Genericness of a big bounce in isotropic loop quantum cosmology.
Date, Ghanashyam; Hossain, Golam Mortuza
2005-01-14
The absence of isotropic singularity in loop quantum cosmology can be understood in an effective classical description as the Universe exhibiting a big bounce. We show that with a scalar matter field, the big bounce is generic in the sense that it is independent of quantization ambiguities and the details of scalar field dynamics. The volume of the Universe at the bounce point is parametrized by a single parameter. It provides a minimum length scale which serves as a cutoff for computations of density perturbations thereby influencing their amplitudes. PMID:15698060
Isotropic loop quantum cosmology with matter. II. The Lorentzian constraint
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hinterleitner, Franz; Major, Seth
2003-12-01
The Lorentzian Hamiltonian constraint is solved for isotropic loop quantum cosmology coupled to a massless scalar field. As in the Euclidean case, the discreteness of quantum geometry removes the classical singularity from the quantum Friedmann models. In spite of the absence of the classical singularity, a modified DeWitt initial condition is incompatible with a late-time smooth behavior. Further, the smooth behavior is recovered only for positive or negatives times but not both. An important feature, which is shared with the Euclidean case, is a minimal initial energy of the order of the Planck energy required for the system to evolve dynamically. By forming wave packets of the matter field, an explicit evolution in terms of an internal time is obtained.
Genericness of inflation in isotropic loop quantum cosmology.
Date, Ghanashyam; Hossain, Golam Mortuza
2005-01-14
Nonperturbative corrections from loop quantum cosmology (LQC) to the scalar matter sector are already known to imply inflation. We prove that the LQC modified scalar field generates exponential inflation in the small scale factor regime, for all positive definite potentials, independent of initial conditions and independent of ambiguity parameters. For positive semidefinite potentials it is always possible to choose, without fine-tuning, a value of one of the ambiguity parameters such that exponential inflation results, provided zeros of the potential are approached at most as a power law in the scale factor. In conjunction with the generic occurrence of bounce at small volumes, particle horizon is absent, thus eliminating the horizon problem of the standard big bang model. PMID:15698059
Higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiangdong
2016-07-01
Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is the symmetric sector of loop quantum gravity. In this paper, we generalize the structure of loop quantum cosmology to the theories with arbitrary spacetime dimensions. The isotropic and homogeneous cosmological model in n+1 dimensions is quantized by the loop quantization method. Interestingly, we find that the underlying quantum theories are divided into two qualitatively different sectors according to spacetime dimensions. The effective Hamiltonian and modified dynamical equations of n+1 dimensional LQC are obtained. Moreover, our results indicate that the classical big bang singularity is resolved in arbitrary spacetime dimensions by a quantum bounce. We also briefly discuss the similarities and differences between the n+1 dimensional model and the 3+1 dimensional one. Our model serves as a first example of higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology and offers the possibility to investigate quantum gravity effects in higher dimensional cosmology.
Quantization ambiguities in isotropic quantum geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bojowald, Martin
2002-10-01
Some typical quantization ambiguities of quantum geometry are studied within isotropic models. Since this allows explicit computations of operators and their spectra, one can investigate the effects of ambiguities in a quantitative manner. It is shown that these ambiguities do not affect the fate of the classical singularity, demonstrating that the absence of a singularity in loop quantum cosmology is a robust implication of the general quantization scheme. The calculations also allow conclusions about modified operators in the full theory. In particular, using holonomies in a non-fundamental representation of SU(2) to quantize connection components turns out to lead to significant corrections to classical behaviour at macroscopic volume for large values of the spin of the chosen representation.
Loop quantum cosmology: an overview
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashtekar, Abhay
2009-04-01
A brief overview of loop quantum cosmology of homogeneous isotropic models is presented with emphasis on the origin of and subtleties associated with the resolution of big bang and big crunch singularities. These results bear out the remarkable intuition that John Wheeler had. Discussion is organized at two levels. The the main text provides a bird’s eye view of the subject that should be accessible to non-experts. Appendices address conceptual and technical issues that are often raised by experts in loop quantum gravity and string theory.
Loop quantum cosmology in 2 +1 dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiangdong
2014-12-01
As a first step to generalize the structure of loop quantum cosmology to the theories with the spacetime dimension other than four, the isotropic model of loop quantum cosmology in 2 +1 dimension is studied in this paper. We find that the classical big bang singularity is again replaced by a quantum bounce in the model. The similarities and differences between the (2 +1 )-dimensional model and the (3 +1 )-dimensional one are also discussed.
Loop quantum Brans-Dicke cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiangdong; Artymowski, Michal; Ma, Yongge
2013-04-01
The spatially flat and isotropic cosmological model of Brans-Dicke theory with coupling parameter ω≠-(3)/(2) is quantized by the approach of loop quantum cosmology. An interesting feature of this model is that although the Brans-Dicke scalar field is nonminimally coupled with curvature, it can still play the role of an emergent time variable. In the quantum theory, the classical differential equation which represents cosmological evolution is replaced by a quantum difference equation. The effective Hamiltonian and modified dynamical equations of loop quantum Brans-Dicke cosmology are also obtained, which lay a foundation for the phenomenological investigation to possible quantum gravity effects in cosmology. The effective equations indicate that the classical big bang singularity is again replaced by a quantum bounce in loop quantum Brans-Dicke cosmology.
Uniqueness of measures in loop quantum cosmology
Hanusch, Maximilian
2015-09-15
In Ashtekar and Campiglia [Classical Quantum Gravity 29, 242001 (2012)], residual diffeomorphisms have been used to single out the standard representation of the reduced holonomy-flux algebra in homogeneous loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We show that, in the homogeneous isotropic case, unitarity of the translations with respect to the extended ℝ-action (exponentiated reduced fluxes in the standard approach) singles out the Bohr measure on both the standard quantum configuration space ℝ{sub Bohr} as well as on the Fleischhack one (ℝ⊔ℝ{sub Bohr}). Thus, in both situations, the same condition singles out the standard kinematical Hilbert space of LQC.
Unstable anisotropic loop quantum cosmology
Nelson, William; Sakellariadou, Mairi
2009-09-15
We study stability conditions of the full Hamiltonian constraint equation describing the quantum dynamics of the diagonal Bianchi I model in the context of loop quantum cosmology. Our analysis has shown robust evidence of an instability in the explicit implementation of the difference equation, implying important consequences for the correspondence between the full loop quantum gravity theory and loop quantum cosmology. As a result, one may question the choice of the quantization approach, the model of lattice refinement, and/or the role of the ambiguity parameters; all these should, in principle, be dictated by the full loop quantum gravity theory.
Ekpyrotic loop quantum cosmology
Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2013-08-01
We consider the ekpyrotic paradigm in the context of loop quantum cosmology. In loop quantum cosmology the classical big-bang singularity is resolved due to quantum gravity effects, and so the contracting ekpyrotic branch of the universe and its later expanding phase are connected by a smooth bounce. Thus, it is possible to explicitly determine the evolution of scalar perturbations, from the contracting ekpyrotic phase through the bounce and to the post-bounce expanding epoch. The possibilities of having either one or two scalar fields have been suggested for the ekpyrotic universe, and both cases will be considered here. In the case of a single scalar field, the constant mode of the curvature perturbations after the bounce is found to have a blue spectrum. On the other hand, for the two scalar field ekpyrotic model where scale-invariant entropy perturbations source additional terms in the curvature perturbations, the power spectrum in the post-bounce expanding cosmology is shown to be nearly scale-invariant and so agrees with observations.
Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi type I models
Ashtekar, Abhay; Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2009-04-15
The ''improved dynamics'' of loop quantum cosmology is extended to include anisotropies of the Bianchi type I model. As in the isotropic case, a massless scalar field serves as a relational time parameter. However, the extension is nontrivial because one has to face several conceptual subtleties as well as technical difficulties. These include a better understanding of the relation between loop quantum gravity and loop quantum cosmology, handling novel features associated with the nonlocal field strength operator in presence of anisotropies, and finding dynamical variables that make the action of the Hamiltonian constraint manageable. Our analysis provides a conceptually complete description that overcomes limitations of earlier works. We again find that the big-bang singularity is resolved by quantum geometry effects but, because of the presence of Weyl curvature, Planck scale physics is now much richer than in the isotropic case. Since the Bianchi I models play a key role in the Belinskii, Khalatnikov, Lifshitz conjecture on the nature of generic spacelike singularities in general relativity, the quantum dynamics of Bianchi I cosmologies is likely to provide considerable intuition about the fate of generic spacelike singularities in quantum gravity. Finally, we show that the quantum dynamics of Bianchi I cosmologies projects down exactly to that of the Friedmann model. This opens a new avenue to relate more complicated models to simpler ones, thereby providing a new tool to relate the quantum dynamics of loop quantum gravity to that of loop quantum cosmology.
Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi type I models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashtekar, Abhay; Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2009-04-01
The “improved dynamics” of loop quantum cosmology is extended to include anisotropies of the Bianchi type I model. As in the isotropic case, a massless scalar field serves as a relational time parameter. However, the extension is nontrivial because one has to face several conceptual subtleties as well as technical difficulties. These include a better understanding of the relation between loop quantum gravity and loop quantum cosmology, handling novel features associated with the nonlocal field strength operator in presence of anisotropies, and finding dynamical variables that make the action of the Hamiltonian constraint manageable. Our analysis provides a conceptually complete description that overcomes limitations of earlier works. We again find that the big-bang singularity is resolved by quantum geometry effects but, because of the presence of Weyl curvature, Planck scale physics is now much richer than in the isotropic case. Since the Bianchi I models play a key role in the Belinskii, Khalatnikov, Lifshitz conjecture on the nature of generic spacelike singularities in general relativity, the quantum dynamics of Bianchi I cosmologies is likely to provide considerable intuition about the fate of generic spacelike singularities in quantum gravity. Finally, we show that the quantum dynamics of Bianchi I cosmologies projects down exactly to that of the Friedmann model. This opens a new avenue to relate more complicated models to simpler ones, thereby providing a new tool to relate the quantum dynamics of loop quantum gravity to that of loop quantum cosmology.
Polyhedra in loop quantum gravity
Bianchi, Eugenio; Speziale, Simone; Dona, Pietro
2011-02-15
Intertwiners are the building blocks of spin-network states. The space of intertwiners is the quantization of a classical symplectic manifold introduced by Kapovich and Millson. Here we show that a theorem by Minkowski allows us to interpret generic configurations in this space as bounded convex polyhedra in R{sup 3}: A polyhedron is uniquely described by the areas and normals to its faces. We provide a reconstruction of the geometry of the polyhedron: We give formulas for the edge lengths, the volume, and the adjacency of its faces. At the quantum level, this correspondence allows us to identify an intertwiner with the state of a quantum polyhedron, thus generalizing the notion of the quantum tetrahedron familiar in the loop quantum gravity literature. Moreover, coherent intertwiners result to be peaked on the classical geometry of polyhedra. We discuss the relevance of this result for loop quantum gravity. In particular, coherent spin-network states with nodes of arbitrary valence represent a collection of semiclassical polyhedra. Furthermore, we introduce an operator that measures the volume of a quantum polyhedron and examine its relation with the standard volume operator of loop quantum gravity. We also comment on the semiclassical limit of spin foams with nonsimplicial graphs.
Polyhedra in loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianchi, Eugenio; Doná, Pietro; Speziale, Simone
2011-02-01
Intertwiners are the building blocks of spin-network states. The space of intertwiners is the quantization of a classical symplectic manifold introduced by Kapovich and Millson. Here we show that a theorem by Minkowski allows us to interpret generic configurations in this space as bounded convex polyhedra in R3: A polyhedron is uniquely described by the areas and normals to its faces. We provide a reconstruction of the geometry of the polyhedron: We give formulas for the edge lengths, the volume, and the adjacency of its faces. At the quantum level, this correspondence allows us to identify an intertwiner with the state of a quantum polyhedron, thus generalizing the notion of the quantum tetrahedron familiar in the loop quantum gravity literature. Moreover, coherent intertwiners result to be peaked on the classical geometry of polyhedra. We discuss the relevance of this result for loop quantum gravity. In particular, coherent spin-network states with nodes of arbitrary valence represent a collection of semiclassical polyhedra. Furthermore, we introduce an operator that measures the volume of a quantum polyhedron and examine its relation with the standard volume operator of loop quantum gravity. We also comment on the semiclassical limit of spin foams with nonsimplicial graphs.
Shortcomings of the big bounce derivation in loop quantum cosmology
Cianfrani, Francesco; Montani, Giovanni
2010-07-15
We give a prescription to define in loop quantum gravity the electric field operator related to the scale factor of a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological space-time. This procedure allows us to link the fundamental theory with its cosmological implementation. In view of the conjugate relation existing between holonomies and fluxes, the edge length and the area of surfaces in the fiducial metric satisfy a duality condition. As a consequence, the area operator has a discrete spectrum also in loop quantum cosmology. This feature makes the super-Hamiltonian regularization an open issue of the whole formulation.
Quantum reduced loop gravity and the foundation of loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alesci, Emanuele; Cianfrani, Francesco
2016-06-01
Quantum reduced loop gravity is a promising framework for linking loop quantum gravity and the effective semiclassical dynamics of loop quantum cosmology. We review its basic achievements and its main perspectives, outlining how it provides a quantum description of the Universe in terms of a cuboidal graph which constitutes the proper framework for applying loop techniques in a cosmological setting.
Anti-de Sitter universe dynamics in loop quantum cosmology
Bentivegna, Eloisa; Pawlowski, Tomasz
2008-06-15
A model for a flat isotropic universe with a negative cosmological constant {lambda} and a massless scalar field as sole matter content is studied within the framework of loop quantum cosmology. By application of the methods introduced for the model with {lambda}=0, the physical Hilbert space and the set of Dirac observables are constructed. As in that case, the scalar field plays here the role of an emergent time. The properties of the system are found to be similar to those of the k=1 Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) model: for small energy densities, the quantum dynamics reproduces the classical one, whereas, due to modifications at near-Planckian densities, the big bang and big crunch singularities are replaced by a quantum bounce connecting deterministically the large semiclassical epochs. Thus in loop quantum cosmology the evolution is qualitatively cyclic.
Anti-de Sitter universe dynamics in loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bentivegna, Eloisa; Pawlowski, Tomasz
2008-06-01
A model for a flat isotropic universe with a negative cosmological constant Λ and a massless scalar field as sole matter content is studied within the framework of loop quantum cosmology. By application of the methods introduced for the model with Λ=0, the physical Hilbert space and the set of Dirac observables are constructed. As in that case, the scalar field plays here the role of an emergent time. The properties of the system are found to be similar to those of the k=1 Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) model: for small energy densities, the quantum dynamics reproduces the classical one, whereas, due to modifications at near-Planckian densities, the big bang and big crunch singularities are replaced by a quantum bounce connecting deterministically the large semiclassical epochs. Thus in loop quantum cosmology the evolution is qualitatively cyclic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van de Ven, Anton E. M.
1992-07-01
We prove the existence of a nonrenormalizable infinity in the two-loop effective action of perturbative quantum gravity by means of an explicit calculation. Our final result agrees with that obtained by earlier authors. We use the background-field method in coordinate space, combined with dimensional regularization and a heat kernel representation for the propagators. General covariance is manifestly preserved. Only vacuum graphs in the presence of an on-shell background metric need to be calculated. We extend the background covariant harmonic gauge to include terms nonlinear in the quantum gravitational fields and allow for general reparametrizations of those fields. For a particular gauge choice and field parametrization only two three-graviton and six four-graviton vertices are present in the action. Calculational labor is further reduced by restricting to backgrounds, which are not only Ricci-flat, but satisfy an additional constraint bilinear in the Weyl tensor. To handle the still formidable amount of algebra, we use the symbolic manipulation program FORM. We checked that the on-shell two-loop effective action is in fact independent of all gauge and field redefinition parameters. A two-loop analysis for Yang-Mills fields is included as well, since in that case we can give full details as well as simplify earlier analyses.
Quantum black holes in loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olmedo, Javier
2016-03-01
In this contribution I will comment on the last advances in relation to the loop quantization of spherically symmetric spacetimes. I will briefly summarize the vacuum case, where the physical states and observables are known explicitly. The main physical consequences are i) a genuine discretization of the geometry and ii) singularity resolution. Afterwards I will consider the coupling with a thin spherically symmetric null-dust shell. This is one of the simplest collapse scenarios with nontrivial dynamics. I will provide a representation for the scalar constraint that is consistent with the Dirac quantization approach, and the quantum observables of the model. Finally, I comment on the possible physical consequences of this model.
Loop Quantum Cosmology: holonomy corrections to inflationary models
Artymowski, Michal; Lalak, Zygmunt; Szulc, Lukasz
2009-01-15
In the recent years the quantization methods of Loop Quantum Gravity have been successfully applied to the homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-times. The resulting theory, called Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC), resolves the Big Bang singularity by replacing it with the Big Bounce. We argue that the LQC holonomy corrections generate also certain corrections to field theoretical inflationary scenarios. These corrections imply that in the LQC the effective sonic horizon becomes infinite at some point after the bounce and that the scale of the inflationary potential implied by the COBE normalisation increases. The evolution of scalar fields immediately after the Bounce becomes modified in an interesting way. We point out that one can use COBE normalisation to establish an upper bound on the quantum of length of LQG. LQC corrections other than the holonomy one are assumed to be subdominant.
The consistent histories approach to loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craig, David A.
2016-06-01
We review the application of the consistent (or decoherent) histories formulation of quantum theory to canonical loop quantum cosmology. Conventional quantum theory relies crucially on “measurements” to convert unrealized quantum potentialities into physical outcomes that can be assigned probabilities. In the early universe and other physical contexts in which there are no observers or measuring apparatus (or indeed, in any closed quantum system), what criteria determine which alternative outcomes may be realized and what their probabilities are? In the consistent histories formulation it is the vanishing of interference between the branch wave functions describing alternative histories — as determined by the system’s decoherence functional — that determines which alternatives may be assigned probabilities. We describe the consistent histories formulation and how it may be applied to canonical loop quantum cosmology, describing in detail the application to homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models with scalar matter. We show how the theory may be used to make definite physical predictions in the absence of “observers”. As an application, we demonstrate how the theory predicts that loop quantum models “bounce” from large volume to large volume, while conventional “Wheeler-DeWitt”-quantized universes are invariably singular. We also briefly indicate the relation to other work.
Towards conformal loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
H-T Wang, Charles
2006-03-01
A discussion is given of recent developments in canonical gravity that assimilates the conformal analysis of gravitational degrees of freedom. The work is motivated by the problem of time in quantum gravity and is carried out at the metric and the triad levels. At the metric level, it is shown that by extending the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) phase space of general relativity (GR), a conformal form of geometrodynamics can be constructed. In addition to the Hamiltonian and Diffeomorphism constraints, an extra first class constraint is introduced to generate conformal transformations. This phase space consists of York's mean extrinsic curvature time, conformal three-metric and their momenta. At the triad level, the phase space of GR is further enlarged by incorporating spin-gauge as well as conformal symmetries. This leads to a canonical formulation of GR using a new set of real spin connection variables. The resulting gravitational constraints are first class, consisting of the Hamiltonian constraint and the canonical generators for spin-gauge and conformorphism transformations. The formulation has a remarkable feature of being parameter-free. Indeed, it is shown that a conformal parameter of the Barbero-Immirzi type can be absorbed by the conformal symmetry of the extended phase space. This gives rise to an alternative approach to loop quantum gravity that addresses both the conceptual problem of time and the technical problem of functional calculus in quantum gravity.
Exact mapping between different dynamics of isotropically trapped quantum gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wamba, Etienne; Pelster, Axel; Anglin, James R.
2016-05-01
Experiments on trapped quantum gases can probe challenging regimes of quantum many-body dynamics, where strong interactions or non-equilibrium states prevent exact theoretical treatment. In this talk, we present a class of exact mappings between all the observables of different experiments, under the experimentally attainable conditions that the gas particles interact via a homogeneously scaling two-body potential which is in general time-dependent, and are confined in an isotropic harmonic trap. We express our result through an identity relating second-quantized field operators in the Heisenberg picture of quantum mechanics which makes it general. It applies to arbitrary measurements on possibly multi-component Bose or Fermi gases in arbitrary initial quantum states, no matter how highly excited or far from equilibrium. We use an example to show how the results of two different and currently feasible experiments can be mapped onto each other by our spacetime transformation. DAMOP sorting category: 6.11 Nonlinear dynamics and out-of-equilibrium trapped gases EW acknowledge the financial support from the Alexander von Humboldt foundation.
Cyclic universe from Loop Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cianfrani, Francesco; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy; Rosati, Giacomo
2016-02-01
We discuss how a cyclic model for the flat universe can be constructively derived from Loop Quantum Gravity. This model has a lower bounce, at small values of the scale factor, which shares many similarities with that of Loop Quantum Cosmology. We find that Quantum Gravity corrections can be also relevant at energy densities much smaller than the Planckian one and that they can induce an upper bounce at large values of the scale factor.
Tachyon matter in loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sen, A. A.
2006-08-01
An analytical approach for studying the cosmological scenario with a homogeneous tachyon field within the framework of loop quantum gravity is developed. Our study is based on the semiclassical regime where space time can be approximated as a continuous manifold, but matter Hamiltonian gets nonperturbative quantum corrections. A formal correspondence between classical and loop quantum cosmology is also established. The Hamilton-Jacobi method for getting exact solutions is constructed and some exact power law as well as bouncing solutions are presented.
Observations on interfacing loop quantum gravity with cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawłowski, Tomasz
2015-12-01
A simple idea of relating the loop quantum gravity (LQG) and loop quantum cosmology (LQC) degrees of freedom is introduced and used to define a relatively robust interface between these theories in context of toroidal Bianchi I model. The idea is an expansion of the construction originally introduced by Ashtekar and Wilson-Ewing and relies on explicit averaging of a certain subclass of spin networks over the subgroup of the diffeomorphisms remaining after the gauge fixing used in homogeneous LQC. It is based on the set of clearly defined principles and thus is a convenient tool to control the emergence and behavior of the cosmological degrees of freedom in studies of dynamics in canonical LQG. The constructed interface is further adapted to isotropic spacetimes. Relating the proposed LQG-LQC interface with some results on black hole entropy suggests a modification to the area gap value currently used in LQC.
Extended loop representation of quantum gravity
Di Bartolo, C. ); Gambini, R.; Griego, J. )
1995-01-15
A new representation of quantum gravity is developed. This formulation is based on an extension of the group of loops. The enlarged group that we call the extended loop group behaves locally as an infinite dimensional Lie group. Quantum gravity can be realized on the state space of extended loop-dependent wave functions. The extended representation generalizes the loop representation and contains this representation as a particular case. The resulting diffeomorphism and Hamiltonian constraints take a very simple form and allow us to apply functional methods and simplify the loop calculus. In particular we show that the constraints are linear in the momenta. The nondegenerate solutions known in the loop representation are also solutions of the constraints in the new representation. An approach to the regularization problems associated with the formal calculus is performed. We show that the solutions are generalized knot invariants, smooth in the extended variables, and any framing is unnecessary.
Onset of inflation in loop quantum cosmology
Germani, Cristiano; Nelson, William; Sakellariadou, Mairi
2007-08-15
Using a Liouville measure, similar to the one proposed recently by Gibbons and Turok, we investigate the probability that single-field inflation with a polynomial potential can last long enough to solve the shortcomings of the standard hot big bang model, within the semiclassical regime of loop quantum cosmology. We conclude that, for such a class of inflationary models and for natural values of the loop quantum cosmology parameters, a successful inflationary scenario is highly improbable.
Loop realizations of quantum affine algebras
Cautis, Sabin; Licata, Anthony
2012-12-15
We give a simplified description of quantum affine algebras in their loop presentation. This description is related to Drinfeld's new realization via halves of vertex operators. We also define an idempotent version of the quantum affine algebra which is suitable for categorification.
Exotic singularities and spatially curved loop quantum cosmology
Singh, Parampreet; Vidotto, Francesca
2011-03-15
We investigate the occurrence of various exotic spacelike singularities in the past and the future evolution of k={+-}1 Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model and loop quantum cosmology using a sufficiently general phenomenological model for the equation of state. We highlight the nontrivial role played by the intrinsic curvature for these singularities and the new physics which emerges at the Planck scale. We show that quantum gravity effects generically resolve all strong curvature singularities including big rip and big freeze singularities. The weak singularities, which include sudden and big brake singularities, are ignored by quantum gravity when spatial curvature is negative, as was previously found for the spatially flat model. Interestingly, for the spatially closed model there exist cases where weak singularities may be resolved when they occur in the past evolution. The spatially closed model exhibits another novel feature. For a particular class of equation of state, this model also exhibits an additional physical branch in loop quantum cosmology, a baby universe separated from the parent branch. Our analysis generalizes previous results obtained on the resolution of strong curvature singularities in flat models to isotropic spacetimes with nonzero spatial curvature.
Universe’s memory and spontaneous coherence in loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawłowski, Tomasz
2016-07-01
The quantum bounce a priori connects several (semi)classical epochs of universe evolution, however determining if and how well the semiclassicality is preserved in this transition is highly nontrivial. We review the present state of knowledge in that regards in the isotropic sector of loop quantum cosmology (LQC). This knowledge is next extended by studies of an isotropic universe admitting positive cosmological constant (featuring an infinite chain of large universe epochs). It is also shown, that such universe always admits a semiclassical epoch thanks to spontaneous coherence, provided it is semiclassical in certain constant of motion playing the role of energy.
Radiation from quantum weakly dynamical horizons in loop quantum gravity.
Pranzetti, Daniele
2012-07-01
We provide a statistical mechanical analysis of quantum horizons near equilibrium in the grand canonical ensemble. By matching the description of the nonequilibrium phase in terms of weakly dynamical horizons with a local statistical framework, we implement loop quantum gravity dynamics near the boundary. The resulting radiation process provides a quantum gravity description of the horizon evaporation. For large black holes, the spectrum we derive presents a discrete structure which could be potentially observable. PMID:23031096
Loop quantum cosmology and the fate of cosmological singularities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Parampreet
2014-09-01
Singularities in general relativity such as the big bang and big crunch, and exotic singularities such as the big rip are the boundaries of the classical spacetimes. These events are marked by a divergence in the curvature invariants and the breakdown of the geodesic evolution. Recent progress on implementing techniques of loop quantum gravity to cosmological models reveals that such singularities may be generically resolved because of the quantum gravitational effects. Due to the quantum geometry, which replaces the classical differential geometry at the Planck scale, the big bang is replaced by a big bounce without any assumptions on the matter content or any fine tuning. In this manuscript, we discuss some of the main features of this approach and the results on the generic resolution of singularities for the isotropic as well as anisotropic models. Using effective spacetime description of the quantum theory, we show the way quantum gravitational effects lead to the universal bounds on the energy density, the Hubble rate and the anisotropic shear. We discuss the geodesic completeness in the effective spacetime and the resolution of all of the strong singularities. It turns out that despite the bounds on energy density and the Hubble rate, there can be divergences in the curvature invariants. However such events are geodesically extendible, with tidal forces not strong enough to cause inevitable destruction of the in-falling objects.
Lorentz invariance in loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pullin, Jorge; Rastgoo, Saeed; Gambini, Rodolfo
2011-04-01
We reconsider the argument of Collins, Perez, Sudarsky, Urrutia and Vucetich concerning violations of Lorentz invariance in the context of loop quantum gravity. We show that even if one introduces a lattice that violates Lorentz invariance at the Planck scale, this does not translate itself into large violations that would conflict with experiment.
Warm inflationary model in loop quantum cosmology
Herrera, Ramon
2010-06-15
A warm inflationary universe model in loop quantum cosmology is studied. In general we discuss the condition of inflation in this framework. By using a chaotic potential, V({phi}){proportional_to}{phi}{sup 2}, we develop a model where the dissipation coefficient {Gamma}={Gamma}{sub 0}=constant. We use recent astronomical observations for constraining the parameters appearing in our model.
Quantum hyperbolic geometry in loop quantum gravity with cosmological constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dupuis, Maïté; Girelli, Florian
2013-06-01
Loop quantum gravity (LQG) is an attempt to describe the quantum gravity regime. Introducing a nonzero cosmological constant Λ in this context has been a standing problem. Other approaches, such as Chern-Simons gravity, suggest that quantum groups can be used to introduce Λ into the game. Not much is known when defining LQG with a quantum group. Tensor operators can be used to construct observables in any type of discrete quantum gauge theory with a classical/quantum gauge group. We illustrate this by constructing explicitly geometric observables for LQG defined with a quantum group and show for the first time that they encode a quantized hyperbolic geometry. This is a novel argument pointing out the usefulness of quantum groups as encoding a nonzero cosmological constant. We conclude by discussing how tensor operators provide the right formalism to unlock the LQG formulation with a nonzero cosmological constant.
Covariant entropy bound and loop quantum cosmology
Ashtekar, Abhay; Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2008-09-15
We examine Bousso's covariant entropy bound conjecture in the context of radiation filled, spatially flat, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models. The bound is violated near the big bang. However, the hope has been that quantum gravity effects would intervene and protect it. Loop quantum cosmology provides a near ideal setting for investigating this issue. For, on the one hand, quantum geometry effects resolve the singularity and, on the other hand, the wave function is sharply peaked at a quantum corrected but smooth geometry, which can supply the structure needed to test the bound. We find that the bound is respected. We suggest that the bound need not be an essential ingredient for a quantum gravity theory but may emerge from it under suitable circumstances.
Generalized effective description of loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashtekar, Abhay; Gupt, Brajesh
2015-10-01
The effective description of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) has proved to be a convenient platform to study phenomenological implications of the quantum bounce that resolves the classical big bang singularity. Originally, this description was derived using Gaussian quantum states with small dispersions. In this paper we present a generalization to incorporate states with large dispersions. Specifically, we derive the generalized effective Friedmann and Raychaudhuri equations and propose a generalized effective Hamiltonian which are being used in an ongoing study of the phenomenological consequences of a broad class of quantum geometries. We also discuss an interesting interplay between the physics of states with larger dispersions in standard LQC, and of sharply peaked states in (hypothetical) LQC theories with larger area gap.
