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Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry.  


Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is a specialized technique used to provide information about the geographic, chemical, and biological origins of substances. The ability to determine the source of an organic substance stems from the relative isotopic abundances of the elements which comprise the material. Because the isotope ratios of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen can become locally enriched or depleted through a variety of kinetic and thermodynamic factors, measurement of the isotope ratios can be used to differentiate between samples which otherwise share identical chemical compositions. Several sample introduction methods are now available for commercial isotope ratio mass spectrometers. Combustion is most commonly used for bulk isotopic analysis, whereas gas and liquid chromatography are predominately used for the real-time isotopic analysis of specific compounds within a mixture. Here, highlights of advances in instrumentation and applications within the last three years are provided to illustrate the impact of this rapidly growing area of research. Some prominent new applications include authenticating organic food produce, ascertaining whether or not African elephants are guilty of night-time raids on farmers' crops, and linking forensic drug and soil samples from a crime scene to a suspected point of origin. For the sake of brevity, we focus this Minireview on the isotope ratio measurements of lighter-elements common to organic sources; we do not cover the equally important field of inorganic isotope ratio mass spectrometry. PMID:19173039

Muccio, Zeland; Jackson, Glen P



Accelerator mass spectrometry of plutonium isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of measuring plutonium isotope ratios by accelerator mass spectrometry has been demonstrated. Measurements on a test sample of known composition and on a blank showed that isotope ratios could be determined quantitatively, and that the present limit of detection by AMS is ? 106 atoms of plutonium. For 239Pu, this limit is at least two orders of magnitude

L. K. Fifield; R. G. Cresswell; M. L. di Tada; T. R. Ophel; J. P. Day; A. P. Clacher; S. J. King; N. D. Priest



Multiple isotopic labels for quantitative mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Quantitative mass spectrometry is often performed using isotopically-labeled samples. While the 4-trimethylammoniumbutyryl (TMAB) labels have many advantages over other isotopic tags, only two forms have previously been synthesized (i.e. a heavy form containing 9 deuteriums and a light form without deuterium). In the present report, two additional forms containing 3 and 6 deuteriums have been synthesized and tested. These additional isotopic tags perform identically to the previously reported tags; peptides labeled with the new TMAB reagents co-elute from reverse phase HPLC columns with peptides labeled with the lighter and heavier TMAB reagents. Altogether, these 4 tags allow for multivariate analysis in a single liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, with each isotopically tagged peptide differing in mass by 3 Da per tag incorporated. The synthetic scheme is described in simple terms so that a biochemist without specific training in organic chemistry can perform the synthesis. The interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry data for the TMAB-labeled peptides is also described in more detail. The additional TMAB isotopic reagents described here, together with the additional description of the synthesis and analysis should allow these labels to be more widely used for proteomics and peptidomics analyses. PMID:19551992

Morano, Cain; Zhang, Xin; Fricker, Lloyd D.



Isotopic trace analysis by atomic mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

All the production facilities at Hanford are now shut down. However, the legacy from half a century of plutonium production includes 177 underground storage tanks of up to one million gallons each containing the largest accumulation of high-level radioactive waste in what used to be called ``the free world.`` Hanford`s new mission, in addition to a spectrum of ongoing research and development, is radioactive waste management and environmental restoration. Isotope-ratio mass spectrometry will continue to be an essential tool in monitoring the progress of that mission.

Stoffels, J.J.



Analytical techniques in biomedical stable isotope applications: (isotope ratio) mass spectrometry or infrared spectrometry?  


An overview is presented of biomedical applications of stable isotopes in general, but mainly focused on the activities of the Center for Liver, Digestive and Metabolic Diseases of the University Medical Center Groningen. The aims of metabolic studies in the areas of glucose, fat, cholesterol and protein metabolism are briefly explained, as well as the principle of breath testing and the techniques to study body composition and energy expenditure. Much attention is paid to the analytical considerations based upon metabolite concentrations, sample size restrictions, the availability of stable isotope labelled substrates and dose requirements in relation to compound-specific isotope analysis. The instrumental advantages and limitations of the generally used techniques gas chromatography/reaction/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are described as well as the novelties of the recently commercialised liquid chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The present use and future perspective of infrared (IR) spectrometry for clinical and biomedical stable isotope applications are reviewed. In this respect, the analytical demands on IR spectrometry are discussed to enable replacement of isotope ratio mass spectrometry by IR spectrometry, in particular, for the purpose of compound-specific isotope ratio analysis in biological matrices. PMID:16543190

Stellaard, Frans; Elzinga, Henk



Calcium isotope analysis by mass spectrometry.  


The variations in the isotopic composition of calcium caused by fractionation in heterogeneous systems and by nuclear reactions can provide insight into numerous biological, geological, and cosmic processes, and therefore isotopic analysis finds a wide spectrum of applications in cosmo- and geochemistry, paleoclimatic, nutritional, and biomedical studies. The measurement of calcium isotopic abundances in natural samples has challenged the analysts for more than three decades. Practically all Ca isotopes suffer from significant isobaric interferences, whereas low-abundant isotopes can be particularly affected by neighboring major isotopes. The extent of natural variations of stable isotopes appears to be relatively limited, and highly precise techniques are required to resolve isotopic effects. Isotope fractionation during sample preparation and measurements and instrumental mass bias can significantly exceed small isotope abundance variations in samples, which have to be investigated. Not surprisingly, a TIMS procedure developed by Russell et al. (Russell et al., 1978. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42: 1075-1090) for Ca isotope measurements was considered as revolutionary for isotopic measurements in general, and that approach is used nowadays (with small modifications) for practically all isotopic systems and with different mass spectrometric techniques. Nevertheless, despite several decades of calcium research and corresponding development of mass spectrometers, the available precision and accuracy is still not always sufficient to achieve the challenging goals. The present article discusses figures of merits of presently used analytical methods and instrumentation, and attempts to critically assess their limitations. In Sections 2 and 3, mass spectrometric methods applied to precise stable isotope analysis and to the determination of (41)Ca are described. Section 4 contains a short summary of selected applications, and includes tracer experiments and the potential use of biological isotope fractionation in medical studies, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic, and other terrestrial as well as extraterrestrial investigations. PMID:19551693

Boulyga, Sergei F



O isotopic composition of CaCO3 measured by continuous ow isotope ratio mass spectrometry  

E-print Network

XL continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Conditions for which the H3PO4/CaCO3 reaction spectrometry (DI-IRMS). A mass spectrometer is used to determine the ratio (R) of the heavy isotoped13 C and d18 O isotopic composition of CaCO3 measured by continuous ¯ow isotope ratio mass


Hydrogen isotope analysis by quadrupole mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of isotopes of hydrogen (H, D, T) and helium (He, He) and selected impurities using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) has been investigated as a method of measuring the purity of tritium gas for injection into the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). A QMS was used at low resolution, m\\/ < 150, for quantifying impurities from m\\/q =

R. E. Ellefson; W. E. Moddeman; H. F. Dylla



Hydrogen isotope analysis by quadrupole mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of isotopes of hydrogen (H,D,T) and helium (³He,⁴He) and selected impurities using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) has been investigated as a method of measuring the purity of tritium gas for injection into the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). A QMS was used at low resolution, m\\/Dm<150, for quantifying impurities from m\\/q = 2 to 44, and at

R. E. Ellefson; W. E. Moddeman; H. F. Dylla



Isotope Peaks of Ionic Fragments in Mass Spectrometry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mass spectrometry: This applet allows you to insert the empirical formula of an ionic fragment and obtain the relative intensities of its isotope peaks. Observe the lines corresponding to this fragment, as they would appeared in a mass spectrum. Theory is provided alongside the applet.


High Resolution Double-Focusing Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years isotope ratio mass spectrometry has extended to the capability of quantifying very small isotope signatures related with low abundances and simultaneously detecting molecular masses such as isotopomers and isotopologues containing clumped isotopes. Some of those applications are limited by molecular interferences like different gas molecules with the same nominal mass, e.g. Ar/O2, adducts of the same molecule or of different molecules, and very small isotope abundances. The Thermo Scientific MAT 253 ULTRA is the next generation of high precision gas isotope ratio mass spectrometry, which combines a 10 KV gas ionization source (Thermo Scientific MAT 253) with a double focusing multi-collector mass analyzer (Thermo Scientific Neptune) and reduces those limitations by measuring isotope ratios on a larger dynamic range with high precision. Small ion beam requirements and high sensitivity are achieved by signal-to-noise improvements through enhanced ion beam amplification in faraday cups and ion counters. Interfering backgrounds, e.g. interfering isotopologues or isobaric ions of contaminants, are dramatically decreased by a dynamic range increase combined with high evacuation leading to undisturbed ion transmission through the double-focusing analyser. Furthermore, automated gain calibration for mathematical baseline corrections, switchable detector arrays, ion source control, analyser focusing and full data export is controlled under Isodat data control. New reference/sample strategies are under investigation besides incorporation of the continuous-flow technique and its versatile inlet devices. We are presenting first results and applications of the MAT 253 Ultra.

Radke, J.; Deerberg, M.; Hilkert, A.; Schlter, H.-J.; Schwieters, J.



Issues and opportunities in accelerator mass spectrometry for stable isotopes.  


Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has developed in the last 30 years many notable applications to the spectrometry of radioisotopes, particularly in radiocarbon dating. The instrumentation science of trace element AMS (TEAMS) that analyzes stable isotopes, also called Accelerator SIMS or MegaSIMS, while unique in many features, has also shared in many of these significant advances and has pushed TEAMS sensitivity to concentration levels surpassing many competing mass spectroscopic technologies. This review examines recent instrumentation developments, the capabilities of the new instrumentation and discernable trends for future development. PMID:18553556

Matteson, Sam



Applied gas chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry.  


Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) following on-line combustion (C) of compounds separated by gas chromatography (GC) is a relatively young analytical method. Due to its ability to measure isotope distribution at natural abundance level with great accuracy and high precision, GC-C-IRMS has increasingly become the method of choice in authenticity control of foodstuffs and determination of origin in archaeology, geochemistry, and environmental chemistry. In combination with stable isotope labelled compounds, GC-C-IRMS is also used more and more in biochemical and biomedical application as it offers a reliable and risk-free alternative to the use of radioactive tracers. The literature on these topics is reviewed from the advent of commercial GC-C-IRMS systems in 1990 up to the beginning of 1998. Demands on sample preparation and quality of GC separation for GC-C-IRMS are discussed also. PMID:10377971

Meier-Augenstein, W



Mass spectrometry and isotopes: a century of research and discussion.  


In 1815, the British physician William Prout had advanced the theory that the molecular masses of elements were multiples of the mass of hydrogen. This "whole number rule" (and especially deviations from it) played an important role in the discussion whether elements could be mixtures of isotopes. F. Soddy's discovery (1910) that lead obtained by decay of uranium and of thorium differed in mass was considered a peculiarity of radioactive materials. The question of the existence of isotopes came up when the instruments developed by J.J. Thomson and by W. Wien to study cathode and canal rays by deflection in electric and magnetic fields were steadily improved. In 1913, Thomson mentioned a weak line at mass 22 accompanying the expected one at mass 20 when he analyzed the mass spectrum of neon. Subsequently Aston obtained the mass spectrum of chlorine with masses at 35 and 37. Still in 1921, Thomson objected heavily to the idea of isotopes. The isotope problem was finally settled, but more accurate mass measurements showed that even isotopic weights differed to some extent from the whole numbers. Based on earlier ideas of P. Langevin and J.-L. Costa, F.W. Aston and A.J. Dempster developed the idea of packing fractions and mass defects due to the transformation of a portion of the matter comprising the atomic nucleus into energy. While the determination of the exact isotopic masses had improved over the years, the accurate determination of isotopic abundances remained a problem as long as photographic recording was used. Here especially A.O. Nier pioneered using dual collectors and compensation measurements. This was the prerequisite for the discovery that isotopic ratios varied somewhat in nature. M. Dole discovered the fractionation of oxygen isotopes by photosynthesis and respiration. Today 13C/12C-ratios are employed to detect adulterations of food and in doping analysis, and 14C/13C-ratios obtained by accelerator mass spectrometry are used for dating historical objects, just to give some examples. PMID:16134128

Budzikiewicz, Herbert; Grigsby, Ronald D



Mass spectrometry.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Review of the current state of mass spectrometry, indicating its unique importance for advanced scientific research. Mass spectrometry applications in computer techniques, gas chromatography, ion cyclotron resonance, molecular fragmentation and ionization, and isotope labeling are covered. Details are given on mass spectrometry applications in bio-organic chemistry and biomedical research. As the subjects of these applications are indicated alkaloids, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes, quinones, nucleic acid components, peptides, antibiotics, and human and animal metabolisms. Particular attention is given to the mass spectra of organo-inorganic compounds, inorganic mass spectrometry, surface phenomena such as secondary ion and electron emission, and elemental and isotope analysis. Further topics include mass spectrometry in organic geochemistry, applications in geochronology and cosmochemistry, and organic mass spectrometry.

Burlingame, A. L.; Johanson, G. A.



Improved Isotopic Measurement of Plutonium by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) is accepted widely as the benchmark method for precise and accurate isotopic determination of plutonium. TIMS is one of the few analytical methods capable of determining Pu in bioassay samples at the level required for detecting a 50 yr committed dose of 100 mRem resulting from an inhalation exposure to highly insoluble forms of Pu. Typically, Pu is measured in bioassay samples by radiochemical separation, electrodeposition onto a planchet, and radiometric determination by alpha spectrometry. If, based on the alpha spectrometry results, a sample is deemed to need a more sensitive analysis (i.e. suspected uptake, borderline alpha spectrometry positive for Pu uptake, etc.), then the sample is prepared for analysis by TIMS. Part of the development process for establishing a program to determine Pu in bioassay samples by TIMS at the Savannah River Site involved a careful evaluation of the Pu blank value in the reagents used for sample preparation and in urine blanks. This exercise allowed for the evaluation of the newly developed radiochemical separation procedure, the resin bead loading procedure, and the detection limits of the thermal ionization mass spectrometer.

Shick, C. Jr.



Caution on the Use of Liquid Nitrogen Traps in Stable Hydrogen Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometry  

E-print Network

other isotope-ratio mass spectrometers in which LN2 is used as a moisture trap for gaseous hydrogen to a VG Micromass model 602 dual inlet isotope-ratio mass spectrometer.3,4,6 Gaseous hydrogenCaution on the Use of Liquid Nitrogen Traps in Stable Hydrogen Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometry


Quantitation of DNA adducts by stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Exposure to endogenous and exogenous chemicals can lead to the formation of structurally modified DNA bases (DNA adducts). If not repaired, these nucleobase lesions can cause polymerase errors during DNA replication, leading to heritable mutations potentially contributing to the development of cancer. Due to their critical role in cancer initiation, DNA adducts represent mechanism-based biomarkers of carcinogen exposure, and their quantitation is particularly useful for cancer risk assessment. DNA adducts are also valuable in mechanistic studies linking tumorigenic effects of environmental and industrial carcinogens to specific electrophilic species generated from their metabolism. While multiple experimental methodologies have been developed for DNA adduct analysis in biological samples including immunoassay, HPLC, and 32P-postlabeling isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) generally has superior selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility. As typical DNA adducts concentrations in biological samples are between 0.01 10 adducts per 108 normal nucleotides, ultrasensitive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methodologies are required for their analysis. Recent developments in analytical separations and biological mass spectrometry especially nanoflow HPLC, nanospray ionization MS, chip-MS, and high resolution MS have pushed the limits of analytical HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methodologies for DNA adducts, allowing researchers to accurately measure their concentrations in biological samples from patients treated with DNA alkylating drugs and in populations exposed to carcinogens from urban air, drinking water, cooked food, alcohol, and cigarette smoke. PMID:22827593

Tretyakova, Natalia; Goggin, Melissa; Janis, Gregory



Quantitating isotopic molecular labels with accelerator mass spectrometry.  


Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) traces isotopically labeled biochemicals and provides significant new directions for understanding molecular kinetics and dynamics in biological systems. AMS traces low-abundance radioisotopes for high specificity but detects them with MS for high sensitivity. AMS reduces radiation exposure doses to levels safe for use in human volunteers of all ages. Total radiation exposures are equivalent to those obtained in very short airplane flights, a commonly accepted radiation risk. Waste products seldom reach the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) definition of radioactive waste material for (14)C and (3)H. Attomoles of labeled compounds are quantified in milligram-sized samples, such as 20 microl of blood. AMS is available from several facilities that offer services and new spectrometers that are affordable. Detailed examples of designing AMS studies are provided, and the methods of analyzing AMS data are outlined. PMID:16401517

Vogel, John S; Love, Adam H



The Role of Naturally Occurring Stable Isotopes in Mass Spectrometry, Part II: The Instrumentation  

PubMed Central

In the second instalment of this tutorial, the authors explain the instrumentation for measuring naturally occurring stable isotopes, specifically the magnetic sector mass spectrometer. This type of instrument remains unrivalled in its performance for isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and the reader is reminded of its operation and its technical advantages for isotope measurements. PMID:23772101

Bluck, Les; Volmer, Dietrich A.



Alternative Filament Loading Solution for Accurate Analysis of Boron Isotopes by Negative Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry technique has become the major tool for investigating boron isotopes in the environment. The high sensitivity of BO2- ionization enables measurements of ng levels of boron. However, B isotope measurement by this technique suffers from two fundamental problems (1) fractionation induced by selective ionization of B isotopes in the mass spectrometer; and (2) CNO-

G. S. Dwyer; A. Vengosh



Isotope ratio monitoring gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry of D/H by high temperature conversion isotope ratio mass spectrometry.  


Of all the elements, hydrogen has the largest naturally occurring variations in the ratio of its stable isotopes (D/H). It is for this reason that there has been a strong desire to add hydrogen to the list of elements amenable to isotope ratio monitoring gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (irm-GC/MS). In irm-GC/MS the sample is entrained in helium as the carrier gas, which is also ionized and separated in the isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). Because of the low abundance of deuterium in nature, precise and accurate on-line monitoring of D/H ratios with an IRMS requires that low energy helium ions be kept out of the m/z 3 collector, which requires the use of an energy filter. A clean mass 3 (HD(+.)) signal which is independent of a large helium load in the electron impact ion source is essential in order to reach the sensitivity required for D/H analysis of capillary GC peaks. A new IRMS system, the DELTA(plus)XL(trade mark), has been designed for high precision, high accuracy measurements of transient signals of hydrogen gas. It incorporates a retardation lens integrated into the m/z 3 Faraday cup collector. Following GC separation, the hydrogen bound in organic compounds must be quantitatively converted into H(2) gas prior to analysis in the IRMS. Quantitative conversion is achieved by high temperature conversion (TC) at temperatures >1400 degrees C. Measurements of D/H ratios of individual organic compounds in complicated natural mixtures can now be made to a precision of 2 per thousand (delta notation) or, better, with typical sample amounts of approximately 200 ng per compound. Initial applications have focused on compounds of interest to petroleum research (biomarkers and natural gas components), food and flavor control (vanillin and ethanol), and metabolic studies (fatty acids and steroids). Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10407302

Hilkert; Douthitt; Schlter; Brand



Iron-Isotopic Fractionation Studies Using Multiple Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The importance of Fe biogeochemistry has stimulated interest in Fe isotope fractionation. Recent studies using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and a "double spike" demonstrate the existence of biogenic Fe isotope effects. Here, we assess the utility of multiple-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry(MC-ICP-MS) with a desolvating sample introduction system for Fe isotope studies, and present data on Fe biominerals produced by a thermophilic bacterium. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Anbar, A. D.; Zhang, C.; Barling, J.; Roe, J. E.; Nealson, K. H.



Quantitative imaging of subcellular metabolism with stable isotopes and multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) is the quantitative imaging of stable isotope labels in cells with a new type of secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS). The power of the methodology is attributable to (i) the immense advantage of using non-toxic stable isotope labels, (ii) high resolution imaging that approaches the resolution of usual transmission electron microscopy and (iii) the precise quantification of label down to 1 part-per-million and spanning several orders of magnitude. Here we review the basic elements of MIMS and describe new applications of MIMS to the quantitative study of metabolic processes including protein and nucleic acid synthesis in model organisms ranging from microbes to humans. PMID:23660233

Steinhauser, Matthew L.; Lechene, Claude P.



Computer Analysis of Isotope Clusters in Mass Spectrometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the application of a computer program designed to produce a formula determination simultaneously accounting for both elemental composition and probable isotopic species for a measured ion mass. (SLH)

Bell, Harold M.



Determination of the H3 Factor in Hydrogen Isotope Ratio Monitoring Mass Spectrometry  

E-print Network

Determination of the H3 Factor in Hydrogen Isotope Ratio Monitoring Mass Spectrometry Alex L, is a parameter required in high- precision, mass spectrometric analyses of hydrogen iso- topic abundances. When H.g., 13C in CH4), highly precise measurements of hydrogen isotopic ratios typically employ mo- lecular H2

Sessions, Alex L.


Measurement of positional isotope exchange rates in enzyme catalyzed reactions by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry  

E-print Network


Hilscher, Larry Wayne



Isotope Ratio Monitoring Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (IRM-GCMS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Earth, the C-13 content of organic compounds is depleted by roughly 13 to 23 permil from atmospheric carbon dioxide. This difference is largely due to isotope effects associated with the fixation of inorganic carbon by photosynthetic organisms. If life once existed on Mars, then it is reasonable to expect to observe a similar fractionation. Although the strongly oxidizing conditions on the surface of Mars make preservation of ancient organic material unlikely, carbon-isotope evidence for the existence of life on Mars may still be preserved. Carbon depleted in C-13 could be preserved either in organic compounds within buried sediments, or in carbonate minerals produced by the oxidation of organic material. A technique is introduced for rapid and precise measurement of the C-13 contents of individual organic compounds. A gas chromatograph is coupled to an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer through a combustion interface, enabling on-line isotopic analysis of isolated compounds. The isotope ratios are determined by integration of ion currents over the course of each chromatographic peak. Software incorporates automatic peak determination, corrections for background, and deconvolution of overlapped peaks. Overall performance of the instrument was evaluated by the analysis of a mixture of high purity n-alkanes of know isotopic composition. Isotopic values measured via IRM-GCMS averaged withing 0.55 permil of their conventionally measured values.

Freeman, K. H.; Ricci, S. A.; Studley, A.; Hayes, J. M.



Attogram measurement of rare isotopes by CW resonance ionization mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Three-color double-resonance ionization mass spectrometry, using two single-frequency cw dye lasers and a cw carbon dioxide laser, has been applied to the detection of attogram quantities of rare radionuclides. {sup 210}Pb has been measured in human hair and brain tissue samples to assess indoor radon exposure. Measurements on {sup 90}Sr have shown overall isotopic selectivity of greater than 10{sup 9} despite unfavorable isotope shifts relative to the major stable isotope, {sup 88}Sr.

Bushaw, B.A.



Uranium and thorium isotopic and concentration measurements by magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed techniques by sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for measuring the isotopic composition and concentration of uranium and thorium, focusing on the rare isotopes, 230Th and 234U. These isotopes have been widely used as tracers in earth sciences, e.g., chronology, paleoclimatology, archeology, hydrology, geochemistry, and oceanography. Measurements made on reference materials demonstrate that the analytical precision

Chuan-Chou Shen; R Lawrence Edwards; Hai Cheng; Jeffrey A Dorale; Rebecca B Thomas; S Bradley Moran; Sarah E Weinstein; Henrietta N Edmonds



Cholesterol efflux analyses using stable isotopes and mass spectrometry.  


Cholesterol efflux from macrophages and the vascular wall is the initial step of the cardiovascular protective reverse cholesterol transport process. This study demonstrates a mass spectrometry based assay to measure the cellular and medium content of [d(7)]cholesterol and unlabeled cholesterol that can be used to measure cholesterol efflux from cell lines. Using a triple-quadrupole electrospray ionization-MS instrument in direct infusion mode, product ion scanning for m/z 83, neutral loss (NL) 375.5 scanning, and NL 368.5 scanning were used to detect cholesterol (as an acetylated derivative), [d(7)]cholesteryl ester (CE), and unlabeled CE, respectively. The same mass of [d(7)]cholesterol was substituted for [(3)H]cholesterol under standard efflux assay conditions. At the end of [d(7)]cholesterol loading, the intracellular mass of [d(7)]cholesterol was twofold greater than that of unlabeled cholesterol, and the intracellular [d(7)]CE profile was similar to that of unlabeled CE. Efflux of cholesterol to apolipoprotein A-I and high-density lipoproteins was similar comparing efflux of either [d(7)]cholesterol or [(3)H]cholesterol as measured by following efflux of the tracers only. This technique also can be used to assess the efflux of unlabeled cholesterol to acceptors in medium that are initially cholesterol-free (e.g., apolipoprotein A-I). Taken together, this mass spectrometry-based assay provides new molecular detail to assess cholesterol efflux. PMID:23072980

Brown, Robert J; Shao, Fei; Baldn, Angel; Albert, Carolyn J; Ford, David A



Determination of Key Intermediates in Cholesterol and Bile Acid Biosynthesis by Stable Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

For more than a decade, we have developed stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry methods to quantify key intermediates in cholesterol and bile acid biosynthesis, mevalonate and oxysterols, respectively. The methods are more sensitive and reproducible than conventional radioisotope (RI), gas-chromatography (GC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, so that they are applicable not only to samples from experimental animals but also to small amounts of human specimens. In this paper, we review the development of stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry for quantifying mevalonate and oxysterols in biological materials, and demonstrate the usefulness of this technique. PMID:19609389

Yoshida, Tadashi; Honda, Akira; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Matsuzaki, Yasushi



Purification of dinosterol for hydrogen isotopic analysis using high-performance liquid chromatographymass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-preparative normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatographymass spectrometry (HPLCMS) method is presented for the purification of various alcohol fractions from total lipid extracts derived from sediments, for the purpose of hydrogen isotopic measurement by gas chromatographyisotope ratio mass spectrometry (GCIRMS). 4-Methylsterols, including the dinoflagellate-specific marker dinosterol (4,23,24-trimethylcholestan-22-en-3?-ol), were successfully separated from notoriously co-eluting plant-derived pentacyclic triterpenoid alcohols and alkyl alcohols. We

Rienk H. Smittenberg; Julian P. Sachs



Characterizing uranium oxide reference particles for isotopic abundances and uranium mass by single particle isotope dilution mass spectrometry.  


Uranium and plutonium particulate test materials are becoming increasingly important as the reliability of measurement results has to be demonstrated to regulatory bodies responsible for maintaining effective nuclear safeguards. In order to address this issue, the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) in collaboration with the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) has initiated a study to investigate the feasibility of preparing and characterizing a uranium particle reference material for nuclear safeguards, which is finally certified for isotopic abundances and for the uranium mass per particle. Such control particles are specifically required to evaluate responses of instruments based on mass spectrometric detection (e.g. SIMS, TIMS, LA-ICPMS) and to help ensuring the reliability and comparability of measurement results worldwide. In this paper, a methodology is described which allows quantifying the uranium mass in single micron particles by isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS). This methodology is characterized by substantial improvements recently achieved at IRMM in terms of sensitivity and measurement accuracy in the field of uranium particle analysis by TIMS. The use of monodisperse uranium oxide particles prepared using an aerosol generation technique developed at ITU, which is capable of producing particles of well-characterized size and isotopic composition was exploited. The evidence of a straightforward correlation between the particle volume and the mass of uranium was demonstrated in this study. Experimental results have shown that the uranium mass per particle can be measured via the ID-TIMS method to a relative expanded uncertainty of about 10% (coverage factor k=2). The availability of reliable and validated methods for the characterization of uranium particles is considered to be essential for the establishment of SI-traceable measurement results. It is therefore expected that the method developed in this study is valuable for the certification of particulate materials in which the isotopic composition and the content of uranium must be accurately known. PMID:23021805

Kraiem, M; Richter, S; Erdmann, N; Khn, H; Hedberg, M; Aregbe, Y



Standard test method for uranium and plutonium concentrations and isotopic abundances by thermal ionization mass spectrometry  

E-print Network

1.1 This test method covers the determination of the concentration and isotopic composition of uranium and plutonium in solutions. The purified uranium or plutonium from samples ranging from nuclear materials to environmental or bioassay matrices is loaded onto a mass spectrometric filament. The isotopic ratio is determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry, the concentration is determined by isotope dilution. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia



Microfabrication of high temperature micro-reactors for continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robust, high temperature micro-reactors for on-line conversion of organic compounds were microfabricated in high purity fused\\u000a silica to enable stable isotopic compositional analysis of individual compounds in mixtures using advanced gas chromatography\\u000a (GC) separation techniques, such as fast GC and comprehensive 2D GC, coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). These\\u000a micro-reactors could also be manufactured at larger channel dimensions

Herbert J. TobiasJ; J. Thomas Brenna



Performance of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source designed for isotope ratio mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

We have designed, built, and tested an electron cyclotron resonance ion source suited to the needs of an experimental program examining new methods of isotope ratio mass spectrometry using multiply charged ions. Contaminant levels have been reduced to low levels. Sample absorption and desorption effects are under investigation and preliminary results are presented.

Hotchkis, M. A. C.; Buckley, D.; Button, D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)



A gas chromatography/pyrolysis/isotope ratio mass spectrometry system for high-precision dD measurements  

E-print Network

of greenhouse gases; however, little is known about their isotopic composition. In particular, stable sources exhibit distinct carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition. However, CH4 isotope analysisA gas chromatography/pyrolysis/isotope ratio mass spectrometry system for high-precision d

Fischer, Hubertus


Mass spectrometry and natural variations of iron isotopes.  


Although the processes that govern iron isotope variations in nature are just beginning to be understood, multiple studies attest of the virtue of this system to solve important problems in geosciences and biology. In this article, we review recent advances in the geochemistry, cosmochemistry, and biochemistry of iron isotopes. In Section 2, we briefly address the question of the nucleosynthesis of Fe isotopes. In Section 3, we describe the different methods for purifying Fe and analyzing its isotopic composition. The methods of SIMS, RIMS, and TIMS are presented but more weight is given to measurements by MC-ICPMS. In Section 4, the isotope anomalies measured in extraterrestrial material are briefly discussed. In Section 5, we show how high temperature processes like evaporation, condensation, diffusion, reduction, and phase partitioning can affect Fe isotopic composition. In Section 6, the various low temperature processes causing Fe isotopic fractionation are presented. These involve aqueous and biologic systems. PMID:16463281

Dauphas, Nicolas; Rouxel, Olivier



A new series of uranium isotope reference materials for investigating the linearity of secondary electron multipliers in isotope mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new series of gravimetrically prepared uranium isotope reference materials, the so-called IRMM-074 series, with the n(235U)/n(238U) isotope ratio held constant at unity and the n(233U)/n(238U) isotope ratios varying from 1.0 to 10-6 has been prepared and certified. This series is suited for calibration of secondary electron multipliers used widely in isotope mass spectrometry, in particular for techniques such as thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS). The new IRMM-074 was prepared as a replacement for the already exhausted IRMM-072 predecessor series. Uranium materials with high isotopic enrichments of 233U, 235U and 238U were purified using identical methods involving separation on anion and cation column followed by a precipitation as peroxide. The oxides were calcined to convert them to U3O8 simultaneously, in an oven installed in a glove-box that provided a controlled low-humidity environment. The oxides of 235U and 238U were weighed and mixed with a mole ratio n(235U)/n(238U) = 1.0 and then dissolved. The 233U oxide was dissolved to form a separate solution with the same concentration and 6rom this primary solution three dilutions were made by weighing. A weighed amount of the n(235U)/n(238U) solution and weighed amounts of the 233U solutions were mixed in various proportions in order to achieve n(233U)/n(238U) isotope ratios varying from 1.0 to 10-6. The methods for the preparation, the mixing and the mixing calculations are described. The expanded uncertainties (coverage factor k = 2) of the certified isotope ratios for the IRMM-074 series are 0.015% for the n(235U)/n(238U) ratio and 0.025% for the n(233U)/n(238U) ratios, which constitutes an improvement compared to those of the predecessor IRMM-072 series. In addition, recent observations regarding the linearity response of secondary electron multipliers (SEMs) and suitable reference materials for investigating detector linearity are reviewed. Two measurement procedures for applying the IRMM-072 and IRMM-073 (diluted from the remaining fraction of IRMM-072) series as well as the new IRMM-074 series for assessing SEM linearity are suggested. The procedures are tailor-made for the specific instrumental characteristics of thermal ionization mass spectrometers (TIMS) and multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers (MC-ICPMS) but can be adapted also for further types of isotope ratio mass spectrometers.

Richter, S.; Alonso, A.; Aregbe, Y.; Eykens, R.; Kehoe, F.; Khn, He; Kivel, N.; Verbruggen, A.; Wellum, R.; Taylor, P. D. P.



Laser mass spectrometry of anomalous fractionation of isotopes of heavy elements  

SciTech Connect

The isotopic composition of the heavy elements Ti, Fe, Br, Sr, Ba, Nd, Gd, Dy, and Pb, contained in rock samples, on the sea bottom, and in sea shells, was measured by the method of laser mass spectrometry. The experimental data obtained are compared with the main characteristics of nuclear isotopes - spin, magnetic moment, electric quadrupole moment, and neutron binding energy. A correlation was observed between the combination of signs of the magnetic moment and electric quadrupole moment and the anomalous fractionation of isotopes of heavy elements. The behavior of protoisotopes and magic nuclei is studied.

Bykovskii, Yu.A.; Timoshin, V.T.; Laptev, N.D.; Manykin, E.A.



Illustrating the Concepts of Isotopes and Mass Spectrometry in Introductory Courses: A MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mass spectrometry is a widely used and versatile tool for scientists in many different fields. Soft ionization techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) allow for the analysis of biomolecules, polymers, and clusters. This article describes a MALDI mass spectrometry experiment designed for students in introductory

Dopke, Nancy Carter; Lovett, Timothy Neal



Determination of uranium and thorium concentrations in soils: Comparison of isotope dilution-secondary ion mass spectrometry and isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the present study existed in making a comparison between isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) and isotope dilution-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ID-SIMS) on the basis of their precision and accuracy. Three different sets of soils were therefore analyzed to determine their uranium and thorium contents. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that the precision of TIMS was about 6 times better than that of SIMS. It was clear in the case of TIMS that the overall precision can almost completely be explained by the variation in composition between samples, while for the SIMS analyses, the instrumental error plays an important role in determining the precision. The overall SIMS/TIMS ratio for all data and for both elements equals 0.994 with a standard error of 0.004. As a result of this, it is statistically not fully proven that there is a systematic difference in accuracy between the two techniques. For the chemical separation of the analytes, a new element-specific resin was used and evaluated. The newer resin was able to remove metals such as iron, lead, and bismuth better than that traditional strong anion resin, but the uranium fraction obtained using the newer resin contained a larger amount of thorium. 14 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Adriaens, A.G.; Adams, F.C. (Univ. of Antwerp, Wilrijk (Belgium)); Fassett, J.D.; Kelly, W.R.; Simons, D.S. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States))




SciTech Connect

A new method that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of plutonium and neptunium in water samples was developed for the measurement of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and alpha spectrometry; a hybrid approach. {sup 238}U can interfere with {sup 239}Pu measurement by ICP-MS as {sup 238}UH{sup +} mass overlap and {sup 237}Np via peak tailing. The method provide enhanced removal of uranium by separating Pu and Np initially on TEVA Resin, then moving Pu to DGA resin for additional removal of uranium. The decontamination factor for uranium from Pu is almost 100,000 and the decontamination factor for U from Np is greater than 10,000. This method uses stacked extraction chromatography cartridges and vacuum box technology to facilitate rapid separations. Preconcentration is performed using a streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation method. Purified solutions are split between ICP-MS and alpha spectrometry so that long and short-lived Pu isotopes can be measured successfully. The method allows for simultaneous extraction of 20 samples (including QC samples) in 4 to 6 hours, and can also be used for emergency response. {sup 239}Pu, {sup 242}Pu and {sup 237}Np were measured by ICP-MS, while {sup 236}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239}Pu were measured by alpha spectrometry.

Maxwell, S.; Jones, V.; Culligan, B.; Nichols, S.; Noyes, G.



Improving precision in resonance ionization mass spectrometry : influence of laser bandwidth in uranium isotope ratio measurements.  

SciTech Connect

The use of broad bandwidth lasers with automated feedback control of wavelength was applied to the measurement of {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratios by resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) to decrease laser-induced isotopic fractionation. By broadening the bandwidth of the first laser in a three-color, three-photon ionization process from a bandwidth of 1.8 GHz to about 10 GHz, the variation in sequential relative isotope abundance measurements decreased from 10% to less than 0.5%. This procedure was demonstrated for the direct interrogation of uranium oxide targets with essentially no sample preparation.

Isselhardt, B. H.; Savina, M. R.; Knight, K. B.; Pellin, M. J.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Prussin, S. G. (Materials Science Division); (Univ. California at Berkeley); (LLNL)



Improving precision in resonance ionization mass spectrometry: influence of laser bandwidth in uranium isotope ratio measurements.  


The use of broad bandwidth lasers with automated feedback control of wavelength was applied to the measurement of (235)U/(238)U ratios by resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) to decrease laser-induced isotopic fractionation. By broadening the bandwidth of the first laser in a three-color, three-photon ionization process from a bandwidth of 1.8 GHz to about 10 GHz, the variation in sequential relative isotope abundance measurements decreased from 10% to less than 0.5%. This procedure was demonstrated for the direct interrogation of uranium oxide targets with essentially no sample preparation. PMID:21410136

Isselhardt, B H; Savina, M R; Knight, K B; Pellin, M J; Hutcheon, I D; Prussin, S G



Innovations in Mass Spectrometry for Precise and Accurate Isotope Ratio Determination from Very Small Analyte Quantities (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation describes progress in mass spectrometry for analysing very small analyte quantities, illustrated by example applications from nuclear forensics. In this challenging application, precise and accurate (0\\/00) uranium isotope ratios are required from 1 - 2 m diameter uranium oxide particles, which comprise less than 40 pg of uranium. Traditionally these are analysed using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS),

N. S. Lloyd; C. Bouman; M. S. Horstwood; R. R. Parrish; J. B. Schwieters



Calibration and Data Processing in Gas Chromatography Combustion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) by gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GCC-IRMS) is a powerful technique for the sourcing of substances, such as determination of the geographic or chemical origin of drugs and food adulteration, and it is especially invaluable as a confirmatory tool for detection of the use of synthetic steroids in competitive sport. We review here principles and practices for data processing and calibration of GCC-IRMS data with consideration to anti-doping analyses, with a focus on carbon isotopic analysis (13C/12C). After a brief review of peak definition, the isotopologue signal reduction methods of summation, curve-fitting, and linear regression are described and reviewed. Principles for isotopic calibration are considered in the context of the ?13C = ?13CM ?13CE difference measurements required for establishing adverse analytical findings for metabolites relative to endogenous reference compounds. Considerations for the anti-doping analyst are reviewed. PMID:22362612

Zhang, Ying; Tobias, Herbert J.; Sacks, Gavin L.; Brenna, J. Thomas



Isotope ratio analysis of individual sub-micrometer plutonium particles with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  


Information on plutonium isotope ratios in individual particles is of great importance for nuclear safeguards, nuclear forensics and so on. Although secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is successfully utilized for the analysis of individual uranium particles, the isobaric interference of americium-241 to plutonium-241 makes difficult to obtain accurate isotope ratios in individual plutonium particles. In the present work, an analytical technique by a combination of chemical separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is developed and applied to isotope ratio analysis of individual sub-micrometer plutonium particles. The ICP-MS results for individual plutonium particles prepared from a standard reference material (NBL SRM-947) indicate that the use of a desolvation system for sample introduction improves the precision of isotope ratios. In addition, the accuracy of the (241)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratio is much improved, owing to the chemical separation of plutonium and americium. In conclusion, the performance of the proposed ICP-MS technique is sufficient for the analysis of individual plutonium particles. PMID:21111176

Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Lee, Chi-Gyu; Kimura, Takaumi



Application of Uranium Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry in the preparation of New Certified Reference Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proven measurement techniques play a critical role in the preparation of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) - those requiring high accuracy and precision in the measurement results. Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) is one such measurement method commonly used in the quantitative analysis of uranium in nuclear safeguards and isotope geology applications. In this project, we evaluated the possibility of using some of the uranium isotopic and assay CRMs made earlier by the New Brunswick laboratory as IDMS spikes to define the uranium mass fraction in future preparations of CRMs. Uranium solutions prepared from CRM 112-A (a highly pure uranium metal assay standard) and CRM 115 (a highly pure uranium oxide isotopic and assay standard) were used as spikes in the determination of uranium. Two different thermal ionization mass spectrometer instruments (MAT 261 and TRITON) were used for the isotopic measurements. Standard IDMS equation was used for data reduction to yield results for uranium mass fraction along with uncertainties, the latter calculated according to GUM. The results show that uranium mass fraction measurements can be made with the required accuracy and precision for defining the uranium concentration in new CRMs as well as in routine samples analyses.

Haszbek, A.; Mathew, K. J.; Orlowicz, G.; Srinivasan, B.; Narayanan, U.



Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement of isotope ratios in depleted uranium contaminated soils.  


Laser ablation of pressed soil pellets was examined as a means of direct sample introduction to enable inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) screening of soils for residual depleted uranium (DU) contamination. Differentiation between depleted uranium, an anthropogenic contaminant, and naturally occurring uranium was accomplished on the basis of measured 235U/238U isotope ratios. The amount of sample preparation required for laser ablation is considerably less than that typically required for aqueous sample introduction. The amount of hazardous laboratory waste generated is diminished accordingly. During the present investigation, 235U/238U isotope ratios measured for field samples were in good agreement with those derived from gamma spectrometry measurements. However, substantial compensation was required to mitigate the effects of impaired pulse counting attributed to sample inhomogeneity and sporadic introduction of uranium analyte into the plasma. PMID:14611049

Seltzer, Michael D



Membrane permeation continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry for on-line carbon isotope ratio determination.  


Gaseous membrane permeation (MP) technologies have been combined with continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry for on-line delta13C measurements. The experimental setup of membrane permeation-gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (MP-GC/C/IRMS) quantitatively traps gas streams in membrane permeation experiments under steady-state conditions and performs on-line gas transfer into a GC/C/IRMS system. A commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane sheet was used for the experiments. Laboratory tests using CO2 demonstrate that the whole process does not fractionate the C isotopes of CO2. Moreover, the delta13C values of CO2 permeated on-line give the same isotopic results as off-line static dual-inlet IRMS delta13C measurements. Formaldehyde generated from aqueous formaldehyde solutions has also been used as the feed gas for permeation experiments and on-line delta13C determination. The feed-formaldehyde delta13C value was pre-determined by sampling the headspace of the thermostated aqueous formaldehyde solution. Comparison of the results obtained by headspace with those from direct aqueous formaldehyde injection confirms that the headspace sampling does not generate isotopic fractionation, but the permeated formaldehyde analyzed on-line yields a 13C enrichment relative to the feed delta13C value, the isotopic fractionation being 1.0026 +/- 0.0003. The delta13C values have been normalized using an adapted two-point isotopic calibration for delta13C values ranging from -42 to -10 per thousand. The MP-GC/C/IRMS system allows the delta13C determination of formaldehyde without chemical derivatization or additional analytical imprecision. PMID:19533600

Tremblay, Patrice; Savard, Martine M; Smirnoff, Anna; Paquin, Real



Very high resolution saturation spectroscopy of lutetium isotopes via c-w single-frequency laser resonance ionization mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we discuss the use of Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) to perform isotopically selective saturation spectroscopy of lutetium isotopes. Utilizing this technique, it is shown that accurate measurements of the relative frequencies of hyperfine (HF) components for different isotopes easily can be made without the need for an isotopically enriched sample. The precision with which the HF splitting constants can be determined is estimated to be approx.5 times greater than in previous work.

Fearey, B.L.; Parent, D.C.; Keller, R.A.; Miller, C.M.



Elemental and isotopic analysis of inorganic salts by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry is applied for the analysis of elements as well as their isotopic composition in different inorganic salts. At very low laser energies the inorganic ions are desorbed and ionized from the thin layer of the sample surface. The naturally occurring isotopes of alkali and silver ions are resolved using time of flight mass spectrometer. Further increase in laser energy shows the appearance of Al, Cr, and Fe ions in the mass spectra. This indicates the penetration laser beam beyond the sample surface leading to the ablation of sample target at higher energies. The simultaneous appearance of atomic ions from the sample target at relatively higher laser energies hampers the unambiguous identification of amino acid residues from the biomolecular ions in MALDI-MS.

Jayasekharan, T.; Sahoo, N. K. [Applied Spectroscopy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)



Isotope fractionation during ion beam formation in multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instrumental mass discrimination in multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) was investigated with respect to influences after ion extraction from the plasma and during ion beam formation. The ions were implanted in targets which were subsequently subjected to spatially (radially) resolved isotopic analysis via laser ablation MC-ICP-MS or to bulk isotopic composition via conventional solution nebulization MC-ICP-MS. For the elements Cd, Pb and U, the isotope ratios show a strong variation as a function of distance from the center, whereas for lighter elements such as Li or Ni, such variation could not be detected by this approach, due to low signal-to-background ratios. The bulk isotope ratio of Li was found to be fractionated by 9-12% with respect to that in the sample at the earliest accessible location of the ion beam. Heavier elements show less isotope fractionation down to ? 0.4% for Pb and U. The combination of bulk and spatially resolved data suggests a combination of coulombic repulsion and scattering effects as main contributors to instrumental mass discrimination.

Kivel, Niko; Gnther-Leopold, Ines; Vanhaecke, Frank; Gnther, Detlef



Chlorine isotope effects from isotope ratio mass spectrometry suggest intramolecular C-Cl bond competition in trichloroethene (TCE) reductive dehalogenation.  


Chlorinated ethenes are prevalent groundwater contaminants. To better constrain (bio)chemical reaction mechanisms of reductive dechlorination, the position-specificity of reductive trichloroethene (TCE) dehalogenation was investigated. Selective biotransformation reactions (i) of tetrachloroethene (PCE) to TCE in cultures of Desulfitobacterium sp. strain Viet1; and (ii) of TCE to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) in cultures of Geobacter lovleyi strain SZ were investigated. Compound-average carbon isotope effects were -19.0 0.9 (PCE) and -12.2 1.0 (TCE) (95% confidence intervals). Using instrumental advances in chlorine isotope analysis by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry, compound-average chorine isotope effects were measured for PCE (-5.0 0.1) and TCE (-3.6 0.2). In addition, position-specific kinetic chlorine isotope effects were determined from fits of reactant and product isotope ratios. In PCE biodegradation, primary chlorine isotope effects were substantially larger (by -16.3 1.4 (standard error)) than secondary. In TCE biodegradation, in contrast, the product cis-DCE reflected an average isotope effect of -2.4 0.3 and the product chloride an isotope effect of -6.5 2.5, in the original positions of TCE from which the products were formed (95% confidence intervals). A greater difference would be expected for a position-specific reaction (chloride would exclusively reflect a primary isotope effect). These results therefore suggest that both vicinal chlorine substituents of TCE were reactive (intramolecular competition). This finding puts new constraints on mechanistic scenarios and favours either nucleophilic addition by Co(I) or single electron transfer as reductive dehalogenation mechanisms. PMID:24853618

Cretnik, Stefan; Bernstein, Anat; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Lffler, Frank; Elsner, Martin



High-resolution quantitative imaging of mammalian and bacterial cells using stable isotope mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background Secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is an important tool for investigating isotopic composition in the chemical and materials sciences, but its use in biology has been limited by technical considerations. Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS), which combines a new generation of SIMS instrument with sophisticated ion optics, labeling with stable isotopes, and quantitative image-analysis software, was developed to study biological materials. Results The new instrument allows the production of mass images of high lateral resolution (down to 33 nm), as well as the counting or imaging of several isotopes simultaneously. As MIMS can distinguish between ions of very similar mass, such as 12C15N- and 13C14N-, it enables the precise and reproducible measurement of isotope ratios, and thus of the levels of enrichment in specific isotopic labels, within volumes of less than a cubic micrometer. The sensitivity of MIMS is at least 1,000 times that of 14C autoradiography. The depth resolution can be smaller than 1 nm because only a few atomic layers are needed to create an atomic mass image. We illustrate the use of MIMS to image unlabeled mammalian cultured cells and tissue sections; to analyze fatty-acid transport in adipocyte lipid droplets using 13C-oleic acid; to examine nitrogen fixation in bacteria using 15N gaseous nitrogen; to measure levels of protein renewal in the cochlea and in post-ischemic kidney cells using 15N-leucine; to study DNA and RNA co-distribution and uridine incorporation in the nucleolus using 15N-uridine and 81Br of bromodeoxyuridine or 14C-thymidine; to reveal domains in cultured endothelial cells using the native isotopes 12C, 16O, 14N and 31P; and to track a few 15N-labeled donor spleen cells in the lymph nodes of the host mouse. Conclusion MIMS makes it possible for the first time to both image and quantify molecules labeled with stable or radioactive isotopes within subcellular compartments. PMID:17010211

Lechene, Claude; Hillion, Francois; McMahon, Greg; Benson, Douglas; Kleinfeld, Alan M; Kampf, J Patrick; Distel, Daniel; Luyten, Yvette; Bonventre, Joseph; Hentschel, Dirk; Park, Kwon Moo; Ito, Susumu; Schwartz, Martin; Benichou, Gilles; Slodzian, Georges



Lead concentrations and isotope ratios in street dust determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  


A major source of environmental lead, particularly in urban areas, has been from the combustion of leaded petrol. Street dust has previously been used to assess urban lead contamination, and the dust itself can also be a potential source of lead ingestion, particularly to children. The progressive reduction of lead in petrol, in recent years, would be expected to have been reflected in a reduction of lead in urban dust. We have tested this hypothesis by repeating an earlier survey of Manchester street dust and carrying out a comparable survey in Paris. Samples were collected from streets and parks, lead was extracted by digestion with concentrated nitric acid and determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead isotope ratios were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results for Manchester show that lead concentrations have fallen by about 40% (street dust averages, 941 micrograms g-1 (ppm) in 1975 down to 569 ppm in 1997). In Paris, the lead levels in street dust are much higher and significant differences were observed between types of street (not seen in Manchester). Additionally, lead levels in parks were much lower than in Manchester. Samples collected under the Eiffel Tower had very high concentrations and lead isotope ratios showed that this was unlikely to be fallout from motor vehicles but could be due to the paint used on the tower. Isotope ratios measurements also revealed that lead additives used in France and the UK come from different sources. PMID:9581021

Nageotte, S M; Day, J P



Stable isotope dilutionmass spectrometry for determining total selenium levels in plants, soils and sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitation of selenium in plants, soils and sludges was achieved by isotope dilution-mass spectrometry using a benchtop instrument. Samples for analysis were spiked with 76Se isotope solution. Plant material was digested on a heating block at 150 C using a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Selenium in soils and sludges was released by treatment with nitric acid followed

F. MacLeod; B. A. McGaw; C. A. Shand



Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies of living systems  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies in living systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 {+-} 5% (n = 5). Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 {+-} 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 {+-} 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 {+-} 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon isotope ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and {beta}-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of {sup 13}C{sup +} with {sup 12}C{sup 1}H{sup +} comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or {beta}-cyclodextrin.

Luong, E.



Essentials of iron, chromium, and calcium isotope analysis of natural materials by thermal ionization mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The use of isotopes to understand the behavior of metals in geological, hydrological, and biological systems has rapidly expanded in recent years. One of the mass spectrometric techniques used to analyze metal isotopes is thermal ionization mass spectrometry, or TIMS. While TIMS has been a useful analytical technique for the measurement of isotopic composition for decades and TIMS instruments are widely distributed, there are significant difficulties associated with using TIMS to analyze isotopes of the lighter alkaline earth elements and transition metals. Overcoming these difficulties to produce relatively long-lived and stable ion beams from microgram-sized samples is a non-trivial task. We focus here on TIMS analysis of three geologically and environmentally important elements (Fe, Cr, and Ca) and present an in-depth look at several key aspects that we feel have the greatest potential to trouble new users. Our discussion includes accessible descriptions of different analytical approaches and issues, including filament loading procedures, collector cup configurations, peak shapes and interferences, and the use of isotopic double spikes and related error estimation. Building on previous work, we present quantitative simulations, applied specifically in this study to Fe and Ca, that explore the effects of (1) time-variable evaporation of isotopically homogeneous spots from a filament and (2) interferences on the isotope ratios derived from a double spike subtraction routine. We discuss how and to what extent interferences at spike masses, as well as at other measured masses, affect the double spike-subtracted isotope ratio of interest (44Ca/40Ca in the case presented, though a similar analysis can be used to evaluate 56Fe/54Fe and 53Cr/52Cr). The conclusions of these simulations are neither intuitive nor immediately obvious, making this examination useful for those who are developing new methodologies. While all simulations are carried out in the context of a specific isotope system, it should be noted that the same methods can be used to evaluate any isotope system of interest. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

Fantle, M.S.; Bullen, T.D.



