of sources of metal oxides appear to have eliminated isolator failures as a thruster life limiting mechanism.

  8. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  9. Isolation and synthesis of polyoxygenated dibenzofurans possessing biological activity.

    PubMed

    Love, Brian E

    2015-06-01

    Reports from the past ten years describing the isolation and/or synthesis of bioactive dibenzofurans possessing three or more oxygen-containing substituents are reviewed. Dibenzofuranoquinones are included in the review. PMID:25585873

  10. Experimental investigation on a novel 3D isolator made of shape memory alloy pseudo-rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Su-chao; Guo, An-xin; Mao, Chen-xi; Li, Hui; Zhao, Yagebai

    2015-04-01

    Base isolation technology has been widely theoretically and experimentally investigated, and it has also been verified through many severe earthquakes. Three dimensional (3-D) isolation technology was proposed several years ago, and the 3-D isolation theory has well developed till now. However, the development of 3-D isolation technology was deeply affected by the 3-D isolator devices. Many presented 3-D isolators are generally made up of complicated components, such as rubber, springs, dampers or theirs combinations. These isolators have some problem in certain extent, such as difficult fabrication process or little energy dissipation ability along the vertical direction. This paper presents a novel 3- D isolator which is made up of martensitic shape memory alloy wires through weaving, rolling, and punching. Mechanical properties of 3-D shape memory alloy pseudo-rubber isolator (SMAPRI) are investigated including compression, shear, and compression-shear loading with different frequencies and amplitudes. The mechanical behavior of isolators with different parameters is also compared. Accordingly, the mechanism resulting in the above differences is also analyzed. Experimental results indicated that 3-D SMAPRI has good mechanical properties and energy dissipation ability along both of horizontal and vertical direction. The fabrication process of the proposed 3-D isolator is relatively easy and the mechanism of isolation is clearer than the traditional 3-D isolators. Therefore, this new kind of 3-D isolator has good potentiality in both of seismic isolation for civil infrastructures and industrial isolation for important or precision equipment.

  11. Promoting Social Inclusion Counting with Everyone: Learning Communities and INCLUD-ED

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatt, Suzanne; Ojala, Mikko; Soler, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The scientific community has provided a wide range of evidence that family and community involvement in schools benefits not only students' learning but also their surrounding community. The INCLUD-ED project has conducted case studies of successful schools around Europe that have strong community participation. Some of them are engaged in the…

  12. 76 FR 35026 - Hutchinson Technology, Inc., Including On-Site Workers Leased From Doherty, Including Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Doherty, Plymouth, Minnesota. The notice was published in the Federal Register on November 5, 2009 (74 FR... Doherty, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid Through Aramark Business..., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid Through Aramark Business Facilities,...

  13. Mechanical strain isolator mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Gordon E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Certain devices such as optical instruments must preserve their alignmental integrity while being subjected to mechanical strain. A mechanical strain isolator mount is provided to preserve the alignmental integrity of an alignment sensitive instrument. An alignment sensitive instrument is mounted on a rectangular base. Flexural legs are connected at their proximal ends to the rectangular base. Flexural legs are also spaced parallel to the sides. Mounting pads are connected to the legs at the distal end and the mechanical strain isolator mount is attached to the substrate by means of threaded bolts. When a mounting pad and its respective leg is subjected to lateral strain in either the X or Y direction via the substrate, the respective leg relieves the strain by bending in the direction of the strain. An axial strain on a mounting pad in the Z direction is relieved by a rotational motion of the legs in the direction of the strain. When the substrate is stress free, the flexural legs return to their original condition and thus preserve the original alignment integrity of the alignment sensitive instrument.

  14. Characterization of Staphylococcus caprae Clinical Isolates Involved in Human Bone and Joint Infections, Compared with Goat Mastitis Isolates.

    PubMed

    d'Ersu, J; Aubin, G G; Mercier, P; Nicollet, P; Bémer, P; Corvec, S

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus caprae is an emerging microorganism in human bone and joint infections (BJI). The aim of this study is to describe the features of S. caprae isolates involved in BJI (H for human) compared with those of isolates recovered in goat mastitis (A for animal). Fourteen isolates of each origin were included. Identifications were performed using a Vitek 2 GP ID card, tuf gene sequencing, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) Vitek MS. Molecular typing was carried out using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DiversiLab technology. The crystal violet method was used to determine biofilm-forming ability. Virulence factors were searched by PCR. Vitek MS technology provides an accurate identification for the two types of isolates compared to that of gold-standard sequencing (sensitivity, 96.4%), whereas the Vitek 2 GP ID card was more effective for H isolates. Molecular typing methods revealed two distinct lineages corresponding to the origin despite few overlaps: H and A. In our experimental conditions, no significant difference was observed in biofilm production ability between H and A isolates. Nine isolates (5 H isolates and 4 A isolates) behaved as weak producers while one A isolate was a strong producer. Concerning virulence factors, the autolysin atlC and the serine aspartate adhesin (sdrZ) genes were detected in 24 isolates (86%), whereas the lipase gene was always detected, except in one H isolate (96%). The ica operon was present in 23 isolates (82%). Fibrinogen-binding (fbe) or collagen-binding (cna) genes were not detected by using primers designed for Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis, even in low stringency conditions. Although S. caprae probably remains underestimated in human infections, further studies are needed to better understand the evolution and the adaptation of this species to its host. PMID:26511738

  15. Characterization of Staphylococcus caprae Clinical Isolates Involved in Human Bone and Joint Infections, Compared with Goat Mastitis Isolates

    PubMed Central

    d'Ersu, J.; Aubin, G. G.; Mercier, P.; Nicollet, P.; Bémer, P.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus caprae is an emerging microorganism in human bone and joint infections (BJI). The aim of this study is to describe the features of S. caprae isolates involved in BJI (H for human) compared with those of isolates recovered in goat mastitis (A for animal). Fourteen isolates of each origin were included. Identifications were performed using a Vitek 2 GP ID card, tuf gene sequencing, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) Vitek MS. Molecular typing was carried out using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DiversiLab technology. The crystal violet method was used to determine biofilm-forming ability. Virulence factors were searched by PCR. Vitek MS technology provides an accurate identification for the two types of isolates compared to that of gold-standard sequencing (sensitivity, 96.4%), whereas the Vitek 2 GP ID card was more effective for H isolates. Molecular typing methods revealed two distinct lineages corresponding to the origin despite few overlaps: H and A. In our experimental conditions, no significant difference was observed in biofilm production ability between H and A isolates. Nine isolates (5 H isolates and 4 A isolates) behaved as weak producers while one A isolate was a strong producer. Concerning virulence factors, the autolysin atlC and the serine aspartate adhesin (sdrZ) genes were detected in 24 isolates (86%), whereas the lipase gene was always detected, except in one H isolate (96%). The ica operon was present in 23 isolates (82%). Fibrinogen-binding (fbe) or collagen-binding (cna) genes were not detected by using primers designed for Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis, even in low stringency conditions. Although S. caprae probably remains underestimated in human infections, further studies are needed to better understand the evolution and the adaptation of this species to its host. PMID:26511738

  16. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 11 figures.

  17. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    2000-07-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  18. CDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  19. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1999-05-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  20. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    1999-05-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 12 figs.

  1. Central ocular motor disorders, including gaze palsy and nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Strupp, M; Kremmyda, O; Adamczyk, C; Böttcher, N; Muth, C; Yip, C W; Bremova, T

    2014-09-01

    An impairment of eye movements, or nystagmus, is seen in many diseases of the central nervous system, in particular those affecting the brainstem and cerebellum, as well as in those of the vestibular system. The key to diagnosis is a systematic clinical examination of the different types of eye movements, including: eye position, range of eye movements, smooth pursuit, saccades, gaze-holding function and optokinetic nystagmus, as well as testing for the different types of nystagmus (e.g., central fixation nystagmus or peripheral vestibular nystagmus). Depending on the time course of the signs and symptoms, eye movements often indicate a specific underlying cause (e.g., stroke or neurodegenerative or metabolic disorders). A detailed knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of eye movements enables the physician to localize the disturbance to a specific area in the brainstem (midbrain, pons or medulla) or cerebellum (in particular the flocculus). For example, isolated dysfunction of vertical eye movements is due to a midbrain lesion affecting the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle, with impaired vertical saccades only, the interstitial nucleus of Cajal or the posterior commissure; common causes with an acute onset are an infarction or bleeding in the upper midbrain or in patients with chronic progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C). Isolated dysfunction of horizontal saccades is due to a pontine lesion affecting the paramedian pontine reticular formation due, for instance, to brainstem bleeding, glioma or Gaucher disease type 3; an impairment of horizontal and vertical saccades is found in later stages of PSP, NP-C and Gaucher disease type 3. Gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN) in all directions indicates a cerebellar dysfunction and can have multiple causes such as drugs, in particular antiepileptics, chronic alcohol abuse, neurodegenerative cerebellar disorders or cerebellar ataxias; purely vertical GEN is due to a

  2. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  3. Material isolation enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Martell, Calvin J.; Dahlby, Joel W.; Gallimore, Bradford F.; Comer, Bob E.; Stone, Water A.; Carlson, David O.

    1993-01-01

    An enclosure similar to a glovebox for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

  4. Material isolation enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Martell, C.J.; Dahlby, J.W.; Gallimore, B.F.; Comer, B.E.; Stone, W.A.; Carlson, D.O.

    1993-04-27

    An enclosure is described, similar to a glove box, for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

  5. Isolated post resonator mesogyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, Dorian; Peay, Chris; Wellman, Joanne; Shcheglov, Kirill; Hayworth, Ken; Wiberg, Dean; Yee, Karl; Sipppola, Clayton

    2004-01-01

    A new symmetric vibratory gyroscope principle has been devised in which a central post proof mass is counter-rocked against an outer sensing plate such that the motion is isolated from the gyroscope case. Prototype gyroscopes have been designed and fabricated with micromachined silicon at mesoscale (20-cm resonator width), vs. microscale (e.g., 2-mm resonator width) to achieve higher sensitivity and machined precision. This novel mesogyro design arose out of an ongoing technical cooperation between JPL and Boeing begun in 1997 to advance the design of micro-inertial sensors for low-cost space applications. This paper describes the theory of operation of the mesogyro and relationships with other vibratory gyroscopes, the mechanical design, closed loop electronics design, bulk silicon fabrication and packaged gyroscope assembly and test methods. The initial packaged prototype test results are reported for what is believed to be the first silicon mesogyroscope.

  6. Thermally isolated well instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Engelder, P.D.

    1984-04-03

    A well instrument is isolated from the high temperatures of a surrounding earth formation by enclosing the instrument within a heat insulative jacket structure, preferably a dewar having spaced walls with a vacuum therebetween, with a heat sink contained in the jacket above the instrument assembly, and with a heat pipe extending upwardly from the instrument assembly to the heat sink and containing a fluid which by evaporation at a lower point and condensation at a higher point will conduct heat upwardly from the instrument assembly to the heat sink but not downwardly therebetween. The heat pipe preferably projects upwardly beyond a top portion of the insulating jacket to the location of a convector element which is exposed to the temperature of fluid or air at the outside of the insulating jacket to transmit heat from within the jacket to its exterior but not in a reverse direction.

  7. Isolated Northern Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 81 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. In this region, the dunes are isolated from each other. The dunes are just starting to emerge from the winter frost covering appearing dark with bright crests. These dunes are located on top of ice.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.1, Longitude 191.3 East (168.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Isolation and Physiological Analysis of Mouse Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Gretchen M.; Bader, David M.; Pfaltzgraff, Elise R.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes, the workhorse cell of the heart, contain exquisitely organized cytoskeletal and contractile elements that generate the contractile force used to pump blood. Individual cardiomyocytes were first isolated over 40 years ago in order to better study the physiology and structure of heart muscle. Techniques have rapidly improved to include enzymatic digestion via coronary perfusion. More recently, analyzing the contractility and calcium flux of isolated myocytes has provided a vital tool in the cellular and sub-cellular analysis of heart failure. Echocardiography and EKGs provide information about the heart at an organ level only. Cardiomyocyte cell culture systems exist, but cells lack physiologically essential structures such as organized sarcomeres and t-tubules required for myocyte function within the heart. In the protocol presented here, cardiomyocytes are isolated via Langendorff perfusion. The heart is removed from the mouse, mounted via the aorta to a cannula, perfused with digestion enzymes, and cells are introduced to increasing calcium concentrations. Edge and sarcomere detection software is used to analyze contractility, and a calcium binding fluorescent dye is used to visualize calcium transients of electrically paced cardiomyocytes; increasing understanding of the role cellular changes play in heart dysfunction. Traditionally used to test drug effects on cardiomyocytes, we employ this system to compare myocytes from WT mice and mice with a mutation that causes dilated cardiomyopathy. This protocol is unique in its comparison of live cells from mice with known heart function and known genetics. Many experimental conditions are reliably compared, including genetic or environmental manipulation, infection, drug treatment, and more. Beyond physiologic data, isolated cardiomyocytes are easily fixed and stained for cytoskeletal elements. Isolating cardiomyocytes via perfusion is an extremely versatile method, useful in studying cellular changes

  9. A hybrid base isolation system

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, G.C.; Lobo, R.F.; Srinivasan, M.; Asher, J.W.

    1995-12-01

    This paper proposes a new analysis procedure for hybrid base isolation buildings when considering the displacement response of a base isolated building to wind loads. The system is considered hybrid because of the presence of viscous dampers in the building above the isolator level. The proposed analysis approach incorporates a detailed site specific wind study combined with a dynamic nonlinear analysis of the building response.

  10. Extracellular xylanolytic and pectinolytic hydrolase production by A. flavus isolates contributes to crop invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates, including some biocontrol agents, and one toxigenic isolate were surveyed for the ability to produce extracellular xylanolytic and pectinolytic hydrolases. All of the tested isolates displayed good production of endoxylanases when grown on a medium ut...

  11. Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identity of nine clinical isolates from Czech patients presumably belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi based on morphology of colonies was revised using sequences of ß-tubulin, calmodulin, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA. The set of isolates included six isolates from suspected (n...

  12. Braking index of isolated pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamil, O.; Stone, J. R.; Urbanec, M.; Urbancová, G.

    2015-03-01

    Isolated pulsars are rotating neutron stars with accurately measured angular velocities Ω , and their time derivatives that show unambiguously that the pulsars are slowing down. Although the exact mechanism of the spin-down is a question of detailed debate, the commonly accepted view is that it arises through emission of magnetic dipole radiation (MDR) from a rotating magnetized body. Other processes, including the emission of gravitational radiation, and of relativistic particles (pulsar wind), are also being considered. The calculated energy loss by a rotating pulsar with a constant moment of inertia is assumed proportional to a model dependent power of Ω . This relation leads to the power law Ω ˙ =-K Ωn where n is called the braking index. The MDR model predicts n exactly equal to 3. Selected observations of isolated pulsars provide rather precise values of n , individually accurate to a few percent or better, in the range 1

  13. Acinetobacter sp. isolates from emergency departments in two hospitals of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji-Young; Ko, Eun Ah; Kwon, Ki Tae; Lee, Shinwon; Kang, Choel In; Chung, Doo-Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2014-10-01

    A total of 114 Acinetobacter sp. isolates were collected from patients in the emergency departments (EDs) of two Korean hospitals. Most isolates belonged to the Acinetobacter baumannii complex (105 isolates, 92.1 %). Imipenem resistance was found in 39 isolates (34.2 %) of the Acinetobacter sp. isolates, and 6 colistin-resistant isolates were also identified. Species distribution and antimicrobial-resistance rates were different between the two hospitals. In addition, two main clones were identified in the imipenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates from hospital B, but very diverse and novel genotypes were found in those from hospital A. Many Acinetobacter sp. isolates, including the imipenem-resistant A. baumannii, are considered to be associated with the community. The evidence of high antimicrobial resistance and different features in these Acinetobacter sp. isolates between the two EDs suggests the need for continuous testing to monitor changes in epidemiology. PMID:25062943

  14. Antarctic isolation: immune and viral studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tingate, T. R.; Lugg, D. J.; Muller, H. K.; Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Stressful environmental conditions are a major determinant of immune reactivity. This effect is pronounced in Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition populations exposed to prolonged periods of isolation in the Antarctic. Alterations of T cell function, including depression of cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and a peak 48.9% reduction of T cell proliferation to the mitogen phytohaemagglutinin, were documented during a 9-month period of isolation. T cell dysfunction was mediated by changes within the peripheral blood mononuclear cell compartment, including a paradoxical atypical monocytosis associated with altered production of inflammatory cytokines. There was a striking reduction in the production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the predominant pro-inflammatory monokine TNF-alpha and changes were also detected in the production of IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-1ra and IL-10. Prolonged Antarctic isolation is also associated with altered latent herpesvirus homeostasis, including increased herpesvirus shedding and expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cell population. These findings have important long-term health implications.

  15. Isolated and soft-switched power converter

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Adams, Donald Joe

    2002-01-01

    An isolated and soft-switched power converter is used for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion. The power converter includes two resonant tank circuits coupled back-to-back through an isolation transformer. Each resonant tank circuit includes a pair of resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, a pair of tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and a pair of switching devices with anti-parallel clamping diodes coupled in series as resonant switches and clamping devices for the resonant leg. The power converter is well suited for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion applications in which high-voltage isolation, DC to DC voltage boost, bidirectional power flow, and a minimal number of conventional switching components are important design objectives. For example, the power converter is especially well suited to electric vehicle applications and load-side electric generation and storage systems, and other applications in which these objectives are important. The power converter may be used for many different applications, including electric vehicles, hybrid combustion/electric vehicles, fuel-cell powered vehicles with low-voltage starting, remote power sources utilizing low-voltage DC power sources, such as photovoltaics and others, electric power backup systems, and load-side electric storage and generation systems.

  16. Cotton roll isolation versus Vac-Ejector isolation.

    PubMed

    Wood, A J; Saravia, M E; Farrington, F H

    1989-01-01

    A visible-light-cured, white pit-and-fissure sealant was applied to 523 teeth in school children using either cotton rolls or a VacEjector for isolation. After a minimum of six months, the patients were recalled and the retention of the sealants was evaluated. No significant difference in sealant retention was found between the two isolation methods. PMID:2530257

  17. The dynamics of isolated Local Group galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Bullock, James S.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Cohen, Judith G.

    2014-03-01

    We measured velocities of 862 individual red giant stars in seven isolated dwarf galaxies in the Local Group: NGC 6822, IC 1613, VV 124 (UGC 4879), the Pegasus dwarf irregular galaxy (DDO 216), Leo A, Cetus and Aquarius (DDO 210). We also computed velocity dispersions, taking into account the measurement uncertainties on individual stars. None of the isolated galaxies is denser than the densest Local Group satellite galaxy. Furthermore, the isolated dwarf galaxies have no obvious distinction in the velocity dispersion-half-light radius plane from the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way and M31. The similarity of the isolated and satellite galaxies' dynamics and structural parameters imposes limitations on environmental solutions to the `too big to fail' problem, wherein there are fewer dense dwarf satellite galaxies than would be expected from cold dark matter simulations. This data set also has many other applications for dwarf galaxy evolution, including the transformation of dwarf irregular into dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We intend to explore these issues in future work.

  18. Isolation of multiple novel paramyxoviruses from pteropid bat urine.

    PubMed

    Barr, Jennifer; Smith, Craig; Smith, Ina; de Jong, Carol; Todd, Shawn; Melville, Debra; Broos, Alice; Crameri, Sandra; Haining, Jessica; Marsh, Glenn; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Bats have been found to harbour a number of new emerging viruses with zoonotic potential, and there has been a great deal of interest in identifying novel bat pathogens to determine the risk to human and animal health. Many groups have identified novel viruses in bats by detection of viral nucleic acid; however, virus isolation is still a challenge, and there are few reports of viral isolates from bats. In recent years, our group has developed optimized procedures for virus isolation from bat urine, including the use of primary bat cells. In previous reports, we have described the isolation of Hendra virus, Menangle virus and Cedar virus in Queensland, Australia. Here, we report the isolation of four additional novel bat paramyxoviruses from urine collected from beneath pteropid bat (flying fox) colonies in Queensland and New South Wales during 2009-2011. PMID:25228492

  19. Micafungin triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis in Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms, including caspofungin non-susceptible isolates.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, F; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2015-01-01

    Candida biofilms play an important role in infections associated with medical devices and are resistant to antifungals. We hypothesized that the echinocandin micafungin (MICA) exerts an enhanced antifungal activity against caspofungin (CAS)-susceptible (CAS-S) and CAS-non-susceptible (CAS-NS) Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis which is at least in part through apoptosis, even in the biofilm environment. Apoptosis was characterized by detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation, lack of plasma membrane integrity, and metacaspase activation following exposure of Candida biofilm to MICA for 3h at 37°C in RPMI 1640 medium. The minimum inhibitory concentration was higher for CAS (2.0-16.0 μg/mL) than for MICA (1.0-8.0 μg/mL) for Candida biofilms. Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Finally higher ß-1, 3 glucan levels were seen in sessile cells compared to planktonic cells, especially in CAS-NS strains. MICA treatment might induce a metacaspase-dependent apoptotic process in biofilms of both CAS-S C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, and to some degree in CAS-NS strains. PMID:26065323

  20. Abinitio calculations of the spectral shapes of CO2 isolated lines including non-Voigt effects and comparisons with experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, J.-M.; Tran, H.; Ngo, N. H.; Landsheere, X.; Chelin, P.; Lu, Y.; Liu, A.-W.; Hu, S.-M.; Gianfrani, L.; Casa, G.; Castrillo, A.; Lepère, M.; Delière, Q.; Dhyne, M.; Fissiaux, L.

    2013-01-01

    We present a fully ab initio model and calculations of the spectral shapes of absorption lines in a pure molecular gas under conditions where the influences of collisions and of the Doppler effect are significant. Predictions of the time dependence of dipole autocorrelation functions (DACFs) are made for pure CO2 at room temperature using requantized classical molecular dynamics simulations. These are carried, free of any adjusted parameter, on the basis of an accurate anisotropic intermolecular potential. The Fourier-Laplace transforms of these DACFs then yield calculated spectra which are analyzed, as some measured ones, through fits using Voigt line profiles. Comparisons between theory and various experiments not only show that the main line-shape parameters (Lorentz pressure-broadening coefficients) are accurately predicted, but that subtle observed non-Voigt features are also quantitatively reproduced by the model. These successes open renewed perspectives for the understanding of the mechanisms involved (translational-velocity and rotational-state changes and their dependences on the molecular speed) and the quantification of their respective contributions. The proposed model should also be of great help for the test of widely used empirical line-shape models and, if needed, the construction of more physically based ones.