Regularization ambiguities in loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perez, Alejandro
2006-02-01
One of the main achievements of loop quantum gravity is the consistent quantization of the analog of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation which is free of ultraviolet divergences. However, ambiguities associated to the intermediate regularization procedure lead to an apparently infinite set of possible theories. The absence of an UV problem—the existence of well-behaved regularization of the constraints—is intimately linked with the ambiguities arising in the quantum theory. Among these ambiguities is the one associated to the SU(2) unitary representation used in the diffeomorphism covariant “point-splitting” regularization of the nonlinear functionals of the connection. This ambiguity is labeled by a half-integer m and, here, it is referred to as the m ambiguity. The aim of this paper is to investigate the important implications of this ambiguity. We first study 2+1 gravity (and more generally BF theory) quantized in the canonical formulation of loop quantum gravity. Only when the regularization of the quantum constraints is performed in terms of the fundamental representation of the gauge group does one obtain the usual topological quantum field theory as a result. In all other cases unphysical local degrees of freedom arise at the level of the regulated theory that conspire against the existence of the continuum limit. This shows that there is a clear-cut choice in the quantization of the constraints in 2+1 loop quantum gravity. We then analyze the effects of the ambiguity in 3+1 gravity exhibiting the existence of spurious solutions for higher representation quantizations of the Hamiltonian constraint. Although the analysis is not complete in 3+1 dimensions—due to the difficulties associated to the definition of the physical inner product—it provides evidence supporting the definitions quantum dynamics of loop quantum gravity in terms of the fundamental representation of the gauge group as the only consistent possibilities. If the gauge group is SO(3) we
Separable Hilbert space in loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fairbairn, Winston; Rovelli, Carlo
2004-07-01
We study the separability of the state space of loop quantum gravity. In the standard construction, the kinematical Hilbert space of the diffeomorphism-invariant states is nonseparable. This is a consequence of the fact that the knot space of the equivalence classes of graphs under diffeomorphisms is noncountable. However, the continuous moduli labeling these classes do not appear to affect the physics of the theory. We investigate the possibility that these moduli could be only the consequence of a poor choice in the fine-tuning of the mathematical setting. We show that by simply choosing a minor extension of the functional class of the classical fields and coordinates, the moduli disappear, the knot classes become countable, and the kinematical Hilbert space of loop quantum gravity becomes separable.
Behavior of nonlinear anisotropies in bouncing Bianchi I models of loop quantum cosmology
Chiou, D.-W.; Vandersloot, Kevin
2007-10-15
In homogeneous and isotropic loop quantum cosmology, gravity can behave repulsively at Planckian energy densities leading to the replacement of the big bang singularity with a big bounce. Yet in any bouncing scenario it is important to include nonlinear effects from anisotropies which typically grow during the collapsing phase. We investigate the dynamics of a Bianchi I anisotropic model within the framework of loop quantum cosmology. Using effective semiclassical equations of motion to study the dynamics, we show that the big bounce is still predicted with only differences in detail arising from the inclusion of anisotropies. We show that the anisotropic shear term grows during the collapsing phase, but remains finite through the bounce. Immediately following the bounce, the anisotropies decay and with the inclusion of matter with equation of state w<+1, the universe isotropizes in the expanding phase.
Loop quantum cosmology in Bianchi type I models: Analytical investigation
Chiou, D.-W.
2007-01-15
The comprehensive formulation for loop quantum cosmology in the spatially flat, isotropic model was recently constructed. In this paper, the methods are extended to the anisotropic Bianchi I cosmology. Both the precursor and the improved strategies are applied and the expected results are established: (i) the scalar field again serves as an internal clock and is treated as emergent time; (ii) the total Hamiltonian constraint is derived by imposing the fundamental discreteness and gives the evolution as a difference equation; and (iii) the physical Hilbert space, Dirac observables, and semiclassical states are constructed rigorously. It is also shown that the state in the kinematical Hilbert space associated with the classical singularity is decoupled in the difference evolution equation, indicating that the big bounce may take place when any of the area scales undergoes the vanishing behavior. The investigation affirms the robustness of the framework used in the isotropic model by enlarging its domain of validity and provides foundations to conduct the detailed numerical analysis.
BOOK REVIEW: A First Course in Loop Quantum Gravity A First Course in Loop Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dittrich, Bianca
2012-12-01
Students who are interested in quantum gravity usually face the difficulty of working through a large amount of prerequisite material before being able to deal with actual quantum gravity. A First Course in Loop Quantum Gravity by Rodolfo Gambini and Jorge Pullin, aimed at undergraduate students, marvellously succeeds in starting from the basics of special relativity and covering basic topics in Hamiltonian dynamics, Yang Mills theory, general relativity and quantum field theory, ending with a tour on current (loop) quantum gravity research. This is all done in a short 173 pages! As such the authors cannot cover any of the subjects in depth and indeed this book should be seen more as a motivation and orientation guide so that students can go on to follow the hints for further reading. Also, as there are many subjects to cover beforehand, slightly more than half of the book is concerned with more general subjects (special and general relativity, Hamiltonian dynamics, constrained systems, quantization) before the starting point for loop quantum gravity, the Ashtekar variables, are introduced. The approach taken by the authors is heuristic and uses simplifying examples in many places. However they take care in motivating all the main steps and succeed in presenting the material pedagogically. Problem sets are provided throughout and references for further reading are given. Despite the shortness of space, alternative viewpoints are mentioned and the reader is also referred to experimental results and bounds. In the second half of the book the reader gets a ride through loop quantum gravity; the material covers geometric operators and their spectra, the Hamiltonian constraints, loop quantum cosmology and, more broadly, black hole thermodynamics. A glimpse of recent developments and open problems is given, for instance a discussion on experimental predictions, where the authors carefully point out the very preliminary nature of the results. The authors close with an
Violation of the holographic principle in the loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sargın, Ozan; Faizal, Mir
2016-02-01
In this paper, we analyze the holographic principle using loop quantum gravity (LQG). This will be done by using polymeric quantization for analysing Yurtsever's holographic bound on the entropy, which is obtained from local quantum field theories. As the polymeric quantization is the characteristic feature of loop quantum gravity, we will argue that this calculation will indicate the effect of loop quantum gravity on the holographic principle. Thus, we will be able to explicitly demonstrate the violation of the holographic principle in the loop quantum gravity.
Embedding loop quantum cosmology without piecewise linearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engle, Jonathan
2013-04-01
An important goal is to understand better the relation between full loop quantum gravity (LQG) and the simplified, reduced theory known as loop quantum cosmology (LQC), directly at the quantum level. Such a firmer understanding would increase confidence in the reduced theory as a tool for formulating predictions of the full theory, as well as permitting lessons from the reduced theory to guide further development in the full theory. This paper constructs an embedding of the usual state space of LQC into that of standard LQG, that is, LQG based on piecewise analytic paths. The embedding is well defined even prior to solving the diffeomorphism constraint, at no point is a graph fixed and at no point is the piecewise linear category used. This motivates for the first time a definition of operators in LQC corresponding to holonomies along non-piecewise linear paths, without changing the usual kinematics of LQC in any way. The new embedding intertwines all operators corresponding to such holonomies, and all elements in its image satisfy an operator equation which classically implies homogeneity and isotropy. The construction is made possible by a recent result proven by Fleischhack. Communicated by P Singh
Effective dynamics in Bianchi type II loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corichi, Alejandro; Montoya, Edison
2012-05-01
We numerically investigate the solutions to the effective equations of the Bianchi II model within the “improved” loop quantum cosmology dynamics. The matter source is a massless scalar field. We perform a systematic study of the space of solutions, and focus on the behavior of several geometrical observables. We show that the big bang singularity is replaced by a bounce and the pointlike singularities do not saturate the energy density bound. There are up to three directional bounces in the scale factors, one global bounce in the expansion, the shear presents up to four local maxima and can be zero at the bounce. This allows for solutions with density larger than the maximal density for the isotropic and Bianchi I cases. The asymptotic behavior is shown to behave like that of a Bianchi I model, and the effective solutions connect anisotropic solutions even when the shear is zero at the bounce. All known facts of Bianchi I are reproduced. In the “vacuum limit,” solutions are such that almost all the dynamics is due to the anisotropies. Since Bianchi II plays an important role in the Bianchi IX model and the Belinskii, Khalatnikov, Lifshitz conjecture, our results can provide an intuitive understanding of the behavior in the vicinity of general spacelike singularities, when loop-geometric corrections are present.
Vector fields and Loop Quantum Cosmology
Artymowski, Michał; Lalak, Zygmunt E-mail: Zygmunt.Lalak@fuw.edu.pl
2011-09-01
In the context of the Loop Quantum Cosmology we have analysed the holonomy correction to the classical evolution of the simplified Bianchi I model in the presence of vector fields. For the Universe dominated by a massive vector field or by a combination of a scalar field and a vector field a smooth transition between Kasner-like and Kasner-unlike solutions for a Bianchi I model has been demonstrated. In this case a lack of initial curvature singularity and a finite maximal energy density appear already at the level of General Relativity, which simulates a classical Big Bounce.
Phase transition in loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mäkelä, Jarmo
2016-04-01
We point out that with a specific counting of states loop quantum gravity implies that black holes perform a phase transition at a certain characteristic temperature TC . In this phase transition the punctures of the spin network on the stretched horizon of the black hole jump, in effect, from the vacuum to the excited states. The characteristic temperature TC may be regarded as the lowest possible temperature of the hole. From the point of view of a distant observer at rest with respect to the hole, the characteristic temperature TC corresponds to the Hawking temperature of the hole.
Novel Numerical Approaches to Loop Quantum Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diener, Peter
2015-04-01
Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) is an (as yet incomplete) approach to the quantization of gravity. When applied to symmetry reduced cosmological spacetimes (Loop Quantum Cosmology or LQC) one of the predictions of the theory is that the Big Bang is replaced by a Big Bounce, i.e. a previously existing contracting universe underwent a bounce at finite volume before becoming our expanding universe. The evolution equations of LQC take the form of difference equations (with the discretization given by the theory) that in the large volume limit can be approximated by partial differential equations (PDEs). In this talk I will first discuss some of the unique challenges encountered when trying to numerically solve these difference equations. I will then present some of the novel approaches that have been employed to overcome the challenges. I will here focus primarily on the Chimera scheme that takes advantage of the fact that the LQC difference equations can be approximated by PDEs in the large volume limit. I will finally also briefly discuss some of the results that have been obtained using these numerical techniques by performing simulations in regions of parameter space that were previously unreachable. This work is supported by a grant from the John Templeton Foundation and by NSF grant PHYS1068743.
Invariant Connections in Loop Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanusch, Maximilian
2016-04-01
Given a group {G}, and an abelian {C^*}-algebra {A}, the antihomomorphisms {Θ\\colon G→ {Aut}(A)} are in one-to-one with those left actions {Φ\\colon G× {Spec}(A)→ {Spec}(A)} whose translation maps {Φ_g} are continuous; whereby continuities of {Θ} and {Φ} turn out to be equivalent if {A} is unital. In particular, a left action {φ\\colon G × X→ X} can be uniquely extended to the spectrum of a {C^*}-subalgebra {A} of the bounded functions on {X} if {φ_g^*(A)subseteq A} holds for each {gin G}. In the present paper, we apply this to the framework of loop quantum gravity. We show that, on the level of the configuration spaces, quantization and reduction in general do not commute, i.e., that the symmetry-reduced quantum configuration space is (strictly) larger than the quantized configuration space of the reduced classical theory. Here, the quantum-reduced space has the advantage to be completely characterized by a simple algebraic relation, whereby the quantized reduced classical space is usually hard to compute.
Quantum critical dynamics of a qubit coupled to an isotropic Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick bath
Quan, H. T.; Wang, Z. D.; Sun, C. P.
2007-07-15
We explore a dynamic signature of quantum phase transition (QPT) in an isotropic Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model by studying the time evolution of a central qubit coupled to it. We evaluate exactly the time-dependent purity, which can be used to measure quantum coherence, of the central qubit. It is found that distinctly different behaviors of the purity as a function of the parameter reveal clearly the QPT point in the system. It is also clarified that the present model is equivalent to an anti-Jaynes-Cummings model under certain conditions.
Cosmological perturbations in teleparallel Loop Quantum Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haro, Jaime
2013-11-01
Cosmological perturbations in Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) are usually studied incorporating either holonomy corrections, where the Ashtekar connection is replaced by a suitable sinus function in order to have a well-defined quantum analogue, or inverse-volume corrections coming from the eigenvalues of the inverse-volume operator. In this paper we will develop an alternative approach to calculate cosmological perturbations in LQC based on the fact that, holonomy corrected LQC in the flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry could be also obtained as a particular case of teleparallel F(T) gravity (teleparallel LQC). The main idea of our approach is to mix the simple bounce provided by holonomy corrections in LQC with the non-singular perturbation equations given by F(T) gravity, in order to obtain a matter bounce scenario as a viable alternative to slow-roll inflation. In our study, we have obtained an scale invariant power spectrum of cosmological perturbations. However, the ratio of tensor to scalar perturbations is of order 1, which does not agree with the current observations. For this reason, we suggest a model where a transition from the matter domination to a quasi de Sitter phase is produced in order to enhance the scalar power spectrum.
Holographic bound in covariant loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamaki, Takashi
2016-07-01
We investigate puncture statistics based on the covariant area spectrum in loop quantum gravity. First, we consider Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics with a Gibbs factor for punctures. We establish formulas which relate physical quantities such as horizon area to the parameter characterizing holographic degrees of freedom. We also perform numerical calculations and obtain consistency with these formulas. These results tell us that the holographic bound is satisfied in the large area limit and the correction term of the entropy-area law can be proportional to the logarithm of the horizon area. Second, we also consider Bose-Einstein statistics and show that the above formulas are also useful in this case. By applying the formulas, we can understand intrinsic features of Bose-Einstein condensate which corresponds to the case when the horizon area almost consists of punctures in the ground state. When this phenomena occurs, the area is approximately constant against the parameter characterizing the temperature. When this phenomena is broken, the area shows rapid increase which suggests the phase transition from quantum to classical area.
A quantum reduction to spherical symmetry in loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodendorfer, N.; Lewandowski, J.; Świeżewski, J.
2015-07-01
Based on a recent purely geometric construction of observables for the spatial diffeomorphism constraint, we propose two distinct quantum reductions to spherical symmetry within full 3 + 1-dimensional loop quantum gravity. The construction of observables corresponds to using the radial gauge for the spatial metric and allows to identify rotations around a central observer as unitary transformations in the quantum theory. Group averaging over these rotations yields our first proposal for spherical symmetry. Hamiltonians of the full theory with angle-independent lapse preserve this spherically symmetric subsector of the full Hilbert space. A second proposal consists in implementing the vanishing of a certain vector field in spherical symmetry as a constraint on the full Hilbert space, leading to a close analogue of diffeomorphisms invariant states. While this second set of spherically symmetric states does not allow for using the full Hamiltonian, it is naturally suited to implement the spherically symmetric midisuperspace Hamiltonian, as an operator in the full theory, on it. Due to the canonical structure of the reduced variables, the holonomy-flux algebra behaves effectively as a one parameter family of 2 + 1-dimensional algebras along the radial coordinate, leading to a diagonal non-vanishing volume operator on 3-valent vertices. The quantum dynamics thus becomes tractable, including scenarios like spherically symmetric dust collapse.
Loop quantum cosmology with complex Ashtekar variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben Achour, Jibril; Grain, Julien; Noui, Karim
2015-01-01
We construct and study loop quantum cosmology (LQC) when the Barbero-Immirzi parameter takes the complex value γ =+/- i. We refer to this new approach to quantum cosmology as complex LQC. This formulation is obtained via an analytic continuation of the Hamiltonian constraint (with no inverse volume corrections) from real γ to γ =+/- i, in the simple case of a flat FLRW Universe coupled to a massless scalar field with no cosmological constant. For this, we first compute the non-local curvature operator (defined by the trace of the holonomy of the connection around a fundamental plaquette) evaluated in an arbitrary spin j representation, and find a new close formula for its expression. This allows us to define explicitly a one parameter family of regularizations of the Hamiltonian constraint in LQC, parametrized by the spin j. It is immediate to see that any spin j regularization leads to a bouncing scenario. Then, motivated in particular by previous results on black hole thermodynamics, we perform the analytic continuation of the Hamiltonian constraint to values of the Barbero-Immirzi parameter given by γ =+/- i and to spins j=\\frac{1}{2}(-1+is) where s is real. Even if the area spectrum then becomes continuous, we show that the complex LQC defined in this way does also replace the initial big-bang singularity by a big-bounce. In addition to this, the maximal density and the minimal volume of the Universe are obviously independent of γ . Furthermore, the dynamics before and after the bounce is not symmetrical anymore, which makes a clear distinction between these two phases of the evolution of the Universe.
An introduction to spherically symmetric loop quantum gravity black holes
Gambini, Rodolfo; Pullin, Jorge
2015-03-26
We review recent developments in the treatment of spherically symmetric black holes in loop quantum gravity. In particular, we discuss an exact solution to the quantum constraints that represents a black hole and is free of singularities. We show that new observables that are not present in the classical theory arise in the quantum theory. We also discuss Hawking radiation by considering the quantization of a scalar field on the quantum spacetime.
New Hamiltonian constraint operator for loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jinsong; Ma, Yongge
2015-12-01
A new symmetric Hamiltonian constraint operator is proposed for loop quantum gravity, which is well defined in the Hilbert space of diffeomorphism invariant states up to non-planar vertices with valence higher than three. It inherits the advantage of the original regularization method to create new vertices to the spin networks. The quantum algebra of this Hamiltonian is anomaly-free on shell, and there is less ambiguity in its construction in comparison with the original method. The regularization procedure for this Hamiltonian constraint operator can also be applied to the symmetric model of loop quantum cosmology, which leads to a new quantum dynamics of the cosmological model.
Quantum reduced loop gravity: Universe on a lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alesci, Emanuele; Cianfrani, Francesco
2015-10-01
We describe the quantum flat universe in Quantum Reduced Loop Gravity in terms of states based on cuboidal graphs with six-valent nodes. We investigate the action of the scalar constraint operator at each node, and we construct proper semiclassical states. This allows us to discuss the semiclassical effective dynamics of the quantum universe, which resembles that of Loop Quantum Cosmology. In particular, the regulator is identified with the third root of the inverse number of nodes within each homogeneous patch, while inverse-volume corrections are enhanced.
Geometry of loop quantum gravity on a graph
Rovelli, Carlo; Speziale, Simone
2010-08-15
We discuss the meaning of geometrical constructions associated to loop quantum gravity states on a graph. In particular, we discuss the 'twisted geometries' and derive a simple relation between these and Regge geometries.
Tanaka, Tomo; Amemiya, Fumitoshi; Shimano, Masahiro; Harada, Tomohiro; Tamaki, Takashi
2011-05-15
In loop quantum cosmology, the Hamiltonian reduces to a finite difference operator and quantum dynamics are controlled by the difference equation. In this framework, Bojowald [M. Bojowald, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5227 (2001).] showed that the initial singularity is absent in the twofold sense: (i) the spectrum of the inverse scale factor operator is bounded from above; (ii) the wave function of the Universe can be uniquely extended beyond the point which was the initial singularity in classical theory. In this paper, we study the initial singularity in this sense and the large-volume limit against the ambiguities in the discretization and the operator ordering within a homogeneous, isotropic and spatially flat model with the cosmological constant. We find that the absence of the singularity strongly depends on the choice of the operator ordering and the requirement for the absence singles out a very small class of orderings. Moreover we find a general ordering rule required for the absence of the singularity. We also find that the large-volume limit naturally recovers a smooth wave function in the discretization where each step corresponds to a fixed volume increment but not in the one where each step corresponds to a fixed area increment. If loop quantum cosmology is to be a phenomenological realization of full loop quantum gravity, these results are important to fix the theoretical ambiguities.
Observational exclusion of a consistent loop quantum cosmology scenario
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolliet, Boris; Barrau, Aurélien; Grain, Julien; Schander, Susanne
2016-06-01
It is often argued that inflation erases all the information about what took place before it started. Quantum gravity, relevant in the Planck era, seems therefore mostly impossible to probe with cosmological observations. In general, only very ad hoc scenarios or hyper fine-tuned initial conditions can lead to observationally testable theories. Here we consider a well-defined and well-motivated candidate quantum cosmology model that predicts inflation. Using the most recent observational constraints on the cosmic microwave background B-modes, we show that the model is excluded for all its parameter space, without any tuning. Some important consequences are drawn for the deformed algebra approach to loop quantum cosmology. We emphasize that neither loop quantum cosmology in general nor loop quantum gravity are disfavored by this study but their falsifiability is established.
Chern-Simons expectation values and quantum horizons from loop quantum gravity and the Duflo map.
Sahlmann, Hanno; Thiemann, Thomas
2012-03-16
We report on a new approach to the calculation of Chern-Simons theory expectation values, using the mathematical underpinnings of loop quantum gravity, as well as the Duflo map, a quantization map for functions on Lie algebras. These new developments can be used in the quantum theory for certain types of black hole horizons, and they may offer new insights for loop quantum gravity, Chern-Simons theory and the theory of quantum groups. PMID:22540458
Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi type IX models
Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2010-08-15
The loop quantum cosmology 'improved dynamics' of the Bianchi type IX model are studied. The action of the Hamiltonian constraint operator is obtained via techniques developed for the Bianchi type I and type II models, no new input is required. It is shown that the big bang and big crunch singularities are resolved by quantum gravity effects. We also present effective equations which provide quantum geometry corrections to the classical equations of motion.
Resolution of curvature singularities from quantum mechanical and loop perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tahamtan, T.; Svítek, O.
2014-08-01
We analyze the persistence of curvature singularities when analyzed using quantum theory. First, quantum test particles obeying the Klein-Gordon and Chandrasekhar-Dirac equation are used to probe the classical timelike naked singularity. We show that the classical singularity is felt even by our quantum probes. Next, we use loop quantization to resolve a singularity hidden beneath the horizon. The singularity is resolved in this case.
Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi IX: Inclusion of inverse triad corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corichi, Alejandro; Karami, Asieh
2016-06-01
We consider the loop quantization of the (diagonal) Bianchi type IX cosmological model. We explore different quantization prescriptions that extend the work of Wilson-Ewing and Singh. In particular, we study two different ways of implementing the so-called inverse triad corrections. We construct the corresponding Hamiltonian constraint operators and show that the singularity is formally resolved. We find the effective equations associated with the different quantization prescriptions, and study the relation with the isotropic k = 1 model that, classically, is contained within the Bianchi IX model. Somewhat surprisingly, we find the most natural quantization does not reduce to the k = 1 model. We use geometrically defined scalar observables to explore the physical implications of each of these theories. This is the first part in a series of papers analyzing different aspects of the Bianchi IX model, with inverse corrections, within loop quantum cosmology (LQC).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirwai, Amey; Chandrakumar, N.
2016-08-01
We report the design and performance evaluation of novel pulse sequences for triple quantum filtered spectroscopy in homonuclear three spin-1/2 systems, employing isotropic mixing (IM) to excite triple quantum coherence (TQC). Our approach involves the generation of combination single quantum coherences (cSQC) from antisymmetric longitudinal or transverse magnetization components employing isotropic mixing (IM). cSQC's are then converted to TQC by a selective 180° pulse on one of the spins. As IM ideally causes magnetization to evolve under the influence of the spin coupling Hamiltonian alone, TQC is generated at a faster rate compared to sequences involving free precession. This is expected to be significant when the spins have large relaxation rates. Our approach is demonstrated experimentally by TQC filtered 1D spectroscopy on a 1H AX2 system (propargyl bromide in the presence of a paramagnetic additive), as well as a 31P linear AMX system (ATP in agar gel). The performance of the IM-based sequences for TQC excitation are compared against the standard three pulse sequence (Ernst et al., 1987) and an AX2 spin pattern recognition sequence (Levitt and Ernst, 1983). The latter reaches the unitary bound on TQC preparation efficiency starting from thermal equilibrium in AX2 systems, not considering relaxation. It is shown that in systems where spins relax rapidly, the new IM-based sequences indeed perform significantly better than the above two known TQC excitation sequences, the sensitivity enhancement being especially pronounced in the case of the proton system investigated. An overview of the differences in relaxation behavior is presented for the different approaches. Applications are envisaged to Overhauser DNP experiments and to in vivo NMR.
Kirwai, Amey; Chandrakumar, N
2016-08-01
We report the design and performance evaluation of novel pulse sequences for triple quantum filtered spectroscopy in homonuclear three spin-1/2 systems, employing isotropic mixing (IM) to excite triple quantum coherence (TQC). Our approach involves the generation of combination single quantum coherences (cSQC) from antisymmetric longitudinal or transverse magnetization components employing isotropic mixing (IM). cSQC's are then converted to TQC by a selective 180° pulse on one of the spins. As IM ideally causes magnetization to evolve under the influence of the spin coupling Hamiltonian alone, TQC is generated at a faster rate compared to sequences involving free precession. This is expected to be significant when the spins have large relaxation rates. Our approach is demonstrated experimentally by TQC filtered 1D spectroscopy on a (1)H AX2 system (propargyl bromide in the presence of a paramagnetic additive), as well as a (31)P linear AMX system (ATP in agar gel). The performance of the IM-based sequences for TQC excitation are compared against the standard three pulse sequence (Ernst et al., 1987) and an AX2 spin pattern recognition sequence (Levitt and Ernst, 1983). The latter reaches the unitary bound on TQC preparation efficiency starting from thermal equilibrium in AX2 systems, not considering relaxation. It is shown that in systems where spins relax rapidly, the new IM-based sequences indeed perform significantly better than the above two known TQC excitation sequences, the sensitivity enhancement being especially pronounced in the case of the proton system investigated. An overview of the differences in relaxation behavior is presented for the different approaches. Applications are envisaged to Overhauser DNP experiments and to in vivo NMR. PMID:27253727
Loop quantum cosmology with self-dual variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2015-12-01
Using the complex-valued self-dual connection variables, the loop quantum cosmology of a closed Friedmann space-time coupled to a massless scalar field is studied. It is shown how the reality conditions can be imposed in the quantum theory by choosing a particular inner product for the kinematical Hilbert space. While holonomies of the self-dual Ashtekar connection are not well defined in the kinematical Hilbert space, it is possible to introduce a family of generalized holonomylike operators of which some are well defined; these operators in turn are used in the definition of the Hamiltonian constraint operator where the scalar field can be used as a relational clock. The resulting quantum theory is closely related, although not identical, to standard loop quantum cosmology constructed from the Ashtekar-Barbero variables with a real Immirzi parameter. Effective Friedmann equations are derived which provide a good approximation to the full quantum dynamics for sharply peaked states whose volume remains much larger than the Planck volume, and they show that for these states quantum gravity effects resolve the big-bang and big-crunch singularities and replace them by a nonsingular bounce. Finally, the loop quantization in self-dual variables of a flat Friedmann space-time is recovered in the limit of zero spatial curvature and is identical to the standard loop quantization in terms of the real-valued Ashtekar-Barbero variables.
Generalized directed loop method for quantum Monte Carlo simulations.
Alet, Fabien; Wessel, Stefan; Troyer, Matthias
2005-03-01
Efficient quantum Monte Carlo update schemes called directed loops have recently been proposed, which improve the efficiency of simulations of quantum lattice models. We propose to generalize the detailed balance equations at the local level during the loop construction by accounting for the matrix elements of the operators associated with open world-line segments. Using linear programming techniques to solve the generalized equations, we look for optimal construction schemes for directed loops. This also allows for an extension of the directed loop scheme to general lattice models, such as high-spin or bosonic models. The resulting algorithms are bounce free in larger regions of parameter space than the original directed loop algorithm. The generalized directed loop method is applied to the magnetization process of spin chains in order to compare its efficiency to that of previous directed loop schemes. In contrast to general expectations, we find that minimizing bounces alone does not always lead to more efficient algorithms in terms of autocorrelations of physical observables, because of the nonuniqueness of the bounce-free solutions. We therefore propose different general strategies to further minimize autocorrelations, which can be used as supplementary requirements in any directed loop scheme. We show by calculating autocorrelation times for different observables that such strategies indeed lead to improved efficiency; however, we find that the optimal strategy depends not only on the model parameters but also on the observable of interest. PMID:15903632
Covariant effective action for loop quantum cosmology a la Palatini
Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Singh, Parampreet E-mail: psingh@perimeterinstitute.ca
2009-01-15
In loop quantum cosmology, non-perturbative quantum gravity effects lead to the resolution of the big bang singularity by a quantum bounce without introducing any new degrees of freedom. Though fundamentally discrete, the theory admits a continuum description in terms of an effective Hamiltonian. Here we provide an algorithm to obtain the corresponding effective action, establishing in this way the covariance of the theory for the first time. This result provides new insights on the continuum properties of the discrete structure of quantum geometry and opens new avenues to extract physical predictions such as those related to gauge invariant cosmological perturbations.
On the Convergence in Effective Loop Quantum Cosmology
Corichi, Alejandro; Vukasinac, Tatjana; Zapata, Jose Antonio
2010-07-12
In Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) there is a discreteness parameter {lambda}, that has been heuristically associated to a fundamental granularity of quantum geometry. It is also possible to consider {lambda} as a regulator in the same spirit as that used in lattice field theory, where it specifies a regular lattice in the real line. A particular quantization of the k = 0 FLRW loop cosmological model yields a completely solvable model, known as solvable loop quantum cosmology(sLQC). In this contribution, we consider effective classical theories motivated by sLQC and study their {lambda}-dependence, with a special interest on the limit {lambda}{yields}0 and the role of the evolution parameter in the convergence of such limit.
Creation of particles in a cyclic universe driven by loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tavakoli, Yaser; Fabris, Júlio C.
2015-05-01
We consider an isotropic and homogeneous universe in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We assume that the matter content of the universe is dominated by dust matter in early time and a phantom matter at late time which constitutes the dark energy component. The quantum gravity modifications to the Friedmann equation in this model indicate that the classical big bang singularity and the future big rip singularity are resolved and are replaced by quantum bounce. It turns out that the big bounce and recollapse in the herein model contribute to a cyclic scenario for the universe. We then study the quantum theory of a massive, nonminimally coupled scalar field undergoing cosmological evolution from primordial bounce towards the late time bounce. In particular, we solve the Klein-Gordon equation for the scalar field in the primordial and late time regions, in order to investigate particle production phenomena at late time. By computing the energy density of created particles at late time, we show that this density is negligible in comparison to the quantum background density at Planck era. This indicates that the effects of quantum particle production do not influence the future bounce.