Analytical Validation of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Pharmaceutical Development: the Measurement of Carbon-14 Isotope Ratio.  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an isotope based measurement technology that utilizes carbon-14 labeled compounds in the pharmaceutical development process to measure compounds at very low concentrations, empowers microdosing as an investigational tool, and extends the utility of {sup 14}C labeled compounds to dramatically lower levels. It is a form of isotope ratio mass spectrometry that can provide either measurements of total compound equivalents or, when coupled to separation technology such as chromatography, quantitation of specific compounds. The properties of AMS as a measurement technique are investigated here, and the parameters of method validation are shown. AMS, independent of any separation technique to which it may be coupled, is shown to be accurate, linear, precise, and robust. As the sensitivity and universality of AMS is constantly being explored and expanded, this work underpins many areas of pharmaceutical development including drug metabolism as well as absorption, distribution and excretion of pharmaceutical compounds as a fundamental step in drug development. The validation parameters for pharmaceutical analyses were examined for the accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of {sup 14}C/C ratio, independent of chemical separation procedures. The isotope ratio measurement was specific (owing to the {sup 14}C label), stable across samples storage conditions for at least one year, linear over 4 orders of magnitude with an analytical range from one tenth Modern to at least 2000 Modern (instrument specific). Further, accuracy was excellent between 1 and 3 percent while precision expressed as coefficient of variation is between 1 and 6% determined primarily by radiocarbon content and the time spent analyzing a sample. Sensitivity, expressed as LOD and LLOQ was 1 and 10 attomoles of carbon-14 (which can be expressed as compound equivalents) and for a typical small molecule labeled at 10% incorporated with {sup 14}C corresponds to 30 fg equivalents. AMS provides an sensitive, accurate and precise method of measuring drug compounds in biological matrices.

Keck, B D; Ognibene, T; Vogel, J S



GasBench/isotope ratio mass spectrometry: a carbon isotope approach to detect exogenous CO(2) in sparkling drinks.  


A new procedure for the determination of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) (13)C/(12)C isotope ratios, using direct injection into a GasBench/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GasBench/IRMS) system, has been developed to improve isotopic methods devoted to the study of the authenticity of sparkling drinks. Thirty-nine commercial sparkling drink samples from various origins were analyzed. Values of delta(13)C(cava) ranged from -20.30 per thousand to -23.63 per thousand, when C3 sugar addition was performed for a second alcoholic fermentation. Values of delta(13)C(water) ranged from -5.59 per thousand to -6.87 per thousand in the case of naturally carbonated water or water fortified with gas from the spring, and delta(13)C(water) ranged from -29.36 per thousand to -42.09 per thousand when industrial CO(2) was added. It has been demonstrated that the addition of C4 sugar to semi-sparkling wine (aguja) and industrial CO(2) addition to sparkling wine (cava) or water can be detected. The new procedure has advantages over existing methods in terms of analysis time and sample treatment. In addition, it is the first isotopic method developed that allows (13)C/(12)C determination directly from a liquid sample without previous CO(2) extraction. No significant isotopic fractionation was observed nor any influence by secondary compounds present in the liquid phase. PMID:17879391

Cabaero, Ana I; San-Hiplito, Tamar; Ruprez, Mercedes



Isotopic analysis of single uranium and plutonium particles by chemical treatment and mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isotopic composition of single uranium and plutonium particles was measured with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS). Particles deposited on a carbon planchet were first analyzed with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) attached to a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and then transferred on to a silicon wafer using a manipulator. The particle on the silicon wafer was dissolved with nitric acid and the isotopic ratios of U and Pu were measured with ICP-MS and TIMS. The results obtained by both methods for particles of certified reference materials showed good agreement with the certified values within the expected uncertainty. The measurement uncertainties obtained in this study were similar for both mass spectrometric methods. This study was performed to establish the method of particle analysis with SEM, EDX, the particle manipulation and chemical preparation technique, and the measurement of isotopic ratios of U and Pu in a single particle by mass spectrometry.

Shinonaga, T.; Esaka, F.; Magara, M.; Klose, D.; Donohue, D.



Particle isolation for analysis of uranium minor isotopes in individual particles by secondary ion mass spectrometry.  


A new technique to measure (234)U/(238)U and (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios for individual particles in environmental samples was developed, which was a combination of particle isolation under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The technique was verified by measuring (234)U/(238)U and (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios in individual particles in a simulated environmental sample containing uranium standard (NBL CRM U010) and Pb metal particles. When the uranium particles were not isolated, the relative deviations of the measured isotope ratios from the reference values increased with increasing the signal intensity ratio of (208)Pb to (238)U, which was due to the molecular ion interferences by the Pb particles co-existing in the sputtered area. By the isolation of individual uranium particles, the interferences were eliminated and the measured isotope ratios were in good agreement with the reference values. The maximum relative deviations among 20 particles were 8.9% for (234)U/(238)U and 13.1% for (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios, respectively. The technique was also successfully applied to the analysis of a real swipe sample containing various kinds of elements. PMID:19071406

Esaka, F; Esaka, K T; Lee, C G; Magara, M; Sakurai, S; Usuda, S; Watanabe, K



Alternative Filament Loading Solution for Accurate Analysis of Boron Isotopes by Negative Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry technique has become the major tool for investigating boron isotopes in the environment. The high sensitivity of BO2- ionization enables measurements of ng levels of boron. However, B isotope measurement by this technique suffers from two fundamental problems (1) fractionation induced by selective ionization of B isotopes in the mass spectrometer; and (2) CNO- interference on mass 42 that is often present in some load solutions (such as B-free seawater processed through ion-exchange resin). Here we report a potentially improved methodology using an alternative filament loading solution with a recently-installed Thermo Scientific TRITON thermal ionization mass spectrometer. Our initial results suggest that this solution -- prepared by combining high-purity single- element standard solutions of Ca, Mg, Na, and K in proportions similar to those in seawater in a 5% HCl matrix -- may offer significant improvement over some other commonly used load solutions. Total loading blank is around 15pg as determined by isotope dilution (NIST952). Replicate analyses of NIST SRM951 and modern seawater thus far have yielded 11B/10B ratios of 4.0057 (0.0008, n=14) and 4.1645 (0.0017, n=7; ?11B=39.6 permil), respectively. Replicate analyses of samples and SRM951 yield an average standard deviation (1 ?) of approximately 0.001 (0.25 permil). Fractionation during analysis (60-90 minutes) has thus far typically been less than 0.002 (0.5 permil). The load solution delivers ionization efficiency similar to directly-loaded seawater and has negligible signal at mass 26 (CN-), a proxy for the common interfering molecular ion (CNO-) on mass 42. Standards and samples loaded with the solution behave fairly predictably during filament heating and analysis, thus allowing for the possibility of fully automated data collection.

Dwyer, G. S.; Vengosh, A.



Determination of aflatoxins in animal feeds by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with isotope dilution.  


The objective of the present study is to develop a simple, fast method for detection of aflatoxins in animal feeds. Simultaneous quantitation of four aflatoxins (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1) and AFG(2)) in animal feeds was achieved in a single liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) run. The solid-phase extraction cleanup step is eliminated with the stable isotope dilution method. Matrix effects were observed and overcome by isotope dilution. The method was tested in a variety of animal feed matrices and proved to be accurate and reliable. Method ruggedness tests resulted in recoveries of 78% to 122% with an intra-day assay precision of 2% to 15% and an inter-day assay precision of 3% to 17%. These results indicate that this method is suitable for quantitation of aflatoxins in animal feeds. PMID:21491528

Li, Wei; Herrman, Timothy J; Dai, Susie Y



Nitrogen isotopic analyses by isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acids containing natural-abundance levels of 15N were derivatized and analyzed isotopically using a technique in which individual compounds are separated by gas chromatography, combusted on-line, and the product stream sent directly to an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer. For samples of N2 gas, standard deviations of ratio measurement were better than 0.1% (Units for delta are parts per thousand or per million (%).) for samples larger than 400 pmol and better than 0.5% for samples larger than 25 pmol (0.1% 15N is equivalent to 0.00004 atom % 15N). Results duplicated those of conventional, batchwise analyses to within 0.05%. For combustion of organic compounds yielding CO2/N2 ratios between 14 and 28, in particular for N-acetyl n-propyl derivatives of amino acids, delta values were within 0.25% of results obtained using conventional techniques and standard deviations were better than 0.35%. Pooled data for measurements of all amino acids produced an accuracy and precision of 0.04 and 0.23%, respectively, when 2 nmol of each amino acid was injected on column and 20% of the stream of combustion products was delivered to the mass spectrometer.

Merritt, D. A.; Hayes, J. M.



Quantification of growth hormone in serum by isotope dilution mass spectrometry.  


Interassay variation of antibody-based routine tests hampers comparability of measurement results for growth hormone (GH) between different laboratories and decision making in clinical practice. Here it is demonstrated that quantification of GH by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) constitutes a way to obtain precise and reliable results that can be referred to in evaluation of performance of commercial test kits. With the IDMS method developed, tryptic cleavage products YSFLQNPQTSLCFSESIPTPSNR (T6) and LEDGSPR (T12) of GH are quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using isotopically labeled forms of the peptides as internal standards. The GH cleavage fragments are obtained by whole serum tryptic proteolysis and then extracted from the resulting mixture by semipreparative reversed-phase LC followed by strong cation exchange chromatography. Analysis of blank serum spiked with recombinant 22-kDa GH at different concentration levels would result in a mean recovery of 101.6%, a standard deviation (SD) of 2.5%, a combined uncertainty (u(c)) of 3.0%, and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1.7 microg/L when quantifying T6 as a GH-derived fragment, whereas recovery=100.7%, SD=2.4%, u(c)=2.5%, and LOQ=2.7 microg/L were found with T12. The potential to acquisition of reference values is exemplified by application to serum materials used in a recent quality assessment exercise for routine laboratories. PMID:20226156

Arsene, Cristian G; Henrion, Andr; Diekmann, Nina; Manolopoulou, Jenny; Bidlingmaier, Martin



O Isotopic Composition of CaCO3 Measured by Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry: Statistical Evaluation and  

E-print Network

XL continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Conditions for which the H3 PO4 ­ CaCO3 reactiond13 C and d18 O Isotopic Composition of CaCO3 Measured by Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass the stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of small samples (400±20 µg) of calcium carbonate. This new


Using theoretical protein isotopic distributions to parse small-mass-difference post-translational interactions via mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Small-mass-difference modifications to proteins are obscured in mass spectrometry by the natural abundance of stable isotopes such as 13C that broaden the isotopic distribution of an intact protein. Using a ZipTip to remove salt from proteins in preparation for high-resolution mass spectrometry, the theoretical isotopic distribution intensities calculated from the proteins empirical formula could be fit to experimentally acquired data and used to differentiate between multiple low-mass modifications to proteins. We could readily distinguish copper from zinc bound to a single-metal superoxide dismutase (SOD1) species; copper and zinc only differ by an average mass of 1.8 Daltons and have overlapping stable isotope patterns. In addition, proteins could be directly modified while bound to the ZipTip. For example, washing 11 mM S-methyl methanethiosulfonate over the ZipTip allowed the number of free cysteines on proteins to be detected as S-methyl adducts. Alternatively, washing with the sulfhydryl oxidant diamide could quickly reestablish disulfide bridges. Using these methods, we could resolve the relative contributions of copper and zinc binding, as well as disulfide reduction to intact SOD1 protein present from <100 g of the lumbar spinal cord of a transgenic, SOD1 overexpressing mouse. Although techniques like ICP-MS can measure total metal in solution, this is the first method able to assess the metal-binding and sulfhydryl reduction of SOD1 at the individual subunit level and is applicable to many other proteins. PMID:23247967

Rhoads, Timothy W.; Williams, Jared R.; Lopez, Nathan I.; Morr, Jeffrey T.; Bradford, C. Samuel; Beckman, Joseph S.



Using Theoretical Protein Isotopic Distributions to Parse Small-Mass-Difference Post-Translational Modifications via Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small-mass-difference modifications to proteins are obscured in mass spectrometry by the natural abundance of stable isotopes such as 13C that broaden the isotopic distribution of an intact protein. Using a ZipTip (Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA) to remove salt from proteins in preparation for high-resolution mass spectrometry, the theoretical isotopic distribution intensities calculated from the protein's empirical formula could be fit to experimentally acquired data and used to differentiate between multiple low-mass modifications to proteins. We could readily distinguish copper from zinc bound to a single-metal superoxide dismutase (SOD1) species; copper and zinc only differ by an average mass of 1.8 Da and have overlapping stable isotope patterns. In addition, proteins could be directly modified while bound to the ZipTip. For example, washing 11 mM S-methyl methanethiosulfonate over the ZipTip allowed the number of free cysteines on proteins to be detected as S-methyl adducts. Alternatively, washing with the sulfhydryl oxidant diamide could quickly reestablish disulfide bridges. Using these methods, we could resolve the relative contributions of copper and zinc binding, as well as disulfide reduction to intact SOD1 protein present from <100 ?g of the lumbar spinal cord of a transgenic, SOD1 overexpressing mouse. Although techniques like ICP-MS can measure total metal in solution, this is the first method able to assess the metal-binding and sulfhydryl reduction of SOD1 at the individual subunit level and is applicable to many other proteins.

Rhoads, Timothy W.; Williams, Jared R.; Lopez, Nathan I.; Morr, Jeffrey T.; Bradford, C. Samuel; Beckman, Joseph S.



Carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric methane by isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Less than 15 min are required for the determination of delta C(sub PDB)-13 with a precision of 0.2 ppt(1 sigma, single measurement) in 5-mL samples of air containing CH4 at natural levels (1.7 ppm). An analytical system including a sample-introduction unit incorporating a preparative gas chromatograph (GC) column for separation of CH4 from N2, O2, and Ar is described. The 15-min procedure includes time for operation of that system, high-resolution chromatographic separation of the CH4, on-line combustion and purification of the products, and isotopic calibration. Analyses of standards demonstrate that systematic errors are absent and that there is no dependence of observed values of delta on sample size. For samples containing 100 ppm or more CH4, preconcentration is not required and the analysis time is less than 5 min. The system utilizes a commercially available, high-sensitivity isotope-ratio mass spectrometer. For optimal conditions of smaple handling and combustion, performance of the system is within a factor of 2 of the shot-noise limit. The potential exists therefore for analysis of samples as small as 15 pmol CH4 with a standard deviation of less than 1 ppt.

Merritt, Dawn A.; Hayes, J. M.; Des Marais, David J.



Analysis of Isotopic Labeling in Peptide Fragments by Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Phenotype in multicellular organisms is the consequence of dynamic metabolic events that occur in a spatially dependent fashion. This spatial and temporal complexity presents challenges for investigating metabolism; creating a need for improved methods that effectively probe biochemical events such as amino acid biosynthesis. Isotopic labeling can provide a temporal-spatial recording of metabolic events through, for example, the description of enriched amino acids in the protein pool. Proteins are therefore an important readout of metabolism and can be assessed with modern mass spectrometers. We compared the measurement of isotopic labeling in MS2 spectra obtained from tandem mass spectrometry under either higher energy collision dissociation (HCD) or collision induced dissociation (CID) at varied energy levels. Developing soybean embryos cultured with or without 13C-labeled substrates, and Escherichia coli MG1655 enriched by feeding 7% uniformly labeled glucose served as a source of biological material for protein evaluation. CID with low energies resulted in a disproportionate amount of heavier isotopologues remaining in the precursor isotopic distribution. HCD resulted in fewer quantifiable products; however deviation from predicted distributions were small relative to the CID-based comparisons. Fragment ions have the potential to provide information on the labeling of amino acids in peptides, but our results indicate that without further development the use of this readout in quantitative methods such as metabolic flux analysis is limited. PMID:24626471

Allen, Doug K.; Evans, Bradley S.; Libourel, Igor G. L.



Light Isotopes and Trace Organics Analysis of Mars Samples with Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precision measurement of light isotopes in Mars surface minerals and comparison of this isotopic composition with atmospheric gas and other, well-mixed reservoirs such as surface dust are necessary to understand the history of atmospheric evolution from a possibly warmer and wetter Martian surface to the present state. Atmospheric sources and sinks that set these ratios are volcanism, solar wind sputtering, photochemical processes, and weathering. Measurement of a range of trace organic species with a particular focus on species such as amino acids that are the building blocks of terrestrial life are likewise important to address the questions of prebiotic and present or past biological activity on Mars. The workshop topics "isotopic mineralogy" and "biology and pre-biotic chemistry" will be addressed from the point of view of the capabilities and limitations of insitu mass spectrometry (MS) techniques such as thermally evolved gas analysis (TEGA) and gas chromatography (GC) surface experiments using MS, in both cases, as a final chemical and isotopic composition detector. Insitu experiments using straightforward adaptations of existing space proven hardware can provide a substantial improvement in the precision and accuracy of our present knowledge of isotopic composition both in molecular and atomic species in the atmosphere and those chemically bound in rocks and soils. Likewise, detection of trace organic species with greatly improved sensitivity from the Viking GCMS experiment is possible using gas enrichment techniques. The limits to precision and accuracy of presently feasible insitu techniques compared to laboratory analysis of returned samples will be explored. The insitu techniques are sufficiently powerful that they can provide a high fidelity method of screening samples obtained from a diverse set of surface locations such as the subsurface or the interior of rocks for selection of those that are the most interesting for return to Earth.

Mahaffy, P.; Niemann, Hasso (Technical Monitor)



A Stable-Isotope Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolic Footprinting Approach to Analyze Exudates from Phytoplankton  

PubMed Central

Phytoplankton exudates play an important role in pelagic ecology and biogeochemical cycles of elements. Exuded compounds fuel the microbial food web and often encompass bioactive secondary metabolites like sex pheromones, allelochemicals, antibiotics, or feeding attractants that mediate biological interactions. Despite this importance, little is known about the bioactive compounds present in phytoplankton exudates. We report a stable-isotope metabolic footprinting method to characterise exudates from aquatic autotrophs. Exudates from 13C-enriched alga were concentrated by solid phase extraction and analysed by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. We used the harmful algal bloom forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense to prove the method. An algorithm was developed to automatically pinpoint just those metabolites with highly 13C-enriched isotope signatures, allowing us to discover algal exudates from the complex seawater background. The stable-isotope pattern (SIP) of the detected metabolites then allowed for more accurate assignment to an empirical formula, a critical first step in their identification. This automated workflow provides an effective way to explore the chemical nature of the solutes exuded from phytoplankton cells and will facilitate the discovery of novel dissolved bioactive compounds. PMID:24172212

Weber, Ralf J. M.; Selander, Erik; Sommer, Ulf; Viant, Mark R.



Using Punnett Squares to Facilitate Students' Understanding of Isotopic Distributions in Mass Spectrometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The isotopic distribution in mass spectroscopy is described for identifying pure compounds, being able to distinguish molecular fragments by masses. Punnett squares are familiar, easy to compute, and often graphical which makes helpful to students and the relative distribution of isotopic combination is easily generated for even isotopic

Sein, Lawrence T., Jr.



Accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of 240Pu\\/ 239Pu isotope ratios in Novaya Zemlya and Kara Sea sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally low levels of plutonium in environmental samples, often combined with limited sample sizes, necessitate reliable low-level techniques for determination of Pu isotopes. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has proved to be a powerful method for measuring low-level Pu activity concentrations and Pu isotope ratios. Based on procedural blanks, detection limits for AMS were below 1fg Pu (equivalent to ca. 2?Bq

Deborah H Oughton; Lindis Skipperud; L. Keith Fifield; Richard G Cresswell; Brit Salbu; Philip Day



Daily cortisol production rate in man determined by stable isotope dilution/mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Growth retardation as well as the development of Cushingoid features in adrenally insufficient patients treated with the currently accepted replacement dose of cortisol (33-41 mumol/day.m2; 12-15 mg/ prompted us to reevaluate the cortisol production rate (FPR) in normal subjects and patients with Cushing's syndrome, using a recently developed thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The stable isotope (9,12,12-2H3)cortisol was infused continuously for 31 h at about 5% of the anticipated FPR. Blood samples were obtained at 20-min intervals for 24 h, spun, and pooled in 4-h groups. Tracer dilution in plasma was determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The method was validated with controlled infusions in 6 patients with adrenal insufficiency. Results from 12 normal volunteers revealed a FPR of 27.3 +/- 7.5 mumol/day (9.9 +/- 2.7 mg/day) or 15.7 mumol/day.m2; 5.7 mg/m2. day. A previously unreported circadian variation in FPR was observed. Patients with Cushing's syndrome demonstrated unequivocal elevation of FPR and cortisol concentration correlated during each sample period in normal volunteers, indicating that cortisol secretion, rather than metabolism, is mainly responsible for changes in plasma cortisol. Our data suggest that the FPR in normal subjects may be lower than previously believed.

Esteban, N.V.; Loughlin, T.; Yergey, A.L.; Zawadzki, J.K.; Booth, J.D.; Winterer, J.C.; Loriaux, D.L. (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD (USA))



Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of brines - comparing isotope ratio mass spectrometry and isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's standard analytical methods for high precision stable isotope analysis of fluids are gas-water equilibration and high temperature pyrolysis coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometers (IRMS). In recent years, relatively new laser-based analytical instruments entered the market that are said to allow high isotope precision data on nearly every media. This optical technique is referred to as isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS). The objective of this study is to evaluate the capability of this new instrument type for highly saline solutions and a comparison of the analytical results with traditional IRMS analysis. It has been shown for the equilibration method that the presence of salts influences the measured isotope values depending on the salt concentration (see Lcuyer et al, 2009; Martineau, 2012). This so-called 'isotope salt effect' depends on the salt type and salt concentration. These factors change the activity in the fluid and therefore shift the isotope ratios measured by the equilibration method. Consequently, correction factors have to be applied to these analytical data. Direct conversion techniques like pyrolysis or the new laser instruments allow the measurement of the water molecule from the sample directly and should therefore not suffer from the salt effect, i.e. no corrections of raw values are necessary. However, due to high salt concentrations this might cause technical problems with the analytical hardware and may require labor-intensive sample preparation (e.g. vacuum distillation). This study evaluates the salt isotope effect for the IRMS equilibration technique (Thermo Gasbench II coupled to Delta Plus XP) and the laser-based IRIS instruments with liquid injection (Picarro L2120-i). Synthetic salt solutions (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, MgSO4, CaSO4) and natural brines collected from the Stassfurt Salt Anticline (Germany; Stadler et al., 2012) were analysed with both techniques. Salt concentrations ranged from seawater salinity up to full saturation. References Lcuyer, C. et al. (2009). Chem. Geol., 264, 122-126. [doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2009.02.017] Martineau, F. et al. (2012). Chem. Geol., 291, 236-240. [doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.10.017] Stadler, S. et al. (2012). Chem. Geol., 294-295, 226-242. [doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.12.006

Ahrens, Christian; Koeniger, Paul; van Geldern, Robert; Stadler, Susanne



Quantification of four artificial sweeteners in Finnish surface waters with isotope-dilution mass spectrometry.  


The artificial sweeteners sucralose (SCL), acesulfame (ACS), saccharin (SAC), and cyclamate (CYC) have been detected in environmental waters in Europe and North America. Higher environmental levels are expected in view of the increasing consumption of these food additives. In this study, an isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for quantifying the four artificial sweeteners in boreal lakes (n=3) and rivers (n=12). The highest concentrations of ACS, SAC, CYC and SCL were 9,600, 490, 210 and 1000ng/L, respectively. ACS and SAC were detected in all studied samples, and CYC and SCL in 98% and 56% of the samples. Seasonal trends of ACS and SAC were observed in some rivers. ACS and SCL concentrations in rivers correlated linearly with population equivalents of the wastewater treatment plants in the catchment areas, whereas SAC and CYC concentrations depend more on the source. PMID:24100049

Perkola, Noora; Sainio, Pirjo



Determination of dithiocarbamate fungicide residues by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and stable isotope dilution assay.  


A rapid and very sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) method for the simultaneous determination of dithiocarbamate (DTC) fungicide residues in fruits and vegetables was developed. The surface extraction of samples used an alkaline buffer consisting of sodium hydrogen carbonate and DL-penicillamine. The three DTC subclasses, i.e. dimethyldithiocarbamates (DMDs), ethylenebis(dithiocarbamates) (EBDs), and propylenebis(dithiocarbamates) (PBDs), were separated on a Sequant ZIC-pHILIC column using an acetonitrile/10 mM ammonia gradient. Because of the instability of DTC residues extracted from plant samples, a stable isotope dilution assay was applied. For each DTC subclass, the limits of detection and quantification were approximately 0.03 mg kg(-1) and 0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively. Recoveries from grapes, cucumbers, tomatoes, and rucola, spiked in the range of 0.01-0.9 mg kg(-1), averaged between 90 and 100%. PMID:18000839

Crnogorac, Goranka; Schwack, Wolfgang



Quantification of ferritin bound iron in human serum using species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometry.  


Ferritin is a hollow sphere protein composed of 24 subunits that can store up to 4500 iron atoms in its inner cavity. It is mainly found in the liver and spleen but also in serum at trace levels. Serum ferritin is considered as the best single indicator in assessing body iron stores except liver or bone marrow biopsy. However, it is confounded by other disease conditions. Ferritin bound iron (FBI) and ferritin saturation have been suggested as more robust biomarkers. The current techniques for FBI determination are limited by low antibody specificity, low instrument sensitivity and possible analyte losses during sample preparation. The need for a highly sensitive and reliable method is widely recognized. Here we describe a novel technique to detect serum FBI using species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SS-IDMS). [(57)Fe]-ferritin was produced by biosynthesis and in vitro labeling with the (57)Fe spike in the form of [(57)Fe]-citrate after cell lysis and heat treatment. [(57)Fe]-ferritin for sample spiking was further purified by fast liquid protein chromatography. Serum ferritin and added [(57)Fe]-ferritin were separated from other iron species by ultrafiltration followed by isotopic analysis of FBI using negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Repeatability of our assay is 8% with an absolute detection limit of 18 ng FBI in the sample. As compared to other speciation techniques, SS-IDMS offers maximum control over sample losses and species conversion during analysis. The described technique may therefore serve as a reference technique for clinical applications of FBI as a new biomarker for assessing body iron status. PMID:25008269

Ren, Yao; Walczyk, Thomas



Survey of Natural Cadmium Isotope Fractionation by Double Spike Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wombacher et al. (2003) have shown recently that natural Cd isotope fractionations in terrestrial materials are extremely limited (~100 ppm/amu or less). Thus, excellent external precision is absolutely paramount if Cd isotope fractionations are to be adequately quantified. Here we present a new high-precision double spike (DS) technique for Cd isotopes in which the Cd is measured by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS, ThermoElectron Triton), which draws on the pioneering work of Rosman et al. (1980). We observe pronounced anomalous odd-even isotope mass bias during TIMS measurement of Cd with silica gel activator, and avoid such effects by utilizing even isotopes of Cd only. The double spike and its composition were carefully optimized (cf. Galer, 1999), and the "natural" Cd isotope fractionation is expressed as the relative deviations in ^{112}Cd/^{110}Cd (in parts per 104) from our JMC Cd shelf standard. The external reproducibility for 100 ng loads of double-spiked JMC Cd shelf is 0.14 ?^{112/110}Cd (2SD, N=57) -- i.e. 7 ppm/amu -- which is a factor of 4 to 10 times better than that reported in published studies using MC-ICP-MS techniques (e.g. Wombacher et al., 2003; Cloquet et al., 2005). The DS-TIMS method offers further benefits in terms of superior sensitivity, while Cd abundances are obtained as a biproduct by isotope dilution. We have analyzed ?^{112/110}Cd in over sixty samples from different terrestrial reservoirs and environments in order to delimit the extent of natural isotope fractionation of Cd. Most samples were duplicated or triplicated. To facilitate inter-lab comparison, our measured ?^{112/110}Cd for the standards "Mnster Cd" and BAM-1012 averaged +21.46 and -7.42, respectively. On the whole, our study confirms the conclusions of Wombacher et al. (2003) that Cd isotope variations in terrestrial materials are limited -- nearly all samples fall within the range -1.0 to +1.0 in ?^{112/110}Cd. Nevertheless, we are able for the first time to resolve clearly differences far outside of analytical error. Analyses of 31 hydrogenous Fe-Mn deposits (and phosphorites) worldwide range from -0.6 to +2.0; those from the Indian and Circum- Antarctic Oceans lie at ~0, whle Pacific and Atlantic samples generally having positive values. We suggest these differences reflect different rates of vertical inorganic scavenging and remineralization. Oceanic basalts (MORB, Hawaii) and continental loess samples generally have negative ?^{112/110}Cd (-1.2 to -0.5) which may imply that the bulk silicate Earth has a mildly negative value relative to our Cd standard. Major sphalerite deposits worldwide are clustered between -1.0 and 0 suggesting that the mechanisms of ore deposit formation do not result in large isotopic fractionations of Cd. Ocean floor hydrothermal sulphide and Fe-Mn deposits mostly cluster around -0.5, but a few of the sulphides exhibit large variations -- as fractionated as -3.0 to +1.0. Overall, natural variations in ?^{112/110}Cd appear to be quite limited -- and are now resolvable -- but are dwarfed by the extreme Cd isotope fractionations found in meteorites (Rosman et al., 1980; Wombacher et al., 2003) and anthropogenic Cd (Cloquet et al., 2005). References: Cloquet C. et al. (2005), Geostand. Geoanal. Res. 1, 95-106; Galer S.J.G. (1999), Chem. Geol. 157, 255-274; Rosman K.J.R. et al. (1980), Geochem. J. 14, 269-277; Wombacher F. et al. (2003), Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 67, 4639-4654.

Schmitt, A.; Galer, S. J.; Abouchami, W.



Spatially tracking 13C labeled substrate (bicarbonate) accumulation in microbial communities using laser ablation isotope ratio mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

This is a manuscript we would like to submit for publication in Environmental Microbiology Reports. This manuscript contains a description of a laser ablation isotope ratio mass spectrometry methodology developed at PNNL and applied to a microbial system at a PNNL project location Hot Lake, Washington. I will submit a word document containing the entire manuscript with this Erica input request form.

Moran, James J.; Doll, Charles G.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Cory, Alexandra B.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Fredrickson, Jim K.



The Determination of the Natural Abundance of the Isotopes of Chlorine: An Introductory Experiment in Mass Spectrometry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory experiment which introduces basic principles and experimental techniques of mass spectrometry for fourth year undergraduate (B.Sc.) students. Laboratory procedures, background information, and discussion of results are provided for the experiment in which the natural isotopic abundance of chlorine is determined. (Author/JN)

O'Malley, Rebecca M.



Split-Field Drift Tube/Mass Spectrometry and Isotopic Labeling Techniques for Determination of Single Amino Acid Polymorphisms  

E-print Network

of Single Amino Acid Polymorphisms Stephen J. Valentine, S. Sevugarajan, Ruwan T. Kurulugama, Stormy L/mass spectrometry and isotopic labeling techniques is evaluated as a means of identifying single amino acid, these species have identical mobility distributions. Peptides having sequences that differ by one amino acid

Clemmer, David E.


Application of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the isotopic analysis of single uranium particles.  


The paper describes the application of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for the isotopic analysis of individual uranium-oxide particles. The procedure developed is suitable for the accurate measurement of 234U, 235U, 236U and 238U isotopes in single actinide particles with lateral dimensions down to 10 microm. The 235U/238U isotope ratios can be obtained with a precision of a few percent relative standard deviation using a single collector ICP-MS instrument. The precision could be improved by the use of slow ablation and by taking several LA-ICP-MS replicate spectra on the same particle investigated. For the minor isotopes use of higher mass resolution (R=4000) was necessary in some cases to avoid spectral interferences. The technique developed offers a rapid and accurate possibility for the isotopic composition determination of uranium-containing individual particles in environmental and safeguards samples. PMID:18721532

Varga, Zsolt



Environmental Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental mass spectrometry is an important branch of science because it provides many of the data that underlie policy decisions that can directly influence the health of people and ecosystems. Environmental mass spectrometry is currently undergoing rapid development. Among the most relevant directions are a significant broadening of the lists of formally targeted compounds; a parallel interest in nontarget chemicals; an increase in the reliability of analyses involving accurate mass measurements, tandem mass spectrometry, and isotopically labeled standards; and a shift toward faster high-throughput analysis, with minimal sample preparation, involving various approaches, including ambient ionization techniques and miniature instruments. A real revolution in analytical chemistry could be triggered with the appearance of robust, simple, and sensitive portable mass spectrometers that can utilize ambient ionization techniques. If the cost of such instruments is reduced to a reasonable level, mass spectrometers could become valuable household devices.

Lebedev, Albert T.



Stable isotope dilution multidimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for pancreatic cancer serum biomarker discovery.  


A novel approach to pancreatic cancer biomarker discovery has been developed, which employs a stable isotope labeled proteome (SILAP) standard coupled with extensive multidimensional separation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Secreted proteins from CAPAN-2 human pancreatic cancer derived cells were collected after conducting stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). The resulting SILAP standard contained <0.5% of individual unlabeled proteins. Pooled sera from patients with early stage pancreatic cancer or controls were prepared, and an equal amount of the SILAP standard was added to each sample. Proteins were separated by isoelectric focusing (IEF) prior to two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC)-MS/MS analysis. A total of 1065 proteins were identified of which 121 proteins were present at 1.5-fold or greater concentrations in the sera of patients with pancreatic cancer. ELISA validation of these findings was successfully performed for two proteins, ICAM-1 and BCAM. Results of these studies have provided proof of principle that a SILAP standard derived from the CAPAN-2 secreted proteome can be used in combination with extensive multidimensional LC-MS/MS for the identification and relative quantitation of potential biomarkers of pancreatic cancer. This technique allows for the detection of low-abundance proteins, and focuses only on biologically relevant proteins derived from pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:19199705

Yu, Kenneth H; Barry, Colin G; Austin, David; Busch, Christine M; Sangar, Vineet; Rustgi, Anil K; Blair, Ian A



[Determination of endogenous agmatine in rat plasma by isotope dilution-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  


A method for the determination of endogenous agmatine in rat plasma was developed by isotope dilution-gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI/MS). The plasma samples were analyzed after protein precipitation, evaporation, derivatization by hexafluoroacetone (HFAA), and clean-up on a Florisil SPE column. The GC-MS analysis utilized stable isotope d8-agmatine as internal standard. The samples after treatme were tested by negative chemical ionization with selected ion monitoring (SIM) which was set at m/z 492 (molecular ion of agmatine) and m/z 500 (molecular ion of internal standard). The limit of detection (LOD) of agmatine standard solution was 0.005 7 ng/mL. The calibration curve of the agmatine spiked in rat plasma showed a good linear relationship at the range of 1.14-57.0 ng/mL (r = 0.997). The recoveries of agmatine spiked in rat plasma ranged from 92.3% to 109.8%. Inter-day and intra-day precisions were less than 15%. The average concentration level of agmatine in rat plasma was (22 +/- 9) ng/mL, and there was no significant difference between male and female SD rats (p > 0.05). The method is high sensitive and specific, and can be used for the determination of endogenous agmatine in plasma. It provides a strong support for the subsequent research of agmatine. PMID:25255573

Qiu, Zhongli; Lin, Ying; Xiong, Zhili; Xie, Jianwei



Investigation of bn-44 Peptide Fragments Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry and Isotope Labeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An N-terminal deuterohemin-containing hexapeptide (DhHP-6) was designed as a short peptide cytochrome c (Cyt c) mimetic to study the effect of N-terminal charge on peptide fragmentation pathways. This peptide gave different dissociation patterns than normal tryptic peptides. Upon collision-induced dissociation (CID) with an ion trap mass spectrometer, the singly charged peptide ion containing no added proton generated abundant and characteristic bn-44 ions instead of bn-28 (an) ions. Studies by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and isotope labeling indicate that elimination of 44 Da fragments from b ions occurs via two different pathways: (1) loss of CH3CHO (44.0262) from a Thr side chain; (2) loss of CO2 (43.9898) from the oxazolone structure in the C-terminus. A series of analogues were designed and analyzed. The experimental results combined with Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations on the proton affinity of the deuteroporphyrin demonstrate that the production of these novel bn-44 ions is related to the N-terminal charge via a charge-remote rather than radical-directed fragmentation pathway.

Wang, Bing; Yu, Jiayi; Wang, Huixin; Wei, Zhonglin; Guo, Xinhua; Xiao, Zhaohui; Zeng, Zhoufang; Kong, Wei



Cadmium measurements in coral skeleton using isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here a method for the precise analysis of Cd/Ca in coral skeleton using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is presented. Isotope dilution and gravimetric standards with internal standardization were used for Cd and Ca determination, respectively. Separation of alkaline earth metals from Cd using ion chromatography reduced the high total dissolved solids while maintaining a strong Cd signal. Repeated Cd/Ca measurements of a coral standard yielded a precision of 2.2% (one standard deviation as a fraction of signal). Analyses of reference materials (BCR-1, BHVO-1, W-2, GSR-3, GSR-6, CACB-1, JCp-1, and JCt-1) fell within established ranges, with a precision comparable to other ICP-MS measurements. Advantages of this approach over existing methods for corals are as follows: (1) reduced introduction of high-concentration elements into the mass spectrometer, (2) sample requirements as low as 15 mg (i.e., ?1 pmol Cd/sample), and (3) determination of multiple element ratios on the same sample aliquot with a precision of 7% or better.

Matthews, Kathryn A.; McDonough, William F.; Grottoli, AndrA. G.



Accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios in Novaya Zemlya and Kara Sea sediments.  


Generally low levels of plutonium in environmental samples, often combined with limited sample sizes, necessitate reliable low-level techniques for determination of Pu isotopes. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has proved to be a powerful method for measuring low-level Pu activity concentrations and Pu isotope ratios. Based on procedural blanks, detection limits for AMS were below 1 fg Pu (equivalent to ca. 2 microBq 139Pu), which can compete with both TIMS, high sensitivity ICP-MS, and certainly alpha-spectrometry, while showing less interference, memory and matrix effects as compared to routine ICP-MS techniques. In addition to low detection limits, the technique offers the advantage of giving information on Pu isotope ratios. Measurements of sediments collected from dumping sites at Novaya Zemlya showed deviation from global fallout 240Pu/239Pu ratios. PMID:15177353

Oughton, Deborah H; Skipperud, Lindis; Fifield, L Keith; Cresswell, Richard G; Salbu, Brit; Day, Philip



Isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: methods for isotopic calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In trial analyses of a series of n-alkanes, precise determinations of 13C contents were based on isotopic standards introduced by five different techniques and results were compared. Specifically, organic-compound standards were coinjected with the analytes and carried through chromatography and combustion with them; or CO2 was supplied from a conventional inlet and mixed with the analyte in the ion source, or CO2 was supplied from an auxiliary mixing volume and transmitted to the source without interruption of the analyte stream. Additionally, two techniques were investigated in which the analyte stream was diverted and CO2 standards were placed on a near-zero background. All methods provided accurate results. Where applicable, methods not involving interruption of the analyte stream provided the highest performance (sigma = 0.00006 at.% 13C or 0.06% for 250 pmol C as CO2 reaching the ion source), but great care was required. Techniques involving diversion of the analyte stream were immune to interference from coeluting sample components and still provided high precision (0.0001 < or = sigma < or = 0.0002 at.% or 0.1 < or = sigma < or = 0.2%).

Merritt, D. A.; Brand, W. A.; Hayes, J. M.



An improved measurement of isotopic ratios by high resolution mass spectrometry.  


The study of protein kinetics requires an accurate measurement of isotopic ratios of peptides. Although Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometers yield accurate mass measurements of analytes, the isotopologue ratios are consistently lower than predicted. Recently, we demonstrated that the magnitude of the spectral error in the FT-ICR mass spectrometer is proportional to the scan duration of ions. Here, we present a novel isotopic ratio extrapolation (IRE) method for obtaining accurate isotopic ratio measurements. Accuracy is achieved by performing scans with different duration and extrapolation of the data to the initial moment of the ion rotation; IRE minimizes the absolute isotopic ratio error to ?1%. We demonstrate the application of IRE in protein turnover studies using (2)H(2)O-metabolic labeling. Overall, this technique allows accurate measurements of the isotopic ratios of proteolytic peptides, a critical step for enabling routine studies of proteome dynamics. PMID:23283729

Ilchenko, Serguei; Previs, Stephen F; Rachdaoui, Nadia; Willard, Belinda; McCullough, Arthur J; Kasumov, Takhar



Accurate determination and certification of bromine in plastic by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  


The accurate analytical method of bromine (Br) in plastic was developed by an isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICPMS). The figures of merit of microwave acid digestion procedures using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or quartz vessels were studied and the latter one was suitable for Br analysis since its material was free from Br contamination. The sample dilution procedures using Milli-Q water or ammonium (NH3) solution were also studied to remove memory effect for ICPMS measurement. Although severe memory effect was observed on Milli-Q water dilution, NH3 solution could remove it successfully. The accuracy of the ID-ICPMS was validated by a certified reference material (CRM) as well as the comparison with the analytical result obtained by an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as different analytical method. From these results, the ID-ICPMS developed in the present study could be evaluated as accurate analytical method of Br in plastic materials and it could apply to certification of Br in candidate plastic CRM with respect to such regulations related to RoHS (restriction of the use of hazardous substances in electrical and electronics equipment) directive. PMID:25000854

Ohata, Masaki; Miura, Tsutomu



[Honey adulteration detection using liquid chromatography/ elemental analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry].  


A new method for honey adulteration detection using liquid chromatography/elemental analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/EA-IRMS) was developed. Based on the individual delta13C values detected for 38 authentic honey samples, the limits for the authentic honey samples were proposed: the delta13C difference between protein and honey (Deltadelta13C(P-H)) should be higher or equal to than -0.95 per thousand, the delta13C difference between fructose and glucose (Deltadelta13C(F-G)) should be from -0.64 per thousand to 0.53 per thousand, and the maximum difference of delta13C values between all the components (Deltadelta13Cmax) should be lower than 2.09 per thousand. Based on the above criteria, the 58 positive samples spiked with C4 or C3 plant sugar syrup were confirmed by LC/EA-IRMS method from 150 commercial honey samples, while only 7 samples spiked with C4 plant sugar syrup were confirmed by the official EA-IRMS method. The proposed method represents a significant improvement in comparing with the official EA-IRMS method. PMID:21574394

Fei, Xiaoqing; Wu, Bin; Sehn, Chongyu; Ding, Tao; Li, Lihua; Lu, Ying



Review: Current applications and challenges for liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS).  


High-precision isotope analysis is recognized as an essential research tool in many fields of study. Until recently, continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS) was available via an elemental analyzer or a gas chromatography inlet system for compound-specific analysis of light stable isotopes. In 2004, however, an interface that coupled liquid chromatography with IRMS (LC/IRMS) became commercially available for the first time. This brought the capability for new areas of application, in particular enabling compound-specific ?(13)C analysis of non-volatile, aqueous soluble, compounds from complex mixtures. The interface design brought with it several analytical constraints, however, in particular a lack of compatibility with certain types of chromatography as well as limited flow rates and mobile phase compositions. Routine LC/IRMS methods have, however, been established for measuring the ?(13)C isotopic ratios of underivatized individual compounds for application in archeology, nutrition and physiology, geochemistry, hydrology, soil science and food authenticity. Seven years after its introduction, we review the technical advances and constraints, methodological developments and new applications of liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry. PMID:21953956

Godin, Jean-Philippe; McCullagh, James S O



Simultaneous Determination of Selected B Vitamins in the NIST SRM 3280 Multivitamin/Multielement Tablets by Liquid Chromatography Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is increased interest in accurately assessing the total dietary intake of vitamins from all sources, including foods and dietary supplements. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) can be a definitive analytical method for very accurate concentration determinations. A liquid chromatographic...


Measurement of Th Isotopes in Volcanic Rocks by Plasma Ionization Multi-Collector Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique is presented for the determination of 232Th/230Th in volcanic rocks by plasma ionization multi-collector mass spectrometry (PIMMS) utilizing the ThermoFinnigan Neptune. These analyses were made statically, measuring 232Th on a Faraday cup and 230Th on the RPQ channel using the SEM. Because of the large dynamic range in the 232Th/230Th of volcanic rocks (> 105), accurate and precise measurement of 232Th/230Th using PIMMS requires: 1) high abundance sensitivity to minimize tailing of 232Th onto 230Th, and 2) explicit knowledge of the instrumental mass bias and the gain calibration of the two detectors used for the measurement. Using the RPQ on the Finnigan Neptune, the abundance sensitivity at 90% transmission was ~25ppb over 2 amu. Using an exponential fit the resulting tail correction of 232Th on 230Th is 0.7% for ratios of 3x105 and 0.3% for ratios of 1.5x105. To correct for both instrumental mass fractionation between masses 230 and 232 and the relative difference in the efficiency of the Faraday and SEM detectors we evaluated using both: 1) a linear interpolation of the 238U/^{236}U measured in the NBS U010 interspersed between each sample, and normalized to its certified value (14,432 149), and 2) a linear interpolation of the 232Th/230Th measured in the UCSC ThA interspersed between each sample, and normalized to its nominal value (170,7602,049). Our results show that, due to both differences in instrumental mass bias and differences of the ion energies through the RPQ filter of U and Th, U does not work as an adequate proxy for Th. Replicate measurements of 232Th/230Th in synthetic and rock Th isotopic standards provide an overall reproducibility on the 232Th/230Th of <1% (2?) and show excellent agreement with their `known` values established by other techniques within the reported errors, supporting the reliability and accuracy of this method. This PIMMS technique has considerable advantages over existing TIMS and SIMS techniques in terms of ionization efficiency and total sample consumption (and hence sample size requirement), as well as the rapidity of analysis.

Sims, K. W.; Ball, L.; Schwieters, J.



Measurement of intact sulfate and glucuronide phytoestrogen conjugates in human urine using isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with [ 13 C 3] isoflavone internal standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed for the analysis of phytoestrogens and their conjugates in human urine using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS\\/MS). Stable isotopically labeled [13C3]daidzein and [13C3]genistein were synthesized and used as internal standards for isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Free aglycons and intact glucuronide, sulfate, diglucuronide, disulfate, and mixed sulfoglucuronide conjugates of isoflavones and lignans were

Don B Clarke; Antony S Lloyd; Nigel P Botting; Mark F Oldfield; Paul W Needs; Helen Wiseman



Direct quantitative determination of cyanamide by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  


Cyanamide is a multifunctional agrochemical used, for example, as a pesticide, herbicide, and fertilizer. Recent research has revealed that cyanamide is a natural product biosynthesized in a leguminous plant, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa). In the present study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) equipped with a capillary column for amines was used for direct quantitative determination of cyanamide. Quantitative signals for ((14)N(2))cyanamide, ((15)N(2))cyanamide (internal standard for stable isotope dilution method), and m-(trifluoromethyl)benzonitrile (internal standard for correcting errors in GC-MS analysis) were recorded as peak areas on mass chromatograms at m/z 42 (A(42)), 44 (A(44)), and 171 (A(IS)), respectively. Total cyanamide content, ((14)N(2))cyanamide plus ((15)N(2))cyanamide, was determined as a function of (A(42)+A(44))/A(IS). Contents of ((14)N(2))cyanamide and ((15)N(2))cyanamide were then calculated by multiplying the total cyanamide content by A(42)/(A(42)+A(44)) and A(44)/(A(42)+A(44)), respectively. The limit of detection for the total cyanamide content by the GC-MS analysis was around 1ng. The molar ratio of ((14)N(2))cyanamide to ((15)N(2))cyanamide in the injected sample was equal to the observed A(42)/A(44) value in the range from 0.1 to 5. It was, therefore, possible to use the stable isotope dilution method to quantify the natural cyanamide content in samples; i.e., the natural cyanamide content was derived by subtracting the A(42)/A(44) ratio of the internal standard from the A(42)/A(44) ratio of sample spiked with internal standard, and then multiplying the resulting difference by the amount of added ((15)N(2))cyanamide (SID-GC-MS method). This method successfully gave a reasonable value for the natural cyanamide content in hairy vetch, concurring with the value obtained by a conventional method in which cyanamide was derivatized to a photometrically active compound 4-cyanimido-1,2-naphthoquinone and analyzed with reversed-phase HPLC (CNQ-HPLC method). The determination range of cyanamide in the SID-GC-MS method was almost the same as that in the CNQ-HPLC method; however, the SID-GC-MS method was much simpler than the CNQ-HPLC method. PMID:16314170

Hiradate, Syuntaro; Kamo, Tsunashi; Nakajima, Eri; Kato, Kenji; Fujii, Yoshiharu



Stable isotope liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for fatty acid amide hydrolase activity.  


Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is the main enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide, AEA) to arachidonic acid (AA) and ethanolamine (EA). Published FAAH activity assays mostly employ radiolabeled anandamide or synthetic fluorogenic substrates. We report a stable isotope liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for specific, sensitive, and high-throughput capable FAAH activity measurements. The assay uses AEA labeled with deuterium on the EA moiety (d?-AEA) as substrate and measures the specific reaction product tetradeutero-EA (d?-EA) and the internal standard C?-EA. Selected reaction monitoring of m/z 66?m/z 48 (d?-EA) and m/z 64?m/z 46 (C?-EA) in the positive electrospray ionization mode after liquid chromatographic separation on a HILIC (hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography) column is performed. The assay was developed and thoroughly validated using recombinant human FAAH (rhFAAH) and then was applied to human blood and dog liver samples. rhFAAH-catalyzed d?-AEA hydrolysis obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics (K(M)=12.3 ?M, V(max)=27.6 nmol/min mg). Oleoyl oxazolopyridine (oloxa) was a potent, partial noncompetitive inhibitor of rhFAAH (IC??=24.3 nM). Substrate specificity of other fatty acid ethanolamides decreased with decreasing length, number of double bonds, and lipophilicity of the fatty acid skeleton. In human whole blood, we detected FAAH activity that was inhibited by oloxa. PMID:22146559

Rakers, Christin; Zoerner, Alexander A; Engeli, Stefan; Batkai, Sandor; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios



Application of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) to Isotope Mass Spectrometry: Introduction, Implemention, and Examples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the measured value and its unit are integral parts of a measurement, so is a statement of the associated measurement uncertainty. The importance of providing an uncertainty that can reasonably be attributed to the measured value is often underrated. An assessment of uncertainty provides confidence in the value of the measurement, judgement on significance of differences between measurement results, information regarding the capability of the measurement procedure, and quality assurance. The limitations of the classical error analysis were seen as a hindrance to communication of scientific and technical measurement results, initiating the development of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) in the late 1970s. Just as the use of the International System of Units brings coherence to measurements, the International Organization for Standardization Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement recommends a standardized way of expressing uncertainty in all kinds of measurements. Consequently, GUM has been adopted by most of the national metrology institutes in the world. A short introduction to GUM and the logical steps leading to its development will be presented, as well as a comparison between classical error analysis and GUM. Examples related to mass spectrometry for isotopic and elemental analysis will be discussed. The merits of GUM - transparency of the uncertainty evaluation, the treatment of uncertainties in a consistent logical way, and the presentation of an uncertainty budget resulting in a feedback to the analyst (i.e. identifies the dominant components of uncertainty and allows better understanding and improvement of the measurement process) - will be emphasised.

Buerger, S.; Essex, R. M.; Mathew, K. J.; Thomas, R. B.



Quantitative analysis of prostate specific antigen isoforms using immunoprecipitation and stable isotope labeling mass spectrometry.  


Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used serum marker for prostate cancer (PCa), but has limited specificity for distinguishing early PCa from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Recently, proPSAs, comprised of native proPSA, as well as truncated proPSA forms, [-2] proPSA, [-5] proPSA, and [-7] proPSA, have been shown to be better diagnostic targets than PSA for PCa. Stable isotope labeling-multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SIL/MRM-MS) has been frequently used to measure low-abundance biomarkers in tissues and biofluids, owing to its high sensitivity and specificity, simplicity, and multiplexing capability. In this study, we have developed and optimized a strategy using immunoprecipitation in conjunction with SIL/MRM-MS assay which is capable of sensitive and accurate quantification of proPSA in serum. Since serum and plasma are by far the most complex biological fluids, the immunoprecipitation workflow was optimized to achieve sufficient sensitivity, efficiencies of protein purification with immunoaffinity depletion were determined. The developed strategy can detect proPSA and PSA with a limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) at nanogram per milliliter levels, corresponding to a concentration 6 orders-of-magnitude lower than the most abundant serum proteins. Furthermore, the simultaneous measurement of multiple biomarkers, including the mature and precursor forms of PSA, can be achieved in a single multiplexed analysis using LC/MRM-MS. The strategy demonstrated here provides an attractive alternative to ELISAs or RIAs for the reliably measurement of proPSA to improve the specificity of PCa diagnosis. PMID:25427836

Chen, Yi-Ting; Tuan, Li-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Wei; Wei, I-An; Chou, Min-Yuan; Chen, Han-Min; Tyan, Yu-Chang; Chen, Sung-Fang



Natural variations of Se isotopic composition determined by hydride generation multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been used for the precise measurement of the isotopic composition of Se in geological samples. Se is chemically purified before analysis by using cotton impregnated with thioglycollic acid. This preconcentration step is required for the removal of matrix-interfering elements for hydride generation, such as transitional metals, and also for the quantitative separation of other hydride-forming elements, such as Ge, Sb, and As. The analyte is introduced in the plasma torch with a continuous-flow hydride generation system. Instrumental mass fractionation is corrected with a "standard-sample bracketing" approach. By use of this new technique, the minimum Se required per analysis is lowered to 10 ng, which is one order of magnitude less than the amount needed for the N-TIMS technique. The estimated external precision calculated for the 82Se/ 76Se isotope ratio is 0.25 (2?), and the data are reported as delta notation () relative to our internal standard (MERCK elemental standard solution). Measurements of Se isotopes are presented for samples of standard solutions and geological reference materials, such as silicate rocks, soils, and sediments. The Se isotopic composition of selected terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials are also presented. An overall Se isotope variation of 8 has been observed, suggesting that Se isotopes fractionate readily and are extremely useful tracers of natural processes.

Rouxel, Olivier; Ludden, John; Carignan, Jean; Marin, Luc; Fouquet, Yves



Evaluation of the 34S/32S ratio of Soufre de Lacq elemental sulfur isotopic reference material by continuous flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soufre de Lacq elemental sulfur reference material (IAEA-S-4) isotopically is homogeneous in amounts as small as 41 ??g as determined by continuous flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. The ??34S value for this reference material is +16.90 ?? 0.12??? (1??) on a scale (Vienna Can??on Diablo troilite, VCDT) where IAEA-S-1 Ag2S is -0.3??? and IAEA-S-2 Ag2S is +22.67???. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Qi, H.P.; Coplen, T.B.



Characterization of neutron transmuted zinc traces in pure copper materials by isotope dilution mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutron transmutation doping (NTD) of highly pure copper with zinc was investigated as a promising means of achieving\\u000a controlled gradation of the zinc content in the range 120 ?g g1. The doping process leads to the enrichment of two stable isotopes 64Zn and 66Zn in a ratio which differs from that of natural isotopic distribution. Mass spectrometric investigations by

G. Wermann; D. Alber; W. Pritzkow; G. Riebe; W. Grner



Lithium isotope analysis by thermal ionization mass spectrometry of lithium tetraborate  

SciTech Connect

A mass spectrometric method based on the thermal ionization of lithium tetraborate has been developed for the isotopic analysis of lithium. The measurement of Li/sub 2/BO/sub 2//sup +/ reduces isotopic fractionation during analysis compared to the normal use of Li/sup +/ ions. The technique is capable of achieving a relative precision of 1.3 per thousand (1sigma) in the determination of lithium isotopic ratios. A chemical procedure for quantitative and clean extraction of lithium from natural waters is described. This method has been applied to sea water with reproductivity within the analytical uncertainty. Preliminary study indicates this technique is also applicable to silicate rocks.

Chan, L.H.



Caution on the use of liquid nitrogen traps in stable hydrogen isotope-ratio mass spectrometry.  


An anomalous stable hydrogen isotopic fractionation of 4 in gaseous hydrogen has been correlated with the process of adding liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) to top off the dewar of a stainless-steel water trap on a gaseous hydrogen-water platinum equilibration system. Although the cause of this isotopic fractionation is unknown, its effect can be mitigated by (1) increasing the capacity of any dewars so that they do not need to be filled during a daily analytic run, (2) interspersing isotopic reference waters among unknowns, and (3) applying a linear drift correction and linear normalization to isotopic results with a program such as Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) for Light Stable Isotopes. With adoption of the above guidelines, measurement uncertainty can be substantially improved. For example, the long-term (months to years) ?(2)H reproducibility (1? standard deviation) of nine local isotopic reference waters analyzed daily improved substantially from about 1 to 0.58 . This isotopically fractionating mechanism might affect other isotope-ratio mass spectrometers in which LN(2) is used as a moisture trap for gaseous hydrogen. PMID:20718408

Coplen, Tyler B; Qi, Haiping



Determination of lead, uranium, thorium, and thallium in silicate glass standard materials by isotope dilution mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A set of four standard glasses has been prepared which have been doped with 61 different elements at the 500-, 50-, 1-, and 0.02-ppm level. The concentrations of lead, uranium, thorium, and thallium have been determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry at a number of points in each of the glasses. The results obtained from independent determinations in two laboratories demonstrate the homogeneity of the samples and that precision of the order of 0.5% (95% L.E.) may be obtained by the method even at the 20-ppb level for these elements. The chemical and mass spectrometric procedures necessary are presented.

Barnes, I.L.; Garner, E.L.; Gramlich, J.W.; Moore, L.J.; Murphy, T.J.; Machlan, L.A.; Shields, W.R.; Tatsumoto, M.; Knight, R.J.



Ion microscopy with resonant ionization mass spectrometry : time-of-flight depth profiling with improved isotopic precision.  

SciTech Connect

There are four generally mutually exclusive requirements that plague many mass spectrometric measurements of trace constituents: (1) the small size (limited by the depth probed) of many interesting materials requires high useful yields to simply detect some trace elements, (2) the low concentrations of interesting elements require efficient discrimination from isobaric interferences, (3) it is often necessary to measure the depth distribution of elements with high surface and low bulk contributions, and (4) many applications require precise isotopic analysis. Resonant ionization mass spectrometry has made dramatic progress in addressing these difficulties over the past five years.

Pellin, M. J.; Veryovkin, I. V.; Levine, J.; Zinovev, A.; Davis, A. M.; Stephan, T.; Tripa, C. E.; King, B. V.; Savina, M. R. (Materials Science Division); (Chicago Center Cosmochemistry); (Univ. of Chicago); (Univ.of Newcastle)



Improved isotope ratio measurement performance in liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry by removing excess oxygen.  


A low dead volume oxygen scrubbing system was introduced in a commercially available liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) interface to enhance the analytical capability of the system. In the LC/IRMS interface carbon from organic samples is converted into CO(2) inside the mobile phase by wet chemical oxidation using peroxodisulfate (Na(2)S(2)O(8)). After passing the hot reaction zone, surplus oxygen (O(2)) remains dissolved in the liquid phase. Both CO(2) and O(2) diffuse through a transfer membrane into the helium carrier and are transferred to the mass spectrometer. The presence of O(2) in the ion source may have detrimental effects on measurement accuracy and precision as well as on filament lifetime. As a remedy, a new on-line O(2)-removing device has been incorporated into the system. The new O(2) scrubber consists of two parallel hot copper reduction reactors (0.8 mm i.d., active length 120 mm) and a switch-over valve between them. One reactor is regenerated using He/H(2) while the other is actively scavenging O(2) from the gas stream. The capacity of each reduction reactor, expressed as usage time, is between 40 and 50 min. This is sufficient for a single LC run for sugars and organic acids. A further increase of the reduction capacity is accompanied by a peak broadening of about 100%. After switching to a freshly reduced reactor the oxygen background and the delta(13)C values of the reference gas need up to 500 s to stabilize. For repeated injections the delta(13)C values of sucrose remain constant (+/-0.1 per thousand) for about 3000 s. The long-term stability for measurements of sucrose was 0.11 per thousand without the reduction oven and improved slightly to 0.08 per thousand with the reduction oven. The filament lifetime improved by more than 600%, thereby improving the long-term system stability and analytical efficiency. In addition the costs per analysis were reduced considerably. PMID:18041012

Hettmann, Elena; Brand, Willi A; Gleixner, Gerd



Metabolic flux in carbohydrate biosynthesis. New methods using stable isotopes, mass spectrometry, and NMR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Structural analysis of carbohydrates involves three parameters: composition, linkage, and conformation, and tends to rely on the various forms of two techniques; mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. These techniques are enhanced and extended by the use of stable...


Oxygen isotopic measurements by secondary ion mass spectrometry in uranium oxide microparticles: a nuclear forensic diagnostic.  


To exploit oxygen isotopic measurement by SIMS as a diagnostic tool in nuclear forensics, the magnitude and reproducibility of 0-isotope instrumental mass discrimination for O-isotope standards in the SIMS laboratory at the Institute for Transuranium Elements has been evaluated. Tests for matrix-dependent discrimination effects on three different O-isotope standards with substantially different matrix compositions have been performed. The results were checked by an interlaboratory comparison of O-isotope discrimination with those obtained in the SIMS laboratory at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on two standards. The results from the two laboratories are in very good agreement, indicating statistically indistinguishable instrumental mass discrimination factors for 180/160 ratios on the Cameca 6f and 3f, when the analyses are performed under the experimental conditions described. The 2sigma(mean) uncertainties of these factors are in the range of 0.3-0.9%. In accordance with the tested methodology, 0-isotope compositions were measured in three particulate uranium oxide samples of nuclear forensics interest. PMID:12498207

Tamborini, G; Phinney, D; Blidstein, O; Betti, M



Innovations in Mass Spectrometry for Precise and Accurate Isotope Ratio Determination from Very Small Analyte Quantities (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation describes progress in mass spectrometry for analysing very small analyte quantities, illustrated by example applications from nuclear forensics. In this challenging application, precise and accurate () uranium isotope ratios are required from 1 - 2 m diameter uranium oxide particles, which comprise less than 40 pg of uranium. Traditionally these are analysed using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), and more recently using secondary ionisation mass spectrometry (SIMS). Multicollector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) can offer higher productivity compared to these techniques, but is traditionally limited by low efficiency of analyte utilisation (sample through to ion detection). Samples can either be introduced as a solution, or sampled directly from solid using laser ablation. Large multi-isotope ratio datasets can help identify provenance and intended use of anthropogenic uranium and other nuclear materials [1]. The Thermo Scientific NEPTUNE Plus (Bremen, Germany) with Jet Interface option offers unparalleled MC-ICP-MS sensitivity. An analyte utilisation of c. 4% has previously been reported for uranium [2]. This high-sensitivity configuration utilises a dry high-capacity (100 m3/h) interface pump, special skimmer and sampler cones and a desolvating nebuliser system. Coupled with new acquisition methodologies, this sensitivity enhancement makes possible the analysis of micro-particles and small sample volumes at higher precision levels than previously achieved. New, high-performance, full-size and compact discrete dynode secondary electron multipliers (SEM) exhibit excellent stability and linearity over a large dynamic range and can be configured to simultaneously measure all of the uranium isotopes. Options for high abundance-sensitivity filters on two ion beams are also available, e.g. for 236U and 234U. Additionally, amplifiers with high ohm (1012 - 1013) feedback resistors have been developed to optimise signal to noise ratios from low ion beam intensities on Faraday cups [2,3]. Data will be presented from the Thermo Scientific NEPTUNE Plus MC-ICP-MS, sampling sub-nanogram quantities of analyte from solution and by laser ablation. Faraday only measurements of sub-microgram analyte quantities will also be presented, using a 1012 ? amplifier for the minor isotope 234U. These data are compared to a dataset collected by a first generation MC-ICP-MS instrument, reported by Lloyd et al. [1]. [1] N. S. Lloyd, R. R. Parrish, M. S. A. Horstwood & S. R. N. Chenery, Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 24 (6), 752 (2009). [2] C. Bouman, J.B. Schwieters, M. Deerberg & D. Tuttas, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73 (13, Supplement 1) (2009). [3] D. Tuttas, J.B. Schwieters, & N.S. Lloyd, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74 (11, Supplement 1) (2010).

Lloyd, N. S.; Bouman, C.; Horstwood, M. S.; Parrish, R. R.; Schwieters, J. B.



Measurement of Pyrethroid, Organophosphorus, and Carbamate Insecticides in Human Plasma using Isotope Dilution Gas Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

We have developed a gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method for measuring pyrethroid, organophosphorus, carbamate and fipronil pesticides and the synergist piperonyl butoxide in human plasma. Plasma samples were extracted using solid phase extraction and were then concentrated for injection and analysis using isotope dilution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. The limits of detection ranged from 10 to 158 pg/mL with relative recoveries at concentrations near the LODs (e.g., 25 or 250 pg/mL) ranging from 87% to 156% (9 of the 16 compounds were withing 15% of 100%). The extraction recoveries ranged from 20% to 98% and the overall method relative standard deviations were typically less than 20% with some exceptions. Analytical characteristics were determined at 25, 250, and 1000 pg/mL. PMID:20434413

Prez, Jos J.; Williams, Megan K.; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Smith, Kimberly; Whyatt, Robin M.; Needham, Larry L.; Barr, Dana Boyd



Quantifying Uranium Isotope Ratios Using Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry: The Influence of Laser Parameters on Relative Ionization Probability  

SciTech Connect

Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) has been developed as a method to measure relative uranium isotope abundances. In this approach, RIMS is used as an element-selective ionization process to provide a distinction between uranium atoms and potential isobars without the aid of chemical purification and separation. We explore the laser parameters critical to the ionization process and their effects on the measured isotope ratio. Specifically, the use of broad bandwidth lasers with automated feedback control of wavelength was applied to the measurement of {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratios to decrease laser-induced isotopic fractionation. By broadening the bandwidth of the first laser in a 3-color, 3-photon ionization process from a bandwidth of 1.8 GHz to about 10 GHz, the variation in sequential relative isotope abundance measurements decreased from >10% to less than 0.5%. This procedure was demonstrated for the direct interrogation of uranium oxide targets with essentially no sample preparation. A rate equation model for predicting the relative ionization probability has been developed to study the effect of variation in laser parameters on the measured isotope ratio. This work demonstrates that RIMS can be used for the robust measurement of uranium isotope ratios.

Isselhardt, B H



Quantifying Uranium Isotope Ratios Using Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry: The Influence of Laser Parameters on Relative Ionization Probability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) has been developed as a method to measure relative uranium isotope abundances. In this approach, RIMS is used as an element-selective ionization process to provide a distinction between uranium atoms and potential isobars without the aid of chemical purification and separation. We explore the laser parameters critical to the ionization process and their effects on the measured isotope ratio. Specifically, the use of broad bandwidth lasers with automated feedback control of wavelength was applied to the measurement of 235U/238U ratios to decrease laser-induced isotopic fractionation. By broadening the bandwidth of the first laser in a 3-color, 3-photon ionization process from a bandwidth of 1.8 GHz to about 10 GHz, the variation in sequential relative isotope abundance measurements decreased from >10% to less than 0.5%. This procedure was demonstrated for the direct interrogation of uranium oxide targets with essentially no sample preparation. A rate equation model for predicting the relative ionization probability has been developed to study the effect of variation in laser parameters on the measured isotope ratio. This work demonstrates that RIMS can be used for the robust measurement of uranium isotope ratios.

Isselhardt, Brett Hallen


Modified ion exchange separation for tungsten isotopic measurements from kimberlite samples using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  


Tungsten isotope composition of a sample of deep-seated rock can record the influence of core-mantle interaction of the parent magma. Samples of kimberlite, which is known as a carrier of diamond, from the deep mantle might exhibit effects of core-mantle interaction. Although tungsten isotope anomaly was reported for kimberlites from South Africa, a subsequent investigation did not verify the anomaly. The magnesium-rich and calcium-rich chemical composition of kimberlite might engender difficulty during chemical separation of tungsten for isotope analyses. This paper presents a simple, one-step anion exchange technique for precise and accurate determination of tungsten isotopes in kimberlites using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Large quantities of Ca and Mg in kimberlite samples were precipitated and removed with aqueous H(2)SO(4). Highly pure fractions of tungsten for isotopic measurements were obtained following an anion exchange chromatographic procedure involving mixed acids. That procedure enabled efficient removal of high field strength elements (HFSE), such as Hf, Zr and Ti, which are small ions that carry strong charges and develop intense electrostatic fields. The tungsten yields were 85%-95%. Advantages of this system include less time and less use of reagents. Precise and accurate isotopic measurements are possible using fractions of tungsten that are obtained using this method. The accuracy and precision of these measurements were confirmed using various silicate standard rock samples, JB-2, JB-3 and AGV-1. PMID:16496054

Sahoo, Yu Vin; Nakai, Shun'ichi; Ali, Arshad



Simplified absolute metabolite quantification by gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry on the basis of commercially available source material.  


In the field of metabolomics, GC-MS has rather established itself as a tool for semi-quantitative strategies like metabolic fingerprinting or metabolic profiling. Absolute quantification of intra- or extracellular metabolites is nowadays mostly accomplished by application of diverse LC-MS techniques. Only few groups have so far adopted GC-MS technology for this exceptionally challenging task. Besides numerous and deeply investigated problems related to sample generation, the pronounced matrix effects in biological samples have led to the almost mandatory application of isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) for the accurate determination of absolute metabolite concentrations. Nevertheless, access to stable isotope labeled internal standards (ILIS), which are in many cases commercially unavailable, is quite laborious and very expensive. Here we present an improved and simplified gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (GC-IDMS) protocol for the absolute determination of intra- and extracellular metabolite levels. Commercially available (13)C-labeled algal cells were used as a convenient source for the preparation of internal standards. Advantages as well as limitations of the described method are discussed. PMID:22100557

Vielhauer, Oliver; Zakhartsev, Maksim; Horn, Thomas; Takors, Ralf; Reuss, Matthias



Determination of the sulfur isotope ratio in carbonyl sulfide using gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry on fragment ions (32)s(+), (33)s(+), and (34)s(+).  


Little is known about the sulfur isotopic composition of carbonyl sulfide (OCS), the most abundant atmospheric sulfur species. We present a promising new analytical method for measuring the stable sulfur isotopic compositions (?(33)S, ?(34)S, and ?(33)S) of OCS using nanomole level samples. The direct isotopic analytical technique consists of two parts: a concentration line and online gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) using fragmentation ions (32)S(+), (33)S(+), and (34)S(+). The current levels of measurement precision for OCS samples greater than 8 nmol are 0.42, 0.62, and 0.23 for ?(33)S, ?(34)S, and ?(33)S, respectively. These ? and ? values show a slight dependence on the amount of injected OCS for volumes smaller than 8 nmol. The isotope values obtained from the GC-IRMS method were calibrated against those measured by a conventional SF6 method. We report the first measurement of the sulfur isotopic composition of OCS in air collected at Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan. The ?(34)S value obtained for OCS (4.9 0.3) was lower than the previous estimate of 11. When the ?(34)S value for OCS from the atmospheric sample is postulated as the global signal, this finding, coupled with isotopic fractionation for OCS sink reactions in the stratosphere, explains the reported ?(34)S for background stratospheric sulfate. This suggests that OCS is a potentially important source for background (nonepisodic or nonvolcanic) stratospheric sulfate aerosols. PMID:25439590

Hattori, Shohei; Toyoda, Akari; Toyoda, Sakae; Ishino, Sakiko; Ueno, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Naohiro



Stable Isotope Analyses of water and Aqueous Solutions by Conventional Dual-inlet Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The foundation of various analytical methods for the stable isotope composition of water and other aqueous samples (natural abundance, {sup 1}H : {sup 2}H (D) = 99.985 : 0.015 atom%, and {sup 16}O : {sup 17}O : {sup 18}O = 99.762 : 0.038 : 0.200 atom%) was established during the Manhatten Project in the U.S.A., when large amounts of heavy water were produced for nuclear reactors (see Kirshenbaum, 1951, for a detailed account). From early on, there was great interest in the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions of water, because they are the ideal tracers of water sources and reactions. The increased analytical precisions made possible by the subsequent development of modern gas-source isotope-ratio mass spectrometers with dual-inlets and multi-collectors, have caused the proliferation of new analytical methods and applications for the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions of water. These stable isotopes have found wide applications in basic as well as applied sciences (chemistry, geology, hydrology, biology, medical sciences, and food sciences). This is because water is ubiquitous, is an essential and predominant ingredient of living organisms, and is perhaps the most reactive compound in the Earth.

Horita, Juske [ORNL; Kendall, C. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA



Application of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry to the determination of uranium isotope ratios in individual particles for nuclear safeguards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the determination of uranium isotope ratios in individual particles was determined. For this purpose, we developed an experimental procedure including single particle transfer with a manipulator, chemical dissolution and isotope ratio analysis, and applied to the analysis of individual uranium particles in certified reference materials (NBL CRM U050 and U350). As the result, the 235U/ 238U isotope ratio for the particle with the diameter between 0.5 and 3.9 ?m was successfully determined with the deviation from the certified ratio within 1.8%. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the 235U/ 238U isotope ratio was within 4.2%. Although the analysis of 234U/ 238U and 236U/ 238U isotope ratios gave the results with inferior precision, the R.S.D. within 20% was possible for the measurement of the particle with the diameter more than 2.1 ?m. The developed procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of a simulated environmental sample prepared from a mixture of indoor dust (NIST SRM 2583) and uranium particles (NBL CRM U050, U350 and U950a). From the results, the proposed procedure was found to be an alternative analytical tool for nuclear safeguards.

Zhang, Xiao Zhi; Esaka, Fumitaka; Esaka, Konomi T.; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu; Watanabe, Kazuo



Precise ruthenium fission product isotopic analysis using dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS)  

SciTech Connect

99Tc is a subsurface contaminant of interest at numerous federal, industrial, and international facilities. However, as a mono-isotopic fission product, 99Tc lacks the ability to be used as a signature to differentiate between the different waste disposal pathways that could have contributed to subsurface contamination at these facilities. Ruthenium fission-product isotopes are attractive analogues for the characterization of 99Tc sources because of their direct similarity to technetium with regard to subsurface mobility, and their large fission yields and low natural background concentrations. We developed an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method capable of measuring ruthenium isotopes in groundwater samples and extracts of vadose zone sediments. Samples were analyzed directly on a Perkin Elmer ELAN DRC II ICP-MS after a single pass through a 1-ml bed volume of Dowex AG 50W-X8 100-200 mesh cation exchange resin. Precise ruthenium isotopic ratio measurements were achieved using a low-flow Meinhard-type nebulizer and long sample acquisition times (150,000 ms). Relative standard deviations of triplicate replicates were maintained at less than 0.5% when the total ruthenium solution concentration was 0.1 ng/ml or higher. Further work was performed to minimize the impact caused by mass interferences using the dynamic reaction cell (DRC) with O2 as the reaction gas. The aqueous concentrations of 96Mo and 96Zr were reduced by more than 99.7% in the reaction cell prior to injection of the sample into the mass analyzer quadrupole. The DRC was used in combination with stable-mass correction to quantitatively analyze samples containing up to 2-orders of magnitude more zirconium and molybdenum than ruthenium. The analytical approach documented herein provides an efficient and cost-effective way to precisely measure ruthenium isotopes and quantitate total ruthenium (natural vs. fission-product) in aqueous matrixes.

Brown, Christopher F.; Dresel, P. Evan; Geiszler, Keith N.; Farmer, Orville T.



Mass spectrometry with accelerators.  


As one in a series of articles on Canadian contributions to mass spectrometry, this review begins with an outline of the history of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), noting roles played by researchers at three Canadian AMS laboratories. After a description of the unique features of AMS, three examples, (14)C, (10)Be, and (129)I are given to illustrate the methods. The capabilities of mass spectrometry have been extended by the addition of atomic isobar selection, molecular isobar attenuation, further ion acceleration, followed by ion detection and ion identification at essentially zero dark current or ion flux. This has been accomplished by exploiting the techniques and accelerators of atomic and nuclear physics. In 1939, the first principles of AMS were established using a cyclotron. In 1977 the selection of isobars in the ion source was established when it was shown that the (14)N(-) ion was very unstable, or extremely difficult to create, making a tandem electrostatic accelerator highly suitable for assisting the mass spectrometric measurement of the rare long-lived radioactive isotope (14)C in the environment. This observation, together with the large attenuation of the molecular isobars (13)CH(-) and (12)CH?2(-) during tandem acceleration and the observed very low background contamination from the ion source, was found to facilitate the mass spectrometry of (14)C to at least a level of (14)C/C ~ 6 10(-16), the equivalent of a radiocarbon age of 60,000 years. Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, or AMS, has now made possible the accurate radiocarbon dating of milligram-sized carbon samples by ion counting as well as dating and tracing with many other long-lived radioactive isotopes such as (10)Be, (26)Al, (36)Cl, and (129)I. The difficulty of obtaining large anion currents with low electron affinities and the difficulties of isobar separation, especially for the heavier mass ions, has prompted the use of molecular anions and the search for alternative methods of isobar separation. These techniques are discussed in the latter part of the review. PMID:22031277

Litherland, A E; Zhao, X-L; Kieser, W E



Water-induced errors in continuous-flow carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry.  


Formation of HCO2+ from CO2 and background H2O in isotope ratio mass spectrometers has been examined in detail. The process is troublesome because its product is not resolved from 13C16O2+. The resulting, artifactual enhancement of the mass 45 ion current (and analogous enhancement of the mass 46 ion current by transfer of hydrogen to mass 45 species) can cause systematic errors in analyses of 13C based on measurement of ion current ratios in the mass spectrum of CO2. Such errors are neutralized when isotopic analyses are based on differential comparisons in which ion currents and background water levels are precisely equal during admission and ionization of both sample and standard gases. In continuous-flow systems, however, that requirement is generally not met. The resulting systematic error is proportional to the 18/44 ion current ratio. When the widely used MAT252 mass spectrometer is tuned to yield maximum sensitivity, the constant of proportionality is 26 +/- 2/1000 (i.e., the error will be 0.26/1000 if the mass 18 ion current is 100 times smaller than that at mass 44). Errors can be reduced 5-fold when the ion-source residence time of CO2+ is decreased by use of stronger ion-extraction potential gradients. Under those same conditions, sensitivity is decreased by 60%. For operation at highest sensitivity, carrier gas dew points on the order of -70 degrees C are required to obtain errors < or = 0.1/1000 for samples yielding mass 44 ion currents of 10 nA. Carrier gas dew points < or = -80 degrees C are conveniently reached by use of a Nafion dryer operated at approximately 0 degree C. PMID:9666739

Leckrone, K J; Hayes, J M



Accelerator mass spectrometry.  


In this overview the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its use are described. AMS is a highly sensitive method of counting atoms. It is used to detect very low concentrations of natural isotopic abundances (typically in the range between 10(-12) and 10(-16)) of both radionuclides and stable nuclides. The main advantages of AMS compared to conventional radiometric methods are the use of smaller samples (mg and even sub-mg size) and shorter measuring times (less than 1 hr). The equipment used for AMS is almost exclusively based on the electrostatic tandem accelerator, although some of the newest systems are based on a slightly different principle. Dedicated accelerators as well as older "nuclear physics machines" can be found in the 80 or so AMS laboratories in existence today. The most widely used isotope studied with AMS is 14C. Besides radiocarbon dating this isotope is used in climate studies, biomedicine applications and many other fields. More than 100,000 14C samples are measured per year. Other isotopes studied include 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 59Ni, 129I, U, and Pu. Although these measurements are important, the number of samples of these other isotopes measured each year is estimated to be less than 10% of the number of 14C samples. PMID:18470926

Hellborg, Ragnar; Skog, Gran



Evaluation of Duluth Complex anorthositic series (AS3) zircon as a UPb geochronological standard: new high-precision isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry results  

Microsoft Academic Search

U-Pb zircon geochronology is increasingly called upon to achieve the resolution of absolute time at the 0.1% to 1% level for rocks of Phanerozoic to Hadean age. Doing so requires accurate calibration of the several methods (conventional isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry [ID-TIMS], Pb evaporation, high-resolution ion microprobe [e.g. SHRIMP], and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry [LA-ICPMS])

Mark D Schmitz; Samuel A Bowring; Trevor R Ireland



Performance and optimization of a combustion interface for isotope ratio monitoring gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conditions and systems for on-line combustion of effluents from capillary gas chromatographic columns and for removal of water vapor from product streams were tested. Organic carbon in gas chromatographic peaks 15 s wide and containing up to 30 nanomoles of carbon was quantitatively converted to CO2 by tubular combustion reactors, 200 x 0.5 mm, packed with CuO or NiO. No auxiliary source of O2 was required because oxygen was supplied by metal oxides. Spontaneous degradation of CuO limited the life of CuO reactors at T > 850 degrees C. Since NiO does not spontaneously degrade, its use might be favored, but Ni-bound carbon phases form and lead to inaccurate isotopic results at T < 1050 degrees C if gas-phase O2 is not added. For all compounds tested except CH4, equivalent isotopic results are provided by CuO at 850 degrees C, NiO + O2 (gas-phase mole fraction, 10(-3)) at 1050 degrees C and NiO at 1150 degrees C. The combustion interface did not contribute additional analytical uncertainty, thus observed standard deviations of 13C/12C ratios were within a factor of 2 of shot-noise limits. For combustion and isotopic analyses of CH4, in which quantitative combustion required T approximately 950 degrees C, NiO-based systems are preferred, and precision is approximately 2 times lower than that observed for other analytes. Water must be removed from the gas stream transmitted to the mass spectrometer or else protonation of CO2 will lead to inaccuracy in isotopic analyses. Although thresholds for this effect vary between mass spectrometers, differential permeation of H2O through Nafion tubing was effective in both cases tested, but the required length of the Nafion membrane was 4 times greater for the more sensitive mass spectrometer.

Merritt, D. A.; Freeman, K. H.; Ricci, M. P.; Studley, S. A.; Hayes, J. M.



Isotope effect in negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry of deuterium labelled lormetazepam.  


This study identified the reason for the poor quantification of lormetazepam-TMS (1) using negative ion chemical ionization with lormetazepam-1,1,1-2H3-TMS (2) as an internal standard. Mass spectra of lormetazepam and its deuterium labelled compounds determined at various ion source temperatures (100-250 degrees C) gave almost the same behaviour for 1 and lormetazepam-3',4',5',6'-2H4-TMS (3) but a different one for 2, suggesting that the poor quantification was due to an isotope effect. This was confirmed by the findings that the ratios of ion currents of the base peaks of 1 and 3 were independent of the ion source temperature but those of 1 and 2 varied markedly with it. This phenomenon was also observed in the mass fragmentography of the molecular ion, although to a lesser degree than that of the above fragment. In both positive ion chemical ionization and electron impact ionization modes, no isotope effect arose because there was no corresponding fragment to cause the isotope effect. PMID:2955830

Takahashi, S



Comparison of liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) and gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) for the determination of collagen amino acid ?13C values for palaeodietary and palaeoecological reconstruction.  


Results are presented of a comparison of the amino acid (AA) ?(13)C values obtained by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) and liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS). Although the primary focus was the compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis of bone collagen AAs, because of its growing application for palaeodietary and palaeoecological reconstruction, the results are relevant to any field where AA ?(13)C values are required. We compare LC/IRMS with the most up-to-date GC/C/IRMS method using N-acetyl methyl ester (NACME) AA derivatives. This comparison involves the analysis of standard AAs and hydrolysates of archaeological human bone collagen, which have been previously investigated as N-trifluoroacetyl isopropyl esters (TFA/IP). It was observed that, although GC/C/IRMS analyses required less sample, LC/IRMS permitted the analysis of a wider range of AAs, particularly those not amenable to GC analysis (e.g. arginine). Accordingly, reconstructed bulk ?(13)C values based on LC/IRMS-derived ?(13)C values were closer to the EA/IRMS-derived ?(13)C values than those based on GC/C/IRMS values. The analytical errors for LC/IRMS AA ?(13)C values were lower than GC/C/IRMS determinations. Inconsistencies in the ?(13)C values of the TFA/IP derivatives compared with the NACME- and LC/IRMS-derived ?(13)C values suggest inherent problems with the use of TFA/IP derivatives, resulting from: (i) inefficient sample combustion, and/or (ii) differences in the intra-molecular distribution of ?(13)C values between AAs, which are manifested by incomplete combustion. Close similarities between the NACME AA ?(13)C values and the LC/IRMS-derived ?(13)C values suggest that the TFA/IP derivatives should be abandoned for the natural abundance determinations of AA ?(13)C values. PMID:21953954

Dunn, Philip J H; Honch, Noah V; Evershed, Richard P



Evaluation of online carbon isotope dilution mass spectrometry for the purity assessment of synthetic peptide standards.  


We present a novel method for the purity assessment of peptide standards which is applicable to any water soluble peptide. The method is based on the online (13)C isotope dilution approach in which the peptide is separated from its related impurities by liquid chromatography (LC) and the eluent is mixed post-column with a continuous flow of (13)C-enriched sodium bicarbonate. An online oxidation step using sodium persulfate in acidic media at 99C provides quantitative oxidation to (12)CO2 and (13)CO2 respectively which is extracted to a gaseous phase with the help of a gas permeable membrane. The measurement of the isotope ratio 44/45 in the mass spectrometer allows the construction of the mass flow chromatogram. As the only species that is finally measured in the mass spectrometer is CO2, the peptide content in the standard can be quantified, on the base of its carbon content, using a generic primary standard such as potassium hydrogen phthalate. The approach was validated by the analysis of a reference material (NIST 8327), and applied to the quantification of two commercial synthetic peptide standards. In that case, the results obtained were compared with those obtained using alternative methods, such as amino acid analysis and ICP-MS. The results obtained proved the value of the method for the fast, accurate and precise mass purity assignment of synthetic peptide standards. PMID:25172815

Cueto Daz, Sergio; Ruiz Encinar, Jorge; Garca Alonso, J Ignacio



A comparison of lead-isotope measurements on exploration-type samples using inductively coupled plasma and thermal ionization mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TI-MS) has long been the method of choice for Pb-isotope determinations. More recently, however, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been used to determine Pb-isotope ratios for mineral exploration. The ICP-MS technique, although not as precise as TI-MS, may promote a wider application of Ph-isotope ratio methods because it allows individual isotopes to be determined more rapidly, generally without need for chemical separation (e.g., Smith et al., 1984; Hinners et al., 1987). To demonstrate the utility of the ICP-MS method, we have conducted a series of Pb-isotope measurements on several suites of samples using both TI-MS and ICP-MS. ?? 1989.

Gulson, B.L.; Meier, A.L.; Church, S.E.; Mizon, K.J.



Precise determinations of the isotopic compositions and atomic weights of molybdenum, tellurium, tin and tungsten using ICP magnetic sector multiple collector mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise determinations of the isotopic compositions of molybdenum, tellurium, tin and tungsten were obtained utilizing an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source magnetic sector mass spectrometer equipped with multiple collectors. The results of this study are comparable to those measured by conventional and negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS and NTIMS) and the values recommended by the International Union of Pure

Der-Chuen Lee; Alex N. Halliday



Determination of uranium in urine - measurement of isotope ratios and quantification by use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  


For analysis of uranium in urine determination of the isotope ratio and quantification were investigated by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR ICP-MS). The instrument used (ThermoFinniganMAT ELEMENT2) is a single-collector MS and, therefore, a stable sample-introduction system was chosen. The methodical set-up was optimized to achieve the best precision for both the isotope ratio and the total uranium concentration in the urine matrix. Three spiked urine samples from an European interlaboratory comparison were analyzed to determine the (235)U/(238)U isotope ratio. The ratio was found to be in the range 0.002116 to 0.007222, the latter being the natural uranium isotope ratio. The first ratio indicates the abundance of depleted uranium. The effect of storage conditions and the stability for the matrix urine were investigated by using "real-life" urine samples from unexposed persons in the Netherlands. For samples stored under refrigeration and acidified the results (range 0.8 to 5.3 ng L(-1) U) were in the normal fluctuation range whereas a decrease in uranium concentration was observed for samples stored at room temperature without acidification. PMID:12324841

Krystek, P; Ritsema, R



Performance of the wet oxidation unit of the HPLC isotope ratio mass spectrometry system for halogenated compounds.  


The performance of liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS) for polar halogenated compounds was evaluated. Oxidation capacity of the system was tested with halogenated acetic acids and halogenated aromatic compounds. Acetic acid (AA) was selected as a reference compound for complete oxidation and compared on the molar basis to the oxidation of other analytes. The isotope values were proofed with calibrated ?(13)C values obtained with an elemental analyzer (EA). Correct isotope values were obtained for mono- and dichlorinated, fluorinated, and tribrominated acetic acids and also for aniline, phenol, benzene, bromobenzene, chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, pentafluorophenol, and nitrobenzene. Incomplete oxidation of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) resulted in lower recovery compared to AA (37% and 24%, respectively) and in isotopic shift compared to values obtained with EA (TCA ??(13)C(EA/LC-IRMS) = 8.8, TFA ??(13)C(EA/LC-IRMS) = 6.0). Improvement of oxidation by longer reaction time in the reactor and increase in the concentration of sulfate radicals did not lead to complete combustion of TCA and TFA needed for ?(13)C analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such highly chlorinated compounds were studied with the LC-IRMS system. This work provides information for method development of LC-IRMS methods for halogenated contaminants that are known as potential threats to public health and the environment. PMID:24975492

Gilevska, Tetyana; Gehre, Matthias; Richnow, Hans Hermann



Alternative Methodology for Boron Isotopic Analysis of CaCO3 by Negative Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (NTIMS) has been a common tool for investigating boron isotopes in CaCO3 and other environmental samples, the high sensitivity of BO2- ionization enabling measurements of ng levels of boron. However, B isotope measurement by this technique suffers from a number of problems, including: (1) fractionation induced by selective ionization of B isotopes in the mass spectrometer; (2) CNO- interference on mass 42 ([10BO2]-) that may be present in some filament load solutions (such as B-free seawater processed through ion-exchange resin), and (3) potential matrix effects due to widely differing chemistry of samples and standards. Here we examine a potentially improved NTIMS methodology that incudes removal of sample-related calcium (and other cations) by ion exchange and uses an alternative filament loading solution prepared from high-purity single-element solutions of Ca, Mg, Na, and K. Initial results suggest that this new method may offer significant improvement over the more traditional NTIMS approach in which digested CaCO3 samples are directly loaded onto filaments in B-free seawater. Replicate analyses of standards and samples yield a typical standard deviation of approximately 0.3 ?11B and boron isotopic compositions comparable to reported or consensus values. Fractionation during analysis has thus far typically been less than 0.5 ?11B. The method delivers boron ionization efficiency similar to directly-loaded seawater, and negligible signal at mass 26 (CN-), a proxy for the possible interfering molecular CNO- ion. Standards and samples behave similarly and predictably during filament heating and analysis, thus allowing for fully automated data acquisition, which in turn may increase sample throughput and reduce potential analytical inconsistencies associated with operator-controlled heating and analysis.

Dwyer, G. S.; Vengosh, A.



Fission track-secondary ion mass spectrometry as a tool for detecting the isotopic signature of individual uranium containing particles.  


A fission track technique was used as a sample preparation method for subsequent isotope abundance ratio analysis of individual uranium containing particles with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to measure the particles with higher enriched uranium efficiently. A polycarbonate film containing particles was irradiated with thermal neutrons and etched with 6M NaOH solution. Each uranium containing particle was then identified by observing fission tracks created and a portion of the film having a uranium containing particle was cut out and put onto a glassy carbon planchet. The polycarbonate film, which gave the increases of background signals on the uranium mass region in SIMS analysis, was removed by plasma ashing with 200 W for 20 min. In the analysis of swipe samples having particles containing natural (NBL CRM 950a) or low enriched uranium (NBL CRM U100) with the fission track-SIMS method, uranium isotope abundance ratios were successfully determined. This method was then applied to the analysis of a real inspection swipe sample taken at a nuclear facility. As a consequence, the range of (235)U/(238)U isotope abundance ratio between 0.0276 and 0.0438 was obtained, which was higher than that measured by SIMS without using a fission track technique (0.0225 and 0.0341). This indicates that the fission track-SIMS method is a powerful tool to identify the particle with higher enriched uranium in environmental samples efficiently. PMID:22405310

Esaka, Fumitaka; Lee, Chi-Gyu; Magara, Masaaki; Kimura, Takaumi



Determination of 241Am in sediments by isotope dilution high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID HR ICP-MS).  


Trace levels (pg kg(-1)) of 241Am in sediments were determined by isotope dilution high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID HR ICP-MS) using a microconcentric nebulizer. 241Am was isolated from major elements like Ca and Fe by different selective precipitations. In further steps. Am was first separated from other transuranic elements and purified by anion exchange and extraction chromatography prior to the mass spectrometric measurements. The ID HR ICP-MS results are compared with isotope dilution alpha spectrometry. PMID:11393755

Agarande, M; Benzoubir, S; Bouisset, P; Calmet, D



Peptide production and decay rates affect the quantitative accuracy of protein cleavage isotope dilution mass spectrometry (PC-IDMS).  


No consensus has been reached on the proper time to add stable-isotope labeled (SIL) peptides in protein cleavage isotope dilution mass spectrometry workflows. While quantifying 24 monolignol pathway enzymes in the xylem tissue of Populus trichocarpa, we compared the protein concentrations obtained when adding the SIL standard peptides concurrently with the enzyme or after quenching of the digestion (i.e. postdigestion) and observed discrepancies for nearly all tryptic peptides investigated. In some cases, greater than 30-fold differences were observed. To explain these differences and potentially correct for them, we developed a mathematical model based on pseudo-first-order kinetics to account for the dynamic production and decay (e.g. degradation and precipitation) of the native peptide targets in conjunction with the decay of the SIL peptide standards. A time course study of the digests confirmed the results predicted by the proposed model and revealed that the discrepancy between concurrent and postdigestion introduction of the SIL standards was related to differential decay experienced by the SIL peptide and the native peptide in each method. Given these results, we propose concurrent introduction of the SIL peptide is most appropriate, though not free from bias. Mathematical modeling of this method reveals that overestimation of protein quantities would still result when rapid peptide decay occurs and that this bias would be further exaggerated by slow proteolysis. We derive a simple equation to estimate the bias for each peptide based on the relative rates of production and decay. According to this equation, nearly half of the peptides evaluated here were estimated to have quantitative errors greater than 10% and in a few cases over 100%. We conclude that the instability of peptides can often significantly bias the protein quantities measured in protein cleavage isotope dilution mass spectrometry-based assays and suggest peptide stability be made a priority when selecting peptides to use for quantification. PMID:22595788

Shuford, Christopher M; Sederoff, Ronald R; Chiang, Vincent L; Muddiman, David C



On the interference of Kr during carbon isotope analysis of methane using continuous-flow combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable carbon isotope analysis of methane (?13C of CH4) on atmospheric samples is one key method to constrain the current and past atmospheric CH4 budget. A frequently applied measurement technique is gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry coupled to a combustion-preconcentration unit. This report shows that the atmospheric trace gas krypton can severely interfere during the mass spectrometric measurement leading to significant biases in ?13C of CH4 if krypton is not sufficiently separated during the analysis. According to our experiments, the krypton interference is likely composed of two individual effects with the lateral tailing of the doubly charged 86Kr peak affecting the neighbouring m/z 44 and partially the m/z 45 Faraday cups. Additionally, a broad signal affecting m/z 45 and especially m/z 46 is assumed to result from scattered ions of singly charged krypton. The introduced bias in the measured isotope ratios is dependent on the chromatographic separation, the Kr to CH4 mixing ratio in the sample, the mass spectrometer source tuning as well as the detector configuration and can amount to up to several permil in ?13C. Apart from technical solutions to avoid this interference we present correction routines to a posteriori remove the bias.

Schmitt, Jochen; Seth, Barbara; Bock, Michael; van der Veen, Carina; Mller, Lars; Sapart, Celia; Prokopiou, Markella; Sowers, Todd; Rckmann, Thomas; Fischer, Hubertus



On the interference of Kr during carbon isotope analysis of methane using continuous-flow combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable carbon isotope analysis of methane (?13C of CH4) on atmospheric samples is one key method to constrain the current and past atmospheric CH4 budget. A frequently applied measurement technique is gas chromatography (GC) isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) coupled to a combustion-preconcentration unit. This report shows that the atmospheric trace gas krypton (Kr) can severely interfere during the mass spectrometric measurement, leading to significant biases in ?13C of CH4, if krypton is not sufficiently separated during the analysis. According to our experiments, the krypton interference is likely composed of two individual effects, with the lateral tailing of the doubly charged 86Kr peak affecting the neighbouring m/z 44 and partially the m/z 45 Faraday cups. Additionally, a broad signal affecting m/z 45 and especially m/z 46 is assumed to result from scattered ions of singly charged krypton. The introduced bias in the measured isotope ratios is dependent on the chromatographic separation, the krypton-to-CH4 mixing ratio in the sample, the focusing of the mass spectrometer as well as the detector configuration and can amount to up to several per mil in ?13C. Apart from technical solutions to avoid this interference, we present correction routines to a posteriori remove the bias.

Schmitt, J.; Seth, B.; Bock, M.; van der Veen, C.; Mller, L.; Sapart, C. J.; Prokopiou, M.; Sowers, T.; Rckmann, T.; Fischer, H.



Application of secondary ion mass spectrometry to the identification of single particles of uranium and their isotopic measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An instrumental method based on the use of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is presented for the identification of uranium particles, and the determination of their isotopic composition. The particles collected on swipe samples were transferred to a special adhesive support for analysis by SIMS. Charging effects during analysis were avoided by a coating with 20 nm carbon. For the measurements of the isotope ratios a mass resolution of 1000 was sufficient. At this resolution, flat-top peaks were obtained which greatly improve the accuracy of the measurement. A detection limit in the ng/gpg/g range was obtained by optimizing different instrumental parameters, such as the acquisition time. Blank samples, consisting only of the adhesive support and of swipes collected in an environment where uranium was absent, were employed for the evaluation of the background signals in the mass range 233-240. The level of background was eliminated by applying a voltage offset. From the results obtained on simulated swipe samples containing certified enriched uranium, the approach used was found to be very promising and after further improvements has been applied for the routine analysis of uranium particles in swipe samples.

Tamborini, Gabriele; Betti, Maria; Forcina, Vittorio; Hiernaut, Tania; Giovannone, Bruno; Koch, Lothar



Use of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in boron-10 stable isotope experiments with plants, rats, and humans.  

PubMed Central

The commercial availability of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry technology (ICP-MS) has presented the opportunity to measure the boron concentrations and isotope ratios in a large number of samples with minimal sample preparation. A typical analytical sequence for fecal samples consists of 25 acid blanks, 1 digestion blank, 5 calibration solutions, 4 standard reference material solutions, 10 samples, and 4 natural abundance bias standards. Boron detection limits (3 x 1 sigma) for acid blanks are 0.11 ppb for 10B, and 0.40 ppb for 11B. Isotope ratios were measured in fecal samples with 20 to 50 ppb boron with < 2% relative standard deviation. Rapid washout and minimal memory effects were observed for a 50 ppb beryllium internal standard, but a 200 ppb boron biological sample had a 1.0 ppb boron memory after a 6-min washout. Boron isotope ratios in geological materials are highly variable; apparently this variability is reflected in plants of a fixed natural abundance value for boron requires that a natural abundance ratio be determined for each sample or related data set. The natural abundance variability also prevents quantitation and calculation of isotope dilution by instrument-supplied software. To measure boron transport in animal systems, 20 micrograms of 10B were fed to a fasted rat. During the 3 days after a 10B oral dose, 95% of the 10B was recovered from the urine and 4% from the feces. Urinary isotope ratios, 11B/10B, changed from a natural abundance of 4.1140 to an enriched value of 0.95077, a 77% change.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889873

Vanderpool, R A; Hoff, D; Johnson, P E



Liquid chromatography, chemical oxidation, and online carbon isotope dilution mass spectrometry as a universal quantification system for nonvolatile organic compounds.  


A procedure for the universal detection and quantification of polar organic compounds separated by liquid chromatography (LC) based on postcolumn carbon isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) was developed. The eluent from the LC column is mixed online with a continuous flow of (13)C-enriched sodium bicarbonate, and the sodium persulfate oxidation reaction in acidic media is employed to achieve isotope equilibration. All carbon-containing compounds eluting from the column are oxidized to (12)CO(2) and (13)CO(2), respectively, and the carbon dioxide is separated from the aqueous phase using a gas-permeable membrane. The gaseous carbon dioxide is then carried to the mass spectrometer for isotope ratio measurements. Different water-soluble organic compounds were evaluated using a flow injection configuration to assess the efficiency of the oxidation process. Most water-soluble organic compounds tested showed quantitative oxidation. However, chemical structures involving conjugated C?N double bounds and guanidinium-like structures were found to be resistant to the oxidation and were further studied. For this purpose, (13)C(1)-labeled creatine (with the isotopic label in the guanidinium group) was employed as model compound. Specific conditions for the quantitative oxidation of these compounds required lower flow rates and the addition of metallic catalysts. This novel approach was tested as a universal detection and quantification system for LC. A simple standard mixture of four amino acids was separated under 100% aqueous conditions and quantified without the need for specific standards with good accuracy and precision using potassium hydrogen phthalate as internal standard. The main field of application of the developed method is for the purity assessment of organic standards with direct traceability to the International System of Units (SI). PMID:23252800

Daz, Sergio Cueto; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo; Alonso, J Ignacio Garca



Assay of blood and tissue oxaloacetate and alpha-ketoglutarate by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  


The assay of oxaloacetate and alpha-ketoglutarate in biological samples is complicated by their chemical instability and low concentrations. We present a quantitative assay for physiological concentrations of these metabolites by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Samples are spiked with the corresponding internal standards of [U-13C4]oxaloacetate and [U-13C5] alpha-ketoglutarate prior to their treatment with hydroxylamine. After ethyl acetate extraction and evaporation of the organic phases, the oximes are converted to t-butyldimethylsilyl ethers and analyzed by selected ion monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the [M-57]+ ion in electron impact. Although the internal standards of [U-13C4]oxaloacetate and [U-13C5] alpha-ketoglutarate are not commercially available, they can easily be synthesized in 30 min by reacting [1,2,3,6-13C4]citrate with citrate lyase, and L-[U-13C5]glutamate with pyruvate and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, respectively. Because of their chemical instability, the internal standards are prepared on the day of the analysis. A stock solution of [1,2,3,6-13C4]citrate is prepared from L-[U-13C4]aspartate using citrate synthase and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and then purified and kept frozen until required. The detection limit of the method is 0.05 nmol in a given sample. The method was applied to measurements of oxaloacetate and alpha-ketoglutarate in human blood and rat liver. PMID:7733461

Laplante, A; Comte, B; Des Rosiers, C



Simultaneous determination of alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, and simazine in water and soil by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

A multiresidue method was developed for the simultaneous determination of low parts per billion (ppb) concentrations of the herbicides alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, and simazine in water and soil using isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Known amounts of /sup 15/N,/sup 13/C-alachlor and /sup 2/H/sub 5/-atrazine were added to each sample as internal standards. The samples were then prepared by a solid phase extraction with no further cleanup. A high resolution GC/low resolution MS system with data acquisition in selected ion monitoring mode was used to quantitate herbicides in the extract. The limit of detection was 0.05 ppb for water and 0.5 ppb for soil. Accuracy greater than 80% and precision better than 4% was demonstrated with spiked samples.

Huang, L.Q.



Potential of ion chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry via a liquid interface for beverages authentication.  


New tools for the determination of characteristic parameters for food authentication are requested to prevent food adulteration from which health concerns, unfair competition could follow. A new coupling in the area of compound-specific carbon 13 isotope ratio (?(13)C) analysis was developed to simultaneously quantify ?(13)C values of sugars and organic acids. The coupling of ion chromatography (IC) together with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) can be achieved using a liquid interface allowing a chemical oxidation (co) of organic matter. Synthetic solutions containing 1 polyol (glycerol), 3 carbohydrates (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and 12 organic acids (gluconic, lactic, malic, tartaric, oxalic, fumaric, citric and isocitric) were used to optimize chromatographic conditions (concentration gradient and 3 types of column) and the studied isotopic range (-32.28 to -10.65) corresponds to the values found in food products. Optimum chromatographic conditions are found using an IonPac AS15, an elution flow rate of 0.3mLmin(-1) and a linear concentration gradient from 2 to 76mM (rate 21mMmin(-1)). Comparison between ?(13)C value individually obtained for each compound with the coupling IRMS and elemental analyzer, EA-IRMS, and the ones measured on the mixture of compounds by IC-co-IRMS does not reveal any isotope fractionation. Thus, under these experimental conditions, IC-co-IRMS results are accurate and reproducible. This new coupling was tested on two food matrices, an orange juice and a sweet wine. Some optimization is necessary as the concentration range between sugars and organic acids is too large: an increase in the filament intensity of the IRMS is necessary to simultaneously detect the two compound families. These first attempts confirm the good results obtained on synthetic solutions and the strong potential of the coupling IC-co-IRMS in food authentication area. PMID:24267317

Guyon, Francois; Gaillard, Laetitia; Brault, Audrey; Gaultier, Nicolas; Salagoty, Marie-Hlne; Mdina, Bernard



On the interference of 86Kr2+ during carbon isotope analysis of atmospheric methane using continuous flow combustion - isotope ratio mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable carbon isotope analysis of methane (?13C of CH4) on atmospheric samples is one key method to constrain the current and past atmospheric CH4 budget. A frequently applied measurement technique is gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry coupled to a combustion-preconcentration unit. This report shows that the atmospheric trace gas krypton can severely interfere during the mass spectrometric measurement leading to significant biases in ?13C of CH4 if krypton is not sufficiently separated during the analysis. The effect comes about by the lateral tailing of the peak of doubly charged 86Kr in the neighbouring m/z, 44, 45, and 46 Faraday cups. Accordingly, the introduced bias is dependent on the chromatographic separation, the Kr to CH4 mixing ratio in the sample, the mass spectrometer source tuning as well as the detector configuration and can amount to up to several permil in ?13C. Apart from technical solutions to avoid this interference we present correction routines to a posteriori remove the bias.