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia fergusonii Isolated from Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Karen; Islam, M Rashedul; Rempel, Heidi; Block, Glenn; Topp, Edward; Diarra, Moussa S

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance of Escherichia fergusonii isolated from commercial broiler chicken farms. A total of 245 isolates from cloacal and cecal samples of 28- to 36-day-old chickens were collected from 32 farms. Isolates were identified using PCR, and their susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion assay. All isolates were susceptible to meropenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. The most common resistances were against ampicillin (75.1%), streptomycin (62.9%), and tetracycline (57.1%). Of the 184 ampicillin-resistant isolates, 127 were investigated using a DNA microarray carrying 75 probes for antibiotic resistance genetic determinants. Of these 127 isolates, the β-lactamase blaCMY2, blaTEM, blaACT, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M-15 genes were detected in 120 (94.5%), 31 (24.4%), 8 (6.3%), 6 (4.7%), and 4 (3.2%) isolates, respectively. Other detected genes included those conferring resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA1, strA, strB), trimethoprims (dfrV, dfrA1), tetracyclines (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetE), and sulfonamides (sul1, sul2). Class 1 integron was found in 35 (27.6%) of the ampicillin-resistant isolates. However, our data showed that the tested E. fergusonii did not carry any carbapenemase blaOXA genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the selected ampicillin-resistant E. fergusonii isolates were genetically diverse. The present study indicates that the monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria should include enteric bacteria such as E. fergusonii, which could be a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. The detection of isolates harboring extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes, particularly blaCTX-M-15, in this work suggests that further investigations on the occurrence of such genes in broilers are warranted. PMID:27296596

  2. New Ventilated Isolation Cage

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Reginald O.

    1968-01-01

    A multifunction lid has been developed for a commercially available transparent animal cage which permits feeding, watering, viewing, long-term holding, and local transport of laboratory rodents on experiment while isolating the surrounding environment. The cage is airtight except for its inlet and exhaust high-efficiency particulate air filters, and it is completely steam-sterilizable. Opening of the cage's feed and water ports causes an inrush of high velocity air which prevents back-migration of aerosols and permits feeding and watering while eliminating need for chemical vapor decontamination. Ventilation system design permits the holding in adjacent cages of animals infected with different organisms without danger of cross-contamination; leaves the animal room odor-free; reduces required bedding changes to twice a month or less, and provides investigators with capability to control precisely individual cage ventilation rates. Forty-eight cages can be conveniently placed on a standard NIH “shoebox” cage rack (60 inches wide × 28 inches deep × 74 inches high) fitted with a simple manifold exhaust system. The entire system is mobile, requiring only an electrical power outlet. Principal application of the caging system is in the area of preventing exposure of animal caretakers to pathogenic substances associated with the animal host, and in reducing handling of animals and their exposure to extraneous contamination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 9 PMID:5659368

  3. Transverse Magnetic Field Propellant Isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2000-01-01

    An alternative high voltage isolator for electric propulsion and ground-based ion source applications has been designed and tested. This design employs a transverse magnetic field that increases the breakdown voltage. The design can greatly enhance the operating range of laboratory isolators used for high voltage applications.

  4. Isolated transfer of analog signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezdek, T.

    1974-01-01

    Technique transfers analog signal levels across high isolation boundary without circuit performance being affected by magnetizing reactance or leakage inductance. Transfers of analog information across isolated boundary are made by interrupting signal flow, with switch, in such a manner as to produce alternating signal which is applied to transformer.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of the Bacillus anthracis isolates collected throughout Turkey from 1983 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Durmaz, R; Doganay, M; Sahin, M; Percin, D; Karahocagil, M K; Kayabas, U; Otlu, B; Karagoz, A; Buyuk, F; Celebi, O; Ozturk, Z; Ertek, M

    2012-10-01

    The main perspective of this study was to determine cross-transmissions amongst anthrax cases and provide detailed information regarding the genotypes of Bacillus anthracis isolates circulating in Turkey. A total of 251 B. anthracis isolates were obtained from human (93 isolates), animal (155 isolates), and environmental (three isolates) samples in various provinces of Turkey. All isolates were susceptible to quinolones, vancomycin, tigecycline, and linezolid, but not to ceftriaxone. Excluding human isolates, one of the animal isolates was found to be resistant to penicillin, erythromycin, and doxycycline. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis including 8 loci (MLVA8) revealed 12 genotypes, in which genotype 43 was observed at the highest frequency (41.8 %), followed by genotype 35 (25.5 %) and genotype 27 (10.4 %). Major subtype A3.a was the predominant cluster, including 86.8 % of the isolates. The MLVA25 analysis for the 251 isolates yielded 62 different genotypes, 33 of which had only one isolate, while the remaining 29 genotypes had 2 to 43 isolates, with a total of 218 isolates (86.9 %). These findings indicate very high cross-transmission rates within anthrax cases in Turkey. The genotypes diagnosed in Turkey are populated in the A major cluster. Penicillin prescribed as the first-choice antibiotic for the treatment of anthrax is still effective. PMID:22576652

  6. Fragmentation and Isolation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landscapes are being modified by humans at ever-increasing rates worldwide. This landscape level modification has resulted in changes in ecological patterns and processes, including species distributions. The rate at which humans are altering both terrestrial and aquatic habitats...

  7. High performance rotational vibration isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunderland, Andrew; Blair, David G.; Ju, Li; Golden, Howard; Torres, Francis; Chen, Xu; Lockwood, Ray; Wolfgram, Peter

    2013-10-01

    We present a new rotational vibration isolator with an extremely low resonant frequency of 0.055 ± 0.002 Hz. The isolator consists of two concentric spheres separated by a layer of water and joined by very soft silicone springs. The isolator reduces rotation noise at all frequencies above its resonance which is very important for airborne mineral detection. We show that more than 40 dB of isolation is achieved in a helicopter survey for rotations at frequencies between 2 Hz and 20 Hz. Issues affecting performance such as translation to rotation coupling and temperature are discussed. The isolator contains almost no metal, making it particularly suitable for electromagnetic sensors.

  8. Isolation and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Chlamydial Isolates from Western Barred Bandicoots▿

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Swati; Kutlin, Andrei; Roblin, Patricia; Kohlhoff, Stephan; Bodetti, Tracey; Timms, Peter; Hammerschlag, Margaret R.

    2007-01-01

    A range of species of Chlamydiales have previously been detected in a variety of Australian marsupials, including koalas and western barred bandicoots. Thirty-seven ocular, urogenital, or nasal swabs were obtained from 21 wild western barred bandicoots. Chlamydia culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed for cycloheximide-treated HEp-2 cells in 96-well microtiter plates. Chlamydia spp. were isolated from 11 specimens from 9 (42.8%) bandicoots. All isolates were identified as Chlamydiales by conventional PCR with 16S and 23S rRNA gene primers specific to Chlamydiales and were confirmed to be Chlamydia pneumoniae by a C. pneumoniae-specific ompA-based real-time PCR assay and 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA gene signature sequence analyses. The MICs of azithromycin, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin for 10 C. pneumoniae isolates from these bandicoots ranged from 0.015 to 1 μg/ml, 0.25 to 1 μg/ml, 0.25 to 2 μg/ml, and 0.25 to 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. The MICs at which 90% of isolates were inhibited and the minimal bactericidal concentrations were within the ranges reported previously for human isolates of C. pneumoniae. PMID:17122017

  9. Active transmission isolation/rotor loads measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenigsberg, I. J.; Defelice, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Modifications were incorporated into a helicopter active transmission isolation system to provide the capability of utilizing the system as a rotor force measuring device. These included; (1) isolator redesign to improve operation and minimize friction, (2) installation of pressure transducers in each isolator, and (3) load cells in series with each torque restraint link. Full scale vibration tests performed during this study on a CH-53A helicopter airframe verified that these modifications do not degrade the systems wide band isolation characteristics. Bench tests performed on each isolator unit indicated that steady and transient loads can be measured to within 1 percent of applied load. Individual isolator vibratory load measurement accuracy was determined to be 4 percent. Load measurement accuracy was found to be independent of variations in all basic isolator operating characteristics. Full scale system load calibration tests on the CH-53A airframe established the feasibility of simultaneously providing wide band vibration isolation and accurate measurement of rotor loads. Principal rotor loads (lift, propulsive force, and torque) were measured to within 2 percent of applied load.

  10. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Aeromonas spp. Isolated from Environmental Sources▿

    PubMed Central

    Huddleston, Jennifer R.; Zak, John C.; Jeter, Randall M.

    2006-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous aquatic bacteria that cause serious infections in both poikilothermic and endothermic animals, including humans. Clinical isolates have shown an increasing incidence of antibiotic and antimicrobial drug resistance since the widespread use of antibiotics began. A total of 282 Aeromonas pure cultures were isolated from both urban and rural playa lakes in the vicinity of Lubbock, Texas, and several rivers in West Texas and New Mexico. Of these, at least 104 were subsequently confirmed to be independent isolates. The 104 isolates were identified by Biolog and belonged to 11 different species. The MICs of six metals, one metalloid, five antibiotics, and two antimicrobial drugs were determined. All aeromonads were sensitive to chromate, cobalt, copper, nickel, zinc, cefuroxime, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, ofloxacin, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole. Low incidences of trimethoprim resistance, mercury resistance, and arsenite resistance were found. Dual resistances were found in 5 of the 104 Aeromonas isolates. Greater numbers of resistant isolates were obtained from samples taken in March versus July 2002 and from sediment versus water. Plasmids were isolated from selected strains of the arsenite- and mercury-resistant organisms and were transformed into Escherichia coli XL1-Blue MRF′. Acquisition of the resistance phenotypes by the new host showed that these resistance genes were carried on the plasmids. Mercury resistance was found to be encoded on a conjugative plasmid. Despite the low incidence of resistant isolates, the six playa lakes and three rivers that were sampled in this study can be considered a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:16950901

  11. Amikacin Resistance in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius Isolated from Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gold, R. M.; Cohen, N. D.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is the most common microorganism isolated from canine pyoderma and postoperative wound infections. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) has increased, and recently, isolates that are resistant not only to methicillin but also to other classes of antibiotic drugs, including aminoglycosides, have become common. A total of 422 S. pseudintermedius isolates collected from 413 dogs were analyzed for amikacin and methicillin resistance using broth microdilution and disk diffusion testing. Methicillin-resistant isolates were significantly (P < 0.0001) more likely to be resistant to amikacin (37%, 31/84) than were methicillin-susceptible isolates (7%, 22/338). Additionally, resistance to non-β-lactam antibiotics was significantly associated with resistance to amikacin irrespective of methicillin resistance. Among the 422 isolates, 32 that tested positive for amikacin resistance by broth microdilution or disk diffusion testing were investigated further for the presence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes using multiplex PCR. Of these isolates, 66% (21/32) were methicillin resistant. In contrast to previous studies of Staphylococcus aureus, the most prevalent gene detected was aph(3′)-IIIa found in 75% (24/32) of isolates followed by aac(6′)/aph(2″) and ant(4′)-Ia in 12% (4/32) and 3% (1/32), respectively. Understanding the differences in antimicrobial resistance gene carriage between different species of Staphylococcus may improve antimicrobial drug selection for clinical therapy and provide insights into how resistance develops in S. pseudintermedius. PMID:25078911

  12. Extracellular Xylanolytic and Pectinolytic Hydrolase Production by Aspergillus flavus Isolates Contributes to Crop Invasion.

    PubMed

    Mellon, Jay E

    2015-08-01

    Several atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates, including some being used as biocontrol agents, and one toxigenic isolate were surveyed for the ability to produce extracellular xylanolytic and pectinolytic hydrolases. All of the tested isolates displayed good production of endoxylanases when grown on a medium utilizing larch xylan as a sole carbon substrate. Four of the tested isolates produced reasonably high levels of esterase activity, while the atoxigenic biocontrol agent NRRL 21882 isolate esterase level was significantly lower than the others. Atoxigenic A. flavus isolates 19, 22, K49, AF36 (the latter two are biocontrol agents) and toxigenic AF13 produced copious levels of pectinolytic activity when grown on a pectin medium. The pectinolytic activity levels of the atoxigenic A. flavus 17 and NRRL 21882 isolates were significantly lower than the other tested isolates. In addition, A. flavus isolates that displayed high levels of pectinolytic activity in the plate assay produced high levels of endopolygalacturonase (pectinase) P2c, as ascertained by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. Isolate NRRL 21882 displayed low levels of both pectinase P2c and pectin methyl esterase. A. flavus appears capable of producing these hydrolytic enzymes irrespective of aflatoxin production. This ability of atoxigenic isolates to produce xylanolytic and pectinolytic hydrolases mimics that of toxigenic isolates and, therefore, contributes to the ability of atoxigenic isolates to occupy the same niche as A. flavus toxigenic isolates. PMID:26295409

  13. Genotypic Survey of Recent β-Lactam-Resistant Pneumococcal Nasopharyngeal Isolates from Asymptomatic Children in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Gherardi, Giovanni; Inostrozo, Jaime S.; O'ryan, Miguel; Prado, Valeria; Prieto, Susana; Arellano, Carolina; Facklam, Richard R.; Beall, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    To assess pneumococcal strain variability among young asymptomatic carriers in Chile, we used serotyping, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and genotyping to analyze 68 multidrug-resistant pneumococcal isolates recovered from 54 asymptomatic children 6 to 48 months of age. The isolates represented capsular serotypes 19F (43 isolates), 14 (14 isolates), 23F (7 isolates), 6B (3 isolates), and 6A (1 isolate). Genotypic analysis, which included pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of chromosomal digests, penicillin binding protein (PBP) gene fingerprinting, and dhf gene fingerprinting, revealed that the isolates represented six different genetic lineages. Clear circumstantial evidence of capsular switching was seen within each of four of the genetically related sets. The majority of the isolates, consisting of the 43 19F isolates and 2 type 6B isolates, appeared to represent a genetically highly related set distinct from previously characterized pneumococcal strains. Each of three other genetically defined lineages was closely related to one of the previously characterized clones Spain6B-2, France9V-3, or Spain23F-1. A fifth lineage was comprised of four type 23F isolates that, by the techniques used for this study, were genetically indistinguishable from three recent type 19F sterile-site isolates from the United States. Finally, a sixth lineage was represented by a single type 23F isolate which had a unique PFGE type and unique PBP and dhf gene fingerprints. PMID:10523585

  14. Proposal of Helicobacter canicola sp. nov., previously identified as Helicobacter cinaedi, isolated from canines.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Tomida, Junko; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Narita, Masashi; Hashimoto, Katsuhiko; Cnockaert, Margo; Vandamme, Peter; Morita, Yuji; Sawa, Tomohiro; Akaike, Takaaki

    2016-07-01

    During the course of our taxonomic investigation of Helicobacter cinaedi, it was realized that the strains isolated from dogs, which have been identified as H. cinaedi, showed different biochemical traits than did the isolates obtained from humans. None of the three dog isolates could reduce nitrate to nitrite, whereas all of the human H. cinaedi isolates could do so. The dog isolates showed a strong positive alkaline phosphatase reaction and could grow at 42°C, however the human isolates showed negative to very weak responses to those tests. The GyrA protein based phylogenetic analysis showed that the three isolates from dogs formed a slightly distinct cluster from the human isolate cluster. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, gyrB, and hsp60 gene sequences further confirmed that the dog isolates differed from the human H. cinaedi isolate cluster. The whole-genome in silico DNA similarities of each isolate based on their full genome sequences revealed that the isolates from dogs shared more than 94.9% ANIb (average nucleotide identity based on BLAST), while 94.0% ANIb were found between the isolates from dogs and the humans, including the H. cinaedi type strain ATCC BAA-847(T) (=CCUG 18818(T)). From these data, we propose a new species, 'H. canicola' sp. nov., for the isolates from dogs. The type strain is PAGU 1410(T) (CCUG 33887(T)=LMG 29580(T)). PMID:27381809

  15. Extracellular Xylanolytic and Pectinolytic Hydrolase Production by Aspergillus flavus Isolates Contributes to Crop Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Mellon, Jay E.

    2015-01-01

    Several atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates, including some being used as biocontrol agents, and one toxigenic isolate were surveyed for the ability to produce extracellular xylanolytic and pectinolytic hydrolases. All of the tested isolates displayed good production of endoxylanases when grown on a medium utilizing larch xylan as a sole carbon substrate. Four of the tested isolates produced reasonably high levels of esterase activity, while the atoxigenic biocontrol agent NRRL 21882 isolate esterase level was significantly lower than the others. Atoxigenic A. flavus isolates 19, 22, K49, AF36 (the latter two are biocontrol agents) and toxigenic AF13 produced copious levels of pectinolytic activity when grown on a pectin medium. The pectinolytic activity levels of the atoxigenic A. flavus 17 and NRRL 21882 isolates were significantly lower than the other tested isolates. In addition, A. flavus isolates that displayed high levels of pectinolytic activity in the plate assay produced high levels of endopolygalacturonase (pectinase) P2c, as ascertained by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. Isolate NRRL 21882 displayed low levels of both pectinase P2c and pectin methyl esterase. A. flavus appears capable of producing these hydrolytic enzymes irrespective of aflatoxin production. This ability of atoxigenic isolates to produce xylanolytic and pectinolytic hydrolases mimics that of toxigenic isolates and, therefore, contributes to the ability of atoxigenic isolates to occupy the same niche as A. flavus toxigenic isolates. PMID:26295409

  16. Payload vibration isolation in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Richard M.

    1990-01-01

    Many in-space research experiments require the microgravity environment attainable near the center of mass of the Space Station. Disturbances to the structure surrounding an experiment may lead to vibration levels that will degrade the microgravity environment and undermine the experiment's validity. In-flight disturbances will include vibration transmission from nearby equipment and excitation from crew activity. Isolation of these vibration-sensitive experiments is required. Analytical and experimental work accomplished to develop a payload (experiment) isolation system for use in space is described. The isolation scheme allows the payload to float freely within a prescribed boundary while being kept centered with forces generated by small jets of air. The vibration criterion was a maximum payload acceleration of 10 micro-g's (9.81x10(exp -5)m/s(exp 2), independent of frequency. An experimental setup, composed of a cart supported by air bearings on a flat granite slab, was designed and constructed to simulate the microgravity environment in the horizontal plane. Experimental results demonstrate that the air jet control system can effectively manage payload oscillatory response. An analytical model was developed and verified by comparing predicted and measured payload response. The mathematical model, which includes payload dynamics, control logic, and air jet forces, is used to investigate payload response to disturbances likely to be present in the Space Station.

  17. Performance analysis and experiment validation of a pneumatic vibration isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuanyuan; Tan, Jiubin; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Tong

    2015-02-01

    A performance analysis and experiment validation of a pneumatic vibration isolator (PVI) that applied in the wafer stage of lithography is proposed in this work. The wafer stage of lithography is a dual-stage actuator system, including a long-stroke stage (LS) and a short-stroke stage (SS). In order to achieve the nanometer level positioning the isolator is designed to reduce the transmission of LS excitations to SS. In addition, considering the SS with six degrees of freedom and required to keep a strict constant temperature environment, the isolator need to have two functions, including the decoupling for vertical to horizontal and gravity compensation. In this isolator, a biaxial hinge was designed to decouple vertical rotation freedom, and a gas bearing was designed to decouple horizontal motion. The stiffness and damping of the pneumatic vibration isolator were analyzed. Besides, an analysis of the natural frequency and vibration transmissibility of the isolator is presented. In the end, the results show that vibration transmission is reduced significantly by the isolator and natural frequency can be lower than 0.6 Hz. This means that experimental results accord with the prediction model.

  18. Polyphasic study of Chryseobacterium strains isolated from diseased aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Bernardet, J F; Vancanneyt, M; Matte-Tailliez, O; Grisez, L; Tailliez, P; Bizet, C; Nowakowski, M; Kerouault, B; Swings, J

    2005-09-01

    Members of most Chryseobacterium species occur in aquatic environments or food products, while strains of some other species are pathogenic to humans and animals. A collection of 52 Chryseobacterium sp. strains isolated from diseased fish, one frog isolate and 22 reference strains were included in a polyphasic taxonomy study. Fourteen clusters of strains were delineated following the comparison of whole-cell protein profiles. Most of these clusters were confirmed when the phenotypic and RAPD profiles and the 16S rRNA gene sequences were compared. Fatty acid composition helped differentiate the Chryseobacterium strains from members of related genera. None of the fish isolates could be allocated to the two species previously reported from fish but two isolates belonged to C. joostei, while the frog isolate was identified as Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, a human pathogen previously included in the genus Chryseobacterium. Three clusters grouping from 3 to 13 isolates will probably constitute the core of new Chryseobacterium species but all other isolates occupied separate or uncertain positions in the genus. This study further demonstrated the overall high similarity displayed by most Chryseobacterium strains whatever the technique used and the resulting difficulty in delineating new species in the genus. Members of this bacterial group should be considered potential emergent pathogens in various fish and frog species, farming conditions and geographical areas. PMID:16156122

  19. Vitrification of isolated mice blastomeres using a closed loading device

    PubMed Central

    Kader, Amr; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh; Falcone, Tommaso

    2009-01-01

    Isolated blastomeres obtained by embryo biopsy serve mainly for preimplantation genetic screening. Blastomeres are undifferentiated embryonic cells that include all the embryo genetic information. A lot of developing technologies may benefit by the efficient cryopreservation of blastomeres for future potential use, especially for stem cell culture and differentiation control. We are hereby reporting for the first time the feasibility of preserving individual isolated blastomeres in microvolumes in a closed vitrification system. Using a cryotip and propagation in microvolumes, isolated mice blastomeres were vitrified and warmed with 100% post-warming survival. PMID:19228397

  20. Viscous damping for base isolated structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.; Hussain, S.; Retamal, E.

    1995-12-01

    Seismic Base Isolation can use elastomeric pads, sliding plates or inverted pendulums. Each method can include an energy dissipation means, but only as some kind of hysteretic damping. Hysteretic damping has limitations in terms of energy absorption and may tend to excite higher modes in some cases. It`s possible to avoid these problems with viscous dampers. Viscous damping adds energy dissipation through loads that are 900 out of phase with bending and shear loads so even with damping levels as high as 40% of critical adverse side effects tend to be minimal. This paper presents basic theory of viscous damping, and also describes a sample project. Viscous dampers being built for the new San Bernardino Medical Center reduce both deflections and loads by 50% compared with high damping elastomer base isolation bearings by themselves.