Numerical analysis of the big bounce in loop quantum cosmology
Laguna, Pablo
2007-01-15
Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) homogeneous models with a massless scalar field show that the big-bang singularity can be replaced by a big quantum bounce. To gain further insight on the nature of this bounce, we study the semidiscrete loop quantum gravity Hamiltonian constraint equation from the point of view of numerical analysis. For illustration purposes, we establish a numerical analogy between the quantum bounces and reflections in finite difference discretizations of wave equations triggered by the use of nonuniform grids or, equivalently, reflections found when solving numerically wave equations with varying coefficients. We show that the bounce is closely related to the method for the temporal update of the system and demonstrate that explicit time-updates in general yield bounces. Finally, we present an example of an implicit time-update devoid of bounces and show back-in-time, deterministic evolutions that reach and partially jump over the big-bang singularity.
Black hole spectroscopy from loop quantum gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrau, Aurelien; Cao, Xiangyu; Noui, Karim; Perez, Alejandro
2015-12-01
Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compute the integrated emission spectra of black holes in the framework of loop quantum gravity (LQG). The black hole emission rates are governed by the entropy whose value, in recent holographic loop quantum gravity models, was shown to agree at leading order with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Quantum corrections depend on the Barbero-Immirzi parameter γ . Starting with black holes of initial horizon area A ˜102 in Planck units, we present the spectra for different values of γ . Each spectrum clearly decomposes into two distinct parts: a continuous background which corresponds to the semiclassical stages of the evaporation and a series of discrete peaks which constitutes a signature of the deep quantum structure of the black hole. We show that γ has an effect on both parts that we analyze in detail. Finally, we estimate the number of black holes and the instrumental resolution required to experimentally distinguish between the considered models.
Probing loop quantum gravity with evaporating black holes.
Barrau, A; Cailleteau, T; Cao, X; Diaz-Polo, J; Grain, J
2011-12-16
This Letter aims at showing that the observation of evaporating black holes should allow the usual Hawking behavior to be distinguished from loop quantum gravity (LQG) expectations. We present a full Monte Carlo simulation of the evaporation in LQG and statistical tests that discriminate between competing models. We conclude that contrarily to what was commonly thought, the discreteness of the area in LQG leads to characteristic features that qualify evaporating black holes as objects that could reveal quantum gravity footprints. PMID:22243065
PREFACE: Loops 11: Non-Perturbative / Background Independent Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Barbero G, J. Fernando; Garay, Luis J.; Villaseñor, Eduardo J. S.; Olmedo, Javier
2012-05-01
Loops 11 The international conference LOOPS'11 took place in Madrid from the 23-28 May 2011. It was hosted by the Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM), which belongs to the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientĺficas (CSIC). Like previous editions of the LOOPS meetings, it dealt with a wealth of state-of-the-art topics on Quantum Gravity, with special emphasis on non-perturbative background-independent approaches to spacetime quantization. The main topics addressed at the conference ranged from the foundations of Quantum Gravity to its phenomenological aspects. They encompassed different approaches to Loop Quantum Gravity and Cosmology, Polymer Quantization, Quantum Field Theory, Black Holes, and discrete approaches such as Dynamical Triangulations, amongst others. In addition, this edition celebrated the 25th anniversary of the introduction of the now well-known Ashtekar variables and the Wednesday morning session was devoted to this silver jubilee. The structure of the conference was designed to reflect the current state and future prospects of research on the different topics mentioned above. Plenary lectures that provided general background and the 'big picture' took place during the mornings, and the more specialised talks were distributed in parallel sessions during the evenings. To be more specific, Monday evening was devoted to Shape Dynamics and Phenomenology Derived from Quantum Gravity in Parallel Session A, and to Covariant Loop Quantum Gravity and Spin foams in Parallel Session B. Tuesday's three Parallel Sessions dealt with Black Hole Physics and Dynamical Triangulations (Session A), the continuation of Monday's session on Covariant Loop Quantum Gravity and Spin foams (Session B) and Foundations of Quantum Gravity (Session C). Finally, Thursday and Friday evenings were devoted to Loop Quantum Cosmology (Session A) and to Hamiltonian Loop Quantum Gravity (Session B). The result of the conference was very satisfactory and enlightening. Not
Loop Quantum Corrections to Statefinder Parameters of Dark Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jamil, Mubasher; Momeni, D.; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2013-09-01
In this paper, we have calculated the statefinder parameters for the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe in the gravitational framework of loop quantum cosmology (LQC). As examples, we study two types of dark energy models namely Holographic dark energy and New-Agegraphic dark energy.
On a Continuum Limit for Loop Quantum Cosmology
Corichi, Alejandro; Vukasinac, Tatjana; Zapata, Jose Antonio
2008-03-06
The use of non-regular representations of the Heisenberg-Weyl commutation relations has proved to be useful for studying conceptual and technical issues in quantum gravity. Of particular relevance is the study of Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC), symmetry reduced theory that is related to Loop Quantum Gravity, and that is based on a non-regular, polymeric representation. Recently, a soluble model was used by Ashtekar, Corichi and Singh to study the relation between Loop Quantum Cosmology and the standard Wheeler-DeWitt theory and, in particular, the passage to the limit in which the auxiliary parameter (interpreted as ''quantum geometry discreetness'') is sent to zero in hope to get rid of this 'regulator' that dictates the LQC dynamics at each 'scale'. In this note we outline the first steps toward reformulating this question within the program developed by the authors for studying the continuum limit of polymeric theories, which was successfully applied to simple systems such as a Simple Harmonic Oscillator.
Measure problem in slow roll inflation and loop quantum cosmology
Corichi, Alejandro; Karami, Asieh
2011-05-15
We consider the measure problem in standard slow-roll inflationary models from the perspective of loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Following recent results by Ashtekar and Sloan, we study the probability of having enough e-foldings and focus on its dependence on the quantum gravity scale, including the transition of the theory to the limit where general relativity (GR) is recovered. Contrary to the standard expectation, the probability of having enough inflation, that is close to 1 in LQC, grows and tends to 1 as one approaches the GR limit. We study the origin of the tension between these results with those by Gibbons and Turok, and offer an explanation that brings these apparent contradictory results into a coherent picture. As we show, the conflicting results stem from different choices of initial conditions for the computation of probability. The singularity-free scenario of loop quantum cosmology offers a natural choice of initial conditions, and suggests that enough inflation is generic.
Dirac fields in loop quantum gravity and big bang nucleosynthesis
Bojowald, Martin; Das, Rupam; Scherrer, Robert J.
2008-04-15
Big bang nucleosynthesis requires a fine balance between equations of state for photons and relativistic fermions. Several corrections to equation of state parameters arise from classical and quantum physics, which are derived here from a canonical perspective. In particular, loop quantum gravity allows one to compute quantum gravity corrections for Maxwell and Dirac fields. Although the classical actions are very different, quantum corrections to the equation of state are remarkably similar. To lowest order, these corrections take the form of an overall expansion-dependent multiplicative factor in the total density. We use these results, along with the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis, to place bounds on these corrections and especially the patch size of discrete quantum gravity states.
Phenomenological loop quantum geometry of the Schwarzschild black hole
Chiou, D.-W.
2008-09-15
The interior of a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated at the level of phenomenological dynamics with the discreteness corrections of loop quantum geometry implemented in two different improved quantization schemes. In one scheme, the classical black hole singularity is resolved by the quantum bounce, which bridges the black hole interior with a white hole interior. In the other scheme, the classical singularity is resolved and the event horizon is also diffused by the quantum bounce. Jumping over the quantum bounce, the black hole gives birth to a baby black hole with a much smaller mass. This lineage continues as each classical black hole brings forth its own descendant in the consecutive classical cycle, giving the whole extended spacetime fractal structure, until the solution eventually descends into the deep Planck regime, signaling a breakdown of the semiclassical description. The issues of scaling symmetry and no-hair theorem are also discussed.
PREFACE: Loops 11: Non-Perturbative / Background Independent Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Barbero G, J. Fernando; Garay, Luis J.; Villaseñor, Eduardo J. S.; Olmedo, Javier
2012-05-01
Loops 11 The international conference LOOPS'11 took place in Madrid from the 23-28 May 2011. It was hosted by the Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM), which belongs to the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientĺficas (CSIC). Like previous editions of the LOOPS meetings, it dealt with a wealth of state-of-the-art topics on Quantum Gravity, with special emphasis on non-perturbative background-independent approaches to spacetime quantization. The main topics addressed at the conference ranged from the foundations of Quantum Gravity to its phenomenological aspects. They encompassed different approaches to Loop Quantum Gravity and Cosmology, Polymer Quantization, Quantum Field Theory, Black Holes, and discrete approaches such as Dynamical Triangulations, amongst others. In addition, this edition celebrated the 25th anniversary of the introduction of the now well-known Ashtekar variables and the Wednesday morning session was devoted to this silver jubilee. The structure of the conference was designed to reflect the current state and future prospects of research on the different topics mentioned above. Plenary lectures that provided general background and the 'big picture' took place during the mornings, and the more specialised talks were distributed in parallel sessions during the evenings. To be more specific, Monday evening was devoted to Shape Dynamics and Phenomenology Derived from Quantum Gravity in Parallel Session A, and to Covariant Loop Quantum Gravity and Spin foams in Parallel Session B. Tuesday's three Parallel Sessions dealt with Black Hole Physics and Dynamical Triangulations (Session A), the continuation of Monday's session on Covariant Loop Quantum Gravity and Spin foams (Session B) and Foundations of Quantum Gravity (Session C). Finally, Thursday and Friday evenings were devoted to Loop Quantum Cosmology (Session A) and to Hamiltonian Loop Quantum Gravity (Session B). The result of the conference was very satisfactory and enlightening. Not
Loop quantum cosmology, non-Gaussianity, and CMB power asymmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agullo, Ivan
2015-09-01
We argue that the anomalous power asymmetry observed in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) may have originated in a cosmic bounce preceding inflation. In loop quantum cosmology (LQC), the big bang singularity is generically replaced by a bounce due to quantum gravitational effects. We compute the spectrum of inflationary non-Gaussianity and show that strong correlation between observable scales and modes with longer (superhorizon) wavelength arise as a consequence of the evolution of perturbations across the LQC bounce. These correlations are strongly scale dependent and induce a dipole-dominated modulation on large angular scales in the CMB, in agreement with observations.
Statistics, holography, and black hole entropy in loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Amit; Noui, Karim; Perez, Alejandro
2014-04-01
In loop quantum gravity the quantum states of a black hole horizon consist of pointlike discrete quantum geometry excitations (or punctures) labeled by spin j. The excitations possibly carry other internal degrees of freedom, and the associated quantum states are eigenstates of the area A operator. The appropriately scaled area operator A/(8πℓ) can also be interpreted as the physical Hamiltonian associated with the quasilocal stationary observers located at a small distance ℓ from the horizon. Thus, the local energy is entirely accounted for by the geometric operator A. Assuming that: Close to the horizon the quantum state has a regular energy momentum tensor and hence the local temperature measured by stationary observers is the Unruh temperature. Degeneracy of matter states is exponential with the area exp(λA/ℓp2), which is supported by the well-established results of QFT in curved spacetimes, which do not determine λ but assert an exponential behavior. The geometric excitations of the horizon (punctures) are indistinguishable. And finally that the semiclassical limit the area of the black hole horizon is large in Planck units. It follows that: Up to quantum corrections, matter degrees of freedom saturate the holographic bound, viz., λ must be equal to 1/4. Up to quantum corrections, the statistical black hole entropy coincides with Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S =A/(4ℓp2). The number of horizon punctures goes like N∝√A/ℓp2 ; i.e., the number of punctures N remains large in the semiclassical limit. Fluctuations of the horizon area are small ΔA/A ∝(ℓp2/A)1/4, while fluctuations of the area of an individual puncture are large (large spins dominate). A precise notion of local conformal invariance of the thermal state is recovered in the A→∞ limit where the near horizon geometry becomes Rindler. We also show how the present model (constructed from loop quantum gravity) provides a regularization of (and gives a concrete meaning to) the formal
Loop quantum cosmology: from pre-inflationary dynamics to observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashtekar, Abhay; Barrau, Aurélien
2015-12-01
The Planck collaboration has provided us rich information about the early Universe, and a host of new observational missions will soon shed further light on the ‘anomalies’ that appear to exist on the largest angular scales. From a quantum gravity perspective, it is natural to inquire if one can trace back the origin of such puzzling features to Planck scale physics. Loop quantum cosmology provides a promising avenue to explore this issue because of its natural resolution of the big bang singularity. Thanks to advances over the last decade, the theory has matured sufficiently to allow concrete calculations of the phenomenological consequences of its pre-inflationary dynamics. In this article we summarize the current status of the ensuing two-way dialog between quantum gravity and observations.
Inflation with the Starobinsky potential in loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonga, Béatrice; Gupt, Brajesh
2016-06-01
A self-consistent pre-inflationary extension of the inflationary scenario with the Starobinsky potential, favored by Planck data, is studied using techniques from loop quantum cosmology (LQC). The results are compared with the quadratic potential previously studied. Planck scale completion of the inflationary paradigm and observable signatures of LQC are found to be robust under the change of the inflation potential. The entire evolution, from the quantum bounce all the way to the end of inflation, is compatible with observations. Occurrence of desired slow-roll phase is almost inevitable and natural initial conditions exist for both the background and perturbations for which the resulting power spectrum agrees with recent observations. There exist initial data for which the quantum gravitational corrections to the power spectrum are potentially observable.
New scalar constraint operator for loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Assanioussi, Mehdi; Lewandowski, Jerzy; Mäkinen, Ilkka
2015-08-01
We present a concrete and explicit construction of a new scalar constraint operator for loop quantum gravity. The operator is defined on the recently introduced space of partially diffeomorphism invariant states, and this space is preserved by the action of the operator. To define the Euclidean part of the scalar constraint operator, we propose a specific regularization based on the idea of so-called "special" loops. The Lorentzian part of the quantum scalar constraint is merely the curvature operator that has been introduced in an earlier work. Due to the properties of the special loops assignment, the adjoint operator of the nonsymmetric constraint operator is densely defined on the partially diffeomorphism invariant Hilbert space. This fact opens up the possibility of defining a symmetric scalar constraint operator as a suitable combination of the original operator and its adjoint. We also show that the algebra of the scalar constraint operators is anomaly free, and describe the structure of the kernel of these operators on a general level.
Loop equations and KDV hierarchy in 2-D quantum gravity
Fucito, F. ); Martellini, M. )
1992-04-20
In this paper a derivation of the loop equation for two-dimensional quantum gravity from the KdV equations and the string equation of the one-matrix model is given. The loop equation was found to be equivalent to an infinite set of linear constraints on the square root of the partition function satisfying the virasoro algebra. Starting form the equations expressing these constraints. The authors are able to rederive the equations of the KdV hierarchy using the vertex operator construction of the A{sup (I)}{sub I} infinite dimensional twisted Kac-Moody algebra. From these considerations it follows that the solutions of the string equation of the one-matrix model are given by a subset of the solutions of the KdV hierarchy.
2D quantum gravity at three loops: A counterterm investigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leduc, Lætitia; Bilal, Adel
2016-02-01
We analyze the divergences of the three-loop partition function at fixed area in 2D quantum gravity. Considering the Liouville action in the Kähler formalism, we extract the coefficient of the leading divergence ∼ AΛ2(ln AΛ2) 2. This coefficient is non-vanishing. We discuss the counterterms one can and must add and compute their precise contribution to the partition function. This allows us to conclude that every local and non-local divergence in the partition function can be balanced by local counterterms, with the only exception of the maximally non-local divergence (ln AΛ2) 3. Yet, this latter is computed and does cancel between the different three-loop diagrams. Thus, requiring locality of the counterterms is enough to renormalize the partition function. Finally, the structure of the new counterterms strongly suggests that they can be understood as a renormalization of the measure action.
Polyakov loop of antisymmetric representations as a quantum impurity model
Mueck, Wolfgang
2011-03-15
The Polyakov loop of an operator in the antisymmetric representation in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on spacial R{sup 3} is calculated, to leading order in 1/N and at large 't Hooft coupling, by solving the saddle point equations of the corresponding quantum impurity model. Agreement is found with previous results from the supergravity dual, which is given by a D5-brane in an asymptotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} black brane background. It is shown that the azimuth angle, at which the dual D5-brane wraps the S{sup 5}, is related to the spectral asymmetry angle in the spectral density associated with the Green's function of the impurity fermions. Much of the calculation also applies to the Polyakov loop on spacial S{sup 3} or H{sup 3}.
Detailed black hole state counting in loop quantum gravity
Agullo, Ivan; Barbero G, J. Fernando; Borja, Enrique F.; Diaz-Polo, Jacobo; Villasenor, Eduardo J. S.
2010-10-15
We give a complete and detailed description of the computation of black hole entropy in loop quantum gravity by employing the most recently introduced number-theoretic and combinatorial methods. The use of these techniques allows us to perform a detailed analysis of the precise structure of the entropy spectrum for small black holes, showing some relevant features that were not discernible in previous computations. The ability to manipulate and understand the spectrum up to the level of detail that we describe in the paper is a crucial step toward obtaining the behavior of entropy in the asymptotic (large horizon area) regime.
Exact solutions for a big bounce in loop quantum cosmology
Mielczarek, Jakub; Stachowiak, Tomasz; Szydlowski, Marek
2008-06-15
In this paper we study the flat (k=0) cosmological Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model with holonomy corrections of loop quantum gravity. The considered universe contains a massless scalar field and the cosmological constant {lambda}. We find analytical solutions for this model in different configurations and investigate its dynamical behavior in the whole phase space. Such an approach might be significant e.g. as a phenomenological reference for a further, fully quantum treatment. We show the explicit influence of {lambda} on the qualitative and quantitative character of solutions. Even in the case of positive {lambda} the oscillating solutions without the initial and final singularity appear as a generic case for some quantization schemes.
Separate universes in loop quantum cosmology: Framework and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2016-06-01
I present a streamlined review of how the separate universe approach to cosmological perturbation theory can be used to study the dynamics of long-wavelength scalar perturbations in loop quantum cosmology (LQC), and then use it to calculate how long-wavelength curvature perturbations evolve across the LQC bounce assuming a constant equation of state. A similar calculation is possible for tensor modes using results from a complementary approach to cosmological perturbation theory in LQC based on an effective Hamiltonian constraint. An interesting result is that the tensor-to-scalar ratio can be suppressed or amplified by quantum gravity effects during the bounce, depending on the equation of state of the matter field dominating the dynamics. In particular, if the equation of state lies between ‑ 1/3 and 1, the value of the tensor-to-scalar ratio will be suppressed during the bounce, in some cases significantly.
Primordial power spectra for scalar perturbations in loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martín de Blas, Daniel; Olmedo, Javier
2016-06-01
We provide the power spectrum of small scalar perturbations propagating in an inflationary scenario within loop quantum cosmology. We consider the hybrid quantization approach applied to a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime with flat spatial sections coupled to a massive scalar field. We study the quantum dynamics of scalar perturbations on an effective background within this hybrid approach. We consider in our study adiabatic states of different orders. For them, we find that the hybrid quantization is in good agreement with the predictions of the dressed metric approach. We also propose an initial vacuum state for the perturbations, and compute the primordial and the anisotropy power spectrum in order to qualitatively compare with the current observations of Planck mission. We find that our vacuum state is in good agreement with them, showing a suppression of the power spectrum for large scale anisotropies. We compare with other choices already studied in the literature.
New volume and inverse volume operators for loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jinsong; Ma, Yongge
2016-08-01
A new alternative volume operator is constructed for loop quantum gravity by using the so-called cotriad operators as building blocks. It is shown that the new volume operator shares the same qualitative properties with the standard volume operator. Moreover, a new alternative inverse volume operator is also constructed in the light of the construction of the alternative volume operator, which is possessed of the same qualitative properties as those of the alternative volume operator. The new inverse volume operator can be employed to construct the Hamiltonian operator of matter fields, which may lead to an anomaly-free on-shell quantum constraint algebra without any special restriction on the regularization procedure for gravity coupled to matter fields.
Loop Quantum Gravity and the Planck Regime of Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashtekar, Abhay
The very early universe provides the best arena we currently have to test quantum gravity theories. The success of the inflationary paradigm in accounting for the observed inhomogeneities in the cosmic microwave background already illustrates this point to a certain extent because the paradigm is based on quantum field theory on the curved cosmological space-times. However, this analysis excludes the Planck era because the background space-time satisfies Einstein's equations all the way back to the big bang singularity. Using techniques from loop quantum gravity, the paradigm has now been extended to a self-consistent theory from the Planck regime to the onset of inflation, covering some 11 orders of magnitude in curvature. In addition, for a narrow window of initial conditions, there are departures from the standard paradigm, with novel effects, such as a modification of the consistency relation involving the scalar and tensor power spectra and a new source for non-Gaussianities. The genesis of the large scale structure of the universe can be traced back to quantum gravity fluctuations in the Planck regime. This report provides a bird's eye view of these developments for the general relativity community.
Loop quantum cosmology of k=1 FRW models
Ashtekar, Abhay; Pawlowski, Tomasz; Singh, Parampreet; Vandersloot, Kevin
2007-01-15
The closed, k=1, FRW model coupled to a massless scalar field is investigated in the framework of loop quantum cosmology using analytical and numerical methods. As in the k=0 case, the scalar field can be again used as emergent time to construct the physical Hilbert space and introduce Dirac observables. The resulting framework is then used to address a major challenge of quantum cosmology: resolving the big-bang singularity while retaining agreement with general relativity at large scales. It is shown that the framework fulfills this task. In particular, for states which are semiclassical at some late time, the big bang is replaced by a quantum bounce and a recollapse occurs at the value of the scale factor predicted by classical general relativity. Thus, the 'difficulties' pointed out by Green and Unruh in the k=1 case do not arise in a more systematic treatment. As in k=0 models, quantum dynamics is deterministic across the deep Planck regime. However, because it also retains the classical recollapse, in contrast to the k=0 case one is now led to a cyclic model. Finally, we clarify some issues raised by Laguna's recent work addressed to computational physicists.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodendorfer, N.; Zipfel, A.
2016-08-01
Building on a recent proposal for a quantum reduction to spherical symmetry from full loop quantum gravity, we investigate the relation between a quantisation of spherically symmetric general relativity and a reduction at the quantum level. To this end, we generalise the previously proposed quantum reduction by dropping the gauge fixing condition on the radial diffeomorphisms, thus allowing us to make direct contact with previous work on reduced quantisation. A dictionary between spherically symmetric variables and observables with respect to the reduction constraints in the full theory is discussed, as well as an embedding of reduced quantum states to a subsector of the quantum symmetry reduced full theory states. On this full theory subsector, the quantum algebra of the mentioned observables is computed and shown to qualitatively reproduce the quantum algebra of the reduced variables in the large quantum number limit for a specific choice of regularisation. Insufficiencies in recovering the reduced algebra quantitatively from the full theory are attributed to the oversimplified full theory quantum states we use.
Matter bounce loop quantum cosmology from F (R ) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.
2014-12-01
Using the reconstruction method, we investigate which F (R ) theories, with or without the presence of matter fluids, can produce the matter bounce scenario of holonomy corrected loop quantum cosmology. We focus our study in two limits of the cosmic time, the large cosmic time limit and the small cosmic time limit. For the former, we find that, in the presence of noninteracting and nonrelativistic matter, the F (R ) gravity that reproduces the late time limit of the matter bounce solution is actually the Einstein-Hilbert gravity plus a power law term. In the early time limit, since it corresponds to large spacetime curvatures, assuming that the Jordan frame is described by a general metric that, when it is conformally transformed to the Einstein frame, produces an accelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, we find explicitly the scalar field dependence on time. After demonstrating that the solution in the Einstein frame is indeed accelerating, we calculate the spectral index derived from the Einstein frame scalar-tensor counterpart theory of the F (R ) theory and compare it with the Planck experiment data. In order to implement the resulting picture, we embed the F (R ) gravity explicitly in a loop quantum cosmology framework by introducing holonomy corrections to the F (R ) gravity. In this way, the resulting inflation picture corresponding to the F (R ) gravity can be corrected in order that it coincides to some extent with the current experimental data.
Analytic continuation of black hole entropy in Loop Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jibril, Ben Achour; Mouchet, Amaury; Noui, Karim
2015-06-01
We define the analytic continuation of the number of black hole microstates in Loop Quantum Gravity to complex values of the Barbero-Immirzi parameter γ. This construction deeply relies on the link between black holes and Chern-Simons theory. Technically, the key point consists in writing the number of microstates as an integral in the complex plane of a holomorphic function, and to make use of complex analysis techniques to perform the analytic continuation. Then, we study the thermodynamical properties of the corresponding system (the black hole is viewed as a gas of indistinguishable punctures) in the framework of the grand canonical ensemble where the energy is defined à la Frodden-Gosh-Perez from the point of view of an observer located close to the horizon. The semi-classical limit occurs at the Unruh temperature T U associated to this local observer. When γ = ± i, the entropy reproduces at the semi-classical limit the area law with quantum corrections. Furthermore, the quantum corrections are logarithmic provided that the chemical potential is fixed to the simple value μ = 2 T U.
3D Lorentzian loop quantum gravity and the spinor approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Girelli, Florian; Sellaroli, Giuseppe
2015-12-01
We consider the generalization of the "spinor approach" to the Lorentzian case, in the context of three-dimensional loop quantum gravity with cosmological constant Λ =0 . The key technical tool that allows this generalization is the recoupling theory between unitary infinite-dimensional representations and nonunitary finite-dimensional ones, obtained in the process of generalizing the Wigner-Eckart theorem to SU(1,1). We use SU(1,1) tensor operators to build observables and a solvable quantum Hamiltonian constraint, analogous to the one introduced by V. Bonzom and his collaborators in the Euclidean case (with both Λ =0 and Λ ≠0 ). We show that the Lorentzian Ponzano-Regge amplitude is the solution of the quantum Hamiltonian constraint by recovering the Biedenharn-Elliott relation [generalized to the case where unitary and nonunitary SU(1,1) representations are coupled to each other]. Our formalism is sufficiently general that both the Lorentzian and the Euclidean case can be recovered (with Λ =0 ).
Quintessence and (anti-)Chaplygin gas in loop quantum cosmology
Lamon, Raphael; Woehr, Andreas J.
2010-01-15
The concordance model of cosmology contains several unknown components such as dark matter and dark energy. Many proposals have been made to describe them by choosing an appropriate potential for a scalar field. We study four models in the realm of loop quantum cosmology: the Chaplygin gas, an inflationary and radiationlike potential, quintessence and an anti-Chaplygin gas. For the latter we show that all trajectories start and end with a type II singularity and, depending on the initial value, may go through a bounce. On the other hand the evolution under the influence of the first three scalar fields behaves classically at times far away from the big bang singularity and bounces as the energy density approaches the critical density.
Anisotropic loop quantum cosmology with self-dual variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2016-04-01
A loop quantization of the diagonal class A Bianchi models starting from the complex-valued self-dual connection variables is presented in this paper. The basic operators in the quantum theory correspond to areas and generalized holonomies of the Ashtekar connection, and the reality conditions are implemented via the choice of the inner product on the kinematical Hilbert space. The action of the Hamiltonian constraint operator is given explicitly for the case when the matter content is a massless scalar field (in which case the scalar field can be used as a relational clock), and it is shown that the big bang and big crunch singularities are resolved in the sense that singular and nonsingular states decouple under the action of the Hamiltonian constraint operator.
Superbounce and loop quantum cosmology ekpyrosis from modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oikonomou, V. K.
2015-09-01
As is known, in modified cosmological theories of gravity many of the cosmologies which could not be generated by standard Einstein gravity, can be consistently described by theories. Using known reconstruction techniques, we investigate which theories can lead to a Hubble parameter describing two types of cosmological bounces, the superbounce model, related to supergravity and non-supersymmetric models of contracting ekpyrosis and also the Loop Quantum Cosmology modified ekpyrotic model. Since our method is an approximate method, we investigate the problem at large and small curvatures. As we evince, both models yield power law reconstructed gravities, with the most interesting new feature being that both lead to accelerating cosmologies, in the large curvature approximation. The mathematical properties of the some Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes , that describe superbounce-like cosmologies are also pointed out, with regards to the group of curvature collineations.
Generating functions for black hole entropy in loop quantum gravity
Barbero G, J. Fernando; Villasenor, Eduardo J. S.
2008-06-15
We introduce, in a systematic way, a set of generating functions that solve all the different combinatorial problems that crop up in the study of black hole entropy in loop quantum gravity. Specifically we give generating functions for the following: the different sources of degeneracy related to the spectrum of the area operator, the solutions to the projection constraint, and the black hole degeneracy spectrum. Our methods are capable of handling the different countings proposed and discussed in the literature. The generating functions presented here provide the appropriate starting point to extend the results already obtained for microscopic black holes to the macroscopic regime - in particular those concerning the area law and the appearance of an effectively equidistant area spectrum.
Quintessence and (anti-)Chaplygin gas in loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamon, Raphael; Wöhr, Andreas J.
2010-01-01
The concordance model of cosmology contains several unknown components such as dark matter and dark energy. Many proposals have been made to describe them by choosing an appropriate potential for a scalar field. We study four models in the realm of loop quantum cosmology: the Chaplygin gas, an inflationary and radiationlike potential, quintessence and an anti-Chaplygin gas. For the latter we show that all trajectories start and end with a type II singularity and, depending on the initial value, may go through a bounce. On the other hand the evolution under the influence of the first three scalar fields behaves classically at times far away from the big bang singularity and bounces as the energy density approaches the critical density.
An embedding of loop quantum cosmology in (b,v) variables into a full theory context
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodendorfer, N.