Schmitt, J.; Seth, B.; Bock, M.; van der Veen, C.; Mller, L.; Sapart, C. J.; Prokopiou, M.; Sowers, T.; Rckmann, T.; Fischer, H.



What is Mass Spectrometry?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the American Society for Mass Spectrometry includes information about what mass spectometry is and how it is used. It has many useful figures and references to other materials. The material answers questions such as "What is mass spectrometry and what can it do for you?"

Chiu, Chia M.


Inorganic mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Inorganic mass spectrometry is enjoying a resurgence of interest among analytical chemists. Dramatic improvements in existing techniques, rapid development and commercialization of new methods, and successful application to increasingly difficult analytical problems are all factors responsible for the renewal of interest in MS as applied to inorganic, elemental, and isotopic analysis. Given the level of recent activity in this field, the book is both timely and needed. Edited by three faculty members of the University of Antwerp in Belgium, the book contains chapters contributed by these editors and other established mass spectrometrists. It fills a void that has existed too long in MS. Too many recent texts purporting to survey the technique of MS in general have ignored inorganic applications altogether. As the title implies, this book turns the tables somewhat and is devoted entirely to the importance of MS in inorganic analysis. The book contains detailed chapters on both established and newer methods of inorganic MS analysis, including spark source, glow discharge, secondary ion, laser microprobe, ICP source, and isotope dilution MS techniques. Introductory and concluding chapters discuss the historical and future roles of inorganic MS, respectively; this historical synopsis is particularly interesting and informative. The discussion of spark source MS includes an excellent and up-to-date treatment of the physics and dynamics of the spark discharge phenomenon as well as a thorough review of the technique's features.

Adams, F.; Gijbels, R.; Van Grieken, R. (eds.)



Isotope Label-Aided Mass Spectrometry Reveals the Influence of Environmental Factors on Metabolism in Single Eggs of Fruit Fly  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate the influence of light/dark cycle on the biosynthesis of metabolites during oogenesis, here we demonstrate a simple experimental protocol which combines in-vivo isotopic labeling of primary metabolites with mass spectrometric analysis of single eggs of fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). First, fruit flies were adapted to light/dark cycle using artificial white light. Second, female flies were incubated with an isotopically labeled sugar (13C6-glucose) for 12 h either during the circadian day or the circadian night, at light or at dark. Third, eggs were obtained from the incubated female flies, and analyzed individually by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS): this yielded information about the extent of labeling with carbon-13. Since the incorporation of carbon-13 to uridine diphosphate glucose (UDP-glucose) in fruit fly eggs is very fast, the labeling of this metabolite was used as an indicator of the biosynthesis of metabolites flies/eggs during 12-h periods, which correspond to circadian day or circadian night. The results reveal that once the flies adapted to the 12-h-light/12-h-dark cycle, the incorporation of carbon-13 to UDP-glucose present in fruit fly eggs was not markedly altered by an acute perturbation to this cycle. This effect may be due to a relationship between biosynthesis of primary metabolites in developing eggs and an alteration to the intake of the labeled substrate possibly related to the change of the feeding habit. Overall, the study shows the possibility of using MALDI-MS in conjunction with isotopic labeling of small metazoans to unravel the influence of environmental cues on primary metabolism. PMID:23185587

Tseng, Te-Wei; Wu, June-Tai; Chen, Yu-Chie; Urban, Pawel L.



Evaluation of matrix effect in isotope dilution mass spectrometry based on quantitative analysis of chloramphenicol residues in milk powder.  


In the present study, we developed a comprehensive strategy to evaluate matrix effect (ME) and its impact on the results of isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) in analysis of chloramphenicol (CAP) residues in milk powder. Stable isotope-labeled internal standards do not always compensate ME, which brings the variation of the ratio (the peak area of analyte/the peak area of isotope). In our investigation, impact factors of this variation were studied in the extraction solution of milk powder using three mass spectrometers coupled with different ion source designs, and deuterium-labeled chloramphenicol (D5-CAP) was used as the internal standard. ME from mobile phases, sample solvents, pre-treatment methods, sample origins and instruments was evaluated, and its impact on the results of IDMS was assessed using the IDMS correction factor (?). Our data showed that the impact of ME of mobile phase on the correction factor was significantly greater than that of sample solvent. Significant ion suppression and enhancement effects were observed in different pre-treated sample solutions. The IDMS correction factor in liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) extract with different instruments was greater or less 1.0, and the IDMS correction factor in hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) and mix-mode cation exchange (MCX) extract with different instruments was all close to 1.0. To the instrument coupled with different ion source design, the impact of ME on IDMS quantitative results was significantly different, exhibiting a large deviation of 11.5%. Taken together, appropriate chromatographic conditions, pre-treatment methods and instruments were crucial to overcome ME and obtain reliable results, when IDMS methods were used in the quantitative analysis of trace target in complex sample matrix. PMID:24356223

Li, Xiu Qin; Yang, Zong; Zhang, Qing He; Li, Hong Mei



Measurement of the stable carbon isotope ratio of atmospheric volatile organic compounds using chromatography, combustion, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry coupled with thermal desorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isotopic analysis of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and in particular of their stable carbon isotope ratio (?13C), could potentially be used as an effective tool for identifying the sources of VOCs. However, to date, there have been very few such analyses. In this work, we analyze the ?13C values of VOCs using thermal desorption coupled with chromatography, combustion, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (TD-GC/C/IRMS). The measured peak shapes were of high quality and 36 compounds in a standard gas containing 58 VOCs (C5-C11) were detected. The measured ?13C varied widely, from-49.7 to-22.9, while the standard deviation of the ?13C values varied from 0.07 to 0.85 (n=5). We then measured samples from two passenger cars in hot and cold modes, three gas stations, roadside air, and ambient air. In comparison with existing studies, the analytical precision for the 36 compounds in this study was reasonable. By comparing the ?13C values obtained from the cars and gas stations, we could identify some degree of the sources of VOCs in the roadside and ambient air samples.

Kawashima, Hiroto; Murakami, Mai



Geographical origin of cereal grains based on element analyser-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-SIRMS).  


The stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions (?(13)C and ?(13)N) of different cereal grains from different regions were determined, using element analyser-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-SIRMS) as the key method. Systematically, ?(13)C and ?(13)N of 5 kinds of cereal grains of different origins, 30 wheat samples from different cultivation areas and 160 rice samples of different cultivars from Guangdong province of China were examined. The results indicated that the ?(13)C values of rice, soybean, millet, wheat and corn were significantly (P<0.05) different within different origins (Heilongjiang, Shandong and Jiangsu province of China), respectively, while ?(13)N values were not. Interestingly, there exists discrimination between these 5 kinds of cereals grains, no matter C-3 or C-4 plants. Further study showed that the ?(13)C values of wheat from Australia, the USA, Canada, and Jiangsu and Shandong province of China were also significantly (P<0.01) different. Furthermore, the P-value test for 160 rice samples of 5 cultivars was not significant (P>0.05), which indicated that the cultivar of cereal grains was not significant based on ?(13)C value. Thus, the comparison of ?(13)C would be potentially useful for rapid and routine discrimination of geographical origin of cereal grains. PMID:25529718

Wu, Yuluan; Luo, Donghui; Dong, Hao; Wan, Juan; Luo, Haiying; Xian, Yanping; Guo, Xindong; Qin, Fangfang; Han, Wanqing; Wang, Li; Wang, Bin



Analysis of N-nitrosamines in water by isotope dilution gas chromatography-electron ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.  


A method has been developed for the determination of eight N-nitrosamines in drinking water and treated municipal effluent. The method uses solid phase extraction (SPE), gas chromatography (GC) and analysis by tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) with electron ionization (EI). The target compounds are N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomethyethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosodiethylamine NDEA), N-nitrosodipropylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine (NDBuA), N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPyr), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPip), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMorph). The use of direct isotope analogues for isotope dilution analysis of all analytes ensures accurate quantification, accounting for analytical variabilities that may occur during sample processing, extraction and instrumental analysis. Method detection levels (MDLs) were determined to describe analyte concentrations sufficient to provide a signal with 99% certainty of detection. The established MDLs for all analytes were 0.4-4 ng L(-1) in a variety of aqueous matrices. Sample matrices were observed to have only a minor impact on MDLs and the method validation confirmed satisfactory method stability over intra-day and inter-day analyses of tap water and tertiary treated effluent samples. PMID:22967534

McDonald, James A; Harden, Nick B; Nghiem, Long D; Khan, Stuart J



Quantification of nerve agent adducts with albumin in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry.  


A sensitive method for the determination of the organophosphorus nerve agents sarin, soman and VX adducts with tyrosine residue of albumin in rat plasma has been developed and validated using liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS/MS). O-(O-Alkyl methylphosphonyl) tyrosine adducts and their deuterated products that were used as the internal standards were synthesised to establish the quantitative isotope-dilution method. Protein purification and solid-phase extraction (SPE) were applied to improve the recovery efficiency, reduce interference and achieve high sensitivity. The method provided a detection limit of 0.01 ng/mL for sarin and soman adducts and 0.05 ng/mL for the VX adduct. The value of the intra-day relative standard deviation over the calibration range was less than 6.16% (n=6), and that of the inter-day was less than 12.7% (n=6). The recovery varied from 86% to 111%. This sensitive method was successfully applied to the analysis of adducts in rat plasma after nerve agent exposure, and the results demonstrated the dose-effect relationships. PMID:22305360

Bao, Yi; Liu, Qin; Chen, Jia; Lin, Ying; Wu, Bidong; Xie, Jianwei



Quantification of saxitoxin and neosaxitoxin in human urine utilizing isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry.  


Saxitoxin and neosaxitoxin are potent neurotoxins that can cause paralytic shellfish poisoning when consumed. A new assay is presented here to quantify saxitoxin (STX) and neosaxitoxin (NEO) in human urine samples. Sample preparation of 500-microL samples included the use of weak-cation-exchange solid-phase extraction in a multiplexed 96-well format. Extracts were preconcentrated and analyzed via 10-min hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography followed by electrospray ionization. Protonated molecular ions were quantified via multiple reaction monitoring mode in a Qtrap mass spectrometer. The method uses novel 15N7-isotopically enriched STX and NEO internal standards. Method validation included the characterization of two enriched urine pools. The lowest reportable limits for STX and NEO were 4.80 and 10.1 ng/mL, respectively, using both quantification and confirmation ions. These two toxins were not detected in a reference range of humans who consumed seafood in the preceding 72 h, suggesting that few false positives would occur when trying to identify people exposed to STX or NEO. PMID:19161664

Johnson, Rudolph C; Zhou, Yingtao; Statler, Kristen; Thomas, Jerry; Cox, Frederick; Hall, Sherwood; Barr, John R



Improved quality control in gas chromatography interfaced to stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry by application of derivative chromatography.  


Compound-specific isotope analysis using gas chromatography interfaced to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) is a versatile technique for applications ranging from source appointment and the elucidation of biochemical pathways. When delta(13)C values are going to be determined, the sample is combusted to CO(2) and the resulting gas is analyzed relative to a standard with known stable carbon isotope ratio. With the combustion step any information on the identity of a peak is lost. Co-eluting compounds can no more be identified which can lead to significant alterations of the delta(13)C value of the analyte. For improvement of the QA/QC protocols in GC-IRMS, we used first, second, and third order derivative chromatography. The suitability of the technique was studied using mixtures of 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-heptachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (Q1) and 2,2',4,5,5'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 101). By application of different GC oven programs four scenarios ranging from baseline separation to full co-elution were obtained. Derivative chromatography enabled identification of the interference of Q1 with PCB 101 even when both peaks fully co-eluted. Although the delta(13)C values could not be determined from interfered scenarios, the use of derivative spectroscopy will help to prevent acceptance of incorrect data due to co-elutions. Derivative chromatography was finally used to study the peak purity of 2,2',3,4,4'-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 85) in technical pentabromo diphenyl ether (DE-71). Already the first order derivative demonstrated that this key-BDE congener was interfered by a compound identified as 2,2',4,4',6,6'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 155). PMID:17416222

Vetter, Walter; Gaul, Simon; Melcher, Joachim



[The determination of porphyrin carbon isotope composition by gas chromatography-isotope ratio monitoring mass spectrometry technique].  


The porphyrin carbon isotope composition can be used to explore the precursor of porphyrin, oil-oil and oil-source rock correction and calculation of paleo P CO2. The conventional method is limited because of its time consuming and large sample size (several mg of individual porphyrin) required. Therefore, it hampers the application of porphyrin carbon isotope composition into the chemistry and geoscience. The present paper describes a quantification method to prepare bis-(tert-butyldimethylsiloxy) silicon (IV) [(TBDMSO)2Si(IV)] porphyrin which is sufficiently volatile at 300 degrees C and can be used for GC-IRMS analysis. The analysis of carbon isotope composition of aetio I as the form of free base, nickel, demetalization derivative, silicon(IV) and (TBDMSO)2Si(IV) have shown that aetio I porphyrin has no obvious isotope fractionation in the whole synthesis procedure for (TBDMSO)2Si(IV) porphyrin. The carbon isotope study on the porphyrin mixtures of aetio I and OEP indicates that isotope exchange between porphyrins during the synthesis of (TBDMSO)2Si(IV) porphyrin is absent. The method can be applied to the determination of porphyrin carbon isotope compositions. The advantages of the method are time saving, less sample size and lower standard deviation. PMID:12541647

Yu, Z Q; Peng, P A; Fu, J M; Sheng, G Y



Pathway of diethyl phthalate photolysis in sea-water determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compound-specific isotope analysis.  


The degradation mechanism of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in natural seawater under UV irradiation was investigated using a combination of intermediates detection and determination of stable carbon isotopic fractionation. Typical intermediates identified with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) and phthalic anhydride. Stable carbon isotope signature was determined by gas chromatography coupled with isotope ratio mass spectrometry through a combustion interface (GC-C-IRMS). A profound (13)C enrichment, with a ?(13)C isotope shift of 12.30.3 (f=0.09) in residual DEP molecule, was clearly an indicator to its photolysis. The reactive position isotope enrichment factor (?(reactive position)) and apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIE) were -35.252.26 and 1.075, respectively, indicating that the initial reaction step was cleavage of a CO bond in DEP photolysis. Based on these observations, a degradation pathway was proposed. First, a CO bond in DEP molecule was broken to form MEP. Then, MEP was further degraded to phthalic anhydride. Our work demonstrates that compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA), when combined with intermediates analysis, is a reliable measure to deduce the mechanism of DEP photolysis. This approach might be extended as a reference for mechanism investigation in complicated environment systems. PMID:22883110

Peng, Xuewei; Feng, Lijuan; Li, Xianguo



Gas Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry  

E-print Network

GCMS - 1 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS OF ETHANOL AND BENZENE IN GASOLINE Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;GCMS - 2 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS). The goal of this experiment is to separate the components in a sample of gasoline using Gas Chromatography

Nizkorodov, Sergey


Stable Chlorine Isotopes and Elemental Chlorine by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Ion Chromatography; Martian Meteorites, Carbonaceous Chondrites and Standard Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently significantly large mass fractionation of stable chlorine isotopes has been reported for terrestrial and lunar samples [1,2]. In addition, in view of possible early solar system processes [3] and also potential perchlorate-related fluid/microbial activities on the Martian surface [4,5], a large chlorine isotopic fractionation might be expected for some types of planetary materials. Due to analytical difficulties of isotopic and elemental analyses, however, current chlorine analyses for planetary materials are controversial among different laboratories, particularly between IRMS (gas source mass spectrometry) and TIMS (Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry) groups [i.e. 1,6,7] for isotopic analyses, as well as between those doing pyrohydrolysis and other groups [i.e. 6,8]. Additional careful investigations of Cl isotope and elemental abundances are required to confirm real chlorine isotope and elemental variations for planetary materials. We have developed a TIMS technique combined with HF-leaching/ion chromatography at NASA JSC that is applicable to analysis of small amounts of meteoritic and planetary materials. We present here results for several standard rocks and meteorites, including Martian meteorites.

Nakamura, N.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Shih, C.-Y.; Fujitani, T.; Okano, O.



Microhomogeneity assessments using ultrasonic slurry sampling coupled with electrothermal vaporization isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ICP-MS) is a very powerful technique for the direct analysis of solid materials prepared as slurries. The use of isotope dilution USS-ETV-ICP-MS (USS-ETV-ID-ICP-MS) for micro-homogeneity characterization studies of powdered reference materials based on elemental analyses, was investigated. Slurry analysis conditions were optimized taking into consideration density, particle size, analyte extraction, slurry mixing, analyte transport and sampling depth. Slurries were prepared using 1-20 mg of material and adding 1.0 ml of 5% nitric acid diluent containing 0.005% Triton X-100. Three reference materials were analyzed (RM 8431a Mixed Diet, SRM 1548a Typical Diet and SRM 2709 San Joaquin Soil). Cu and Ni were determined in each material and Fe was also determined in RM 8431a Mixed Diet. ETV conditions were optimized and the benefit of using Pd as a carrier to enhance transport, combined with oxygen ashing was demonstrated. The accuracy of the method was verified by comparing analytical results with certified values. The precision of the method was demonstrated by comparing R.S.D.'s for slurry samples and aqueous standards and elemental 'homogeneity' was quantified based on the slurry sampling variability. The representative sample mass analyzed was calculated taking into consideration extraction of analyte into the liquid phase of the slurry. Representative sample masses of approximately 4 mg of RM 8431a provided slurry sampling variabilities of 10% or less for Cu, Fe and Ni. Representative sample masses of approximately 10 mg of SRM 1548a provided slurry sampling variabilities of approximately 10% for Cu and Ni. Representative sample masses of approximately 0.3 mg of SRM 2709 resulted in total analytical variabilities of less than 7%, highlighting the fact that the San Joaquin Soil is clearly the most homogeneous of the materials characterized.

Miller-Ihli, Nancy J.; Baker, Scott A.



N-glycosylamine-mediated isotope labeling for mass spectrometry-based quantitative analysis of N-linked glycans.  


N-linked glycosylation is a major protein modification involved in many essential cellular functions. Methods capable of quantitative glycan analysis are highly valuable and have been actively pursued. Here we describe a novel N-glycosylamine-based strategy for isotopic labeling of N-linked glycans for quantitative analysis by use of mass spectrometry (MS). This strategy relies on the primary amine group on the reducing end of freshly released N-linked glycans for labeling, and eliminates the need for the harsh labeling reaction conditions and/or tedious cleanup procedures required by existing methods. By using NHS-ester amine chemistry we used this strategy to label N-linked glycans from a monoclonal antibody with commercially available tandem mass tags (TMT). Only duplex experiments can be performed with currently available TMT reagents, because quantification is based on the intensity of intact labeled glycans. Under mild reaction conditions, greater than 95% derivatization was achieved in 30 min and the labeled glycans, when kept at -20 C, were stable for more than 10 days. By performing glycan release, TMT labeling, and LC-MS analysis continuously in a single volatile aqueous buffer without cleanup steps, we were able to complete the entire analysis in less than 2 h. Quantification was highly accurate and the dynamic range was large. Compared with previously established methods, N-glycosylamine-mediated labeling has the advantages of experimental simplicity, efficient labeling, and preserving glycan integrity. PMID:23670280

Gong, Bing; Hoyt, Erik; Lynaugh, Heather; Burnina, Irina; Moore, Renee; Thompson, Alissa; Li, Huijuan



Quantitative determination of four nitrofuran metabolites in meat by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry.  


A confirmatory method based on isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for the low-level determination of residues of four nitrofuran veterinary drugs in meat, e.g., furazolidone, furaltadone, nitrofurantoin, and nitrofurazone. The procedure entails an acid-catalysed release of protein-bound metabolites, followed by their in situ conversion into the 2-nitrobenzaldehyde (NBA) imine-type derivatives. Liquid-liquid extraction and clean-up on a polymeric solid phase extraction cartridge are then performed before LC-MS/MS analysis by positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) applying multiple reaction monitoring of three transition reactions for each compound. Reliable quantitation is obtained by using one deuterated analogue per analyte (d4-NBA derivative) as internal standard (IS). Validation of the method in chicken meat was conducted following the European Union (EU) criteria for the analysis of veterinary drug residues in foods. The decision limits (CCalpha) were 0.11-0.21 microg/kg, and the detection capabilities (CCbeta) 0.19-0.36 microg/kg, thus below the minimum required performance limit (MRPL) set at 1 microg/kg by the EU. The method is robust and suitable for routine quality control operations, and more than 200 sample injections were performed without excessive pollution of the mass spectrometer or loss of LC column performance. PMID:15844512

Mottier, Pascal; Khong, Seu-Ping; Gremaud, Eric; Richoz, Janique; Delatour, Thierry; Goldmann, Till; Guy, Philippe A



Quantifying precision and accuracy of measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon stable isotopic composition using continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

RATIONALE We describe an analytical procedure that allows sample collection and measurement of carbon isotopic composition (?13CV-PDB value) and dissolved inorganic carbon concentration, [DIC], in aqueous samples without further manipulation post field collection. By comparing outputs from two different mass spectrometers, we quantify with the statistical rigour uncertainty associated with the estimation of an unknown measurement. This is rarely undertaken, but it is needed to understand the significance of field data and to interpret quality assurance exercises. METHODS Immediate acidification of field samples during collection in evacuated, pre-acidified vials removed the need for toxic chemicals to inhibit continued bacterial activity that might compromise isotopic and concentration measurements. Aqueous standards mimicked the sample matrix and avoided headspace fractionation corrections. Samples were analysed using continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, but for low DIC concentration the mass spectrometer response could be non-linear. This had to be corrected for. RESULTS Mass spectrometer non-linearity exists. Rather than estimating precision as the repeat analysis of an internal standard, we have adopted inverse linear calibrations to quantify the precision and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the ?13CDIC values. The response for [DIC] estimation was always linear. For 0.050.5 mM DIC internal standards, however, changes in mass spectrometer linearity resulted in estimations of the precision in the ?13CVPDB value of an unknown ranging from 0.44 to 1.33 (mean values) and a mean 95% CI half-width of 1.13.1. CONCLUSIONS Mass spectrometer non-linearity should be considered in estimating uncertainty in measurement. Similarly, statistically robust estimates of precision and accuracy should also be adopted. Such estimations do not inhibit research advances: our consideration of small-scale spatial variability at two points on a small order river system demonstrates field data ranges larger than the precision and uncertainties. However, without such statistical quantification, exercises such as inter-lab calibrations are less meaningful. PMID:24711275

Waldron, Susan; Marian Scott, E; Vihermaa, Leena E; Newton, Jason



Carbon Isotope Measurements of Experimentally-Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products by Pyrolysis-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report results of experiments to measure the C isotope composition of mineral catalyzed organic compounds derived from high temperature and high pressure synthesis. These experiments make use of an innovative pyrolysis technique designed to extract and measure C isotopes. To date, our experiments have focused on the pyrolysis and C isotope ratio measurements of low-molecular weight intermediary hydrocarbons (organic acids and alcohols) and serve as a proof of concept for making C and H isotope measurements on more complicated mixtures of solid-phase hydrocarbons and intermediary products produced during high temperature and high pressure synthesis on mineral-catalyzed surfaces. The impetus for this work stems from recently reported observations of methane detected within the Martian atmosphere [1-4], coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Martian history [5-7]. Methane production on Mars could be the result of synthesis by mineral surface-catalyzed reduction of CO2 and/or CO by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions during serpentization reactions [8,9]. Others have conducted experimental studies to show that FTT reactions are plausible mechanisms for low-molecular weight hydrocarbon formation in hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges [10-12]. Further, recent experiments by Fu et al. [13] focus on examining detailed C isotope measurements of hydrocarbons produced by surface-catalyzed mineral reactions. Work described in this paper details the experimental techniques used to measure intermediary organic reaction products (alcohols and organic acids).

Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.



The role of isotope ratio mass spectrometry as a tool for the comparison of physical evidence.  


This paper considers how likelihood ratios can be derived for a combination of physical, chemical and isotopic measurements. Likelihood ratios were formulated based on the characteristics of a small convenience sample of 20 duct tapes. The propositions considered were: The physical and isotopic characteristics of ten rolls of duct tape were shown to be consistent throughout each roll. The width and thickness of the tapes and the density of the scrim fibres provided equivalent information and the combined physical characteristics provided a basis upon which to discriminate between many of the samples. Scatter-plots and confidence ellipses provided a convenient method to group the isotopic composition of the tape backing material and provided a basis to discriminate between samples which were physically indistinguishable. Considering both the physical and isotopic characteristics it was possible, at best, to ascertain that the evidence provided moderately strong support for the proposition that two samples of tape were derived from the same batch (LR=400). Kernel density estimates were used to model the distribution of isotopic compositions of the backing material. Using this technique it was possible to estimate objectively the probability that a sample with given characteristics could be drawn, at random, from the background population and to calculate a likelihood ratio based on the propositions above. The strength of evidence which could be presented by either model was ultimately limited by the size of the background sample. PMID:25278193

Carter, James F; Doyle, Sean; Phasumane, Bohang-Lintle; NicDaeid, Niamh



Measurement of the isotopic composition of uranium micrometer-size particles by femtosecond laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we will describe and indicate the performance of a new method based on the use of femtosecond laser ablation (fs-LA) coupled to a quadrupole-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-QMS) for analyzing the isotopic composition of micrometer-size uranium particles. The fs-LA device was equipped with a high frequency source (till 10 kHz). We applied this method to 1-2 ?m diameter-uranium particles of known isotopic composition and we compared this technique with the two techniques currently used for uranium particle analysis: Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and Fission Track Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (FT-TIMS). By optimizing the experimental conditions, we achieved typical accuracy and reproducibility below 4% on 235U/238U for short transient signals of only 15 s related to 10 to 200 pg of uranium. The detection limit (at the 3 sigma level) was ~ 350 ag for the 235U isotope, meaning that 235U/238U isotope ratios in natural uranium particles of ~ 220 nm diameter can be measured. We also showed that the local contamination resulting from the side deposition of ablation debris at ~ 100 ?m from the ablation crater represented only a small percentage of the initial uranium signal of the ablated particle. Despite the use of single collector ICP-MS, we were able to demonstrate that fs-LA-ICP-MS is a promising alternative technique for determining uranium isotopic composition in particle analysis.

Hubert, Amlie; Claverie, Fanny; Pcheyran, Christophe; Pointurier, Fabien


Mass spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability of determining element concentrations at the trace and ultratrace level and isotope ratios is a main feature of inorganic mass spectrometry. The precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios of long-lived natural and artificial radionuclides is required, e.g. for their environmental monitoring and health control, for studying radionuclide migration, for age dating, for determining isotope ratios of radiogenic elements in the nuclear industry, for quality assurance and determination of the burn-up of fuel material in a nuclear power plant, for reprocessing plants, nuclear material accounting and radioactive waste control. Inorganic mass spectrometry, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the most important inorganic mass spectrometric technique today, possesses excellent sensitivity, precision and good accuracy for isotope ratio measurements and practically no restriction with respect to the ionization potential of the element investigatedtherefore, thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), which has been used as the dominant analytical technique for precise isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides for many decades, is being replaced increasingly by ICP-MS. In the last few years instrumental progress in improving figures of merit for the determination of isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides in ICP-MS has been achieved by the application of a multiple ion collector device (MC-ICP-MS) and the introduction of the collision cell interface in order to dissociate disturbing argon-based molecular ions, to reduce the kinetic energy of ions and neutralize the disturbing noble gas ions (e.g. of 129Xe + for the determination of 129I). The review describes the state of the art and the progress of different inorganic mass spectrometric techniques such as ICP-MS, laser ablation ICP-MS vs. TIMS, glow discharge mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry for the determination of long-lived radionuclides in quite different materials.

Becker, Johanna Sabine



Determination of Mercury Content in a Shallow Firn Core from Summit, Greenland by Isotope Dilution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The total mercury Hg content was determined in 6 cm sections of a near-surface 7 m firn core and in surrounding surface snow from Summit, Greenland (elevation: 3238 m, 72.58 N, 38.53 W) in May 2001 by isotope dilution cold-vapor inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-CV-ICP-MS). The focus of this research was to evaluate the capability of the ID-CV-ICPMS technique for measuring trace levels of Hg typical of polar snow and firn. Highly enriched Hg-201 isotopic spike is added to approximately 10 ml melted core and thoroughly mixed. The Hg(+2) in the sample is reduced on line with tin (II) chloride (SnCl2) and the elemental Hg (Hg(0)) vapor pre-concentrated on to gold gauze using a commercial amalgam system. The Hg is then thermally desorbed and introduced into a quadrupole ICP-MS. The blank corrected Hg concentrations determined for all samples ranged from 0.25 ng/L to 1.74 ng/L (ppt) (average 0.59 ng/L plus or minus 0.28 ng/L) and fall within the range of those previously determined by Boutron et al., 1998 (less than or equal to 0.05 ng/L to 2.0 ng/L) for the Summit site. The average blank value was 0.19 ng/L plus or minus 0.045 ng/L (n=6). The Hg values specifically for the firn core range from 0.25 ng/L to 0.87 ng/L (average 0.51 ng/L plus or minus 0.13 ng/L) and show both values declining with time and larger variability in concentration in the top 1.8 m.

Mann, Jacqueline L.; Long, Stephen E.; Shuman, Christopher A.; Kelly, W. Robert



Heart-cutting two-dimensional gas chromatography in combination with isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the characterization of the wax fraction in plant material.  


Gas chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry after on-line combustion (GC-C-IRMS) and high temperature conversion (GC-HTC-IRMS) is used for compound specific isotope ratio determination. This determination can only be performed successfully if the target solutes are fully resolved from other compounds. A new instrumental set-up consisting of heart-cutting two-dimensional GC based on capillary flow technology and a low thermal mass GC oven in combination with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer is presented. Capillary flow technology was also used in all column and interface connections for robust and leak-free operation. The new configuration was applied to the characterization of wax compounds in tobacco leaf and corresponding smoke samples. It is demonstrated that high accuracy is obtained, both in the determination of ?(13)C and ?(2)H values, allowing the study of biosynthesis and delivery mechanisms of naturally occurring compounds in tobacco. PMID:23721809

Dumont, Emmie; Tienpont, Bart; Higashi, Nobukazu; Mitsui, Kazuhisa; Ochiai, Nobuo; Kanda, Hirooki; David, Frank; Sandra, Pat



Two-dimensional gas chromatography with heart-cutting for isotope ratio mass spectrometry analysis of steroids in doping control.  


The accuracy and precision of gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) measurements are highly dependent on analyte purity. Reliable analysis of urinary steroids for doping control therefore requires extensive and time-consuming sample preparation (i.e. liquid chromatography fraction collection) prior to GC-C-IRMS analysis. The use of two-dimensional GC (GC-GC) with heart-cutting (Deans Switch) as a possible approach to reduce the sample purification required for IRMS analysis is described herein. The system uses a low thermal mass oven (LTM) incorporated into an existing GC-C-IRMS system. GC-GC allowed the use of a cyanopropyl/phenyl column in the first dimension to optimize the separation of underivatized steroids, while a phenyl-methylpolysiloxane column in the second dimension focuses the selectively cut analytes into narrower peaks for more sensitive and reliable MS analysis. In addition, to confirm analyte identity, eluent from the second GC was split, with 20 % entering a scanning MS, and 80 % flowing to the IRMS. As a proof concept, the developed method was then used to analyze a single spot urine (5 ml) from an individual receiving T therapy (2 50 mg sachets of Testogel()). The T delta value (-27.8 , [T]?= 38 ng/ml) was clearly distinct from 11-ketoetiocholanolone (-22.5 ) (used as an endogenous reference compound (ERC)), indicating T as being of exogenous origin. The simultaneous analysis by the scanning MS yielded a full scan mass spectrum of the same chromatographic peak, thus confirming the peak to be T. PMID:22761127

Brailsford, A D; Gavrilovi?, I; Ansell, R J; Cowan, D A; Kicman, A T



An isotope dilution headspace method with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of propylene oxide in food.  


A method based on isotope dilution headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of propylene oxide in foods. Optimum method sensitivity was achieved by the addition of NaCl in water at saturation and with the sample solution incubated at 90 degrees C. The method had good repeatability with relative standard deviations of 6.0, 7.6 and 2.2% at 5, 20 and 40 microg l(-1), respectively. The method was used to determine propylene oxide in 36 selected food composite samples from the 2007 Canadian total diet study. Propylene oxide was not detected in any samples analyzed with an average method detection limit of 0.5 ng g(-1). Hydrolysis of propylene oxide in water was observed as a first-order reaction with a half-life of 15 h at room temperature and less than 10 min at 90 degrees C. This confirms that it is very unlikely to find propylene oxide in foods as consumed due to its volatility and reaction with water. PMID:19680922

Cao, Xu-Liang; Corriveau, Jeannette



Advanced Identification of Proteins in Uncharacterized Proteomes by Pulsed in Vivo Stable Isotope Labeling-based Mass Spectrometry*  

PubMed Central

Despite progress in the characterization of their genomes, proteomes of several model organisms are often only poorly characterized. This problem is aggravated by the presence of large numbers of expressed sequence tag clones that lack homologues in other species, which makes it difficult to identify new proteins irrespective of whether such molecules are involved in species-specific biological processes. We have used a pulsed stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based mass spectrometry method, which is based on the detection of paired peptides after [13C6]lysine incorporation into proteins in vivo, to greatly increase the confidence of protein identification in cross-species database searches. The method was applied to identify nearly 3000 proteins in regenerating tails of the urodele amphibian Notophthalmus viridescens, which possesses outstanding capabilities in the regeneration of complex tissues. We reason that pulsed in vivo SILAC represents a versatile tool to identify new proteins in species for which only limited sequence information exists. PMID:20139370

Looso, Mario; Borchardt, Thilo; Krger, Marcus; Braun, Thomas



Quantification of recombinant human erythropoietin by amino acid analysis using isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  


Herein, we describe an accurate method for protein quantification based on conventional acid hydrolysis and an isotope dilution-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The analyte protein, recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), was effectively hydrolyzed by incubation with 8 mol/L hydrochloric acid at 130 C for 48 h, in which at least 1 ?mol/kg of rhEPO was treated to avoid possible degradation of released amino acids during hydrolysis. Prior to hydrolysis, sample solution was subjected to ultrafiltration to eliminate potential interfering substances. In a reversed-phase column, the analytes (phenylalanine, proline, and valine) were separated within 3 min using gradient elution comprising 20 % (v/v) acetonitrile and 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate, both containing 0.3 % (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid. The optimized hydrolysis and analytical conditions in our study were strictly validated in terms of accuracy and precision, and were suitable for the accurate quantification of rhEPO. Certified rhEPO was analyzed using a conventional biochemical assay kit as an additional working calibrant for the quantification of EPO and improved the accuracy. The optimized protocol is suitable for the accurate quantification of rhEPO and satisfactorily serves as a reference analytical procedure for the certification of rhEPO and similar proteins. PMID:24842400

Yim, Jung-Hyuk; Yoon, Ina; Yang, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Sook-Kyung; Park, Sang-Ryoul; Lee, Yong-Moon; Jeong, Ji-Seon



Flow-injection technique for determination of uranium and thorium isotopes in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  


A sensitive and efficient flow-injection (FI) preconcentration and matrix-separation technique coupled to sector field ICP-mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS) has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of ultra-low levels of uranium (U) and thorium (Th) in human urine. The method is based on selective retention of U and Th from a urine matrix, after microwave digestion, on an extraction chromatographic TRU resin, as an alternative to U/TEVA resin, and their subsequent elution with ammonium oxalate. Using a 10 mL sample, the limits of detection achieved for 238U and 232Th were 0.02 and 0.03 ng L(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the method was checked by spike-recovery measurements. Levels of U and Th in human urine were found to be in the ranges 1.86-5.50 and 0.176-2.35 ng L(-1), respectively, well in agreement with levels considered normal for non-occupationally exposed persons. The precision obtained for five replicate measurements of a urine sample was 2 and 3% for U and Th, respectively. The method also enables on-line measurements of the 235U/238U isotope ratios in urine. Precision of 0.82-1.04% (RSD) was obtained for 235U/238U at low ng L(-1) levels, using the FI transient signal approach. PMID:15827719

Benkhedda, Karima; Epov, Vladimir N; Evans, R Douglas



Development of an SI-Traceable HPLC-Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry Method To Quantify ?-Lactoglobulin in Milk Powders.  


?-Lactoglobulin (?-LG) is one of the major allergenic proteins in milk. There is an urgent demand for an accurate and traceable method to develop ?-LG certified reference material (CRM). In this work, ?-LG was enzymatically digested and a specific peptide was chosen for quantitation by isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). With amino acid CRMs as standards, the results could be traced to SI unit. By the proposed method, the recovery ranged from 86.0% to 118.3% with CVs <9.0%. The LOD and LOQ were 4.8 10(-5) g/g and 1.6 10(-4) g/g of ?-LG in milk powder, respectively. Ten samples from domestic market were analyzed with CVs <5.6%, and the relative expanded uncertainties ranged from 4.2% to 5.9% (k = 2). With the CRMs, it is expected that the comparability of ?-LG quantitation results will be improved among different laboratories. PMID:24628306

Yang, Wang; Liqing, Wu; Fei, Duan; Bin, Yang; Yi, Yang; Jing, Wang



In situ hafnium isotope ratio analysis of zircon by inductively coupled plasma multiple collector mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hf isotopic data are reported for ten ?0.01-mm2 subareas of a zircon crystal separated from the ? 318-Ma diatreme of Elie Ness, Fife, Scotland. In situ analysis was achieved by ablation sampling with a Nd:YAG laser into an inductively-coupled plasma, with ions dispersed by a sector magnet and integrated in a 7-Faraday multicollector array. Despite large interferences from Yb (16%

Matthew F. Thirlwall; Andrew J. Walder



Stable isotope imaging of biological samples with high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry and complementary techniques  

PubMed Central

Stable isotopes are ideal labels for studying biological processes because they have little or no effect on the biochemical properties of target molecules. The NanoSIMS is a tool that can image the distribution of stable isotope labels with up to 50 nm spatial resolution and with good quantitation. This combination of features has enabled several groups to undertake significant experiments on biological problems in the last decade. Combining the NanoSIMS with other imaging techniques also enables us to obtain not only chemical information but also the structural information needed to understand biological processes. This article describes the methodologies that we have developed to correlate atomic force microscopy and backscattered electron imaging with NanoSIMS experiments to illustrate the imaging of stable isotopes at molecular, cellular, and tissue scales. Our studies make it possible to address 3 biological problems: (1) the interaction of antimicrobial peptides with membranes; (2) glutamine metabolism in cancer cells; and (3) lipoprotein interactions in different tissues. PMID:24556558

Jiang, H.; Favaro, E.; Goulbourne, C. N.; Rakowska, P. D.; Hughes, G. M.; Ryadnov, M. G.; Fong, L.G.; Young, S. G.; Ferguson, D. J. P.; Harris, A. L.; Grovenor, C. R. M.



Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook. PMID:21742802

Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander



Quantification of carcinogenic 4- to 6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human urine by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatographyisotope dilution mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants found in living and working environments. The aim of this study was\\u000a to develop a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography (GC)isotope dilution mass spectrometry method for the\\u000a quantification of 10 four- to six-ring PAHs in urine samples. Seven of the selected PAHs have been classified as carcinogenic.\\u000a Under the final conditions, analytes were sampled

Laura Campo; Silvia Fustinoni; PierAlberto Bertazzi


Advances in low level uranium and plutonium isotope mass spectrometry using multiple ion counting and filament carburization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After upgrading IRMM's mass spectrometric capabilities for certification measurements for uranium and plutonium using large sample sizes during the previous years, in 2006-2007 we focused on necessary improvements in the area of low-level isotopic analyses for uranium and plutonium. This project was driven firstly by the need for reliable verification measurements for the Nuclear Signatures Measurement Evaluation Programme (NUSIMEP) samples at IRMM, secondly by the need for verification measurements on single uranium oxide reference particles and thirdly by the request from the IAEA's Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (SAL) to provide assistance for this type of analyses through the EC support programme. Improving low-level isotope mass spectrometry for uranium and plutonium at IRMM consisted of three steps. First a new thermal ionization mass spectrometer was acquired in order to have an instrument which can be used for peak-jumping measurements in ion counting mode, and which can be subsequently upgraded with a "Multiple Ion Counting" (MIC) system. This detector system allows the simultaneous detection of up to seven small ion beams with currents of 10-19 - 10-14 Ampere in ion counting mode, corresponding to count rates of 1-60.000 counts per second. As a result of test measurements with the MIC system it turned out that static measurements using the MIC system with a sample-versus-standard type external calibration can be associated with uncertainties even higher than in peak-jumping mode. The second step of improvement to tackle this situation was to implement the principle of "multi-dynamic" measurements for both uranium and plutonium measurements. This "multi- dynamic" measurement procedure provides an internal calibration of the MIC system and therefore circumvents the need for complicated inter-calibration routines. As a third step, a filament carburization procedure was implemented by which the ionization efficiencies for uranium and plutonium were improved by a factor of 3 and 10, respectively. Results for measurements performed on samples of previous NUSIMEP campaigns will be shown in comparison to results from various techniques employed by participating laboratories.

Richter, S.; Jakopic, R.; Kuehn, H.; Alonso, A.; Aregbe, Y.



Protein Stable Isotope Fingerprinting (P-SIF): Multidimensional Protein Chromatography Coupled to Stable Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As metagenomics increases our insight into microbial community diversity and metabolic potential, new approaches are required to determine the biogeochemical expression of this potential within ecosystems. Because stable isotopic analysis of the major bioactive elements (C, N) has been used historically to map flows of substrates and energy among macroscopic food webs, similar principles may apply to microbes. To address this challenge, we have developed a new analytical approach called Protein Stable Isotope Fingerprinting (P-SIF). P-SIF generates natural stable isotopic fingerprints of microbial individual or community proteomes. The main advantage of P-SIF is the potential to bridge the gap between diversity and function, thereby providing a window into the "black box" of environmental microbiology and helping to decipher the roles of uncultivated species. Our method implements a three-way, orthogonal scheme to separate mixtures of whole proteins into subfractions dominated by single or closely-related proteins. Protein extracts first are isoelectrically focused in a gel-free technique that yields 12 fractions separated over a gradient of pH 3-10. Each fraction then is separated by size-exclusion chromatography into 20 pools, ranging from >100kD to ~10kD. Finally, each of these pools is subjected to HPLC and collected in 40 time-slices based on protein hydrophobicity. Theoretical calculation reveals that the true chromatographic resolution of the total scheme is 5000, somewhat less than the 9600 resulting fractions. High-yielding fractions are subjected to ?13C analysis by spooling-wire microcombustion irMS (SWiM-irMS) optimized for samples containing 1-5 nmol carbon. Here we will present the method, results for a variety of pure cultures, and preliminary data for a sample of mixed environmental proteins. The data show the promise of this method for unraveling the metabolic complexity hidden within microbial communities.

Pearson, A.; Bovee, R. J.; Mohr, W.; Tang, T.



Analysis of amino acid 13C abundance from human and faunal bone collagen using liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry.  


The scope of compound-specific stable isotope analysis has recently been increased with the development of the LC IsoLink which interfaces high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to provide online LC/IRMS. This enables isotopic measurement of non-volatile compounds previously not amenable to compound-specific analysis or requiring substantial modification for gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS), which results in reduced precision. Amino acids are an example of such compounds. We present a new chromatographic method for the HPLC separation of underivatized amino acids using an acidic, aqueous mobile phase in conjunction with a mixed-mode stationary phase that can be interfaced with the LC IsoLink for compound-specific delta13C analysis. The method utilizes a reversed-phase Primesep-A column with embedded, ionizable, functional groups providing the capability for ion-exchange and hydrophobic interactions. Baseline separation of 15 amino acids and their carbon isotope values are reported with an average standard deviation of 0.18 per thousand (n = 6). In addition delta13C values of 18 amino acids are determined from modern protein and archaeological bone collagen hydrolysates, demonstrating the potential of this method for compound-specific applications in a number of fields including metabolic, ecological and palaeodietary studies. PMID:16921562

McCullagh, James S O; Juchelka, Dieter; Hedges, Robert E M



Analysis of aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct in serum using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.  


A method for quantitative analysis of aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct (B1-Lys) in serum by liquid chromatography using tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is presented. The protein in a 250-microL sample was digested in the presence of a stable-isotope internal standard during a 4-h incubation at 37 degrees C with Pronasetrade mark. B1-Lys and the internal standard were extracted using mixed-mode solid-phase extraction cartridges and eluted with 2% formic acid in methanol. Following evaporation and reconstitution, extracts were injected onto a Luna C-18(2) column and eluted with a step gradient of acetonitrile and 0.06% formic acid. The B1-Lys and the internal standard were detected in a positive ionization selective reaction monitoring mode with a ThermoFinnigan TSQ Quantum triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Calibration curves were linear for concentrations from 0.05-8.0 ng/mL. The method was validated with aflatoxin B1 dosed rat serum diluted to anticipated high and low concentrations. Total imprecision determined from 30 measurements over 15 days was 5.6% and 9.1%, respectively. Recoveries of 78.8 +/- 6.4% for B1-Lys and 85.4 +/- 12.4% for the internal standard were based on the full extraction and reconstitution processes. The method can be used to quantitate B1-Lys at the 0.5 pg/mg albumin level and is suitable for routine analysis. PMID:16015671

McCoy, Leslie F; Scholl, Peter F; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Groopman, John D; Powers, Carissa D; Pfeiffer, Christine M



Stable isotope gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer in biological samples.  


Aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer (AECK-DD; systematic name: 1,2-3,4-5,6-7,8-octahydro-1,8a-diaza-4,6-dithiafluoren-9(8aH)-one) is a previously described metabolite of cysteamine that has been reported to be present in mammalian brain, urine, plasma, and cells in culture and vegetables and to possess potent antioxidative properties. Here, we describe a stable isotope gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method for specific and sensitive determination of AECK-DD in biological samples. (13)C(2)-labeled AECK-DD was synthesized and used as the internal standard. Derivatization was carried out by N-pentafluorobenzylation with pentafluorobenzyl bromide in acetonitrile. Quantification was performed by selected reaction monitoring of the mass transitions m/z 328 to 268 for AECK-DD and m/z 330 to 270 for [(13)C(2)]AECK-DD in the electron capture negative ion chemical ionization mode. The procedure was systematically validated for human plasma and urine samples. AECK-DD was not detectable in human plasma above approximately 4nM but was present in urine samples of healthy humans at a maximal concentration of 46nM. AECK-DD was detectable in rat brain at very low levels of approximately 8pmol/g wet weight. Higher levels of AECK-DD were detected in mouse brain (?1nmol/g wet weight). Among nine dietary vegetables evaluated, only shallots were found to contain trace amounts of AECK-DD (?6.8pmol/g fresh tissue). PMID:22858756

Tsikas, Dimitrios; Evans, Christopher E; Denton, Travis T; Mitschke, Anja; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Pinto, John T; Khomenko, Tetyana; Szabo, Sandor; Cooper, Arthur J L



Nevan Krogan: Mass Spectrometry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lecture from the iBioSeminars project, presented by Nevan Krogan of the Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology at UC-San Francisco, covers mass spectrometry and its application to molecular biology. Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for elucidating the elemental composition of a sample or molecule. More recently, it has been used to characterize biological material, in particular proteins and protein complexes, in a variety of organisms. This lecture will review the underlying principles of how a mass spectrometer works, discuss up to date instrumentation that is presently being used in the biological research setting and provide specific examples of how mass spectrometry is being used to reveal functional insight into different biological systems. The video runs 27:36 and can be downloaded in a number of formats: QuickTime, MP4, M4V, and PPT. The video can also be streamed through YouTube or iTunes U.

Krogan, Nevan



Simultaneous analysis of urinary phthalate metabolites of residents in Korea using isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  


Phthalates are used in industry products, household items, and medical tools as plasticizers. Human exposure to phthalates has raised concern about its toxicity. In the present study, optimization was conducted for the simultaneous analysis of eight kinds of phthalate metabolites using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS): MEP, MiBP, MnBP, MBzP, MiNP, MEHP, MEOHP, and MEHHP. In order to minimize the matrix effect and to do quantitative analysis, isotope dilution and LLE-GC-MS methods were performed. Urine samples were enzymatically hydrolyzed, extracted with a mixture of n-hexane and ethyl ether (8:2; v:v), and subsequently derivatized with trimethylsilylation. All eight kinds of analytes showed clear resolution and high reproducibility in GC-MS results. The method detection limit ranged from 0.05 ng/mL to 0.2 ng/mL. Calibration curves were found to be linear from 0.2 to 100 ng/mL with -(2)>0.992. The relative standard deviation of the intraday precision using water and urine ranged from 2.1% to 16.3%. The analysis was performed with urine samples that were collected from adults residing in the Republic of Korea. The analyzed concentration results were compared according to gender and region. As a result, DEHP metabolites showed the highest detected concentration (75.92 ?g/g creatinine, 100%), and MiNP, a metabolite of DiNP, showed the lowest detected concentration (0.42 ?g/g creatinine, 22.5%). On average, female urine (200.76 ?g/g creatinine) had a higher detected concentration of ?8 phthalate metabolites than male urine. Samples from rural regions (211.96 ?g/g creatinine) had higher levels than samples from urban regions. PMID:23928369

Kim, Miok; Song, Na Rae; Choi, Jong-Ho; Lee, Jeongae; Pyo, Heesoo



Elemental analyses of soil and sediment fused with lithium borate using isotope dilution laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.  


Quantitative analysis using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) remains challenging primarily due to the lack of appropriate reference materials available for the wide variety of samples of interest and to elemental fractionation effects. Isotopic dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is becoming the methodology of choice to address these issues because the different isotopes of an element represent near-perfect internal standards. In this work, we investigated the lithium borate fusion of powdered solid samples, including soils, sediments, rock mine waste and a meteorite, as a strategy to homogenously distribute, i.e. equilibrate the elements and the added isotopically enriched standards. A comparison of this methodology using two pulsed laser ablation systems (ArF* excimer and Nd:YAG) with different wavelengths as well as two ICP-MS instruments (quadrupole and double-focusing sector field) was performed. Emphasis was put on using standard equipment to show the potential of the proposed strategy for its application in routine laboratories. Cr, Zn, Ba, Sr and Pb were successfully determined by LA-ICP-IDMS in six Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) representing different matrices of environmental interest. Experimental results showed the SRM fused glasses exhibited a low level of heterogeneity (intra- and inter-sample) for both natural abundance and isotopically enriched samples (RSD <3%, n=3, 1?). A good agreement between experimental results and the certified values was also observed. PMID:23953208

Malherbe, Julien; Claverie, Fanny; Alvarez, Aitor; Fernandez, Beatriz; Pereiro, Rosario; Molloy, John L



High-sensitivity mass spectrometry with a tandem accelerator  

SciTech Connect

The characteristic features of accelerator mass spectrometry are discussed. A short overview is given of the current status of mass spectrometry with high-energy (MeV/nucleon) heavy-ion accelerators. Emphasis is placed on studies with tandem accelerators and on future mass spectrometry of heavier isotopes with the new generation of higher-voltage tandems.

Henning, W.