  1. Alicyclobacillus spoilage and isolation--a review.

    PubMed

    Smit, Yvette; Cameron, Michelle; Venter, Pierre; Witthuhn, R Corli

    2011-05-01

    Until recently, acidic products such as fruit juice and fruit based products were generally thought to be susceptible to spoilage by yeasts, mycelia fungi and lactic acid bacteria, as the low pH of these products acts as natural control measures against spoilage by most bacteria. Alicyclobacillus seem to be prevalent in fruit based products as they survive the acidic fruit juice environment, even when they are exposed to pasteurisation temperatures during production. In this review the historical background of the discovery of these bacteria is summarised. The bacterial characteristics and the reported spoilage incidences caused by members of this genus are discussed. As the isolation methods for these bacteria are controversial, this review includes a discussion of the various media that have been reported in the literature for the use in the isolation and enumeration of members of the genus Alicyclobacillus. PMID:21356436

  2. Molecular epidemiology of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates identify a prevalent sequence type, ST505, and a distinct clonal group of clinical isolates in Toyama Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kanatani, Jun-Ichi; Isobe, Junko; Kimata, Keiko; Shima, Tomoko; Shimizu, Miwako; Kura, Fumiaki; Sata, Tetsutaro; Watahiki, Masanori

    2013-08-01

    We performed comparative analyses of Legionella pneumophila serogroup (SG) 1 isolates obtained during 2005-2012 in Toyama Prefecture, Japan, by sequence-based typing (SBT) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Seventy-three isolates of L. pneumophila SG 1, including 17 isolates from patients, 51 from public baths, 4 from cooling towers, and 1 from a shower, were analyzed. The isolates were classified into 43 sequence types (STs) by SBT and 52 types by PFGE. Fourteen STs were unique to Toyama Prefecture, as determined from the SBT database of European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI), as of October 31, 2012. ST505 strain was identified in 4 isolates from patients and 5 isolates from public baths, and these isolates belonged to 2 PFGE types. These, however, were similar because of the difference with only two restriction fragments, indicating that ST505 strain was prevalent among L. pneumophila SG 1 isolates in this area. ST505 strains isolated from patients and public baths were distributed along the river in a western part of Toyama Prefecture. SBT and PFGE profiles of 3 clinical isolates were identical with those of 3 environmental isolates from the suspected origins of the infection in each case, respectively. This finding suggested that SBT and PFGE were useful for epidemiological study. Furthermore, by SBT analysis, we identified a clonal group formed only by 7 clinical isolates that are not associated with bathwater, suggesting that they were derived from unrecognized sources. PMID:23269379

  3. Cytotoxic Sesterterpenoids Isolated from the Marine Sponge Scalarispongia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Lee, Dong-Geun; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Kang, Jong Soon; Yun, Jieun

    2014-01-01

    Eight scalarane sesterterpenoids, including four new compounds, were isolated from the marine sponge Scalarispongia sp. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 2D-NMR and HRMS analyses. All of the isolated compounds, with the exception of 16-O-deacetyl-12,16-epi-scalarolbutanolide, showed significant in vitro cytotoxicity (GI50 values down to 5.2 μM) against six human cancer cell lines. PMID:25375188

  4. [Isolation frequency of the Mycobacterium genus in urine samples].

    PubMed

    Mederos, Lilian M; Sardiñas, Misleidis; García, Grechen; Martínez, María Rosarys; Reyes, Angélica; Díaz, Raúl

    2015-10-01

    Kidney infections caused by Mycobacterium genus are torpid and chronic evolution. In this study were analyzed 177 urine samples (included 110 from HIV patients) received between January 2006 and July 2014 in the National Reference Laboratory of Tuberculosis at Tropical Medicine Institute "Pedro Kourí" (IPK). The results were 17 isolates Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and 30 isolates of nontuberculous mycobacteria were detected. This study confirms the diagnostic importance of these infections especially in HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:26633121

  5. Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate with UV sterilization resistant properties. This novel strain has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of the Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate is AY167879.

  6. A microgravity vibration isolation rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, Bibhuti B.; Knospe, Carl R.; Allaire, Paul E.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that the spacecraft environment deviates from a state of zero gravity due to various random as well as repetitive sources. Science experiments that require a microgravity environment must therefore be isolated from these disturbances. Active control of noncontact magnetic actuators enables such isolation. A one degree of freedom test rig has been constructed to demonstrate the isolation capability achievable using magnetic actuators. A cylindrical mass on noncontacting electromagnetic supports simulates a microgravity experiment on board an orbiter. Disturbances generated by an electrodynamic shaker are transmitted to the mass via dashpots representing umbilicals. A compact Lorentz actuator has been designed to provide attenuation of this disturbance.

  7. The radiologically isolated syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, C

    2015-10-01

    Even prior to the introduction of criteria defining the radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS), longitudinal clinical data from individuals with incidentally identified T2 lesions suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS) were described. Healthy individuals who do not exhibit signs of neurological dysfunction may have a brain MRI performed for a reason other than suspicion of MS that reveals unexpected anomalies highly suggestive of demyelinating plaques given their size, location, and morphology. These healthy subjects lack a history or symptomatology suggestive of MS and fulfill formal criteria for RIS, a recently described MS subtype that shares the phenotype of at-risk individuals for future demyelinating events. A formal description of RIS was first introduced in 2009 by Okuda et al., and defines a cohort of individuals who are at risk for future demyelinating events. European or North American observational studies have found that up to 30-45% of patients presenting with RIS will present with neurological symptoms, either acute or progressive. The median time to clinical conversion differs between studies. It was 2.3 years for a series of French patients and 5.4 years for an American cohort. Most patients who developed clinical symptoms had prior radiological progression. The presence of asymptomatic lesions in the cervical cord indicated an increased risk of progression, either to relapsing or to progressive MS. The consortium studying the epidemiology of RIS worldwide (RISC) presented their first retrospective cohort last year. Data were available for 451 RIS subjects (F: 354 [78.5%]). The mean age at RIS diagnosis was 37.2 years with a mean clinical follow-up time of 4.4 years. The observed 5-year conversion rate to the first clinical event was 34%. Of the converters within this time period, 9.6% fulfilled criteria for primary progressive MS. In the multivariate model, age, sex (male), and lesions within the cervical or thoracic spinal cord were identified as

  8. Modifying enzymes related aminoglycoside: analyses of resistant Acinetobacter isolates

    PubMed Central

    Atasoy, Ali Riza; Ciftci, Ihsan Hakki; Petek, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by nucleotidyltransferases, acetyltransferases and/or phosphotransferases accounts for the majority of aminoglycoside-resistant Acinetobacter isolates. In this study, we investigated the relationship between aminoglycoside resistance and the presence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolate groups with different resistance profiles. Thirty-two clinical A. baumannii isolates were included in this study. Acinetobacter isolates were divided into 4 groups according to results of susceptibility testing. The presence of genes encoding the following aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes; aph (3’)-V1, aph (3’)-Ia, aac (3)-Ia, aac (3) IIa, aac (6’)-Ih, aac (6’)-Ib and ant (2’)-Ia responsible for resistance was investigated by PCR in all strains. The acetyltransferase (aac (6’)-Ib, aac (3)-Ia) and phosphotransferase (aph (3’)-Ia) gene regions were identified in the first group, which comprised nine imipenem, meropenem, and gentamicin-resistant isolates. The acetyltransferase (aac (6’)-Ib, aac (3)-Ia), phosphotransferase (aph (3’)-VI) and nucleotidyltransferase (ant2-Ia) gene regions were identified in the second group, which was composed of nine imipenem-resistant, meropenem-resistant and gentamicin-sensitive isolates. The acetyltransferase (aac (3)-Ia) and phosphotransferase (aph (3’)-Ia) regions were identified in the fourth group, which comprised eight imipenem-sensitive, meropenem-sensitive and gentamicin-resistant isolates. Modifying enzyme gene regions were not detected in the third group, which was composed of six imipenem, meropenem and gentamicin-sensitive isolates. Our data are consistent with previous reports, with the exception of four isolates. Both acetyltransferases and phosphotransferases were widespread in A. baumannii clinical isolates in our study. However, the presence of the enzyme alone is insufficient to explain the resistance rates. Therefore, the

  9. Genotypes and antibiotic resistance of canine Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    PubMed

    Amar, Chantal; Kittl, Sonja; Spreng, David; Thomann, Andreas; Korczak, Bożena M; Burnens, André P; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-01-10

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. It is a commensal in many wild and domestic animals, including dogs. Whereas genotypes of human and chicken C. jejuni isolates have been described in some detail, only little information on canine C. jejuni genotypes is available. To gain more information on genotypes of canine C. jejuni and their zoonotic potential, isolates from routine diagnostics of diarrheic dogs as well as isolates of a prevalence study in non-diarrheic dogs were analyzed. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter among non-diarrheic dogs was 6.3% for C. jejuni, 5.9% for Campylobacter upsaliensis and 0.7% for Campylobacter coli. The C. jejuni isolates were genotyped by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB typing. Resistance to macrolides and quinolones was genetically determined in parallel. Within the 134 genotyped C. jejuni isolates 57 different sequence types (ST) were found. Five STs were previously unrecognized. The most common STs were ST-48 (11.2%), ST-45 (10.5%) and ST-21 (6.0%). Whereas no macrolide resistance was found, 28 isolates (20.9%) were resistant to quinolones. ST-45 was significantly more prevalent in diarrheic than in non-diarrheic dogs. Within the common time frame of isolation 94% of the canine isolates had a ST that was also found in human clinical isolates. In conclusion, prevalence of C. jejuni in Swiss dogs is low but there is a large genetic overlap between dog and human isolates. Given the close contact between human and dogs, the latter should not be ignored as a potential source of human campylobacteriosis. PMID:24210812

  10. Characterization of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from diseased dogs in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Ruzauskas, M; Couto, N; Pavilonis, A; Klimiene, I; Siugzdiniene, R; Virgailis, M; Vaskeviciute, L; Anskiene, L; Pomba, C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Staphylococcus pseudintermedius for its antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors with a special focus on methicillin-resistant (MRSP) strains isolated from sick dogs in Lithuania. Clinically sick adult dogs suffering from infections (n=214) and bitches with reproductive disorders (n=36) from kennels were selected for the study. Samples (n=192) from the 250 tested (76.8%) dogs were positive for Staphylococcus spp. Molecular profiling using the species-specific nuc gene identified 51 isolates as S. pseudintermedius (26.6% from a total number of isolated staphylococci) of which 15 isolates were identified as MRSP. Ten MRSP isolates were isolated from bitches with reproductive disorders from two large breeding kennels. Data on susceptibility of S. pseudintermedius to different antimicrobials revealed that all isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, daptomycin and linezolid. Two isolates (3.9%) were resistant to rifampicin. A high resistance was seen towards penicillin G (94.1%), tetracycline (64.7%) and macrolides (68.7%). Resistance to fluoroquinolones ranged from 25.5% (gatifloxacin) to 31.4% (ciprofloxacin). The most prevalent genes encoding resistance included blaZ, aac(6')-Ie-aph(2'')-Ia, mecA, and tet(M). The Luk-I gene encoding a leukotoxin was detected in 29% of the isolates, whereas the siet gene encoding exfoliative toxin was detected in 69% of the S. pseudintermedius isolates. This report of MRSP in companion animals represents a major challenge for veterinarians in terms of antibiotic therapy and is a concern for both animal and public health. PMID:27096782

  11. Epidemiology and Microbiologic Characterization of Nosocomial Candidemia from a Brazilian National Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Doi, André Mario; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos; Edmond, Michael B.; Marra, Alexandre Rodrigues; Camargo, Luis Fernando Aranha; Siqueira, Ricardo Andreotti; da Mota, Vivian Pereira; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Candidemia is a growing problem in hospitals all over the world. Despite advances in the medical support of critically ill patients, candidiasis leads to prolonged hospitalization, and has a crude mortality rate around 50%. We conducted a multicenter surveillance study in 16 hospitals distributed across five regions of Brazil to assess the incidence, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility, and risk factors for bloodstream infections due to Candida species. From June 2007 to March 2010, we studied a total of 2,563 nosocomial bloodstream infection (nBSI) episodes. Candida spp. was the 7th most prevalent agent. Most of the patients were male, with a median age of 56 years. A total of 64 patients (46.7%) were in the ICU when candidemia occurred. Malignancies were the most common underlying condition (32%). The crude mortality rate of candidemia during the hospital admission was 72.2%. Non-albicans species of Candida accounted for 65.7% of the 137 yeast isolates. C. albicans (34.3%), Candida parapsilosis (24.1%), Candida tropicalis (15.3%) and Candida glabrata (10.2%) were the most prevalent species. Only 47 out of 137 Candida isolates were sent to the reference laboratory for antifungal susceptibility testing. All C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible to the 5 antifungal drugs tested. Among 11 C. glabrata isolates, 36% were resistant to fluconazole, and 64% SDD. All of them were susceptible to anidulafungin and amphotericin B. We observed that C. glabrata is emerging as a major player among non-albicans Candida spp. and fluconazole resistance was primarily confined to C. glabrata and C. krusei strains. Candida resistance to echinocandins and amphotericin B remains rare in Brazil. Mortality rates remain increasingly higher than that observed in the Northern Hemisphere countries, emphasizing the need for improving local practices of clinical management of candidemia, including early diagnosis, source control and precise

  12. A highly adjustable magnetorheological elastomer base isolator for applications of real-time adaptive control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yancheng; Li, Jianchun; Tian, Tongfei; Li, Weihua

    2013-09-01

    Inspired by its controllable and field-dependent stiffness/damping properties, there has been increasing research and development of magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) for mitigation of unwanted structural or machinery vibrations using MRE isolators or absorbers. Recently, a breakthrough pilot research on the development of a highly innovative prototype adaptive MRE base isolator, with the ability for real-time adaptive control of base isolated structures against various types of earthquakes including near- or far-fault earthquakes, has been reported by the authors. As a further effort to improve the proposed MRE adaptive base isolator and to address some of the shortcomings and challenges, this paper presents systematic investigations on the development of a new highly adjustable MRE base isolator, including experimental testing and characterization of the new isolator. A soft MR elastomer has been designed, fabricated and incorporated in the laminated structure of the new MRE base isolator, which aims to obtain a highly adjustable shear modulus under a medium level of magnetic field. Comprehensive static and dynamic testing was conducted on this new adaptive MRE base isolator to examine its characteristics and evaluate its performance. The experimental results show that this new MRE base isolator can remarkably change the lateral stiffness of the isolator up to 1630% under a medium level of magnetic field. Such highly adjustable MRE base isolator makes the design and implementation of truly real-time adaptive (e.g. semi-active or smart passive) seismic isolation systems become feasible.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions isolated growth hormone deficiency isolated growth hormone deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Isolated growth hormone deficiency is a condition caused by a severe ...

  14. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Solinas, Paola; Fujioka, Hisashi; Tandler, Bernard; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  15. Atomically thin nonreciprocal optical isolation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiao; Wang, Zuojia; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile; Chen, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Optical isolators will play a critical role in next-generation photonic circuits, but their on-chip integration requires miniaturization with suitable nonreciprocal photonic materials. Here, we theoretically demonstrate the thinnest possible and polarization-selective nonreciprocal isolation for circularly polarized waves by using graphene monolayer under an external magnetic field. The underlying mechanism is that graphene electron velocity can be largely different for the incident wave propagating in opposite directions at cyclotron frequency, making graphene highly conductive and reflective in one propagation direction while transparent in the opposite propagation direction under an external magnetic field. When some practical loss is introduced, nonreciprocal isolation with graphene monolayer still possesses good performance in a broad bandwidth. Our work shows the first study on the extreme limit of thickness for optical isolation and provides theoretical guidance in future practical applications. PMID:24569672

  16. Flight representative positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1977-01-01

    Resolutions were developed for each problem encountered and a tradeoff analysis was performed to select a final configuration for a flight representative PID (Positive Isolation Disconnect) that is reduced in size and comparable in weight and pressure drop to the developmental PID. A 6.35 mm (1/4-inch) line size PID was fabricated and tested. The flight representative PID consists of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation. Future development efforts for the Space Shuttle subsystems that would benefit from the use of the positive isolation disconnect are also recommended. Customary units were utilized for principal measurements and calculations with conversion factors being inserted in equations to convert the results to the international system of units.

  17. GONOCOCCAL SURVEILLANCE ISOLATE PROJECT (GSIP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) is a collaborative project to monitor antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States. The database is a sentinel surveillance system of 26 clinics for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and 5 regional la...

  18. Negotiating the radiologically isolated syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cummings, A; Chataway, J

    2014-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis, always challenging, hands down a particular gauntlet with the concept of the radiologically isolated syndrome. This article discusses what it is, recent developments in the field and how these patients should be managed. PMID:25291606

  19. Yersinia enterocolitica and related species isolated from wildlife in New York State.

    PubMed

    Shayegani, M; Stone, W B; DeForge, I; Root, T; Parsons, L M; Maupin, P

    1986-09-01

    Fecal specimens for Yersinia screening were obtained from a variety of wild mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates throughout New York State. One specimen from each of 1,426 animals was examined. A total of 148 isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica and related species were obtained from 133 (9.3%) of the animals. Y. enterocolitica was isolated from 100 (7%) of the animals tested, including 81 (10%) of 812 mammals and 19 (3.3%) of 573 birds. Y. intermedia, Y. frederiksenii, and Y. kristensenii were isolated from 39 (2.7%), 5 (0.35%), and 4 (0.28%) animals, respectively. The 81 Y. enterocolitica isolates from mammals belonged to 15 serogroups and included three pathogens: two isolates of typical serogroup 0:8, the "American strain," one from a gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and one from a porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum); and one isolate of serogroup 0:3, bacteriophage type IXb, the "Canadian strain," from a gray fox. The most prevalent serogroups recovered from mammals were 0:6,31 (16 isolates) and 0:5,27 (6 isolates). The 19 isolates of Y. enterocolitica from birds belonged to nine serogroups and included one serogroup 0:6,31 isolate from a common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula) and two serogroup 0:5,27 isolates from great horned owls (Bubo virginianus). PMID:3767355

  20. Fitness and Competitive Ability of Botrytis cinerea Isolates with Resistance to Multiple Chemical Classes of Fungicides.

    PubMed

    Chen, S N; Luo, C X; Hu, M J; Schnabel, G

    2016-09-01

    Resistance to multiple chemical classes of fungicides in Botrytis cinerea isolates from eastern United States strawberry fields is common and strategies to control them are needed. In this study, we compared fitness and competitive ability of eight sensitive isolates (S), eight isolates resistant to five or six chemical classes of fungicides but not to phenylpyrroles (5CCR), and eight isolates resistant to six or seven chemical classes including phenylpyrroles (6CCR/MDR1h). The latter included the MDR1h phenotype due to overexpression of atrB based on Δ497V/L in mrr1. The 6CCR/MDR1h isolates grew more slowly at 4°C on potato dextrose agar, and both 5CCR and 6CCR/MDR1h isolates were hypersensitive to osmotic stress compared with S isolates. In contrast, no differences were found in oxidative sensitivity, aggressiveness, and spore production in vivo, and sclerotia production and viability in vitro. In competition experiments, the 5CCR and 6CCR/MDR1h isolates were both outcompeted by S isolates and 6CCR/MDR1h isolates were outcompeted by 5CCR isolates in the absence of fungicide pressure. Under selective pressure of a fludioxonil/pyraclostrobin rotation, the 6CCR/MDR1h isolates dominated after coinoculation with 5CCR and S isolates. The competitive disadvantage of 5CCR and especially 6CCR/MDR1h isolates suggest that, in the absence of fungicide selection pressure, S isolates may reduce inoculum potential of multifungicide-resistant isolates under field conditions. PMID:27161219

  1. Market study: Biological isolation garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The biological isolation garment was originally designed for Apollo astronauts to wear upon their return to earth from the moon to avoid the possibility of their contaminating the environment. The concept has been adapted for medical use to protect certain patients from environmental contamination and the risk of infection. The nature and size of the anticipated market are examined with certain findings and conclusions relative to clinical acceptability and potential commercial viability of the biological isolation garment.

  2. Recurrent and Sporadic Listeria monocytogenes Contamination in Alheiras Represents Considerable Diversity, Including Virulence-Attenuated Isolates▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Felício, M. T. S.; Hogg, T.; Gibbs, P.; Teixeira, P.; Wiedmann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological characterization of alheiras, traditional smoked meat sausages produced in northern Portugal, had previously shown that more than 60% of the lots analyzed were contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes at levels higher than 100 CFU/g. In order to better understand L. monocytogenes contamination patterns in alheiras, we characterized 128 L. monocytogenes isolates from alheiras using a variety of subtyping techniques (i.e., molecular serotyping; arsenic, cadmium, and tetracycline resistance typing; and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE]). Subtyping of isolates from products collected on two separate dates provided evidence for the persistence of specific L. monocytogenes PFGE types in the production and distribution chains of alheiras from four different processors. A subset of 21 isolates was further characterized using ribotyping and Caco-2 cell invasion assays to evaluate the pathogenic potential of L. monocytogenes present in alheiras. Caco-2 invasion assays revealed seven isolates with invasion efficiencies that were less than 20% of that of the control strain 10403S. All seven isolates had premature stop codons in inlA that represented three distinct mutations, which had previously been observed in isolates from the United States or France. Our findings indicate the need for a comprehensive approach to control L. monocytogenes in alheiras, including strategies to reduce persistence. The presence of considerable diversity in invasion phenotypes among L. monocytogenes strains present in alheiras, including the presence of subtypes likely to be virulence attenuated, may provide an opportunity to initially focus control strategies on the subtypes most likely to cause human disease. PMID:17449681

  3. Susceptibility of Recently Collected Spanish Pneumococci Nonsusceptible to Oral Penicillin from Serotypes Not Included in the 7-Valent Conjugate Vaccine▿

    PubMed Central

    Fenoll, Asunción; Aguilar, Lorenzo; Giménez, María-José; Vicioso, María-Dolores; Robledo, Olga; Granizo, Juan-José; Coronel, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    The susceptibilities of pneumococci recently collected (up to June 2009) in Spain (500 isolates nonsusceptible to oral penicillin and 150 susceptible isolates) from serotypes not included in the conjugate vaccine were determined. Most nonsusceptible isolates (53.6%) belonged to serotype 19A. Susceptibility rates in serotype 19A penicillin-intermediate (n = 201)/penicillin-resistant (n = 67) isolates were <33%/≤6.0% (erythromycin and oral cephalosporins with defined breakpoints), 85.1%/11.9% (amoxicillin), and 96.0%/52.2% (cefotaxime), respectively. Low susceptibility to common oral β-lactams was also found in serotypes 11A (95.5% susceptibility to cefotaxime and erythromycin) and 35B. PMID:20308373

  4. Integrated rate isolation sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Tye (Inventor); Henderson, Timothy (Inventor); Phillips, Richard (Inventor); Zimpfer, Doug (Inventor); Crain, Tim (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    In one embodiment, a system for providing fault-tolerant inertial measurement data includes a sensor for measuring an inertial parameter and a processor. The sensor has less accuracy than a typical inertial measurement unit (IMU). The processor detects whether a difference exists between a first data stream received from a first inertial measurement unit and a second data stream received from a second inertial measurement unit. Upon detecting a difference, the processor determines whether at least one of the first or second inertial measurement units has failed by comparing each of the first and second data streams to the inertial parameter.