2016-06-01
Loop quantum cosmology in (b, v) variables, which is governed by a unit step size difference equation, is embedded into a full theory context based on similar variables. A full theory context here means a theory of quantum gravity arrived at using the quantisation techniques used in loop quantum gravity, however based on a different choice of elementary variables and classical gauge fixing suggested by loop quantum cosmology. From the full theory perspective, the symmetry reduction is characterised by the vanishing of certain phase space functions which are implemented as operator equations in the quantum theory. The loop quantum cosmology dynamics arise as the action of the full theory Hamiltonian on maximally coarse states in the kernel of the reduction constraints. An application of this reduction procedure to spherical symmetry is also sketched, with similar results, but only one canonical pair in (b, v) form.
Symmetry reduced loop quantum gravity: A bird’s eye view
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashtekar, Abhay
2016-06-01
This is a brief overview of the current status of symmetry reduced models in Loop Quantum Gravity. The goal is to provide an introduction to other more specialized and detailed reviews that follow. Since most of this work is motivated by the physics of the very early universe, I will focus primarily on Loop Quantum Cosmology and discuss quantum aspects of black holes only briefly.
Deconfined Quantum Criticality, Scaling Violations, and Classical Loop Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nahum, Adam; Chalker, J. T.; Serna, P.; Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.
2015-10-01
Numerical studies of the transition between Néel and valence bond solid phases in two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnets give strong evidence for the remarkable scenario of deconfined criticality, but display strong violations of finite-size scaling that are not yet understood. We show how to realize the universal physics of the Néel-valence-bond-solid (VBS) transition in a three-dimensional classical loop model (this model includes the subtle interference effect that suppresses hedgehog defects in the Néel order parameter). We use the loop model for simulations of unprecedentedly large systems (up to linear size L =512 ). Our results are compatible with a continuous transition at which both Néel and VBS order parameters are critical, and we do not see conventional signs of first-order behavior. However, we show that the scaling violations are stronger than previously realized and are incompatible with conventional finite-size scaling, even if allowance is made for a weakly or marginally irrelevant scaling variable. In particular, different approaches to determining the anomalous dimensions ηVBS and ηN é el yield very different results. The assumption of conventional finite-size scaling leads to estimates that drift to negative values at large sizes, in violation of the unitarity bounds. In contrast, the decay with distance of critical correlators on scales much smaller than system size is consistent with large positive anomalous dimensions. Barring an unexpected reversal in behavior at still larger sizes, this implies that the transition, if continuous, must show unconventional finite-size scaling, for example, from an additional dangerously irrelevant scaling variable. Another possibility is an anomalously weak first-order transition. By analyzing the renormalization group flows for the noncompact CP n -1 field theory (the n -component Abelian Higgs model) between two and four dimensions, we give the simplest scenario by which an anomalously weak first
Oriented matroids—combinatorial structures underlying loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunnemann, Johannes; Rideout, David
2010-10-01
We analyze combinatorial structures which play a central role in determining spectral properties of the volume operator (Ashtekar A and Lewandowski J 1998 Adv. Theor. Math. Phys. 1 388) in loop quantum gravity (LQG). These structures encode geometrical information of the embedding of arbitrary valence vertices of a graph in three-dimensional Riemannian space and can be represented by sign strings containing relative orientations of embedded edges. We demonstrate that these signature factors are a special representation of the general mathematical concept of an oriented matroid (Ziegler G M 1998 Electron. J. Comb.; Björner A et al 1999 Oriented Matroids (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)). Moreover, we show that oriented matroids can also be used to describe the topology (connectedness) of directed graphs. Hence, the mathematical methods developed for oriented matroids can be applied to the difficult combinatorics of embedded graphs underlying the construction of LQG. As a first application we revisit the analysis of Brunnemann and Rideout (2008 Class. Quantum Grav. 25 065001 and 065002), and find that enumeration of all possible sign configurations used there is equivalent to enumerating all realizable oriented matroids of rank 3 (Ziegler G M 1998 Electron. J. Comb.; Björner A et al 1999 Oriented Matroids (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)), and thus can be greatly simplified. We find that for 7-valent vertices having no coplanar triples of edge tangents, the smallest non-zero eigenvalue of the volume spectrum does not grow as one increases the maximum spin jmax at the vertex, for any orientation of the edge tangents. This indicates that, in contrast to the area operator, considering large jmax does not necessarily imply large volume eigenvalues. In addition we give an outlook to possible starting points for rewriting the combinatorics of LQG in terms of oriented matroids.
Bouncing loop quantum cosmology from F(T) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amorós, Jaume; de Haro, Jaume; Odintsov, Sergei D.
2013-05-01
The big bang singularity could be understood as a breakdown of Einstein’s general relativity at very high energies. By adopting this viewpoint, other theories that implement Einstein cosmology at high energies might solve the problem of the primeval singularity. One of them is loop quantum cosmology (LQC) with a small cosmological constant that models a universe moving along an ellipse, which prevents singularities like the big bang or the big rip, in the phase space (H,ρ), where H is the Hubble parameter and ρ the energy density of the universe. Using LQC one considers a model universe filled by radiation and matter where, due to the cosmological constant, there are a de Sitter and an anti-de Sitter solution. This means that one obtains a bouncing nonsingular universe which is in the contracting phase at early times. After leaving this phase, i.e., after bouncing, it passes trough a radiation- and matter-dominated phase and finally at late times it expands in an accelerated way (current cosmic acceleration). This model does not suffer from the horizon and flatness problems as in big bang cosmology, where a period of inflation that increases the size of our universe in more than 60 e-folds is needed in order to solve both problems. The model has two mechanisms to avoid these problems: the evolution of the universe through a contracting phase and a period of super inflation (H˙>0).
Future singularities and teleparallelism in loop quantum cosmology
Bamba, Kazuharu; Haro, Jaume de; Odintsov, Sergei D. E-mail: jaime.haro@upc.edu
2013-02-01
We demonstrate how holonomy corrections in loop quantum cosmology (LQC) prevent the Big Rip singularity by introducing a quadratic modification in terms of the energy density ρ in the Friedmann equation in the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) space-time in a consistent and useful way. In addition, we investigate whether other kind of singularities like Type II,III and IV singularities survive or are avoided in LQC when the universe is filled by a barotropic fluid with the state equation P = −ρ−f(ρ), where P is the pressure and f(ρ) a function of ρ. It is shown that the Little Rip cosmology does not happen in LQC. Nevertheless, the occurrence of the Pseudo-Rip cosmology, in which the phantom universe approaches the de Sitter one asymptotically, is established, and the corresponding example is presented. It is interesting that the disintegration of bound structures in the Pseudo-Rip cosmology in LQC always takes more time than that in Einstein cosmology. Our investigation on future singularities is generalized to that in modified teleparallel gravity, where LQC and Brane Cosmology in the Randall-Sundrum scenario are the best examples. It is remarkable that F(T) gravity may lead to all the kinds of future singularities including Little Rip.
Triangulated loop quantum cosmology: Bianchi IX universe and inhomogeneous perturbations
Battisti, Marco Valerio; Marciano, Antonino; Rovelli, Carlo
2010-03-15
We develop the triangulated version of loop quantum cosmology, recently introduced in the literature. We focus on the dipole cosmology, where space is a three-sphere and the triangulation is formed by two tetrahedra. We show that the discrete fiducial connection has a simple and appealing geometrical interpretation and we correct the ansatz on the relation between the model variables and the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker scale factor. The modified ansatz leads to the convergence of the Hamiltonian constraint to the continuum one. We then ask which degrees of freedom are captured by this model. We show that the model is rich enough to describe the (anisotropic) Bianchi IX universe, and give the explicit relation between the Bianchi IX variables and the variables of the model. We discuss the possibility of using this path in order to define the quantization of the Bianchi IX universe. The model contains more degrees of freedom than Bianchi IX, and therefore captures some inhomogeneous degrees of freedom as well. Inhomogeneous degrees of freedom can be expanded in representations of the SU(2) Bianchi IX isometry group, and the dipole model captures the lowest integer representation of these, connected to hyperspherical harmonic of angular momentum j=1.
Non-Gaussian features from the inverse volume corrections in loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Li-Fang; Cai, Rong-Gen; Guo, Zong-Kuan; Hu, Bin
2012-08-01
In this paper we study the non-Gaussian features of the primordial fluctuations in loop quantum cosmology with the inverse volume corrections. The detailed analysis is performed in the single field slow-roll inflationary models. However, our results reflect the universal characteristics of bispectrum in loop quantum cosmology. The main corrections to the scalar bispectrum come from two aspects: one is the modifications to the standard Bunch-Davies vacuum, and the other is the corrections to the background dependent variables, such as slow-roll parameters. Our calculations show that the loop quantum corrections make fNL of the inflationary models increase 0.1%. Moreover, we find that two new shapes of non-Gaussian signal arise, which we name F1 and F2. The former gives a unique loop quantum feature, which is less correlated with the local, equilateral, and single types, while the latter is highly correlated with the local one.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, Stefan; Johnson, Noah J. J.; Pichaandi, Jothirmayanantham; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; van Veggel, Frank C. J. M.
2015-11-01
Colloidal upconverter nanocrystals (UCNCs) that convert near-infrared photons to higher energies are promising for applications ranging from life sciences to solar energy harvesting. However, practical applications of UCNCs are hindered by their low upconversion quantum yield (UCQY) and the high irradiances necessary to produce relevant upconversion luminescence. Achieving high UCQY under practically relevant irradiance remains a major challenge. The UCQY is severely limited due to non-radiative surface quenching processes. We present a rate equation model for migration of the excitation energy to show that surface quenching does not only affect the lanthanide ions directly at the surface but also many other lanthanide ions quite far away from the surface. The average migration path length is on the order of several nanometers and depends on the doping as well as the irradiance of the excitation. Using Er3+-doped β-NaYF4 UCNCs, we show that very isotropic and thick (˜10 nm) β-NaLuF4 inert shells dramatically reduce the surface-related quenching processes, resulting in much brighter upconversion luminescence at simultaneously considerably lower irradiances. For these UCNCs embedded in poly(methyl methacrylate), we determined an internal UCQY of 2.0% ± 0.2% using an irradiance of only 0.43 ± 0.03 W/cm2 at 1523 nm. Normalized to the irradiance, this UCQY is 120× higher than the highest values of comparable nanomaterials in the literature. Our findings demonstrate the important role of isotropic and thick shells in achieving high UCQY at low irradiances from UCNCs. Additionally, we measured the additional short-circuit current due to upconversion in silicon solar cell devices as a proof of concept and to support our findings determined using optical measurements.
Fischer, Stefan; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Johnson, Noah J. J.; Pichaandi, Jothirmayanantham; Veggel, Frank C. J. M. van
2015-11-21
Colloidal upconverter nanocrystals (UCNCs) that convert near-infrared photons to higher energies are promising for applications ranging from life sciences to solar energy harvesting. However, practical applications of UCNCs are hindered by their low upconversion quantum yield (UCQY) and the high irradiances necessary to produce relevant upconversion luminescence. Achieving high UCQY under practically relevant irradiance remains a major challenge. The UCQY is severely limited due to non-radiative surface quenching processes. We present a rate equation model for migration of the excitation energy to show that surface quenching does not only affect the lanthanide ions directly at the surface but also many other lanthanide ions quite far away from the surface. The average migration path length is on the order of several nanometers and depends on the doping as well as the irradiance of the excitation. Using Er{sup 3+}-doped β-NaYF{sub 4} UCNCs, we show that very isotropic and thick (∼10 nm) β-NaLuF{sub 4} inert shells dramatically reduce the surface-related quenching processes, resulting in much brighter upconversion luminescence at simultaneously considerably lower irradiances. For these UCNCs embedded in poly(methyl methacrylate), we determined an internal UCQY of 2.0% ± 0.2% using an irradiance of only 0.43 ± 0.03 W/cm{sup 2} at 1523 nm. Normalized to the irradiance, this UCQY is 120× higher than the highest values of comparable nanomaterials in the literature. Our findings demonstrate the important role of isotropic and thick shells in achieving high UCQY at low irradiances from UCNCs. Additionally, we measured the additional short-circuit current due to upconversion in silicon solar cell devices as a proof of concept and to support our findings determined using optical measurements.
Generalized isotropic Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick models: ground state entanglement and quantum entropies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrasco, José A.; Finkel, Federico; González-López, Artemio; Rodríguez, Miguel A.; Tempesta, Piergiulio
2016-03-01
We introduce a new class of generalized isotropic Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick models with \\text{su}(m+1) spin and long-range non-constant interactions, whose non-degenerate ground state is a Dicke state of \\text{su}(m+1) type. We evaluate in closed form the reduced density matrix of a block of L spins when the whole system is in its ground state, and study the corresponding von Neumann and Rényi entanglement entropies in the thermodynamic limit. We show that both of these entropies scale as alog L when L tends to infinity, where the coefficient a is equal to (m - k)/2 in the ground state phase with k vanishing \\text{su}(m+1) magnon densities. In particular, our results show that none of these generalized Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick models are critical, since when L\\to ∞ their Rényi entropy R q becomes independent of the parameter q. We have also computed the Tsallis entanglement entropy of the ground state of these generalized \\text{su}(m+1) Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick models, finding that it can be made extensive by an appropriate choice of its parameter only when m-k≥slant 3 . Finally, in the \\text{su}(3) case we construct in detail the phase diagram of the ground state in parameter space, showing that it is determined in a simple way by the weights of the fundamental representation of \\text{su}(3) . This is also true in the \\text{su}(m+1) case; for instance, we prove that the region for which all the magnon densities are non-vanishing is an (m + 1)-simplex in {{{R}}m} whose vertices are the weights of the fundamental representation of \\text{su}(m+1) .
Entropic corrected Newton's law of gravitation and the loop quantum black hole gravitational atom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aragão, R. G. L.; Silva, C. A. S.
2016-07-01
One proposal by Verlinde is that gravity is not a fundamental, but an entropic force (Verlinde in JHEP 1104:029, 2011. arXiv:hep-th/1001.0785). Based on this new interpretation of the gravity, Verlinde has provide us with a way to derive the Newton's law of gravitation from the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area formula. On the other hand, since it has been demonstrated that this formula is susceptible to quantum gravity corrections, one may hope that such corrections could be inherited by Newton's law. In this sense, the entropic interpretation of Newton's law could be a prolific way in order to get verifiable or falsifiable quantum corrections to ordinary gravity in an observationally accessible regimes. On the other hand, loop quantum gravity is a theory that provide a scheme to approach the quantum properties of spacetime. From this theory, emerges a quantum corrected semiclassical black hole solution called loop quantum black hole or self-dual black hole. Among the interesting features of loop quantum black holes, is the fact that they give rise to a modified entropy-area relation where quantum gravity corrections are present. In this work, we obtain a quantum corrected Newton's law from the entropy-area relation given by loop quantum black holes by using the nonrelativistic Verlinde's approach. Moreover, in order to relate our results with the recent experimental activity, we consider the quantum mechanical properties of a huge gravitational atom consisting in a light neutral elementary particle in the presence of a loop quantum black hole.
Quantum Phase Transition and Thermal Entanglement in the Isotropic XXX Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Fu-Wu; Kong, Xiang-Mu
2012-06-01
We investigate the quantum phase transition (QPT) and the pairwise thermal entanglement in the three-qubit Heisenberg XXX chain with Dzyaloshinskii—Moriya (DM) interaction under a magnetic field. The ground states of the system exist crossing points, which shows that the system exhibits a QPT. At a given temperature, the entanglement undergoes two sudden changes (platform-like behavior) as the DM interaction or external magnetic field increases. This special property can be used as the entanglement switch, which is also influenced by the temperature. We can modulate the DM interaction or external magnetic field to control the entanglement switch.
Uran, Can; Erdem, Talha; Guzelturk, Burak; Perkgöz, Nihan Kosku; Jun, Shinae; Jang, Eunjoo; Demir, Hilmi Volkan
2014-10-06
In this work, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept system for generating highly polarized light from colloidal quantum dots (QDs) coupled with magnetically aligned segmented Au/Ni/Au nanowires (NWs). Optical characterizations reveal that the optimized QD-NW coupled structures emit highly polarized light with an s-to p-polarization (s/p) contrast as high as 15:1 corresponding to a degree of polarization of 0.88. These experimental results are supported by the finite-difference time-domain simulations, which demonstrate the interplay between the inter-NW distance and the degree of polarization.
Teleparallel loop quantum cosmology in a system of intersecting branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sepehri, Alireza; Pradhan, Anirudh; Beesham, Aroonkumar; de Haro, Jaume
2016-09-01
Recently, some authors have removed the big bang singularity in teleparallel Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) and have shown that the universe may undergo a number of oscillations. We investigate the origin of this type of teleparallel theory in a system of intersecting branes in M-theory in which the angle between them changes with time. This system is constructed by two intersecting anti-D8-branes, one compacted D4-brane and a D3-brane. These branes are built by joining M0-branes which develop in decaying fundamental strings. The compacted D4-brane is located between two intersecting anti-D8 branes and glues to one of them. Our universe is located on the D3 brane which wraps around the D4 brane from one end and sticks to one of the anti-D8 branes from the other one. In this system, there are three types of fields, corresponding to compacted D4 branes, intersecting branes and D3-branes. These fields interact with each other and make the angle between branes oscillate. By decreasing this angle, the intersecting anti-D8 branes approach each other, the D4 brane rolls, the D3 brane wraps around the D4 brane, and the universe contracts. By separating the intersecting branes and increasing the angle, the D4 brane rolls in the opposite direction, the D3 brane separates from it and the expansion branch begins. Also, the interaction between branes in this system gives us the exact form of the relevant Lagrangian for teleparallel LQC.
Large isotropic negative thermal expansion above a structural quantum phase transition
Handunkanda, Sahan Uddika; Curry, Erin B.; Voronov, Vladimir; Said, Ayman H.; Guzman-Verri, Gian G.; Brierley, Richard; Littlewood, Peter B.; Hancock, Jason N.
2015-10-01
Perovskite structured materials contain myriad tunable ordered phases of electronic and magnetic origin with proven technological importance and strong promise for a variety of energy solutions. An always-contributing influence beneath these cooperative and competing interactions is the lattice, whose physics may be obscured in complex perovskites by the many coupled degrees of freedom which makes these systems interesting. Here we report signatures of an approach to a quantum phase transition very near the ground state of the nonmagnetic, ionic insulating, simple cubic perovskite material ScF3 and show that its physical properties are strongly effected as much as 100 K above the putative transition. Spatial and temporal correlations in the high-symmetry cubic phase determined using energy- and momentum-resolved inelastic X-ray scattering as well as X-ray diffraction reveal that soft mode, central peak and thermal expansion phenomena are all strongly influenced by the transition.
Large isotropic negative thermal expansion above a structural quantum phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Handunkanda, Sahan U.; Curry, Erin B.; Voronov, Vladimir; Said, Ayman H.; Guzmán-Verri, Gian G.; Brierley, Richard T.; Littlewood, Peter B.; Hancock, Jason N.
2015-10-01
Perovskite structured materials contain myriad tunable ordered phases of electronic and magnetic origin with proven technological importance and strong promise for a variety of energy solutions. An always-contributing influence beneath these cooperative and competing interactions is the lattice, whose physics may be obscured in complex perovskites by the many coupled degrees of freedom, which makes these systems interesting. Here, we report signatures of an approach to a quantum phase transition very near the ground state of the nonmagnetic, ionic insulating, simple cubic perovskite material ScF3, and show that its physical properties are strongly effected as much as 100 K above the putative transition. Spatial and temporal correlations in the high-symmetry cubic phase determined using energy- and momentum-resolved inelastic x-ray scattering as well as x-ray diffraction reveal that soft mode, central peak, and thermal expansion phenomena are all strongly influenced by the transition.
Open-loop quantum control as a resource for secure communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pastorello, Davide
2016-05-01
Properties of unitary time evolution of quantum systems can be applied to define quantum cryptographic protocols. Dynamics of a qubit can be exploited as a data encryption/decryption procedure by means of timed measurements, implementation of an open-loop control scheme over a qubit increases robustness of a protocol employing this principle.
Contact effects and quantum interference in engineered dangling bond loops on silicon surfaces.
Kleshchonok, Andrii; Gutierrez, Rafael; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio
2015-09-01
Dangling bond structures created on H-passivated silicon surfaces offer a novel platform for engineering planar nanoscale circuits, compatible with conventional semiconductor technologies. In this investigation we focus on the electronic structure and quantum transport signatures of dangling bond loops built on H-passivated Si(100) surfaces contacted by carbon nanoribbons, thus leading to a two-terminal planar, nanoscale setup. The computational studies were carried out to rationalize the influence of the local atomic-scale contacts of the dangling bond system to the mesoscopic electrodes as well as the possibility of revealing quantum interference effects in the dangling bond loops. Our results reveal a strong sensitivity of the low-energy quantum transmission to the loop topology and to the atomistic details of the electrode-loop contact. Varying the length of the loop or the spatial position of at least one of the electrodes has a drastic impact on the quantum interference pattern; depending on whether constructive or destructive interference within the loop takes place, the conductance of the system can be tuned over several orders of magnitude, thus suggesting the possibility of exploiting such quantum mechanical effects in the design of two-dimensional, atomic-scale electronic devices such as logic gates. PMID:26228007
Diffeomorphism invariant cosmological symmetry in full quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beetle, Christopher; Engle, Jonathan S.; Hogan, Matthew E.; Mendonça, Phillip
2016-06-01
This paper summarizes a new proposal to define rigorously a sector of loop quantum gravity at the diffeomorphism invariant level corresponding to homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies, thereby enabling a detailed comparison of results in loop quantum gravity and loop quantum cosmology. The key technical steps we have completed are (a) to formulate conditions for homogeneity and isotropy in a diffeomorphism covariant way on the classical phase-space of general relativity, and (b) to translate these conditions consistently using well-understood techniques to loop quantum gravity. Some additional steps, such as constructing a specific embedding of the Hilbert space of loop quantum cosmology into a space of (distributional) states in the full theory, remain incomplete. However, we also describe, as a proof of concept, a complete analysis of an analogous embedding of homogeneous and isotropic loop quantum cosmology into the quantum Bianchi I model of Ashtekar and Wilson-Ewing. Details will appear in a pair of forthcoming papers.
Contact effects and quantum interference in engineered dangling bond loops on silicon surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleshchonok, Andrii; Gutierrez, Rafael; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio
2015-08-01
Dangling bond structures created on H-passivated silicon surfaces offer a novel platform for engineering planar nanoscale circuits, compatible with conventional semiconductor technologies. In this investigation we focus on the electronic structure and quantum transport signatures of dangling bond loops built on H-passivated Si(100) surfaces contacted by carbon nanoribbons, thus leading to a two-terminal planar, nanoscale setup. The computational studies were carried out to rationalize the influence of the local atomic-scale contacts of the dangling bond system to the mesoscopic electrodes as well as the possibility of revealing quantum interference effects in the dangling bond loops. Our results reveal a strong sensitivity of the low-energy quantum transmission to the loop topology and to the atomistic details of the electrode-loop contact. Varying the length of the loop or the spatial position of at least one of the electrodes has a drastic impact on the quantum interference pattern; depending on whether constructive or destructive interference within the loop takes place, the conductance of the system can be tuned over several orders of magnitude, thus suggesting the possibility of exploiting such quantum mechanical effects in the design of two-dimensional, atomic-scale electronic devices such as logic gates.Dangling bond structures created on H-passivated silicon surfaces offer a novel platform for engineering planar nanoscale circuits, compatible with conventional semiconductor technologies. In this investigation we focus on the electronic structure and quantum transport signatures of dangling bond loops built on H-passivated Si(100) surfaces contacted by carbon nanoribbons, thus leading to a two-terminal planar, nanoscale setup. The computational studies were carried out to rationalize the influence of the local atomic-scale contacts of the dangling bond system to the mesoscopic electrodes as well as the possibility of revealing quantum interference effects in
Quantum gravity stability of isotropy in homogeneous cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broda, Bogusław
2011-10-01
It has been shown that anisotropy of homogeneous spacetime described by the general Kasner metric can be damped by quantum fluctuations coming from perturbative quantum gravity in one-loop approximation. Also, a formal argument, not limited to one-loop approximation, is put forward in favor of stability of isotropy in the exactly isotropic case.
Wilson loops in four-dimensional quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modanese, Giovanni
1994-06-01
A Wilson loop is defined, in four-dimensional pure Einstein gravity, as the trace of the holonomy of the Christoffel connection or of the spin connection, and its invariance under the symmetry transformations of the action is shown (diffeomorphisms and local Lorentz transformations). We then compute the loop perturbatively, both on a flat background and in the presence of an external source; we also allow some modifications in the form of the action, and test the action of ``stabilized'' gravity. A geometrical analysis of the results in terms of the gauge group of the Euclidean theory, SO(4), leads us to the conclusion that the corresponding statistical system does not develop any configuration with localized curvature at low temperature. This ``nonlocal'' behavior of the quantized gravitational field strongly contrasts with that of usual gauge fields. Our results also provide an explanation for the absence of any invariant correlation of the curvature in the same approximation.
A note on cutting spin networks and the area spectrum in loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asato, Yu
2016-06-01
In this paper, I show that if a spin network is cut by a surface separating space-time into two regions, the sum of the spins of the edges crossing the surface must be an integer. This gives a restriction on the area spectrum of such surfaces, including black hole horizons, in loop quantum gravity.
Group field theory as the second quantization of loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oriti, Daniele
2016-04-01
We construct a second quantized reformulation of canonical loop quantum gravity (LQG) at both kinematical and dynamical level, in terms of a Fock space of spin networks, and show in full generality that it leads directly to the group field theory (GFT) formalism. In particular, we show the correspondence between canonical LQG dynamics and GFT dynamics leading to a specific GFT model from any definition of quantum canonical dynamics of spin networks. We exemplify the correspondence of dynamics in the specific example of 3d quantum gravity. The correspondence between canonical LQG and covariant spin foam models is obtained via the GFT definition of the latter.
Isotropic sequence order learning.
Porr, Bernd; Wörgötter, Florentin
2003-04-01
In this article, we present an isotropic unsupervised algorithm for temporal sequence learning. No special reward signal is used such that all inputs are completely isotropic. All input signals are bandpass filtered before converging onto a linear output neuron. All synaptic weights change according to the correlation of bandpass-filtered inputs with the derivative of the output. We investigate the algorithm in an open- and a closed-loop condition, the latter being defined by embedding the learning system into a behavioral feedback loop. In the open-loop condition, we find that the linear structure of the algorithm allows analytically calculating the shape of the weight change, which is strictly heterosynaptic and follows the shape of the weight change curves found in spike-time-dependent plasticity. Furthermore, we show that synaptic weights stabilize automatically when no more temporal differences exist between the inputs without additional normalizing measures. In the second part of this study, the algorithm is is placed in an environment that leads to closed sensor-motor loop. To this end, a robot is programmed with a prewired retraction reflex reaction in response to collisions. Through isotropic sequence order (ISO) learning, the robot achieves collision avoidance by learning the correlation between his early range-finder signals and the later occurring collision signal. Synaptic weights stabilize at the end of learning as theoretically predicted. Finally, we discuss the relation of ISO learning with other drive reinforcement models and with the commonly used temporal difference learning algorithm. This study is followed up by a mathematical analysis of the closed-loop situation in the companion article in this issue, "ISO Learning Approximates a Solution to the Inverse-Controller Problem in an Unsupervised Behavioral Paradigm" (pp. 865-884). PMID:12689389
Reconstructing the evolution of the Universe from loop quantum cosmology scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oikonomou, V. K.
2016-08-01
We extend the scalar-tensor reconstruction techniques for classical cosmology frameworks, in the context of loop quantum cosmology. After presenting in some detail how the equations are generalized in the loop quantum cosmology case, we discuss which new features and limitations the quantum framework introduces, and we use various illustrative examples in order to demonstrate how the method works. As we show, the energy density has two different classes of solutions, and one of these yields the correct classical limit, while the second captures the quantum phenomena. We study in detail the scalar tensor reconstruction method for both of these solutions. We also discuss some scenarios for which the Hubble rate becomes unbounded at finite time, which corresponds for example to the case in which the big rip occurs. As we show, this issue is nontrivial and we discuss how this case should be treated in a consistent way. Finally, we investigate how the classical stability conditions for the scalar-tensor solutions are generalized in the loop quantum framework.
Quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames: Time-dependent rotations and loop prolongations
Klink, W.H.; Wickramasekara, S.
2013-09-15
This is the fourth in a series of papers on developing a formulation of quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames. This formulation is grounded in a class of unitary cocycle representations of what we have called the Galilean line group, the generalization of the Galilei group to include transformations amongst non-inertial reference frames. These representations show that in quantum mechanics, just as the case in classical mechanics, the transformations to accelerating reference frames give rise to fictitious forces. In previous work, we have shown that there exist representations of the Galilean line group that uphold the non-relativistic equivalence principle as well as representations that violate the equivalence principle. In these previous studies, the focus was on linear accelerations. In this paper, we undertake an extension of the formulation to include rotational accelerations. We show that the incorporation of rotational accelerations requires a class of loop prolongations of the Galilean line group and their unitary cocycle representations. We recover the centrifugal and Coriolis force effects from these loop representations. Loops are more general than groups in that their multiplication law need not be associative. Hence, our broad theoretical claim is that a Galilean quantum theory that holds in arbitrary non-inertial reference frames requires going beyond groups and group representations, the well-established framework for implementing symmetry transformations in quantum mechanics. -- Highlights: •A formulation of Galilean quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames is presented. •The Galilei group is generalized to infinite dimensional Galilean line group. •Loop prolongations of Galilean line group contain central extensions of Galilei group. •Unitary representations of the loops are constructed. •These representations lead to terms in the Hamiltonian corresponding to fictitious forces, including centrifugal and Coriolis
Minimal subtraction and momentum subtraction in quantum chromodynamics at two-loop order
Braaten, E.; Leveille, J.P.
1981-09-01
The momentum-subtraction coupling constant ..cap alpha../sub MOM/ yields consistently smaller one-loop corrections to many quantum-chromodynamics (QCD) processes than the minimal-subtraction couplings ..cap alpha../sub MS/ and ..cap alpha../sub M/S. By shifting the renormalization scale ..mu.. of ..cap alpha../sub MS/(..mu..), we obtain a minimal-subtraction coupling with the same small one-loop corrections. It is shown, by studying the effective charges of QCD, that at two-loop order this coupling constant will continue to yield corrections to physical quantities that are comparable to those obtained by momentum subtraction. We also introduce a momentum-subtraction scheme which treats the triple-gluon, quark, and ghost vertices equally at one-loop order and is more convenient for higher-order calculations than the MOM scheme.
Quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames: Time-dependent rotations and loop prolongations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klink, W. H.; Wickramasekara, S.
2013-09-01
This is the fourth in a series of papers on developing a formulation of quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames. This formulation is grounded in a class of unitary cocycle representations of what we have called the Galilean line group, the generalization of the Galilei group to include transformations amongst non-inertial reference frames. These representations show that in quantum mechanics, just as the case in classical mechanics, the transformations to accelerating reference frames give rise to fictitious forces. In previous work, we have shown that there exist representations of the Galilean line group that uphold the non-relativistic equivalence principle as well as representations that violate the equivalence principle. In these previous studies, the focus was on linear accelerations. In this paper, we undertake an extension of the formulation to include rotational accelerations. We show that the incorporation of rotational accelerations requires a class of loop prolongations of the Galilean line group and their unitary cocycle representations. We recover the centrifugal and Coriolis force effects from these loop representations. Loops are more general than groups in that their multiplication law need not be associative. Hence, our broad theoretical claim is that a Galilean quantum theory that holds in arbitrary non-inertial reference frames requires going beyond groups and group representations, the well-established framework for implementing symmetry transformations in quantum mechanics.
Tachyon field in loop quantum cosmology: An example of traversable singularity
Li Lifang; Zhu Jianyang
2009-06-15
Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) predicts a nonsingular evolution of the universe through a bounce in the high energy region. But LQC has an ambiguity about the quantization scheme. Recently, the authors in [Phys. Rev. D 77, 124008 (2008)] proposed a new quantization scheme. Similar to others, this new quantization scheme also replaces the big bang singularity with the quantum bounce. More interestingly, it introduces a quantum singularity, which is traversable. We investigate this novel dynamics quantitatively with a tachyon scalar field, which gives us a concrete example. Our result shows that our universe can evolve through the quantum singularity regularly, which is different from the classical big bang singularity. So this singularity is only a weak singularity.
Does loop quantum cosmology replace the big rip singularity by a non-singular bounce?
Haro, Jaume de
2012-11-01
It is stated that holonomy corrections in loop quantum cosmology introduce a modification in Friedmann's equation which prevent the big rip singularity. Recently in [1] it has been proved that this modified Friedmann equation is obtained in an inconsistent way, what means that the results deduced from it, in particular the big rip singularity avoidance, are not justified. The problem is that holonomy corrections modify the gravitational part of the Hamiltonian of the system leading, after Legendre's transformation, to a non covariant Lagrangian which is in contradiction with one of the main principles of General Relativity. A more consistent way to deal with the big rip singularity avoidance is to disregard modification in the gravitational part of the Hamiltonian, and only consider inverse volume effects [2]. In this case we will see that, not like the big bang singularity, the big rip singularity survives in loop quantum cosmology. Another way to deal with the big rip avoidance is to take into account geometric quantum effects given by the the Wheeler-De Witt equation. In that case, even though the wave packets spread, the expectation values satisfy the same equations as their classical analogues. Then, following the viewpoint adopted in loop quantum cosmology, one can conclude that the big rip singularity survives when one takes into account these quantum effects. However, the spreading of the wave packets prevents the recover of the semiclassical time, and thus, one might conclude that the classical evolution of the universe come to and end before the big rip is reached. This is not conclusive because. as we will see, it always exists other external times that allows us to define the classical and quantum evolution of the universe up to the big rip singularity.
Matter in inhomogeneous loop quantum cosmology: The Gowdy T3 model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Martín-de Blas, Daniel; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.
2011-04-01
We apply a hybrid approach which combines loop and Fock quantizations to fully quantize the linearly polarized Gowdy T3 model in the presence of a massless scalar field with the same symmetries as the metric. Like in the absence of matter content, the application of loop techniques leads to a quantum resolution of the classical cosmological singularity. Most importantly, thanks to the inclusion of matter, the homogeneous sector of the model contains flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker solutions, which are not allowed in vacuo. Therefore, this model provides a simple setting to study at the quantum level interesting physical phenomena such as the effect of the anisotropies and inhomogeneities on flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies.
Two-loop quantum gravity corrections to the cosmological constant in Landau gauge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamada, Ken-ji; Matsuda, Mikoto
2016-03-01
The anomalous dimensions of the Planck mass and the cosmological constant are calculated in a renormalizable quantum conformal gravity with a single dimensionless coupling, which is formulated using dimensional regularization on the basis of Hathrell's works for conformal anomalies. The dynamics of the traceless tensor field is handled by the Weyl action, while that of the conformal-factor field is described by the induced Wess-Zumino actions, including the Riegert action as the kinetic term. Loop calculations are carried out in Landau gauge in order to reduce the number of Feynman diagrams as well as to avoid some uncertainty. Especially, we calculate two-loop quantum gravity corrections to the cosmological constant. It suggests that there is a dynamical solution to the cosmological constant problem.
Quantum magnetic flux lines, BPS vortex zero modes, and one-loop string tension shifts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso-Izquierdo, A.; Mateos Guilarte, J.; de la Torre Mayado, M.
2016-08-01
Spectral heat kernel/zeta function regularization procedures are employed in this paper to control the divergences arising from vacuum fluctuations of Bogomolnyi-Prasad-Sommerfield vortices in the Abelian Higgs model. Zero modes of vortex fluctuations are the source of difficulties appearing when the standard Gilkey-de Witt expansion is the tool used in the calculations of one-loop shifts of vortex masses and string tensions. A modified GdW expansion is developed to diminish the impact of the infrared divergences due to the vortex zero modes of fluctuation. With this new technique at our disposal we compute the one-loop vortex mass shifts in the planar AHM and the quantum corrections to the string tension of the magnetic flux tubes living in three dimensions. In both cases it is observed that weak repulsive forces surge between these classically noninteracting topological defects caused by vacuum quantum fluctuations.
One-loop calculations in quantum field theory: from Feynman diagrams to unitarity cuts
Ellis, R. Keith; Kunszt, Zoltan; Melnikov, Kirill; Zanderighi, Giulia
2012-09-01
The success of the experimental program at the Tevatron re-inforced the idea that precision physics at hadron colliders is desirable and, indeed, possible. The Tevatron data strongly suggests that one-loop computations in QCD describe hard scattering well. Extrapolating this observation to the LHC, we conclude that knowledge of many short-distance processes at next-to-leading order may be required to describe the physics of hard scattering. While the field of one-loop computations is quite mature, parton multiplicities in hard LHC events are so high that traditional computational techniques become inefficient. Recently new approaches based on unitarity have been developed for calculating one-loop scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory. These methods are especially suitable for the description of multi-particle processes in QCD and are amenable to numerical implementations. We present a systematic pedagogical description of both conceptual and technical aspects of the new methods.
Quantization ambiguities and bounds on geometric scalars in anisotropic loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Parampreet; Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2014-02-01
We study quantization ambiguities in loop quantum cosmology that arise for space-times with non-zero spatial curvature and anisotropies. Motivated by lessons from different possible loop quantizations of the closed Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmology, we find that using open holonomies of the extrinsic curvature, which due to gauge-fixing can be treated as a connection, leads to the same quantum geometry effects that are found in spatially flat cosmologies. More specifically, in contrast to the quantization based on open holonomies of the Ashtekar-Barbero connection, the expansion and shear scalars in the effective theories of the Bianchi type II and Bianchi type IX models have upper bounds, and these are in exact agreement with the bounds found in the effective theories of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker and Bianchi type I models in loop quantum cosmology. We also comment on some ambiguities present in the definition of inverse triad operators and their role.
Self-dual black holes in loop quantum gravity: Theory and phenomenology
Modesto, Leonardo; Premont-Schwarz, Isabeau
2009-09-15
In this paper we have recalled the semiclassical metric obtained from a classical analysis of the loop quantum black hole (LQBH). We show that the regular Reissner-Nordstroem-like metric is self-dual in the sense of T-duality: the form of the metric obtained in loop quantum gravity is invariant under the exchange r{yields}a{sub 0}/r where a{sub 0} is proportional to the minimum area in loop quantum gravity and r is the standard Schwarzschild radial coordinate at asymptotic infinity. Of particular interest, the symmetry imposes that if an observer in r{yields}+{infinity} sees a black hole of mass m an observer in the other asymptotic infinity beyond the horizon (at r{approx_equal}0) sees a dual mass m{sub P}/m. We then show that small LQBH are stable and could be a component of dark matter. Ultralight LQBHs created shortly after the big bang would now have a mass of approximately 10{sup -5}m{sub P} and emit radiation with a typical energy of about 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} eV but they would also emit cosmic rays of much higher energies, albeit few of them. If these small LQBHs form a majority of the dark matter of the Milky Way's Halo, the production rate of ultra-high-energy-cosmic-rays (UHECR) by these ultralight black holes would be compatible with the observed rate of the Auger detector.
The perturbed universe in the deformed algebra approach of loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grain, Julien
2016-06-01
Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) is a tentative approach to model the universe down to the Planck era where quantum gravity settings are needed. The quantization of the universe as a dynamical spacetime is inspired by Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) ideas. In addition, LQC could bridge contact with astronomical observations, and thus potentially investigate quantum cosmology modelings in the light of observations. To do so however, modeling both the background evolution and its perturbations is needed. The latter described cosmic inhomogeneities that are the main cosmological observables. In this context, we present the so-called deformed algebra approach implementing the quantum corrections to the perturbed universe at an effective level by taking great care of gauge issues. We particularly highlight that in this framework, the algebra of hypersurface deformation receives quantum corrections, and we discuss their meaning. The primordial power spectra of scalar and tensor inhomogeneities are then presented, assuming initial conditions are set in the contracting phase preceding the quantum bounce and the well-known expanding phase of the cosmic history. These spectra are subsequently propagated to angular power spectra of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. It is then shown that regardless of the choice for the initial conditions inside the effective approach for the background evolution (except that they are set in the contracting phase), the predicted angular power spectra of the polarized B-modes exceed the upper bound currently set by observations. The exclusion of this specific version of LQC establishes the falsifiability of the approach, though one shall not conclude here that either LQC or LQG excluded.
Loop quantum cosmology of a radiation-dominated flat FLRW universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawłowski, Tomasz; Pierini, Roberto; Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2014-12-01
We study the loop quantum cosmology of a flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-time with a Maxwell field. We show that many of the qualitative properties derived for the case of a massless scalar field also hold for a Maxwell field. In particular, the big-bang singularity is replaced by a quantum bounce, and the operator corresponding to the matter energy density is bounded above by the same critical energy density. We also numerically study the evolution of wave functions that are sharply peaked in the low energy regime, and derive effective equations which very closely approximate the full quantum dynamics of sharply peaked states at all times, including the near-bounce epoch. In the process, the analytical and numerical methods originally used to study the dynamics in loop quantum cosmology for the case of a massless scalar field are substantially improved to handle the difficulties (that generically arise for matter content other than a massless scalar field) related to the presence of a Maxwell field.
Non-singular bounce scenarios in loop quantum cosmology and the effective field description
Cai, Yi-Fu; Wilson-Ewing, Edward E-mail: wilson-ewing@phys.lsu.edu
2014-03-01
A non-singular bouncing cosmology is generically obtained in loop quantum cosmology due to non-perturbative quantum gravity effects. A similar picture can be achieved in standard general relativity in the presence of a scalar field with a non-standard kinetic term such that at high energy densities the field evolves into a ghost condensate and causes a non-singular bounce. During the bouncing phase, the perturbations can be stabilized by introducing a Horndeski operator. Taking the matter content to be a dust field and an ekpyrotic scalar field, we compare the dynamics in loop quantum cosmology and in a non-singular bouncing effective field model with a non-standard kinetic term at both the background and perturbative levels. We find that these two settings share many important properties, including the result that they both generate scale-invariant scalar perturbations. This shows that some quantum gravity effects of the very early universe may be mimicked by effective field models.
Ising spin network states for loop quantum gravity: a toy model for phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feller, Alexandre; Livine, Etera R.
2016-03-01
Non-perturbative approaches to quantum gravity call for a deep understanding of the emergence of geometry and locality from the quantum state of the gravitational field. Without background geometry, the notion of distance should emerge entirely from the correlations between the gravity fluctuations. In the context of loop quantum gravity, quantum states of geometry are defined as spin networks. These are graphs decorated with spin and intertwiners, which represent quantized excitations of areas and volumes of the space geometry. Here, we develop the condensed-matter point of view on extracting the physical and geometrical information from spin network states: we introduce new Ising spin network states, both in 2d on a square lattice and in 3d on a hexagonal lattice, whose correlations map onto the usual Ising model in statistical physics. We construct these states from the basic holonomy operators of loop gravity and derive a set of local Hamiltonian constraints that entirely characterize our states. We discuss their phase diagram and show how the distance can be reconstructed from the correlations in the various phases. Finally, we propose generalizations of these Ising states, which open the perspective to study the coarse-graining and dynamics of spin network states using well-known condensed-matter techniques and results.
Population trapping in three-state quantum loops revealed by Householder reflections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rangelov, A. A.; Vitanov, N. V.; Shore, B. W.
2008-03-01
Population trapping occurs when a particular quantum-state superposition is immune to action by a specific interaction, such as the well-known dark state in a three-state Λ system. We here show that in a three-state loop linkage, a Hilbert-space Householder reflection breaks the loop and presents the linkage as a single chain. With certain conditions on the interaction parameters, this chain can break into a simple two-state system and an additional spectator state. Alternatively, a two-photon resonance condition in this Householder-basis chain can be enforced, which heralds the existence of another spectator state. These spectator states generalize the usual dark state to include contributions from all three bare basis states and disclose hidden population trapping effects and hence hidden constants of motion. Insofar as a spectator state simplifies the overall dynamics, its existence facilitates the derivation of analytic solutions and the design of recipes for quantum-state engineering in the loop system. Moreover, it is shown that a suitable sequence of Householder transformations can cast an arbitrary N -dimensional Hermitian Hamiltonian in a tridiagonal form. The implication is that a general N -state system, with arbitrary linkage patterns where each state connects to any other state, can be reduced to an equivalent chainwise-connected system, with nearest-neighbor interactions only, with ensuing possibilities for discovering hidden multidimensional spectator states and constants of motion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joe, Anton; Dadhich, Naresh; Singh, Parampreet
2015-04-01
The loop quantum dynamics of Kantowski-Sachs and the interior of higher genus black hole spacetimes with cosmological constant has some peculiar features not shared by various other spacetimes in loop quantum cosmolgy. As in the other cases, though the quantum geometric effects resolve the singularity and result in a bounce, after the bounce a spacetime with small spacetime curvature does not emerge at late times. Instead, asymptotically the spacetime has constant spacetime curvature with a product manifold. Interestingly, though the spacetime curvature of these asymptotic spacetimes is very high, the effective metric of these spacetimes is a solution to the Einstein field equations. Analysis of the components of the Ricci tensor shows that after the singularity resolution, the Kantowski-Sachs spacetimes lead to an effective charged Nariai, and, the higher genus black hole interior lead to an anti Bertotti-Robinson spacetime with an effective tachyonic charge. The asymptotic spacetimes have an effective cosmological constant which is different in magnitude, and sometimes even its sign, from the cosmological constant in the Kantwoski-Sachs and higher genus black hole metrics.
A general transfer-function approach to noise filtering in open-loop quantum control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viola, Lorenza
2015-03-01
Hamiltonian engineering via unitary open-loop quantum control provides a versatile and experimentally validated framework for manipulating a broad class of non-Markovian open quantum systems of interest, with applications ranging from dynamical decoupling and dynamically corrected quantum gates, to noise spectroscopy and quantum simulation. In this context, transfer-function techniques directly motivated by control engineering have proved invaluable for obtaining a transparent picture of the controlled dynamics in the frequency domain and for quantitatively analyzing performance. In this talk, I will show how to identify a computationally tractable set of ``fundamental filter functions,'' out of which arbitrary filter functions may be assembled up to arbitrary high order in principle. Besides avoiding the infinite recursive hierarchy of filter functions that arises in general control scenarios, this fundamental set suffices to characterize the error suppression capabilities of the control protocol in both the time and frequency domain. I will show, in particular, how the resulting notion of ``filtering order'' reveals conceptually distinct, albeit complementary, features of the controlled dynamics as compared to the ``cancellation order,'' traditionally defined in the Magnus sense. Implications for current quantum control experiments will be discussed. Work supported by the U.S. Army Research Office under Contract No. W911NF-14-1-0682.
Models in Boundary Quantum Field Theory Associated with Lattices and Loop Group Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bischoff, Marcel
2012-11-01
In this article we give new examples of models in boundary quantum field theory, i.e. local time-translation covariant nets of von Neumann algebras, using a recent construction of Longo and Witten, which uses a local conformal net {{A}} on the real line together with an element of a unitary semigroup associated with {{A}}. Namely, we compute elements of this semigroup coming from Hölder continuous symmetric inner functions for a family of (completely rational) conformal nets which can be obtained by starting with nets of real subspaces, passing to its second quantization nets and taking local extensions of the former. This family is precisely the family of conformal nets associated with lattices, which as we show contains as a special case the level 1 loop group nets of simply connected, simply laced groups. Further examples come from the loop group net of {Spin(n)} at level 2 using the orbifold construction.
Inflation in loop quantum cosmology: Dynamics and spectrum of gravitational waves
Mielczarek, Jakub; Cailleteau, Thomas; Grain, Julien; Barrau, Aurelien
2010-05-15
Loop quantum cosmology provides an efficient framework to study the evolution of the Universe beyond the classical Big Bang paradigm. Because of holonomy corrections, the singularity is replaced by a 'bounce'. The dynamics of the background is investigated into the details, as a function of the parameters of the model. In particular, the conditions required for inflation to occur are carefully considered and are shown to be generically met. The propagation of gravitational waves is then investigated in this framework. By both numerical and analytical approaches, the primordial tensor power spectrum is computed for a wide range of parameters. Several interesting features could be observationally probed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das Mandal, Jyotirmay; Debnath, Ujjal
2016-08-01
We have studied the tachyon intermediate and logamediate warm inflation in loop quantum cosmological background by taking the dissipative co-efficient Γ = Γ0 (where Γ0 is a constant) in “intermediate” inflation and Γ = V(ϕ), (where V(ϕ) is the potential of tachyonic field) in “logamediate” inflation. We have assumed slow-roll condition to construct scalar field ϕ, potential V, N-folds, etc. Various slow-roll parameters have also been obtained. We have analyzed the stability of this model through graphical representations.
Black holes in loop quantum gravity: the complete space-time.
Gambini, Rodolfo; Pullin, Jorge
2008-10-17
We consider the quantization of the complete extension of the Schwarzschild space-time using spherically symmetric loop quantum gravity. We find an exact solution corresponding to the semiclassical theory. The singularity is eliminated but the space-time still contains a horizon. Although the solution is known partially numerically and therefore a proper global analysis is not possible, a global structure akin to a singularity-free Reissner-Nordström space-time including a Cauchy horizon is suggested. PMID:18999656
Alternative approaches to Lorentz violation invariance in loop quantum gravity inspired models
Alfaro, Jorge; Reyes, Marat; Morales-Tecotl, Hugo A.; Urrutia, L.F.
2004-10-15
Recent claims point out that possible violations of Lorentz symmetry appearing in some semiclassical models of extended matter dynamics motivated by loop quantum gravity can be removed by a different choice of phase-space variables. In this note we show that such alternative is inconsistent with (i) the choice of variables in the regularized underlying quantum theory from which the effective theories are derived and (ii) the application of the correspondence principle. A consistent choice will violate standard Lorentz invariance, with the exception of trivial zero Planck scale corrections which are allowed by the analysis. Thus, for nontrivial corrections, to preserve a relativity principle in these models, the linear realization of Lorentz symmetry should be extended or superseded.
Near-horizon radiation and self-dual loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geiller, M.; Noui, K.
2014-03-01
We compute the near-horizon radiation of quantum black holes in the context of self-dual loop quantum gravity. For this, we first use the unitary spinor basis of \\textit{SL}(2,\\,{ C}) to decompose states of Lorentzian spin foam models into their self-dual and anti-self-dual parts, and show that the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over one chiral component describes a thermal state at Unruh temperature. Then, we show that the analytically-continued dimension of the SU(2) Chern-Simons Hilbert space, which reproduces the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in the large spin limit in agreement with the large spin effective action, takes the form of a partition function for states thermalized at Unruh temperature, with discrete energy levels given by the near-horizon energy of Frodden-Gosh-Perez, and with a degenerate ground state which is holographic and responsible for the entropy.
Emergence of the product of constant curvature spaces in loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dadhich, Naresh; Joe, Anton; Singh, Parampreet
2015-09-01
The loop quantum dynamics of Kantowski-Sachs spacetime and the interior of higher genus black hole spacetimes with a cosmological constant has some peculiar features not shared by various other spacetimes in loop quantum cosmology. As in the other cases, though the quantum geometric effects resolve the physical singularity and result in a non-singular bounce, after the bounce a spacetime with small spacetime curvature does not emerge in either the subsequent backward or the forward evolution. Rather, in the asymptotic limit the spacetime manifold is a product of two constant curvature spaces. Interestingly, though the spacetime curvature of these asymptotic spacetimes is very high, their effective metric is a solution to Einstein’s field equations. Analysis of the components of the Ricci tensor shows that after the singularity resolution, the Kantowski-Sachs spacetime leads to an effective metric which can be interpreted as the ‘charged’ Nariai, while the higher genus black hole interior can similarly be interpreted as an anti Bertotti-Robinson spacetime with a cosmological constant. These spacetimes are ‘charged’ in the sense that the energy-momentum tensor that satisfies Einstein’s field equations is formally the same as the one for the uniform electromagnetic field, albeit it has a purely quantum geometric origin. The asymptotic spacetimes also have an emergent cosmological constant which is different in magnitude, and sometimes even its sign, from the cosmological constant in the Kantowski-Sachs and the interior of higher genus black hole metrics. With a fine tuning of the latter cosmological constant, we show that ‘uncharged’ Nariai, and anti Bertotti-Robinson spacetimes with a vanishing emergent cosmological constant can also be obtained.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thibault, Franck; Boulet, Christian; Ma, Qiancheng
2014-01-01
We present quantum calculations of the relaxation matrix for the Q branch of N2 at room temperature using a recently proposed N2-N2 rigid rotor potential. Close coupling calculations were complemented by coupled states studies at high energies and provide about 10200 two-body state-to state cross sections from which the needed one-body cross-sections may be obtained. For such temperatures, convergence has to be thoroughly analyzed since such conditions are close to the limit of current computational feasibility. This has been done using complementary calculations based on the energy corrected sudden formalism. Agreement of these quantum predictions with experimental data is good, but the main goal of this work is to provide a benchmark relaxation matrix for testing more approximate methods which remain of a great utility for complex molecular systems at room (and higher) temperatures.
Gravitational lensing by self-dual black holes in loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahu, Satyabrata; Lochan, Kinjalk; Narasimha, D.
2015-03-01
We study gravitational lensing by a recently proposed black hole solution in loop quantum gravity. We highlight the fact that the quantum gravity corrections to the Schwarzschild metric in this model evade the "mass suppression" effects (that the usual quantum gravity corrections are susceptible to) by virtue of one of the parameters in the model being dimensionless, which is unlike any other quantum gravity motivated parameter. Gravitational lensing in the strong and weak deflection regimes is studied, and a sample consistency relation is presented which could serve as a test of this model. We discuss that, though the consistency relation for this model is qualitatively similar to what would have been in Brans-Dicke, in general it can be a good discriminator between many alternative theories. Although the observational prospects do not seem to be very optimistic even for a galactic supermassive black hole case, time delay between relativistic images for a billion solar mass black holes in other galaxies might be within reach of future relativistic lensing observations.
Gauge invariant cosmological perturbation equations with corrections from loop quantum gravity
Bojowald, Martin; Hossain, Golam Mortuza; Kagan, Mikhail; Shankaranarayanan, S.
2009-02-15
A consistent implementation of quantum gravity is expected to change the familiar notions of space, time, and the propagation of matter in drastic ways. This will have consequences on very small scales, but also gives rise to correction terms in evolution equations of modes relevant for observations. In particular, the evolution of inhomogeneities in the very early Universe should be affected. In this paper consistent evolution equations for gauge-invariant perturbations in the presence of inverse triad corrections of loop quantum gravity are derived. Some immediate effects are pointed out, for instance, concerning conservation of power on large scales and nonadiabaticity. It is also emphasized that several critical corrections can only be seen to arise in a fully consistent treatment where the gauge freedom of canonical gravity is not fixed before implementing quantum corrections. In particular, metric modes must be allowed to be inhomogeneous: it is not consistent to assume only matter inhomogeneities on a quantum-corrected homogeneous background geometry. In this way, stringent consistency conditions arise for possible quantization ambiguities, which will eventually be further constrained observationally.
Closing a quantum feedback loop for a superconducting qubit inside a cryostat
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersen, Christian Kraglund; Kerckhoff, Joseph; Lehnert, Konrad W.; Chapman, Benjamin J.; Mølmer, Klaus
Several quantum information protocols relies upon efficient feedback (or feed-forward) schemes. Recently, within the field of superconducting qubits, many experiments have shown tremendous progress towards high fidelity quantum feedback scheme. Some experiments work by traditional measurement based schemes where the classical output is processed on a classical ''computer'' before a signal is fed back to the qubits. Other approaches are working in a continuous coherent manner, where the full quantum description of the system creates an effective bath that relaxes the system into the desired state. This talk will present a different approach that aims to close a measurement based feedback loop inside a cryostat and, thus, the scheme works completely autonomous. This approach sidesteps many of the inefficiencies inherent in two-way communication between temperature stages in typical systems with room temperature controllers, and avoids increasing the cryogenic heat load. This controller may find a broad range of uses in multi-qubit systems, but here I analyze two specific demonstrative cases in single qubit-control and show simulations of the time evolution for the full system dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chien, Chihchun; Metcalf, Mekena; Lai, Chenyen
2016-05-01
Memory effects are observable in magnetization, rechargeable batteries, and many systems exhibiting history-dependent states. Quantum memory effects are observable, for instance, in atomic superfluids. A counter-intuitive question is whether quantum memory effects can exist in noninteracting systems. Here we present two examples of cold-atom systems demonstrating memory effects in noninteracting systems. The first example is a ring-shaped potential loaded with noninteracting fermions. An artificial vector potential drives a current and with a tunable dissipative background, the current lags behind the driving and exhibits hysteresis loops. The dissipative energy can be controlled by the coupling between the fermions and the background. In the second example, cold atoms loaded in a tunable optical lattice transformed from the triangular to the kagome geometry. The kagome lattice supports a flat-band consisting of degenerate localized states. Quantum memory effects are observable after a lattice transformation as the steady-state density depends on the rate of the transformation. The versatility of memory effects in cold-atom systems promises novel applications in atomtronics.
Phenomenological dynamics of loop quantum cosmology in Kantowski-Sachs spacetime
Chiou, D.-W.
2008-08-15
The fundamental theory and the semiclassical description of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) have been studied in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker and Bianchi I models. As an extension to include both anisotropy and intrinsic curvature, this paper investigates the cosmological model of Kantowski-Sachs spacetime with a free massless scalar field at the level of phenomenological dynamics with the LQC discreteness corrections. The LQC corrections are implemented in two different improved quantization schemes. In both schemes, the big bang and big crunch singularities of the classical solution are resolved and replaced by the big bounces when the area or volume scale factor approaches the critical values in the Planck regime measured by the reference of the scalar field momentum. Symmetries of scaling are also noted and suggest that the fundamental spatial scale (area gap) may give rise to a temporal scale. The bouncing scenarios are in an analogous fashion of the Bianchi I model, naturally extending the observations obtained previously.
The Dynamics of Tachyon Field with AN Inverse Square Potential in Loop Quantum Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Fei; Zhu, Jian-Yang; Xiao, Kui
2013-05-01
The dynamical behavior of tachyon field with an inverse potential is investigated in loop quantum cosmology. It reveals that the late-time behavior of tachyon field with this potential leads to a power-law expansion. In addition, an additional barotropic perfect fluid with the adiabatic index 0 < γ < 2 is added and the dynamical system is shown to be an autonomous one. The stability of this autonomous system is discussed using phase plane analysis. There exist up to five fixed points with only two of them possibly stable. The two stable node (attractor) solutions are specified and their cosmological indications are discussed. For the tachyon dominated solution, the further discussion is stretched to the possibility of considering tachyon field as a combination of two parts which respectively behave like dark matter and dark energy.
Quantum interference based Boolean gates in dangling bond loops on Si(100):H surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleshchonok, Andrii; Gutierrez, Rafael; Joachim, Christian; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio
2015-09-01
Implementing atomic and molecular scale electronic functionalities represents one of the major challenges in current nano-electronic developments. Engineered dangling bond nanostructures on Silicon or Germanium surfaces posses the potential to provide novel routes towards the development of non-conventional electronic circuits. These structures are built by selectively removing hydrogen atoms from an otherwise fully passivated Si(100) or Ge(100) substrate. In this theoretical study, we demonstrate how dangling bond loops can be used to implement different Boolean logic gates. Our approach exploits quantum interference effects in such ring-like structures combined with an appropriate design of the interfacing of the dangling bond system with mesoscopic electrodes. We show how OR, AND, and NOR gates can be realized by tuning either the global symmetry of the system in a multi-terminal setup—by arranging the position of the input and output electrodes—or, alternatively, by selectively applying electrostatic gates in a two-terminal configuration.
Matter in loop quantum gravity without time gauge: A nonminimally coupled scalar field
Cianfrani, Francesco; Montani, Giovanni
2009-10-15
We analyze the phase space of gravity nonminimally coupled to a scalar field in a generic local Lorentz frame. We reduce the set of constraints to a first class one by fixing a specific hypersurfaces in the phase space. The main issue of our analysis is to extend the features of the vacuum case to the presence of scalar matter by recovering the emergence of an SU(2) gauge structure and the nondynamical role of boost variables. Within this scheme, the supermomentum and the super-Hamiltonian are those ones associated with a scalar field minimally coupled to the metric in the Einstein frame. Hence, the kinematical Hilbert space is defined as in canonical loop quantum gravity with a scalar field, but the differences in the area spectrum are outlined to be the same as in the time-gauge approach.