The isotopic ratio measurement of uranium in the form of hydrolyzed uranium hexafluoride by inductively coupled plasma multiple collector mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

An inductively coupled plasma-multiple collector-mass spectrometer (ICP-MC-MS) has been used to measure the isotopic composition of uranium in three solutions of uranium hexafluoride. The {sup 235}U:{sup 238}U ratio of each sample solution ranged from approximately 0.007 to 0.03 to 1.0. The measurements are linear over this range and the precision and accuracy are comparable, if not superior, to that obtained by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). However, acceptable isotopic ratio measurement of uranium hexafluoride solutions is not possible by TIMS because the presence of fluoride ions severely limits analytical precision. Hence, the fluoride must be removed prior to analysis. This necessitates a chemical purification stage which adds both time and expense to the measurement process. This study reports direct, high precision, accurate uranium isotope ratio measurements on solutions of uranium hexafluoride. The instrumental time required for the analysis of 15 uranium samples with the ICP-MC-MS totals 135 min. This compares with an estimated time requirement of 600 min by TIMS and a time of 900 min by UF{sub 6} gas mass spectrometry.

Walder, A.J. [FI Elemental Analysis, Winsford (United Kingdom); Hodgson, T. [URENCO Capenhurst Ltd., Chester (United Kingdom)



Improvement in Thermal-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) using Total Flash Evaporation (TFE) method for lanthanides isotope ratio measurements in transmutation targets  

SciTech Connect

The experiments involved in the PHENIX french nuclear reactor to obtain precise and accurate data on the total capture cross sections of the heavy isotopes and fission products require isotopic ratios measurements with uncertainty of a few per mil. These accurate isotopic ratio measurements are performed with mass spectrometer equipped with multi-collector system. The major difficulty for the analyses of these actinides and fission products is the low quantity of the initial powder enclosed in steel container (3 to 5 mg) and the very low quantities of products formed (several {mu}g) after irradiation. Specific analytical developments are performed by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) to be able to analyse several nanograms of elements with this technique. A specific method of acquisition named Total Flash Evaporation was adapted in this study in the case of lanthanide measurements for quantity deposited on the filament in the order of 2 ng and applied on irradiated fuel. To validate the analytical approach and discuss about the accuracy of the data, the isotopic ratios obtained by TIMS are compared with other mass spectrometric techniques such as Multiple-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MC-ICPMS). (authors)

Mialle, S.; Gourgiotis, A.; Aubert, M.; Stadelmann, G.; Gautier, C.; Isnard, H. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, CEA Saclay, DEN/DPC/SECR/LANIE, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Chartier, F. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, CEA Saclay, DEN/DPC, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)



Determination of depleted uranium in urine via isotope ratio measurements using large-bore direct injection high efficiency nebulizer-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  


Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), coupled with a large-bore direct injection high efficiency nebulizer (LB-DIHEN), was utilized to determine the concentration and isotopic ratio of uranium in 11 samples of synthetic urine spiked with varying concentrations and ratios of uranium isotopes. Total U concentrations and (235)U/(238)U isotopic ratios ranged from 0.1 to 10 microg/L and 0.0011 and 0.00725, respectively. The results are compared with data from other laboratories that used either alpha-spectrometry or quadrupole-based ICP-MS with a conventional nebulizer-spray chamber arrangement. Severe matrix effects due to the high total dissolved solid content of the samples resulted in a 60 to 80% loss of signal intensity, but were compensated for by using (233)U as an internal standard. Accurate results were obtained with LB-DIHEN-ICP-MS, allowing for the positive identification of depleted uranium based on the (235)U/(238)U ratio. Precision for the (235)U/(238)U ratio is typically better than 5% and 15% for ICP-MS and alpha-spectrometry, respectively, determined over the concentrations and ratios investigated in this study, with the LB-DIHEN-ICP-MS system providing the most accurate results. Short-term precision (6 min) for the individual (235)U and (238)U isotopes in synthetic urine is better than 2% (N = 7), compared to approximately 5% for conventional nebulizer-spray chamber arrangements and >10% for alpha-spectrometry. The significance of these measurements is discussed for uranium exposure assessment of Persian Gulf War veterans affected by depleted uranium ammunitions. PMID:15479520

Westphal, Craig S; McLean, John A; Hakspiel, Shelly J; Jackson, William E; McClain, David E; Montaser, Akbar



Simultaneous isotopic analysis of uranium and plutonium by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry coupled to a variable multicollection detection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous isotopic analysis of uranium and plutonium employing a thermal ionisation mass spectrometer coupled to a variable multicollection Faraday cup detector system is reported. Factors such as the U/Pu ratio in the sample, filament currents during sample de-gassing and data acquisition have been investigated to arrive at optimum conditions for analysis. A simple correction to the observed 235/238 peak ratio is necessary to account for the 238Pu isotope's contribution to 238U. The precision and accuracy achievable in the measurement of isotopic ratios is better than 0.2%. An attempt was also made to show that uranium and plutonium vaporise predominantly through their oxides and not through direct metal evaporation when the samples are loaded from dilute nitric acid medium. This might explain the earlier appearance of U+ ions in preference to Pu+ ions in the mass spectra of all the U/Pu mixtures investigated.

Ramakumar, K. L.; Rao, R. M.; Gnanayyan, L.; Jain, H. C.



Performance of alpha spectrometry in the analysis of uranium isotopes in environmental and nuclear materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of alpha spectrometry in the determination of uranium isotopes at various concentrations levels and with various\\u000a isotope ratios was tested in a round robin international intercomparison exercise. Results of isotope activity\\/mass and isotope\\u000a mass ratios obtained by alpha spectrometry were accurate in a wide range of uranium masses and in isotopic ratios typical\\u000a of depleted, natural, and low

Fernando P. Carvalho; Joo M. Oliveira



Analysis of Compound-Specific Chlorine Stable Isotopes of Vinyl Chloride by Continuous FlowIsotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (FCIRMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for determining compound-specific chlorine stable isotope was developed for vinyl chloride (VC). The analysis is carried out on a continuous flowisotope ratio mass spectrometer (CFIRMS) with special collectors for m\\/z 64 and 62. The precision of this technique is better than 0.16 (1?) for pure phase gas injection and headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) injection. The

Orfan Shouakar-Stash; S. K. Frape; R. Aravena; A. Gargini; M. Pasini; R. J. Drimmie



Evaluation and correction of isotope ratio inaccuracy on inductively coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotope ratio measurements are found to have systematic bias when using the analog detection mode on an inductively coupled plasma time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. This bias is dependent upon the value of the ratio, the intensity of the signal, and the gain of the electron multiplier tube. The error should not appear if ion counting is employed instead of analog detection, although analog detection with time-of-flight has other distinct advantages. The cause of this isotope ratio inaccuracy is rooted in disproportionate recording of the analog signal because of the need to filter out noise by blocking analog signals below a threshold voltage. This attenuates smaller signals to a greater degree than larger signals. This variable "detection efficiency" causes a larger systematic error in the isotopic ratio as the isotopic abundances become more disparate. Ratios close to unity are generally accurate within the precision of the measurement. The use of an increased gain on the detector leads to improved ratio accuracy, but at the cost of decreased detector lifetime. This research presents a method of analyzing solutions using natural, known isotopic ratios to produce an efficiency correction curve. The average error of several isotope ratios for a 500 ng/mL solution of various elements with ratios between 3.4 and 10 was found to be 6.5% without correction, 3.0% with increased detector gain, 1.1% with efficiency correction and 0.6% with both increased gain and efficiency correction.

Rowland, Adam; Holcombe, James A.



Determination of the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio in USGS silicate reference materials by multi-collector ICP-mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-collector ICP-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) was used for 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio determination in newly introduced silicate reference materials from the US Geological Survey (USGS): granite G-3, andesite AGV-2, and basalt BCR-2. Next to the SrCO3 isotopic standard NIST SRM 987, also analogous USGS reference materials from the previous generation, and for which reference 87Sr/86Sr data obtained by TIMS are available, were analysed for validation purposes. Sample preparation consisted of acid digestion and subsequent isolation of Sr by means of a dedicated and commercially available crown ether-based resin. The Sr fractions thus obtained were analysed via MC-ICP-MS whereby mass discrimination was corrected for internally, while the isobaric interference at a mass-to-charge ratio of 86 caused by Kr impurities in the Ar gas was mathematically corrected for by using the signal for a Kr isotope free from spectral overlap. Finally, also the effect of the small amount of Rb that may still be present in the Sr fraction was corrected for mathematically on the basis of the signal intensity for 85Rb. The MC-ICP-MS results for G-2, AGV-1 and BCR-1 showed an excellent agreement with the corresponding TIMS values (<0.003% bias in all cases), such that it can be assumed that also the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio results obtained for the new reference materials are reliable.

Balcaen, Lieve; Schrijver, Isabel De; Moens, Luc; Vanhaecke, Frank



FOCUS: TOP-DOWN MASS SPECTROMETRY Collective Mass Spectrometry Approaches  

E-print Network

mediated Bottom Up and electron-transfer dissociation facilitated middle and Top Down mass spectrometry (MSFOCUS: TOP-DOWN MASS SPECTROMETRY Collective Mass Spectrometry Approaches Reveal Broad Bottom Up and Middle Down MS analyses, we find relatively few combinatorially modified forms dominate

Shorter, James


Application of nanosecond-UV laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the isotopic analysis of single submicrometer-size uranium particles.  


For the first time, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) was used to carry out isotopic measurement on single submicrometer-size uranium particles. The analytical procedure was applied on two particle-containing samples already analyzed in the same laboratory by established techniques for particle analysis: combination of the fission track technique with thermo-ionization mass spectrometry (FT-TIMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Particles were extracted from their initial matrix with ethanol and deposited on a polycarbonate disk where they were fixed in a layer of an organic compound (collodion). Prior to the isotopic analysis, particles were precisely located on the disk's surface by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for one sample and using the fission track technique for the other sample. Most of the particles were smaller than 1 ?m, and their (235)U content was in the femtogram range. (235)U/(238)U ratios were successfully analyzed for all located particles using a nanosecond-UV laser (Cetac LSX 213 nm) coupled to a quadrupole-based ICPMS (Thermo "X-Series II"). LA-ICPMS results, although less precise and accurate (typically 10%) than the ones obtained by FT-TIMS and SIMS due to short (20-40 s), transient, and noisy signals, are in good agreement with the certified values or with the results obtained with other techniques. Thanks to good measurement efficiency (~6 10(-4)) and high signal/noise ratio during the analysis, LA-ICPMS can be considered a very promising technique for fast particle analysis, provided that uranium-bearing particles are fixed on the sample holder and located prior to isotope measurement. PMID:21875035

Pointurier, Fabien; Pottin, Anne-Claire; Hubert, Amlie



Determination of extremely low (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios in environmental samples by sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using high-efficiency sample introduction.  


A method by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed which allows the measurement of (236)U at concentration ranges down to 3 x 10(-14)g g(-1) and extremely low (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios in soil samples of 10(-7). By using the high-efficiency solution introduction system APEX in connection with a sector-field ICP-MS a sensitivity of more than 5,000 counts fg(-1) uranium was achieved. The use of an aerosol desolvating unit reduced the formation rate of uranium hydride ions UH(+)/U(+) down to a level of 10(-6). An abundance sensitivity of 3 x 10(-7) was observed for (236)U/(238)U isotope ratio measurements at mass resolution 4000. The detection limit for (236)U and the lowest detectable (236)U/(238)U isotope ratio were improved by more than two orders of magnitude compared with corresponding values by alpha spectrometry. Determination of uranium in soil samples collected in the vicinity of Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) resulted in that the (236)U/(238)U isotope ratio is a much more sensitive and accurate marker for environmental contamination by spent uranium in comparison to the (235)U/(238)U isotope ratio. The ICP-MS technique allowed for the first time detection of irradiated uranium in soil samples even at distances more than 200 km to the north of Chernobyl NPP (Mogilev region). The concentration of (236)U in the upper 0-10 cm soil layers varied from 2 x 10(-9)g g(-1) within radioactive spots close to the Chernobyl NPP to 3 x 10(-13)g g(-1) on a sampling site located by >200 km from Chernobyl. PMID:16504353

Boulyga, Sergei F; Heumann, Klaus G



VMSL: Virtual Mass Spectrometry Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents a series of case studies that can be explored using modern mass spectrometry methods. The problem-solving nature of the site provides students a virtual laboratory experience that can supplement access to mass spectrometry instrumentation.



Measurements of235U/238U isotopic ratio in the photoproduct UF5 by multiphoton ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A MultiPhoton-Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MPI/TOFMS) apparatus was developed for real-time measurement of the uranium isotopic ratio in nascent UF5 formed by the 266 nm photolysis of effusive UF6 ( < 300 K, ? 1.3 10-4 Pa). The UF5 was selectively and efficiently multiphoton ionized by 532 nm radiation at appreciably low fluences ( < 10 J/cm2). The main ions observed, U+ and U2+, were subsequently analyzed with a TOFMS with mass resolution of 1190 to separate235U n+ and238U n+ completely. The isotopic ratio measurements showed good precision resulting from the excellent agreement which was observed between the isotopic ratios in UF5 products and those in a parent UF6 sample. These results suggested that the MPI/TOFMS method can be applied to the real-time analysis of separation factors in the molecular laser isotope separation of uranium by ionization of UF5 following the infrared photodissociation of UF6.

Okada, Y.; Kato, S.; Satooka, S.; Takeuchi, K.



Automated isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with on-line dilution and solid phase extraction for the measurement of cortisol in human serum sample.  


A candidate reference measurement procedure involving automated isotope dilution coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) with on-line dilution and solid phase extraction (SPE) has been developed and critically evaluated. We constructed the LC-MS/MS with on-line dilution and SPE system. An isotopically labelled internal standard, cortisol-d4, was added to serum sample. After equilibration, the methanol was added to the sample, and deproteination was performed. Then, the sample was applied to the LC-MS/MS system. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.2 and 1ngg(-1), respectively. Excellent precision was obtained with within-day variation (RSD) of 1.9% for ID-LC-MS/MS analysis (n=6). This method, which demonstrates simple, easy, good accuracy, high precision, and is free from interferences from structural analogues, qualifies as a reference measurement procedure. PMID:24769301

Kawaguchi, Migaku; Eyama, Sakae; Takatsu, Akiko



Direct isotope ratio analysis of individual uranium-plutonium mixed particles with various U/Pu ratios by thermal ionization mass spectrometry.  


Uranium and plutonium isotope ratios in individual uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) mixed particles with various U/Pu atomic ratios were analyzed without prior chemical separation by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Prior to measurement, micron-sized particles with U/Pu ratios of 1, 5, 10, 18, and 70 were produced from uranium and plutonium certified reference materials. In the TIMS analysis, the peaks of americium, plutonium, and uranium ion signals were successfully separated by continuously increasing the evaporation filament current. Consequently, the uranium and plutonium isotope ratios, except the (238)Pu/(239)Pu ratio, were successfully determined for the particles at all U/Pu ratios. This indicates that TIMS direct analysis allows for the measurement of individual U-Pu mixed particles without prior chemical separation. PMID:25479434

Suzuki, Daisuke; Esaka, Fumitaka; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Magara, Masaaki



Determination of uranium isotopic composition and 236U content of soil samples and hot particles using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  


As a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) the environment was contaminated with spent nuclear fuel. The 236U isotope was used in this study to monitor the spent uranium from nuclear fallout in soil samples collected in the vicinity of the Chernobyl NPP. Nuclear track radiography was applied for the identification and extraction of hot radioactive particles from soil samples. A rapid and sensitive analytical procedure was developed for uranium isotopic ratio measurement in environmental samples based on double-focusing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DF-ICP-MS) with a MicroMist nebulizer and a direct injection high-efficiency nebulizer (DIHEN). The performance of the DF-ICP-MS with a quartz DIHEN and plasma shielded torch was studied. Overall detection efficiencies of 4 x 10(-4) and 10(-3) counts per atom were achieved for 238U in DF-ICP-QMS with the MicroMist nebulizer and DIHEN, respectively. The rate of formation of uranium hydride ions UH+/U+ was 1.2 x 10(-4) and 1.4 x 10(-4), respectively. The precision of short-term measurements of uranium isotopic ratios (n = 5) in 1 microg L(-1) NBS U-020 standard solution was 0.11% (238U/235U) and 1.4% (236U/238U) using a MicroMist nebulizer and 0.25% (235U/238U) and 1.9% (236U/P38U) using a DIHEN. The isotopic composition of all investigated Chernobyl soil samples differed from those of natural uranium; i.e. in these samples the 236U/238U ratio ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-3). Results obtained with ICP-MS, alpha- and gamma-spectrometry showed differences in the migration properties of spent uranium, plutonium, and americium. The isotopic ratio of uranium was also measured in hot particles extracted from soil samples. PMID:11496994

Boulyga, S F; Becker, J S



Method development for the redox speciation analysis of iron by ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and carryover assessment using isotopically labeled analyte analogues.  


An ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS) method was developed for the redox speciation analysis of iron (Fe) based on in-column complexation of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) by dipicolinic acid (DPA). The effects of column type, mobile phase composition and molecular ion interference were studied in the method optimization. The carryover of the target species in the IC-ICP-MS method was uniquely and effectively evaluated using isotopically enriched analogues of the analytes ((54)Fe(2+) and (57)Fe(3+)). Standard solutions of the enriched standards were injected into the system following analysis of a sample, and the ratios of the isotopes of iron in the enriched standards were calculated based on the chromatographic peak areas. The concentrations of the analytes carried over from the sample to the enriched standards were determined using the quantitative relationship in isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). In contrast to the routine way of evaluating carryover effect by injecting a blank solution after sample analysis, the use of isotopically enriched standards identified significant analyte carryover in the present method. Extensive experiments were carried out to systematically identify the source of the carryover and to eliminate the problem; the separation column was found to be the exclusive source. More than 95% of the analyte carryover was eliminated by reducing the length of the column. The detection limit of the IC-ICP-MS method (MDL) for the iron species was 2ngg(-1). The method was used to determine Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) in synthetic aqueous standard solutions and a beverage sample. PMID:24819017

Wolle, Mesay Mulugeta; Fahrenholz, Timothy; Rahman, G M Mizanur; Pamuku, Matt; Kingston, H M 'Skip'; Browne, Damien



A novel approach to measure isotope ratios via multi-collector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry based on sample mixing with a non-enriched standard.  


In this work, a novel approach to measure isotope ratios via multi-collector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) for low amounts of target element is proposed. The methodology is based on mixing of the sample (target element isolate) with a non-enriched in-house standard, previously characterized for its isotopic composition. This methodology has been applied to isotopic analysis of Cu and of Fe in whole blood samples. For this purpose, different mixtures of sample + in-house standard were prepared and adjusted to a final concentration of 500 ?g/L of the target elements for isotopic analysis. ?(65)Cu, ?(56)Fe, and ?(57)Fe varied linearly as a function of the amount of in-house standard (or of sample) present in the mixture. The isotopic composition of the sample was calculated considering the isotope ratios measured for (i) the mixture and (ii) the in-house standard and (iii) the relative concentrations of target element contributed by the sample and the standard to the mixture, respectively. For validation purposes, the isotopic analysis of whole blood Cu was carried out using both the conventional (using 2 mL of whole blood) and the newly developed approach (using 500 ?L of whole blood). The ?(65)Cu values obtained using mixtures containing 40 % (200 ?g/L) of Cu from the blood samples and 60 % (300 ?g/L) of Cu from the in-house standard were in good agreement with the ?(65)Cu value obtained using the conventional approach (bias ?0.15?). PMID:24828978

Costas-Rodrguez, Marta; Lobo, Lara; Vanhaecke, Frank



Using Gas Chromatography/Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry to Determine the Fractionation Factor for H2 Production by Hydrogenases  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogenases catalyze the reversible formation of H2, and they are key enzymes in the biological cycling of H2. H isotopes should be a very useful tool in quantifying proton trafficking in biological H2 production processes, but there are several obstacles that have thus far limited the use of this tool. In this manuscript, we describe a new method that overcomes some of these barriers and is specifically designed to measure isotopic fractionation during enzyme-catalyzed H2 evolution. A key feature of this technique is that purified hydrogenases are employed, allowing precise control over the reaction conditions and therefore a high level of precision. A custom-designed high-throughput gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometer is employed to measure the isotope ratio of the H2. Using this method, we determined that the fractionation factor of H2 production by the [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Desulfivibrio fructosovran is 0.27. This result indicates that, as expected, protons are highly favored over deuterons during H2 evolution. Potential applications of this new method are discussed.

Yang, Hui; Ghandi, H.; Shi, Liang; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Ostrom, Nathaniel; Hegg, Eric L.



Development of cadmium/silver/palladium separation by ion chromatography with quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection for off-line cadmium isotopic measurements.  


A separation method was investigated to perform off-line cadmium isotopic measurements on a (109)Ag transmutation target. Ion chromatography (IC) with Q ICPMS detection (quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection) was chosen to separate cadmium from the isobarically interfering elements, silver and palladium, present in the sample. The optimization of chromatographic conditions was particularly studied. Several anion and cation columns (Dionex AG11(), CS10() and CS12()) were compared with different mobile phases (HNO(3), HCl). The separation procedure was achieved with a carboxylate-functionalized cation exchange CS12 column using 0.5 M HNO(3) as eluent. The developed technique yielded satisfactory results in terms of separation factors (greater than 5) and provides an efficient solution to obtain rapidly purified cadmium fractions (decontamination factors higher 100,000 for silver and palladium) which can directly be analyzed by multi collection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC ICPMS). By applying the proposed procedure, accurate and precise cadmium isotope ratios were determined for the irradiated (109)Ag transmutation target. PMID:21703628

Gautier, C; Bourgeois, M; Isnard, H; Nonell, A; Stadelmann, G; Goutelard, F



Neuroscience and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a mass spectrometric method for quantifying rare isotopes. It has had great impact in geochronology and archaeology and is now being applied in biomedicine. AMS measures radioisotopes such as {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 41}Ca, with zepto- or attomole sensitivity and high precision and throughput, enabling safe human pharmacokinetic studies involving: microgram doses, agents having low bioavailability, or toxicology studies where administered doses must be kept low (<1 {micro}g/kg). It is used to study long-term pharmacokinetics, to identify biomolecular interactions, to determine chronic and low-dose effects or molecular targets of neurotoxic substances, to quantify transport across the blood-brain barrier and to resolve molecular turnover rates in the human brain on the timescale of decades. We will here review how AMS is applied in neurotoxicology and neuroscience.

Palmblad, M N; Buchholz, B A; Hillegonds, D J; Vogel, J S



Use of fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB MS) for the analysis of zinc stable isotopes in biological samples  

SciTech Connect

The use of stable isotopes offer a means of measuring human metabolism of trace metals in populations in which radioisotopes are contraindicated. The objective of this research has been to develop stable isotope methodology for the measurement of zinc in biological samples and to apply this methodology in pilot studies of intestinal zinc absorption. Analyses were made with a VG 7070E HF sector mass spectrometer at a resolution of 3000. Samples of 10 containing approximately 1 Zn were applied directly to a gold target, dried and inserted into the FAB source for ionization. Precision at the 1% level of enrichment was 2% (RSD). Pilot studies of the clinical application have been undertaken on two subjects to each of whom a single oral dose of enriched /sup 70/Zn was administered after an overnight fast. A comparison of aqueous standards and prepared fecal samples showed undetectable levels of contamination at the /sup 64/Zn to /sup 70/Zn masses. Precision of fecal samples is comparable to that of aqueous standards. Calculated absorption after an overnight fast was between 60-65% of the administered dose. The FAB MS provides a simple, sensitive and precise technique for the measurement of zinc stable isotopes in biological samples.

Peirce, P.; Fennessey, P.; Hambidge, M.; Miller, L.; Goss, C.



Nuclear applications of inorganic mass spectrometry.  


There are several basic characteristics of mass spectrometry that are not always fully appreciated by the science community. These characteristics include the distinction between relative and absolute isotope abundances, and the influence of isotope fractionation on the accuracy of isotopic measurements. These characteristics can be illustrated in the field of nuclear physics with reference to the measurement of nuclear parameters, which involve the use of enriched isotopes, and to test models of s-, r-, and p-process nucleosynthesis. The power of isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) to measure trace elements in primitive meteorites to produce accurate Solar System abundances has been essential to the development of nuclear astrophysics. The variety of mass spectrometric instrumentation used to measure the isotopic composition of elements has sometimes been accompanied by a lack of implementation of basic mass spectrometric protocols which are applicable to all instruments. These metrological protocols are especially important in atomic weight determinations, but must also be carefully observed in cases where the anomalies might be very small, such as in studies of the daughter products of extinct radionuclides to decipher events in the early history of the Solar System. There are occasions in which misleading conclusions have been drawn from isotopic data derived from mass spectrometers where such protocols have been ignored. It is important to choose the mass spectrometer instrument most appropriate to the proposed experiment. The importance of the integrative nature of mass spectrometric measurements has been demonstrated by experiments in which long, double beta decay and geochronological decay half-lives have been measured as an alternative to costly radioactive-counting experiments. This characteristic is also illustrated in the measurement of spontaneous fission yields, which have accumulated over long periods of time. Mass spectrometry is also a valuable tool in the determination of neutron capture cross-section measurements and the application of such determinations in Planetary Science. PMID:19877268

De Laeter, John



Determination of the 15N/14N ratio of ammonium and ammonia in aqueous solutions by equilibrium headspace-gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.  


A method for determination of the 15N/14N ratio of total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN; ammonium and ammonia) in aqueous solutions was developed, primarily intended for use with soil extracts, which have a high TAN level, e.g. from recently fertilised agricultural soils. Ammonium was converted to ammonia by addition of NaOH, followed by nitrogen isotopic analysis of the headspace by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) where complete separation of TAN from the matrix was not necessary. The ammonia concentration in the gas phase was maximised by increasing the temperature and salt concentration and by decreasing the gas liquid ratio in the headspace vials. Isotopic equilibrium was reached after less than 1 h at 80 degrees C. The measured isotopic ratio was constant for solutions containing 30-200 mM NH4-N, corresponding to 950-7000 ng NH3-N detected with the IRMS. The integrated area response at m/z 28 increased linearly with the ammonium ion concentration in the interval 10-200 mM NH4-N. The fractionation factor between the liquid and gas phases was 1.0054 +/- 0.0007 within the linear range, which is in agreement with values reported in the literature, but with a higher precision. Changes in temperature, gas:liquid ratio or salt concentration did not affect the measured ratio, demonstrating the robustness of the developed method. PMID:12146904

Norlin, Elin; Irgum, Knut; Anders Ohlsson, K E



Correction for the 17O interference in ?(13C) measurements when analyzing CO2 with stable isotope mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurements of ?(13C) determined on CO2 with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) must be corrected for the amount of 17O in the CO2. For data consistency, this must be done using identical methods by different laboratories. This report aims at unifying data treatment for CO2 IRMS by proposing (i) a unified set of numerical values, and (ii) a unified correction algorithm, based on a simple, linear approximation formula. Because the oxygen of natural CO2 is derived mostly from the global water pool, it is recommended that a value of 0.528 be employed for the factor ?, which relates differences in 17O and 18O abundances. With the currently accepted N(13C)/N(12C) of 0.011 180(28) in VPDB (Vienna Peedee belemnite) reevaluation of data yields a value of 0.000 393(1) for the oxygen isotope ratio N(17O)/N(16O) of the evolved CO2. The ratio of these quantities, a ratio of isotope ratios, is essential for the 17O abundance correction: [N(17O)/N(16O)]/[N(13C)/N(12C)] = 0.035 16(8). The equation [?(13C) ? 45?VPDB-CO2 + 2 17R/13R (45?VPDB-CO2 ?46?VPDB-CO2)] closely approximates ?(13C) values with less than 0.010 deviation for normal oxygen-bearing materials and no more than 0.026 in extreme cases. Other materials containing oxygen of non-mass-dependent isotope composition require a more specific data treatment. A similar linear approximation is also suggested for ?(18O). The linear approximations are easy to implement in a data spreadsheet, and also help in generating a simplified uncertainty budget.

Coplen, Tyler B.; Brand, Willi A.; Assonov, Sergey S.



Mass Spectrometry Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video, distributed on YouTube by the Royal Society of Chemistry is on the basic principles of mass spectrometry, using a magnetic sector instrument to demonstrate how specific m/z ratios can be selected. The theory and operation of MS, including the chemistry of ionization and fragmentation is described at an introductory level. There is also an excellent example of the use of high resolution MS to differentiate between nominal mass and actual mass. The video does a very good job of explaining the concept such that only a little background knowledge is required. The video is short enough (6 mins), that it would be very useful in a class setting or for students outside of class. The ultimate strength of this video is the general nature of the content that makes it appealing to a wide audience. The video may be most appropriate in a lower-level general education science course (i.e forensic science) or as a quick orientation video for instrumental analysis students prior to introducing mathematical or operational concepts. This video would also be helpful for a lay science person who wishes to learn more about mass spectrometry from a general interest perspective.



When other separation techniques fail: compound-specific carbon isotope ratio analysis of sulfonamide containing pharmaceuticals by high-temperature-liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.  


Compound-specific isotope analysis (CISA) of nonvolatile analytes has been enabled by the introduction of the first commercial interface to hyphenate liquid chromatography with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (LC-IRMS) in 2004, yet carbon isotope analysis of unpolar and moderately polar compounds is still a challenging task since only water as the eluent and no organic modifiers can be used to drive the separation in LC. The only way to increase the elution strength of aqueous eluents in reversed phase LC is the application of high temperatures to the mobile and stationary phases (HT-LC-IRMS). In this context we present the first method to determine carbon isotope ratios of pharmaceuticals that cannot be separated by already existing separation techniques for LC-IRMS, such as reversed phase chromatography at normal temperatures, ion-chromatography, and mixed mode chomatography. The pharmaceutical group of sulfonamides, which is generally mixed with trimethoprim in pharmaceutical products, has been chosen as probe compounds. Substance amounts as low as 0.3 ?g are sufficient to perform a precise analysis. The successful applicability and reproducibility of this method is shown by the analysis of real pharmaceutical samples. The method provides the first tool to study the pharmaceutical authenticity as well as degradation and mobility of such substances in the environment by using the stable isotopic signature of these compounds. PMID:22880688

Kujawinski, Dorothea M; Zhang, Lijun; Schmidt, Torsten C; Jochmann, Maik A



Mass Spectrometry and Biotechnology Resource  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ionsource is a website that provides access to an index of resources including tutorials, links to downloadable sites, jobs and conference information involving mass spectrometry and biotechnology subjects. Examples of tutorials include lessons on atomic mass and amino acid residue mass. For a review of mass spectrometry or biotechnology or for an introduction, this site provides a well-rounded source of information.



Amino acid precursors from a simulated lower atmosphere of Titan, Experiments of cosmic ray energy source with 13C- and 18O-stable isotope probing mass spectrometry  

E-print Network

The organic haze of aerosols that shrouds the Saturnian moon Titan has previously been studied by both observations and laboratory simulation experiments. Here we report the abiotic formation of amino acid precursors in complex organic molecules during experimental simulation of the environment near Titan's surface with proton irradiation. Pyrolysis of the organic molecules formed in the simulated Titan atmosphere by proton irradiation at 600 degree-C yielded compounds that contained HCN and NH3. These experimental results are consistent with the molecular information obtained by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (pyrolysis GC-MS) of samples collected by the Huygens probe to Titan. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and three-dimensional atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the irradiation products reveal nanometer-scale filaments and globules in complex amorphous structures (approximately 1000 Da). Isotope probing experiments by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass ...

Taniuchi, Toshinori; Kobayashi, Kensei



Accelerator mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) can be used for efficient detection of long-lived isotopes at part-per-quadrillion sensitivities with good precision. In this article we present an overview of AMS and its recent use in archaeology, geochemistry and biomolecular tracing. All AMS systems use cesium sputter ion sources to produce negative ions from a small button of a solid sample containing the element of interest, such as graphite, metal halide, or metal oxide, often mixed with a metal powder as binder and thermal conductor. Experience shows that both natural and biomedical samples are compatible in a single AMS system, but few other AMS sites make routine {sup 14}C measurements for both dating and tracing. AMS is, in one sense, just `a very sensitive decay counter`, but if AMS sensitivity is creatively coupled to analytical chemistry of certain isotopes, whole new areas of geosciences, archaeology, and life sciences can be explored. 29 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Vogel, J.S.; Turteltaub, K.W.; Finkel, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Nelson, D.E.



Mass Spectrometry of Glycans  

PubMed Central

Powerful new strategies based on mass spectrometry are revolutionizing the structural analysis and profiling of glycans and glycoconjugates. We survey here the major biosynthetic pathways that underlie the biological diversity in glycobiology, with emphasis on glycoproteins, and the approaches that can be used to address the resulting heterogeneity. Included among these are derivatizations, on- and off-line chromatography, electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, and a variety of dissociation methods, the recently introduced electron-based techniques being of particular interest. PMID:24010834

Han, Liang; Costello, Catherine E.



Direct determination of Si isotope ratios in natural waters and commercial Si standards by ion exclusion chromatography multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  


Silicon isotope ratios in natural waters and several commercial Si standards were determined by online ion exclusion chromatography (IEC) multicollector inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). As recent studies have shown that mass-independent fractionation (MIF) also exists in MC-ICPMS, e.g., Nd, Ce, W, Sr, Hf, Ge, Hg, and Pb isotopes, the nature of mass bias for Si isotopes was thus investigated. MIF was observed for Si isotopes on both Neptune and Neptune plus MC-ICPMS instruments in this study. Therefore, a standard-sample bracketing (SSB) mass bias correction model, capable of correcting both mass-dependent and mass-independent bias, was employed to obtain accurate Si isotope ratio results in all samples by using NBS28 Si standard as the bracketing standard. Medium resolution was used for all measurements in order to resolve polyatomic interferences on Si isotopes. NBS28 Si standard solutions prepared in nutrient-free seawater and 0.1% NaOH matrix, respectively, were used for the method validation and subjected to the online IEC MC-ICPMS determination of Si isotope ratios. Values of -0.01 0.06 and 0.00 0.06 (1 SD, n = 10) and -0.01 0.03 and 0.01 0.06 (1 SD, n = 10) for ?(29/28)Si and ?(30/28)Si, respectively, were obtained, confirming accurate results can be obtained using the reported method for natural waters. Significant variations in Si isotope ratios from -0.72 0.09 to -0.24 0.03 (1 SD, n = 10) and -1.36 0.11 to -0.46 0.04 (1 SD, n = 10) for ?(29/28)Si and ?(30/28)Si, respectively, were found among commercial Si standards of NIST SRM3150, SCP Si, and Sigma-Aldrich Si. Values of -0.06 0.07 and -0.20 0.11 (1 SD, n = 10) for ?(29/28)Si and ?(30/28)Si, respectively, were obtained for the MOOS-3 seawater whereas 0.59 0.11 and 1.19 0.15 (1SD, n = 10) for ?(29/28)Si and ?(30/28)Si, respectively, were obtained for the SLRS-5 river water. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of an application of online IEC MC-ICPMS for the high accuracy and precision determination of Si isotope ratios in natural waters. The reported method provides for a relatively rapid (10 min per run) and simple online technique that requires no sample pretreatment for the Si isotope ratio measurements. PMID:25162683

Yang, Lu; Zhou, Lian; Hu, Zhaochu; Gao, Shan



Single event mass spectrometry  


A means and method for single event time of flight mass spectrometry for analysis of specimen materials. The method of the invention includes pulsing an ion source imposing at least one pulsed ion onto the specimen to produce a corresponding emission of at least one electrically charged particle. The emitted particle is then dissociated into a charged ion component and an uncharged neutral component. The ion and neutral components are then detected. The time of flight of the components are recorded and can be used to analyze the predecessor of the components, and therefore the specimen material. When more than one ion particle is emitted from the specimen per single ion impact, the single event time of flight mass spectrometer described here furnis This invention was made with Government support under Contract No. W-7405-ENG82 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.

Conzemius, Robert J. (Ames, IA)



Molecular formula analysis of fragment ions by isotope-selective collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of pharmacologically active compounds.  


The purpose of this work is to explore the mass fragment characterization of commonly used drugs through a novel approach, which involves isotope-selective tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was performed with a low-resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometer in positive electrospray ionization. Three pharmacologically active ingredients, i.e. omeprazole, meloxicam and brinzolamide, selected as model compounds in their own formulation, were investigated as a sodiated adduct [C17 H19 N3 O3 S?+?Na](+) (omeprazole) and as protonated adducts, [C14 H13 N3 O4 S2 ?+?H](+) and [C12 H21 N3 O5 S3 ?+?H](+) , meloxicam and brinzolamide, respectively. Selecting a narrow window of 0.5 m/z units, precursor ion fragmentation by CID-MS/MS of isotopologues A?+?0, A?+?1 and A?+?2 was found very useful to confirm the chemical formula of product ions, thus aiding the establishment of characteristic fragmentation pathways of all three examined compounds. The correctness of putative molecular formula of product ions was easily demonstrated by exploiting the isotope peak abundance ratios (i.e. IF+0 /IF+1 and IF+0 /IF+2 ) as simple constraints in low-resolution MS instrumentations. PMID:25476951

Bianco, Giuliana; Buchicchio, Alessandro; Lelario, Filomena; Cataldi, Tommaso R I



Mass Spectrometry and Protein Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mass spectrometry is a central analytical technique for protein research and for the study of biomolecules in general. Driven by the need to identify, characterize, and quantify proteins at ever increasing sensitivity and in ever more complex samples, a wide range of new mass spectrometryâbased analytical platforms and experimental strategies have emerged. Here we review recent advances in mass spectrometry instrumentation in the context of current and emerging research strategies in protein science.

Bruno Domon (ETH Zurich;Institute of Molecular Systems Biology); Ruedi Aebersold (University of Zurich;Faculty of Sciences/Institute of Molecular Systems Biology)



Olive oil or lard?: distinguishing plant oils from animal fats in the archeological record of the eastern Mediterranean using gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry.  


Distinguishing animal fats from plant oils in archaeological residues is not straightforward. Characteristic plant sterols, such as ?-sitosterol, are often missing in archaeological samples and specific biomarkers do not exist for most plant fats. Identification is usually based on a range of characteristics such as fatty acid ratios, all of which indicate that a plant oil may be present, none of which uniquely distinguish plant oils from other fats. Degradation and dissolution during burial alter fatty acid ratios and remove short-chain fatty acids, resulting in degraded plant oils with similar fatty acid profiles to other degraded fats. Compound-specific stable isotope analysis of ?(13)C(18:0) and ?(13)C(16:0), carried out by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS), has provided a means of distinguishing fish oils, dairy fats, ruminant and non-ruminant adipose fats, but plant oils are rarely included in these analyses. For modern plant oils where C(18:1) is abundant, ?(13)C(18:1) and ?(13)C(16:0) are usually measured. These results cannot be compared with archaeological data or data from other modern reference fats where ?(13)C(18:0) and ?(13)C(16:0) are measured, as C(18:0) and C(18:1) are formed by different processes resulting in different isotopic values. Eight samples of six modern plant oils were saponified, releasing sufficient C(18:0) to measure the isotopic values, which were plotted against ?(13)C(16:0). The isotopic values for these oils, with one exception, formed a tight cluster between ruminant and non-ruminant animal fats. This result complicates the interpretation of mixed fatty residues in geographical areas where both animal fats and plant oils were in use. PMID:21072805

Steele, Valerie J; Stern, Ben; Stott, Andy W



Development of new method of ?(13)C measurement for trace hydrocarbons in natural gas using solid phase micro-extraction coupled to gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry.  


Compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of normal-level hydrocarbons (C1-C4) in natural gas is often successfully used in natural gas origin identification and classification, but little progress so far has been made for trace level hydrocarbons (C5-C14) in natural gas. In this study, we developed a method for rapid analysis of carbon isotopic ratios for trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples. This method can be described as a combined approach characterized by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) technique coupled to gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS). In this study, the CAR-PDMS fiber was chosen as the SPME adsorptive material after comparative experiments with other four fibers, and the parameters, including equilibration time, extraction temperature and desorption time, for efficient extraction of trace hydrocarbons were systematically optimized. The results showed the carbon isotopic fractionation was not observed as a function of equilibration time and extraction temperature. And the ?(13)C signatures determined by SPME-GC/IRMS were in good agreement with the known ?(13)C values of C5-C14 measured by GC-IRMS, and the accuracy is generally within 0.5. Five natural gas samples were analyzed using this method, and the ?(13)C values for C5-C14 components were obtained with satisfied repeatability. The SPME-GC/IRMS approach fitted with CAR-PDMS fiber is well suited for the preconcentration of trace hydrocarbons and provides so far the most reliable carbon isotopic analysis for trace compounds in natural gas. PMID:25465020

Li, Zhongping; Wang, Xibin; Li, Liwu; Zhang, Mingjie; Tao, Mingxin; Xing, Lantian; Cao, Chunhui; Xia, Yanqing



Analysis of hormone antagonists in clinical and municipal wastewater by isotopic dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  


A comprehensive method was developed for the simultaneous trace analysis of ten hormone antagonist pharmaceuticals (raloxifene, exemestane, letrozole, anastrozole, mifepristone, finastride, tamoxifen, N-desmethyltamoxifen, clomiphene, and toremifene) in municipal sewage and hospital wastewater samples. The target compounds were firstly extracted using an Oasis HLB cartridge, followed by purification by an aminopropyl cartridge, and were then analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in positive ion mode. The recoveries for the analytes based on internal standard calibration in different test matrices ranged from 67.6 to 118.6% (with the exception of mifepristone in clinical wastewater samples), with relative standard deviations less than 20%. The method quantification limits of the ten pharmaceuticals were in the range 0.10-2.0 ng/L. Excluding exemestane and N-desmethyltamoxifen, eight drugs were detected at 0.20-195.0 ng/L in hospital wastewater and municipal wastewater samples from Beijing. PMID:20195582

Liu, Xianjun; Zhang, Jing; Yin, Jie; Duan, Hejun; Wu, Yongning; Shao, Bing



Use of Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) Determination ((18)O/(16)O) to Assess the Local Origin of Fish and Asparagus in Western Switzerland.  


Here we present the use of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) for the detection of mislabelling of food produced in Switzerland. The system is based on the analysis of the oxygen isotope distribution in water (?(18)O). Depending on the location on the earth, lake or groundwater has a specific isotopic distribution, which can serve as a fingerprint in order to verify whether a product has grown by means of the corresponding water. This report presents specifically the IRMS technique and the results obtained in the origin detection of fish grown in selected Swiss lakes as well as asparagus grown in Valais ground. Strengths and limitations of the method are presented for both cited products; on one hand, the technique is relatively universal for any product which contains significant water but on the other hand, it necessitates a rather heavy workload to build up a database of water ?(18)O values of products of different origins. This analytical tool is part of the concept of combating fraud currently in use in Switzerland. PMID:25437160

Rossier, Jol S; Maury, Valrie; de Voogd, Blaise; Pfammatter, Elmar



Determination of lead, cadmium, indium, thallium and silver in ancient ices from Antarctica by isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The concentrations of five chalcophile elements (Pb, Cd, In, Tl and Ag) and the lead isotope rarios in ancient ices from the Taylor Dome near coastal Antarctica, have been determined by the isotope dilutionthermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS), with ultra-clean laboratory techniques. The samples were selected from segments of cores, one of which included a visible ash layer. Electric conductivity measurement (ECM) or dielectric properties (DEP) gave distinctive sharp peaks for some of the samples c hosen. Exterior portions of the sample segments were trimmed away by methods described here. Samples w ere evaporated to dryness and later separated into fractions for the five elements using an HBr-HNO3 a nion exchange column method. The concentrations are in the range 2.62-36.7 pg Pb/g of ice, 0.413-2.83 pg Cd/g, 0.081-0.34 pg In/g, 0.096-2.8 pg Tl/g and 0.15-0.84 pg Ag/g. respectively. The dispersions in duplicate analyses are about ??1% for lead and cadmium, ??2% for indium. ??4% for thallium and ??6% for silver, respectively. The concentrations of lead obtained are commonly higher than those in the present-day Antarctic surface snows, but the isotope ratios are distinctively higher than those of the present-day snows and close to those of the other ancient ice collected from a different Antarctic area.

Matsumoto, A.; Hinkley, T.K.



Amino acid delta13C analysis of hair proteins and bone collagen using liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry: paleodietary implications from intra-individual comparisons.  


We report a novel method for the chromatographic separation and measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios (delta(13)C) of individual amino acids in hair proteins and bone collagen using the LC-IsoLink system, which interfaces liquid chromatography (LC) with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). This paper provides baseline separation of 15 and 13 of the 18 amino acids in bone collagen and hair proteins, respectively. We also describe an approach to analysing small hair samples for compound-specific analysis of segmental hair sections. The LC/IRMS method is applied in a historical context by the delta(13)C analysis of hair proteins and bone collagen recovered from six individuals from Uummannaq in Greenland. The analysis of hair and bone amino acids from the same individual, compared for the first time in this study, is of importance in palaeodietary reconstruction. If hair proteins can be used as a proxy for bone collagen at the amino acid level, this validates compound-specific isotope studies using hair as a model for palaeodietary reconstruction. Our results suggest that a small offset observed in the bulk delta(13)C values of the hair and bone samples may be attributed to two factors: (i) amino acid compositional differences between hair and bone proteins, and (ii) differential turnover rates of the tissues and the amino acid pools contributing to their synthesis. This application proposes that hair may be a useful complementary or alternative source of compound-specific paleodietary information. PMID:20131322

Raghavan, Maanasa; McCullagh, James S O; Lynnerup, Niels; Hedges, Robert E M



Determination of Glyphosate, its Degradation Product Aminomethylphosphonic Acid, and Glufosinate, in Water by Isotope Dilution and Online Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey method (0-2141-09) presented is approved for the determination of glyphosate, its degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and glufosinate in water. It was was validated to demonstrate the method detection levels (MDL), compare isotope dilution to standard addition, and evaluate method and compound stability. The original method USGS analytical method 0-2136-01 was developed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantitation by standard addition. Lower method detection levels and increased specificity were achieved in the modified method, 0-2141-09, by using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The use of isotope dilution for glyphosate and AMPA and pseudo isotope dilution of glufosinate in place of standard addition was evaluated. Stable-isotope labeled AMPA and glyphosate were used as the isotope dilution standards. In addition, the stability of glyphosate and AMPA was studied in raw filtered and derivatized water samples. The stable-isotope labeled glyphosate and AMPA standards were added to each water sample and the samples then derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate. After derivatization, samples were concentrated using automated online solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by elution in-line with the LC mobile phase; the compounds separated and then were analyzed by LC/MS/MS using electrospray ionization in negative-ion mode with multiple-reaction monitoring. The deprotonated derivatized parent molecule and two daughter-ion transition pairs were identified and optimized for glyphosate, AMPA, glufosinate, and the glyphosate and AMPA stable-isotope labeled internal standards. Quantitative comparison between standard addition and isotope dilution was conducted using 473 samples analyzed between April 2004 and June 2006. The mean percent difference and relative standard deviation between the two quantitation methods was 7.6 plus or minus 6.30 (n = 179), AMPA 9.6 plus or minus 8.35 (n = 206), and glufosinate 9.3 plus or minus 9.16 (n = 16). The analytical variation of the method, comparison of quantitation by isotope dilution and multipoint linear regressed standard curves, and method detection levels were evaluated by analyzing six sets of distilled-water, groundwater, and surface-water samples spiked in duplicate at 0.0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.50 microgram per liter and analyzed on 6 different days during 1 month. The grand means of the normalized concentration percentage recovery for glyphosate, AMPA, and glufosinate among all three matrices and spiked concentrations ranged from 99 to 114 plus or minus 2 to 7 percent of the expected spiked concentration. The grand mean of the percentage difference between concentrations calculated by standard addition and linear regressed multipoint standard curves ranged from 8 to 15 plus or minus 2 to 9 percent for the three compounds. The method reporting levels calculated from all the 0.05- microgram per liter spiked samples were 0.02 microgram per liter for all three compounds. Compound stability experiments were conducted on 10 samples derivatized four times for periods between 136 to 269 days. The glyphosate and AMPA concentrations remained relatively constant in samples held up to 136 days before derivatization. The half life of glyphosate varied from 169 to 223 days in the underivatized samples. Derivatized samples were analyzed the day after derivitization, and again 54 and 64 days after derivatization. The derivatized samples analyzed at days 52 and 64 were within 20 percent of the concentrations of the derivatized samples analyzed the day after derivatization.

Meyer, Michael T.; Loftin, Keith A.; Lee, Edward A.; Hinshaw, Gary H.; Dietze, Julie E.; Scribner, Elisabeth A.



Isotope ratio analysis of actinides, fission products, and geolocators by high-efficiency multi-collector thermal ionization mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A ThermoFisher "Triton" multi-collector thermal ionization mass spectrometer (MC-TIMS) was evaluated for trace and ultra-trace level isotope ratio analysis of actinides (uranium, plutonium, and americium), fission products and geolocators (strontium, cesium, and neodymium). Total efficiencies (atoms loaded to ions detected) of up to 0.5-2% for U, Pu, and Am, and 1-30% for Sr, Cs, and Nd can be reported employing resin bead load techniques onto flat ribbon Re filaments or resin beads loaded into a millimeter-sized cavity drilled into a Re rod. This results in detection limits of <0.1 fg (104 atoms to 105 atoms) for 239-242+244Pu, 233+236U, 241-243Am, 89,90Sr, and 134,135,137Cs, and <=1 pg for natural Nd isotopes (limited by the chemical processing blank) using a secondary electron multiplier (SEM) or multiple-ion counters (MICs). Relative standard deviations (RSD) as small as 0.1% and abundance sensitivities of 1 106 or better using a SEM are reported here. Precisions of RSD [approximate]0.01-0.001% using a multi-collector Faraday cup array can be achieved at sub-nanogram concentrations for strontium and neodymium and are suitable to gain crucial geolocation information. The analytical protocols reported herein are of particular value for nuclear forensic and nuclear safeguard applications.

Brger, S.; Riciputi, L. R.; Bostick, D. A.; Turgeon, S.; McBay, E. H.; Lavelle, M.



Determination of atrazine, lindane, pentachlorophenol, and diazinon in water and soil by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an isotope dilution GC/MS technique for the analysis of low-parts-per-billion concentrations of atrazine, lindane, pentachlorophenol, and diazinon in water and soil. Known amounts of stable-labeled isotopes such as atrazine-d/sub 5/, lindane-d/sub 6/, pentachlorophenol-/sup 13/C/sub 6/, and diazinon-d/sub 10/ are spiked into each sample prior to extraction. Water samples are extracted with methylene chloride; soil samples are extracted with acetone/hexane. Analysis is performed by high-resolution GC/MS with the mass spectrometer operated in the selected ion monitoring mode. Accuracy greater than 86% and precision better than 8% were demonstrated by use of spiked samples. This technique has been used successfully in the analysis of over 300 water and 300 soil samples. Detection limits of 0.1-1.0 ppb were achieved for the test compounds by selected ion monitoring GC/MS. 8 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

Lopez-Avila, V.; Hirata, P.; Kraska, S.; Flanagan, M.; Taylor, J.H. Jr.; Hern, S.C.



Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer is described for determining atmospheric sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfide from aircraft and ship platforms. Isotopically labelled variants of each analyte were used as internal standards to achieve high precision. The lower limit of detection for each species for an integration time of 3 min was 1 pptv for sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfide and 0.2 pptv for carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide. All four species were simultaneously determined with a sample frequency of one sample per 6 min or greater. When only one or two species were determined, a frequency of one sample per 4 min was achieved. Because a calibration is included in each sample, no separate calibration sequence was needed. Instrument warmup was only a few minutes. The instrument was very robust in field deployments, requiring little maintenance.

Bandy, Alan R.; Thornton, Donald C.; Driedger, Arthur R., III



Absolute quantification of protein NP24 in tomato fruit by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using stable isotope-labelled tryptic peptide standard.  


Protein NP24 is a thaumatin-like protein contained in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). This protein is reported to be a putative tomato allergen and is listed as a food allergen in Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP). In this research, we developed the quantitative analysis of NP24 by employing the protein absolute quantification (AQUA) technology composed of stable isotope-labelled internal standard (SIIS) peptide (GQTWVINAPR[(13)C6,(15)N4]) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). A linear relationship (r(2)>0.99) was found throughout the concentration range (2.0-500 fmol/?L). The coefficients of variation (CVs) measured on each of the five days when NP24 contained in the tomato skin was analysed did not exceed 13%. Our developed assay of NP24 will contribute to the allergological examination of tomato and its derived products. PMID:25466018

Ippoushi, Katsunari; Sasanuma, Motoe; Oike, Hideaki; Kobori, Masuko; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari



Measurement of U and Pu isotope ratios in hair and nail samples using extraction chromatography and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  


A bioassay capable of monitoring occupational or environmental exposure to special nuclear materials would be a useful tool for nuclear nonproliferation programs. Hair and nail are potential biomonitors of exposure to U and Pu. A method is described to measure isotope ratios of ultra-trace concentrations of U and Pu in hair and nail samples. The method uses multiple extraction chromatography resins to separate U and Pu fractions from the sample matrix. The U recovery was quantitative while the Pu recovery ranged from 81% to 109%, with a U decontamination factor of 510(4). Following the separation (234)U/(238)U, (235)U/(238)U and (240)Pu/(239)Pu were measured in human hair and hair and nail samples using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The human hair and nail samples had elevated ratios of (234)U/(238)U which could reflect exposure to naturally fractionated U. PMID:25127622

Brown, J N W; Robertson, J D; Brockman, J D



Electronic nose and isotope ratio mass spectrometry in combination with chemometrics for the characterization of the geographical origin of Italian sweet cherries.  