  5. Isolation of Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Sive, Hazel L; Grainger, Robert M; Harland, Richard M

    2010-12-01

    Xenopus oocytes are obtained from sexually mature females by surgically removing parts of the ovary. The operation is not fatal and can be performed on an anesthetized frog several times during its lifetime. However, a recovery period of 2 wk is recommended between operations. A careful record of all operations performed, including details of oocyte quality, should be kept. A frog that produces one good batch of oocytes; e.g., those that translate injected messenger RNAs (mRNAs) efficiently, should be recorded and used again, because oocyte quality is generally frog-dependent. PMID:21123421

  6. Preparing cytotoxic agents in an isolator.

    PubMed

    Favier, M; Hansel, S; Bressolle, F

    1993-11-01

    The design of an isolator and its use by an oncology satellite pharmacy for preparing cytotoxic drugs are described. The isolator (Iso Concept, Boulogne, France) is a totally enclosed ventilated biological-safety cabinet of class III polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with positive air pressure, a half-suit with a rotating seal, and attached neoprene gloves. There are three work-stations, one for the half-suit and two along one side of the isolator. The ventilation and air filtration system consists of one entry pipe with a full ventilation-filtration box fitted with one prefilter, one blower, one ball valve, one high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, one airtight nipple connected to an automatic sterilizer, alarms, and one exhaust pipe protected by a HEPA filter. The air lock consists of a rigid, transparent Plexiglas pass-through. The chamber is sterilized with heated compressed air mixed with 3.5% peracetic acid. Maintenance includes regular changing of gloves and HEPA filters; checking of the integrity of the PVC, half-suit, and gloves; and washing and decontamination procedures. Preparation of cytotoxics is planned in advance with prescription data and manufacturing sheets. In the half-suit, a pharmacy technician reads the label, supervises preparation of the sterile admixture, and writes a label. The operators on the side of the unit read the manufacturing sheet and prepare the dose identified by the label.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8266957

  7. SOX10 mutations mimic isolated hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Pingault, V; Faubert, E; Baral, V; Gherbi, S; Loundon, N; Couloigner, V; Denoyelle, F; Noël-Pétroff, N; Ducou Le Pointe, H; Elmaleh-Bergès, M; Bondurand, N; Marlin, S

    2015-10-01

    Ninety genes have been identified to date that are involved in non-syndromic hearing loss, and more than 300 different forms of syndromic hearing impairment have been described. Mutations in SOX10, one of the genes contributing to syndromic hearing loss, induce a large range of phenotypes, including several subtypes of Waardenburg syndrome and Kallmann syndrome with deafness. In addition, rare mutations have been identified in patients with isolated signs of these diseases. We used the recent characterization of temporal bone imaging aspects in patients with SOX10 mutations to identify possible patients with isolated hearing loss due to SOX10 mutation. We selected 21 patients with isolated deafness and temporal bone morphological defects for mutational screening. We identified two SOX10 mutations and found that both resulted in a non-functional protein in vitro. Re-evaluation of the two affected patients showed that both had previously undiagnosed olfactory defects. Diagnosis of anosmia or hyposmia in young children is challenging, and particularly in the absence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), SOX10 mutations can mimic non-syndromic hearing impairment. MRI should complete temporal bones computed tomographic scan in the management of congenital deafness as it can detect brain anomalies, cochlear nerve defects, and olfactory bulb malformation in addition to inner ear malformations. PMID:25256313

  8. NASA Space Flight Vehicle Fault Isolation Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bramon, Christopher; Inman, Sharon K.; Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Tuttle, Loraine

    2016-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. The goal of the first mission, which will be uncrewed, is to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft before a crewed flight in 2021. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. Common logistics concerns for SLS include integration of discrete programs geographically separated, multiple prime contractors with distinct and different goals, schedule pressures and funding constraints. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. The new program is a confluence of new hardware and heritage, with heritage hardware constituting seventy-five percent of the program. This unique approach to design makes logistics concerns such as testability of the integrated flight vehicle especially problematic. The cost of fully automated diagnostics can be completely justified for a large fleet, but not so for a single flight vehicle. Fault detection is mandatory to assure the vehicle is capable of a safe launch, but fault isolation is another issue. SLS has considered various methods for fault isolation which can provide a reasonable balance between adequacy, timeliness and cost. This paper will address the analyses and decisions the NASA Logistics engineers are making to mitigate risk while providing a reasonable testability solution for fault isolation.

  9. Healthcare applications for barrier/isolation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rahe, H.

    1996-10-01

    The healthcare industry is creating new opportunities for those involved in the design and manufacture of barrier/isolator systems. Applications for all facets of the industry including research, product development, analytical laboratories, pharmaceutical manufacturing, hospitals and home health care are being developed. The major problem encountered to date is the integration of pharmaceutical type operating functions which is considerably different than those experienced in the nuclear and electronics industries. The blending of these functions into barrier/isolators require an understanding of both the mechanical activities of the equipment to be enclosed and the required interactions of the personnel operating the process. Pharmaceutical operations involve a much higher level of people interaction than experienced with other industries. From the manufacture of small quantities of newly discovered compounds to the large scale manufacturing process extensive interaction with the material and the equipment is required. The driving force to pursue the use of barrier/isolation technology is the problems created by these interactions. Today`s pharmaceutical products are more potent compounds plus, in the case of parenteral products, regulation is moving toward increased sterility assurance levels for parenteral products manufactured using aseptic techniques. These needs have dictated the removal of people from the environment which houses the compounds. The product exposure guidelines and regulations determine the quality of environment needed to produce the products.

  10. Revisiting the Life Cycle of Dung Fungi, Including Sordaria fimicola

    PubMed Central

    Newcombe, George; Campbell, Jason; Griffith, David; Baynes, Melissa; Launchbaugh, Karen; Pendleton, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Dung fungi, such as Sordaria fimicola, generally reproduce sexually with ascospores discharged from mammalian dung after passage through herbivores. Their life cycle is thought to be obligate to dung, and thus their ascospores in Quaternary sediments have been interpreted as evidence of past mammalian herbivore activity. Reports of dung fungi as endophytes would seem to challenge the view that they are obligate to dung. However, endophyte status is controversial because surface-sterilization protocols could fail to kill dung fungus ascospores stuck to the plant surface. Thus, we first tested the ability of representative isolates of three common genera of dung fungi to affect plant growth and fecundity given that significant effects on plant fitness could not result from ascospores merely stuck to the plant surface. Isolates of S. fimicola, Preussia sp., and Sporormiella sp. reduced growth and fecundity of two of three populations of Bromus tectorum, the host from which they had been isolated. In further work with S. fimicola we showed that inoculations of roots of B. tectorum led to some colonization of aboveground tissues. The same isolate of S. fimicola reproduced sexually on inoculated host plant tissues as well as in dung after passage through sheep, thus demonstrating a facultative rather than an obligate life cycle. Finally, plants inoculated with S. fimicola were not preferred by sheep; preference had been expected if the fungus were obligate to dung. Overall, these findings make us question the assumption that these fungi are obligate to dung. PMID:26839959

  11. 14 CFR 25.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... power section; (2) The engine accessory section; (3) Except for reciprocating engines, any complete powerplant compartment in which no isolation is provided between the engine power section and the engine accessory section; (4) Any auxiliary power unit compartment; (5) Any fuel-burning heater and...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1181 - Designated fire zones: regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... power section of reciprocating engines; (2) The engine accessory section of reciprocating engines; (3) Any complete powerplant compartment in which there is no isolation between the engine power section and the engine accessory section, for reciprocating engines; (4) Any auxiliary power unit...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... zones are— (a) For reciprocating engines— (1) The power section; (2) The accessory section; (3) Any complete powerplant compartment in which there is no isolation between the power section and the accessory..., turbine, and tailpipe sections. (c) Any auxiliary power unit compartment; and (d) Any fuel-burning...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... power section; (2) The engine accessory section; (3) Except for reciprocating engines, any complete powerplant compartment in which no isolation is provided between the engine power section and the engine accessory section; (4) Any auxiliary power unit compartment; (5) Any fuel-burning heater and...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1181 - Designated fire zones: regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... power section of reciprocating engines; (2) The engine accessory section of reciprocating engines; (3) Any complete powerplant compartment in which there is no isolation between the engine power section and the engine accessory section, for reciprocating engines; (4) Any auxiliary power unit...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... zones are— (a) For reciprocating engines— (1) The power section; (2) The accessory section; (3) Any complete powerplant compartment in which there is no isolation between the power section and the accessory..., turbine, and tailpipe sections. (c) Any auxiliary power unit compartment; and (d) Any fuel-burning...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... power section; (2) The engine accessory section; (3) Except for reciprocating engines, any complete powerplant compartment in which no isolation is provided between the engine power section and the engine accessory section; (4) Any auxiliary power unit compartment; (5) Any fuel-burning heater and...

  18. Parameters design of vibration isolation platform for control moment gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhang; Jingrui, Zhang; Shijie, Xu

    2012-12-01

    Vibration isolation is a direct and effective approach to improve the ultra-precise pointing capability of a high resolution remote sensing satellite. In this paper, a passive multi-strut vibration isolation platform for the control moment gyroscopes in a pyramid configuration on a satellite is adopted and the parameter design of this platform is discussed. The first step constructs a whole satellite dynamic model including the control moment gyroscopes and the vibration isolation platform with Newton-Euler method, while the analytical control moment gyroscopes disturbance model is derived. The transmissibility matrix of the vibration isolation platform is then obtained, and the frequency domain characteristics of the platform are described, with its influence on the attitude control system analyzed. The third part presents the parameter design method of the vibration isolation platform based on the frequency domain characteristics mentioned above. The stiffness and damping coefficients of this platform are subsequently selected with the above mentioned method. Finally, using these parameters, the performance of the vibration isolation platform on the satellite is testified by integrated simulations. The study shows that parameters of this platform selected based on this method not only satisfy the requirement of vibration isolation but also guarantee that the closed-loop attitude control system remains sufficiently stable.

  19. Effects of Social Isolation on Glucocorticoid Regulation in Social Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Hawkley, Louise C.; Cole, Steve W.; Capitanio, John P.; Norman, Greg J.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The regulation and function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and glucocorticoids have been well conserved across vertebrate species. Glucocorticoids influence a wide range of physiological functions that include glucose regulation, metabolism, inflammatory control, as well as cardiovascular, reproductive, and neuronal effects. Some of these are relatively quick-acting non-genomic effects, but most are slower-acting genomic effects. Thus, any stimulus that affects HPA function has the potential to exert wide-ranging short-term and long-term effects on much of vertebrate physiology. Here, we review the effects of social isolation on the functioning of the HPA axis in social species, and on glucocorticoid physiology in social mammals in particular. Evidence indicates that objective and perceived social isolation alter HPA regulation, although the nature and direction of the HPA response differs among species and across age. The inconsistencies in the direction and nature of HPA effects have implications for drawing cross-species conclusions about the effects of social isolation, and are particularly problematic for understanding HPA-related physiological processes in humans. The animal and human data are incommensurate because, for example, animal studies of objective isolation have typically not been modeled on, or for comparability with, the subjective experience of isolation in humans. An animal model of human isolation must be taken more seriously if we want to advance our understanding of the mechanisms for the effects of objective and perceived isolation in humans. PMID:22663934

  20. Isolation and characterization of Magnetospirillum from saline lagoon.

    PubMed

    Revathy, T; Jacob, Jobin John; Jayasri, M A; Suthindhiran, K

    2016-07-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are aquatic prokaryotes that orient themselves to earth's magnetic field with the help of intracellular organelle magnetosomes. Although many species of MTB have been identified, the isolation of MTB is a challenging task due to the lack of systematic isolation procedure and/or commercial media. In this study, we are reporting the isolation of magnetotactic spirillum from the Pulicat lagoon, India using a systematic and selective procedure. Sampling site was chosen on the basis of physicochemical properties of the ecosystem and the catalysed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) analysis of sediment samples. In the current study, a combination of techniques including 'capillary racetrack' Purification and gradient cultivation resulted in the isolation of magnetotactic spirilla from aquatic sediments. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the strain was identified as Magnetospirillum and was designated as Magnetospirillum sp. VITRJS1. The genes responsible for magnetosome formation (mamA, B, E, F, K, M, O, P, Q, T) were successfully detected using PCR amplification. The presence of cbbM gene confirmed that the isolate is chemolithoautotroph and utilises reduced sulphur as an electron source. Furthermore, magnetosomes extracted from VITRJS1 found to be cubo-octahedral in shape and 45 nm in size. Our results indicate that the systematic procedure using sediment analysis, CARD-FISH, and a combination of isolation methods enables the selective and rapid isolation of MTB from aquatic sediment sample. PMID:27263004

  1. Understanding loneliness during adolescence: developmental changes that increase the risk of perceived social isolation.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Brett; Hartl, Amy C

    2013-12-01

    Loneliness is typically defined in terms of feeling states. In this review, we take a somewhat different approach, describing loneliness in terms of perceived social isolation. Vulnerabilities to perceived social isolation differ across the lifespan. Unique properties of adolescence are identified that carry special risk for perceived social isolation. These include (but are not limited to) developmental changes in companions, developmental changes in autonomy and individuation, identity exploration, cognitive maturation, developmental changes in social perspective taking, and physical maturation. Scholars are encouraged to consider loneliness through the lens of perceived social isolation so as to better understand how the experience of physical isolation varies across adolescence. PMID:23866959

  2. Isolation and Cannulation of Cerebral Parenchymal Arterioles.

    PubMed

    Pires, Paulo W; Dabertrand, Fabrice; Earley, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral parenchymal arterioles (PAs), which include parenchymal arterioles, penetrating arterioles and pre-capillary arterioles, are high resistance blood vessels branching out from pial arteries and arterioles and diving into the brain parenchyma. Individual PA perfuse a discrete cylindrical territory of the parenchyma and the neurons contained within. These arterioles are a central player in the regulation of cerebral blood flow both globally (cerebrovascular autoregulation) and locally (functional hyperemia). PAs are part of the neurovascular unit, a structure that matches regional blood flow to metabolic activity within the brain and also includes neurons, interneurons, and astrocytes. Perfusion through PAs is directly linked to the activity of neurons in that particular territory and increases in neuronal metabolism lead to an augmentation in local perfusion caused by dilation of the feed PA. Regulation of PAs differs from that of better-characterized pial arteries. Pressure-induced vasoconstriction is greater in PAs and vasodilatory mechanisms vary. In addition, PAs do not receive extrinsic innervation from perivascular nerves - innervation is intrinsic and indirect in nature through contact with astrocytic endfeet. Thus, data regarding contractile regulation accumulated by studies using pial arteries does not directly translate to understanding PA function. Further, it remains undetermined how pathological states, such as hypertension and diabetes, affect PA structure and reactivity. This knowledge gap is in part a consequence of the technical difficulties pertaining to PA isolation and cannulation. In this manuscript we present a protocol for isolation and cannulation of rodent PAs. Further, we show examples of experiments that can be performed with these arterioles, including agonist-induced constriction and myogenic reactivity. Although the focus of this manuscript is on PA cannulation and pressure myography, isolated PAs can also be used for

  3. Isolated thermocouple amplifier system for stirred fixed-bed gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1992-01-01

    A sensing system is provided for determining the bed temperature profile of the bed of a stirred, fixed-bed gasifier including a plurality of temperature sensors for sensing the bed temperature at different levels, a transmitter for transmitting data based on the outputs of the sensors to a remote operator's station, and a battery-based power supply. The system includes an isolation amplifier system comprising a plurality of isolation amplifier circuits for amplifying the outputs of the individual sensors. The isolation amplifier circuits each comprise an isolation operational amplifier connected to a sensor; a first "flying capacitor" circuit for, in operation, controlling the application of power from the power supply to the isolation amplifier; an output sample and hold circuit connected to the transmitter; a second "flying capacitor" circuit for, in operation, controlling the transfer of the output of the isolation amplifier to the sample and hold circuit; and a timing and control circuit for activating the first and second capacitor circuits in a predetermined timed sequence.

  4. Help for the Isolated Physics Teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelderman, Richard; Selway, James

    2012-02-01

    The feeling of professional loneliness that comes from being the only physics teacher in a school is one of the many reasons new physics teachers choose to leave the field. This interactive discussion will detail some of the ways that our institutions and we as individuals can provide meaningful support for isolated physics teachers. We will share ideas, including physics-based student challenges/competitions and regular local meetings of a local Physics Teacher Alliance, that provide opportunities for teachers to share experiences, test new lesson ideas, and simply spend more time with people who understand the punchline to a geeky joke.

  5. Low voltage 30-cm ion thruster development. [including performance and structural integrity (vibration) tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    The basic goal was to advance the development status of the 30-cm electron bombardment ion thruster from a laboratory model to a flight-type engineering model (EM) thruster. This advancement included the more conventional aspects of mechanical design and testing for launch loads, weight reduction, fabrication process development, reliability and quality assurance, and interface definition, as well as a relatively significant improvement in thruster total efficiency. The achievement of this goal was demonstrated by the successful completion of a series of performance and structural integrity (vibration) tests. In the course of the program, essentially every part and feature of the original 30-cm Thruster was critically evaluated. These evaluations, led to new or improved designs for the ion optical system, discharge chamber, cathode isolator vaporizer assembly, main isolator vaporizer assembly, neutralizer assembly, packaging for thermal control, electrical terminations and structure.

  6. Neurological lesions in chickens experimentally infected with virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropil reaction was evaluated in chickens inoculated with four different Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates, including Texas GB, Turkey North Dakota, Nevada Cormorant (velogenic neurotropic) and Anhinga (mesogenic). Tissues for this study included archived formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded br...

  7. Screening for Bacillus Isolates in the Broiler Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Teresa M.; Serra, Cláudia R.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Woodward, Martin J.; Henriques, Adriano O.

    2005-01-01

    Spores from a number of different Bacillus species are currently being used as human and animal probiotics, although their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here we describe the isolation of 237 presumptive gut-associated Bacillus spp. isolates that were obtained by heat and ethanol treatment of fecal material from organically reared broilers followed by aerobic plating. Thirty-one representative isolates were characterized according to their morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties as well as partial 16S rRNA gene sequences and screening for the presence of plasmid DNA. The Bacillus species identified included B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. licheniformis, B. clausii, B. megaterium, B. firmus, and species of the B. cereus group, whereas a number of our isolates could not be classified. Intrinsic properties of potential importance for survival in the gut that could be advantageous for spore-forming probiotics were further investigated for seven isolates belonging to five different species. All isolates sporulated efficiently in the laboratory, and the resulting spores were tolerant to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. They also exhibited antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including food spoilage and pathogenic organisms such as Bacillus spp., Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Importantly, the isolates were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested, arguing that they would not act as donors for resistance determinants if introduced in the form of probiotic preparations. Together, our results suggest that some of the sporeformers isolated in this study have the potential to persist in or transiently associate with the complex gut ecosystem. PMID:15691955

  8. Screening for bacillus isolates in the broiler gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Teresa M; Serra, Cláudia R; La Ragione, Roberto M; Woodward, Martin J; Henriques, Adriano O

    2005-02-01

    Spores from a number of different Bacillus species are currently being used as human and animal probiotics, although their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here we describe the isolation of 237 presumptive gut-associated Bacillus spp. isolates that were obtained by heat and ethanol treatment of fecal material from organically reared broilers followed by aerobic plating. Thirty-one representative isolates were characterized according to their morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties as well as partial 16S rRNA gene sequences and screening for the presence of plasmid DNA. The Bacillus species identified included B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. licheniformis, B. clausii, B. megaterium, B. firmus, and species of the B. cereus group, whereas a number of our isolates could not be classified. Intrinsic properties of potential importance for survival in the gut that could be advantageous for spore-forming probiotics were further investigated for seven isolates belonging to five different species. All isolates sporulated efficiently in the laboratory, and the resulting spores were tolerant to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. They also exhibited antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including food spoilage and pathogenic organisms such as Bacillus spp., Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Importantly, the isolates were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested, arguing that they would not act as donors for resistance determinants if introduced in the form of probiotic preparations. Together, our results suggest that some of the sporeformers isolated in this study have the potential to persist in or transiently associate with the complex gut ecosystem. PMID:15691955

  9. Clonal Diversity among Streptogramin A-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Collected in French Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Haroche, Julien; Morvan, Anne; Davi, Marilyne; Allignet, Jeanine; Bimet, François; El Solh, Névine

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed 62 clinical isolates of streptogramin A-resistant (SGAr) Staphylococcus aureus collected between 1981 and 2001 in 14 hospitals located in seven French cities. These isolates, including five with decreased susceptibility to glycopeptides, were distributed into 45 antibiotypes and 38 SmaI genotypes. Each of these genotypes included between 1 and 11 isolates, the SmaI patterns of which differed by no more than three bands. Although numerous clones were identified, we observed the spread of monoclonal isolates either within the same hospital or within hospitals in distinct cities and at large time intervals. Hybridization with probes directed against 10 SGAr genes (vatA, vatB, vatC, vatD, vatE, vgaA, vgaB, vgaAv, vgbA, and vgbB) revealed six patterns: vgaAv (21 isolates), vatA-vgbA (24 isolates), vgaAv-vatB-vgaB (14 isolates), vgaAv-vatA-vgbA (1 isolate), vgaAv-vatA-vgbA-vatB-vgaB (1 isolate), and vgaA (1 isolate). We detected at least one SGAr determinant in all of the tested isolates. vgaAv, which is part of the recently characterized transposon Tn5406, was found in 59.7% of the tested isolates. Of the 16 streptogramin B-susceptible isolates, 14 carried vgaAv alone and were susceptible to the mixtures of streptogramins, whereas the 2 isolates carrying vgaAv-vatB-vgaB were resistant to these mixtures. vatA-vgbA was found on plasmids of the same apparent size in 26 (42%) of the tested clinical isolates from 18 unrelated SmaI genotypes. The possible dissemination of some of the multiple clones characterized in the present study with an expected increased selective pressure of streptogramins following the recent licensing of Synercid (quinupristin-dalfopristin) must be carefully monitored. PMID:12574251