Seeking the loop quantum gravity Barbero-Immirzi parameter and field in 4D, N=1 supergravity
Gates, S. James Jr.; Ketov, Sergei V.; Yunes, Nicolas
2009-09-15
We embed the loop quantum gravity Barbero-Immirzi parameter and field within an action describing 4D, N=1 supergravity and thus within a low-energy effective action of superstring/M theory. We use the fully gauge-covariant description of supergravity in (curved) superspace. The gravitational constant is replaced with the vacuum expectation value of a scalar field, which in local supersymmetry is promoted to a complex, covariantly chiral scalar superfield. The imaginary part of this superfield couples to a supersymmetric Holst term. The Holst term also serves as a starting point in the loop quantum gravity action. This suggest the possibility of a relation between loop quantum gravity and supersymmetric string theory, where the Barbero-Immirzi parameter and field of the former play the role of the supersymmetric axion in the latter. Adding matter fermions in loop quantum gravity may require the extension of the Holst action through the Nieh-Yan topological invariant, while in pure, matter-free supergravity their supersymmetric extensions are the same. We show that, when the Barbero-Immirzi parameter is promoted to a field in the context of 4D supergravity, it is equivalent to adding a dynamical complex chiral (dilaton-axion) superfield with a nontrivial kinetic term (or Kaehler potential), coupled to supergravity.
Hanada, Masanori; Miwa, Akitsugu; Nishimura, Jun; Takeuchi, Shingo
2009-05-08
In the string-gauge duality it is important to understand how the space-time geometry is encoded in gauge theory observables. We address this issue in the case of the D0-brane system at finite temperature T. Based on the duality, the temporal Wilson loop W in gauge theory is expected to contain the information of the Schwarzschild radius R{sub Sch} of the dual black hole geometry as log
Hanada, Masanori; Miwa, Akitsugu; Nishimura, Jun; Takeuchi, Shingo
2009-05-01
In the string-gauge duality it is important to understand how the space-time geometry is encoded in gauge theory observables. We address this issue in the case of the D0-brane system at finite temperature T. Based on the duality, the temporal Wilson loop W in gauge theory is expected to contain the information of the Schwarzschild radius RSch of the dual black hole geometry as log(W)=RSch/(2pialpha'T). This translates to the power-law behavior log(W)=1.89(T/lambda 1/3)-3/5, where lambda is the 't Hooft coupling constant. We calculate the Wilson loop on the gauge theory side in the strongly coupled regime by performing Monte Carlo simulations of supersymmetric matrix quantum mechanics with 16 supercharges. The results reproduce the expected power-law behavior up to a constant shift, which is explainable as alpha' corrections on the gravity side. Our conclusion also demonstrates manifestly the fuzzball picture of black holes. PMID:19518857
Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Jeon, Sangyong; Venugopalan, Raju; Wirstam, Jens
2000-08-15
The one loop effective action in quantum field theory can be expressed as a quantum mechanical path integral over world lines, with internal symmetries represented by Grassmanian variables. In this paper, we develop a real time, many body, world line formalism for the one loop effective action. In particular, we study hot QCD and obtain the classical transport equations which, as Litim and Manuel have shown, reduce in the appropriate limit to the non-Abelian Boltzmann-Langevin equation first obtained by Boedeker. In the Vlasov limit, the classical kinetic equations are those that correspond to the hard thermal loop effective action. We also discuss the imaginary time world line formalism for a hot {phi}{sup 4} theory, and elucidate its relation to classical transport theory. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Effective dynamics, big bounces, and scaling symmetry in Bianchi type I loop quantum cosmology
Chiou, D.-W.
2007-12-15
The detailed formulation for loop quantum cosmology (LQC) in the Bianchi I model with a scalar massless field has been constructed. In this paper, its effective dynamics is studied in two improved strategies for implementing the LQC discreteness corrections. Both schemes show that the big bang is replaced by the big bounces, which take place up to 3 times, once in each diagonal direction, when the area or volume scale factor approaches the critical values in the Planck regime measured by the reference of the scalar field momentum. These two strategies give different evolutions: In one scheme, the effective dynamics is independent of the choice of the finite sized cell prescribed to make Hamiltonian finite; in the other, the effective dynamics reacts to the macroscopic scales introduced by the boundary conditions. Both schemes reveal interesting symmetries of scaling, which are reminiscent of the relational interpretation of quantum mechanics and also suggest that the fundamental spatial scale (area gap) may give rise to a temporal scale.
Imaginary action, spinfoam asymptotics and the ‘transplanckian’ regime of loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodendorfer, N.; Neiman, Y.
2013-10-01
It was recently noted that the on-shell Einstein-Hilbert action with York-Gibbons-Hawking boundary term has an imaginary part, proportional to the area of the codimension-2 surfaces on which the boundary normal becomes null. We discuss the extension of this result to first-order formulations of gravity. As a side effect, we settle the issue of the Holst modification versus the Nieh-Yan density by demanding a variational principle with suitable boundary conditions. We then set out to find the imaginary action in the large-spin 4-simplex limit of the Lorentzian EPRL/FK spinfoam. It turns out that the spinfoam’s effective action indeed has the correct imaginary part, but only if the Barbero-Immirzi parameter γ is set to ±i after the quantum calculation. We point out an agreement between this effective action and a recent black hole state-counting calculation in the same limit. Finally, we propose that the large-spin limit of loop quantum gravity can be viewed as a high-energy ‘transplanckian’ regime.
Quantum nature of the big bang: Improved dynamics
Ashtekar, Abhay; Pawlowski, Tomasz; Singh, Parampreet
2006-10-15
An improved Hamiltonian constraint operator is introduced in loop quantum cosmology. Quantum dynamics of the spatially flat, isotropic model with a massless scalar field is then studied in detail using analytical and numerical methods. The scalar field continues to serve as ''emergent time'', the big bang is again replaced by a quantum bounce, and quantum evolution remains deterministic across the deep Planck regime. However, while with the Hamiltonian constraint used so far in loop quantum cosmology the quantum bounce can occur even at low matter densities, with the new Hamiltonian constraint it occurs only at a Planck-scale density. Thus, the new quantum dynamics retains the attractive features of current evolutions in loop quantum cosmology but, at the same time, cures their main weakness.
"Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory", 12th DESY Workshop on Elementary Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
The bi-annual international conference "Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory" has been held at Weimar, Germany, from April 27 to May 02, 2014. It has been the 12th conference of this series, started in 1992. The main focus of the conference are precision calculations of multi- loop and multi-leg processes in elementary particle physics for processes at present and future high-energy facilities within and beyond the Standard Model. At present many physics questions studied deal with processes at the LHC and future facilities like the ILC. A growing number of contributions deals with important developments in the field of computational technologies and algorithmic methods, including large-scale computer algebra, efficient methods to compute large numbers of Feynman diagrams, analytic summation and integration methods of various kinds, new related function spaces, precise numerical methods and Monte Carlo simulations. The present conference has been attended by more than 110 participants from all over the world, presenting more than 75 contributions, most of which have been written up for these pro- ceedings. The present volume demonstrates in an impressive way the enormous development of the field during the last few years, reaching the level of 5-loop calculations in QCD and a like- wise impressive development in massive next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order processes. Computer algebraic and numerical calculations require terabyte storage and many CPU years, even after intense parallelization, to obtain state-of-the-art theoretical predictions. The city of Weimar gave a suitable frame to the conference, with its rich history, especially in literature, music, arts, and architecture. Goethe, Schiller, Wieland, Herder, Bach and Liszt lived there and created many of their masterpieces. The many young participants signal that our field is prosperous and faces an exciting future. The conference hotel "Kaiserin Augusta" offered a warm hospitality and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucky Chang, Wen-Hsuan; Proty Wu, Jiun-Huei
2016-06-01
We aim to use the observations of B-mode polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) to probe the ‘parent universe’ under the context of Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC). In particular, we investigate the possibility for the gravitational waves (GW) such as those from the stellar binary systems in the parent universe to survive the big bounce and thus to be still observable today. Our study is based on the background dynamics with the zeroth-order holonomy correction using the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. We propose a new framework in which transfer functions are invoked to bring the GWs in the parent universe through the big bounce, inflation, and big bang to reach today. This transparent and intuitive formalism allows us to accurately discuss the influence of the GWs from the parent universe on the B-mode polarization in the CMB today under backgrounds of different LQC parameters. These features can soon be tested by the forth-coming CMB observations and we note that the LQC backgrounds with symmetric bouncing scenarios are ruled out by the latest observational results from Planck and BICEP2/Keck experiments.
Quantum interference based Boolean gates in dangling bond loops on Si(100):H surfaces
Kleshchonok, Andrii; Gutierrez, Rafael; Joachim, Christian; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio
2015-01-01
Implementing atomic and molecular scale electronic functionalities represents one of the major challenges in current nano-electronic developments. Engineered dangling bond nanostructures on Silicon or Germanium surfaces posses the potential to provide novel routes towards the development of non-conventional electronic circuits. These structures are built by selectively removing hydrogen atoms from an otherwise fully passivated Si(100) or Ge(100) substrate. In this theoretical study, we demonstrate how dangling bond loops can be used to implement different Boolean logic gates. Our approach exploits quantum interference effects in such ring-like structures combined with an appropriate design of the interfacing of the dangling bond system with mesoscopic electrodes. We show how OR, AND, and NOR gates can be realized by tuning either the global symmetry of the system in a multi-terminal setup—by arranging the position of the input and output electrodes—or, alternatively, by selectively applying electrostatic gates in a two-terminal configuration. PMID:26370919
Barbero-Immirzi parameter as a scalar field: K-inflation from loop quantum gravity?
Taveras, Victor; Yunes, Nicolas
2008-09-15
We consider a loop-quantum gravity inspired modification of general relativity, where the Holst action is generalized by making the Barbero-Immirzi (BI) parameter a scalar field, whose value could be dynamically determined. The modified theory leads to a nonzero torsion tensor that corrects the field equations through quadratic first derivatives of the BI field. Such a correction is equivalent to general relativity in the presence of a scalar field with nontrivial kinetic energy. This stress energy of this field is automatically covariantly conserved by its own dynamical equations of motion, thus satisfying the strong equivalence principle. Every general relativistic solution remains a solution to the modified theory for any constant value of the BI field. For arbitrary time-varying BI fields, a study of cosmological solutions reduces the scalar-field stress energy to that of a pressureless perfect fluid in a comoving reference frame, forcing the scale-factor dynamics to be equivalent to those of a stiff equation of state. Upon ultraviolet completion, this model could provide a natural mechanism for k inflation, where the role of the inflaton is played by the BI field and inflation is driven by its nontrivial kinetic energy instead of a potential.
Quantum interference based Boolean gates in dangling bond loops on Si(100):H surfaces.
Kleshchonok, Andrii; Gutierrez, Rafael; Joachim, Christian; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio
2015-01-01
Implementing atomic and molecular scale electronic functionalities represents one of the major challenges in current nano-electronic developments. Engineered dangling bond nanostructures on Silicon or Germanium surfaces posses the potential to provide novel routes towards the development of non-conventional electronic circuits. These structures are built by selectively removing hydrogen atoms from an otherwise fully passivated Si(100) or Ge(100) substrate. In this theoretical study, we demonstrate how dangling bond loops can be used to implement different Boolean logic gates. Our approach exploits quantum interference effects in such ring-like structures combined with an appropriate design of the interfacing of the dangling bond system with mesoscopic electrodes. We show how OR, AND, and NOR gates can be realized by tuning either the global symmetry of the system in a multi-terminal setup—by arranging the position of the input and output electrodes—or, alternatively, by selectively applying electrostatic gates in a two-terminal configuration. PMID:26370919
A note on the secondary simplicity constraints in loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anzà, Fabio; Speziale, Simone
2015-10-01
A debate has appeared in the literature on loop quantum gravity and spin foams over whether the secondary simplicity constraints, reducing the connection to be Levi-Civita, should imply shape-matching conditions, reducing twisted geometries to Regge geometries. We address the question using a simple model with flat dynamics in which secondary simplicity constraints arise from a dynamical preservation of the primary ones. We find that shape-matching conditions arise, thus providing support to an affirmative answer to the question. In our model, these extra conditions come from the different graph localizations of the Hamiltonian (faces) and primary simplicity constraints (links). Our results are consistent with previous claims by Dittrich and Ryan and extend their validity to Lorentzian signature and arbitrary cellular decompositions. We show in particular how the (gauge-invariant version of the) twist angle ξ featuring in twisted geometries equals on-shell the Regge dihedral angle multiplied by the Immirzi parameter, thus recovering the discrete extrinsic geometry from the Ashtekar-Barbero holonomy. Finally, we confirm that flatness implies both Levi-Civita and shape-matching conditions using twisted geometries and a four-dimensional version of the vertex condition appearing in ’t Hooft’s polygon model.
Phenomenology analysis of duration inflation for tachyon field in loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Kui; He, Xiao-Kai; Huang, Fei; Zhu, Jian-Yang
2014-09-01
Assuming that the e-folding number is just determined by the change of the scale factor, the tachyonic inflation theory in loop quantum cosmology (LQC) has been discussed. Considering the tachyon field with exponential potential and inverse quadratic potential, we find that the evolutionary pictures of super inflation are affected by the potentials and the initial conditions. However it cannot provide enough e-folding number, no matter which condition is chosen. Therefore a slow-rolling inflation is necessary. The e-folding number for slow-rolling inflation depends on the values of the parameter α of the exponential potential and the initial conditions. To get enough e-folding number, α should be small. Based on the slow-rolling inflation happens immediately when the super inflation ends, and the scale factor continuously grows during the whole inflation stage, we consider an e-folding number provided by the whole inflationary stage, and we find that it is easier to get enough e-folding number when the scale factor increases during all the inflation phase.
Viability of the matter bounce scenario in Loop Quantum Cosmology from BICEP2 last data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume
2014-08-01
The CMB map provided by the Planck project constrains the value of the ratio of tensor-to-scalar perturbations, namely r, to be smaller than 0.11 (95 % CL). This bound rules out the simplest models of inflation. However, recent data from BICEP2 is in strong tension with this constrain, as it finds a value r=0.20+0.07-0.05 with 0r= disfavored at 7.0 σ, which allows these simplest inflationary models to survive. The remarkable fact is that, even though the BICEP2 experiment was conceived to search for evidence of inflation, its experimental data matches correctly theoretical results coming from the matter bounce scenario (the alternative model to the inflationary paradigm). More precisely, most bouncing cosmologies do not pass Planck's constrains due to the smallness of the value of the tensor/scalar ratio r<= 0.11, but with new BICEP2 data some of them fit well with experimental data. This is the case with the matter bounce scenario in the teleparallel version of Loop Quantum Cosmology.
Barbero-Immirzi parameter as a scalar field: K-inflation from loop quantum gravity?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taveras, Victor; Yunes, Nicolás
2008-09-01
We consider a loop-quantum gravity inspired modification of general relativity, where the Holst action is generalized by making the Barbero-Immirzi (BI) parameter a scalar field, whose value could be dynamically determined. The modified theory leads to a nonzero torsion tensor that corrects the field equations through quadratic first derivatives of the BI field. Such a correction is equivalent to general relativity in the presence of a scalar field with nontrivial kinetic energy. This stress energy of this field is automatically covariantly conserved by its own dynamical equations of motion, thus satisfying the strong equivalence principle. Every general relativistic solution remains a solution to the modified theory for any constant value of the BI field. For arbitrary time-varying BI fields, a study of cosmological solutions reduces the scalar-field stress energy to that of a pressureless perfect fluid in a comoving reference frame, forcing the scale-factor dynamics to be equivalent to those of a stiff equation of state. Upon ultraviolet completion, this model could provide a natural mechanism for k inflation, where the role of the inflaton is played by the BI field and inflation is driven by its nontrivial kinetic energy instead of a potential.
Viability of the matter bounce scenario in Loop Quantum Cosmology from BICEP2 last data
De Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume E-mail: jaume.amoros@upc.edu
2014-08-01
The CMB map provided by the Planck project constrains the value of the ratio of tensor-to-scalar perturbations, namely r, to be smaller than 0.11 (95 % CL). This bound rules out the simplest models of inflation. However, recent data from BICEP2 is in strong tension with this constrain, as it finds a value r=0.20{sup +0.07}{sub -0.05} with 0r= disfavored at 7.0 σ, which allows these simplest inflationary models to survive. The remarkable fact is that, even though the BICEP2 experiment was conceived to search for evidence of inflation, its experimental data matches correctly theoretical results coming from the matter bounce scenario (the alternative model to the inflationary paradigm). More precisely, most bouncing cosmologies do not pass Planck's constrains due to the smallness of the value of the tensor/scalar ratio r≤ 0.11, but with new BICEP2 data some of them fit well with experimental data. This is the case with the matter bounce scenario in the teleparallel version of Loop Quantum Cosmology.
Singularity Resolution in Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Parampreet
2014-03-01
In recent years, progress in understanding of the quantization of cosmological spacetimes using techniques of loop quantum gravity, has led to important insights on the resolution of singularities. With a rigorous loop quantization of isotropic and anisotropic spacetimes and development of sophisticated numerical techniques, it is now possible to explore in detail the structure of spacetime in the Planck regime and extract new physics of the very early universe. Investigations of quantization of various spacetimes indicates that classical singularities such as the big bang are avoided, and quantum evolution results in a bounce of the scale factor. The resolution of singularities seems to occur without any assumption on the initial state for quantum evolution or the equation of state of matter. In this talk, we will review some of the main developments in this direction and provide an up to date summary of the novel results obtained on the resolution of singularities in various models in loop quantum gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yue-Liang
2014-04-01
To understand better the quantum structure of field theory and standard model in particle physics, it is necessary to investigate carefully the divergence structure in quantum field theories (QFTs) and work out a consistent framework to avoid infinities. The divergence has got us into trouble since developing quantum electrodynamics in 1930s. Its treatment via the renormalization scheme is satisfied not by all physicists, like Dirac and Feynman who have made serious criticisms. The renormalization group analysis reveals that QFTs can in general be defined fundamentally with the meaningful energy scale that has some physical significance, which motivates us to develop a new symmetry-preserving and infinity-free regularization scheme called loop regularization (LORE). A simple regularization prescription in LORE is realized based on a manifest postulation that a loop divergence with a power counting dimension larger than or equal to the space-time dimension must vanish. The LORE method is achieved without modifying original theory and leads the divergent Feynman loop integrals well-defined to maintain the divergence structure and meanwhile preserve basic symmetries of original theory. The crucial point in LORE is the presence of two intrinsic energy scales which play the roles of ultraviolet cutoff Mc and infrared cutoff μs to avoid infinities. As Mc can be made finite when taking appropriately both the primary regulator mass and number to be infinity to recover the original integrals, the two energy scales Mc and μs in LORE become physically meaningful as the characteristic energy scale and sliding energy scale, respectively. The key concept in LORE is the introduction of irreducible loop integrals (ILIs) on which the regularization prescription acts, which leads to a set of gauge invariance consistency conditions between the regularized tensor-type and scalar-type ILIs. An interesting observation in LORE is that the evaluation of ILIs with ultraviolet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yue-Liang
2014-02-01
To understand better the quantum structure of field theory and standard model in particle physics, it is necessary to investigate carefully the divergence structure in quantum field theories (QFTs) and work out a consistent framework to avoid infinities. The divergence has got us into trouble since developing quantum electrodynamics in 1930s. Its treatment via the renormalization scheme is satisfied not by all physicists, like Dirac and Feynman who have made serious criticisms. The renormalization group analysis reveals that QFTs can in general be defined fundamentally with the meaningful energy scale that has some physical significance, which motivates us to develop a new symmetry-preserving and infinity-free regularization scheme called loop regularization (LORE). A simple regularization prescription in LORE is realized based on a manifest postulation that a loop divergence with a power counting dimension larger than or equal to the space-time dimension must vanish. The LORE method is achieved without modifying original theory and leads the divergent Feynman loop integrals well-defined to maintain the divergence structure and meanwhile preserve basic symmetries of original theory. The crucial point in LORE is the presence of two intrinsic energy scales which play the roles of ultraviolet cutoff Mc and infrared cutoff μs to avoid infinities. As Mc can be made finite when taking appropriately both the primary regulator mass and number to be infinity to recover the original integrals, the two energy scales Mc and μs in LORE become physically meaningful as the characteristic energy scale and sliding energy scale, respectively. The key concept in LORE is the introduction of irreducible loop integrals (ILIs) on which the regularization prescription acts, which leads to a set of gauge invariance consistency conditions between the regularized tensor-type and scalar-type ILIs. An interesting observation in LORE is that the evaluation of ILIs with ultraviolet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrera, Ramón; Olivares, Marco; Videla, Nelson
2014-09-01
In this paper, we study a warm intermediate inflationary model with a general form for the dissipative coefficient Γ(T, ϕ) = CϕTm/ϕm-1 in the context of Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC). We examine this model in the weak and strong dissipative regimes. In general, we discuss in great detail the characteristics of this model in the slow-roll approximation. Also, we assume that the modifications to perturbation equations result exclusively from Hubble rate. In this approach, we use recent astronomical observations from Planck and BICEP2 experiments to restrict the parameters in our model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.
2015-12-01
We investigate the realization of two bouncing paradigms, namely of the superbounce and the loop quantum cosmological ekpyrosis, in the framework of various modified gravities. In particular, we focus on the F(R) , F(G) and F(T) gravities, and we reconstruct their specific subclasses which lead to such universe evolutions. These subclasses constitute from power laws, polynomials, or hypergeometric ansatzes, which can be approximated by power laws. The qualitative similarity of the different effective gravities which realize the above two bouncing cosmologies, indicates that a universality might be lying behind the bounce. Finally, performing a linear perturbation analysis, we show that the obtained solutions are conditionally or fully stable.
Evidence for maximal acceleration and singularity resolution in covariant loop quantum gravity.
Rovelli, Carlo; Vidotto, Francesca
2013-08-30
A simple argument indicates that covariant loop gravity (spin foam theory) predicts a maximal acceleration and hence forbids the development of curvature singularities. This supports the results obtained for cosmology and black holes using canonical methods. PMID:24033021
Quantum Geometry and Quantum Dynamics at the Planck Scale
Bojowald, Martin
2009-12-15
Canonical quantum gravity provides insights into the quantum dynamics as well as quantum geometry of space-time by its implications for constraints. Loop quantum gravity in particular requires specific corrections due to its quantization procedure, which also results in a discrete picture of space. The corresponding changes compared to the classical behavior can most easily be analyzed in isotropic models, but perturbations around them are more involved. For one type of corrections, consistent equations have been found which shed light on the underlying space-time structure at the Planck scale: not just quantum dynamics but also the concept of space-time manifolds changes in quantum gravity. Effective line elements provide indications for possible relationships to other frameworks, such as non-commutative geometry.
Tirziu, A.
2006-05-15
In a previous paper (hep-th/0510080) the effective Landau-Lifshitz (LL) Lagrangians in the SU(2) sector coming from string theory and gauge theory have been found to three loops in the effective expansion parameter {lambda}-tilde={lambda}/J{sup 2}. In this paper we continue this study and find the effective Landau-Lifshitz Lagrangians to four loops. We extend to four-loops {lambda}-tilde{sup 4} the computations of 1/J and 1/J{sup 2} corrections to BMN energies done in hep-th/0510080 to three-loops. We compare these corrections obtained from quantum 'gauge-theory' LL action with the corrections obtained from the conjectured Bethe ansatz for the long range spin chain representing perturbative large N N=4 Super Yang-Mills theory in the SU(2) sector and find perfect matching to four loops {lambda}-tilde{sup 4}. We compare also the 1/J and 1/J{sup 2} corrections obtained from quantum 'string-theory' LL action with those obtained from the 'quantum string' Bethe ansatz and again find perfect matching to four-loops.
Schrödinger-like quantum dynamics in loop quantized black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gambini, Rodolfo; Olmedo, Javier; Pullin, Jorge
2016-06-01
We show, following a previous quantization of a vacuum spherically symmetric spacetime carried out in [R. Gambini, J. Olmedo and J. Pullin, Class. Quantum Grav. 31 (2014) 095009.] that this setting admits a Schrödinger-like picture. More precisely, the technique adopted there for the definition of parametrized Dirac observables (that codify local information of the quantum theory) can be extended in order to accommodate different pictures. In this new picture, the quantum states are parametrized in terms of suitable gauge parameters and the observables constructed out of the kinematical ones on this space of parametrized states.
DMRG Study of the S >= 1 quantum Heisenberg Antiferromagnet on a Kagome-like lattice without loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamberty, R. Zach; Changlani, Hitesh J.; Henley, Christopher L.
2013-03-01
The Kagome quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet, for spin up to S = 1 and perhaps S = 3 / 2 , is a prime candidate to realize a quantum spin liquid or valence bond crystal state, but theoretical or computational studies for S > 1 / 2 are difficult and few. We consider instead the same interactions and S >= 1 on the Husimi Cactus, a graph of corner sharing triangles whose centers are vertices of a Bethe lattice, using a DMRG procedure tailored for tree graphs. Since both lattices are locally identical, properties of the Kagome antiferromagnet dominated by nearest-neighbor spin correlations should also be exhibited on the Cactus, whereas loop-dependent effects will be absent on the loopless Cactus. Our study focuses on the possible transition(s) that must occur with increasing S for the Cactus antiferromagnet. (It has a disordered valence bond state at S = 1 / 2 but a 3-sublattice coplanar ordered state in the large S limit). We also investigate the phase diagram of the S = 1 quantum XXZ model with on-site anisotropy, which we expect to have three-sublattice and valence-bond-crystal phases similar to the kagome case. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation through a Graduate Research Fellowship to R. Zach Lamberty, as well as grant DMR-
Phase-sensitive atom localization for closed-loop quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamedi, H. R.; Juzeliūnas, Gediminas
2016-07-01
A scheme of high-precision two- and three-dimensional (3D) atom localization is proposed and analyzed by using a density matrix method for a five-level atom-light coupling scheme. In this system four strong laser components (which could be standing waves) couple a pair of atomic internal states to another pair of states in all possible ways to form a closed-loop diamond-shape configuration of the atom-light interaction. By systematically solving the density matrix equations of the motion, we show that the imaginary part of the susceptibility for the weak probe field is position dependent. As a result, one can obtain information about the position of the atom by measuring the resulting absorption spectra. Focusing on the signatures of the relative phase of the applied fields stemming from the closed- loop structure of the diamond- shape subsystem, we find out that there exists a significant phase dependence of the eigenvalues required to have a maximum in the probe absorption spectra. It is found that by properly selecting the controlling parameters of the system, a nearly perfect 2D atom localization can be obtained. Finally, we numerically explore the phase control of 3D atom localization for the present scheme and show the possibility to obtain 1/2 detecting probability of finding the atom at a particular volume in 3D space within one period of standing waves.
Linearly Forced Isotropic Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lundgren, T. S.
2003-01-01
Stationary isotropic turbulence is often studied numerically by adding a forcing term to the Navier-Stokes equation. This is usually done for the purpose of achieving higher Reynolds number and longer statistics than is possible for isotropic decaying turbulence. It is generally accepted that forcing the Navier-Stokes equation at low wave number does not influence the small scale statistics of the flow provided that there is wide separation between the largest and smallest scales. It will be shown, however, that the spectral width of the forcing has a noticeable effect on inertial range statistics. A case will be made here for using a broader form of forcing in order to compare computed isotropic stationary turbulence with (decaying) grid turbulence. It is shown that using a forcing function which is directly proportional to the velocity has physical meaning and gives results which are closer to both homogeneous and non-homogeneous turbulence. Section 1 presents a four part series of motivations for linear forcing. Section 2 puts linear forcing to a numerical test with a pseudospectral computation.
One-loop omega-potential of quantum fields with ellipsoid constant-energy surface dispersion law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazinski, P. O.; Shipulya, M. A.
2011-10-01
Rapidly convergent expansions of a one-loop contribution to the partition function of quantum fields with ellipsoid constant-energy surface dispersion law are derived. The omega-potential is naturally decomposed into three parts: the quasiclassical contribution, the contribution from the branch cut of the dispersion law, and the oscillating part. The low- and high-temperature expansions of the quasiclassical part are obtained. An explicit expression and a relation of the contribution from the cut with the Casimir term and vacuum energy are established. The oscillating part is represented in the form of the Chowla-Selberg expansion of the Epstein zeta function. Various resummations of this expansion are considered. The general procedure developed is then applied to two models: massless particles in a box both at zero and nonzero chemical potential, and electrons in a thin metal film. Rapidly convergent expansions of the partition function and average particle number are obtained for these models. In particular, the oscillations of the chemical potential of conduction electrons in graphene and a thin metal film due to a variation of size of the crystal are described.
Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume E-mail: jaume.amoros@upc.edu
2014-12-01
We consider the matter bounce scenario in F(T) gravity and Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) for phenomenological potentials that at early times provide a nearly matter dominated Universe in the contracting phase, having a reheating mechanism in the expanding or contracting phase, i.e., being able to release the energy of the scalar field creating particles that thermalize in order to match with the hot Friedmann Universe, and finally at late times leading to the current cosmic acceleration. For these potentials, numerically solving the dynamical perturbation equations we have seen that, for the particular F(T) model that we will name teleparallel version of LQC, and whose modified Friedmann equation coincides with the corresponding one in holonomy corrected LQC when one deals with the flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry, the corresponding equations obtained from the well-know perturbed equations in F(T) gravity lead to theoretical results that fit well with current observational data. More precisely, in this teleparallel version of LQC there is a set of solutions which leads to theoretical results that match correctly with last BICEP2 data, and there is another set whose theoretical results fit well with Planck's experimental data. On the other hand, in the standard holonomy corrected LQC, using the perturbed equations obtained replacing the Ashtekar connection by a suitable sinus function and inserting some counter-terms in order to preserve the algebra of constrains, the theoretical value of the tensor/scalar ratio is smaller than in the teleparallel version, which means that there is always a set of solutions that matches with Planck's data, but for some potentials BICEP2 experimental results disfavours holonomy corrected LQC.