Sweet cherries from two Italian regions, Apulia and Emilia Romagna, were analysed using electronic nose (EN) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), with the aim of distinguishing them according to their geographic origin. The data were elaborated by statistical techniques, examining the EN and IRMS datasets both separately and in combination. Preliminary exploratory overviews were performed and then linear discriminant analyses (LDA) were used for classification. Regarding EN, different approaches for variable selection were tested, and the most suitable strategies were highlighted. The LDA classification results were expressed in terms of recognition and prediction abilities and it was found that both EN and IRMS performed well, with IRMS showing better cross-validated prediction ability (91.0%); the EN-IRMS combination gave slightly better results (92.3%). In order to validate the final results, the models were tested using an external set of samples with excellent results. PMID:25306321

Longobardi, F; Casiello, G; Ventrella, A; Mazzilli, V; Nardelli, A; Sacco, D; Catucci, L; Agostiano, A



Oxygen isotopic distribution along the otolith growth axis by secondary ion mass spectrometry: Applications for studying ontogenetic change in the depth inhabited by deep-sea fishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study using tuna otoliths as working standards established a high lateral resolution and precision analysis to measure ?18Ootolith by secondary ion mass spectrometry. This analytical approach of the ion probe was applied to deep-sea fishes to reconstruct the likely depths inhabited by the fishes at different life history stages based on the measured ?18Ootolith values as a proxy of water temperature. Dramatic increases up to 5-6 in ?18Ootolith, representing a temperature decrease of approximately 20 C, were detected in a blind cusk eel (Barathronus maculatus) otolith and in the otoliths of Synaphobranchus kaupii during leptocephalus metamorphosis to glass eel, inferred from the drop of otolith Sr/Ca ratios and increase of otolith growth increment width. ?18Ootolith profiles clearly divided the fish's life history into a planktonic stage in the mixed layer of the ocean and a benthic stage on the deep-sea ocean bottom. The habitat shift signal was recorded within a 150 ?m width of otolith growth zone, which was too narrow to be clearly detected by mechanical drilling and conventional isotopic ratio mass spectrometry. However, variations down to -7 were found in ?18Ootolith profiles as the result of Cs2+ beam sputter in the core and larval portions of the otoliths. Carbon mapping by electron probe microanalyzer and staining by toluidine blue suggested abundant proteins existed in the areas with anomaly negative ?18Ootolith values, which cannot be interpreted as a habitat change but due to the isotopic fractionation by O emission from the proteins. These results implied that careful design and understanding of the chemical composition of the analytical areas or tracks on the heterogeneous otolith was essential for highly accurate and precise analysis.

Shiao, Jen-Chieh; Itoh, Shoichi; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Liao, Yun-Chih



Simultaneous determination of two major snow crab aeroallergens in processing plants by use of isotopic dilution tandem mass spectrometry.  


Snow crab is a major fishery in the North Atlantic region. During crab processing the proteins are aerosolized and some are responsible for development of occupational asthma. Tropomyosin and arginine kinase have recently been reported as major snow crab allergens. A liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric method has been developed for simultaneous analysis of these two proteins in air samples collected from processing plants. These proteins were initially isolated then characterized by use of mass spectrometry to determine their primary structure and signature peptides. The signature peptides were chemically synthesized in light and heavy forms and used as standards for developing the multiple-reaction monitoring transitions to monitor allergen levels. A validation study was performed; precision and accuracy were 1.8-8% and 91-104%, respectively. Replicate air samples were collected on air filters from two crab-processing plants in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and four located in Quebec. In NL, measured levels of both tropomyosin and arginine kinase were between 1 and 20ngm(-3). In Quebec plants, however, levels were found to be much higher at 2-2400ngm(-3). Significant differences were also observed among the plants and individual processing workstations. For the first time arginine kinase has been detected in its aerosolized form in processing plants. In general, levels of the allergens were highest in the butchering and cooking areas; plant design can, however, have a significant effect on levels of the allergens. PMID:22392376

Abdel Rahman, Anas M; Gagn, Sbastien; Helleur, Robert J



Mass spectrometry in ionospheric research.  


Mass spectrometry played a key role in the development of the understanding of the earth's ionosphere. Of primary importance was its use for in situ atmospheric measurements of the ion and neutral composition of the atmosphere. Mass spectrometry has also played an essential role in the laboratory measurement of critical ionospheric molecular processes. Examples of both are given. PMID:17099890

Ferguson, Eldon E



Rapid determination of plutonium isotopes in environmental samples using sequential injection extraction chromatography and detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  


This article presents an automated method for the rapid determination of 239Pu and 240Pu in various environmental samples. The analytical method involves the in-line separation of Pu isotopes using extraction chromatography (TEVA) implemented in a sequential injection (SI) network followed by detection of isolated analytes with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method has been devised for the determination of Pu isotopes at environmentally relevant concentrations, whereby it has been successfully applied to the analyses of large volumes/amounts of samples, for example, 100-200 g of soil and sediment, 20 g of seaweed, and 200 L of seawater following analyte preconcentration. The investigation of the separation capability of the assembled SI system revealed that up to 200 g of soil or sediment can be treated using a column containing about 0.70 g of TEVA resin. The analytical results of Pu isotopes in the reference materials showed good agreement with the certified or reference values at the 0.05 significance level. Chemical yields of Pu ranged from 80 to 105%, and the decontamination factors for uranium, thorium, mercury and lead were all above 10(4). The duration of the in-line extraction chromatographic run was <1.5 h, and the proposed setup was able to handle up to 20 samples (14 mL each) in a fully automated mode using a single chromatographic column. The SI manifold is thus suitable for rapid and automated determination of Pu isotopes in environmental risk assessment and emergency preparedness scenarios. PMID:19722516

Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per; Mir, Manuel



Validated measurements of the uranium isotopic signature in human urine samples using magnetic sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  


Increased interest in measuring uranium isotope ratios in environmental samples (biological materials, soils, dust particles, water) has come from the necessity to assess the health impact of the use of depleted uranium (DU) based ammunitions during recent military conflicts (e.g., Gulf war, Kosovo) and from the need to identify nondeclared nuclear activities (nuclear safeguards). In this context, very important decisions can arise which have to be based on measurement data of nondisputable uncertainty. The present study describes the certification to 2.5% (k = 2) relative combined uncertainty of n(235U)/n(238U) at ultralow uranium levels (approximately 5-20 pg g(-1)) in human urine samples. After sample decomposition and matrix separation, the isotope ratios were measured by means of a single-detector magnetic sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry instrument fitted with an ultrasonic nebulizer. Correction for mass discrimination effects was obtained by means of the certified isotopic reference material IRMM-184. The analytical procedure developed was validated in three complementary ways. First, all major sources of uncertainty were identified and propagated together following the ISO/GUM guidelines. Second, this quality was controlled with a matrix matching NUSIMEP-3 sample (approximately 0.06-0.7% difference from certified). Third, the instrumental part of the procedure was proven to be reproducible from the confirmation of the results obtained for three samples remeasured 7 months later (approximately 1.5% difference). The results obtained for 33 individuals indicated that none seemed to have been exposed to contamination by DU. PMID:14750735

Tresl, Ivan; De Wannemacker, Gnther; Qutel, Christophe R; Petrov, Ivan; Vanhaecke, Frank; Moens, Luc; Taylor, Philip D P



Biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasensitive SIMS with accelerator based spectrometers has recently begun to be applied to biomedical problems. Certain very long-lived radioisotopes of very low natural abundances can be used to trace metabolism at environmental dose levels ( [greater-or-equal, slanted] z mol in mg samples). 14C in particular can be employed to label a myriad of compounds. Competing technologies typically require super environmental doses that can perturb the system under investigation, followed by uncertain extrapolation to the low dose regime. 41Ca and 26Al are also used as elemental tracers. Given the sensitivity of the accelerator method, care must be taken to avoid contamination of the mass spectrometer and the apparatus employed in prior sample handling including chemical separation. This infant field comprises the efforts of a dozen accelerator laboratories. The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has been particularly active. In addition to collaborating with groups further afield, we are researching the kinematics and binding of genotoxins in-house, and we support innovative uses of our capability in the disciplines of chemistry, pharmacology, nutrition and physiology within the University of California. The field can be expected to grow further given the numerous potential applications and the efforts of several groups and companies to integrate more the accelerator technology into biomedical research programs; the development of miniaturized accelerator systems and ion sources capable of interfacing to conventional HPLC and GMC, etc. apparatus for complementary chemical analysis is anticipated for biomedical laboratories.

Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Vogel, John S.



Quantification of ricin, RCA and comparison of enzymatic activity in 18 Ricinus communis cultivars by isotope dilution mass spectrometry.  


The seeds of the Ricinus communis (Castor bean) plant are the source of the economically important commodity castor oil. Castor seeds also contain the proteins ricin and R. communis agglutinin (RCA), two toxic lectins that are hazardous to human health. Radial immunodiffusion (RID) and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are two antibody-based methods commonly used to quantify ricin and RCA; however, antibodies currently used in these methods cannot distinguish between ricin and RCA due to the high sequence homology of the respective proteins. In this study, a technique combining antibody-based affinity capture with liquid chromatography and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry (MS) was used to quantify the amounts of ricin and RCA independently in extracts prepared from the seeds of eighteen representative cultivars of R.communis which were propagated under identical conditions. Additionally, liquid chromatography and MRM-MS was used to determine rRNA N-glycosidase activity for each cultivar and the overall activity in these cultivars was compared to a purified ricin standard. Of the cultivars studied, the average ricin content was 9.3mg/g seed, the average RCA content was 9.9mg/g seed, and the enzymatic activity agreed with the activity of a purified ricin reference within 35% relative activity. PMID:25576235

Schieltz, David M; McWilliams, Lisa G; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Prezioso, Samantha M; Carter, Andrew J; Williamson, Yulanda M; McGrath, Sara C; Morse, Stephen A; Barr, John R



Analysis of alkyl and 2-6-ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Quality assurance and determination in Spanish river sediments.  


An accurate, precise and sensitive method is described for the analysis of 29 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including 19 2-6-ringed PAHs and 10 alkyl-PAHs. The method is based on an isotope dilution technique using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and available labeled PAHs as internal standards. Quality parameters were calculated with satisfactory results and 36 Spanish river sediments were analysed. Results were evaluated regarding to the sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) based on the effects range-low (ERL) and the effects range-median (ERM) values. Most analysed sediments showed a good quality, since only 7 of them exceeded ERL values, including one sample surpassing ERM values. PAH profiles were studied in order to identify PAH sources as mainly petrogenic or pyrogenic. Most samples showed petrogenic-type fingerprints, although 6 of the 11 sediments with the highest PAH concentrations (> 1000 ng/g) were classified as pyrogenic, including 4 of the 7 samples exceeding ERL values. Quality assurance was carried out by the triplicate analysis of one preanalysed river sediment without PAHs subsequently spiked at a medium (500 ng/g) and a low concentration level (10 ng/g) of each analyte. Main quality requirements for methods based on isotope dilution were accomplished. Method accuracy was 80-120% for most PAHs, method precision was <15% for all the analysed compounds and method detection limits (MDLs) were 1-3 ng/g. PMID:16513126

Planas, Carles; Puig, Alejandra; Rivera, Josep; Caixach, Josep



Re-evaluation of interferences of doubly charged ions of heavy rare earth elements on Sr isotopic analysis using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We re-evaluate the interference of doubly charged heavy rare earth elements during Sr isotopic analysis using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). A series of mixed solutions of standard reference material SRM 987, rare earth elements, and Sr separated from rock reference materials are measured to assess the influence of isobaric interferences on the MC-ICP-MS analysis of Sr isotopes. After sample dissolution, conventional cation-exchange chromatography is employed for Sr purification of rock reference materials prior to MC-ICP-MS measurement. It has been demonstrated that if the natural abundances of Er and Yb are used to correct for doubly charged ion interferences on Sr, an overcorrection results. In contrast, the use of measured doubly charged ion ratios results in an accurate and precise correction of isobaric interference. This finding is confirmed by analytical results for several certified reference materials from mafic (basaltic) to felsic (granitic) silicate rocks. It is noteworthy that, because Er is more prone to doubly charged ion formation, it dominates over Yb doubly charged ions as an interference source.

Yang, Yue-Heng; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Xie, Lie-Wen; Chu, Zhu-Yin; Yang, Jin-Hui



Tracing Cationic Nutrients from Xylem into Stem Tissue of French Bean by Stable Isotope Tracers and Cryo-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Fluxes of mineral nutrients in the xylem are strongly influenced by interactions with the surrounding stem tissues and are probably regulated by them. Toward a mechanistic understanding of these interactions, we applied stable isotope tracers of magnesium, potassium, and calcium continuously to the transpiration stream of cut bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) shoots to study their radial exchange at the cell and tissue level with stem tissues between pith and phloem. For isotope localization, we combined sample preparation with secondary ion mass spectrometry in a completely cryogenic workflow. After 20 min of application, tracers were readily detectable to various degrees in all tissues. The xylem parenchyma near the vessels exchanged freely with the vessels, its nutrient elements reaching a steady state of strong exchange with elements in the vessels within 20 min, mainly via apoplastic pathways. A slow exchange between vessels and cambium and phloem suggested that they are separated from the xylem, parenchyma, and pith, possibly by an apoplastic barrier to diffusion for nutrients (as for carbohydrates). There was little difference in these distributions when tracers were applied directly to intact xylem via a microcapillary, suggesting that xylem tension had little effect on radial exchange of these nutrients and that their movement was mainly diffusive. PMID:19965970

Metzner, Ralf; Schneider, Heike Ursula; Breuer, Uwe; Thorpe, Michael Robert; Schurr, Ulrich; Schroeder, Walter Heinz



Quantitative isomer-specific N-glycan fingerprinting using isotope coded labeling and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry with graphitic carbon stationary phase.  


Glycan reductive isotope labeling (GRIL) using (12)C6-/(13)C6-aniline as labeling reagent is reported with the aim of quantitative N-glycan fingerprinting. Porous graphitized carbon (PGC) as stationary phase in capillary scale HPLC coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry with time of flight analyzer was applied for the determination of labeled N-glycans released from glycoproteins. The main benefit of using stable isotope-coding in the context of comparative glycomics lies in the improved accuracy and precision of the quantitative analysis in combined samples and in the potential of correcting for structure-dependent incomplete enzymatic release of oligosaccharides when comparing identical target proteins. The method was validated with respect to mobile phase parameters, reproducibility, accuracy, linearity and limit of detection/quantification (LOD/LOQ) using test glycoproteins. It is shown that the developed method is capable of determining relative amounts of N-glycans (including isomers) comparing two samples in one single HPLC-MS run. The analytical potential and usefulness of GRIL in combination with PGC-ESI-TOF-MS is demonstrated comparing glycosylation in human monoclonal antibodies produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) and hybridoma cell lines. PMID:25638265

Michael, Claudia; Rizzi, Andreas M



Rapid and Precise Measurement of Serum Branched-Chain and Aromatic Amino Acids by Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background Serum branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAAs and AAAs) have emerged as predictors for the future development of diabetes and may aid in diabetes risk assessment. However, the current methods for the analysis of such amino acids in biological samples are time consuming. Methods An isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC/MS/MS) method for serum BCAAs and AAAs was developed. The serum was mixed with isotope-labeled BCAA and AAA internal standards and the amino acids were extracted with acetonitrile, followed by analysis using LC/MS/MS. The LC separation was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column, and the MS/MS detection was performed via the positive electronic spray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Results Specific analysis of the amino acids was achieved within 2 min. Intra-run and total CVs for the amino acids were less than 2% and 4%, respectively, and the analytical recoveries ranged from 99.6 to 103.6%. Conclusion A rapid and precise method for the measurement of serum BCAAs and AAAs was developed and may serve as a quick tool for screening serum BCAAs and AAAs in studies assessing diabetes risk. PMID:24339906

Yang, Ruiyue; Dong, Jun; Guo, Hanbang; Li, Hongxia; Wang, Shu; Zhao, Haijian; Zhou, Weiyan; Yu, Songlin; Wang, Mo; Chen, Wenxiang



Isotope ratio analysis of actinides, fission products, and geolocators by high-efficiency multi-collector thermal ionization mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

A ThermoFisher 'Triton' multi-collector thermal ionization mass spectrometer (MC-TIMS) was evaluated for trace and ultra-trace level isotoperatioanalysis of actinides (uranium, plutonium, and americium), fission products and geolocators (strontium, cesium, and neodymium). Total efficiencies (atoms loaded to ions detected) of up to 0.5-2% for U, Pu, and Am, and 1-30% for Sr, Cs, and Nd can be reported employing resin bead load techniques onto flat ribbon Re filaments or resin beads loaded into a millimeter-sized cavity drilled into a Re rod. This results in detection limits of <0.1 fg (10{sup 4} atoms to 10{sup 5} atoms) for {sup 239-242+244}Pu, {sup 233+236}U, {sup 241-243}Am, {sup 89,90}Sr, and {sup 134,135,137}Cs, and {le} 1 pg for natural Nd isotopes (limited by the chemical processing blank) using a secondary electron multiplier (SEM) or multiple-ion counters (MICs). Relative standard deviations (RSD) as small as 0.1% and abundance sensitivities of 1 x 10{sup 6} or better using a SEM are reported here. Precisions of RSD {approx} 0.01-0.001% using a multi-collector Faraday cup array can be achieved at sub-nanogram concentrations for strontium and neodymium and are suitable to gain crucial geolocation information. The analytical protocols reported herein are of particular value for nuclear forensic and nuclear safeguard applications.

Brger, Stefan [New Brunswick Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Riciputi, Lee R [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bostick, Debra A [ORNL; Turgeon, Steven [University of Alberta, Edmondton, Canada; McBay, Eddie H [ORNL; Lavelle, Mark [ORNL



Characterization of TATP gas phase product ion chemistry via isotope labeling experiments using ion mobility spectrometry interfaced with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.  


Identification of the fragment ion species associated with the ion reaction mechanism of triacetone triperoxide (TATP), a homemade peroxide-based explosive, is presented. Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has proven to be a key analytical technique in the detection of trace explosive material. Unfortunately, IMS alone does not provide chemical identification of the ions detected; therefore, it is unknown what ion species are actually formed and separated by the IMS. In IMS, ions are primarily characterized by their drift time, which is dependent on the ion?s mass and molecular cross-section; thus, IMS as a standalone technique does not provide structural signatures, which is in sharp contrast to the chemical and molecular information that is generally obtained from other customary analytical techniques, such as NMR, Raman and IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. To help study the ion chemistry that gives rise to the peaks observed in IMS, the hardware of two different commercial IMS instruments has been directly coupled to triple quadrupole (QQQ) mass spectrometers, in order to ascertain each ion?s corresponding mass/charge (m/z) ratios with different dopants at two temperatures. Isotope labeling was then used to help identify and confirm the molecular identity of the explosive fragment and adduct ions of TATP. The m/z values and isotope labeling experiments were used to help propose probable molecular formulas for the ion fragments. In this report, the fragment and adduct ions m/z 58 and 240 of TATP have been confirmed to be [C3H6NHH](+) and [TATPNH4](+), respectively; while the fragment ions m/z 73 and 89 of TATP are identified as having the molecular formulas [C4H9NH2](+) and [C4H9O2](+), respectively. It is anticipated that the work in this area will not only help to facilitate improvements in mobility-based detection (IMS and MS), but also aid in the development and optimization of MS-based detection algorithms for TATP. PMID:24913870

Tomlinson-Phillips, Jill; Wooten, Alfred; Kozole, Joseph; Deline, James; Beresford, Pamela; Stairs, Jason



Compact hydrogen\\/helium isotope mass spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compact hydrogen and helium isotope mass spectrometer of the present invention combines low mass-resolution ion mass spectrometry and beam-foil interaction technology to unambiguously detect and quantify deuterium (D), tritium (T), hydrogen molecule (H.sub.2, HD, D.sub.2, HT, DT, and T.sub.2), .sup.3 He, and .sup.4 He concentrations and concentration variations. The spectrometer provides real-time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy measurements. Currently,

Herbert O. Funsten; David J. McComas; Earl E. Scime



Secondary ion mass spectrometry combined with alpha track detection for isotope abundance ratio analysis of individual uranium-bearing particles.  


Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used in combination with alpha track detection for the efficient analysis of uranium-bearing particles with higher (235)U abundances in environmental samples. A polycarbonate film containing particles was prepared and placed in contact with a CR-39 plastic detector. After exposure for 28 days, the detector was etched in a NaOH solution and each uranium-bearing particle was identified through observation of the alpha tracks recorded in the detector. A portion of the film containing each uranium-bearing particle was cut out and put onto a glassy carbon planchet. The films on the planchet were decomposed through plasma ashing for subsequent uranium abundance ratio analysis with SIMS. The alpha track-SIMS analysis of 10 uranium-bearing particles in a sample taken from a nuclear facility enabled n((235)U)/n((238)U) abundance ratios in the range 0.0072-0.25 to be detected, which were significantly higher than those obtained by SIMS without alpha track detection. The duration of the whole analytical process for analysis of 10 particles was about 32 days. The detection efficiency was calculated to be 27.16.5%, based on the analysis of the particles in uranium reference materials. The detection limits, defined as the diameter of the particle which produces alpha tracks more than one for a 28-days exposure, were estimated to be 0.8, 0.9, 1.1, 2.1 and 3.0 ?m for the particles having the same uranium abundance ratios with NBL CRM U850, U500, U350, U050 and U010 reference materials, respectively. The use of alpha track detection for subsequent SIMS analysis is an inexpensive and an efficient way to measure uranium-bearing particles with higher (235)U abundances. PMID:24468381

Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki



Thermal ionization cavity source for mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) is widely used for isotopic determination, and elemental concentration measurements by isotope dilution. TIMS is applicable to over 70 elements in the periodic table, often, with very high sensitivity, low detection limits, high precision, and high accuracy. Probably due to its success and simplicity, the traditional resistively heated filament type ion source, used in TIMS, has remained relatively unchanged in the past 50 years. Only minor changes in the number of filaments used for vaporization and ionization, and the shape of the filament have been employed. Much of the science of thermal ionization has focused on sample preparation, and chemical ionization enhancers. Beyer et al., in the USSR, and Johnson et al., later in the US, introduced a new high temperature cavity-type thermal ionization source for isotope separation on-line (ISOL) projects. Delmore et al. introduced a similar cavity-type source for the study of thermal emission of primary ions for secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS). A new thermal ionization cavity-type source for mass spectrometry has been developed in this laboratory.

Olivares, J.A.; Chamberlin, E.P.; Duan, Yixiang [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)



Accelerator mass spectrometry as a bioanalytical tool for nutritional research  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator Mass Spectrometry is a mass spectrometric method of detecting long-lived radioisotopes without regard to their decay products or half-life. The technique is normally applied to geochronology, but recently has been developed for bioanalytical tracing. AMS detects isotope concentrations to parts per quadrillion, quantifying labeled biochemicals to attomole levels in milligram- sized samples. Its advantages over non-isotopeic and stable isotope labeling methods are reviewed and examples of analytical integrity, sensitivity, specificity, and applicability are provided.

Vogel, J.S.; Turteltaub, K.W.



[Determination of 18 pesticide residues in red wine by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry with isotope dilution technique].  


A method for the simultaneous determination of 18 pesticide residues in red wine was developed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS) with isotope dilution technique. The red wine samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and the extracts were cleaned up with dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) using the mixture of N-propyl ethylene diamine (PSA) and C18 powder as sorbent. The extracted components were separated on a BEH C18 column by gradient elution. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were operated under full scan/data dependent MS/MS (ddms2) and targeted selective ion monitoring (tSIM) by high resolution mass spectrometry, respectively. Carbendazim-D4, chlorpyrifos-D10, imidacloprid-D4, methoxyfenozide-D9, pyrimethanil-D5 and tebuconazole-D6 were used as the internal standards to reduce the matrix effects. The response of each pesticide showed a good linearity in the range of 0.5-50 microg/kg with the correlation coefficient more than 0.999. The limits of detection and quantification for the 18 pesticides in the spiked blank red wine were 0.5 microg/kg and 1.0 microg/kg, respectively. The recovery results with spiked blank red wine samples at the levels of 1 to 40 microg/kg were satisfactory with average recoveries of 85.4% - 117.9% and the RSDs of 0.5%-6.1%. The method was applied for the determination of the red wine real samples from the market. Carbendazim, imidacloprid, pyrimethanil, tebuconazole and triadimenol were detected in the samples. The results show that the method is suitable for the rapid screening and quantitative analysis of pesticide residues in red wine. PMID:25185308

Chen, Dawei; L, Bing; Ding, Hao; Zou, Jianhong; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Yunfeng; Miao, Hong



A World without Sample Preparation: Developing Rapid Uranium Isotope Measurement Capabilities by Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS)  

SciTech Connect

We are developing highly sensitive, highly discriminating laser-based techniques for rapid determination of isotopic compositions. Rapid command of such information is critical to assessment of the origin and history of nuclear materials, particularly in post-detonation scenarios.

Knight, K B; Hutcheon, I D; Isselhardt, B H; Savina, M R; Prussin, S G



A World without Sample Preparation: Developing Rapid Uranium Isotope Measurement Capabilities by Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing highly sensitive, highly discriminating laser-based techniques for rapid determination of isotopic compositions. Rapid command of such information is critical to assessment of the origin and history of nuclear materials, particularly in post-detonation scenarios.

K B Knight; I D Hutcheon; B H Isselhardt; M R Savina; S G Prussin



Measurements of natural uranium concentration and isotopic composition with permil-level precision by inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new analytical technique using inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) has been developed that produces permil-level precision in the measurement of uranium concentration ([U]) and isotopic composition (?234U) in natural materials. A 233U-236U double spike method was used to correct for mass fractionation during analysis. To correct for ratio drifting, samples were bracketed by uranium standard measurements. A sensitivity of 6-7 108 cps/ppm was generated with a sample solution uptake rate of 30 ?L/min. With a measurement time of 15-20 min, standards of 30-ng uranium produced a within-run precision better than 3 (2 R.S.D.) for ?234U and better than 2 for [U]. Replicate measurements made on standards show that a between-run reproducibility of 3.5 for ?234U and 2 for [U] can be achieved. ICP-QMS data of ?234U and [U] in seawater, coral, and speleothem materials are consistent with the data measured by other ICP-MS and TIMS techniques. Advantages of the ICP-QMS method include low cost, easy maintenance, simple instrumental operation, and few sample preparation steps. Sample size requirements are small, such as 10-14 mg of coral material. The results demonstrate that this technique can be applied to natural samples with various matrices.

Shen, Chuan-Chou; Lin, Huei-Ting; Chu, Mei-Fei; Yu, Ein-Fen; Wang, Xianfeng; Dorale, Jeffrey A.



Analysis of matrix-bound nitrofuran residues in worldwide-originated honeys by isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  


A sensitive and selective isotope dilution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESIMS/MS) method is presented for the simultaneous analysis of the metabolites of four nitrofuran veterinary drugs, that is, furazolidone, furaltadone, nitrofurantoin, and nitrofurazone, in honey samples. The method entails a combined hydrolysis of protein-bound drug metabolites and derivatization of the resulting metabolites with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde (NBA) during an overnight incubation, followed by a liquid-liquid extraction and a cleanup on a polymeric solid-phase extraction cartridge. Mass spectral acquisition is carried out in the positive ion mode by applying multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of three diagnostic transition reactions for each analyte under survey. A reliable quantification is obtained by the use of one deuterated analogue per analyte (NBA-d(4) derivative). The method has been validated in honey according to the European Union criteria for the analysis of veterinary drug residues in food. Expressed in underivatized nitrofuran metabolite concentrations, the decision limits (CCalpha) ranged within 0.07-0.46 microg/kg, and the detection capabilities (CCbeta) were within 0.12-0.56 microg/kg. The method has been successfully applied in a survey of honeys of various geographical origins, showing that furazolidone is the main nitrofuran antibiotic administered to treat bacterial diseases of bees. PMID:15315362

Khong, Seu-Ping; Gremaud, Eric; Richoz, Janique; Delatour, Thierry; Guy, Philippe A; Stadler, Richard H; Mottier, Pascal



Linear electric field mass spectrometry  


A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry are described. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field. 8 figs.

McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.



Multiplexed Analysis of Cage and Cage Free Chicken Egg Fatty Acids Using Stable Isotope Labeling and Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Binary stable isotope labeling couple with LC-ESI-MS has been used as a powerful non-targeted approach for the relative quantification of lipids, amino acids, and many other important metabolite classes. A multiplexed approach using three or more isotopic labeling reagents greatly reduces analytical run-time while maintaining excellent sensitivity and reproducibility. Three isotopic cholamine labeling reagents have been developed to take advantage of the pre-ionized character of cholamine, for ESI, and the ease by which stable isotopes can be incorporated into the cholamine structure. These three cholamine labeling reagents have been used to relatively quantify three fatty acid samples simultaneously. The quantification resulted in the observation of 12 fatty acids that had an average absolute error of 0.9% and an average coefficient of variation of 6.1%. Caged versus cage-free isotope labeling experiments showed that cage-free eggs have an increased level of omega-3 fatty acids as compared to caged eggs. This multiplexed fatty acid analysis provides an inexpensive and expedited tool for broad-based lipid profiling that will further aid discoveries in the mechanisms of fatty acid action in cells. PMID:24317525

Torde, Richard G.; Therrien, Andrew J.; Shortreed, Michael R.; Smith, Lloyd M.; Lamos, Shane M.



Detection of Synthetic Testosterone Use by Novel Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Combustion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GCGCC-IRMS)  

PubMed Central

We report the first demonstration of Comprehensive Two-dimensional Gas Chromatography Combustion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GCGCC-IRMS) for the analysis of urinary steroids to detect illicit synthetic testosterone use, of interest in sport doping. GC coupled to IRMS (GCC-IRMS) is currently used to measure the carbon isotope ratios (CIR, ?13C) of urinary steroids in anti-doping efforts; however, extensive cleanup of urine extracts is required prior to analysis to enable baseline separation of target steroids. With its greater separation capabilities, GCGC has the potential to reduce sample preparation requirements and enable CIR analysis of minimally processed urine extracts. Challenges addressed include on-line reactors with minimized dimensions to retain narrow peaks shapes, baseline separation of peaks in some cases, and reconstruction of isotopic information from sliced steroid chromatographic peaks. Difficulties remaining include long-term robustness of on-line reactors and urine matrix effects that preclude baseline separation and isotopic analysis of low concentration and trace components. In this work, steroids were extracted, acetylated, and analyzed using a refined, home-built GCGCC-IRMS system. 11-hydroxy-androsterone (11OHA) and 11-ketoetiocolanolone (11KE) were chosen as endogenous reference compounds (ERC) because of their satisfactory signal intensity, and their CIR was compared to target compounds (TC) androsterone (A) and etiocholanolone (E). Separately, a GCGC-qMS system was used to measure testosterone (T)/EpiT concentration ratios. Urinary extracts of urine pooled from professional athletes, and urine from one individual that received testosterone gel (T-gel) and one individual that received testosterone injections (T-shot) were analyzed. The average precisions of ?13C and ??13C measurements were SD(?13C) approximately 1 (n=11). The T-shot sample resulted in a positive for T use with a T/EpiT ratio of > 9 and CIR measurements of ??13C > 5, both fulfilling World Anti-Doping Agency criteria. These data show for the first time that synthetic steroid use is detectable by GCGCC-IRMS without need for extensive urine cleanup. PMID:21846122

Tobias, Herbert J.; Zhang, Ying; Auchus, Richard J.; Brenna, J. Thomas



Differential 12C-/13C-isotope dansylation labeling and fast liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for absolute and relative quantification of the metabolome.  


We report a new quantitative metabolome profiling technique based on differential (12)C-/(13)C-isotope dansylation labeling of metabolites, fast liquid chromatography (LC) separation and electrospray ionization Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR MS) detection. An isotope reagent, (13)C-dansyl chloride, can be readily synthesized. This reagent, along with (12)C-dansyl chloride, provides a simple and robust means of labeling metabolites containing primary amine, secondary amine, or phenolic hydroxyl group(s). It is shown that dansylation labeling offers 1-3 orders of magnitude ESI signal enhancement over the underivatized counterparts. Dansylation alters the chromatographic behaviors of polar and ionic metabolites normally not retainable on a reversed phase (RP) column to an extent that they can be retained and separated by RPLC with high efficiency. There is no isotopic effect on RPLC separation of the differential isotope labeled metabolites, and (12)C-/(13)C-labeled isoforms of metabolites are coeluted and detected by MS for precise and accurate quantification and confident metabolite identification. It is demonstrated that, in the analysis of 20 amino acids, a linear response of over 2 orders of magnitude is achieved for relative metabolite quantification with an average relative standard deviation (RSD) of about 5.3% from replicate experiments. A dansylation standard compound library consisting of 121 known amines and phenols has been constructed and is proven to be useful for absolute metabolite quantification and MS-based metabolite identification in biological samples. As an example, the absolute concentrations of 93 metabolites, ranging from 30 nM to 2510 microM, can be determined from a pooled sample of human urines collected in 5 consecutive days labeled with (12)C-dansylation and spiked with the 121 (13)C-dansylated standards. Relative concentration variations of these metabolites in individual urine samples can also be monitored by mixing the (13)C-dansylated pooled urine sample with the (12)C-dansylated individual sample. With a 12 min fast LC separation combined with FTICR MS, 672 metabolites were detected in a human urine sample with each metabolite peak having a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 20; the identities of most of the metabolites remain to be determined. This work illustrates that dansylation labeling and fast LC/FTICR MS can be a powerful technique for quantitative profiling of at least 672 metabolites in urine samples in 12 min. PMID:19309105

Guo, Kevin; Li, Liang



Quantitative profiling of differentiation-induced microsomal proteins using isotope-coded affinity tags and mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to the systematic identification and quantification of the proteins contained in the microsomal fraction of cells is described. It consists of three steps: (1) preparation of microsomal fractions from cells or tissues representing different states; (2) covalent tagging of the proteins with isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) reagents followed by proteolysis of the combined labeled protein samples; and (3)

David K. Han; Jimmy Eng; Huilin Zhou; Ruedi Aebersold



Mass spectrometry. [in organic chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of mass spectrometry in organic chemistry is given, dealing with advances in instrumentation and computer techniques, selected topics in gas-phase ion chemistry, and applications in such fields as biomedicine, natural-product studies, and environmental pollution analysis. Innovative techniques and instrumentation are discussed, along with chromatographic-mass spectrometric on-line computer techniques, mass spectral interpretation and management techniques, and such topics in gas-phase ion chemistry as electron-impact ionization and decomposition, photoionization, field ionization and desorption, high-pressure mass spectrometry, ion cyclotron resonance, and isomerization reactions of organic ions. Applications of mass spectrometry are examined with respect to bio-oligomers and their constituents, biomedically important substances, microbiology, environmental organic analysis, and organic geochemistry.

Burlingame, A. L.; Shackleton, C. H. L.; Howe, I.; Chizhov, O. S.



Substoichiometric isotope dilution mass spectrometry of boron by the ion-pair extraction with halogenated salicyl alcohol derivatives and a quaternary ammonium salt.  


Novel salicyl alcohol derivatives (H(2)X(n)sal), 5-bromo-, 3,5-dibromo-, and 3,5-diiodosalicyl alcohol which were abbreviated to H(2)Brsal, H(2)Br(2)sal, and H(2)I(2)sal, respectively, were synthesized and used for the selective extraction of boric acid. Boric acid was extracted with each H(2)X(n)sal into chlorobenzene containing trioctylmethylammonium chloride (TOMACl) as an ion-pair complex, TOMAB(X(n)sal)(2), at a different pH range. The extraction constant (K(ex)) of boric acid was determined by the equilibrium analyses including the formation of hydrogen-bonded complex of each H(2)X(n)sal with TOMACl in the organic phase. The K(ex) values obtained by salicyl alcohol (H(2)sal) and its derivatives were decreased in the order of H(2)I(2)sal ? H(2)Br(2)sal > H(2)Brsal > H(2)sal. The most powerful extractant, H(2)I(2)sal, was employed for the substoichiometric extraction of boric acid, which was extracted at pH 5 - 9 with a substoichiometric amount of TOMACl in the presence of an excess of H(2)I(2)sal. The present substoichiometric separation method combined with the stable isotope dilution analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) could be successfully applied to the determination of boron in a reference material of high-analysis compound fertilizer (FAMIC-A-08) without any correction as to the isotopic abundance. PMID:22451364

Morita, Keisuke; Imura, Hisanori



Development of a multiresidue method for analysis of pesticides in sediments based on isotope dilution and liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry.  


Because of the complexity of the sediment matrix, selective methods are necessary to identify and quantify different kinds of pesticides at a time. In this context, a multiresidue method based on isotope dilution and final analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of 26 pesticides and transformation products in sediment. The method developed comprises pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further purification of the extract by solid phase extraction (SPE) prior to analysis. In the process of method optimization various SPE cartridges as well as PLE and SPE elution solvents were evaluated. Due to the relatively high volatility of some compounds (e.g., propanil), special attention was paid to the evaporation step. Experiments comparing different pressures and times during solvent evaporation were performed with the aim to improve the recovery of these compounds. Matrix effects were also studied even though they were corrected through the use of 23 deuterated compounds as surrogate standards for quantification. The analytical method developed showed good validation parameters in terms of linearity, sensitivity (limits of detection in the pgg(-1) or low ngg(-1) range and limits of determination below 80ngg(-1)), accuracy (relative recoveries between 92 and 118%, except for malaoxon (66.5%)), and repeatability (relative standard deviations between 1.5 and 17%, for all compounds except the acidic herbicides). Its main advantage is the simultaneous analysis of pesticides with a large variety of physical-chemical properties, as well as its improved accuracy due to the use of the isotope dilution method. Application of the method to the analysis of 5 real samples from 4 different Spanish rivers revealed the presence of 5 of the 26 target compounds, being chlorpyrifos, diuron and diazinon the most ubiquitous, as expected, due to their high bioaccumulation and low mobility features. PMID:23890546

Kck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; Olmos, Mar; Lpez de Alda, Miren; Barcel, Dami



Quantification of carcinogenic 4- to 6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human urine by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry.  


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants found in living and working environments. The aim of this study was to develop a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography (GC)-isotope dilution mass spectrometry method for the quantification of 10 four- to six-ring PAHs in urine samples. Seven of the selected PAHs have been classified as carcinogenic. Under the final conditions, analytes were sampled with a 100-?m polydimethylsiloxane SPME fibre for 60 min at 80 C and desorbed in the injection port of the GC at 270 C. Fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and benzo[ghi]perylene were separated using a highly arylene-modified phase capillary column and quantified by MS using eight deuterated PAHs as surrogate internal standards. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were in the 0.5- to 2.2-ng/L range. Validation showed linear dynamic ranges up to 340 ng/L, inter- and intra-run precisions <20%, and accuracies within 20% of spiked concentrations. Matrix effect evaluation and the use of control charts to monitor process performances showed that the isotope dilution approach allowed for the control of bias sources. Urinary PAHs were above or equal to LOQ, depending on different compounds, in 58-100% (min-max), 40-100% and 5-39% of samples from coke oven workers (n?=?12), asphalt workers (n?=?10) and individuals not occupationally exposed to PAHs (n?=?18), respectively. Chrysene was the most abundant PAH determined with median levels of 62.6, 6.9 and <0.6 ng/L, respectively. These results show that the method is suitable for quantifying carcinogenic PAHs in specimens from individuals with different levels of PAH exposure. PMID:21626187

Campo, Laura; Fustinoni, Silvia; Bertazzi, Pieralberto



Qualitative Metabolome Analysis of Human Cerebrospinal Fluid by 13C-/12C-Isotope Dansylation Labeling Combined with Liquid Chromatography Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metabolome analysis of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is challenging because of low abundance of metabolites present in a small volume of sample. We describe and apply a sensitive isotope labeling LC-MS technique for qualitative analysis of the CSF metabolome. After a CSF sample is divided into two aliquots, they are labeled by 13C-dansyl and 12C-dansyl chloride, respectively. The differentially labeled aliquots are then mixed and subjected to LC-MS using Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS). Dansylation offers significant improvement in the performance of chromatography separation and detection sensitivity. Moreover, peaks detected in the mass spectra can be readily analyzed for ion pair recognition and database search based on accurate mass and/or retention time information. It is shown that about 14,000 features can be detected in a 25-min LC-FTICR MS run of a dansyl-labeled CSF sample, from which about 500 metabolites can be profiled. Results from four CSF samples are compared to gauge the detectability of metabolites by this method. About 261 metabolites are commonly detected in replicate runs of four samples. In total, 1132 unique metabolite ion pairs are detected and 347 pairs (31%) matched with at least one metabolite in the Human Metabolome Database. We also report a dansylation library of 220 standard compounds and, using this library, about 85 metabolites can be positively identified. Among them, 21 metabolites have never been reported to be associated with CSF. These results illustrate that the dansylation LC-FTICR MS method can be used to analyze the CSF metabolome in a more comprehensive manner.

Guo, Kevin; Bamforth, Fiona; Li, Liang



An optimised method for the accurate determination of zeranol and diethylstilbestrol in animal tissues using isotope dilution-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.  


Isotope dilution-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (ID-LC/MS) has been established as a candidate reference method for the accurate determination of growth promoters (zeranol, taleranol, and diethylstilbesterol) in raw meat samples. Sample preparation processes including an enzymatic hydrolysis, extraction, and SPE clean-up were optimised. The sensitivity difference of trans- and cis-diethylstilbestrol (isomerizing in sample preparation processes) by the LC/MS was measured by running a trans/cis mixture (ratio measured by a quantitative NMR) with and without sample matrices, and applied for the determination of total diethylstilbestrol. Validity, repeatability, and reproducibility of the analytical method were tested by measuring gravimetrically fortified samples (chicken breast, bovine muscles, and porcine muscle) in a number of different time periods. Measurement results agreed with the fortified values within their uncertainties. The method provided accurate results of the target analytes in the range of 0.05-15 ?g/kg with the relative expanded uncertainty of 2-15%. PMID:23578613

Han, Hyesun; Kim, Byungjoo; Lee, Sueg Geun; Kim, Jeongkwon



Measuring environmental phenols and chlorinated organic chemicals in breast milk using automated on-line column-switching-high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry.  


Breast milk is one possible route of exposure to environmental chemicals, including phenols and chlorinated organic chemicals for breast-fed infants. We developed a highly sensitive method of analyzing breast milk for triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide) and eight phenolic compounds: bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-tOP), ortho-phenylphenol (OPP), 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and 2-hydroxy-4-metoxybenzophenone (BP-3). The method includes adding a solution containing a stable isotope of each chemical, enzymatic hydrolysis of the conjugated chemicals in the milk, and on-line solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. It can also be used to measure the free (unconjugated) species by omitting the enzymatic deconjugation step. The method, validated using pooled breast milk samples, has inter-day coefficient of variations ranging from 4.8 to 18.9% for most analytes, and spiked recoveries generally about 100%. Detection limits for most analytes are below 1 ng/mL in 100 microL of breast milk. We tested the usefulness of the method by measuring concentrations of these nine compounds in 20 breast milk samples. BPA, OPP, and BP-3 were detected in more than 60% of the samples tested. The free species of these compounds appear to be most prevalent in milk. PMID:16377264

Ye, Xiaoyun; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Needham, Larry L; Calafat, Antonia M



Measurement of (5'R)- and (5'S)-8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosines in DNA in vivo by liquid chromatography/isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Oxidatively induced DNA lesions (5'R)- and (5'S)-8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosines (R-cdA and S-cdA) are detectable and accumulate in vivo due to disease states and defects in DNA repair. They block transcription and inhibit gene expression, and may play a role in disease processes. Accurate measurement of these lesions in DNA in vivo is necessary to understand their biological effects. We report on a methodology using liquid chromatography/isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry to measure R-cdA and S-cdA in DNA. This methodology permitted the detection of these compounds at a level of 0.1 fmol on-column. Levels of R-cdA and S-cdA in mouse liver DNA amounted to 0.133 {+-} 0.024 and 0.498 {+-} 0.065 molecules/10{sup 7} DNA 2'-deoxynucleosides, respectively. The successful measurement of R-cdA and S-cdA in DNA in vivo suggests that this methodology will be used for understanding of their repair and biological consequences, and that these compounds may be used as putative biomarkers for disease states.

Jaruga, Pawel [Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States) [Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz (Poland); Xiao, Yan; Nelson, Bryant C. [Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)] [Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Dizdaroglu, Miral, E-mail: [Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)] [Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)



Determination of nerve agent metabolites in human urine by isotope-dilution gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after solid phase supported derivatization.  


A simple and sensitive method has been developed and validated for determining ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA), isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA), isobutyl methylphosphonic acid (iBuMPA), and pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (PMPA) in human urine using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) coupled with solid phase derivatization (SPD). These four alkyl methylphosphonic acids (AMPAs) are specific hydrolysis products and biomarkers of exposure to classic organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents VX, sarin, RVX, and soman. The AMPAs in urine samples were directly derivatized with pentafluorobenzyl bromide on a solid support and then extracted by liquid-liquid extraction. The analytes were quantified with isotope-dilution by negative chemical ionization (NCI) GC-MS/MS in a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. This method is highly sensitive, with the limits of detection of 0.02ng/mL for each compound in a 0.2mL sample of human urine, and an excellent linearity from 0.1 to 50ng/mL. It is proven to be very suitable for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of degradation markers of OP nerve agents in biomedical samples. PMID:24633564

Lin, Ying; Chen, Jia; Yan, Long; Guo, Lei; Wu, Bidong; Li, Chunzheng; Feng, Jianlin; Liu, Qin; Xie, Jianwei



Quantitative method for the analysis of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette tobacco and mainstream cigarette smoke by use of isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  


An improved liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the determination of tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA). It utilizes four stable isotope-labeled internal standards instead of two as reported by others. A separate internal standard for each analyte is required to minimize sample matrix effects on each analyte, which can lead to poor analyte recoveries and decreases in method accuracy and precision if only one or two of the internal standards are used, especially for complex sample matrixes and when no sample cleanup steps are performed as in this study. In addition, two ion-transition pairs (instead of one) are used for each analyte for the confirmation and quantification, further enhancing the method's accuracy and robustness. These improvements have led to a new LC-MS/MS method that is faster, more sensitive, and selective than the traditional methods and more accurate and robust than the published LC-MS/MS methods. The linear range of the method was from 0.2 to 250 ng/mL with a limit of detection of each TSNA varied from 0.027 to 0.049 ng/mL. Good correlations between the results obtained by the new method and the traditional method were observed for the samples studied. PMID:18189372

Wu, Jingcun; Joza, Peter; Sharifi, Mehran; Rickert, William S; Lauterbach, John H



Simultaneous determination of five tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke by isotope dilution liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.  


Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) have been previously implicated as a source of carcinogenicity in tobacco and cigarette smoke. Accurate quantification of these chemicals is needed to help assess public health risk. We have developed and validated a specific and sensitive method to simultaneously measure five TSNAs in the particulate phase of mainstream tobacco smoke. Cigarette smoke particulate, produced using standardized machine smoking protocols, was collected on a Cambridge filter pad. The particulate matter was extracted using methylene chloride, back extracted into aqueous solution, further purified by solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry using isotopically labeled analogues as internal standards. Limits of detection for this method ranged from 0.05 to 1.23 ng/mL using an injection volume of 20 microL. A linear calibration range spanning 2.5-2500 ng/mL was adequate to measure TSNA levels in cigarette smoke. The method achieved excellent reproducibility and accuracy. The identity of each TSNA was established by chromatographic retention time, analyte-specific fragmentation patterns, and relative peak area ratios of two product/precursor ion pairs. This new method provides higher sensitivity, specificity, and throughput than earlier methods for TSNA determination. PMID:14674460

Wu, Weijia; Ashley, David L; Watson, Clifford H



Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assay to measure microtubule dynamics in neuronal cell cultures.  


Microtubules (MTs) are highly dynamic polymers composed of ?- and ?-tubulin heterodimers. Dysregulation of MT dynamics in neurons may be a contributing factor in the progression of various neurodegenerative diseases. We developed a stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method to measure the fraction of [(13)C6]leucine-labeled ?-tubulin-derived surrogate peptides. Using this approach, we measured the time course of incorporation of [(13)C6]leucine label into the MT and dimer pools isolated from cycling cells and rat primary hippocampal neurons. We found that the MT pool is in rapid equilibrium with the dimer pool in the cycling cells, consistent with rapid MT polymerization/depolymerization during cell proliferation. Conversely, in neurons, we found that labeling of the MT pool was rapid, whereas the dimer pool was delayed. These results suggest that newly synthesized ?-tubulin is first incorporated into MTs or complexes that co-sediment with MTs and that appearance of labeled ?-tubulin in the dimer pool may be a consequence of MT depolymerization or breakdown. Our results demonstrate that a SILAC-based approach can be used to measure MT dynamics and may have utility for exploring MT dysregulation in various models of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25175011

Polson, Craig; Cantone, Joseph L; Wei, Cong; Drexler, Dieter M; Meredith, Jere E



Comparison of digestion procedures and methods for quantification of trace lead in breast milk by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Measurement of lead in breast milk is an important public health consideration and can be technically quite challenging. The reliable and accurate determination of trace lead in human breast milk is difficult for several reasons including: potential for contamination during sample collection, storage, and analysis; complexities related to the high fat content of human milk; and poor analytic sensitivity at low concentrations. Breast milk lead levels from previous published studies should therefore be reviewed with caution. Due to the difficulty in identifying a method that would successfully digest samples with 100% efficiency, we evaluated three different digestion procedures including: (1) dry ashing in a muffle furnace, (2) microwave oven digestion, and (3) digestion in high pressure asher. High temperature, high pressure asher digestion was selected as the procedure of choice for the breast milk samples. Trace lead analysis was performed using isotope dilution (ID) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Measured lead concentrations in breast milk samples (n = 200) from Mexico ranged from 0.2 to 6.7 ng ml?1. The precision for these measurements ranged from 0.277.8% RSD. Use of strict contamination control techniques and of a very powerful digestion procedure, along with an ID-ICP-MS method for lead determination, enables us to measure trace lead levels as low as 0.2 ng ml?1 in milk (instrument detection limit = 0.01 ng ml?1). PMID:24808927

Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Jayawardene, Innocent; Lupoli, Nicola; Barnes, Ramon M.; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard



Quantification of DNA damage products resulting from deamination, oxidation and reaction with products of lipid peroxidation by liquid chromatography isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

The analysis of damage products as biomarkers of inflammation has been hampered by a poor understanding of the chemical biology of inflammation, the lack of sensitive analytical methods, and a focus on single chemicals as surrogates for inflammation. To overcome these problems, we developed a general and sensitive liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) method to quantify, in a single DNA sample, the nucleoside forms of seven DNA lesions reflecting the range of chemistries associated with inflammation: 2?-deoxyuridine, 2?-deoxyxanthosine, and 2?-deoxyinosine from nitrosative deamination; 8-oxo-2?-deoxyguanosine from oxidation; and 1,N2-etheno-2?-deoxyguanosine, 1,N6-etheno-2?-deoxyadenosine, and 3,N4-etheno-2?-deoxycytidine arising from reaction of DNA with lipid peroxidation products. Using DNA purified from cells or tissues under conditions that minimize artifacts, individual nucleosides are purified by HPLC and quantified by isotope-dilution, electrospray ionization LC/MS-MS. The method can be applied to other DNA damage products and requires 4-6 days to complete depending upon the number of samples. PMID:18714297

Taghizadeh, Koli; McFaline, Jose L.; Pang, Bo; Sullivan, Matthew; Dong, Min; Plummer, Elaine; Dedon, Peter C.



Rapid determination of trace dicyandiamide in mussels from Zhejiang coast by ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with isotope internal standard dilution technique.  