  10. A comparative study of clinical and food isolates of Listeria monocytogenes and related species.

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, E. A.; Desmarchelier, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    Ninety-six isolates of presumptive or confirmed Listeria monocytogenes were obtained from local clinical (30 isolates) or food laboratories (66 isolates). Minimal biochemical analysis identified only 80% of these isolates as L. monocytogenes the remaining included L. seeligeri, 1%, or the non-haemolytic L. innocua, 19%. The 27 clinical and 50 food isolates, mainly from meat products, frozen confectionaries, and cheeses, confirmed as L. monocytogenes were compared biochemically and serologically. Twenty-one isolates, including some strains of L. innocua and L. seeligeri, were examined for pathogenicity in immunocompromized mice and 44 typed using bacterial restriction endonuclease DNA analysis (BRENDA). Only isolates of L. monocytogenes were found to be pathogenic. Biovar-typing of the isolates was unreliable and provided poor discrimination. Serogroups 1/2 and 4 predominated among clinical and food isolates and BRENDA provided better discrimination among isolates. Ten stable and reproducible restriction patterns were observed among the Listeria sp. isolates studied. Overall, a combination of techniques gave the best discrimination and indicated their potential for use as epidemiological tools. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2120079

  11. Virus diffusion in isolation rooms.

    PubMed

    Kao, P H; Yang, R J

    2006-03-01

    In hospitals, the ventilation of isolation rooms operating under closed-door conditions is vital if the spread of viruses and infection is to be contained. Engineering simulation, which employs computational fluid dynamics, provides a convenient means of investigating airflow behaviour in isolation rooms for various ventilation arrangements. A cough model was constructed to permit the numerical simulation of virus diffusion inside an isolation room for different ventilation system configurations. An analysis of the region of droplet fallout and the dilution time of virus diffusion of coughed gas in the isolation room was also performed for each ventilation arrangement. The numerical results presented in this paper indicate that the parallel-directional airflow pattern is the most effective means of controlling flows containing virus droplets. Additionally, staggering the positions of the supply vents at the door end of the room relative to the exhaust vents on the wall behind the bed head provides effective infection control and containment. These results suggest that this particular ventilation arrangement enhances the safety of staff when performing medical treatments within isolation rooms. PMID:16359753

  12. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Clonality of Clinical Ureaplasma Isolates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Javier; Karau, Melissa J; Cunningham, Scott A; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Patel, Robin

    2016-08-01

    Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum are pathogens involved in urogenital tract and intrauterine infections and also in systemic diseases in newborns and immunosuppressed patients. There is limited information on the antimicrobial susceptibility and clonality of these species. In this study, we report the susceptibility of 250 contemporary isolates of Ureaplasma (202 U. parvum and 48 U. urealyticum isolates) recovered at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. MICs of doxycycline, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and levofloxacin were determined by broth microdilution, with MICS of the last three interpreted according to CLSI guidelines. Levofloxacin resistance was found in 6.4% and 5.2% of U. parvum and U. urealyticum isolates, respectively, while 27.2% and 68.8% of isolates, respectively, showed ciprofloxacin MICs of ≥4 μg/ml. The resistance mechanism of levofloxacin-resistant isolates was due to mutations in parC, with the Ser83Leu substitution being most frequent, followed by Glu87Lys. No macrolide resistance was found among the 250 isolates studied; a single U. parvum isolate was tetracycline resistant. tet(M) was found in 10 U. parvum isolates, including the single tetracycline-resistant isolate, as well as in 9 isolates which had low tetracycline and doxycycline MICs. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) performed on a selection of 46 isolates showed high diversity within the clinical Ureaplasma isolates studied, regardless of antimicrobial susceptibility. The present work extends previous knowledge regarding susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, resistance mechanisms, and clonality of Ureaplasma species in the United States. PMID:27246773

  13. New antimicrobial drug resistance and epidemiological typing patterns of Staphylococci from clinical isolates and raw meats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Kyung; Hwang, Jae Ung; Baek, Eun Hye; Lee, Kang Oh; Kim, Kyung Jae; Ha, Nam Joo

    2008-08-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibilities of Staphylococcus isolated from clinical isolates and raw meats were tested for six different antimicrobial agents that are in widespread clinical use in Korea and four new antimicrobials, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, daptomycin, and tigecycline. And this study analyzed the mecA genes and genetic patterns of MRSA by performing epidemiological studies using the PCR method. 46%, 51%, and 79% of clinical isolates were identified as MRSA in 1998, 1999, and 2005, respectively, and the mecA gene was detected in 82% of these isolates. Of the 133 staphylococci isolated from raw meats, 18% of the isolates were found to be resistant to methicillin, but none of these isolates showed the presence of the mecA gene. New antimicrobials, which have rarely or not yet been used in Korean hospitals, showed high activity against all staphylococcal isolates including methicillin-resistant isolates. The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns of MRSA isolates differed significantly between clinical isolates and raw meat isolates. PMID:18787791

  14. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and resistance genes in faecal Escherichia coli isolates recovered from healthy pets.

    PubMed

    Costa, Daniela; Poeta, Patricia; Sáenz, Yolanda; Coelho, Ana Cláudia; Matos, Manuela; Vinué, Laura; Rodrigues, Jorge; Torres, Carmen

    2008-02-01

    Faecal samples of healthy dogs (n=39) and cats (n=36) obtained in Northern Portugal were seeded on Levine agar plates, and two Escherichia coli isolates per sample were recovered (78 of dogs and 66 of cats). The susceptibility to 16 antimicrobial agents was tested in this series of 144 E. coli isolates. Almost 20% of them showed tetracycline resistance and 12 and 15% presented ampicillin or streptomycin resistance, respectively. The percentage of resistance to the other antimicrobial agents was in all cases below 4%, and no resistant isolates were detected for ceftazidime, imipenem, cefoxitin or amikacin. Two isolates (from one dog) showed cefotaxime-resistance and harboured both the CTX-M-1 and OXA-30 beta-lactamases. A bla(TEM) gene was detected in 12 of 17 ampicillin-resistant isolates, the aac(3)-II gene in the three gentamicin-resistant isolates, aadA in 7 of 22 streptomycin-resistant isolates, and tet(A) and/or tet(B) gene in all 28 tetracycline-resistant isolates. The gene encoding class 1 integrase was detected in six E. coli isolates, including the four trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant isolates and those two harbouring CTX-M-1 and OXA-30 beta-lactamases; different gene cassette arrangements were identified: dfrA1+aadA1 (two isolates), dfrA12+orfF+aadA2 (two isolates) and bla(OXA30)+aadA1 (two isolates). One amino acid change in GyrA protein (Ser83Leu or Asp87Tyr) was detected in four nalidixic acid-resistant and ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates and two amino acid changes in GyrA (Ser83Leu+Asp87Asn) and one in ParC (Ser80Ile) were identified in one nalidixic acid- and ciprofloxacin-resistant isolate. Faecal E. coli isolates of healthy pets could be a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:17870255

  15. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  16. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1995-05-30

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  17. Space Suit (Mobil Biological Isolation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A Houston five-year-old known as David is getting a "space suit," a vitally important gift that will give him mobility he has never known. David suffers from a rare malady called severe combined immune deficiency, which means that be was born without natural body defenses against disease; germs that would have little or no effect on most people could cause his death. As a result, he has spent his entire life in germ-free isolation rooms, one at Houston's Texas Children's hospital, another at his home. The "space suit" David is getting will allow him to spend four hours ata a time in a mobile sterile environment outside his isolation rooms. Built by NASA's Johnson Space Center, it is a specially-designed by product of Space Suit technology known as the mobile biological isolation system.

  18. Perceived Social Isolation and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, John T.; Hawkley, Louise C.

    2009-01-01

    Social species, from Drosophila melanogaster to Homo sapiens, fare poorly when isolated. Homo sapiens, an irrepressibly meaning-making species, are, in normal circumstances, dramatically affected by perceived social isolation. Research indicates that perceived social isolation (i.e., loneliness) is a risk factor for, and may contribute to, poorer overall cognitive performance, faster cognitive decline, poorer executive functioning, more negativity and depressive cognition, heightened sensitivity to social threats, a confirmatory bias in social cognition that is self-protective and paradoxically self-defeating, heightened anthropomorphism, and contagion that threatens social cohesion. These differences in attention and cognition impact emotions, decisions, behaviors, and interpersonal interactions that may contribute to the association between loneliness and cognitive decline and between loneliness and morbidity more generally. PMID:19726219

  19. Solo doctors and ethical isolation.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R J

    2009-11-01

    This paper uses the case of solo doctors to explore whether working in relative isolation from one's peers may be detrimental to ethical decision-making. Drawing upon the relevance of communication and interaction for ethical decision-making in the ethical theories of Habermas, Mead and Gadamer, it is argued that doctors benefit from ethical discussion with their peers and that solo practice may make this more difficult. The paper identifies a paucity of empirical research related to solo practice and ethics but draws upon more general medical ethics research and a study that identified ethical isolation among community pharmacists to support the theoretical claims made. The paper concludes by using the literary analogy of Soderberg's Doctor Glas to illustrate the issues raised and how ethical decision-making in relative isolation may be problematical. PMID:19880707

  20. Treatment of invasive candidiasis: between guidelines and daily clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Tagliaferri, Enrico; Menichetti, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    Invasive candidiasis, including candidemia (IC/C), is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. While incidence is higher in intensive care units, the majority of cases of candidemia are documented in medical wards. Although Candida albicans is still the most frequently isolated species, IC/C due to non-albicans species, usually less susceptible to fluconazole, is increasing. Early identification of patients at risk, knowledge of local epidemiology and prompt efforts to define etiologic diagnosis play a pivotal role for appropriateness. Starting therapy with an echinocandin, switching then to fluconazole when possible, seems to represent a potentially useful strategy for the management of IC/C. The choice between the three echinocandins should be based on the specific indications, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile, clinical experience and relative cost. PMID:25818660

  1. Isolation, purification, and characterization of Phakopsora pachyrhizi isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first reported in the continental United States in November 2004, and is one of the most important foliar diseases of soybean worldwide. P. pachyrhizi isolates have been obtained from 2006 and 2007 across the U. S. and are being purified and maintai...

  2. Completely Isolated? Health Information Seeking among Social Isolates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Carter, Knute D.

    2011-01-01

    To better target messages it is important to determine where people seek their health information. Interpersonal networks are a common way most people gather health information, but some people have limited networks. Using data from the 2004 General Social Survey (N = 984), we compared social isolates and nonisolates in their health…

  3. Quest for Truly Isolated Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosch, N.

    2010-10-01

    I describe attempts to identify and understand the most isolated galaxies starting from my 1983 Leiden PhD thesis, continuing through a string of graduate theses on various aspects of this topic, and concluding with an up-to-date account of the difficulty to find really isolated objects. The implication of some of the findings revealed on the way and presented here is that the nearby Universe may contain many small dark-matter haloes, and that some such haloes may possibly be accreting intergalactic gas to form dwarf galaxies.

  4. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants using sliding isolation bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manish

    Nuclear power plants (NPP) are designed for earthquake shaking with very long return periods. Seismic isolation is a viable strategy to protect NPPs from extreme earthquake shaking because it filters a significant fraction of earthquake input energy. This study addresses the seismic isolation of NPPs using sliding bearings, with a focus on the single concave Friction Pendulum(TM) (FP) bearing. Friction at the sliding surface of an FP bearing changes continuously during an earthquake as a function of sliding velocity, axial pressure and temperature at the sliding surface. The temperature at the sliding surface, in turn, is a function of the histories of coefficient of friction, sliding velocity and axial pressure, and the travel path of the slider. A simple model to describe the complex interdependence of the coefficient of friction, axial pressure, sliding velocity and temperature at the sliding surface is proposed, and then verified and validated. Seismic hazard for a seismically isolated nuclear power plant is defined in the United States using a uniform hazard response spectrum (UHRS) at mean annual frequencies of exceedance (MAFE) of 10-4 and 10 -5. A key design parameter is the clearance to the hard stop (CHS), which is influenced substantially by the definition of the seismic hazard. Four alternate representations of seismic hazard are studied, which incorporate different variabilities and uncertainties. Response-history analyses performed on single FP-bearing isolation systems using ground motions consistent with the four representations at the two shaking levels indicate that the CHS is influenced primarily by whether the observed difference between the two horizontal components of ground motions in a given set is accounted for. The UHRS at the MAFE of 10-4 is increased by a design factor (≥ 1) for conventional (fixed base) nuclear structure to achieve a target annual frequency of unacceptable performance. Risk oriented calculations are performed for

  5. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Socioeconomic Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, R.; Fenster, D.; O'Hare, M.; Zillman, D.; Harrison, W.; Tisue, M.

    1984-07-01

    The following recommendations have been abstracted from the body of this report. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Socioeconomic Program Plan for the Establishment of Mined Geologic Repositories to Isolate Nuclear Waste should be modified to: (1) encourage active public participation in the decision-making processes leading to repository site selection; (2) clearly define mechanisms for incorporating the concerns of local residents, state and local governments, and other potentially interested parties into the early stages of the site selection process. In addition, the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation should carefully review the overall role that these persons and groups, including local pressure groups organized in the face of potential repository development, will play in the siting process; (3) place significantly greater emphasis on using primary socioeconomic data during the site selection process, reversing the current overemphasis on secondary data collection, description of socioeconomic conditions at potential locations, and development of analytical methodologies; (4) include additional approaches to solving socioeconomic problems. For example, a reluctance to acknowledge that solutions to socioeconomic problems need to be found jointly with interested parties is evident in the plan; (5) recognize that mitigation mechanisms other than compensation and incentives may be effective; (6) as soon as potential sites are identified, the US Department of Energy (DOE) should begin discussing impact mitigation agreements with local officials and other interested parties; and (7) comply fully with the pertinent provisions of NWPA.

  6. Characterisation of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) associated with colisepticaemia compared to faecal isolates from healthy birds.

    PubMed

    McPeake, S J W; Smyth, J A; Ball, H J

    2005-10-31

    A total of 114 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates were collected from cases of colisepticaemia occurring in broilers (77) and layers (37) within Ireland. In addition 45 strains isolated from faeces of healthy birds were included for comparison. All isolates were serogrouped, and examined for known virulence factors, mostly by PCR. The O78 serogroup represented 55 and 27% of broiler and layer colisepticaemic isolates respectively. All isolates were positive for curli fimbriae (crl, csg) and negative for afimbrial adhesin (afa). S-fimbrial (sfa) sequences were present in 8.8% of septicaemic isolates and 8.9% of healthy bird isolates. The majority of E. coli from cases of colisepticaemia (97.4%) and healthy bird (95.6%) isolates were positive for aerobactin (aer), and temperature sensitive haemagglutinin (tsh) was similarly detected in high numbers in 93.9 and 93.3%, respectively. In comparison to E. coli isolates from the faeces of healthy birds, a significantly higher percentage of isolates from septicaemic cases possessed Type 1 fimbriae (fimC) and increased serum survival (iss) gene sequences. Forty-seven (41.2%) isolates from septicaemic birds possessed P-fimbriae (pap) gene sequences, compared with only 15.6% from E. coli isolated from healthy birds. Haemolysin (hlyE) sequences were detected in 46.7% of isolates from healthy birds in comparison with 6.1% of septicaemic isolates. Sequences encoding colicin V (cvaC) were detected in 99.1% of septicaemic isolates and 82.2% of isolates from healthy birds. The K1 capsule was only present in two septicaemic isolates, both taken from layers. Motility was detected in 36.8% of E. coli isolated from cases of septicaemia, compared with 93.3% of isolates from healthy birds. These results demonstrate the presence of 11 virulence genes in E. coli isolated from cases of colisepticaemia within Ireland, and indicate the prevalence of iss and fimC. PMID:16150559

  7. Hypertropia in unilateral isolated abducens palsy

    PubMed Central

    Pihlblad, Matthew S.; Demer, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the incidence and features of hypertropia in abducens nerve palsy. Methods The records of consecutive patients with unilateral, isolated, previously unoperated abducens nerve palsy were reviewed for binocular alignment on cover testing, Krimsky measurement, or Hess screen testing. Patients with associated cranial nerve palsy (including bilateral abducens palsies), orbital disease, myasthenia gravis, Horner syndrome, hemiplegia, cerebellar signs, arteritis, or previous strabismus surgery were excluded. Control subjects underwent complete examination to confirm normality. Results A total of 79 patients were included (40 males; mean age 49.2 years). Hypertropia in lateral or central gazes was present in 15 of 79 cases (19%) on alternate cover or Krimsky testing, in 32 of 56 cases (57%) on Hess screen testing, and absent in all 30 normal controls. Of cases with hypertropia, the mean of the greatest hypertropia in lateral or central gaze on was 5.0Δ ± 2.3Δ (standard deviation; range, 1Δ–8Δ) routine clinical examination, and 5.8Δ ± 4.2Δ (range, 2Δ–24Δ) on Hess screen testing. Of 39 cases with partial abducens palsy evaluated by Hess screen testing, the ipsilesional eye was hypertropic in 24 (61%) and hypotropic in 15 cases (39%). Conclusions Small-angle hypertropia is common in isolated, unilateral abducens and does not necessarily imply existence of multiple cranial neuropathies or skew deviation. PMID:24924275

  8. Isolation of Murine Lymph Node Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lagarde, Nadège; Rossi, Simona W.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs including lymph nodes are composed of stromal cells that provide a structural environment for homeostasis, activation and differentiation of lymphocytes. Various stromal cell subsets have been identified by the expression of the adhesion molecule CD31 and glycoprotein podoplanin (gp38), T zone reticular cells or fibroblastic reticular cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, blood endothelial cells and FRC-like pericytes within the double negative cell population. For all populations different functions are described including, separation and lining of different compartments, attraction of and interaction with different cell types, filtration of the draining fluidics and contraction of the lymphatic vessels. In the last years, different groups have described an additional role of stromal cells in orchestrating and regulating cytotoxic T cell responses potentially dangerous for the host. Lymph nodes are complex structures with many different cell types and therefore require a appropriate procedure for isolation of the desired cell populations. Currently, protocols for the isolation of lymph node stromal cells rely on enzymatic digestion with varying incubation times; however, stromal cells and their surface molecules are sensitive to these enzymes, which results in loss of surface marker expression and cell death. Here a short enzymatic digestion protocol combined with automated mechanical disruption to obtain viable single cells suspension of lymph node stromal cells maintaining their surface molecule expression is proposed. PMID:25178108

  9. Isolation of Lysosomes from Mammalian Tissues and Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Carmen; Pérez-Jiménez, Eva; Lahuerta, Marcos; Knecht, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Lysosomes participate within the cells in the degradation of organelles, macromolecules, and a wide variety of substrates. In any study on specific roles of lysosomes, both under physiological and pathological conditions, it is advisable to include methods that allow their reproducible and reliable isolation. However, purification of lysosomes is a difficult task, particularly in the case of cultured cells. This is mainly because of the heterogeneity of these organelles, along with their low number and high fragility. Also, isolation methods, while disrupting plasma membranes, have to preserve the integrity of lysosomes, as the breakdown of their membranes releases enzymes that could damage all cell organelles, including themselves. The protocols described below have been routinely used in our laboratory for the specific isolation of lysosomes from rat liver, NIH/3T3, and other cultured cells, but can be adapted to other mammalian tissues or cell lines. PMID:27613045

  10. Myxococcus xanthus Growth, Development, and Isolation.

    PubMed

    Vaksman, Zalman; Kaplan, Heidi B

    2015-01-01

    Myxobacteria are a highly social group among the delta proteobacteria that display unique multicellular behaviors during their complex life cycle and provide a rare opportunity to study the boundary between single cells and multicellularity. These organisms are also unusual as their entire life cycle is surface associated and includes a number of social behaviors: social gliding and rippling motility, 'wolf-pack'-like predation, and self-organizing complex biostructures, termed fruiting bodies, which are filled with differentiated environmentally resistant spores. Here we present methods for the growth, maintenance, and storage of Myxococcus xanthus, the most commonly studied of the myxobacteria. We also include methods to examine various developmental and social behaviors (fruiting body and spore formation, predation, and rippling motility). As the myxobacteria, similar to the streptomycetes, are excellent sources of many characterized and uncharacterized antibiotics and other natural products, we have provided a protocol for obtaining natural isolates from a variety of environmental sources. PMID:26528785

  11. Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Karen K.; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Okinaka, Richard T.; Asay, Michelle; Blair, Heather; Bliss, Katherine A.; Laker, Mariam; Pardington, Paige E.; Richardson, Amber P.; Tonks, Melinda; Beecher, Douglas J.; Kemp, John D.; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Wong, Amy C. Lee; Keim, Paul; Jackson, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    DNA from over 300 Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus anthracis isolates was analyzed by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). B. thuringiensis and B. cereus isolates were from diverse sources and locations, including soil, clinical isolates and food products causing diarrheal and emetic outbreaks, and type strains from the American Type Culture Collection, and over 200 B. thuringiensis isolates representing 36 serovars or subspecies were from the U.S. Department of Agriculture collection. Twenty-four diverse B. anthracis isolates were also included. Phylogenetic analysis of AFLP data revealed extensive diversity within B. thuringiensis and B. cereus compared to the monomorphic nature of B. anthracis. All of the B. anthracis strains were more closely related to each other than to any other Bacillus isolate, while B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains populated the entire tree. Ten distinct branches were defined, with many branches containing both B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates. A single branch contained all the B. anthracis isolates plus an unusual B. thuringiensis isolate that is pathogenic in mice. In contrast, B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (ATCC 33679) and other isolates used to prepare insecticides mapped distal to the B. anthracis isolates. The interspersion of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates within the phylogenetic tree suggests that phenotypic traits used to distinguish between these two species do not reflect the genomic content of the different isolates and that horizontal gene transfer plays an important role in establishing the phenotype of each of these microbes. B. thuringiensis isolates of a particular subspecies tended to cluster together. PMID:14766590