Semiclassical States Associated with Isotropic Submanifolds of Phase Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guillemin, V.; Uribe, A.; Wang, Z.
2016-05-01
We define classes of quantum states associated with isotropic submanifolds of cotangent bundles. The classes are stable under the action of semiclassical pseudo-differential operators and covariant under the action of semiclassical Fourier integral operators. We develop a symbol calculus for them; the symbols are symplectic spinors. We outline various applications.
Isotropic Monte Carlo Grain Growth
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2013-04-25
IMCGG performs Monte Carlo simulations of normal grain growth in metals on a hexagonal grid in two dimensions with periodic boundary conditions. This may be performed with either an isotropic or a misorientation - and incliantion-dependent grain boundary energy.
Mora, P.J.; Woodard, R.P.; Tsamis, N.C. E-mail: tsamis@physics.uoc.gr
2013-10-01
We use the Hartree approximation to the Einstein equation on de Sitter background to solve for the one loop correction to the graviton mode function. This should give a reasonable approximation to how the ensemble of inflationary gravitons affects a single external graviton. At late times we find that the one loop correction to the plane wave mode function u(η,k) goes like GH{sup 2}ln (a)/a{sup 2}, where a is the inflationary scale factor. One consequence is that the one loop corrections to the ''electric'' components of the linearized Weyl tensor grow compared to the tree order result.
Transversely isotropic poroelasticity arising from thin isotropic layers
Berryman, J.G.
1996-11-01
Percolation phenomena play central roles in the field of poroelasticity, where two distinct sets of percolating continua intertwine. A connected solid frame forms the basis of the elastic behavior of a poroelastic medium in the presence of confining forces, while connected pores permit a percolating fluid (if present) to influence the mechanical response of the system from within. The present paper discusses isotropic and anisotropic poroelastic media and establishes general formulas for the behavior of transversely isotropic poroelasticity arising from laminations of isotropic components. The Backus averaging method is shown to provide elementary means of constructing general formulas. The results for confined fluids are then compared with the more general Gassmann formulas that must be satisfied by any anisotropic poroelastic medium and found to be in complete agreement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caron-Huot, S.
2011-05-01
We investigate relations between loop and tree amplitudes in quantum field theory that involve putting on-shell some loop propagators. This generalizes the so-called Feynman tree theorem which is satisfied at 1-loop. Exploiting retarded boundary conditions, we give a generalization to ℓ-loop expressing the loops as integrals over the on-shell phase space of exactly ℓ particles. We argue that the corresponding integrand for ℓ > 2 does not involve the forward limit of any physical tree amplitude, except in planar gauge theories. In that case we explicitly construct the relevant physical amplitude. Beyond the planar limit, abandoning direct integral representations, we propose that loops continue to be determined implicitly by the forward limit of physical connected trees, and we formulate a precise conjecture along this line. Finally, we set up technology to compute forward amplitudes in supersymmetric theories, in which specific simplifications occur.
Isotropic expansion of an inhomogeneous universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, Wei-Jian; Lü, H.
2014-10-01
We propose a cosmological model that describes isotropic expansion of an inhomogeneous universe. The energy-momentum tensor that creates the spatial inhomogeneity may not affect the uniform expansion scaling factor a(t) in the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker-like metrics. Such an energy-momentum tensor may not be exotic; in fact any linear or nonlinear σ model has this feature. We show that the classical spatial inhomogeneity can be embedded in both inflation models and the traditional cosmological expansion by perfect fluid. The spatial inhomogeneity resembles the primordial quantum perturbation that was frozen in the comoving frame. We obtain some exact inhomogeneous solutions with spherical or axial symmetries. We also show that some of our cosmological models can be viewed as the dynamical black hole formation.
Regulative Loops, Step Loops and Task Loops
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
VanLehn, Kurt
2016-01-01
This commentary suggests a generalization of the conception of the behavior of tutoring systems, which the target article characterized as having an outer loop that was executed once per task and an inner loop that was executed once per step of the task. A more general conception sees these two loops as instances of regulative loops, which…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Dan-Wei; Zhao, Y. X.; Liu, Rui-Bin; Xue, Zheng-Yuan; Zhu, Shi-Liang; Wang, Z. D.
2016-04-01
Since the well-known PT symmetry has its fundamental significance and implication in physics, where PT denotes a joint operation of space inversion P and time reversal T , it is important and intriguing to explore exotic PT -invariant topological metals and to physically realize them. Here we develop a theory for a different type of topological metals that are described by a two-band model of PT -invariant topological nodal loop states in a three-dimensional Brillouin zone, with the topological stability being revealed through the PT -symmetry-protected nontrivial Z2 topological charge even in the absence of both P and T symmetries. Moreover, the gapless boundary modes are demonstrated to originate from the nontrivial topological charge of the bulk nodal loop. Based on these exact results, we propose an experimental scheme to realize and to detect tunable PT -invariant topological nodal loop states with ultracold atoms in an optical lattice, in which atoms with two hyperfine spin states are loaded in a spin-dependent three-dimensional optical lattice and two pairs of Raman lasers are used to create out-of-plane spin-flip hopping with site-dependent phase. It is shown that such a realistic cold-atom setup can yield topological nodal loop states, having a tunable band-touching ring with the twofold degeneracy in the bulk spectrum and nontrivial surface states. The nodal loop states are actually protected by the combined PT symmetry and are characterized by a Z2-type invariant (or topological charge), i.e., a quantized Berry phase. Remarkably, we demonstrate with numerical simulations that (i) the characteristic nodal ring can be detected by measuring the atomic transfer fractions in a Bloch-Zener oscillation; (ii) the topological invariant may be measured based on the time-of-flight imaging; and (iii) the surface states may be probed through Bragg spectroscopy. The present proposal for realizing topological nodal loop states in cold-atom systems may provide a unique
Line of critical points in 2+1 dimensions: quantum critical loop gases and non-Abelian gauge theory.
Freedman, Michael; Nayak, Chetan; Shtengel, Kirill
2005-04-15
In this Letter, we (1) construct a one-parameter family of lattice models of interacting spins; (2) obtain their exact ground states; (3) derive a statistical-mechanical analogy which relates their ground states to O(n) loop gases; (4) show that the models are critical for dloop beta function vanishes for all values of the coupling constant, implying that it is also on a critical line. PMID:15904103
Quantum nature of the big bang.
Ashtekar, Abhay; Pawlowski, Tomasz; Singh, Parampreet
2006-04-14
Some long-standing issues concerning the quantum nature of the big bang are resolved in the context of homogeneous isotropic models with a scalar field. Specifically, the known results on the resolution of the big-bang singularity in loop quantum cosmology are significantly extended as follows: (i) the scalar field is shown to serve as an internal clock, thereby providing a detailed realization of the "emergent time" idea; (ii) the physical Hilbert space, Dirac observables, and semiclassical states are constructed rigorously; (iii) the Hamiltonian constraint is solved numerically to show that the big bang is replaced by a big bounce. Thanks to the nonperturbative, background independent methods, unlike in other approaches the quantum evolution is deterministic across the deep Planck regime. PMID:16712061
Gaussian Multiplicative Chaos for Symmetric Isotropic Matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chevillard, Laurent; Rhodes, Rémi; Vargas, Vincent
2013-02-01
Motivated by isotropic fully developed turbulence, we define a theory of symmetric matrix valued isotropic Gaussian multiplicative chaos. Our construction extends the scalar theory developed by J.P. Kahane in 1985.
Early isotropization of the Glasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Epelbaum, T.
2014-11-01
A first principle treatment of the early stages of a heavy ion collision within the Color Glass Condensate framework seems to indicate an early hydrodynamization of the initially out of equilibrium Quark Gluon Plasma. Contrasting with the leading order CGC result, the improved calculation presented here provides evidence for a fast isotropization of the pressure tensor, as well as an anomalously small shear viscosity over entropy ratio.
Twisted Quantum Toroidal Algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jing, Naihuan; Liu, Rongjia
2014-09-01
We construct a principally graded quantum loop algebra for the Kac-Moody algebra. As a special case a twisted analog of the quantum toroidal algebra is obtained together with the quantum Serre relations.
A Transversely Isotropic Thermoelastic Theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arnold, S. M.
1989-01-01
A continuum theory is presented for representing the thermoelastic behavior of composites that can be idealized as transversely isotropic. This theory is consistent with anisotropic viscoplastic theories being developed presently at NASA Lewis Research Center. A multiaxial statement of the theory is presented, as well as plane stress and plane strain reductions. Experimental determination of the required material parameters and their theoretical constraints are discussed. Simple homogeneously stressed elements are examined to illustrate the effect of fiber orientation on the resulting strain distribution. Finally, the multiaxial stress-strain relations are expressed in matrix form to simplify and accelerate implementation of the theory into structural analysis codes.
Induced piezoelectricity in isotropic biomaterial.
Zimmerman, R L
1976-12-01
Isotropic material can be made to exhibit piezoelectric effects by the application of a constant electric field. For insulators, the piezoelectric strain constant is proportional to the applied electric field and for semiconductors, an additional out-of-phase component of piezoelectricity is proportional to the electric current density in the sample. The two induced coefficients are proportional to the strain-dependent dielectric constant (depsilon/dS + epsilon) and resistivity (drho/dS - rho), respectively. The latter is more important at frequencies such that rhoepsilonomega less than 1, often the case in biopolymers. Signals from induced piezoelectricity in nature may be larger than those from true piezoelectricity. PMID:990389
Hysteresis modeling of anisotropic and isotropic nanocrystalline hard magnetic films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cornejo, D. R.; Azevedo, A.; Rezende, S. M.
2003-05-01
In the Hauser model, the magnetic state of a system is obtained by minimizing the so-called total energy function for a statistical set of magnetic domains. In this article, this energetic model of ferromagnetic materials is used in order to calculate hysteresis loops of isotropic and anisotropic nanocrystalline SmCo films at room temperature. A qualitative very good agreement between the calculated and experimental curves is obtained, mainly in the anisotropic case. Also, it has been verified that, under suitable approximations, the free parameters of the model can tie with intrinsic characteristics of the reversal magnetization process.
Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.
Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji
2016-07-13
Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale. PMID:27333052
Spherical cloaking with homogeneous isotropic multilayered structures.
Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Hu, Li; Xu, Xiaofei; Feng, Yijun
2009-04-01
We propose a practical realization of electromagnetic spherical cloaking by layered structure of homogeneous isotropic materials. By mimicking the classic anisotropic cloak by many alternating thin layers of isotropic dielectrics, the permittivity and permeability in each isotropic layer can be properly determined by effective medium theory in order to achieve invisibility. The model greatly facilitates modeling by Mie theory and realization by multilayer coating of dielectrics. Eigenmode analysis is also presented to provide insights of the discretization in multilayers. PMID:19518392
Macroscopic simulation of isotropic permanent magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruckner, Florian; Abert, Claas; Vogler, Christoph; Heinrichs, Frank; Satz, Armin; Ausserlechner, Udo; Binder, Gernot; Koeck, Helmut; Suess, Dieter
2016-03-01
Accurate simulations of isotropic permanent magnets require to take the magnetization process into account and consider the anisotropic, nonlinear, and hysteretic material behaviour near the saturation configuration. An efficient method for the solution of the magnetostatic Maxwell equations including the description of isotropic permanent magnets is presented. The algorithm can easily be implemented on top of existing finite element methods and does not require a full characterization of the hysteresis of the magnetic material. Strayfield measurements of an isotropic permanent magnet and simulation results are in good agreement and highlight the importance of a proper description of the isotropic material.
Vortex knots in tangled quantum eigenfunctions.
Taylor, Alexander J; Dennis, Mark R
2016-01-01
Tangles of string typically become knotted, from macroscopic twine down to long-chain macromolecules such as DNA. Here, we demonstrate that knotting also occurs in quantum wavefunctions, where the tangled filaments are vortices (nodal lines/phase singularities). The probability that a vortex loop is knotted is found to increase with its length, and a wide gamut of knots from standard tabulations occur. The results follow from computer simulations of random superpositions of degenerate eigenstates of three simple quantum systems: a cube with periodic boundaries, the isotropic three-dimensional harmonic oscillator and the 3-sphere. In the latter two cases, vortex knots occur frequently, even in random eigenfunctions at relatively low energy, and are constrained by the spatial symmetries of the modes. The results suggest that knotted vortex structures are generic in complex three-dimensional wave systems, establishing a topological commonality between wave chaos, polymers and turbulent Bose-Einstein condensates. PMID:27468801
Vortex knots in tangled quantum eigenfunctions
Taylor, Alexander J.; Dennis, Mark R.
2016-01-01
Tangles of string typically become knotted, from macroscopic twine down to long-chain macromolecules such as DNA. Here, we demonstrate that knotting also occurs in quantum wavefunctions, where the tangled filaments are vortices (nodal lines/phase singularities). The probability that a vortex loop is knotted is found to increase with its length, and a wide gamut of knots from standard tabulations occur. The results follow from computer simulations of random superpositions of degenerate eigenstates of three simple quantum systems: a cube with periodic boundaries, the isotropic three-dimensional harmonic oscillator and the 3-sphere. In the latter two cases, vortex knots occur frequently, even in random eigenfunctions at relatively low energy, and are constrained by the spatial symmetries of the modes. The results suggest that knotted vortex structures are generic in complex three-dimensional wave systems, establishing a topological commonality between wave chaos, polymers and turbulent Bose–Einstein condensates. PMID:27468801
Vortex knots in tangled quantum eigenfunctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Alexander J.; Dennis, Mark R.
2016-07-01
Tangles of string typically become knotted, from macroscopic twine down to long-chain macromolecules such as DNA. Here, we demonstrate that knotting also occurs in quantum wavefunctions, where the tangled filaments are vortices (nodal lines/phase singularities). The probability that a vortex loop is knotted is found to increase with its length, and a wide gamut of knots from standard tabulations occur. The results follow from computer simulations of random superpositions of degenerate eigenstates of three simple quantum systems: a cube with periodic boundaries, the isotropic three-dimensional harmonic oscillator and the 3-sphere. In the latter two cases, vortex knots occur frequently, even in random eigenfunctions at relatively low energy, and are constrained by the spatial symmetries of the modes. The results suggest that knotted vortex structures are generic in complex three-dimensional wave systems, establishing a topological commonality between wave chaos, polymers and turbulent Bose-Einstein condensates.
Magnetic monopole in the loop representation
Leal, Lorenzo; Lopez, Alexander
2006-01-15
We quantize, within the Loop Representation formalism, the electromagnetic field in the presence of a static magnetic pole. It is found that the loop-dependent physical wave functionals of the quantum Maxwell theory become multivalued, through a topological phase factor depending on the solid angle subtended at the monopole by a surface bounded by the loop. It is discussed how this fact generalizes what occurs in ordinary quantum mechanics in multiply connected spaces.
Geometric phases and cyclic isotropic cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banchi, Leonardo; Caravelli, Francesco
2016-05-01
In the present paper we study the evolution of the modes of a scalar field in a cyclic cosmology. In order to keep the discussion clear, we study the features of a scalar field in a toy model, a Friedman-Robertson-Walker Universe with a periodic scale factor, in which the Universe expands, contracts and bounces infinite times, in the approximation in which the dynamic features of this Universe are driven by some external factor, without the backreaction of the scalar field under study. In particular, we show that particle production exhibits features of the cyclic cosmology. Also, by studying the Berry phase of the scalar field, we show that contrary to what is commonly believed, the scalar field carries information from one bounce to another in the form of a global phase which occurs as generically non-zero. The Berry phase is then evaluated numerically in the case of the effective loop quantum cosmology closed Universe. We observe that Berry’s phase is non-zero, but that in the quantum regime the particle content is non-negligible.
Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindholm, Ulric S.; Chan, Kwai S.
1986-01-01
The objective of the program is to evaluate and develop existing constitutive models for use in finite-element structural analysis of turbine engine hot section components. The class of constitutive equation studied is considered unified in that all inelastic deformation including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation are treated in a single term rather than a classical separation of plasticity (time independent) and creep (time dependent) behavior. The unified theories employed also do not utilize the classical yield surface or plastic potential concept. The models are constructed from an appropriate flow law, a scalar kinetic relation between strain rate, temperature and stress, and evolutionary equations for internal variables describing strain or work hardening, both isotropic and directional (kinematic). This and other studies have shown that the unified approach is particularly suited for determining the cyclic behavior of superalloy type blade and vane materials and is entirely compatible with three-dimensional inelastic finite-element formulations. The behavior was examined of a second nickel-base alloy, MAR-M247, and compared it with the Bodner-Partom model, further examined procedures for determining the material-specific constants in the models, and exercised the MARC code for a turbine blade under simulated flight spectrum loading. Results are summarized.
Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, K. S.; Lindholm, U. S.; Bodner, S. R.
1988-01-01
The third and fourth years of a 4-year research program, part of the NASA HOST Program, are described. The program goals were: (1) to develop and validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials, and (2) to demonstrate their usefulness for structural analysis of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation were those of Bodner-Partom and of Walker. The unified approach for elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations is a viable method for representing and predicting material response characteristics in the range where strain rate and temperature dependent inelastic deformations are experienced. This conclusion is reached by extensive comparison of model calculations against the experimental results of a test program of two high temperature Ni-base alloys, B1900+Hf and Mar-M247, over a wide temperature range for a variety of deformation and thermal histories including uniaxial, multiaxial, and thermomechanical loading paths. The applicability of the Bodner-Partom and the Walker models for structural applications has been demonstrated by implementing these models into the MARC finite element code and by performing a number of analyses including thermomechanical histories on components of hot sections of gas turbine engines and benchmark notch tensile specimens. The results of the 4-year program have been published in four annual reports. The results of the base program are summarized in this report. The tasks covered include: (1) development of material test procedures, (2) thermal history effects, and (3) verification of the constitutive model for an alternative material.
Kung, P.J.; Bracht, R.R.; Flynn, E.R.; Lewis, P.S.
1996-01-01
A double-washer dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) gradiometer with a flux-locked loop (FLL) based on a digital signal processor (DSP) has been developed for biomagnetic applications. All of the analog electronics in the conventional FLL are replaced and implemented by the DSP except for the low-noise field-effect transistor preamplifier at the front end of the signal recovery components. The DSP performs the signal demodulation by synchronously sampling the recovered signals and applying the appropriate full wave rectification. The signals are then integrated, filtered, and applied to the output. At 4.2 K, the white flux noise of the gradiometer measured in a DSP FLL mode is about 4{mu}{phi}{sub 0}/{radical}Hz and the noise at 1 Hz is 13 {mu}{phi}{sub 0}/{radical}Hz. The corresponding noise levels in the gradiometer operated by the conventional FLL are 1.8 and 3{mu}{phi}{sub 0}/{radical}Hz. The poorer system performance in the DSP FLL compared to the analog FLL is mainly caused by the ambient field noise and interference signals picked up through the connecting cables. Additional noise is also added to the overall noise floor by the instruments employed in the DSP system in the present prototype setup. Further improvement in the noise characteristics and the dynamic behavior of the DSP SQUID gradiometer is expected when a better configuration of DSP with the associated I/O devices is implemented. Additional improvements of the DSP programs are expected by incorporating higher-order integration, adaptive control, and noise reduction schemes. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mineshige, S.; Kawabata, S.; Faniel, S.; Waugh, J.; Sekine, Y.; Koga, T.
2011-12-01
We present a semiclassical interpretation of the time-reversal spin interference (SI) observed in the square loop arrays made of In0.53Ga0.47As quantum wells [T. Koga , Phys. Rev. BPLRBAQ1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.74.041302 74, 041302 (2006)]. The simulated amplitude of SI as a function of the Rashba parameter α captured characteristic features in the experimental results if γ≲8 eV Å3 is assumed for the bulk Dresselhaus spin-orbit constant γ. Our work proves the validity of the semiclassical approach to predict the effect of time-reversal quantum interference in mesoscopic systems and the values of the spin-orbit coefficients recently deduced from the weak localization/antilocalization experiment.
Z-Sum approach to loop integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rottmann, Paulo A.
We study the applicability of the Z-Sum approach to multi-loop calculations with massive particles in perturbative quantum field theory. We systematically analyze the case of one-loop scalar integrals, which represent the building blocks of any higher-loop calculation. We focus in particular on triangle one-loop integrals and identify strengths and limitations of the Z-Sum approach, extending our results to the case of one-loop box integrals when appropriate. We conclude with the calculation of a specific physical example: the calculation of heavy flavor corrections to the renormalized scattering amplitude for deep inelastic scattering.
Isotropic Growth of Graphene toward Smoothing Stitching.
Zeng, Mengqi; Tan, Lifang; Wang, Lingxiang; Mendes, Rafael G; Qin, Zhihui; Huang, Yaxin; Zhang, Tao; Fang, Liwen; Zhang, Yanfeng; Yue, Shuanglin; Rümmeli, Mark H; Peng, Lianmao; Liu, Zhongfan; Chen, Shengli; Fu, Lei
2016-07-26
The quality of graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition still has very great disparity with its theoretical property due to the inevitable formation of grain boundaries. The design of single-crystal substrate with an anisotropic twofold symmetry for the unidirectional alignment of graphene seeds would be a promising way for eliminating the grain boundaries at the wafer scale. However, such a delicate process will be easily terminated by the obstruction of defects or impurities. Here we investigated the isotropic growth behavior of graphene single crystals via melting the growth substrate to obtain an amorphous isotropic surface, which will not offer any specific grain orientation induction or preponderant growth rate toward a certain direction in the graphene growth process. The as-obtained graphene grains are isotropically round with mixed edges that exhibit high activity. The orientation of adjacent grains can be easily self-adjusted to smoothly match each other over a liquid catalyst with facile atom delocalization due to the low rotation steric hindrance of the isotropic grains, thus achieving the smoothing stitching of the adjacent graphene. Therefore, the adverse effects of grain boundaries will be eliminated and the excellent transport performance of graphene will be more guaranteed. What is more, such an isotropic growth mode can be extended to other types of layered nanomaterials such as hexagonal boron nitride and transition metal chalcogenides for obtaining large-size intrinsic film with low defect. PMID:27403842
Static spherically symmetric wormholes with isotropic pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cataldo, Mauricio; Liempi, Luis; Rodríguez, Pablo
2016-06-01
In this paper we study static spherically symmetric wormhole solutions sustained by matter sources with isotropic pressure. We show that such spherical wormholes do not exist in the framework of zero-tidal-force wormholes. On the other hand, it is shown that for the often used power-law shape function there are no spherically symmetric traversable wormholes sustained by sources with a linear equation of state p = ωρ for the isotropic pressure, independently of the form of the redshift function ϕ (r). We consider a solution obtained by Tolman at 1939 for describing static spheres of isotropic fluids, and show that it also may describe wormhole spacetimes with a power-law redshift function, which leads to a polynomial shape function, generalizing a power-law shape function, and inducing a solid angle deficit.
Interacting Generalized Ghost Dark Energy in Non-isotropic Background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barati, F.
2016-04-01
In this work, the generalized Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) ghost model of dark energy in the framework of Einstein gravity is investigated. At first, the non-interacting generalized ghost dark energy in a Bianchi type I (BI) background is discussed. Then the equation of state parameter, ω D = p D / ρ D , the deceleration parameter, and the evolution equation of the generalized ghost dark energy are obtained. It was found that, in this case, ω D cannot cross the phantom line (ω D >-1) and eventually the universe approaches a de-Sitter phase of expansion (ω D →-1). Then, this investigation was extended to the interacting ghost dark energy in a non-isotropic universe. It was found that the equation of state parameter of the interacting generalized ghost dark energy can cross the phantom line (ω D <-1) provided the parameters of the model are chosen suitably. It was considered a specific model which permits the standard continuity equation in this theory. Besides ΩΛ and Ω m in standard Einstein cosmology, another density parameter, Ω σ , is expected by the anisotropy. The anisotropy of the universe decreases and the universe transits to an isotropic flat FRW universe accommodating the present acceleration.
Negative Poisson's ratio materials via isotropic interactions.
Rechtsman, Mikael C; Stillinger, Frank H; Torquato, Salvatore
2008-08-22
We show that under tension a classical many-body system with only isotropic pair interactions in a crystalline state can, counterintuitively, have a negative Poisson's ratio, or auxetic behavior. We derive the conditions under which the triangular lattice in two dimensions and lattices with cubic symmetry in three dimensions exhibit a negative Poisson's ratio. In the former case, the simple Lennard-Jones potential can give rise to auxetic behavior. In the latter case, a negative Poisson's ratio can be exhibited even when the material is constrained to be elastically isotropic. PMID:18764632
Negative Poisson's Ratio Materials via Isotropic Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rechtsman, Mikael C.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore
2008-08-01
We show that under tension a classical many-body system with only isotropic pair interactions in a crystalline state can, counterintuitively, have a negative Poisson’s ratio, or auxetic behavior. We derive the conditions under which the triangular lattice in two dimensions and lattices with cubic symmetry in three dimensions exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio. In the former case, the simple Lennard-Jones potential can give rise to auxetic behavior. In the latter case, a negative Poisson’s ratio can be exhibited even when the material is constrained to be elastically isotropic.
Warne, Larry Kevin; Lucero, Larry Martin; Langston, William L.; Salazar, Robert Austin; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Basilio, Lorena I.; Bacon, Larry Donald
2012-05-01
This report estimates inductively-coupled energy to a low-impedance load in a loop-to-loop arrangement. Both analytical models and full-wave numerical simulations are used and the resulting fields, coupled powers and energies are compared. The energies are simply estimated from the coupled powers through approximations to the energy theorem. The transmitter loop is taken to be either a circular geometry or a rectangular-loop (stripline-type) geometry that was used in an experimental setup. Simple magnetic field models are constructed and used to estimate the mutual inductance to the receiving loop, which is taken to be circular with one or several turns. Circuit elements are estimated and used to determine the coupled current and power (an equivalent antenna picture is also given). These results are compared to an electromagnetic simulation of the transmitter geometry. Simple approximate relations are also given to estimate coupled energy from the power. The effect of additional loads in the form of attached leads, forming transmission lines, are considered. The results are summarized in a set of susceptibility-type curves. Finally, we also consider drives to the cables themselves and the resulting common-to-differential mode currents in the load.
Modelling of Nonthermal Microwave Emission from Twisted Magnetic Loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharykin, I. N.; Kuznetsov, A. A.
2016-05-01
Microwave gyrosynchrotron radio emission generated by nonthermal electrons in twisted magnetic loops is modelled using the recently developed simulation tool GX Simulator. We consider isotropic and anisotropic pitch-angle distributions. The main scope of the work is to understand the impact of a twisted magnetic field topology on radio emission maps. We have found that nonthermal electrons inside twisted magnetic loops produce gyrosynchrotron radio emission with a particular polarisation distribution. The polarisation sign inversion line is inclined relatively to the axis of the loop. The radio emission source is more compact in the case of a less twisted loop, assuming an anisotropic pitch-angle distribution of nonthermal electrons.
Modelling of Nonthermal Microwave Emission from Twisted Magnetic Loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharykin, I. N.; Kuznetsov, A. A.
2016-06-01
Microwave gyrosynchrotron radio emission generated by nonthermal electrons in twisted magnetic loops is modelled using the recently developed simulation tool GX Simulator. We consider isotropic and anisotropic pitch-angle distributions. The main scope of the work is to understand the impact of a twisted magnetic field topology on radio emission maps. We have found that nonthermal electrons inside twisted magnetic loops produce gyrosynchrotron radio emission with a particular polarisation distribution. The polarisation sign inversion line is inclined relatively to the axis of the loop. The radio emission source is more compact in the case of a less twisted loop, assuming an anisotropic pitch-angle distribution of nonthermal electrons.
Biomimetic Isotropic Nanostructures for Structural Coloration
Forster, Jason D.; Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng Fatt; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Schreck, Carl F.; Yang, Lin; Park, Jin-Gyu; Prum, Richard O.; Mochrie, Simon G.J.; O'Hern, Corey S.; Cao, Hui; Dufresne, Eric R.
2010-08-09
The self-assembly of films that mimic color-producing nanostructures in bird feathers is described. These structures are isotropic and have a characteristic length-scale comparable to the wavelength of visible light. Structural colors are produced when wavelength-independent scattering is suppressed by limiting the optical path length through geometry or absorption.
Transversely isotropic elasticity imaging of cancellous bone.
Shore, Spencer W; Barbone, Paul E; Oberai, Assad A; Morgan, Elise F
2011-06-01
To measure spatial variations in mechanical properties of biological materials, prior studies have typically performed mechanical tests on excised specimens of tissue. Less invasive measurements, however, are preferable in many applications, such as patient-specific modeling, disease diagnosis, and tracking of age- or damage-related degradation of mechanical properties. Elasticity imaging (elastography) is a nondestructive imaging method in which the distribution of elastic properties throughout a specimen can be reconstructed from measured strain or displacement fields. To date, most work in elasticity imaging has concerned incompressible, isotropic materials. This study presents an extension of elasticity imaging to three-dimensional, compressible, transversely isotropic materials. The formulation and solution of an inverse problem for an anisotropic tissue subjected to a combination of quasi-static loads is described, and an optimization and regularization strategy that indirectly obtains the solution to the inverse problem is presented. Several applications of transversely isotropic elasticity imaging to cancellous bone from the human vertebra are then considered. The feasibility of using isotropic elasticity imaging to obtain meaningful reconstructions of the distribution of material properties for vertebral cancellous bone from experiment is established. However, using simulation, it is shown that an isotropic reconstruction is not appropriate for anisotropic materials. It is further shown that the transversely isotropic method identifies a solution that predicts the measured displacements, reveals regions of low stiffness, and recovers all five elastic parameters with approximately 10% error. The recovery of a given elastic parameter is found to require the presence of its corresponding strain (e.g., a deformation that generates ɛ₁₂ is necessary to reconstruct C₁₂₁₂), and the application of regularization is shown to improve accuracy. Finally
Using CMB data to constrain non-isotropic Planck-scale modifications to Electrodynamics
Gubitosi, Giulia; Migliaccio, Marina; Pagano, Luca; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Natoli, Paolo; Polenta, Gianluca E-mail: Marina.Migliaccio@roma2.infn.it E-mail: giovanni.amelino-camelia@roma1.infn.it E-mail: paolo.natoli@roma2.infn.it
2011-11-01
We develop a method to constrain non-isotropic features of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization, of a type expected to arise in some models describing quantum gravity effects on light propagation. We describe the expected signatures of this kind of anomalous light propagation on CMB photons, showing that it will produce a non-isotropic birefringence effect, i.e. a rotation of the CMB polarization direction whose observed amount depends in a peculiar way on the observation direction. We also show that the sensitivity levels expected for CMB polarization studies by the Planck satellite are sufficient for testing these effects if, as assumed in the quantum-gravity literature, their magnitude is set by the minute Planck length.