In this study, a rapid and accurate ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method coupled with the isotope internal standard dilution technique was established and validated to determine trace dicyandiamide (DCD) in mussels. The sample was extracted by acetonitrile, and chromatographic separations were performed on an Acquity UPLC BEH Amide column by using water-acetonitrile (9:91, v/v) as the mobile phase within 3 min. DCD was determined by using DCD-(15)N4 as an internal standard. The results showed that the recoveries were between 96.2 and 103 % with relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 0.6-6.0 %. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.05 ?g/kg. This method can be applied to the routine analysis for the rapid and sensitive determination of trace DCD in mussels. Overall, the data reiterate the importance of investigating the presence of DCD in marine biological samples, which can act as food quality controls for human health. PMID:25035051

Zhang, Yun; Gong, Wen-Jie; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Zhou, Hua



Development of two-dimensional gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the stable carbon isotopic analysis of C(2)-C(5) non-methane hydrocarbons emitted from biomass burning.  


A two-dimensional gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (2D-GC/C/IRMS) system was developed for stable carbon isotopic measurements of C(2)-C(5) non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) in biomass burning smoke. The 2D-GC/C/IRMS system successfully improved the accuracy and precision for the measurements of C(4) and C(5) saturated compounds in a smoke sample by selective injection of target compounds into a combustion furnace and consequently allowed us to provide complete baseline separation for all individual NMHCs. The analytical precision of the delta(13)C of each compound was better than 0.5 per thousand for more than 500 pmolC injections and 2.1 per thousand for 30 pmolC injections, which was estimated from replicate analysis of standard gases. This system was applied to the analysis of NMHCs in smoke samples collected from laboratory biomass burning experiments. From the combustion of three fuel materials (rice straw, pine wood, and maize), we found that the isotopic fractionation between fuel material and individual NMHCs is almost independent of the fuel material and thus the delta(13)C values of the fuel materials are reflected in delta(13)C values of most of NMHCs. However, only i-butane emitted from maize combustion showed anomalous (13)C-depletion of -11.6 per thousand relative to the delta(13)C value of maize. Such a large (13)C depletion suggests the specific isotopic fractionation process which is attributed to the maize combustion itself or the chemical properties of i-butane during production from a radical recombination reaction. PMID:16345120

Nara, Hideki; Nakagawa, Fumiko; Yoshida, Naohiro



Memory effects in compound-specific D/H analysis by gas chromatography/pyrolysis/isotope-ratio mass spectrometry.  


Compound-specific analyses of lipid D/H ratios often encounter ranges of 300 per thousand or more, and experiments using D-enriched water to study fractionations often extend the range up to 1000 per thousand. Here we show that for such large dynamic ranges in D/H ratio, isotopic "memory" between adjacent peaks can be significant. Memory effects have not been previously reported for GC/P/IRMS systems but can have a significant impact on many measurements, even those exploring only natural-abundance variations in D/H. To quantitatively evaluate these effects, we synthesized two series of organic standards with deltaD values varying from -230 to +800 per thousand. We then analyzed chromatograms in which analyte deltaD values, retention times, or relative abundances were independently varied. For two sequential GC peaks, isotopic memory is measured to be typically 2-4% of the difference in deltaD values between the two. Roughly half of this effect can be attributed to unknown processes within the GC itself, and the other half to surface adsorption processes in the pyrolytic conversion of analytes to H2. Isotopic memory increases with decreasing time separation between peaks, with decreasing analyte abundance, and with increasing age of pyrolysis reactors. A simple numerical model that simulates dynamic adsorption of H2 on pyrolytic carbon can reproduce many aspects of the experimental data, suggesting that this is likely to be an important mechanism in isotopic memory. Several steps to mitigate memory effects in routine analyses are suggested. PMID:19551939

Wang, Ying; Sessions, Alex L



Characterization of diesel fuel by chemical separation combined with capillary gas chromatography (GC) isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS).  


The purpose of this study was to perform a preliminary investigation of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of diesel fuels to evaluate whether the technique could distinguish diesel samples from different sources/locations. The ability to differentiate or correlate diesel samples could be valuable for discovering fuel tax evasion schemes or for environmental forensic studies. Two urea adduction-based techniques were used to isolate the n-alkanes from the fuel. Both carbon isotope ratio (?(13)C) and hydrogen isotope ratio (?D) values for the n-alkanes were then determined by CSIA in each sample. The samples investigated had ?(13)C values that ranged from -30.1 to -26.8, whereas ?D values ranged from -83 to -156. Plots of ?D versus ?(13)C with sample n-alkane points connected in order of increasing carbon number gave well-separated clusters with characteristic shapes for each sample. Principal components analysis (PCA) with ?(13)C, ?D, or combined ?(13)C and ?D data was applied to extract the maximum information content. PCA scores plots could clearly differentiate the samples, thereby demonstrating the potential of this approach for distinguishing (e.g., fingerprinting) fuel samples using ?(13)C and ?D values. PMID:22967550

Harvey, Scott D; Jarman, Kristin H; Moran, James J; Sorensen, Christina M; Wright, Bob W



Isotope dilution sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry combined with extraction chromatography for rapid determination of 241 Am in marine sediment samples: A case study in Sagami Bay, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

241Am is a useful tracer for understanding biogeochemical processes in the marine environment. 241Am also poses a potential radiation threat to human health due to the continuous increase of its concentration in the global\\u000a environment. We report a rapid analytical method for determining 241Am in marine sediments using isotope dilution sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS) combined\\u000a with a

Jian Zheng; Masatoshi Yamada



Measurement of ?18O, ?17O, and 17O-excess by Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water stable isotopes have for many years been used to study the hydrological cycle, catchment hydrology, and polar climate. Recently, there has been mounting interest in measurement and use of the less-abundant 17O isotope in addition to 2H and 18O. Off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) measures ?18O, ?17O, and 17O-excess in liquid water without sample preparation or highly-trained operators. OA-ICOS allows measurements to be made on a relatively compact and affordable instrument by researchers collecting the samples. Numerous (514) high-throughput measurements of the international water standard GISP are used to demonstrate the precision and accuracy of OA-ICOS: ?18O =-24.74 0.06 (HWHM) and ?17O = -13.12 0.04 (HWHM). For comparison, the IAEA value for ?18O of GISP is 24.76 0.09 (1?) and an average of previously reported values for ?17O of GISP is -13.12 0.06 (1?). Repeated (26) high-precision measurements of GISP provide a 17O-excess of 23 9 per meg (HWHM); an average of previously reported values for 17O-excess is 22 11 per meg (1?). The precision of OA-ICOS measurements of ?18O, ?17O, and 17O-excess can be further enhanced by additional averaging. Comparison with two independent isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) laboratories shows that OA-ICOS has equivalent accuracy and precision as the current fluorination-IRMS techniques in ?18O, ?17O, and 17O-excess. The capability to accurately measure ?18O, ?17O, and 17O-excess in liquid water inexpensively and without sample preparation is expected to enhance both the number and breadth of applications of ?17O and 17O-excess for understanding of the water cycle, atmospheric convection, and climate modeling among others. 17O-excess measurement accuracy demonstrated by measurements of GISP and four commercially-available USGS standards by OA-ICOS and two independent IRMS labs. Error bars represent one standard error of the mean. The line behind the GISP columns shows the collected average of 3 previously reported IRMS measurements.

Berman, E. S.; Levin, N.; Landais, A.; Li, S.; Owano, T. G.



Recent advances in biomedical applications of accelerator mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of radioisotopes has a long history in biomedical science, and the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), an extremely sensitive nuclear physics technique for detection of very low-abundant, stable and long-lived isotopes, has now revolutionized high-sensitivity isotope detection in biomedical research, because it allows the direct determination of the amount of isotope in a sample rather than measuring

Sang Soo Hah



Counting individual sulfur atoms in a protein by ultrahighresolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: Experimental resolution of isotopic fine structure in proteins  

PubMed Central

A typical molecular ion mass spectrum consists of a sum of signals from species of various possible isotopic compositions. Only the monoisotopic peak (e.g., all carbons are 12C; all nitrogens are 14N, etc.) has a unique elemental composition. Every other isotope peak at approximately integer multiples of ?1 Da higher in nominal mass represents a sum of contributions from isotope combinations differing by a few mDa (e.g., two 13C vs. two 15N vs. one 13C and one 15N vs. 34S, vs. 18O, etc., at ?2 Da higher in mass than the monoisotopic mass). At sufficiently high mass resolving power, each of these nominal-mass peaks resolves into its isotopic fine structure. Here, we report resolution of the isotopic fine structure of proteins up to 15.8 kDa (isotopic 13C,15N doubly depleted tumor suppressor protein, p16), made possible by electrospray ionization followed by ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass analysis at 9.4 tesla. Further, a resolving power of m/?m50% ?8,000,000 has been achieved on bovine ubiquitin (8.6 kDa). These results represent a 10-fold increase in the highest mass at which isotopic fine structure previously had been observed. Finally, because isotopic fine structure reveals elemental composition directly, it can be used to confirm or determine molecular formula. For p16, for example, we were able to determine (5.1 0.3) the correct number (five) of sulfur atoms solely from the abundance ratio of the resolved 34S peak to the monoisotopic peak. PMID:9751700

Shi, Stone D.-H.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.; Marshall, Alan G.



Quantification of Activated NF-?B/RelA Complexes Using ssDNA Aptamer Affinity Stable Isotope DilutionSelected Reaction MonitoringMass Spectrometry*  

PubMed Central

Nuclear Factor-?B (NF-?B) is a family of inducible transcription factors regulated by stimulus-induced protein interactions. In the cytoplasm, the NF-?B member RelA transactivator is inactivated by binding inhibitory I?Bs, whereas in its activated state, the serine-phosphorylated protein binds the p300 histone acetyltransferase. Here we describe the isolation of a ssDNA aptamer (termed P028F4) that binds to the activated (I?B?-dissociated) form of RelA with a KD of 6.4 10?10, and its application in an enrichment-mass spectrometric quantification assay. ssDNA P028F4 competes with cognate duplex high affinity NF-?B binding sites for RelA binding in vitro, binds activated RelA in eukaryotic nuclei and reduces TNF?-stimulated endogenous NF-?B dependent gene expression. Incorporation of P028F4 as an affinity isolation step enriches for serine 536 phosphorylated and p300 coactivator complexed RelA, simultaneously depleting I?B?RelA complexes. A stable isotope dilution (SID)-selected reaction monitoring (SRM)- mass spectrometry (MS) assay for RelA was developed that produced a linear response over 1,000 fold dilution range of input protein and had a 200 amol lower limit of quantification. This multiplex SID-SRM-MS RelA assay was used to quantify activated endogenous RelA in cytokine-stimulated eukaryotic cells isolated by single-step P028F4 enrichment. The aptamer-SID-SRM-MS assay quantified the fraction of activated RelA in subcellular extracts, detecting the presence of a cytoplasmic RelA reservoir unresponsive to TNF? stimulation. We conclude that aptamer-SID-SRM-MS is a versatile tool for quantification of activated NF-?B/RelA and its associated complexes in response to pathway activation. PMID:21502374

Zhao, Yingxin; Widen, Steven G.; Jamaluddin, Mohammad; Tian, Bing; Wood, Thomas G.; Edeh, Chukwudi B.; Brasier, Allan R.



Imaging mass spectrometry in microbiology  

PubMed Central

Mass spectrometry tools which allow for the 2-D visualization of the distribution of trace metals, metabolites, surface lipids, peptides and proteins directly from biological samples without the need for chemical tagging or antibodies are becoming increasingly useful for microbiology applications. These tools, comprised of different imaging mass spectrometry techniques, are ushering in an exciting new era of discovery by allowing for the generation of chemical hypotheses based on of the spatial mapping of atoms and molecules that can correlate to or transcend observed phenotypes. In this review, we explore the wide range of imaging mass spectrometry techniques available to microbiologists and describe their unique applications to microbiology with respect to the types of microbiology samples to be investigated. PMID:21822293

Watrous, Jeramie D.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.



Characterization of Diesel Fuel by Chemical Separation Combined with Capillary Gas Chromatography (GC) Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to perform a preliminary investigation of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of diesel fuels to evaluate whether the technique could distinguish between the diesel samples from different sources/locations. The ability to differentiate or correlate diesel samples could be valuable for detecting fuel tax evasion schemes. Two fractionation techniques were used to isolate the n-alkanes from the fuel. Both ?13C and ?D values for the n-alkanes were then determined by CSIA in each sample. Plots of ?D versus ?13C with sample n-alkane points connected in order of increasing carbon number gave well separated clusters with characteristic shapes for each sample. Principal components analysis (PCA) with ?13C, ?D, or combined ?13C and ?D data on the yielded scores plots that could clearly differentiate the samples, thereby demonstrating the potential of this approach for fingerprinting fuel samples using the ?13C and ?D values.

Harvey, Scott D.; Jarman, Kristin H.; Moran, James J.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Wright, Bob W.



Quantitative determination of free and total bisphenol A in human urine using labeled BPA glucuronide and isotope dilution mass spectrometry.  


Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used industrial chemical in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastic bottles, food and beverage can linings, thermal receipts, and dental sealants. Animal and human studies suggest that BPA may disrupt normal hormonal function and hence, potentially, have negative effects on the human health. While total BPA is frequently reported, it is recognized that free BPA is the biologically active form and is rarely reported in the literature. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive and improved method for the measurement of free and total BPA in human urine. Use of a labeled conjugated BPA (bisphenol A-d6 ?-D-glucuronide) allowed for the optimization of the enzymatic reaction and permitted an accurate determination of the conjugated BPA concentration in urine samples. In addition, a (13)C12-BPA internal standard was used to account for the analytical recoveries and performance of the isotope dilution method. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with derivatization and analysis using a triple quadrupole GC-EI/MS/MS system achieved very low method detection limit of 0.027 ng/mL. BPA concentrations were measured in urine samples collected during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy in 36 Canadian women. Total maternal BPA concentrations in urine samples ranged from not detected to 9.40 ng/mL (median, 1.21 ng/mL), and free BPA concentrations ranged from not detected to 0.950 ng/mL (median, 0.185 ng/mL). Eighty-six percent of the women had detectable levels of conjugated BPA, whereas only 22 % had detectable levels of free BPA in their urine. BPA levels measured in this study agreed well with data reported internationally. PMID:24817354

Kubwabo, Cariton; Kosarac, Ivana; Lalonde, Kaela; Foster, Warren G



Ultratrace uranium fingerprinting with isotope selective laser ionization spectrometry.  


Uranium isotope ratios can provide source information for tracking uranium contamination in a variety of fields, ranging from occupational bioassay to monitoring aftereffects of nuclear accidents. We describe the development of isotope selective laser ionization spectrometry for ultratrace measurement of the minor isotopes (234)U, (235)U, and (236)U with respect to (238)U. The inherent isotopic selectivity of three-step excitation with single-mode continuous wave lasers results in measurement of the minor isotopes at relative abundances below 1 ppm and is not limited by isobaric interferences such as (235)UH(+) during measurement of (236)U. This relative abundance limit is attained without mass spectrometric analysis of the laser-created ions. Uranyl nitrate standards from an international blind comparison were used to test analytical performance for different isotopic compositions and with quantities ranging from 11 ng to 10 microg total uranium. Isotopic ratio determination was demonstrated over a linear dynamic range of 7 orders of magnitude with a few percent relative precision and detection limits below 500 fg for the minor isotopes. PMID:18613650

Ziegler, Summer L; Bushaw, Bruce A



Detection of triclocarban and two co-contaminating chlorocarbanilides in US aquatic environments using isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The antimicrobial compound triclocarban (TCC; 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; CAS-bar 101-20-2) is a high-production-volume chemical, recently suggested to cause widespread contamination of US water resources. To test this hypothesis, we developed an isotope dilution liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for ultratrace analysis of TCC (0.9ng/L detection limit) and analyzed low-volume water samples (200mL) along with primary sludge samples from across the United States. All river water samples (100%) collected downstream of wastewater treatment plants had detectable levels of TCC, as compared to 56% of those taken upstream. Concentrations of TCC (mean+/-standard deviation) downstream of sewage treatment plants (84+/-110ng/L) were significantly higher (P<0.05; Wilcoxon rank sum test) than those of samples taken upstream (12+/-15ng/L). Compared to surface water, mean TCC concentrations found in dried, primary sludge obtained from municipal sewage treatment plants in five states were six orders of magnitude greater (19,300+/-7100{mu}g/kg). Several river samples contained a co-contaminant, identified based on its chromatographic retention time, molecular base ion, and MS/MS fragmentation behavior as 4,4'-dichlorocarbanilide (DCC; CAS-bar 1219-99-4). In addition to TCC and DCC, municipal sludge contained a second co-contaminant, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorocarbanilide (TetraCC; CAS-bar 4300-43-0). Both newly detected compounds were present as impurities (0.2%{sub w/w} each) in technical grade TCC (99%). Application of the new method for chlorocarbanilide analysis yielded TCC occurrence data for 13 US states, confirmed the role of sewage treatment plants as environmental inputs of TCC, and identified DCC and TetraCC as previously unrecognized pollutants released into the environment alongside TCC.

Sapkota, Amir [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University Center for Water and Health, Baltimore, MD 21205-2103 (United States); Heidler, Jochen [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University Center for Water and Health, Baltimore, MD 21205-2103 (United States); Halden, Rolf U. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University Center for Water and Health, Baltimore, MD 21205-2103 (United States)]. E-mail:



Determination of the cardiac glycosides digoxin and digitoxin by liquid chromatography combined with isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS)--a candidate reference measurement procedure.  


This article describes a method of high analytical sensitivity, reproducibility and trueness for the determination of digoxin and digitoxin in serum or plasma at therapeutic levels using a combination of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and caesium-adduct formation. A method for threefold deuterium substitution in the glycosides was developed, which could be performed within 24 hours without distillation giving yields > 98% of the theoretical value. Extraction from a serum or plasma matrix was performed using a liquid-phase extraction with ammonium acetate buffer/tertiary butylmethyl ether/ethyl acetate at pH 9.5. The HPLC-separation used a 10 x 2 mm LiChrospher RP-18 5 microm guard column in combination with a 125 x 2 mm main column of the same material and a gradient containing methanol, caesium ions and formic acid. Quantification of digoxin and digitoxin was made with IDMS using deuterated internal standards and the system run in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The methods had a lower limit of determination of 0.25 microg/l for digoxin and digitoxin, a trueness between 97.5 and 104% for digoxin and between 98 and 101% for digitoxin, respectively and had a coefficient of variation of less than 3% in the therapeutic range for both glycosides. Maximally 1 ml serum or plasma was needed for the procedure. The method is used to set target values for materials used in external quality assessment surveys (EQAS) run by INSTAND as part of a national EQAS-programme.) PMID:12908733

Kaiser, Patricia; Kramer, Udo; Meissner, Dieane; Kress, Michael; Wood, William Graham; Reinauer, Hans



Development of isotope labeling liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for mouse urine metabolomics: quantitative metabolomic study of transgenic mice related to Alzheimer's disease.  


Because of a limited volume of urine that can be collected from a mouse, it is very difficult to apply the common strategy of using multiple analytical techniques to analyze the metabolites to increase the metabolome coverage for mouse urine metabolomics. We report an enabling method based on differential isotope labeling liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for relative quantification of over 950 putative metabolites using 20 ?L of urine as the starting material. The workflow involves aliquoting 10 ?L of an individual urine sample for C-dansylation labeling that target amines and phenols. Another 10 ?L of aliquot was taken from each sample to generate a pooled sample that was subjected to C-dansylation labeling. The C-labeled individual sample was mixed with an equal volume of the C-labeled pooled sample. The mixture was then analyzed by LC-MS to generate information on metabolite concentration differences among different individual samples. The interday repeatability for the LC-MS runs was assessed, and the median relative standard deviation over 4 days was 5.0%. This workflow was then applied to a metabolomic biomarker discovery study using urine samples obtained from the TgCRND8 mouse model of early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) throughout the course of their pathological deposition of beta amyloid (A?). It was showed that there was a distinct metabolomic separation between the AD prone mice and the wild type (control) group. As early as 15-17 weeks of age (presymptomatic), metabolomic differences were observed between the two groups, and after the age of 25 weeks the metabolomic alterations became more pronounced. The metabolomic changes at different ages corroborated well with the phenotype changes in this transgenic mice model. Several useful candidate biomarkers including methionine, desaminotyrosine, taurine, N1-acetylspermidine, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were identified. Some of them were found in previous metabolomics studies in human cerebrospinal fluid or blood samples. This work illustrates the utility of this isotope labeling LC-MS method for biomarker discovery using mouse urine metabolomics. PMID:25164377

Peng, Jun; Guo, Kevin; Xia, Jianguo; Zhou, Jianjun; Yang, Jing; Westaway, David; Wishart, David S; Li, Liang



Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is a process whereby gas phase ions are created from molecules in solution. As a solution exits a narrow tube in the presence of a strong electric field, an aerosol of charged droplets are is formed that produces gas phase ions as they it desolvates. ESI-MS comprises the creation of ions by ESI and the determination of their mass to charge ratio (m/z) by MS.

Kelly, Ryan T.; Marginean, Ioan; Tang, Keqi



Computational mass spectrometry for small molecules  

PubMed Central

The identification of small molecules from mass spectrometry (MS) data remains a major challenge in the interpretation of MS data. This review covers the computational aspects of identifying small molecules, from the identification of a compound searching a reference spectral library, to the structural elucidation of unknowns. In detail, we describe the basic principles and pitfalls of searching mass spectral reference libraries. Determining the molecular formula of the compound can serve as a basis for subsequent structural elucidation; consequently, we cover different methods for molecular formula identification, focussing on isotope pattern analysis. We then discuss automated methods to deal with mass spectra of compounds that are not present in spectral libraries, and provide an insight into de novo analysis of fragmentation spectra using fragmentation trees. In addition, this review shortly covers the reconstruction of metabolic networks using MS data. Finally, we list available software for different steps of the analysis pipeline. PMID:23453222



Mass spectrometry and renal calculi  

PubMed Central

The present review represents a concise and complete survey of the literature covering 20042009, concerning the mass spectrometric techniques involved in the structural investigation of renal calculi. After a short presentation of the fundamental mass spectrometric techniques (MALDITOF, QTOF, MSMS) as well as hyphenated methods (GCMS, LCMS, CEMS), an extensive study of the urinary proteome analysis as well as the detection and quantification by mass spectrometry of toxins, drugs and metabolites from renal calculi is presented. PMID:20968197

Purcarea, VL; Sisu, I; Sisu, E



Mass spectrometry and renal calculi  

E-print Network

The present review represents a concise and complete survey of the literature covering 2004-2009, concerning the mass spectrometric techniques involved in the structural investigation of renal calculi. After a short presentation of the fundamental mass spectrometric techniques (MALDI-TOF, QTOF, MS-MS) as well as hyphenated methods (GC-MS, LC-MS, CE-MS), an extensive study of the urinary proteome analysis as well as the detection and quantification by mass spectrometry of toxins, drugs and metabolites from renal calculi is presented.

Mircea Penescu; Victor Lorin Purcarea; Ioana Sisu; Eugen Sisu


Mass spectrometry and renal calculi.  


The present review represents a concise and complete survey of the literature covering 2004-2009, concerning the mass spectrometric techniques involved in the structural investigation of renal calculi. After a short presentation of the fundamental mass spectrometric techniques (MALDI-TOF, QTOF, MS-MS) as well as hyphenated methods (GC-MS, LC-MS, CE-MS), an extensive study of the urinary proteome analysis as well as the detection and quantification by mass spectrometry of toxins, drugs and metabolites from renal calculi is presented. PMID:20968197

Penescu, Mircea; Purcarea, Victor Lorin; Sisu, Ioana; Sisu, Eugen



Mass spectrometry of aerospace materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass spectrometry is used for chemical analysis of aerospace materials and contaminants. Years of analytical aerospace experience have resulted in the development of specialized techniques of sampling and analysis which are required in order to optimize results. This work has resulted in the evolution of a hybrid method of indexing mass spectra which include both the largest peaks and the structurally significant peaks in a concise format. With this system, a library of mass spectra of aerospace materials was assembled, including the materials responsible for 80 to 90 percent of the contamination problems at Goddard Space Flight Center during the past several years.

Colony, J. A.



Raman spectroscopic and mass spectrometric investigations of the hydrogen isotopes and isotopically labelled methane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suitable analytical methods must be tested and developed for monitoring the individual process steps within the fuel cycle of a fusion reactor and for tritium accountability. The utility of laser-Raman spectroscopy accompanied by mass spectrometry with an Omegatron was investigated using the analysis of all hydrogen isotopes and isotopically labeled methanes as an example. The Omegatron is useful for analyzing

Fluor Daniel Hanford



Standard test method for analysis of total and isotopic uranium and total thorium in soils by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry  

E-print Network

1.1 This test method covers the measurement of total uranium (U) and thorium (Th) concentrations in soils, as well as the determination of the isotopic weight percentages of 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U, thereby allowing for the calculation of individual isotopic uranium activity or total uranium activity. This inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) method is intended as an alternative analysis to methods such as alpha spectroscopy or thermal ionization mass spectroscopy (TIMS). Also, while this test method covers only those isotopes listed above, the instrumental technique may be expanded to cover other long-lived radioisotopes since the preparation technique includes the preconcentration of the actinide series of elements. The resultant sample volume can be further reduced for introduction into the ICP-MS via an electrothermal vaporization (ETV) unit or other sample introduction device, even though the standard peristaltic pump introduction is applied for this test method. The sample preparatio...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia



Mass spectrometry. [review of techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advances in mass spectrometry (MS) and its applications over the past decade are reviewed in depth, with annotated literature references. New instrumentation and techniques surveyed include: modulated-beam MS, chromatographic MS on-line computer techniques, digital computer-compatible quadrupole MS, selected ion monitoring (mass fragmentography), and computer-aided management of MS data and interpretation. Areas of application surveyed include: organic MS and electron impact MS, field ionization kinetics, appearance potentials, translational energy release, studies of metastable species, photoionization, calculations of molecular orbitals, chemical kinetics, field desorption MS, high pressure MS, ion cyclotron resonance, biochemistry, medical/clinical chemistry, pharmacology, and environmental chemistry and pollution studies.

Burlingame, A. L.; Kimble, B. J.; Derrick, P. J.



On-line monitoring of benzene air concentrations while driving in traffic by means of isotopic dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  


There is no shortage of information about the average benzene concentrations in urban air, but there is very little about microenvironmental exposure, such as in-vehicle concentrations while driving in various traffic conditions, while refuelling, or while in a parking garage. The main reason for this lack of data is that no analytical instrumentation has been available to measure on-line trace amounts of benzene in such situations. We have recently proposed a highly accurate, high-speed cryofocusing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system for monitoring benzene concentrations in air. Accuracy of the analytical data is achieved by enrichment of the air sample before trapping, with a stable isotope permeation tube system. The same principles have been applied to a new instrument, specifically designed for operation on an electric vehicle (Ducato Elettra, Fiat). The zero emission vehicle and the fully transportable, battery-operated GC/MS system provide a unique possibility of monitoring benzene exposure in real everyday situations such as while driving, refuelling, or repairing a car. All power consumptions have been reduced so as to achieve a battery-operated GC/MS system. Liquid nitrogen cryofocusing has been replaced by a packed, inductively heated, graphitized charcoal microtrap. The instrument has been mounted on shock absorbers and installed in the van. The whole system has been tested in both fixed and mobile conditions. The maximum monitoring period without external power supply is 6 h. The full analytical cycle is 4 min, allowing close to real-time monitoring, and the minimum detectable level is 1 microgram/m3 for benzene. In-vehicle monitoring showed that, when recirculation was off and ventilation on, i.e., air from outside the vehicle was blown inside, concentrations varied widely in different driving conditions: moving from a parking lot into normal traffic on an urban traffic condition roadway yielded an increase in benzene concentration from 17 to 62.3 micrograms/m3 even if the actual distance was small. A larger increase was observed when a car was left with the engine running at a distance 2 m from the zero emission vehicle: We measured an increment of benzene concentrations from 15.2 to 174.4 micrograms/m3 with a car equipped with a catalytic converter, and from 19.1 to 386.3 micrograms/m3 with a car without such a converter. PMID:8738357

Davoli, E; Cappellini, L; Moggi, M; Ferrari, S; Fanelli, R



Quantitation of Benzo[a]pyrene Metabolic Profiles in Human Bronchoalveolar H358) Cells by Stable Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography-Atmospheric Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants and are carcinogenic in multiple organs and species. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a representative PAH and has been studied extensively for its carcinogenicity and toxicity. B[a]P itself is chemically inert and requires metabolic activation to exhibit its toxicity and carcinogenicity. Three major metabolic pathways have been well documented. The signature metabolites generated from the radical cation (peroxidase or monooxygenase mediated) pathway are B[a]P-1,6-dione and B[a]P-3,6-dione, the signature metabolite generated from the diol-epoxide (P450 mediated) pathway is B[a]P-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol (B[a]P-tetrol-1) and the signature metabolite generated from the o-quinone (aldo-keto reductase mediated) pathway is B[a]P-7,8-dione. The contributions of these different metabolic pathways to cancer initiation and the exploitation of this information for cancer prevention are still under debate. With the availability of a library of [13C4]-labeled B[a]P metabolite internal standards, we developed a sensitive stable isotope dilution atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method to address this issue by quantitating B[a]P metabolites from each metabolic pathway in human lung cells. This analytical method represents a 500 fold increased sensitivity compared with a method using HPLC-radiometric detection. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was determined to be 6 fmol on column for 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (3-OH-B[a]P), the generally accepted biomarker for B[a]P exposure. This high level of sensitivity and robustness of the method was demonstrated in a study of B[a]P metabolic profiles in human bronchoalveolar H358 cells induced or uninduced with the AhR ligand, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD). All the signature metabolites were detected and successfully quantitated. Our results suggest that all three metabolic pathways contribute equally in the overall metabolism of B[a]P in H358 cells with or without TCDD induction. The sensitivity of the method should permit the identification of cell-type differences in B[a]P activation and detoxication and could also be used for biomonitoring human exposure to PAH. PMID:21962213

Lu, Ding; Harvey, Ronald G.; Blair, Ian A.; Penning, Trevor M.



Accelerator mass spectrometry for quantitative in vivo tracing.  


Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) counts individual rare, usually radio-, isotopes such as radiocarbon at high efficiency and specificity in milligram-sized samples. AMS traces very low chemical doses (micrograms) and radiative doses (100 Bq) of isotope-labeled compounds in animal models and directly in humans for pharmaceutical, nutritional, or toxicological research. Absorption, metabolism, distribution, binding, and elimination are all quantifiable with high precision after appropriate sample definition. PMID:16528913

Vogel, John S



Analysis of the 13C natural abundance of CO2 gas from sparkling drinks by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry.  


A simple and rapid method to measure naturally occurring delta(13)C values of headspace CO(2) of sparkling drinks has been set up, using direct injections on a gas chromatograph coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer, through a combustion interface (GC/C/IRMS). We tested the method on CO(2) gas from several origins. No significant isotopic fractionation was observed nor influences by secondary compounds eventually present in the gas phase. Standard deviation for these measurements was found to be <0.1 per thousand. PMID:15702486

Calderone, Giovanni; Naulet, Norbert; Guillou, Claude; Reniero, Fabiano; Cortes, Ana Isabel Blanch



A mass spectrometry primer for mass spectrometry imaging  

PubMed Central

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), a rapidly growing subfield of chemical imaging, employs mass spectrometry (MS) technologies to create single- and multi-dimensional localization maps for a variety of atoms and molecules. Complimentary to other imaging approaches, MSI provides high chemical specificity and broad analyte coverage. This powerful analytical toolset is capable of measuring the distribution of many classes of inorganics, metabolites, proteins and pharmaceuticals in chemically and structurally complex biological specimens in vivo, in vitro, and in situ. The MSI approaches highlighted in this Methods in Molecular Biology volume provide flexibility of detection, characterization, and identification of multiple known and unknown analytes. The goal of this chapter is to introduce investigators who may be unfamiliar with MS to the basic principles of the mass spectrometric approaches as used in MSI. In addition to guidelines for choosing the most suitable MSI method for specific investigations, cross-references are provided to the chapters in this volume that describe the appropriate experimental protocols. PMID:20680583

Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.



Calculation of Transactinide Homolog Isotope Production Reactions Possible with the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The LLNL heavy element group has been investigating the chemical properties of the heaviest elements over the past several years. The properties of the transactinides (elements with Z > 103) are often unknown due to their low production rates and short half-lives, which require lengthy cyclotron irradiations in order to make enough atoms for statistically significant evaluations of their chemistry. In addition, automated chemical methods are often required to perform consistent and rapid chemical separations on the order of minutes for the duration of the experiment, which can last from weeks to months. Separation methods can include extraction chromatography, liquid-liquid extraction, or gas-phase chromatography. Before a lengthy transactinide experiment can be performed at an accelerator, a large amount of preparatory work must be done both to ensure the successful application of the chosen chemical system to the transactinide chemistry problem being addressed, and to evaluate the behavior of the lighter elemental homologs in the same chemical system. Since transactinide chemistry is literally performed on one single atom, its chemical properties cannot be determined from bulk chemical matrices, but instead must be inferred from the behavior of the lighter elements that occur in its chemical group and in those of its neighboring elements. By first studying the lighter group homologs in a particular chemical system, when the same system is applied to the transactinide element under investigation, its decay properties can be directly compared to those of the homologues, thereby allowing an inference of its own chemistry. The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) includes a 1 MV Tandem accelerator, capable of accelerating light ions such as protons to energies of roughly 15 MeV. By using the CAMS beamline, tracers of transactinide homolog elements can be produced both for development of chemical systems and for evaluation of homolog chemical properties. CAMS also offers an environment for testing these systems 'online' by incorporating automated chemical systems into the beamline so that tracers can be created, transported, and chemically separated all on the shorter timescales required for transactinide experiments. Even though CAMS is limited in the types and energies of ions they can accelerate, there are still a wide variety of reactions that can be performed there with commercially available target materials. The half-lives of these isotopes vary over a range that could be used for both online chemistry (where shorter half-lives are required) and benchtop tracers studies (where longer lived isotopes are preferred). In this document, they present a summary of tracer production reactions that could be performed at CAMS, specifically for online, automated chemical studies. They are from chemical groups four through seven, 13, and 14, which would be appropriate for studies of elements 104-107, 113, and 114. Reactions were selected that had (a) commercially available target material, (b) half-lives long enough for transport from a target chamber to an automated chemistry system, and (c) cross-sections at CAMS available projectile energies that were large enough to produce enough atoms to result in a statistically relevant signal after losses for transport and chemistry were considered. In addition, the resulting product atoms had to decay with an observable gamma-ray using standard Ge gamma-ray detectors. The table includes calculations performed for both metal targets and their corresponding oxides.

Moody, K J; Shaughnessy, D A; Gostic, J M



Resonant Laser Ionization Mass Spectrometry: An Alternative to AMS?  

SciTech Connect

Resonant laser ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) has developed into a versatile experimental method particularly concerning applications for highly selective ultratrace analaysis. Apart from providing nearly complete isobaric suspression and high overall efficiency, the possibolility for combining optical isotpic selectivity with that of hte mass spectrometer leads to remarkable specifications. The widespread analytical potential and applicability of different techniques based on resonant laser ionization is demonstrated in investigations on stable and radioactive ultratrace isotopes with the focus on applications which require high selectivity, concerning, e.g., the noble gas isotopes, 81,85KR, PU isotopes, 89,90SR, 99Tc and 41Ca. Selective ultratrace determination of these radioisotopes proved access to a variety of fundamental research problems in environmental sciences, geo- and cosmochemistry, archaeology, and biomedicine, which previously were often an exclusive domain for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS).

Wendt, Klaus; Trautmann, N.; Bushaw, Bruce A.



Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe  


The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface. 8 figs.

Andresen, B.D.; Fought, E.R.



High-precision direct determination of the 87Sr/ 86Sr isotope ratio of bottled Sr-rich natural mineral drinking water using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a precise and accurate method for the direct determination of the 87Sr/ 86Sr isotope ratio of bottled Sr-rich natural mineral drinking water using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). The method is validated by the comparative analysis of the same water with and without cation-exchange resin purification. The work indicates that isobarically interfering elements can be corrected for when 87Rb/ 86Sr < 0.05 (Rb/Sr < 0.015), and that the matrix elements (Ca, Mg, K and Na) have no significant effect on the accuracy of the Sr isotope data. The method is simple, rapid, eliminates sample preparation time, and avoids potential contamination during complicated sample-preparation procedures. Therefore, the high sample throughput inherent to the MC-ICP-MS can be fully exploited.

Yang, Yue-Heng; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Xie, Lie-Wen; Yang, Jin-Hui; Zhang, Yan-Bin



Assessment of ultrasound-assisted extraction as sample pre-treatment for the measurement of lead isotope ratios in marine biological tissues by multicollector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was evaluated as a sample preparation procedure for lead isotope ratio measurements in marine biological tissues by multicollector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 20 mg of marine biological tissue and 1 mL of acid extractant were sonicated for 3 min at 60% ultrasound amplitude. Matrix separation was performed in the supernatant using a chromatographic exchange resin (Sr-Spec). Total elimination of organic matter was achieved during the separation step. Microwave-assisted digestion and dry-ashing were used for comparative purposes. No significant differences were found in lead isotope ratios at 95% of confidence level. UAE emerges as an advantageous alternative to classical methods for sample preparation owing to its simplicity and rapidity ( i.e. operation steps were reduced), low reagent consumption and low contamination risks.

Costas-Rodrguez, M.; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos



Differentiation and characterization of isotopically modified silver nanoparticles in aqueous media using asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation coupled to optical detection and mass spectrometry.  


The principal objective of this work was to develop and demonstrate a new methodology for silver nanoparticle (AgNP) detection and characterization based on asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation (A4F) coupled on-line to multiple detectors and using stable isotopes of Ag. This analytical approach opens the door to address many relevant scientific challenges concerning the transport and fate of nanomaterials in natural systems. We show that A4F must be optimized in order to effectively fractionate AgNPs and larger colloidal Ag particles. With the optimized method one can accurately determine the size, stability and optical properties of AgNPs and their agglomerates under variable conditions. In this investigation, we couple A4F to optical absorbance (UV-vis spectrometer) and scattering detectors (static and dynamic) and to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. With this combination of detection modes it is possible to determine the mass isotopic signature of AgNPs as a function of their size and optical properties, providing specificity necessary for tracing and differentiating labeled AgNPs from their naturally occurring or anthropogenic analogs. The methodology was then applied to standard estuarine sediment by doping the suspension with a known quantity of isotopically enriched (109)AgNPs stabilized by natural organic matter (standard humic and fulvic acids). The mass signature of the isotopically enriched AgNPs was recorded as a function of the measured particle size. We observed that AgNPs interact with different particulate components of the sediment, and also self-associate to form agglomerates in this model estuarine system. This work should have substantial ramifications for research concerning the environmental and biological fate of AgNPs. PMID:23340287

Gigault, Julien; Hackley, Vincent A



Accurate determination of Curium and Californium isotopic ratios by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) in 248Cm samples for transmutation studies  

SciTech Connect

The French Atomic Energy Commission has carried out several experiments including the mini-INCA (INcineration of Actinides) project for the study of minor-actinide transmutation processes in high intensity thermal neutron fluxes, in view of proposing solutions to reduce the radiotoxicity of long-lived nuclear wastes. In this context, a Cm sample enriched in {sup 248}Cm ({approx}97 %) was irradiated in thermal neutron flux at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL). This work describes a quadrupole ICP-MS (ICP-QMS) analytical procedure for precise and accurate isotopic composition determination of Cm before sample irradiation and of Cm and Cf after sample irradiation. The factors that affect the accuracy and reproducibility of isotopic ratio measurements by ICP-QMS, such as peak centre correction, detector dead time, mass bias, abundance sensitivity and hydrides formation, instrumental background, and memory blank were carefully evaluated and corrected. Uncertainties of the isotopic ratios, taking into account internal precision of isotope ratio measurements, peak tailing, and hydrides formations ranged from 0.3% to 1.3%. This uncertainties range is quite acceptable for the nuclear data to be used in transmutation studies.

Gourgiotis, A.; Isnard, H.; Aubert, M.; Dupont, E.; AlMahamid, I.; Cassette, P.; Panebianco, S.; Letourneau, A.; Chartier, F.; Tian, G.; Rao, L.; Lukens, W.



Compact hydrogen/helium isotope mass spectrometer  


The compact hydrogen and helium isotope mass spectrometer of the present invention combines low mass-resolution ion mass spectrometry and beam-foil interaction technology to unambiguously detect and quantify deuterium (D), tritium (T), hydrogen molecule (H.sub.2, HD, D.sub.2, HT, DT, and T.sub.2), .sup.3 He, and .sup.4 He concentrations and concentration variations. The spectrometer provides real-time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy measurements. Currently, no fieldable D or molecular speciation detectors exist. Furthermore, the present spectrometer has a significant advantage over traditional T detectors: no confusion of the measurements by other beta-emitters, and complete separation of atomic and molecular species of equivalent atomic mass (e.g., HD and .sup.3 He).

Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM); McComas, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Scime, Earl E. (Morgantown, WV)



Determination of 234U/238U, 235U/238U and 236U/238U isotope ratios in urine using sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  


Quantification of the isotopic composition of uranium in urine at low levels of concentration is important for assessing both military and civilian populations' exposures to uranium. However, until now there has been no convenient, precise method established for rapid determination of multiple uranium isotope ratios. Here, the authors report a new method to measure (234)U/(238)U, (235)U/(238)U and (236)U/(238)U. It uses solid-phase chelation extraction (via TRU columns) of actinides from the urine matrix, followed by measurement using a magnetic sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (SF-ICP-MS-Thermo Element XR) equipped with a high-efficiency nebulizer (Apex PFA microflow) and coupled with a membrane desolvating nebulizer system (Aridus II). This method provides rapid and reliable results and has been used successfully to analyse Certified Reference Materials. PMID:24563523

Xiao, Ge; Jones, Robert L; Saunders, David; Caldwell, Kathleen L



Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of laser ablation inductively plasma mass spectrometry (LA?ICP?MS) to the determination of major, minor, and trace elements as well as isotope?ratio measurements offers superior technology for direct solid sampling in analytical chemistry. The advantages of LA?ICP?MS include direct analysis of solids; no chemical dissolution is necessary, reduced risk of contamination, analysis of small sample mass, and determination of

N. S. Mokgalaka; J. Gardea-Torresdey



Microchip technology in mass spectrometry.  


Microfabrication of analytical devices is currently of growing interest and many microfabricated instruments have also entered the field of mass spectrometry (MS). Various (atmospheric pressure) ion sources as well as mass analyzers have been developed exploiting microfabrication techniques. The most common approach thus far has been the miniaturization of the electrospray ion source and its integration with various separation and sampling units. Other ionization techniques, mainly atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and photoionization, have also been subject to miniaturization, though they have not attracted as much attention. Likewise, all common types of mass analyzers have been realized by microfabrication and, in most cases, successfully applied to MS analysis in conjunction with on-chip ionization. This review summarizes the latest achievements in the field of microfabricated ion sources and mass analyzers. Representative applications are reviewed focusing on the development of fully microfabricated systems where ion sources or analyzers are integrated with microfluidic separation devices or microfabricated pums and detectors, respectively. Also the main microfabrication methods, with their possibilities and constraints, are briefly discussed together with the most commonly used materials. PMID:19514079

Sikanen, Tiina; Franssila, Sami; Kauppila, Tiina J; Kostiainen, Risto; Kotiaho, Tapio; Ketola, Raimo A



Development of a novel method for unraveling the origin of natron flux used in Roman glass production based on B isotopic analysis via multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  


The provenance of the flux raw material used in the manufacturing of Roman glass is an understudied topic in archaeology. Whether one or multiple sources of natron mineral salts were exploited during this period is still open for debate, largely because of the lack of a good provenance indicator. The flux is the major source of B in Roman glass. Therefore, B isotopic analysis of a sufficiently large collection and variety (origin and age) of such glass samples might give an indication of the number of flux sources used. For this purpose, a method based on acid digestion, chromatographic B isolation and B isotopic analysis using multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was developed. B isolation was accomplished using a combination of strong cation exchange and strong anion exchange chromatography. Although the B fraction was not completely matrix-free, the remaining Sb was shown not to affect the ?(11)B result. The method was validated using obsidian and archaeological glass samples that were stripped of their B content, after which an isotopic reference material with known B isotopic composition was added. Absence of artificial B isotope fractionation was demonstrated, and the total uncertainty was shown to be <2. A proof-of-concept application to natron glass samples showed a narrow range of ?(11)B, whereas first results for natron salt samples do show a larger difference in ?(11)B. These results suggest the use of only one natron source or of several sources with similar ?(11)B. This indicates that B isotopic analysis is a promising tool for the provenance determination of this flux raw material. PMID:24279483

Devulder, Veerle; Degryse, Patrick; Vanhaecke, Frank



Chip-SIP: Stable Isotope Probing of RNA combining phylogenetic microarrays and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to link structure and function in microbial systems (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary goal of microbial ecology is to understand the biogeochemical role of individual microbial taxa in the environment. Our approach to tackle this challenge (Chip-SIP) involves the combination of high-density phylogenetic microarrays ('chips') and Stable Isotope Probing (SIP) to directly link identity and function. Microbial communities are incubated in the presence of substrate(s) enriched in 13C or 15N, RNA is extracted and hybridized onto a microarray synthesized on a conductive surface, and the array is analyzed with a NanoSIMS imaging mass spectrometer to quantify isotopic enrichment of individual probes. After testing the method with mixtures of stable isotope labeled laboratory isolates, we have investigated organic and inorganic carbon and nitrogen incorporation by microbial taxa in various ecosystems including San Francisco Bay, the coastal Pacific Ocean, California soils, and the hindguts of wood-eating beetles. We will summarize the methodology, describe the types of questions it has allowed us to investigate, and discuss some testable hypotheses about biogeochemical cycling in various environments that can benefit from this approach.

Mayali, X.; Weber, P. K.; Mabery, S.; Dekas, A.; Pett-Ridge, J.



Combined application of alpha-track and fission-track techniques for detection of plutonium particles in environmental samples prior to isotopic measurement using thermo-ionization mass spectrometry.  


The fission track technique is a sensitive detection method for particles which contain radio-nuclides like (235)U or (239)Pu. However, when the sample is a mixture of plutonium and uranium, discrimination between uranium particles and plutonium particles is difficult using this technique. In this study, we developed a method for detecting plutonium particles in a sample mixture of plutonium and uranium particles using alpha track and fission track techniques. The specific radioactivity (Bq/g) for alpha decay of plutonium is several orders of magnitude higher than that of uranium, indicating that the formation of the alpha track due to alpha decay of uranium can be disregarded under suitable conditions. While alpha tracks in addition to fission tracks were detected in a plutonium particle, only fission tracks were detected in a uranium particle, thereby making the alpha tracks an indicator for detecting particles containing plutonium. In addition, it was confirmed that there is a linear relationship between the numbers of alpha tracks produced by plutonium particles made of plutonium certified standard material and the ion intensities of the various plutonium isotopes measured by thermo-ionization mass spectrometry. Using this correlation, the accuracy in isotope ratios, signal intensity and measurement errors is presumable from the number of alpha tracks prior to the isotope ratio measurements by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. It is expected that this method will become an effective tool for plutonium particle analysis. The particles used in this study had sizes between 0.3 and 2.0 ?m. PMID:21645753

Lee, Chi-Gyu; Suzuki, Daisuke; Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Kimura, Takaumi



Testing the limits of micro-scale analyses of Si stable isotopes by femtosecond laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with application to rock weathering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical protocol for accurate in-situ Si stable isotope analysis has been established on a new second-generation custom-built femtosecond laser ablation system. The laser was coupled to a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (fsLA-MC-ICP-MS). We investigated the influence of laser parameters such as spot size, laser focussing, energy density and repetition rate, and ICP-MS operating conditions such as ICP mass load, spectral and non-spectral matrix effects, signal intensities, and data processing on precision and accuracy of Si isotope ratios. We found that stable and reproducible ICP conditions were obtained by using He as aerosol carrier gas mixed with Ar/H2O before entering the plasma. Precise ?29Si and ?30Si values (better than 0.23, 2SD) can be obtained if the area ablated is at least 50 50 ?m; or, alternatively, for the analysis of geometric features down to the width of the laser spot (about 20 ?m) if an equivalent area is covered. Larger areas can be analysed by rastering the laser beam, whereas small single spot analyses reduce the attainable precision of ?30Si to ca. 0.6, 2SD, for < 30 ?m diameter spots. It was found that focussing the laser beam beneath the sample surface with energy densities between 1 and 3.8 J/cm2 yields optimal analytical conditions for all materials investigated here. Using pure quartz (NIST 8546 aka. NBS-28) as measurement standard for calibration (standard-sample-bracketing) did result in accurate and precise data of international reference materials and samples covering a wide range in chemical compositions (Si single crystal IRMM-017, basaltic glasses KL2-G, BHVO-2G and BHVO-2, andesitic glass ML3B-G, rhyolitic glass ATHO-G, diopside glass JER, soda-lime glasses NIST SRM 612 and 610, San Carlos olivine). No composition-dependent matrix effect was discernible within uncertainties of the method. The method was applied to investigate the Si isotope signature of rock weathering at the micro-scale in a corestone sampled from a highly weathered roadcut profile in the tropical Highlands of Sri Lanka. The results show that secondary weathering products accumulated in cracks and grain boundaries are isotopically lighter than their unweathered plagioclase host, consistent with isotopically heavy dissolved Si found in rivers.

Schuessler, Jan A.; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm



Statistical characterization of multiple-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) assays for quantitative proteomics  

E-print Network

Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) with stable isotope dilution (SID) is increasingly becoming a widely accepted assay for the quantification of proteins and peptides. These assays have shown great ...

Mani, D R


Pushing the Limits of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

A renewed interest in Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) from nuclear physics laboratories is emerging in connection with Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs). At the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) we are exploring the AMS capabilities of the 25-MV Tandem acclerator. Behind this effort is the realization that two fields of research - AMS and RIBs - complement each other in techniques. Development of effective and efficient beam purification techniques is of common interest to both AMS and the RIB program. Two main characteristics of the 25-MV Tandem provide unique opportunities for performing the highest sensitivity measurements of AMS; namely i) the highest operating voltage in the world, and ii) a folded geometry which involves a 180 degree magnet in the terminal. For the RIB program, we have used AMS techniques to improve the sensitivity of detection of some radioactive species in the measurement of unknown massses of n-rich nuclei. For AMS, we have concentrated in exploring two important isotopes, 14C and 36Cl, for applications that require the highest sensitivity. We have successfully measured 36Cl/Cl ratios as low as a few times 10-16 in seawater samples demonstrating that our set has the highest sensitivity for this isotope and proving that 36Cl can be measured at the levels required for a tracer in oceanography.

Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Beene, James R [ORNL; Danchev, M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Doupe, J. [University of Toronto; Fuentes Madariaga, Beatriz E [ORNL; Gomez Del Campo, Jorge [ORNL; Hausladen, Paul [ORNL; Juras, Raymond C [ORNL; Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Litherland, Albert E [ORNL; Liu, Yuan [ORNL; Meigs, Martha J [ORNL; Mills, Gerald D [ORNL; Mueller, Paul Edward [ORNL; Padilla-Rodal, Elizabeth [ORNL; Pavan, John R [ORNL; Sinclair IV, John W [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL



Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gas Chromotography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is an analysis used in many laboratory testing situations. This laboratory exercise explains this method and uses this method to analyse DMSO. This exercise includes images and screenshots, as well as group discussion questions and questions for individual exploration of mass spectrometry online. Users may download this experiment in Microsoft Word doc file format.

Solow, Mike


Atomic spectrometry update - atomic mass spectrometry.  

SciTech Connect

The MS and XRF updates have been published together since their introduction in 1988. In the last few years, however, the two sections have been prepared independently of each other and it therefore seemed appropriate to publish the two sections separately. With effect from this issue, the MS Update will appear in the October issue of JAAS and the XRF Update in the November issue. The format used for the MS section is broadly similar to that used last year, with some additional sub-headings. This Update is intended to cover all atomic and stable isotopic MS techniques, but not those used in studies of fundamental nuclear physics and exotic nuclei far from stability. Also excluded are those reports in which MS is used as a tool in the study of molecular processes and of gaseous components. the review is based on critical selection of developments in instrumentation and methodology, notable for their innovation, originality or achievement of significant advances, and is not intended to be comprehensive in its coverage. Conference papers are only included if they contain enough information to show they meet these criteria, and our policy in general remains one of waiting for a development to appear in a full paper before inclusion in the review. a similar policy applies to foreign language papers unlikely to reach a wide audience. Routine applications of atomic MS are not included in this Update and the reader is referred to the Updates on Industrial Analysis: Metals, Chemicals and Advanced Materials (96/416), Environmental Analysis (96/1444) and Clinical and Biological Materials, Food and Beverages (96/2479). Also excluded are those applications, even if not routine, which use atomic spectroscopy as a tool for the study of a non-atomic property, for example, the use of stable isotope labeling of carbon or nitrogen in biomolecules in metabolic studies. There have been few general reviews on atomic MS of note in the period covered by this update. That of Colodner et al.(95/3890) gave a general review of ion sources, in particular GDMS, ICP-MS, SIMS and TIMS, and that of Blades (95/2568 and 95/3077) was a very general overview of some of the techniques covered in this Update. The review of the literature in the period covered by this Update reveals strong advances in all areas, with a continuing push to achieve better analyses on smaller samples and in less time. Most advances generally require more sophisticated instrumentation, improved sample preparation methods or new methods of sample introduction. This is typified by advances in ICP-MS, which see considerable emphasis on sample introduction techniques and a move towards magnetic sector instruments. Most applications of ICP-MS are now highly routine. There is still, however, a desire to achieve affordable analysis with simplified and cost-effective instruments, as illustrated by the development of mobile, in-situ isotope MS for environmental studies.