  12. Electrophoretic karyotypes of clinical isolates of Coccidioides immitis.

    PubMed Central

    Pan, S; Cole, G T

    1992-01-01

    Chromosomes of the fungal respiratory pathogen, Coccidioides immitis, were separated by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field gel electrophoresis. Twelve isolates were examined, the majority of which showed four chromosomes with a range of molecular size from 11.5 to 3.2 Mb. Three isolates (C634, C735, and L) revealed three chromosomal bands under the conditions employed for electrophoretic separation. However, in two of these isolates (C634 and C735), four chromosomes were visible on membrane transfers of pulsed-field gels after Southern hybridization between the chromosomal DNA and selected DNA probes. The probes included a conserved ribosomal gene and three previously described cDNAs isolated from C. immitis expression libraries. The L isolate was determined to have the same genome size as a typical four-chromosome isolate on the basis of microspectrophotometric comparison of fluorescence intensity of the ethidium bromide-stained nuclear DNA. The genome size of C. immitis determined by microspectrophotometry was approximately 28.2 +/- 2.6 Mb. The calculated genome size based on addition of the average molecular weights of chromosomal bands separated by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field gel electrophoresis was approximately equal to the estimate derived from the spectrophotometric analyses. This is the first report of the electrophoretic karyotype of C. immitis. Images PMID:1398998

  13. RNA Isolation from Mouse Pancreas: A Ribonuclease-rich Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo-Pouly, Ana Clara P.; Elgamal, Ola A.; Schmittgen, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Isolation of high-quality RNA from ribonuclease-rich tissue such as mouse pancreas presents a challenge. As a primary function of the pancreas is to aid in digestion, mouse pancreas may contain as much a 75 mg of ribonuclease. We report modifications of standard phenol/guanidine thiocyanate lysis reagent protocols to isolate RNA from mouse pancreas. Guanidine thiocyanate is a strong protein denaturant and will effectively disrupt the activity of ribonuclease under most conditions. However, critical modifications to standard protocols are necessary to successfully isolate RNA from ribonuclease-rich tissues. Key steps include a high lysis reagent to tissue ratio, removal of undigested tissue prior to phase separation and inclusion of a ribonuclease inhibitor to the RNA solution. Using these and other modifications, we routinely isolate RNA with RNA Integrity Number (RIN) greater than 7. The isolated RNA is of suitable quality for routine gene expression analysis. Adaptation of this protocol to isolate RNA from ribonuclease rich tissues besides the pancreas should be readily achievable. PMID:25145327

  14. Simplified Human Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) Isolation and Handling.

    PubMed

    Najmeh, Sara; Cools-Lartigue, Jonathan; Giannias, Betty; Spicer, Jonathan; Ferri, Lorenzo E

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) have been recently identified as part of the neutrophil's antimicrobial armamentarium. Apart from their role in fighting infections, recent research has demonstrated that they may be involved in many other disease processes, including cancer progression. Isolating purified NETs is a crucial element to allow the study of these functions. In this video, we demonstrate a simplified method of cell free NET isolation from human whole blood using readily available reagents. Isolated NETs can then be used for immunofluorescence staining, blotting or various functional assays. This enables an assessment of their biologic properties in the absence of the potential confounding effects of neutrophils themselves. A density gradient separation technique is employed to isolate neutrophils from healthy donor whole blood. Isolated neutrophils are then stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) to induce NETosis. Activated neutrophils are then discarded, and a cell-free NET stock is obtained. We then demonstrate how isolated NETs can be used in an adhesion assay with A549 human lung cancer cells. The NET stock is used to coat the wells of a 96 well cell culture plate O/N, and after ensuring an adequate NET monolayer formation on the bottom of the wells, CFSE labeled A549 cells are added. Adherent cells are quantified using a Nikon TE300 fluorescent microscope. In some wells, 1000U DNAse1 is added 10 min before counting to degrade NETs. PMID:25938591

  15. Recent developments in seismically isolated buildings in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Shin; Kani, Nagahide; Higashino, Masahiko; Koshika, Norihide; Kimizuka, Masayuki; Midorikawa, Mitsumasa; Iiba, Masanori

    2002-12-01

    The Building Standard Law of Japan and related Enforcement Order and Notifications have been substantially revised since the year 2000 to introduce a performance-based regulatory and deregulation system for building control systems. Up to then, time-history analyses were mandatory for isolated buildings and had to be specially approved by the Minster of the Ministry of Construction (MOC). Simplified design procedures based on the equivalent linear method for seismically isolated buildings have been issued as “Notification 2009 — Structural calculation procedure for buildings with seismic isolation” from MOC, and are now integrated into the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transportation (MLIT). Along with Notification 2009, “Notification 1446 of year 2000 — Standard for specifications and test methods for seismic isolation devices” was also issued. Buildings with heights equal to or less than 60m and that are designed according to these Notifications, including base isolated buildings, only need approval from local building officials, and no longer require the special approval of the Minister of MLIT. This paper summarizes: 1) some statistics related to buildings with seismic isolation completed up to the end of 2001; 2) simplified design procedures required by Notification 2009 of year 2000; and 3) performance of seismic isolation devices required by Notification 1446 of year 2000.

  16. Molecular analysis of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Juliana Soares; Ferracin, Lara Munique; Carneiro Vieira, Maria Lucia; Iamanaka, Beatriz Thie; Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pelegrinelli Fungaro, Maria Helena

    2012-04-01

    Brazil nuts are an important export market in its main producing countries, including Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru. Approximately 30,000 tons of Brazil nuts are harvested each year. However, substantial nut contamination by Aspergillus section Flavi occurs with subsequent production of aflatoxins. In our study, Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated from Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa), and identified by morphological and molecular means. We obtained 241 isolates from nut samples, 41% positive for aflatoxin production. Eighty-one isolates were selected for molecular investigation. Pairwise genetic distances among isolates and phylogenetic relationships were assessed. The following Aspergillus species were identified: A. flavus, A. caelatus, A. nomius, A. tamarii, A. bombycis, and A. arachidicola. Additionally, molecular profiles indicated a high level of nucleotide variation within β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences associated with high genetic divergence from RAPD data. Among the 81 isolates analyzed by molecular means, three of them were phylogenetically distinct from all other isolates representing the six species of section Flavi. A putative novel species was identified based on molecular profiles. PMID:22805966

  17. Analysis of Chromobacterium sp. natural isolates from different Brazilian ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Bittencourt, Cláudia I; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Chartone-Souza, Edmar; Santos, Fabrício R; Nascimento, Andréa MA

    2007-01-01

    Background Chromobacterium violaceum is a free-living bacterium able to survive under diverse environmental conditions. In this study we evaluate the genetic and physiological diversity of Chromobacterium sp. isolates from three Brazilian ecosystems: Brazilian Savannah (Cerrado), Atlantic Rain Forest and Amazon Rain Forest. We have analyzed the diversity with molecular approaches (16S rRNA gene sequences and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis) and phenotypic surveys of antibiotic resistance and biochemistry profiles. Results In general, the clusters based on physiological profiles included isolates from two or more geographical locations indicating that they are not restricted to a single ecosystem. The isolates from Brazilian Savannah presented greater physiologic diversity and their biochemical profile was the most variable of all groupings. The isolates recovered from Amazon and Atlantic Rain Forests presented the most similar biochemical characteristics to the Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 strain. Clusters based on biochemical profiles were congruent with clusters obtained by the 16S rRNA gene tree. According to the phylogenetic analyses, isolates from the Amazon Rain Forest and Savannah displayed a closer relationship to the Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. Furthermore, 16S rRNA gene tree revealed a good correlation between phylogenetic clustering and geographic origin. Conclusion The physiological analyses clearly demonstrate the high biochemical versatility found in the C. violaceum genome and molecular methods allowed to detect the intra and inter-population diversity of isolates from three Brazilian ecosystems. PMID:17584942

  18. Isolation of cultivable microorganisms from Polish notes and coins.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Michal; Palusińska-Szysz, Marta; Turska-Szewczuk, Anna; Wdowiak-Wróbel, Sylwia; Urbanik-Sypniewska, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The potential role of currency in the spread of pathogenic microflora has been evaluated in many countries. In this study Polish paper notes and the coins in general circulation were assayed for the presence of cultivable bacteria and fungi. Bacterial isolates identification was based on cultural and biochemical characters and by comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Fungal isolates were recognized with biochemical and morphological criteria. Coagulase-negative staphylococci, (43.6% of the total bacterial count) including Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. epidermidis, and S. hominis, and Enteroccus spp. (30.8% of the total bacterial count), i.e. E.faecalis, E.faecium and E. durans, were the most numerous bacterial contamination. Penicillium spp., and Aspergillus spp. were the most frequently detected moulds whereas Candida spp. was the most frequent yeast isolated from currency. A visible dependence between the banknote denomination, the physical condition of paper currency, and the number of bacteria and fungi was found. The overall count of bacteria isolated from currency was thousand-fold higher than that of fungal isolates. The total amount of bacteria and fungi recovered from the coins was approximately 2.7-fold lower than that isolated from the notes. In summary, the Polish currency notes were found to be contaminated mainly with commensal bacteria and fungi while the opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas stutzeri and C. albicans were detected at a low frequency. PMID:24459833

  19. Protocol for miRNA isolation from biofluids.

    PubMed

    Lekchnov, Evgeny A; Zaporozhchenko, Ivan A; Morozkin, Evgeny S; Bryzgunova, Olga E; Vlassov, Valentin V; Laktionov, Pavel P

    2016-04-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as promising biomarkers in cancer and other diseases. Packaging of miRNAs into vesicles and complexes with proteins ensures their stability in biological fluids but also complicates their isolation. Conventional protocols used to isolate cell-free RNA are generally successful in overcoming these difficulties; however, they are costly, labor-intensive, or heavily reliant on the use of hazardous chemicals. Here we describe a protocol that is suitable for isolating miRNAs from biofluids, including blood plasma and urine. The protocol is based on precipitation of proteins, denaturation of miRNA-containing complexes with octanoic acid and guanidine isothiocyanate, and subsequent purification of miRNA on spin columns. The efficacy of miRNA extraction by phenol-chloroform extraction, miRCURY RNA isolation kit--biofluids (Exiqon), and the proposed protocol was compared by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR of miR-16 and miR-126. The proposed protocol was slightly more effective for isolating miRNA from plasma and significantly superior to the other two methods for miRNA isolation from urine. Spectrophotometry and SDS-PAGE data suggest that the disparity in performance between miRCURY Biofluids and the proposed protocol can be attributed to differences in precipitation mechanisms, as confirmed by the retention of different proteins in the supernatant. PMID:26874020

  20. Methods and Devices for Micro-Isolation, Extraction, and/or Analysis of Microscale Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kartalov, Emil P. (Inventor); Shibata, Darryl (Inventor); Taylor, Clive (Inventor); Wade, Lawrence A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Provided herein are devices and methods for the micro-isolation of biological cellular material. A micro-isolation apparatus described can comprise a photomask that protects regions of interest against DNA-destroying illumination. The micro-isolation apparatus can further comprise photosensitive material defining access wells following illumination and subsequent developing of the photosensitive material. The micro-isolation apparatus can further comprise a chambered microfluidic device comprising channels providing access to wells defined in photosensitive material. The micro-isolation apparatus can comprise a chambered microfluidic device without access wells defined in photosensitive material where valves control the flow of gases or liquids through the channels of the microfluidic device. Also included are methods for selectively isolating cellular material using the apparatuses described herein, as are methods for biochemical analysis of individual regions of interest of cellular material using the devices described herein. Further included are methods of making masking arrays useful for the methods described herein.

  1. Diversity and functional traits of culturable microbiome members, including cyanobacteria in the rice phyllosphere.

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, S; Ranjan, K; Prasanna, R; Ramakrishnan, B; Thapa, S; Kanchan, A

    2016-07-01

    The diversity and abundance of culturable microbiome members of the rice phyllosphere was investigated using cv. Pusa Punjab Basmati 1509. Both diversity and species richness of bacteria were significantly higher in plants in pots in a semi-controlled environment than those in fields. Application of fertilisers reduced both diversity and species richness in field-grown plants under a conventional flooded system of rice intensification (SRI) and in dry-seeded rice (DSR) modes. Sequence analyses of 16S rDNA of culturable bacteria, those selected after amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), showed the dominance of α-proteobacteria (35%) and actinobacteria (38%); Pantoea, Exiguobacterium and Bacillus were common among the culturable phyllospheric bacteria. About 34% of 83 culturable bacterial isolates had higher potential (>2 μg·ml(-1) ) for indole acetic acid production in the absence of tryptophan. Interestingly, the phyllosphere bacterial isolates from the pot experiment had significantly higher potential for nitrogen fixation than isolates from the field experiment. Enrichment for cyanobacteria showed both unicellular forms and non-heterocystous filaments under aerobic as well as anaerobic conditions. PCR-DGGE analysis of these showed that aerobic and anaerobic conditions as well as the three modes of cultivation of rice in the field strongly influenced the number and abundance of phylotypes. The adaptability and functional traits of these culturable microbiome members suggest enormous diversity in the phyllosphere, including potential for plant growth promotion, which was also significantly influenced by the different methods of growing rice. PMID:26849835

  2. [Antimicrobial activity of cefodizime against clinical isolates].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Y; Ishihara, R; Ishii, Y; Nakazawa, A; Deguchi, K; Matsumoto, Y; Nishinari, C; Nakane, Y; Fukumoto, T

    1996-10-01

    In order to evaluate antimicrobial activity of cefodizime (CDZM), minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of CDZM and control drugs were determined against clinical isolates collected from nation-wide medical institutions and in our laboratory from September to December of 1992 and from September to December of 1995. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Bacterial species with no or few strains resistant to CDZM included Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, Citrobacter koseri, Proteus mirabilis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The range of MIC values of CDZM against Klebsiella pneumoniae was spread. Other strains, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella subgenus Branhamella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter spp., Serratia marcescens, Proteus vulgaris, Morganella morganii, Providencia spp., Peptostreptococcus spp. and Bacteroides fragilis group were resistant to cephems including CDZM. 2. The MIC90's of CDZM were 0.05 approximately 3.13 micrograms/ml against Streptococcus spp., H. influenzae, M. (B.) catarrhalis, E. coli, Klebsiella spp., P. mirabilis, N. gonorrhoeae and Peptostreptococcus spp. obtained in 1995 that were frequently found in daily treatment of infections. It appears that the effectiveness of CDZM was still relatively high against community-acquired infections. 3. Among H. influenzae isolates included imipenem (IPM)-resistant and norfloxacin (NFLX)-resistant strains. The MIC-range of CDZM against strains collected in 1995 including IPM-resistant and NFLX-resistant strains was < or = 0.025 approximately 0.1 microgram/ml, and MIC90 against these strains was 0.05 microgram/ml. CDZM showed strong antimicrobial activities against H. influenzae strains resistant to carbapenems and new-quinolones. PMID:8986558

  3. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Methicillin-Resistance Staphylococcus aureus from Different Tertiary Care Hospitals Including Mymensingh Medical College Hospital.

    PubMed

    Roy, S; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Haque, N; Barman, T K; Ahmed, S; Nasreen, S A; Hossain, M S; Ahmed, F; Biswas, P; Nahar, F; Begum, H; Islam, M S

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to detect antimicrobial susceptibilities and the presence of drug resistance genes of MRSA from tertiary care hospitals. This study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College during the period from Jan, 2015 to Dec, 2015. Clinical samples, including wound swab, pus, exudates from diabetic ulcer and burn ulcer, aural swab, blood and urine were collected. Standard microbiological procedure & biochemical tests were carried out to detect S. aureus. Oxacillin disk diffusion test was done by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Total 69 isolates of S. aureus were selected for the study. The isolates were collected from three different tertiary care hospitals, of which 33, 27 and 9 were from Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH), BIRDEM hospital and Sir Salimullah Medical College Hospital (SSMCH) respectively. Among the 69 isolates, 17(24.6%) and 52(75.3%) were distinguished as MRSA and MSSA respectively by ODDM (Oxacillin disk diffusion method). In contrast, detection of presence and absence of mecA gene by PCR identified 20 (28.9%) and 49 (71.01%) isolates as MRSA and MSSA respectively. All of the S. aureus (MRSA and MSSA) isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and gentamicin. All MRSA isolates (100%) showed resistance to Penicillin and Oxacillin. Among the MRSA isolates about 88.2% were resistance to Ceftazidime, 64.7% were resistance to Erythromycin and Ciprofloxacin, 11.7% were resistance to Tetracycline. Among the MSSA isolates about 94.2% were resistance to Penicillin and 9.6% resistance to Ciprofloxacin. The MSSA were less resistance for non-beta lactam drugs than MRSA. Regarding drug resistance genes, the blaZ genes were present in 47 out of 49(95.8%) MSSA and in 18 out of 18 (100%) MRSA. The erythromycin resistance gene ermB was found in 8.69% isolates, of which highest 20% in MRSA and 4.08% in MSSA. The ermA was not found in any isolates. Among tetracycline resistance genes, tetK were detected in 10

  4. Breaking the Barriers of Isolation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Van

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the College of Eastern Utah's San Juan Center for Higher Education which was designed to serve San Juan County's isolated and economically disadvantaged population. Describes the diverse educational needs of county residents, the center's administration, cooperative arrangements, the use of community facilities and itinerant instructors,…

  5. IMPROVED ISOLATION & ELECTROSPINNING OF ZEIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major historical use of zein, the predominant corn protein, has been in the fibers market. In order to evaluate new formulations of zein in the fibers market a simple means of isolating and generating fibers is necessary. We have evaluated the ability to electrospin zein from numerous solvents...

  6. The Isolated Appalachian Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence

    This paper investigates the isolation of the local black community within the social/cultural perspective. A profile of the community is given in terms of data collected from personal and family interviews. Personal interviews assessed how the Appalachian black viewed his group. Among the 13 variables studied are: trustworthiness, religion, work…

  7. Stem cell isolation: Differential stickiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abilez, Oscar J.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2013-06-01

    Technologies to isolate colonies of human pluripotent stem cells from other cell types in a high-throughput manner are lacking. A microfluidic-based approach that exploits differences in the adhesion strength between these cells and a substrate may soon fill the gap.

  8. Vibration Isolation Technology (VIT) ATD Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubomski, Joseph F.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Logsdon, Kirk A.; Rohn, Douglas A.; Ramachandran, N.

    1994-01-01

    A fundamental advantage for performing material processing and fluid physics experiments in an orbital environment is the reduction in gravity driven phenomena. However, experience with manned spacecraft such as the Space Transportation System (STS) has demonstrated a dynamic acceleration environment far from being characterized as a 'microgravity' platform. Vibrations and transient disturbances from crew motions, thruster firings, rotating machinery etc. can have detrimental effects on many proposed microgravity science experiments. These same disturbances are also to be expected on the future space station. The Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications (OLMSA), NASA Headquarters recognized the need for addressing this fundamental issue. As a result an Advanced Technology Development (ATD) project was initiated in the area of Vibration Isolation Technology (VIT) to develop methodologies for meeting future microgravity science needs. The objective of the Vibration Isolation Technology ATD project was to provide technology for the isolation of microgravity science experiments by developing methods to maintain a predictable, well defined, well characterized, and reproducible low-gravity environment, consistent with the needs of the microgravity science community. Included implicitly in this objective was the goal of advising the science community and hardware developers of the fundamental need to address the importance of maintaining, and how to maintain, a microgravity environment. This document will summarize the accomplishments of the VIT ATD which is now completed. There were three specific thrusts involved in the ATD effort. An analytical effort was performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to define the sensitivity of selected experiments to residual and dynamic accelerations. This effort was redirected about half way through the ATD focusing specifically on the sensitivity of

  9. Isolation and identification among cockle isolates of Vibrio vulnificus isolated from Selangor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdi Al-Dulaimi, Mohammed M.; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Ghani, Ma`aruf Abd.

    2014-09-01

    Vibrio vulnificus infections are worldwide public health problems associated with illnesses resulting from consumption of raw or partially cooked seafood. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and identification of V. vulnificus in cockles from local wet (40) and supermarkets (38) from Selangor, Malaysia from July 2013 to February 2014. A total of 78(n=78) cockle were examined for the presence of V. vulnificus and at about 32% (25/78) cockle samples were positive to this bacterium. Colonies morphological observation and biochemical characterization for those isolates showed 60% (15/78) of isolates were classified as biotype 1 and 40% (10/78) belong to biotype 2.

  10. Limited Diversity among Human Isolates of Bartonella henselae

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, B.; Valenzuela, J.; Don, R.; Blanckenberg, D.; Wigney, D. I.; Malik, R.; Morris, A. J.; Robson, J. M.; Iredell, J.