Bacon, J.; Crain, J. S.; McMahon, A. W.; Williams, J. G.; Analytical Chemistry Laboratory; The Macaulay Land Use Research Inst.; Manchester Metropolitan Univ.; Imperial Coll.



Evidence for mass-independent and mass-dependent fractionation of the stable isotopes of mercury by natural processes in aquatic ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotopic and chemical analyses were performed on crustaceans, forage fish, top predator fish, and sediment cores from Lake Ontario and two boreal forest lakes to investigate fractionation of the stable isotopes of Hg in aquatic ecosystems. Multicollector inductively coupled mass spectrometry was used to determine Hg isotope abundances. The Hg isotope data for all three lakes showed mass-independent variation in

Togwell A. Jackson; D. Michael Whittle; Marlene S. Evans; Derek C. G. Muir



Analysis of pesticides and metabolites in Spanish surface waters by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with previous automated solid-phase extraction Estimation of the uncertainty of the analytical results.  


A method based on isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) is described for the analysis of 32 pesticides and metabolites in surface waters. This approach consist in the use of nine isotopically labelled representative pesticides as internal standards, which allows high accuracy (trueness and precision) and sensitivity for most analysed compounds, as it is required for isotope dilution-based methods. Uncertainties associated with pesticide determination in real samples were estimated using quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) data. For most pesticides expanded uncertainty was below 40%, according to the commonly established requirements for analytical results. Ninety three Spanish surface waters collected in June-July and September-November 2004 were analysed. Concentration and occurrence of pesticides were evaluated. These parameters were higher in the summer than in the autumn period. In summer four pesticides were found in more than 50% of the analysed samples and four compounds were detected above the concentration level of 1 microg/l (atrazine, terbutylazine, 3,4-dichloroaniline and fenitrothion), while in autumn percentage of detection was below 50% for all pesticides and only one compound (terbutylazine) exceeded 1 microg/l. PMID:16962600

Planas, Carles; Puig, Alejandra; Rivera, Josep; Caixach, Josep



Signal improvement in elemental analyzer/continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry for samples with low sulfur contents using a pre-concentration technique for on-line concentration adjustment.  


Elemental analyzer/continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/CF-IRMS) has become a standard procedure for the determination of delta(34)S values. Common procedures are, however, frequently less than satisfactory for organic as well as for mineral samples with very low concentrations of sulfur (<2000 ppm). Here we present a method which employs cold trapping of SO(2) to adjust the gas concentration for subsequent isotope signature determination. Analytical accuracy is comparable with common EA/CF-IRMS analysis without trapping, showing a precision of better than +/-0.4 per thousand in delta(34)S (1 SD). The virtual absence of memory effects was established by analyzing adjacent samples exhibiting a large difference in delta(34)S and by prolonged freezing of the carrier gas, yielding virtually no S concentration peak. The method was tested using less than 15% (6 microg) of the S required for a conventional isotope analysis at comparable signal intensity. Even smaller samples can be analyzed with high precision. This facilitates the on-line delta(34)S determination in small biological and mineral samples, minimizing matrix effects in various materials including sandstone, soil, and plant samples. PMID:16637004

Fritzsche, Florian; Tichomirowa, Marion



Cross contamination in dual inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early days of geochemical isotope ratio mass spectrometry there has always been the problem of cross contamination, i.e. the contamination of the sample gas with traces of reference gas (and vice versa) in a dual inlet system and the analyzer itself. This was attributable to valve leakages and could be corrected for. In modern leak-free machines this problem

H. A. J. Meijer; R. E. M. Neubert; G. H. Visser



Mono-isotope Prediction for Mass Spectra Using Bayes Network  

PubMed Central

Mass spectrometry is one of the widely utilized important methods to study protein functions and components. The challenge of mono-isotope pattern recognition from large scale protein mass spectral data needs computational algorithms and tools to speed up the analysis and improve the analytic results. We utilized nave Bayes network as the classifier with the assumption that the selected features are independent to predict mono-isotope pattern from mass spectrometry. Mono-isotopes detected from validated theoretical spectra were used as prior information in the Bayes method. Three main features extracted from the dataset were employed as independent variables in our model. The application of the proposed algorithm to publicMo dataset demonstrates that our nave Bayes classifier is advantageous over existing methods in both accuracy and sensitivity.

Li, Hui; Rwebangira, Mugizi Robert; Burge, Legand



Development of a quantitative method for the analysis of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke using isotope dilution liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.  


An improved method has been developed for the determination of the four major tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) in mainstream cigarette smoke. The new method offers decreased sample preparation and analysis time as compared to traditional methodologies. This method uses isotope dilution liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization and is significantly more sensitive than traditional methods. It also shows no evidence of artifactual formation of TSNA. Sample concentrations were determined for four TSNA in mainstream smoke using two isotopically labeled TSNA analogues as internal standards. Mainstream smoke was collected on an industry standard 44-mm Cambridge filter pad, extracted with an aqueous buffer solution, and analyzed without further sample cleanup. This method has been validated through intra- and interlaboratory studies and has shown excellent recoveries, sensitivity, and repeatability. The limits of detection of each TSNA varied from 0.01 to 0.1 ng/mL, and the linear calibration range of the instrument in sample matrix spanned 0.5-200 ng/ mL, which allowed for the determination of the TSNA levels in cigarettes with a wide range of deliveries. Data are also reported from two commercially available industry reference cigarettes and show excellent agreement and reproducibility over a six-month time period (n > 50). PMID:15858978

Wagner, Karl A; Finkel, Nancy H; Fossett, J Eric; Gillman, I Gene



Secondary ionization mass spectrometric analysis of impurity element isotope ratios in nuclear reactor materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During reactor operations and fuel burn up, some isotopic abundances change due to nuclear reactions and provide sensitive indicators of neutron fluence and fuel burnup. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis has been used to measure isotope ratios of selected impurity elements in irradiated nuclear reactor graphite. Direct SIMS measurements were made in graphite samples, following shaping and surface cleaning. Models predicting local fuel burnup based on isotopic measurements of B and Li isotopes by SIMS agreed well with U and Pu isotopic measurements obtained by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS).

Gerlach, D. C.; Cliff, J. B.; Hurley, D. E.; Reid, B. D.; Little, W. W.; Meriwether, G. H.; Wickham, A. J.; Simmons, T. A.



I-Mass: International Mass Spectrometry Web Resource  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coined as "Mass Spectroscopy's Web Address," this is a site with information for and about mass spectrometry. It features news and articles related to mass spectrometry, gleans important updates from scientific journals on mass spectroscopy, and provides conference and career links. The page also features links to classic articles, definitions, history, Nobel Prizes, protocols, resources, techniques, troubleshooting and tutorials. A link to a repository for jobs involving mass spectroscopy is also given.



Pictograms for experimental parameters in mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A visual documentation scheme for depicting various mass analyzers, collision-induced dissociation schemes, and mass-spectrometer\\u000a and tandem mass-spectrometer scan modes are proposed. The schemes, called pictograms, are aimed at facilitating the presentation\\u000a of complex mass-spectrometry experiments on spectral outputs, figures, and schemes in research notes, presentations, and articles.

Wolf D. Lehmann



236U measurement with accelerator mass spectrometry at CIAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

236U is a long-lived radioactive isotope which is produced principally by thermal neutron capture on 235U. 236U may be potentially applied in geological research and nuclear safeguards. Accelerator mass spectrometry is presently the most sensitive technique for the measurement of 236U and a measurement method for long-lived heavy ion 236U has been developed. The set-up uses a dedicated injector and

Xianggao Wang; Shan Jiang; Ming He; Kejun Dong; Wei Wang; Chaoli Li; Guozhu He; Shizhuo Li; Jie Gong; Liyuan Lu; Shaoyong Wu



Proposal on dynamic correction method for resonance ionization mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For high precision and accuracy in isotopic ratio measurement of transuranic elements using laser ablation assisted resonance ionization mass spectrometry, a dynamic correction method based on correlation of ion signals with energy and timing of each laser pulse was proposed. The feasibility of this dynamic correction method was investigated through the use of a programmable electronics device for fast acquisition of the energy and timing of each laser pulse.

Noto, Takuma; Tomita, Hideki; Richter, Sven; Schneider, Fabian; Wendt, Klaus; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Kawarabayashi, Jun



Rapid detection and characterization of reactive drug metabolites in vitro using several isotope-labeled trapping agents and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  


Reactive metabolites are believed to be one of the main reasons for unexpected drug-induced toxicity issues, by forming covalent adducts with cell proteins or DNA. Due to their high reactivity and short lifespan they are not directly detected by traditional analytical methods, but are most traditionally analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) after chemical trapping with nucleophilic agents such as glutathione. Here, a simple but very efficient assay was built up for screening reactive drug metabolites, utilizing stable isotope labeled glutathione, potassium cyanide and semicarbazide as trapping agents and highly sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/TOFMS) as an analytical tool. A group of twelve structurally different compounds was used as a test set, and a large number of trapped metabolites were detected for most of them, including many conjugates not reported previously. Glutathione-trapped metabolites were detected for nine of the twelve test compounds, whereas cyanide-trapped metabolites were found for eight and semicarbazide-trapped for three test compounds. The high mass accuracy of TOFMS provided unambiguous identification of change in molecular formula by formation of a reactive metabolite. In addition, use of a mass defect filter was found to be a usable tool when mining the trapped conjugates from the acquired data. The approach was shown to provide superior detection sensitivity in comparison to traditional methods based on neutral loss or precursor ion scanning with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, and clearly more efficient detection and characterization of reactive drug metabolites with a simpler test setup. PMID:19224530

Rousu, Timo; Pelkonen, Olavi; Tolonen, Ari



Determination of bovine lactoferrin in dairy products by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based on tryptic signature peptides employing an isotope-labeled winged peptide as internal standard.  


A new and sensitive determination method was developed for bovine lactoferrin in dairy products including infant formulas based on the signature peptide by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry under the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The simple pretreatment procedures included the addition of a winged peptide containing the isotope-labeled signature peptide as internal standard, followed by an enzymatic digestion with trypsin. The signature peptide was chosen and identified from the tryptic hydrolyzates of bovine lactoferrin by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry based on sequence database search. Analytes were separated on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH 300 C18 column and monitored by MS/MS in seven minutes. Quantitative result bias due to matrix effect and tryptic efficiency was corrected through the use of synthetic isotope-labeled standards. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.3 mg/100 g and 1.0 mg/100 g, respectively. Bovine lactoferrin within the concentration range of 10-1000 nmol L(-1) showed a strong linear relationship with a linear correlation coefficient (r) of >0.998. The intra- and inter-day precision of the method were RSD<6.5% and RSD<7.1%, respectively. Excellent repeatability (RSD<6.4%) substantially supported the application of this method for the determination of bovine lactoferrin in dairy samples. The present method was successfully validated and applied to determination of bovine lactoferrin in dairy products including infant formulas. PMID:24856400

Zhang, Jingshun; Lai, Shiyun; Cai, Zengxuan; Chen, Qi; Huang, Baifen; Ren, Yiping



Chromatography?-?mass spectrometry in aerospace industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The applications of chromatography?-?mass spectrometry in aerospace industry are considered. The primary attention is devoted to the development of physicochemical grounds of the use of various chromatography?-?mass spectrometry procedures to solve topical problems of this industry. Various methods for investigation of the composition of rocket fuels, surfaces of structural materials and environmental media affected by aerospace activities are compared. The application of chromatography?-?mass spectrometry for the development and evaluation of processes for decontaminations of equipment, industrial wastes and soils from rocket fuel components is substantiated. The bibliography includes 135 references.

Buryak, A. K.; Serdyuk, T. M.



The role of mass spectrometry in atomic weight determinations.  


The 1914 Nobel Prize for Chemistry was awarded to Theodore Richards, whose work provided an insight into the history of the birth and evolution of matter as embedded in the atomic weights. However, the secret to unlocking the hieroglyphics contained in the atomic weights is revealed by a study of the relative abundances of the isotopes. A consistent set of internationally accepted atomic weights has been a goal of the scientific community for over a century. Atomic weights were originally determined by chemical stoichiometry--the so-called "Harvard Method," but this methodology has now been superseded by the "physical method," in which the isotopic composition and atomic masses of the isotopes comprising an element are used to calculate the atomic weight with far greater accuracy than before. The role of mass spectrometry in atomic weight determinations was initiated by the discovery of isotopes by Thomson, and established by the pioneering work of Aston, Dempster, and Nier using sophisticated mass spectrographs. The advent of the sector field mass spectrometer in 1947, revolutionized the application of mass spectrometry for both solids and gases to other fields of science including atomic weights. Subsequently, technological advances in mass spectrometry have enabled atomic masses to be determined with an accuracy better than one part in 10(7), whilst the absolute isotopic composition of many elements has been determined to produce accurate values of their atomic weights. Conversely, those same technological developments have revealed significant variations in the isotope abundances of many elements caused by a variety of physiochemical mechanisms in natural materials. Although these variations were initially seen as an impediment to the accuracy with which atomic weights could be determined, it was quickly realized that nature had provided a new tool to investigate physiochemical and biogeochemical mechanisms in nature, which could be exploited by precise and accurate isotopic measurements. Atomic weights can no longer be regarded as constants of nature, except for the monoisotopic elements whose atomic weights are determined solely by the relative atomic mass of that nuclide. Stable isotope geochemists developed mass spectrometric protocols by the adoption of internationally accepted reference materials for the light elements, to which measurements from various laboratories could be compared. Subsequently, a number of heavy elements such as iron, molybdenum and cadmium have been shown to exhibit isotope fractionation. The magnitude of such isotope fractionation in nature is less than for the light elements, but technological developments, such as multiple collector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, have enabled such fractionation effects to be determined. Measurements of the atomic weights of certain elements affect the determination of important fundamental constants such as the Avogadro Constant, the Faraday Constant and the Universal Gas Constant. Heroic efforts have been made to refine the accuracy of the atomic weight of silicon, with the objective of replacing the SI standard of mass--the kilogram--with the Avogadro Constant. Improvements in these fundamental constants in turn affect the set of self-consistent values of other basic constants through a least-squares adjustment methodology. Absolute isotope abundances also enable the Solar System abundances of the s-, r-, and p-process of nucleosynthesis to be accurately determined, thus placing constraints on theories of heavy element nucleosynthesis. Future developments in the science of atomic weight determinations are also examined. PMID:18785619

De Laeter, John R



Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with isotope dilution time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the measurement of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls in foodstuffs. Comparison with other methods.  


A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC-TOF-MS) experimental setup was tested for the measurement of seven 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), ten 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), four non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), eight mono-ortho-PCBs, and six indicator PCBs (Aroclor 1260) in foodstuff samples. A 40m RTX-500 (0.18mm I.D., 0.10 microm df) was used as the first dimension (1D) and a 1.5 m BPX-50 (0.10mm I.D., 0.10 microm df) as the second dimension (2D). The GC x GC chromatographic separation was completed in 45 min. Quantification was performed using 13C-label isotope dilution (ID). Isotope ratios of the selected quantification ions were checked against theoretical values prior to peak assignment and quantification. The dynamic working range spanned three orders of magnitude. The lowest detectable amount of 2,3,7,8-TCDD was 0.2 pg. Fish, pork, and milk samples were considered. On a congener basis, the GC x GC-ID-TOF-MS method was compared to the reference GC-ID high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) method and to the alternative GC-ID tandem-in-time quadrupole ion storage mass spectrometry (QIST-MS/MS). PCB levels ranged from low picogram (pg) to low nanogram (ng) per gram of sample and data compared very well between the different methods. For all matrices, PCDD/Fs were at a low pg level (0.05-3 pg) on a fresh weight basis. Although congener profiles were accurately described, RSDs of GC x GC-ID-TOF-MS and GC-QIST-MS/MS were much higher than for GC-ID-HRMS, especially for low level pork and milk. On a toxic equivalent (TEQ) basis, all methods, including the dioxin-responsive chemically activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX) assay, produced similar responses. A cost comparison is also presented. PMID:16130655

Focant, Jean-Franois; Eppe, Gauthier; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Massart, Anne-Ccile; Pirard, Catherine; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; De Pauw, Edwin



Use of Differential Isotopic Labeling and Mass Spectrometry To Analyze Capacitation-Associated Changes in the Phosphorylation Status of Mouse Sperm Proteins  

PubMed Central

Mammalian sperm need to reside in the female reproductive tract for a finite period of time before acquiring fertilizing competence. The biochemical changes associated with this process are collectively known as capacitation. With the use of the mouse as an experimental model, we have previously demonstrated that capacitation is associated with a cAMP-dependent increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation. However, little is known about the identity and function of the protein targets of this phosphorylation cascade. In the present work, we have used differential isotopic labeling coupled with immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC)-based phosphopeptide enrichment and analysis on a hybrid linear ion trap/FT-ICR mass spectrometer to measure the changes in protein phosphorylation resulting from the capacitation process. As no kinase activators and/or phosphatase inhibitors were used in the preparation of the sperm samples, phosphorylated residues identified in this study represent in vivo sites of phosphorylation. Also, in contrast to other methods which rely on the incorporation of isotopically labeled amino acids at the protein level (e.g., SILAC), the present technique is based on the Fisher esterification of protein digests, allowing for the comparison of phosphorylation status in the absence of protein synthesis. This approach resulted in the identification of 55 unique, in vivo sites of phosphorylation and permitted the relative extent of phosphorylation, as a consequence of capacitation, to be calculated for 42 different phosphopeptides. This work represents the first effort to determine which specific protein phosphorylation sites change their phosphorylation status in vivo as a result of the mammalian capacitation process. PMID:19186949

Platt, Mark D.; Salicioni, Ana M.; Hunt, Donald F.; Visconti, Pablo E.



High-precision simultaneous determination of 147Sm/144Nd and 143Nd/144Nd ratios in Sm-Nd mixtures using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and its comparison to isotope dilution analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work demonstrates, for the first time, the feasibility and capability of the high-precision simultaneous determination of 147Sm/144Nd and 143Nd/144Nd ratios in Sm-Nd mixtures using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) without Nd and Sm separation and without the use of costly enriched spikes. Mass discrimination was exponentially corrected by applying the natural constant of 146Nd/144Nd ratio as an internal standard, after correction of the isobaric interference of 144Sm on 144Nd using interference-free 147Sm/149Sm ratio for Sm mass fractionation, without assuming identical mass bias of Nd and Sm. The accuracy and precision of the present protocol, obtained from replicate analyses of various types of Sm-Nd mixtures encompassing a wide range of Sm/Nd (ca. 0.1-1.0) or 147Sm/144Nd ratios (ca. 0.06-0.62) was found to be comparable to the classic isotope dilution (ID) method. The present method is characterized by a higher sample throughput compared to the ID method, and shows great potential for the simultaneous determination of 147Sm/144Nd and 143Nd/144Nd ratios in real geological samples.

Yang, Yue-Heng; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Chu, Zhu-Yin; Xie, Lie-Wen; Yang, Jin-Hui



Considerations in the Application of Multiple Ion Counting for the Trace Analysis of Plutonium and Uranium Isotope Ratios Using Thermal Ionization and Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of simultaneous multiple-ion counting for the analysis of small samples of plutonium and uranium has been investigated using three different instruments, the ThermoElectron Neptune inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer, the ThermoElectron Triton thermal ionization mass spectrometer, and the Isotopex Iso-T thermal ionization mass spectrometer. The Neptune and Triton instruments utilize identical multiple ion counter arrays, with ions impinging directly on the channeltron surface. The Isotopex instruments utilize a different style of channeltron detector. The most significant difference in the Isotopex detectors is the presence of a conversion dynode at the entrance to the channeltron. Results suggest that the performance of the ThermoElectron MIC system varies between the Neptune and Triton instruments, which probably reflects both differences in the inherent characteristics of plasma and thermal sources and the performance of the MICS themselves. Differences in performance and stability between the '"naked"' and conversion dynode equipped channeltrons on the two thermal ionization instruments support these observations. These differences suggest that different analytical approaches to calibration of the multiple-ion counters may be required. Differences in potential analytical strategies employing multiple ion counters on the different instruments, including calibration schemes, precision and accuracy limits, and analytical strategies that can be employed, will be discussed. Results from both thermal ionization and inductively-coupled plasma sources suggest that the dominant source of uncertainty in isotope ratio measurement using multiple ion counting shifts from counting limitations for very small signals to uncertainties in gain calibration and detector drift among the ion counters at higher count rates. These characteristics place limits on the applicability of multiple ion counters; results from mixed Faraday/multiple ion counting analysis will illustrate the potential to overcome some of these limitations.

Riciputi, L. R.



Identification of Subunit-Subunit Interaction Sites in ?A-WT Crystallin and Mutant ?A-G98R Crystallin Using Isotope-Labeled Cross-Linker and Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Cataract is characterized by progressive protein aggregation and loss of vision. ?-Crystallins are the major proteins in the lens responsible for maintaining transparency. They exist in the lens as highly polydisperse oligomers with variable numbers of subunits, and mutations in ?-crystallin are associated with some forms of cataract in humans. Because the stability of proteins is dependent on optimal subunit interactions, the structural transformations and aggregation of mutant proteins that underlie cataract formation can be understood best by identifying the residue-specific inter- and intra-subunit interactions. Chemical crosslinking combined with mass spectrometry is increasingly used to provide structural insights into intra- and inter-protein interactions. We used isotope-labeled cross-linker in combination with LC-MS/MS to determine the subunitsubunit interaction sites in cataract-causing mutant ?A-G98R crystallin. Peptides cross-linked by isotope-labeled (heavy and light forms) cross-linkers appear as doublets in mass spectra, thus facilitating the identification of cross-linkercontaining peptides. In this study, we cross-linked wild-type (?A-WT) and mutant (?A-G98R) crystallins using the homobifunctional amine-reactive, isotope-labeled (d0 and d4) cross-linkerBS2G (bis[sulfosuccinimidyl]glutarate). Tryptic in-solution digest of cross-linked complexes generates a wide array of peptide mixtures. Cross-linked peptides were enriched using strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography followed by both MS and MS/MS to identify the cross-linked sites. We identified a distinct intermolecular interaction site between K88 K99 in the ?5 strand of the mutant ?A-G98R crystallin that is not found in wild-type ?A-crystallin. This interaction could explain the conformational instability and aggregation nature of the mutant protein that results from incorrect folding and assembly. PMID:23755258

Kannan, Rama; Santhoshkumar, Puttur; Mooney, Brian P.; Sharma, K. Krishna



Fragmentations and reactions of some isotopically labelled dimethyl methyl phosphono and trimethyl phosphoro thiolates and thionates studied by electrospray ionisation ion trap mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, studies on electrospray ionisation ion trap mass spectrometry of organophosphates are extended to a series of dimethyl methylphosphono and trimethyl phosphoro thionates and thiolates and some deuterated isotopomers. Of particular, interest is the comparison of the collision-induced fragmentation of ions from these compounds with those of the non-sulphur containing analogues reported previously. The thiono and thiolo isomeric structures of the sulphur containing ions analogous to I and II (see below) have very similar energies and undergo a ready interconversion. In the case of the phosphono compounds, the electronic structure calculations show that the methyl migration implicit in thiono-thiolo interconversion occurs directly and although methyl migration from P to the phosphonyl O or phosphonothionyl S can occur, the transition state (TS) energies are somewhat higher and, in the case of the migration to O, too high to take part in any of the subsequent collision induced fragmentations. With one exception, the mechanisms proposed for some of these fragmentations are supported by electronic structure calculations at the DFT-B3LYP level.

Barr, J. D.; Bell, A. J.; Ferrante, F.; La Manna, G.; Mundy, J. L.; Timperley, C. M.; Waters, M. J.; Watts, P.



Plasma source mass spectrometry in experimental nutrition.  


The development and commercial availability of plasma ion source, specifically inductively coupled plasma, mass spectrometers (ICP-MS) have significantly extended the potential application of stable isotopes for nutritional modeling. The status of research and commercial ICP-MS instruments, and their applications and limitations for stable isotopic studies are reviewed. The consequences of mass spectroscopic resolution and measurement sensitivity obtainable with quadrupole, sector, time-of-flight, and trap instruments on stable isotope analysis are examined. Requirements for reliable isotope measurements with practical biological samples including tissues and fluids are considered. The possibility for stable isotope analysis in chemically separated compounds (speciation) also is explored. On-line compound separations by chromatography or electrophoresis, for example, have been combined instrumentally with ICP-MS. Som possibilities and requirements are described for stable isotope speciation analysis. PMID:9781402

Barnes, R M



Multi-functional MBIT for peptide tandem mass spectrometry.  


Isobaric tags have been widely used for the identification and quantification of proteins in mass spectrometry-based proteomics. The mass-balanced, (1) H/(2) H isotope-coded dipeptide tag (MBIT) is a multifunctional isobaric tag based on N-acetyl-Ala-Ala dipeptide containing an amine-reactive linker that conjugates the tag to the primary amines of proteolytic peptides. MBITs provide a pair of isotope-coded quantitation signals separated by 3?Da, which enables 2-plex quantification and identification of proteins in the 15-250?fmol range. Various MBITs diversified at the N-acetyl group or at the side chain of the first alanine provide a pair of bs ions as low-mass quantitation signals in a distinct mass window. Thus, a combination of different MBITs allows multiplex quantification of proteins in a single liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry experiment. Unlike other isobaric tags, MBITs also offer a pair of ys ions as high-mass quantitation signals in a noise-free region, facilitating protein quantification in quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometers. Uniquely, bS ions, forming N-protonated oxazolone, undergo unimolecular dissociation and generate the secondary low-mass quantitation signals, aS ions. The yield of aS ions derived from bS ions can be used to measure the temperature of bS ions, which enables a reproducible acquisition of the peptide tandem mass spectra. Thus, MBITs enable multiplexed quantitation of proteins and the concurrent measurement of ion temperature using bS and aS signal ions as well as the isobaric protein quantitation in resonance-type ion trap using yS (complement of bS ) signal ions. This review provides an overview of MBITs with a focus on the multi-functionality that has been successfully demonstrated in the peptide tandem mass spectrometry. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 34: 209-218, 2015. PMID:24872020

Yoon, Hye-Joo; Seo, Jongcheol; Shin, Seung Koo



??13C and ??18O isotopic composition of CaCo3 measured by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry: Statistical evaluation and verification by application to Devils Hole core DH-11 calcite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new method was developed to analyze the stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of small samples (400 ?? 20 ??g) of calcium carbonate. This new method streamlines the classical phosphoric acid/calcium carbonate (H3PO4/CaCO3) reaction method by making use of a recently available Thermoquest-Finnigan GasBench II preparation device and a Delta Plus XL continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Conditions for which the H3PO4/CaCO3 reaction produced reproducible and accurate results with minimal error had to be determined. When the acid/carbonate reaction temperature was kept at 26??C and the reaction time was between 24 and 54 h, the precision of the carbon and oxygen isotope ratios for pooled samples from three reference standard materials was ???0.1 and ???0.2 per mill or %0, respectively, although later analysis showed that materials from one specific standard required reaction time between 34 and 54 h for ??18O to achieve this level of precision. Aliquot screening methods were shown to furthei minimize the total error. The accuracy and precision of the new method were analyzed and confirmed by statistical analysis. The utility of the method was verified by analyzing calcite from Devils Hole, Nevada, for which isotope-ratio values had previously been obtained by the classical method. Devils Hole core DH-11 recently had been re-cut and re-sampled, and isotope-ratio values were obtained using the new method. The results were comparable with those obtained by the classical method with correlation = +0.96 for both isotope ratios. The consistency of the isotopic results is such that an alignment offset could be identified in the re-sampled core material, and two cutting errors that occurred during re-sampling then were confirmed independently. This result indicates that the new method is a viable alternative to the classical reaction method. In particular, the new method requires less sample material permitting finer resolution and allows automation of some processes resulting in considerable time savings.

Revesz, K.M.; Landwehr, J.M.



An evaluation of a single-step extraction chromatography separation method for Sm-Nd isotope analysis of micro-samples of silicate rocks by high-sensitivity thermal ionization mass spectrometry.  


A single-step separation scheme is presented for Sm-Nd radiogenic isotope system on very small samples (1-3 mg) of silicate rock. This method is based on Eichrom() LN Spec chromatographic material and affords a straightforward separation of Sm-Nd from complex matrix with good purity and satisfactory blank levels, suitable for thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). This technique, characterized by high efficiency (single-step Sm-Nd separation) and high sensitivity (TIMS on NdO(+) ion beam), is able to process rapidly (3-4 h), with low procedure blanks (<10 pg) and very small sample (1-3 mg). Replicate measurements by TIMS on (143)Nd/(144)Nd ratios and Sm-Nd concentrations are presented for eleven international silicate rock reference materials, spanning a wide range of Sm-Nd contents and bulk compositions. The analytical results show a good agreement with recommended values within 0.004% for the (143)Nd/(144)Nd isotopic ratio and 2% for Sm-Nd quantification at the 95% confidence level. It is noted that the uncertainty of this method is about 3 times larger than typical precision achievable with two-stage full separation followed by state-of-the-art conventional TIMS using Nd(+) ion beams which require much larger amounts of Nd. Hence, our single-step separation followed by NdO(+) ion beam technique is preferred to the analysis for microsamples. PMID:22023865

Li, Chao-Feng; Li, Xian-Hua; Li, Qiu-Li; Guo, Jing-Hui; Li, Xiang-Hui; Liu, Tao



Simultaneous determination of 143Nd/144Nd and 147Sm/144Nd ratios and Sm-Nd contents from the same filament loaded with purified Sm-Nd aliquot from geological samples by isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry.  


Isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) is the standard technique used to achieve precise (143)Nd/(144)Nd and (147)Sm/(144)Nd isotope ratios and accurate elemental concentrations of Sm-Nd. However, in previous studies, purified Sm and Nd fractions must be individually loaded onto different filaments for their accurate determination using TIMS because of severe isobaric interferences. Thus, the classical ID-TIMS technique is time consuming and laborious. In this study, a new method is proposed, which is able to acquire both ratios of (143)Nd/(144)Nd and (147)Sm/(144)Nd and concentrations of Sm-Nd simultaneously on the same filament arrangement. The measurement time and filament consumption are reduced by 50% with the current method, and therefore, the operation cost of TIMS is significantly reduced. A mixed (152)Sm-(148)Nd spike was employed to achieve accurate results after spike subtraction and isobaric interference corrections. Results obtained from a series of standard rock samples are in good agreement with recommended values, within 0.003% for the (143)Nd/(144)Nd ratio and 1% for the (147)Sm/(144)Nd ratio. PMID:22746207

Li, Chao-Feng; Li, Xian-Hua; Li, Qiu-Li; Guo, Jing-Hui; Li, Xiang-Hui; Feng, Lian-Jun; Chu, Zhu-Yin



Tandem mass spectrometry: analysis of complex mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Applications of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the analysis of complex mixtures results in increased specificity and selectivity by using a variety of reagent gases in both negative and positive ion modes. Natural isotopic abundance ratios were examined in both simple and complex mixtures using parent, daughter and neutral loss scans. MS/MS was also used to discover new compounds. Daughter scans were used to identify seven new alkaloids in a cactus species. Three of these alkaloids were novel compounds, and included the first simple, fully aromatic isoquinoline alkaloids reported in Cactaceae. MS/MS was used to characterize the chemical reaction products of coal in studies designed to probe its macromolecular structure. Negative ion chemical ionization was utilized to study reaction products resulting from the oxidation of coal. Possible structural units in the precursor coal were predicted based on the reaction products identified, aliphatic and aromatic acids and their anhydrides. The MS/MS method was also used to characterize reaction products resulting from coal liquefaction and/or extraction. These studies illustrate the types of problems for which MS/MS is useful. Emphasis has been placed on characterization of complex mixtures by selecting experimental parameters which enhance the information obtained. The value of using MS/MS in conjunction with other analytical techniques as well as the chemical pretreatment is demonstrated.

Singleton, K.E.



The use of elemental mass spectrometry in phosphoproteomic applications.  


Reversible phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications in mammalian cells. Because this molecular switch is an important mechanism that diversifies and regulates proteins in cellular processes, knowledge about the extent and quantity of phosphorylation is very important to understand the complex cellular interplay. Although phosphoproteomics strategies are applied worldwide, they mainly include only molecular mass spectrometry (like MALDI or ESI)-based experiments. Although identification and relative quantification of phosphopeptides is straightforward with these techniques, absolute quantification is more complex and usually requires for specific isotopically phosphopeptide standards. However, the use of elemental mass spectrometry, and in particular inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), in phosphoproteomics-based experiments, allow one to absolutely quantify phosphopeptides. Here, these phosphoproteomic applications with ICP-MS as elemental detector are reviewed. Pioneering work and recent developments in the field are both described. Additionally, the advantage of the parallel use of molecular and elemental mass spectrometry is stressed. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev. PMID:25139451

Maes, Evelyne; Tirez, Kristof; Baggerman, Geert; Valkenborg, Dirk; Schoofs, Liliane; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Mertens, Inge



Attomole quantitation of protein separations with accelerator mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Quantification of specific proteins depends on separation by chromatography or electrophoresis followed by chemical detection schemes such as staining and fluorophore adhesion. Chemical exchange of short-lived isotopes, particularly sulfur, is also prevalent despite the inconveniences of counting radioactivity. Physical methods based on isotopic and elemental analyses offer highly sensitive protein quantitation that has linear response over wide dynamic ranges and is independent of protein conformation. Accelerator mass spectrometry quantifies long-lived isotopes such as 14C to sub-attomole sensitivity. We quantified protein interactions with small molecules such as toxins, vitamins, and natural biochemicals at precisions of 1-5% . Micro-proton-induced-xray-emission quantifies elemental abundances in separated metalloprotein samples to nanogram amounts and is capable of quantifying phosphorylated loci in gels. Accelerator-based quantitation is a possible tool for quantifying the genome translation into proteome.

Vogel, J S; Grant, P G; Buccholz, B A; Dingley, K; Turteltaub, K W



Proposed in situ secondary ion mass spectrometry on Mars.  


Secondary ion mass spectrometry is a powerful analytical tool, which has the potentiality, through molecular ion emission, of detecting minor phases, as well as the unique capability of directly measuring isotope abundances in mineral or organic phases without any prior physical, chemical or thermal processing. Applied to the in situ analysis of the Martian regolith, it can provide evidence of the presence of carbonates and, by inference (if carbonates constitute significant deposits), of past liquid water--a necessary condition for the development of life. In addition, oxygen isotopic composition of carbonates preserves a record of the temperature at which this phase precipitated and may therefore help decipher the past climatology of Mars. Detection of a carbon isotopic composition shift between carbonates and organic matter (on Earth, the result of a kinetic fractionation effect during photosynthesis) would provide a definite clue regarding the existence of a past biochemical activity on Mars. PMID:11538426

Inglebert, R L; Klossa, B; Lorin, J C; Thomas, R



Mass Spectrometry of Intact Membrane Protein Complexes  

PubMed Central

Mass spectrometry of intact soluble protein complexes has emerged as a powerful technique to study the stoichiometry, structure-function and dynamics of protein assemblies. Recent developments have extended this technique to the study of membrane protein complexes where it has already revealed subunit stoichiometries and specific phospholipid interactions. Here, we describe a protocol for mass spectrometry of membrane protein complexes. The protocol begins with preparation of the membrane protein complex enabling not only the direct assessment of stoichiometry, delipidation, and quality of the target complex, but also evaluation of the purification strategy. A detailed list of compatible non-ionic detergents is included, along with a protocol for screening detergents to find an optimal one for mass spectrometry, biochemical and structural studies. This protocol also covers the preparation of lipids for protein-lipid binding studies and includes detailed settings for a Q-ToF mass spectrometer after introduction of complexes from gold-coated nanoflow capillaries. PMID:23471109

Laganowsky, Arthur; Reading, Eamonn; Hopper, Jonathan T.S.; Robinson, Carol V.




EPA Science Inventory

Eight monosulfonated and disulfonated azo dyes were analyzed using liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry, in the negative ion mode, under low-energy conditions (110-150 eV). any structurally characteristic fragment ions were obtained, several of which ha...



EPA Science Inventory

Reactive Blue 19 (RB 19), its reactive form (RB 19-VS) and its hydrolyzed form, (RB 19-OH) were examined using liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (LSIMS/MS/MS) in the negative-ion mode under low-energy collision conditions (240-300 eV). tructurally ch...


Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the results of a joint Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) - Savannah River Plant (SRP) ''Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program''. The program was undertaken to evaluate two prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometers and obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometers to replace obsolete instruments.

Chastagner, P.



Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a summary of the results of a joint Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) - Savannah River Plant (SRP) ''Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program''. The program was undertaken to evaluate two prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometers and obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometers to replace obsolete instruments.




Simultaneous determination of asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine, L-monomethylarginine, L-arginine, and L-homoarginine in biological samples using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  


Production of the endogenous vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine by NO synthase is modulated by L-homoarginine, l-monomethylargine (MMA), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA). Here we report on a stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of these metabolites in plasma, cells and tissues. After addition of the internal standards (D(7)-ADMA, D(4)-L-homoarginine and (13)C(6)-L-arginine), analytes were extracted from the samples using Waters Oasis MCX solid phase extraction cartridges. Butylated analytes were separated isocratically on a Waters XTerra MS C18 column (3.5 ?m, 3.9 mm 100 mm) using 600 mg/L ammonium formate in water - acetonitrile (95.5:4.5, v/v) containing 0.1 vol% formic acid, and subsequently measured on an AB Sciex API 3000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Multiple reaction monitoring in positive mode was used for analyte quantification. Validation was performed in plasma. Calibration lines were linear (r(2)?0.9979) and lower limits of quantification in plasma were 0.4 nM for ADMA and SDMA and 0.8 nM for the other analytes. Accuracy (% bias) was <3% except for MMA (<7%), intra-assay precision (expressed as CV) was <3.5%, inter-assay precision <9.6%, and recovery 92.9-103.2% for all analytes. The method showed good correlation (r(2)?0.9125) with our previously validated HPLC-fluorescence method for measurement in plasma, and was implemented with good performance for measurement of tissue samples. Application of the method revealed the remarkably fast (i.e. within 60 min) appearance in plasma of stable isotope-labeled ADMA, SDMA, and MMA during infusion of D(3)-methyl-1-(13)C-methionine in healthy volunteers. PMID:22682940

Davids, Mariska; Swieringa, Eliane; Palm, Fredrik; Smith, Desire E C; Smulders, Yvo M; Scheffer, Peter G; Blom, Henk J; Teerlink, Tom



An Isotope (18O, 15N, and 2H) Technique to Investigate the Metal Ion Interactions Between the Phosphoryl Group and Amino Acid Side Chains by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cationic metal ion-coordinated N-diisopropyloxyphosphoryl dipeptides (DIPP-dipeptides) were analyzed by electrospray ionization multistage tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS n ). Two novel rearrangement reactions with hydroxyl oxygen or carbonyl oxygen migrations were observed in ESI-MS/MS of the metallic adducts of DIPP-dipeptides, but not for the corresponding protonated DIPP-dipeptides. The possible oxygen migration mechanisms were elucidated through a combination of MS/MS experiments, isotope (18O, 15N, and 2H) labeling, accurate mass measurements, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-31 G(d) level. It was found that lithium and sodium cations catalyze the carbonyl oxygen migration more efficiently than does potassium and participation through a cyclic phosphoryl intermediate. In addition, dipeptides having a C-terminal hydroxyl or aromatic amino acid residue show a more favorable rearrangement through carbonyl oxygen migration, which may be due to metal cation stabilization by the donation of lone pair of the hydroxyl oxygen or aromatic ?-electrons of the C-terminal amino acid residue, respectively. It was further shown that the metal ions, namely lithium, sodium, and potassium cations, could play a novel directing role for the migration of hydroxyl or carbonyl oxygen in the gas phase. This discovery suggests that interactions between phosphorylated biomolecules and proteins might involve the assistance of metal ions to coordinate the phosphoryl oxygen and protein side chains to achieve molecular recognition.

Gao, Xiang; Hu, Xiaomei; Zhu, Jun; Zeng, Zhiping; Han, Daxiong; Tang, Guo; Huang, Xiantong; Xu, Pengxiang; Zhao, Yufen



Current Status and Advances in Quantitative Proteomic Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

The accurate quantitation of proteins and peptides in complex biological systems is one of the most challenging areas of proteomics. Mass spectrometry-based approaches have forged significant in-roads allowing accurate and sensitive quantitation and the ability to multiplex vastly complex samples through the application of robust bioinformatic tools. These relative and absolute quantitative measures using label-free, tags, or stable isotope labelling have their own strengths and limitations. The continuous development of these methods is vital for increasing reproducibility in the rapidly expanding application of quantitative proteomics in biomarker discovery and validation. This paper provides a critical overview of the primary mass spectrometry-based quantitative approaches and the current status of quantitative proteomics in biomedical research. PMID:23533757

Wasinger, Valerie C.; Zeng, Ming; Yau, Yunki



Analytical validation of accelerator mass spectrometry for pharmaceutical development  

PubMed Central

The validation parameters for pharmaceutical analyses were examined for the accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of 14C/C ratio, independent of chemical separation procedures. The isotope ratio measurement was specific (owing to the 14C label), stable across samples storage conditions for at least 1 year, linear over four orders of magnitude with an analytical range from 0.1 Modern to at least 2000 Modern (instrument specific). Furthermore, accuracy was excellent (between 1 and 3%), while precision expressed as coefficient of variation was between 1 and 6% determined primarily by radiocarbon content and the time spent analyzing a sample. Sensitivity, expressed as LOD and LLOQ was 1 and 10 attomoles of 14C, respectively (which can be expressed as compound equivalents) and for a typical small molecule labeled at 10% incorporated with 14C corresponds to 30 fg equivalents. Accelerator mass spectrometry provides a sensitive, accurate and precise method of measuring drug compounds in biological matrices. PMID:21083256

Keck, Bradly D; Ognibene, Ted; Vogel, John S



Analytical validation of accelerator mass spectrometry for pharmaceutical development.  


The validation parameters for pharmaceutical analyses were examined for the accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of (14)C/C ratio, independent of chemical separation procedures. The isotope ratio measurement was specific (owing to the (14)C label), stable across samples storage conditions for at least 1 year, linear over four orders of magnitude with an analytical range from 0.1 Modern to at least 2000 Modern (instrument specific). Furthermore, accuracy was excellent (between 1 and 3%), while precision expressed as coefficient of variation was between 1 and 6% determined primarily by radiocarbon content and the time spent analyzing a sample. Sensitivity, expressed as LOD and LLOQ was 1 and 10 attomoles of (14)C, respectively (which can be expressed as compound equivalents) and for a typical small molecule labeled at 10% incorporated with (14)C corresponds to 30 fg equivalents. Accelerator mass spectrometry provides a sensitive, accurate and precise method of measuring drug compounds in biological matrices. PMID:21083256

Keck, Bradly D; Ognibene, Ted; Vogel, John S



Continuous shipboard sampling system for determination of triple oxygen isotopes and O2/Ar ratio by dual-inlet mass spectrometry.  


A continuous shipboard sampling system was developed for the determination of the isotopic composition of the triple oxygen isotopes and oxygen to argon (O(2)/Ar) ratios in dissolved air. In this system, dissolved air is separated by a hollow fiber membrane degassing module. This system collects dissolved air quantitatively and rapidly. The sample flow rate through the membrane is critical for the fractionation of the oxygen isotopes and the O(2)/Ar ratio and should be < 2 mL/min. Fractionation of oxygen between the liquid and gas phase of the air-saturated water was found to be similar to that of earlier reports. The advantages of this method over existing techniques include rapid collection of samples (30 min/sample), high efficiency in extraction of gases from the liquid phase, and the lack of a sample preparation step (e.g. degassing). PMID:17078103

Sarma, V V S S; Abe, O; Yoshida, N; Saino, T



Capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry interface  


The present invention is an interface between a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary end and an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end, for transporting an anolyte sample from a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary to a electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary. The interface of the present invention has: (a) a charge transfer fitting enclosing both of the capillary electrophoresis capillary end and the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end; (b) a reservoir containing an electrolyte surrounding the charge transfer fitting; and (c) an electrode immersed into the electrolyte, the electrode closing a capillary electrophoresis circuit and providing charge transfer across the charge transfer fitting while avoiding substantial bulk fluid transfer across the charge transfer fitting. Advantages of the present invention have been demonstrated as effective in providing high sensitivity and efficient analyses.

Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Severs, Joanne C. (Hayward, CA)



Advantages of N2 and Ar as reaction gases for measurement of multiple Se isotopes using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with a collision/reaction cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirteen collision/reaction gases (CH4, O2, H2, CH3F, C2H6, N2O, NH3, SF6, Xe, Ne, N2, CO and Ar) were investigated to reduce the ArAr+, Ar2H+, Ar2H2+, SeH+, BrH+ and ArCl+ overlaps on Se+ isotopes. N2 and Ar had particular advantages for the measurement of multiple Se isotopes compared to the other gases. Experiments using CH4 and CD4 determined that H-atom transfer from CH4 to Se+ resulted in the formation of SeH+.

Olesik, John W.; Gray, Patrick J.



MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry Painting Molecular Pictures  

PubMed Central

MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry is a molecular analytical technology capable of simultaneously measuring multiple analytes directly from intact tissue sections. Histological features within the sample can be correlated with molecular species without the need for target-specific reagents such as antibodies. Several studies have demonstrated the strength of the technology for uncovering new markers that correlate with disease severity as well as prognosis and therapeutic response. This review describes technological aspects of imaging mass spectrometry together with applications in cancer research. PMID:20965799

Schwamborn, Kristina; Caprioli, Richard M.



Simultaneous determination of glucose turnover, alanine turnover, and gluconeogenesis in human using a double stable-isotope-labeled tracer infusion and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis  

SciTech Connect

We have developed and validated a new method to measure simultaneously glucose turnover, alanine turnover, and gluconeogenesis in human, in steady and non-steady states, using a double stable-isotope-labeled tracer infusion and GC-MS analysis. The method is based on the concomitant infusion and dilution of D-(2,3,4,6,6-2H5)glucose and L-(1,2,3-13C3)alanine. The choice of the tracers was done on the basis of a minimal overlap between the ions of interest and those arising from natural isotopic abundances. Alanine was chosen as the gluconeogenic substrate because it is the major gluconeogenic amino acid extracted by the liver and, with lactate, constitutes the bulk of the gluconeogenic precursors. The method was validated by comparing the results obtained during simultaneous infusion of trace amounts of both stable isotope labeled compounds with the radioactive tracers (D-(3-3H)glucose and L-(1,2,3-14C3)alanine) in a normal and a diabetic subject; the radiolabeled tracers were used as the accepted reference procedure. A slight overestimation of glucose turnover (7.3 versus 6.8 in normal and 10.8 versus 9.2 mumol/kg min in diabetic subject) was noticed when the stable isotope-labeled tracers were used. For the basal turnover rate of alanine, similar values were obtained with both methods (6.2 mumol/kg min). For gluconeogenesis, higher values were observed in the basal state with the stable isotopes (0.42 versus 0.21 mumol/kg min); however, these differences disappeared in the postprandial period after the ingestion of a mixed meal. Despite those minor differences, the overall correlation with the reference method was excellent for glucose turnover (r = 0.87) and gluconeogenesis (r = 0.86).

Martineau, A.; Lecavalier, L.; Falardeau, P.; Chiasson, J.L.



Precise measurement of Fe isotopes in marine samples by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS).  


A novel analytical technique for isotopic analysis of dissolved and particulate iron (Fe) from various marine environments is presented in this paper. It combines coprecipitation of dissolved Fe (DFe) samples with Mg(OH)(2), and acid digestion of particulate Fe (PFe) samples with double pass chromatographic separation. Isotopic data were obtained using a Nu Plasma MC-ICP-MS in dry plasma mode, applying a combination of standard-sample bracketing and external normalization by Cu doping. Argon interferences were determined prior to each analysis and automatically subtracted during analysis. Sample size can be varied between 200 and 600 ng of Fe per measurement and total procedural blanks are better than 10 ng of Fe. Typical external precision of replicate analyses (1S.D.) is +/-0.07 per thousand on delta(56)Fe and +/-0.09 per thousand on delta(57)Fe while typical internal precision of a measurement (1S.E.) is +/-0.03 per thousand on delta(56)Fe and +/-0.04 per thousand on delta(57)Fe. Accuracy and precision were assured by the analysis of reference material IRMM-014, an in-house pure Fe standard, an in-house rock standard, as well as by inter-laboratory comparison using a hematite standard from ETH (Zrich). The lowest amount of Fe (200 ng) at which a reliable isotopic measurement could still be performed corresponds to a DFe or PFe concentration of approximately 2 nmol L(-1) for a 2 L sample size. To show the versatility of the method, results are presented from contrasting environments characterized by a wide range of Fe concentrations as well as varying salt content: the Scheldt estuary, the North Sea, and Antarctic pack ice. The range of DFe and PFe concentrations encountered in this investigation falls between 2 and 2000 nmol L(-1) Fe. The distinct isotopic compositions detected in these environments cover the whole range reported in previous studies of natural Fe isotopic fractionation in the marine environment, i.e. delta(56)Fe varies between -3.5 per thousand and +1.5 per thousand. The largest fractionations were observed in environments characterized by redox changes and/or strong Fe cycling. This demonstrates the potential use of Fe isotopes as a tool to trace marine biogeochemical processes involving Fe. PMID:17397660

de Jong, Jeroen; Schoemann, Vronique; Tison, Jean-Louis; Becquevort, Sylvie; Masson, Florence; Lannuzel, Delphine; Petit, Jrme; Chou, Lei; Weis, Dominique; Mattielli, Nadine



Rapid and precise determination of Sr and Nd isotopic ratios in geological samples from the same filament loading by thermal ionization mass spectrometry employing a single-step separation scheme.  


Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) offers the excellent precision and accuracy of the Sr and Nd isotopic ratio analysis for geological samples, but this method is labour intensive, expensive and time-consuming. In this study, a new analytical protocol by TIMS is presented that aims at improving analytical efficiency and cutting down experimental cost. Using the single-step cation exchange resin technique, mixed Sr and rare earth elements (REEs) fractions were separated from matrix and evaporated to dryness. Afterwards, mixed Sr+REEs fractions were dissolved and loaded onto the same Re filament using 1 ?L of 2 M HCl. Then, Sr and Nd were sequentially measured without venting using TIMS. In contrast to conventional TIMS methods, the merits of this analytical protocol are its cost- and time-saving adaptations. The applicability of our method is evaluated by replicated measurements of (87)Sr/(86)Sr and (143)Nd/(144)Nd for nine international silicate rock reference materials, spanning a wide range of bulk compositions. The typical internal precision in this study is ca. 0.001% (RSE) for (87)Sr/(86)Sr and (143)Nd/(144)Nd; the analytical results obtained for these standard rocks show a good agreement with reported values, indicating the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:22541823

Li, Chao-Feng; Li, Xian-Hua; Li, Qiu-Li; Guo, Jing-Hui; Li, Xiang-Hui; Yang, Yue-Heng



Quantification of Thiazolidine-4-carboxylic Acid in Toxicant-Exposed Cells by Isotope-Dilution Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Reveals an Intrinsic Antagonistic Response to Oxidative Stress-Induced Toxicity.  


Carcinogenic formaldehyde is produced by endogenous protein oxidation and various exogenous sources. With formaldehyde being both ubiquitous in the ambient environment and one of the most common reactive carbonyls produced from endogenous metabolism, quantifying formaldehyde exposure is an essential step in risk assessments. We present in this study an approach to assess the risk of exposure to oxidative stress by quantifying thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TA), a cysteine-conjugated metabolite of formaldehyde in toxicant-exposed Escherichia coli. The method entails TA derivatization with ethyl chloroformate, addition of isotope-labeled TA derivatives as internal standards, solid-phase extraction of the derivatives, and quantification by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). After validating for accuracy and precision, the developed method was used to detect TA in oxidizing agent-exposed E. coli samples. Dose-dependent TA formation was observed in E. col