    2002-01-01

    A study of 59 isolates of Bartonella henselae reveals relatively limited diversity among those of human origin (n = 28). Either of two distinct alleles of both gltA and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was found in all isolates, with a high level of congruity between 16S and gltA inheritance among proven human pathogens. Human isolates from all over Eastern Australia were most commonly 16S rDNA (Bergmans) type I, with the same gltA allele as the type strain (Houston-1). Comparable feline isolates were more commonly 16S type II, with less congruity of inheritance between 16S and gltA alleles. Previously described arbitrarily primed PCR and EagI-HhaI infrequent restriction site PCR fingerprinting techniques separated Bartonella species effectively but lacked discriminating power within B. henselae. Examination of the 16-23S intergenic spacer region revealed for several strains several point mutations as well as a repeat sequence of unknown significance which is readily detected by HaeIII restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The bacteriophage-associated papA gene was present in all isolates. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR proved to be a useful and robust typing tool and clearly separated human isolates (including imported strains) from the majority of feline isolates. Our data are consistent with published evidence and with previous suggestions of intragenomic rearrangements in the type strain and suggest that human isolates come from a limited subset of B. henselae strains. They strengthen arguments for careful exploration of genotype-phenotype relationships and for the development of a multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing-based approach to the phylogeny of B. henselae. PMID:12454174

  11. Isolation and Biochemical Fingerprinting of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium From Meat, Chicken and Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Malihe; Sadeghi, Javad; Rahimi, Fateh; Pourshafie, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are important nosocomial pathogens and food chain has been considered as an assumed source for dissemination of VRE to human. Objectives: The presence of VRE isolates from food samples and typing of these isolates with Phene plate, a biochemical fingerprinting method, were investigated. Materials and Methods: Thirty samples of meat, chicken and cheese were analyzed for VRE during 2010. Antibiotic susceptibility tests and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were also examined. VRE isolates were typed with the Phene plate system (PhPlate), a biochemical fingerprinting method. Results: A total of 70 VRE isolates were obtained and identified as Enterococcus faecium by species-specific PCR. All the isolates carried vanA, while none of them harbored vanB. The VRE isolates included 35, 27, and 8 isolates from meat, chicken and cheese, respectively. Typing with the PhPlate revealed a diversity index of 0.78 for E. faecium, containing 10 common and four single types. The results of antibiotic susceptibility and MIC tests showed an increased resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, ampicillin and gentamicin, to which, 100%, 100%, 100%, and 95% of VRE isolates were resistant, respectively. Only 5% of the isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol and the MIC of the isolates for vancomycin and teicoplanin was ≥ 256 µg/mL and for gentamicin-resistant isolates it was 1024 µg/mL. Conventional and molecular identification tests exhibited that all the isolates were E. faecium carrying vanA. None of the isolates harbored vanB. Conclusions: The results showed that enterococci are common contaminants in food. Indeed, this study indicates a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant enterococci in food of animal origin in Iran. Isolating some persisting enterococcal isolates revealed that continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci from food is essential. PMID:26034532

  12. Molecular identification, antifungal susceptibility profile, and biofilm formation of clinical and environmental Rhodotorula species isolates.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Jorge Meneses; Bizerra, Fernando César; Ferreira, Renata Carmona E; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Rhodotorula species are emergent fungal pathogens capable of causing invasive infections, primarily fungemia. They are particularly problematic in immunosuppressed patients when using a central venous catheter. In this study, we evaluated the species distribution of 51 clinical and 8 environmental Rhodotorula species isolates using the ID32C system and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. Antifungal susceptibility testing and biofilm formation capability using a crystal violet staining assay were performed. Using ITS sequencing as the gold standard, the clinical isolates were identified as follows: 44 R. mucilaginosa isolates, 2 R. glutinis isolates, 2 R. minuta isolates, 2 R. dairenensis isolates, and 1 Rhodosporidium fluviale isolate. The environmental isolates included 7 R. mucilaginosa isolates and 1 R. slooffiae isolate. Using the ID32C system, along with a nitrate assimilation test, only 90.3% of the isolates tested were correctly identified. In the biofilm formation assay, R. mucilaginosa and R. minuta exhibited greater biofilm formation ability compared to the other Rhodotorula species; the clinical isolates of R. mucilaginosa showed greater biofilm formation compared to the environmental isolates (P = 0.04). Amphotericin B showed good in vitro activity (MIC ≤ 1 μg/ml) against planktonic cells, whereas voriconazole and posaconazole showed poor activity (MIC(50)/MIC(90), 2/4 μg/ml). Caspofungin and fluconazole MICs were consistently high for all isolates tested (≥64 μg/ml and ≥ 4 μg/ml, respectively). In this study, we emphasized the importance of molecular methods to correctly identify Rhodotorula species isolates and non-R. mucilaginosa species in particular. The antifungal susceptibility profile reinforces amphotericin B as the antifungal drug of choice for the treatment of Rhodotorula infections. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating putative differences in the ability of biofilm formation among different Rhodotorula

  13. Molecular Identification, Antifungal Susceptibility Profile, and Biofilm Formation of Clinical and Environmental Rhodotorula Species Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Jorge Meneses; Bizerra, Fernando César; Ferreira, Renata Carmona e

    2013-01-01

    Rhodotorula species are emergent fungal pathogens capable of causing invasive infections, primarily fungemia. They are particularly problematic in immunosuppressed patients when using a central venous catheter. In this study, we evaluated the species distribution of 51 clinical and 8 environmental Rhodotorula species isolates using the ID32C system and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. Antifungal susceptibility testing and biofilm formation capability using a crystal violet staining assay were performed. Using ITS sequencing as the gold standard, the clinical isolates were identified as follows: 44 R. mucilaginosa isolates, 2 R. glutinis isolates, 2 R. minuta isolates, 2 R. dairenensis isolates, and 1 Rhodosporidium fluviale isolate. The environmental isolates included 7 R. mucilaginosa isolates and 1 R. slooffiae isolate. Using the ID32C system, along with a nitrate assimilation test, only 90.3% of the isolates tested were correctly identified. In the biofilm formation assay, R. mucilaginosa and R. minuta exhibited greater biofilm formation ability compared to the other Rhodotorula species; the clinical isolates of R. mucilaginosa showed greater biofilm formation compared to the environmental isolates (P = 0.04). Amphotericin B showed good in vitro activity (MIC ≤ 1 μg/ml) against planktonic cells, whereas voriconazole and posaconazole showed poor activity (MIC50/MIC90, 2/4 μg/ml). Caspofungin and fluconazole MICs were consistently high for all isolates tested (≥64 μg/ml and ≥ 4 μg/ml, respectively). In this study, we emphasized the importance of molecular methods to correctly identify Rhodotorula species isolates and non-R. mucilaginosa species in particular. The antifungal susceptibility profile reinforces amphotericin B as the antifungal drug of choice for the treatment of Rhodotorula infections. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating putative differences in the ability of biofilm formation among different Rhodotorula species

  14. Acinetobacter seifertii Isolated from China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunxing; Wang, Jianfeng; Fu, Ying; Ruan, Zhi; Yu, Yunsong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Clinical infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. have increasing public health concerns because of their global occurrence and ability to acquire multidrug resistance. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus–Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) complex encompasses A. calcoaceticus, A. baumannii, A. pittii (formerly genomic species 3), and A nosocomial (formerly genomic species 13TU), which are predominantly responsible for clinical pathogenesis in the Acinetobacter genus. In our previous study, a putative novel species isolated from 385 non-A. baumannii spp. strains based on the rpoB gene phylogenetic tree was reported. Here, the putative novel species was identified as A. seifertii based on the whole-genome phylogenetic tree. A. seifertii was recognized as a novel member of the ACB complex and close to A. baumannii and A. nosocomials. Furthermore, we studied the characteristics of 10 A. seifertii isolates, which were distributed widely in 6 provinces in China and mainly caused infections in the elderly or children. To define the taxonomic status and characteristics, the biochemical reactions, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and whole-genome sequence analysis were performed. The phenotypic characteristics failed to distinguish A. serfertii from other species in the ACB complex. Most of the A. seifertii isolates were susceptible to antibiotics commonly used for nosocomial Acinetobacter spp. infections, but one isolate (strain A362) was resistant to ampicillin/sulbactam, ceftazidime and amikacin. The different patterns of MLST and PFGE suggested that the 10 isolates were not identical and lacked clonal relatedness. Our study reported for the first time the molecular epidemiological and genomic features of widely disseminated A. seifertii in China. These observations could enrich the knowledge of infections caused by non-A. baumannii and may provide a scientific basis for future clinical

  15. Two Unusual Polycyclic Polyprenylated Acylphloroglucinols, Including a Pair of Enantiomers from Garcinia multiflora.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yi-Min; Yi, Ping; Li, Yang; Yan, Chen; Huang, Tao; Gu, Wei; Ma, Yuan; Huang, Lie-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Yang, Chong-Lin; Li, Yan; Yuan, Chun-Mao; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Two polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols, garcimulins A and B ((±)-1 and 2), including a pair of enantiomers with the unique caged tetracyclo[5.4.1.1(1,5).0(9,13)]tridecane skeleton were isolated from Garcinia multiflora. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines in vitro (IC50 3.42-13.23 μM). The acidification of lysosomes in HeLa cell was obviously affected by compound 2. PMID:25867714

  16. Diverse Molecular Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolates Circulating in the Free State, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van der Spoel van Dijk, Anneke; Makhoahle, Pakiso M; Rigouts, Leen; Baba, Kamaldeen

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious public health concern especially in Africa and Asia. Studies describing strain diversity are lacking in the Free State region of South Africa. The aim of the study was to describe the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) strain families in the Free State province of South Africa. A total of 86 M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped using spoligotyping. A 12-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs) typing was used to further characterize the resulting spoligotyping clusters. SITVITWEB identified 49 different patterns with allocation to six lineages including Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM) (18 isolates), T (14 isolates), Beijing (five isolates), S (six isolates), Haarlem (one isolate), and X (five isolates), while 37 (43.0%) orphans were identified. Eight clusters included 37 isolates with identical spoligotypes (2 to 13/cluster). MIRU-VNTR typing further differentiated three spoligotyping clusters: SIT1/Beijing/MIT17, SIT33/LAM3/MIT213, and confirmed one SIT34/S/MIT311. In addition, SpolDB3/RIM assignment of the orphan strains resulted in a further 10 LAM and 13 T families. In total, LAM (28 isolates) and T (27 isolates) cause 63% of the individual cases of MTB in our study. The Free State has a highly diverse TB population with LAM being predominant. Further studies with inclusion of multidrug-resistant strains with larger sample size are warranted. PMID:27073397

  17. Diverse Molecular Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolates Circulating in the Free State, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rigouts, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious public health concern especially in Africa and Asia. Studies describing strain diversity are lacking in the Free State region of South Africa. The aim of the study was to describe the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) strain families in the Free State province of South Africa. A total of 86 M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped using spoligotyping. A 12-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs) typing was used to further characterize the resulting spoligotyping clusters. SITVITWEB identified 49 different patterns with allocation to six lineages including Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM) (18 isolates), T (14 isolates), Beijing (five isolates), S (six isolates), Haarlem (one isolate), and X (five isolates), while 37 (43.0%) orphans were identified. Eight clusters included 37 isolates with identical spoligotypes (2 to 13/cluster). MIRU-VNTR typing further differentiated three spoligotyping clusters: SIT1/Beijing/MIT17, SIT33/LAM3/MIT213, and confirmed one SIT34/S/MIT311. In addition, SpolDB3/RIM assignment of the orphan strains resulted in a further 10 LAM and 13 T families. In total, LAM (28 isolates) and T (27 isolates) cause 63% of the individual cases of MTB in our study. The Free State has a highly diverse TB population with LAM being predominant. Further studies with inclusion of multidrug-resistant strains with larger sample size are warranted. PMID:27073397

  18. Characterization of Mucoid and Non-Mucoid Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated From Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Ryoichi; Akikura, Teru; Iwama, Akiko; Adachi, Yukari; Kaji, Daiki; Kakinuma, Kyoka; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae causes pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of mucoid and non-mucoid isolates of S. pneumoniae, and to explore the relationship between the isolate phenotypes and their antibiotic susceptibility. Methods Clinical isolates from 3,453 non-repetitive S. pneumoniae (189 mucoid and 3,264 non-mucoid) infections obtained between January 2008 and December 2012 from outpatients at the Kimitsu-Central Hospital were evaluated. Results Compared to the non-mucoid isolates, the mucoid phenotypes were more susceptible to certain antibiotics such as erythromycin, clarithromycin, and tetracycline as opposed to clindamycin, chloramphenicol, and rifampicin. The mucoid phenotype was isolated more frequently from schoolchildren, adults, and elderly adults in a variety of clinical sites, including otorrhea, genitalia, pus, and eye discharge than the non-mucoid phenotype. This suggested that mucoid isolates are more likely to be involved than non-mucoid isolates in various local infections. Systemic infection, which indicates invasiveness, was not associated with the mucoid or non-mucoid phenotype. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that mucoid isolates tend to have higher susceptibility than non-mucoid isolates to antibiotics. To the best of our knowledge, mucoid and non-mucoid S. pneumoniae isolates considerably differ in terms of clinical isolation site and age-specific prevalence. PMID:26131412

  19. Molecular phylogeny of endophytic isolates of Ampelomyces from Iran based on rDNA ITS sequences.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Samad

    2015-01-01

    During 2012, five isolates of pycnidial fungi were recovered from roots of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants in Iran. Based on morphological characteristics the presence of Ampelomyces was documented. To confirm morphological identification and clarify the placement of endophytic isolates of Ampelomyces, DNA was extracted from isolates using a genomic DNA purification Kit. Region of internal transcribed spacers 1, 2 and 5.8S genes of rDNA were amplified using ITS4 and ITS1 universal primer set. Amplicons were purified, sequenced and submitted to the GenBank. The resulting sequence (600 bp) was submitted to a BLAST search to find most similar sequences in GenBank. The ITS sequences of isolates obtained in Iran were compared to those of other related authentic sequences obtained from GenBank. Iranian endophytic isolates had 100 % similarity of among themselves, while all isolates of Ampelomyces sequences analyzed had an average of 95.2 % (range 87-100 %) similarity. When Ampelomyces ITS sequences were analyzed by both distance-based and maximum parsimony methods, the Ampelomyces isolates were segregate into 11 distinct clades. The ITS sequences of endophytic isolates obtained in Iran were identical with endophytic isolates from other country including USA, Australia, Hungary and Spain. Our analyses of phylogenetic data showed that endophytic isolates from Iran and other countries are distinct group. The high ITS sequence-divergence values and the phylogenetic analysis suggested the isolates of Ampelomyces in the clades are not closely related and indeed a problematic species complex. PMID:25245955

  20. Isolation of highly enriched primary human microglia for functional studies.

    PubMed

    Rustenhoven, Justin; Park, Thomas I-H; Schweder, Patrick; Scotter, John; Correia, Jason; Smith, Amy M; Gibbons, Hannah M; Oldfield, Robyn L; Bergin, Peter S; Mee, Edward W; Faull, Richard L M; Curtis, Maurice A; Scott Graham, E; Dragunow, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system play vital roles in brain homeostasis through clearance of pathogenic material. Microglia are also implicated in neurological disorders through uncontrolled activation and inflammatory responses. To date, the vast majority of microglial studies have been performed using rodent models. Human microglia differ from rodent counterparts in several aspects including their response to pharmacological substances and their inflammatory secretions. Such differences highlight the need for studies on primary adult human brain microglia and methods to isolate them are therefore required. Our procedure generates microglial cultures of >95% purity from both biopsy and autopsy human brain tissue using a very simple media-based culture procedure that takes advantage of the adherent properties of these cells. Microglia obtained in this manner can be utilised for research within a week. Isolated microglia demonstrate phagocytic ability and respond to inflammatory stimuli and their purity makes them suitable for numerous other forms of in vitro studies, including secretome and transcriptome analysis. Furthermore, this protocol allows for the simultaneous isolation of neural precursor cells during the microglial isolation procedure. As human brain tissue is such a precious and valuable resource the simultaneous isolation of multiple cell types is highly beneficial. PMID:26778406

  1. Complete Genome Sequences of Five Zika Virus Isolates.

    PubMed

    Ladner, Jason T; Wiley, Michael R; Prieto, Karla; Yasuda, Chadwick Y; Nagle, Elyse; Kasper, Matthew R; Reyes, Daniel; Vasilakis, Nikolaos; Heang, Vireak; Weaver, Scott C; Haddow, Andrew; Tesh, Robert B; Sovann, Ly; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging human pathogen of great concern due to putative links to microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Here, we report the complete genomes, including the 5' and 3' untranslated regions, of five Zika virus isolates, one from the Asian lineage and four from the African lineage. PMID:27174284

  2. A novel method to scale up fungal endophyte isolations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimations of species diversity are influenced by sampling intensity which in turn is influenced by methodology. For fungal endophyte diversity studies, the methodology includes surface-sterilization prior to isolation of endophytes. Surface-sterilization is an essential component of fungal endophy...

  3. Complete Genome Sequences of Five Zika Virus Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ladner, Jason T.; Wiley, Michael R.; Prieto, Karla; Yasuda, Chadwick Y.; Nagle, Elyse; Kasper, Matthew R.; Reyes, Daniel; Vasilakis, Nikolaos; Heang, Vireak; Weaver, Scott C.; Haddow, Andrew; Tesh, Robert B.; Sovann, Ly

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging human pathogen of great concern due to putative links to microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Here, we report the complete genomes, including the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions, of five Zika virus isolates, one from the Asian lineage and four from the African lineage. PMID:27174284

  4. Production of antilisterial bacteriocins by staphylococci isolated from bovine milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of 111 staphylococcal isolates recovered from healthy cows in 41 dairy herds in Brazil was surveyed for the production of bacteriocins. The group included 94 coagulase positive and 17 coagulase negative strains of staphylococci. All cultures were grown in tryptic soy broth for 18 h at ...

  5. Polyphasic identification of cyanobacterial isolates from Australia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Elvina; Ryan, Una M; Monis, Paul; McGregor, Glenn B; Bath, Andrew; Gordon, Cameron; Paparini, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    Reliable identification of cyanobacterial isolates has significant socio-economic implications as many bloom-forming species affect the aesthetics and safety of drinking water, through the production of taste and odour compounds or toxic metabolites. The limitations of morphological identification have promoted the application of molecular tools, and encouraged the adoption of combined (polyphasic) approaches that include both microscopy- and DNA-based analyses. In this context, the rapid expansion of available sequence data is expected to allow increasingly reliable identification of cyanobacteria, and ultimately resolve current discrepancies between the two approaches. In the present study morphological and molecular characterisations of cyanobacterial isolates (n = 39), collected from various freshwater sites in Australia, were compared. Sequences were obtained for the small ribosomal subunit RNA gene (16S rDNA) (n = 36), the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (rpoC1) (n = 22), and the phycocyanin operon, with its intergenic spacer region (cpcBA-IGS) (n = 19). Phylogenetic analyses identified three cyanobacterial orders: the Chroococcales (n = 8), Oscillatoriales (n = 6), and Nostocales (n = 25). Interestingly, multiple novel genotypes were identified, with 22% of the strains (17/77) having <95% similarity to available sequences in GenBank. Morphological and molecular data were in agreement at the species level for only 26% of the isolates obtained (10/39), while agreement at the genus level was obtained for 31% (12/39). Confident identification of the remaining 44% of the strains (17/39) beyond the order level was not possible. The present study demonstrates that, despite the taxonomic revisions, and advances in molecular-, and bioinformatics-tools, the lack of reliable morphological features, culture-induced pleomorphism, and proportion of misidentified or poorly described sequences in GenBank, still represent significant factors, impeding the

  6. Injection-induced seismicity on basement faults including poroelastic stressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K. W.; Segall, P.

    2016-04-01

    Most significant induced earthquakes occur on faults within the basement beneath sedimentary cover. In this two-dimensional plane strain numerical study, we examine the full poroelastic response of basement faults to fluid injection into overlying strata, considering both (1) the permeability of the fault zone and (2) the hydraulic connectivity of the faults to the target horizon. Given hydraulic and mechanical properties, we compute the spatiotemporal change in Coulomb stress, which we separate into (1) the change in poroelastic stresses Δτs+fΔσn, where Δτs and Δσn are changes in shear and normal stress (Δτs>0 and Δσn>0 both favor slip), and (2) the change in pore pressure fΔp. Pore pressure diffusion into hydraulically connected, permeable faults dominates their mechanical stability. For hydraulically isolated or low-permeability faults, however, poroelastic stresses transmitted to deeper basement levels can trigger slip, even without elevated pore pressure. The seismicity rate on basement fault zones is predicted using the model of Dieterich (1994). High seismicity rates can occur on permeable, hydraulically connected faults due to direct pore pressure diffusion. Lower rates are predicted on isolated steeply dipping normal faults, caused solely by poroelastic stressing. In contrast, seismicity on similarly oriented reverse faults is inhibited.

  7. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis Isolates from Healthy Conjunctiva and a Comparative Analysis with Isolates from Ocular Infection

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Páez, Luis A.; Zenteno, Juan C.; Alcántar-Curiel, María D.; Vargas-Mendoza, Carlos F.; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sandra; Cancino-Diaz, Mario E.; Jan-Roblero, Janet; Cancino-Diaz, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common commensal of healthy conjunctiva and it can cause endophthalmitis, however its presence in conjunctivitis, keratitis and blepharitis is unknown. Molecular genotyping of S. epidermidis from healthy conjunctiva could provide information about the origin of the strains that infect the eye. In this paper two collections of S. epidermidis were used: one from ocular infection (n = 62), and another from healthy conjunctiva (n = 45). All isolates were genotyped by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), detection of the genes icaA, icaD, IS256 and polymorphism type of agr locus. The phenotypic data included biofilm production and antibiotic resistance. The results displayed 61 PFGE types from 107 isolates and they were highly discriminatory. MLST analysis generated a total of 25 STs, of which 11 STs were distributed among the ocular infection isolates and lineage ST2 was the most frequent (48.4%), while 14 STs were present in the healthy conjunctiva isolates and lineage ST5 was the most abundant (24.4%). By means of a principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) and a discriminant analysis (DA) it was found that ocular infection isolates had as discriminant markers agr III or agr II, SCCmec V or SCCmec I, mecA gene, resistance to tobramycin, positive biofilm, and IS256+. In contrast to the healthy conjunctiva isolates, the discriminating markers were agr I, and resistance to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin and oxacillin. The discriminant biomarkers of ocular infection were examined in healthy conjunctiva isolates, and it was found that 3 healthy conjunctiva isolates [two with ST2 and another with ST9] (3/45, 6.66%) had similar genotypic and phenotypic characteristics to ocular infection isolates, therefore a small population from healthy conjunctiva could cause an ocular infection. These data suggest that the healthy conjunctiva isolates do not

  8. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis Isolates from Healthy Conjunctiva and a Comparative Analysis with Isolates from Ocular Infection.

    PubMed

    Flores-Páez, Luis A; Zenteno, Juan C; Alcántar-Curiel, María D; Vargas-Mendoza, Carlos F; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sandra; Cancino-Diaz, Mario E; Jan-Roblero, Janet; Cancino-Diaz, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common commensal of healthy conjunctiva and it can cause endophthalmitis, however its presence in conjunctivitis, keratitis and blepharitis is unknown. Molecular genotyping of S. epidermidis from healthy conjunctiva could provide information about the origin of the strains that infect the eye. In this paper two collections of S. epidermidis were used: one from ocular infection (n = 62), and another from healthy conjunctiva (n = 45). All isolates were genotyped by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), detection of the genes icaA, icaD, IS256 and polymorphism type of agr locus. The phenotypic data included biofilm production and antibiotic resistance. The results displayed 61 PFGE types from 107 isolates and they were highly discriminatory. MLST analysis generated a total of 25 STs, of which 11 STs were distributed among the ocular infection isolates and lineage ST2 was the most frequent (48.4%), while 14 STs were present in the healthy conjunctiva isolates and lineage ST5 was the most abundant (24.4%). By means of a principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) and a discriminant analysis (DA) it was found that ocular infection isolates had as discriminant markers agr III or agr II, SCCmec V or SCCmec I, mecA gene, resistance to tobramycin, positive biofilm, and IS256+. In contrast to the healthy conjunctiva isolates, the discriminating markers were agr I, and resistance to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin and oxacillin. The discriminant biomarkers of ocular infection were examined in healthy conjunctiva isolates, and it was found that 3 healthy conjunctiva isolates [two with ST2 and another with ST9] (3/45, 6.66%) had similar genotypic and phenotypic characteristics to ocular infection isolates, therefore a small population from healthy conjunctiva could cause an ocular infection. These data suggest that the healthy conjunctiva isolates do not

  9. In Vitro Activity of ASP2397 against Aspergillus Isolates with or without Acquired Azole Resistance Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    ASP2397 is a new compound with a novel and as-yet-unknown target different from that of licensed antifungal agents. It has activity against Aspergillus and Candida glabrata. We compared its in vitro activity against wild-type and azole-resistant A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates with that of amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Thirty-four isolates, including 4 wild-type A. fumigatus isolates, 24 A. fumigatus isolates with alterations in CYP51A TR/L98H (5 isolates), M220 (9 isolates), G54 (9 isolates), and HapE (1 isolate), and A. terreus isolates (2 wild-type isolates and 1 isolate with an M217I CYP51A alteration), were analyzed. EUCAST E.Def 9.2 and CLSI M38-A2 MIC susceptibility testing was performed. ASP2397 MIC50 values (in milligrams per liter, with MIC ranges in parentheses) determined by EUCAST and CLSI were 0.5 (0.25 to 1) and 0.25 (0.06 to 0.25) against A. fumigatus CYP51A wild-type isolates and were similarly 0.5 (0.125 to >4) and 0.125 (0.06 to >4) against azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates, respectively. These values were comparable to those for amphotericin B, which were 0.25 (0.125 to 0.5) and 0.25 (0.125 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms, respectively. In contrast, MICs for the azole compounds were elevated and highest for itraconazole: >4 (1 to >4) and 4 (0.5 to >4) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms compared to 0.125 (0.125 to 0.25) and 0.125 (0.06 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates, respectively. ASP2397 was active against A. terreus CYP51A wild-type isolates (MIC 0.5 to 1), whereas MICs of both azole and ASP2397 were elevated for the mutant isolate. ASP2397 displayed in vitro activity against A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates which was independent of the presence or absence of azole target gene resistance mutations in A. fumigatus. The findings are promising at a time when azole-resistant A. fumigatus

  10. Emerging Contaminant Issues, Including Management Of Emerging Contaminants In Wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emerging contaminants are receiving increasing media and scientific attention. These chemicals are sometimes referred to as compounds of emerging concern or trace organic compounds, and include several groups of chemicals including endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and pha...

  11. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  12. Bioactive indole alkaloids isolated from Alstonia angustifolia

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Li; Terrazas, César; Muñoz Acuña, Ulyana; Ninh, Tran Ngoc; Chai, Heebyung; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Satoskar, Abhay R.

    2014-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation was conducted on a CHCl3-soluble extract of the stem bark of Alstonia angustifolia (Apocynaceae) collected in Vietnam using the HT-29 human colon cancer cell line, and led to the isolation of a new sarpagine-type indole alkaloid (1), together with nine known alkaloids, including four macroline-derived alkaloids (2–5), a sarpagine-type alkaloid (6), and four macroline-pleiocarpamine bisindole alkaloids (7–10). The structure of the new compound (1) was determined on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. Compounds 1–10 were evaluated in vitro for their NF-κB (p65) inhibitory activity against the Hela cells in an ELISA assay. The new sarpagine alkaloid, N(4)-methyltalpinine (1), was found to show significant NF-κB inhibitory activity (ED50 = 1.2 µM). Furthermore, all the isolates (1–10) were evaluated in vitro for their antileishmanial activity, and compounds (1–4, 6 and 8–10) exhibited leishmaniacidal activity against promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana. PMID:25584095

  13. Testing of isolation barrier sealing surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-12-15

    Isolation barrier doors are to be installed in the 105KE and 105KW basins as part of the 1994 unreviewed safety question (USQ) resolution plan to isolate the fuel storage basin from the fuel discharge chute. Included in this installation is the placement of new sealing surfaces for the barriers by affixing stainless steel plates to existing carbon steel angle bars with a specially formulated epoxy adhesive/sealant material. The sealant is a two-part component consisting of an epoxy resin (the condensation product of bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin) and a curing agent (a proprietary cycloaliphatic polyamine). The sealant is solvent free (complying with air pollution regulations) and capable of withstanding the surrounding radiation fields over an estimated 15-year service life. The epoxy sealant experiences negligible water damage partly because of its hydrophobic (water-repelling) nature. With bond tensile strengths measured at greater than 862 kPa (125 lbf/in{sup 2}), the epoxy sealant is judged acceptable for its intended application. The four-hour pot life of the epoxy sealant provides sufficient time to apply the epoxy, examine the epoxy bead for continuity, and position the stainless steel sealing plates.

  14. Isolation of tumorigenic circulating melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie; Lin, Jennifer Y.; Alloo, Allireza; Wilson, Brian J.; Schatton, Tobias; Zhan, Qian; Murphy, George F.; Waaga-Gasser, Ana-Maria; Gasser, Martin; Hodi, F. Stephen; Frank, Natasha Y.; Frank, Markus H.

    2010-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTC) have been identified in several human malignancies, including malignant melanoma. However, whether melanoma CTC are tumorigenic and cause metastatic progression is currently unknown. Here we isolate for the first time viable tumorigenic melanoma CTC and demonstrate that this cell population is capable of metastasis formation in human-to-mouse xenotransplantation experiments. The presence of CTC among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of murine recipients of subcutaneous (s.c.) human melanoma xenografts could be detected based on mRNA expression for human GAPDH and/or ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 5 (ABCB5), a marker of malignant melanoma-initiating cells previously shown to be associated with metastatic disease progression in human patients. ABCB5 expression could also be detected in PBMC preparations from human stage IV melanoma patients but not healthy controls. The detection of melanoma CTC in human-to-mouse s.c. tumor xenotransplantation models correlated significantly with pulmonary metastasis formation. Moreover, prospectively isolated CTC from murine recipients of s.c. melanoma xenografts were capable of primary tumor initiation and caused metastasis formation upon xenotransplantation to secondary murine NOD-scid IL2Rγnull recipients. Our results provide initial evidence that melanoma CTC are tumorigenic and demonstrate that CTC are capable of causing metastatic tumor progression. These findings suggest a need for CTC eradication to inhibit metastatic progression and provide a rationale for assessment of therapeutic responses of this tumorigenic cell population to promising emerging melanoma treatment modalities. PMID:20977885

  15. Seismic Isolation Working Meeting Gap Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Justin Coleman; Piyush Sabharwall

    2014-09-01

    The ultimate goal in nuclear facility and nuclear power plant operations is operating safety during normal operations and maintaining core cooling capabilities during off-normal events including external hazards. Understanding the impact external hazards, such as flooding and earthquakes, have on nuclear facilities and NPPs is critical to deciding how to manage these hazards to expectable levels of risk. From a seismic risk perspective the goal is to manage seismic risk. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components (SSCs)). There are large uncertainties associated with evolving nature of the seismic hazard curves. Additionally there are requirements within DOE and potential requirements within NRC to reconsider updated seismic hazard curves every 10 years. Therefore opportunity exists for engineered solutions to manage this seismic uncertainty. One engineered solution is seismic isolation. Current seismic isolation (SI) designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefit of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed, in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 4 standard, to be released in 2014, for Light Water Reactors (LWR) facilities using commercially available technology. However, there is a lack of industry application to the nuclear industry and uncertainty with implementing the procedures outlined in ASCE-4. Opportunity exists to determine barriers associated with implementation of current ASCE-4 standard language.

  16. Isolation of osteocytes from human trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Prideaux, Matthew; Schutz, Christine; Wijenayaka, Asiri R; Findlay, David M; Campbell, David G; Solomon, Lucian B; Atkins, Gerald J

    2016-07-01

    Osteocytes are essential regulators of bone homeostasis. However, they are difficult to study due to their location within the bone mineralised matrix. Although several techniques have been published for the isolation of osteocytes from mouse bone, no such technique has been described for human osteocytes. We have therefore developed a protocol for the isolation of osteocytes from human trabecular bone samples acquired during surgery. The cells were digested from the bone matrix by sequential collagenase and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) digestions and the cells from later digests displayed characteristic dendritic osteocyte morphology when cultured ex vivo. Furthermore, the cells expressed characteristic osteocyte marker genes, such as E11, dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), SOST, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) and phosphate regulating endopeptidase homologue, X-linked (PHEX). In addition, genes associated with osteocyte perilacunar remodelling, including matrix metallopeptidase-13 (MMP13), cathepsin K (CTSK) and carbonic anhydrase 2 (CAR2) were expressed. The cells also responded to parathyroid hormone (PTH) by downregulating SOST mRNA expression and to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) by upregulating fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) mRNA expression. Therefore, the cells behave in a similar manner to osteocytes in vivo. These cells represent an important tool in enhancing current knowledge in human osteocyte biology. PMID:27109824

  17. Sleuthing the Isolated Compact Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, J. J.

    2004-08-01

    In the early 1990's, isolated thermally-emitting neutron stars accreting from the interstellar medium were predicted to show up in their thousands in the ROSAT soft X-ray all-sky survey. The glut of sources would provide unprecedented opportunities for probing the equation of state of ultra-dense matter. Only seven objects have been firmly identified to date. The reasons for this discrepency are discussed and recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations of these objects are described. Spectra of the brightest of the isolated neutron star candidates, RX J1856.5-3754, continue to present interpretational difficulties for current neutron star model atmospheres and alternative models are briefly discussed. RX J1856.5-3754 remains a valid quark star candidate.

  18. An isolated compact galaxy triplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shuai; Shao, Zheng-Yi; Shen, Shi-Yin; Argudo-Fernández, Maria; Wu, Hong; Lam, Man-I.; Yang, Ming; Yuan, Fang-Ting

    2016-05-01

    We report the discovery of an isolated compact galaxy triplet SDSS J084843.45+164417.3, which is first detected by the LAMOST spectral survey and then confirmed by a spectroscopic observation of the BFOSC mounted on the 2.16 meter telescope located at Xinglong Station, which is administered by National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It is found that this triplet is an isolated and extremely compact system, which has an aligned configuration and very small radial velocity dispersion. The member galaxies have similar colors and show marginal star formation activities. These results support the opinion that the compact triplets are well-evolved systems rather than hierarchically forming structures. This serendipitous discovery reveals the limitations of fiber spectral redshift surveys in studying such a compact system, and demonstrates the necessity of additional observations to complete the current redshift sample.

  19. Isolation of nuclei from yeast.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, M M; Halvorson, H O

    1971-05-01

    A method for isolation of nuclei from Saccharomyces cervisiae in high yield is described. The DNA/protein ratio of the isolated nuclei is 10 times higher than that of whole cells. Examination of these nuclei in phase and electron microscopes has shown them to be round bodies having a double membrane, microtubules, and a dark crescent at one end. The optimum conditions for extraction and resolution of histones of these nuclei on acrylamide gels have been investigated. The nuclei have an active RNA polymerase (E.C. 2.7.7.6) and are able to synthesize RNA in vitro. They are also readily stainable with Giemsa's, Feulgen's, and acridine orange methods. PMID:19866769

  20. Characteristics and distribution of Listeria spp., including Listeria species newly described since 2009.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Renato H; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The genus Listeria is currently comprised of 17 species, including 9 Listeria species newly described since 2009. Genomic and phenotypic data clearly define a distinct group of six species (Listeria sensu strictu) that share common phenotypic characteristics (e.g., ability to grow at low temperature, flagellar motility); this group includes the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The other 11 species (Listeria sensu lato) represent three distinct monophyletic groups, which may warrant recognition as separate genera. These three proposed genera do not contain pathogens, are non-motile (except for Listeria grayi), are able to reduce nitrate (except for Listeria floridensis), and are negative for the Voges-Proskauer test (except for L. grayi). Unlike all other Listeria species, species in the proposed new genus Mesolisteria are not able to grow below 7 °C. While most new Listeria species have only been identified in a few countries, the availability of molecular tools for rapid characterization of putative Listeria isolates will likely lead to future identification of isolates representing these new species from different sources. Identification of Listeria sensu lato isolates has not only allowed for a better understanding of the evolution of Listeria and virulence characteristics in Listeria but also has practical implications as detection of Listeria species is often used by the food industry as a marker to detect conditions that allow for presence, growth, and persistence of L. monocytogenes. This review will provide a comprehensive critical summary of our current understanding of the characteristics and distribution of the new Listeria species with a focus on Listeria sensu lato. PMID:27129530

  1. 20 CFR 220.114 - Evaluation of symptoms, including pain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evaluation of symptoms, including pain. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Medical Considerations § 220.114 Evaluation of symptoms, including pain...'s symptoms, including pain, and the extent to which the claimant's symptoms can reasonably...

  2. 20 CFR 220.114 - Evaluation of symptoms, including pain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evaluation of symptoms, including pain. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Medical Considerations § 220.114 Evaluation of symptoms, including pain...'s symptoms, including pain, and the extent to which the claimant's symptoms can reasonably...

  3. 20 CFR 220.114 - Evaluation of symptoms, including pain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evaluation of symptoms, including pain. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Medical Considerations § 220.114 Evaluation of symptoms, including pain...'s symptoms, including pain, and the extent to which the claimant's symptoms can reasonably...

  4. 20 CFR 220.114 - Evaluation of symptoms, including pain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evaluation of symptoms, including pain. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Medical Considerations § 220.114 Evaluation of symptoms, including pain...'s symptoms, including pain, and the extent to which the claimant's symptoms can reasonably...

  5. Including Alternate Assessment Results in Accountability Decisions. NCEO Policy Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quenemoen, Rachel; Thurlow, Martha

    Alternate assessments provide a mechanism for students with complex disabilities to be included in assessment systems. An integral part of maximizing the benefits of assessing students is to include the results of alternate assessments in school accountability systems. This report addresses policy options for including the results of alternate…

  6. 20 CFR 220.114 - Evaluation of symptoms, including pain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of symptoms, including pain. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Medical Considerations § 220.114 Evaluation of symptoms, including pain...'s symptoms, including pain, and the extent to which the claimant's symptoms can reasonably...

  7. Immune Cell Isolation from Mouse Femur Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Quan, Ning

    2016-01-01

    The bone marrow is the site of hematopoesis and contains mixed population of blood cells including erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells, lymphocytes and hematopoietic stem cells. The following protocol provides a simple and fast method for isolation of bone marrow immune cells (no erythrocytes) from mouse femurs with a yield of approximate 8 × 107 cells in 5 ml culture media (1.6 × 104 cells/μl). Further isolation or flow cytometric analysis might be required for study of specific immune cell types.

  8. Bio-isolated dc operational amplifier. [for bioelectric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A bio-isolated dc operational amplifier is described for use in making bioelectrical measurements of a patient while providing isolation of the patient from electrical shocks. The circuit contains a first operational amplifier coupled to the patient with its output coupled in a forward loop through a first optic coupler to a second operational amplifier. The output of the second operational amplifier is coupled to suitable monitoring circuitry via a feedback circuit including a second optic coupler to the input of the first operational amplifier.

  9. Mechanisms of the Space Active Vibration Isolation (SAVI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Frank

    1992-01-01

    The Space Active Vibration Isolation (SAVI) is a concept for vibration isolation of one body from another with simultaneous precise control in 6 Degrees Of Freedom (DOF). SAVI achieves this using a combination of electromechanical linear actuators and magnetic actuators. Other mechanisms of interest include a structure for simulating the body being pointed, an apparatus to simulate the body that is the vibration source, and mechanisms to off-load the weight of each of these two bodies from the experiment to approximate a zero-g condition. A SAVI was built and tested to demonstrate these capabilities.

  10. Isolated resonator gyroscope with a drive and sense plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope comprising a vibrationally isolated resonator including a proof mass, a counterbalancing plate having an extensive planar region, and one or more flexures interconnecting the proof mass and counterbalancing plate. A baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the one or more flexures and sense and drive electrodes are affixed to the baseplate proximate to the extensive planar region of the counterbalancing plate for exciting the resonator and sensing movement of the gyroscope. The isolated resonator transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited.

  11. Isolated Bilateral Lacrimal Gland Agenesis.

    PubMed

    Al-Ryalat, Nosaiba T; Ezzat, Jumana W; Ababneh, Osama H; AlRyalat, Saif Aldeen S; Al-Hadidy, Azmy M

    2016-01-01

    A 5-year-old boy presented to the ophthalmology department complaining of absent tearing while crying. Slit-lamp examination showed decreased tear margin film with normal punctae. Orbit magnetic resonance imaging was done and showed bilateral absent lacrimal glands. This is the third case of isolated bilateral lacrimal gland agenesis in the literature. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53:e35-e38.]. PMID:27486892

  12. Genetic diversity of the coat protein of olive latent virus 1 isolates.

    PubMed

    Varanda, C M R; Nolasco, G; Clara, M I; Félix, M R

    2014-06-01

    The CP gene variability among 21 olive latent virus 1 (OLV-1) isolates obtained from different hosts and locations and at different times was assessed. Amplicons obtained by RT-PCR were cloned, and at least 10 sequences from each isolate were analyzed and compared. OLV-1 sequences available in GenBank were included. The encoded CPs consisted of 270 amino acids, except those of isolates G1S and C7 (269 aa) and G6 (271 aa). Comparison of CP genomic sequences of the isolates under study showed very low values of nucleotide diversity, 0.02, and maximum nucleotide distances between (0.087) or within isolates (0.001). Although very few nucleotide sequence differences were observed among the isolates, olive isolates exhibited lower diversity (0.012). In addition, at position 158 (157 in C7 and G1S and 159 in G6) of the deduced aa sequences, an alanine residue was found to be conserved among the olive isolates. In citrus and tulip isolates, a threonine residue was present at position 158, whereas a valine was present at this same position in tomato isolates. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that OLV-1 isolates clustered in five groups according to original host. However, G6, originally recovered from olive but repeatedly inoculated and maintained in N. benthamiana plants for 8 years in our laboratory, was separated from other isolates. This may be attributable to adaptation to the experimental host over time. There was no correlation of phylogenetic grouping of isolates based on geographical location or year of collection. Strong negative selection may have contributed to the low diversity among the OLV-1 CP isolates. PMID:24352437

  13. Development of adaptive seismic isolators for ultimate seismic protection of civil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianchun; Li, Yancheng; Li, Weihua; Samali, Bijan

    2013-04-01

    Base isolation is the most popular seismic protection technique for civil engineering structures. However, research has revealed that the traditional base isolation system due to its passive nature is vulnerable to two kinds of earthquakes, i.e. the near-fault and far-fault earthquakes. A great deal of effort has been dedicated to improve the performance of the traditional base isolation system for these two types of earthquakes. This paper presents a recent research breakthrough on the development of a novel adaptive seismic isolation system as the quest for ultimate protection for civil structures, utilizing the field-dependent property of the magnetorheological elastomer (MRE). A novel adaptive seismic isolator was developed as the key element to form smart seismic isolation system. The novel isolator contains unique laminated structure of steel and MR elastomer layers, which enable its large-scale civil engineering applications, and a solenoid to provide sufficient and uniform magnetic field for energizing the field-dependent property of MR elastomers. With the controllable shear modulus/damping of the MR elastomer, the developed adaptive seismic isolator possesses a controllable lateral stiffness while maintaining adequate vertical loading capacity. In this paper, a comprehensive review on the development of the adaptive seismic isolator is present including designs, analysis and testing of two prototypical adaptive seismic isolators utilizing two different MRE materials. Experimental results show that the first prototypical MRE seismic isolator can provide stiffness increase up to 37.49%, while the second prototypical MRE seismic isolator provides amazing increase of lateral stiffness up to1630%. Such range of increase of the controllable stiffness of the seismic isolator makes it highly practical for developing new adaptive base isolation system utilizing either semi-active or smart passive controls.

  14. Rhizobium selenireducens sp. nov.: A selenite reducing a-Proteobacteria isolated from a bioreactor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Gram-negative, non-pigmented bacterium designated strain B1 was isolated from a laboratory bioreactor that reduced selenate to elemental red selenium (Se0). 16S rRNA gene sequence alignment identified the isolate as a Rhizobium sp. belonging to the Rhizobium clade that includes R. daejeonense, R....

  15. ISOLATION AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA FROM ITS INVASIVE ALTERNATIVE HOST, PORCELAIN BERRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A strain of X. fastidiosa was isolated from an invasive alternative host species, porcelain berry. Its genetic relationship with strains isolated from a native alternative host, wild grape, and other economically important hosts including grape, peach, plum, oak, mulberry, maple and oleander was det...

  16. Status and needs for tank isolation system contingencies at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Chesser, J.B.; Lewis, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    This document assesses the need for additional tank isolation systems and tooling at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Locations for future operations at ORNL include the South and North Tank Farms and various Federal Facilities Agreement tanks. The goal of this report is to identify future needs for development of remote tools and systems to isolate inactive waste storage tanks.

  17. Mycelial compatibility and aggressiveness comparison of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates from Brazil and the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variability of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates collected in Brazil and the USA were determined by mycelial compatibility grouping (MCG) and inoculations of soybean cultivars. Two experiments for MCGs and two for aggressiveness were conducted with two sets of isolates. The first set included nine i...

  18. Study of providing omnidirectional vibration isolation to entire space shuttle payload packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. S.; Robinson, G. D.; Weber, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques to provide omnidirectional vibration isolation for a space shuttle payload package were investigated via a reduced-scale model. Development, design, fabrication, assembly and test evaluation of a 0.125-scale isolation model are described. Final drawings for fabricated mechanical components are identified, and prints of all drawings are included.

  19. Complete genome sequence of Edwardsiella tarda (isolate FL95-01)recovered from channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edwardsiella tarda is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe isolated from fish, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals, including humans. This is a report of the complete and annotated genome of E. tarda isolate FL95-01, recovered from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)....

  20. Draft genome sequence of a Mycobacterium avium complex isolate from a broadbill bird

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the draft genome sequences of ten Mycobacterium avium complex isolates obtained from diverse hosts. This collection includes isolates obtained from deer, pig, elephant, ruddy duck and Red-tailed hawk species. The type strain of Mycobacterium avium subspecies silvaticum (ATCC 49884) is also...