String limit of the isotropic Heisenberg chain in the four-particle sector
Antipov, A. G. Komarov, I. V.
2008-05-15
The quantum method of variable separation is applied to the spectral problem of the isotropic Heisenberg model. The Baxter difference equation is resolved by means of a special quasiclassical asymptotic expansion. States are identified by multiplicities of limiting values of the Bethe parameters. The string limit of the four-particle sector is investigated. String solutions are singled out and classified. It is shown that only a minor fraction of solutions demonstrate string behavior.
Quantum nature of the big bang: An analytical and numerical investigation
Ashtekar, Abhay; Pawlowski, Tomasz; Singh, Parampreet
2006-06-15
Analytical and numerical methods are developed to analyze the quantum nature of the big bang in the setting of loop quantum cosmology. They enable one to explore the effects of quantum geometry both on the gravitational and matter sectors and significantly extend the known results on the resolution of the big bang singularity. Specifically, the following results are established for the homogeneous isotropic model with a massless scalar field: (i) the scalar field is shown to serve as an internal clock, thereby providing a detailed realization of the 'emergent time' idea; (ii) the physical Hilbert space, Dirac observables, and semiclassical states are constructed rigorously; (iii) the Hamiltonian constraint is solved numerically to show that the big bang is replaced by a big bounce. Thanks to the nonperturbative, background independent methods, unlike in other approaches the quantum evolution is deterministic across the deep Planck regime. Our constructions also provide a conceptual framework and technical tools which can be used in more general models. In this sense, they provide foundations for analyzing physical issues associated with the Planck regime of loop quantum cosmology as a whole.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oriti, Daniele
2009-03-01
Preface; Part I. Fundamental Ideas and General Formalisms: 1. Unfinished revolution C. Rovelli; 2. The fundamental nature of space and time G. 't Hooft; 3. Does locality fail at intermediate length scales R. Sorkin; 4. Prolegomena to any future quantum gravity J. Stachel; 5. Spacetime symmetries in histories canonical gravity N. Savvidou; 6. Categorical geometry and the mathematical foundations of quantum gravity L. Crane; 7. Emergent relativity O. Dreyer; 8. Asymptotic safety R. Percacci; 9. New directions in background independent quantum gravity F. Markopoulou; Questions and answers; Part II: 10. Gauge/gravity duality G. Horowitz and J. Polchinski; 11. String theory, holography and quantum gravity T. Banks; 12. String field theory W. Taylor; Questions and answers; Part III: 13. Loop Quantum Gravity T. Thiemann; 14. Covariant loop quantum gravity? E. LIvine; 15. The spin foam representation of loop quantum gravity A. Perez; 16. 3-dimensional spin foam quantum gravity L. Freidel; 17. The group field theory approach to quantum gravity D. Oriti; Questions and answers; Part IV. Discrete Quantum Gravity: 18. Quantum gravity: the art of building spacetime J. Ambjørn, J. Jurkiewicz and R. Loll; 19. Quantum Regge calculations R. Williams; 20. Consistent discretizations as a road to quantum gravity R. Gambini and J. Pullin; 21. The causal set approach to quantum gravity J. Henson; Questions and answers; Part V. Effective Models and Quantum Gravity Phenomenology: 22. Quantum gravity phenomenology G. Amelino-Camelia; 23. Quantum gravity and precision tests C. Burgess; 24. Algebraic approach to quantum gravity II: non-commutative spacetime F. Girelli; 25. Doubly special relativity J. Kowalski-Glikman; 26. From quantum reference frames to deformed special relativity F. Girelli; 27. Lorentz invariance violation and its role in quantum gravity phenomenology J. Collins, A. Perez and D. Sudarsky; 28. Generic predictions of quantum theories of gravity L. Smolin; Questions and
DNS of Shock / Isotropic Turbulence Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grube, Nathan; Taylor, Ellen; Martín, Pino
2010-11-01
We discuss DNS of Shock / Isotropic Turbulence Interactions (SITI). We vary the incoming turbulence Mach number up to 0.8 and the convective Mach number up to 5 in order to determine their effects on the interaction. These cases are challenging due to the presence of shocklets in the incoming turbulence as well as significant motion of the main shock. Shock-capturing must be used at all points while still maintaining low enough numerical dissipation to preserve the turbulent fluctuations. We use the linearly- and nonlinearly-optimized Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) method[1,2]. Particular attention is paid to the inflow boundary condition, where we find the use of snapshots of "frozen" turbulence from decaying isotropic box simulations to be unsatisfactory. We instead use time-varying inflow data generated by a separate forced isotropic turbulence simulation with a specified convection speed. This allows us to access flow conditions where the assumptions of Taylor's Hypothesis are not met. 1.) Mart'in, M.P., Taylor, E.M., Wu, M., and Weirs, V.G., JCP 220(1) 270-89, 2006. 2.) Taylor, E.M., Wu, M., and Mart'in, M.P., JCP 223(1) 384-97, 2007.
Dielectric permittivity of quantum plasma. Part II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobylev, Yu. V.; Kuzelev, M. V.
2014-05-01
The transverse and longitudinal dielectric permittivities of isotropic quantum plasma are calculated in the quantum plasma models based on the Dirac and Pauli equations. The dispersion relations for transverse-longitudinal waves in quantum particle beams are derived. Relativistic longitudinal and transverse waves in cold isotropic quantum plasma in models based on the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, as well as spin waves in the model based on the Pauli equation, are considered. Conditions for wave-particle resonance interactions in relativistic quantum plasma are analyzed.
Non-singular dislocation loops in gradient elasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazar, Markus
2012-04-01
Using gradient elasticity, we give in this Letter the non-singular fields produced by arbitrary dislocation loops in isotropic media. We present the ‘modified’ Mura, Peach-Koehler and Burgers formulae in the framework of gradient elasticity theory.
Loop quantization of the Schwarzschild black hole.
Gambini, Rodolfo; Pullin, Jorge
2013-05-24
We quantize spherically symmetric vacuum gravity without gauge fixing the diffeomorphism constraint. Through a rescaling, we make the algebra of Hamiltonian constraints Abelian, and therefore the constraint algebra is a true Lie algebra. This allows the completion of the Dirac quantization procedure using loop quantum gravity techniques. We can construct explicitly the exact solutions of the physical Hilbert space annihilated by all constraints. New observables living in the bulk appear at the quantum level (analogous to spin in quantum mechanics) that are not present at the classical level and are associated with the discrete nature of the spin network states of loop quantum gravity. The resulting quantum space-times resolve the singularity present in the classical theory inside black holes. PMID:23745855
Can an isotropic plasma pressure distribution be in force balance with the T96 model field?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaharia, Sorin; Cheng, C. Z.
2003-11-01
In this paper we investigate how close the gradient force of an isotropic pressure distribution P can be in force balance with the magnetic (Lorentz) force in the T96 empirical model. The study leads to the conclusion that no isotropic pressure can be found in exact force balance with the magnetic field of the quiet time T96 model. The conclusion is derived from several analyses: (1) computing the loop integral of J × B from the model along a closed contour in the equatorial plane (the integral should vanish if J × B = ∇P); (2) obtaining one-dimensional profiles for P on the Sun-Earth axis by integrating ∇P = J × B and comparing them with observations; and (3) decomposing J × B into gradient-free and curl-free terms (the former term would be zero in an exact equilibrium) and subsequently computing the two terms by solving a Poisson-like equation with constraints. Possible physical reasons for our finding that no P exists such that J × B = ∇P include small mass flows as well as nonisotropic (and possibly even nongyrotropic) terms in the magnetospheric pressure tensor. While the lack of exact force balance with isotropic P will probably be not too serious for many situations, for some physical applications, such as the computation of Birkeland currents using the Vasyliunas relation, care must be exercised if one uses the model field in conjunction with isotropic pressure. Finally, we discuss possible ways of computing magnetospheric configurations in exact force balance with isotropic P by using empirical model fields as a starting point.
Isotropic homogeneous universe with viscous fluid
Santos, N.O.; Dias, R.S.; Banerjee, A.
1985-04-01
Exact solutions are obtained for the isotropic homogeneous cosmological model with viscous fluid. The fluid has only bulk viscosity and the viscosity coefficient is taken to be a power function of the mass density. The equation of state assumed obeys a linear relation between mass density and pressure. The models satisfying Hawking's energy conditions are discussed. Murphy's model is only a special case of this general set of solutions and it is shown that Murphy's conclusion that the introduciton of bulk viscosity can avoid the occurrence of space-time singularity at finite past is not, in general, valid.
Consistency of loop regularization method and divergence structure of QFTs Beyond one-loop order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Da; Li, Ling-Fong; Wu, Yue-Liang
2013-04-01
We study the problem how to deal with tensor-type two-loop integrals in the Loop Regularization (LORE) scheme. We use the two-loop photon vacuum polarization in the massless Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) as the example to present the general procedure. In the processes, we find a new divergence structure: the regulated result for each two-loop diagram contains a gauge-violating quadratic harmful divergent term even combined with their corresponding counterterm insertion diagrams. Only when we sum up over all the relevant diagrams do these quadratic harmful divergences cancel, recovering the gauge invariance and locality.
Nanocomposite exchange-spring magnet synthesized by gas phase method: From isotropic to anisotropic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiaoqi; He, Shihai; Qiu, Jiao-Ming; Wang, Jian-Ping
2011-05-01
The fabrication of anisotropic nanocomposite exchange-spring magnets is demonstrated experimentally by using a gas-phase nanoparticle deposition technique. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images prove the experimental easy-axis definition of embedded hard magnetic nanoparticles in soft magnetic matrix. Exchange coupling between the hard and soft phases is confirmed by measuring recoil loops and δ M-H curve of the anisotropic FePt/Fe0.8Ni0.2 nanocomposite. The magnetic energy product for the anisotropic exchange-spring magnet is 224% higher than the isotropic case.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pendrill, Ann-Marie
2005-01-01
Many modern rollercoasters feature loops. Although textbook loops are often circular, real rollercoaster loops are not. In this paper, we look into the mathematical description of various possible loop shapes, as well as their riding properties. We also discuss how a study of loop shapes can be used in physics education.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pendrill, Ann-Marie
2005-11-01
Many modern rollercoasters feature loops. Although textbook loops are often circular, real rollercoaster loops are not. In this paper, we look into the mathematical description of various possible loop shapes, as well as their riding properties. We also discuss how a study of loop shapes can be used in physics education.
Accelerating the loop expansion
Ingermanson, R.
1986-07-29
This thesis introduces a new non-perturbative technique into quantum field theory. To illustrate the method, I analyze the much-studied phi/sup 4/ theory in two dimensions. As a prelude, I first show that the Hartree approximation is easy to obtain from the calculation of the one-loop effective potential by a simple modification of the propagator that does not affect the perturbative renormalization procedure. A further modification then susggests itself, which has the same nice property, and which automatically yields a convex effective potential. I then show that both of these modifications extend naturally to higher orders in the derivative expansion of the effective action and to higher orders in the loop-expansion. The net effect is to re-sum the perturbation series for the effective action as a systematic ''accelerated'' non-perturbative expansion. Each term in the accelerated expansion corresponds to an infinite number of terms in the original series. Each term can be computed explicitly, albeit numerically. Many numerical graphs of the various approximations to the first two terms in the derivative expansion are given. I discuss the reliability of the results and the problem of spontaneous symmetry-breaking, as well as some potential applications to more interesting field theories. 40 refs.
Isotropization of nematic liquid crystals by TMDSC
Chen, Wei; Dadmun, M.; Zhang, Ge; Boller, A.; Wunderlich, B. |
1997-12-01
Temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) and traditional DSC are used to study the transition between the nematic liquid crystalline state and the isotropic liquid for two small molecules [4,4{prime}-azoxyanisole and N,N`-bis(4-n-octyloxybenzal)-1,4-phenylenediamine] and one macromolecule (4,4{prime}-dihydroxy-{alpha}-methylstilbene copolymerized with a 1:1 molar mixture of 1,7-dibromoheptane and 1,9-dibromononane). The DSC measurements with 4,4{prime}-azoxyanisole were used for temperature calibration with varying heating and cooling rates. Quasi-isothermal TMDSC with small temperature amplitude and standard TMDSC with underlying heating and cooling rates were utilized to analyze the breadth of the transitions. It could be verified that the isotropization transition of a nematic liquid crystal is, indeed, reversible for all three molecules. The nature of the transition changes, however, from relatively sharp, for small, rigid molecules, to about three kelvins wide for the small molecule with flexible ends, to as broad as 20 K for the macromolecule. It was also demonstrated that quantitative heats of fusion of sharp transitions can be extracted from TMDSC, but only from the time-domain heat-flow signal.
Depletion induced isotropic-isotropic phase separation in suspensions of rod-like colloids.
Jungblut, S; Tuinier, R; Binder, K; Schilling, T
2007-12-28
When non-adsorbing polymers are added to an isotropic suspension of rod-like colloids, the colloids effectively attract each other via depletion forces. We performed Monte Carlo simulations to study the phase diagram of such rod-polymer mixture. The colloidal rods were modeled as hard spherocylinders; the polymers were described as spheres of the same diameter as the rods. The polymers may overlap with no energy cost, while the overlap of polymers and rods is forbidden. Large amounts of depletant cause phase separation of the mixture. We estimated the phase boundaries of isotropic-isotropic coexistence both in the bulk and in confinement. To determine the phase boundaries we applied the grand canonical ensemble using successive umbrella sampling [J. Chem. Phys. 120, 10925 (2004)], and we performed a finite size scaling analysis to estimate the location of the critical point. The results are compared with predictions of the free volume theory developed by Lekkerkerker and Stroobants [Nuovo Cimento D 16, 949 (1994)]. We also give estimates for the interfacial tension between the coexisting isotropic phases and analyze its power-law behavior on the approach of the critical point. PMID:18163708
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jefimenko, Oleg
1974-01-01
Discusses the design of a modified loop-the-loop apparatus in which a water stream is used to illustrate centripetal forces and phenomena of high-velocity hydrodynamics. Included are some procedures of carrying out lecture demonstrations. (CC)
Instability induced pressure isotropization in a longitudinally expanding system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dusling, Kevin; Epelbaum, Thomas; Gelis, François; Venugopalan, Raju
2012-10-01
In two previous works [K. Dusling, T. Epelbaum, F. Gelis, and R. Venugopalan, Nucl. Phys. A850, 69 (2011); T. Epelbaum and F. Gelis, Nucl. Phys. A872, 210 (2011)], we studied the time evolution of a system of real scalar fields with quartic coupling that shares important features with the color glass condensate description of heavy-ion collisions. Our primary objective was to understand how such a system, when initialized with a nonperturbatively large classical field configuration, reaches thermal equilibrium. An essential goal of these works was to highlight the role played by the quantum fluctuations. However, these studies considered only a system confined within a box of fixed volume. In the present paper, we extend this work to a system that expands in the longitudinal direction, thereby, more closely mimicking a heavy-ion collision. We conclude that the microscopic processes that drive the system toward equilibrium are able to keep up with the expansion of the system; the pressure tensor becomes isotropic despite the anisotropic expansion.
Extended Jiles-Atherton model for modelling the magnetic characteristics of isotropic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szewczyk, Roman; Bieńkowski, Adam; Salach, Jacek
This paper presents the idea of the extension of the Jiles-Atherton model applied for modelling of the magnetic characteristics of Mn-Zn, as well as Ni-Zn ferrites. The presented extension of the model takes into account changes of the parameter k during the magnetisation process, what is physically judged. The extended Jiles-Atherton model gives novel possibility of modelling the hysteresis loops of isotropic materials. For one set of the extended model parameters, a good agreement between experimental data and modelled hysteresis loops is observed, for different values of maximal magnetising field. As a result, the extended Jiles-Atherton model presented in the paper may be applied for both technical applications and fundamental research, focused on understanding the physical aspects of the magnetisation process of anisotropic soft magnetic materials.
Recalculation of the Isotropic H Functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiroi, Takahiro
1994-06-01
The isotropic H functions defined in radiative transfer theory by Chandrasekhar (Radiative Transfer, Dover, New York, 1960) have been numerically recalculated for a larger number of single scattering albedo (w) values. The obtained H functions should be accurate to five decimal places at least. The H function values become highly nonlinear as w approaches 1, where calculations were performed with many more points than in Chandrasekhar (1960). A simple linear interpolation of Chandrasekhar's H function table could result in as much as 8% error in the H function values and 16% in the H2 values that appear in multiple scattering terms such as in Hapke (J. Geophys. Res. 86, 3039-3054, 1981). On the other hand, Hapke's approximations (J. Geophys. Res. 86, 3039-3054, 1981; Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy, Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 1993) give H values within 4.1% and 0.8% error, respectively.
Isotropic MD simulations of dynamic brittle fracture
Espanol, P.; Rubio, M.A.; Zuniga, I.
1996-12-01
The authors present results obtained by molecular dynamics simulations on the propagation of fast cracks in triangular 2D lattices. Their aim is to simulate Mode 1 fracture of brittle isotropic materials. They propose a force law that respects the isotropy of the material. The code yields the correct imposed sound c{sub {parallel}}, shear c{sub {perpendicular}} and surface V{sub R} wave speeds. Different notch lengths are systematically studied. They observed that initially the cracks are linear and always branch at a particular critical velocity c* {approx} 0.8V{sub R} and that this occurs when the crack tip reaches the position of a front emitted from the initial crack tip and propagating at a speed c = 0.68V{sub R}.
New bounds on isotropic Lorentz violation
Chris Carone; Marc Sher; Marc Vanderhaeghen
2006-09-19
Violations of Lorentz invariance that appear via operators of dimension four or less are completely parameterized in the Standard Model Extension (SME). In the pure photonic sector of the SME, there are nineteen dimensionless, Lorentz-violating parameters. Eighteen of these have experimental upper bounds ranging between 10{sup -11} and 10{sup -32}; the remaining parameter, ktr, is isotropic and has a much weaker bound of order 10{sup -4}. In this Brief Report, we point out that ktr gives a significant contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and find a new upper bound of order 10{sup -8}. With reasonable assumptions, we further show that this bound may be improved to 10{sup -14} by considering the renormalization of other Lorentz-violating parameters that are more tightly constrained. Using similar renormalization arguments, we also estimate bounds on Lorentz violating parameters in the pure gluonic sector of QCD.
Isotropic and anisotropic surface wave cloaking techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McManus, T. M.; La Spada, L.; Hao, Y.
2016-04-01
In this paper we compare two different approaches for surface waves cloaking. The first technique is a unique application of Fermat’s principle and requires isotropic material properties, but owing to its derivation is limited in its applicability. The second technique utilises a geometrical optics approximation for dealing with rays bound to a two dimensional surface and requires anisotropic material properties, though it can be used to cloak any smooth surface. We analytically derive the surface wave scattering behaviour for both cloak techniques when applied to a rotationally symmetric surface deformation. Furthermore, we simulate both using a commercially available full-wave electromagnetic solver and demonstrate a good level of agreement with their analytically derived solutions. Our analytical solutions and simulations provide a complete and concise overview of two different surface wave cloaking techniques.
Elastic constants of layers in isotropic laminates.
Heyliger, Paul R; Ledbetter, Hassel; Kim, Sudook; Reimanis, Ivar
2003-11-01
The individual laminae elastic constants in multilayer laminates composed of dissimilar isotropic layers were determined using ultrasonic-resonance spectroscopy and the linear theory of elasticity. Ultrasonic resonance allows one to measure the free-vibration response spectrum of a traction-free solid under periodic vibration. These frequencies depend on pointwise density, laminate dimensions, layer thickness, and layer elastic constants. Given a material with known mass but unknown constitution, this method allows one to extract the elastic constants and density of the constituent layers. This is accomplished by measuring the frequencies and then minimizing the differences between these and those calculated using the theory of elasticity for layered media to select the constants that best replicate the frequency-response spectrum. This approach is applied to a three-layer, unsymmetric laminate of WpCu, and very good agreement is found with the elastic constants of the two constituent materials. PMID:14649998
Dielectric permittivity of quantum plasma. Part I
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobylev, Yu. V.; Kuzelev, M. V.
2014-05-01
Collisionless quantum plasma models based on the Schröbinger, Klein-Gordon, Dirac, and Pauli equations are considered. The transverse and longitudinal dielectric permittivities of isotropic quantum plasma are calculated in the frameworks of the models based on the Schröbinger and Klein-Gordon equations without allowance for the particle spin. Dispersion relations for transverse-longitudinal waves in beams of spinless quantum particles are derived, and the simplest quantum waves are analyzed.
Long distance quantum communication using quantum error correction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gingrich, R. M.; Lee, H.; Dowling, J. P.
2004-01-01
We describe a quantum error correction scheme that can increase the effective absorption length of the communication channel. This device can play the role of a quantum transponder when placed in series, or a cyclic quantum memory when inserted in an optical loop.
Investigating source processes of isotropic events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiang, Andrea
explosion. In contrast, recovering the announced explosive yield using seismic moment estimates from moment tensor inversion remains challenging but we can begin to put error bounds on our moment estimates using the NSS technique. The estimation of seismic source parameters is dependent upon having a well-calibrated velocity model to compute the Green's functions for the inverse problem. Ideally, seismic velocity models are calibrated through broadband waveform modeling, however in regions of low seismicity velocity models derived from body or surface wave tomography may be employed. Whether a velocity model is 1D or 3D, or based on broadband seismic waveform modeling or the various tomographic techniques, the uncertainty in the velocity model can be the greatest source of error in moment tensor inversion. These errors have not been fully investigated for the nuclear discrimination problem. To study the effects of unmodeled structures on the moment tensor inversion, we set up a synthetic experiment where we produce synthetic seismograms for a 3D model (Moschetti et al., 2010) and invert these data using Green's functions computed with a 1D velocity mode (Song et al., 1996) to evaluate the recoverability of input solutions, paying particular attention to biases in the isotropic component. The synthetic experiment results indicate that the 1D model assumption is valid for moment tensor inversions at periods as short as 10 seconds for the 1D western U.S. model (Song et al., 1996). The correct earthquake mechanisms and source depth are recovered with statistically insignificant isotropic components as determined by the F-test. Shallow explosions are biased by the theoretical ISO-CLVD tradeoff but the tectonic release component remains low, and the tradeoff can be eliminated with constraints from P wave first motion. Path-calibration to the 1D model can reduce non-double-couple components in earthquakes, non-isotropic components in explosions and composite sources and improve
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sever, Amit; Vieira, Pedro; Wang, Tianheng
2011-11-01
We extend the Operator Product Expansion for Null Polygon Wilson loops to the Mason-Skinner-Caron-Huot super loop dual to non MHV gluon amplitudes. We explain how the known tree level amplitudes can be promoted into an infinite amount of data at any loop order in the OPE picture. As an application, we re-derive all one loop NMHV six gluon amplitudes by promoting their tree level expressions. We also present some new all loops predictions for these amplitudes.
The preprocessed doacross loop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saltz, Joel H.; Mirchandaney, Ravi
1990-01-01
Dependencies between loop iterations cannot always be characterized during program compilation. Doacross loops typically make use of a-priori knowledge of inter-iteration dependencies to carry out required synchronizations. A type of doacross loop is proposed that allows the scheduling of iterations of a loop among processors without advance knowledge of inter-iteration dependencies. The method proposed for loop iterations requires that parallelizable preprocessing and postprocessing steps be carried out during program execution.
Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.
2002-09-10
A flux locked loop for providing an electrical feedback signal, the flux locked loop employing radio-frequency components and technology to extend the flux modulation frequency and tracking loop bandwidth. The flux locked loop of the present invention has particularly useful application in read-out electronics for DC SQUID magnetic measurement systems, in which case the electrical signal output by the flux locked loop represents an unknown magnetic flux applied to the DC SQUID.
Rotational surfaces in isotropic spaces satisfying weingarten conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Öğrenmiş, Alper Osman
2016-07-01
In this paper, we study the rotational surfaces in the isotropic 3-space 𝕀3 satisfying Weingarten conditions in terms of the relative curvature K (analogue of the Gaussian curvature) and the isotropic mean curvature H. In particular, we classify such surfaces of linear Weingarten type in 𝕀3.
Brief Review on Black Hole Loop Quantization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olmedo, Javier
2016-06-01
Here, we present a review about the quantization of spherically-symmetric spacetimes adopting loop quantum gravity techniques. Several models that have been studied so far share similar properties: the resolution of the classical singularity and some of them an intrinsic discretization of the geometry. We also explain the extension to Reissner---Nordstr\\"om black holes. Besides, we review how quantum test fields on these quantum geometries allow us to study phenomena, like the Casimir effect or Hawking radiation. Finally, we briefly describe a recent proposal that incorporates spherically-symmetric matter, discussing its relevance for the understanding of black hole evolution.
Isotropic microscale mechanical properties of coral skeletons
Pasquini, Luca; Molinari, Alan; Fantazzini, Paola; Dauphen, Yannicke; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Levy, Oren; Dubinsky, Zvy; Caroselli, Erik; Prada, Fiorella; Goffredo, Stefano; Di Giosia, Matteo; Reggi, Michela; Falini, Giuseppe
2015-01-01
Scleractinian corals are a major source of biogenic calcium carbonate, yet the relationship between their skeletal microstructure and mechanical properties has been scarcely studied. In this work, the skeletons of two coral species: solitary Balanophyllia europaea and colonial Stylophora pistillata, were investigated by nanoindentation. The hardness HIT and Young's modulus EIT were determined from the analysis of several load–depth data on two perpendicular sections of the skeletons: longitudinal (parallel to the main growth axis) and transverse. Within the experimental and statistical uncertainty, the average values of the mechanical parameters are independent on the section's orientation. The hydration state of the skeletons did not affect the mechanical properties. The measured values, EIT in the 76–77 GPa range, and HIT in the 4.9–5.1 GPa range, are close to the ones expected for polycrystalline pure aragonite. Notably, a small difference in HIT is observed between the species. Different from corals, single-crystal aragonite and the nacreous layer of the seashell Atrina rigida exhibit clearly orientation-dependent mechanical properties. The homogeneous and isotropic mechanical behaviour of the coral skeletons at the microscale is correlated with the microstructure, observed by electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, and with the X-ray diffraction patterns of the longitudinal and transverse sections. PMID:25977958
Crossover from isotropic to directed percolation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Zongzheng; Yang, Ji; Ziff, Robert M.; Deng, Youjin
2012-08-01
We generalize the directed percolation (DP) model by relaxing the strict directionality of DP such that propagation can occur in either direction but with anisotropic probabilities. We denote the probabilities as p↓=ppd and p↑=p(1-pd), with p representing the average occupation probability and pd controlling the anisotropy. The Leath-Alexandrowicz method is used to grow a cluster from an active seed site. We call this model with two main growth directions biased directed percolation (BDP). Standard isotropic percolation (IP) and DP are the two limiting cases of the BDP model, corresponding to pd=1/2 and pd=0,1 respectively. In this work, besides IP and DP, we also consider the 1/2
Crossover from isotropic to directed percolation.
Zhou, Zongzheng; Yang, Ji; Ziff, Robert M; Deng, Youjin
2012-08-01
We generalize the directed percolation (DP) model by relaxing the strict directionality of DP such that propagation can occur in either direction but with anisotropic probabilities. We denote the probabilities as p(↓) = pp(d) and p(↑) = p(1-p(d)), with p representing the average occupation probability and p(d) controlling the anisotropy. The Leath-Alexandrowicz method is used to grow a cluster from an active seed site. We call this model with two main growth directions biased directed percolation (BDP). Standard isotropic percolation (IP) and DP are the two limiting cases of the BDP model, corresponding to p(d) =1/2 and p(d) = 0,1 respectively. In this work, besides IP and DP, we also consider the 1/2 < p(d) <1 region. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are carried out on the square and the simple-cubic lattices, and the numerical data are analyzed by finite-size scaling. We locate the percolation thresholds of the BDP model for p(d) = 0.6 and 0.8, and determine various critical exponents. These exponents are found to be consistent with those for standard DP. We also determine the renormalization exponent associated with the asymmetric perturbation due to p(d)-1/2 ≠ 0 near IP, and confirm that such an asymmetric scaling field is relevant at IP. PMID:23005718
Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindholm, Ulric S.; Chan, Kwai S.; Bodner, S. R.; Weber, R. M.; Walker, K. P.; Cassenti, B. N.
1984-01-01
The results of the first year of work on a program to validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials utilized in high temperature regions of gas turbine engines and to demonstrate their usefulness in computing stress-strain-time-temperature histories in complex three-dimensional structural components. The unified theories combine all inelastic strain-rate components in a single term avoiding, for example, treating plasticity and creep as separate response phenomena. An extensive review of existing unified theories is given and numerical methods for integrating these stiff time-temperature-dependent constitutive equations are discussed. Two particular models, those developed by Bodner and Partom and by Walker, were selected for more detailed development and evaluation against experimental tensile, creep and cyclic strain tests on specimens of a cast nickel base alloy, B19000+Hf. Initial results comparing computed and test results for tensile and cyclic straining for temperature from ambient to 982 C and strain rates from 10(exp-7) 10(exp-3) s(exp-1) are given. Some preliminary date correlations are presented also for highly non-proportional biaxial loading which demonstrate an increase in biaxial cyclic hardening rate over uniaxial or proportional loading conditions. Initial work has begun on the implementation of both constitutive models in the MARC finite element computer code.
Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindholm, U. S.; Chan, K. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Weber, R. M.; Walker, K. P.; Cassenti, B. N.
1985-01-01
This report presents the results of the second year of work on a problem which is part of the NASA HOST Program. Its goals are: (1) to develop and validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials, and (2) to demonstrate their usefulness for structural analyses of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation are that of Bodner-Partom and Walker. For model evaluation purposes, a large constitutive data base is generated for a B1900 + Hf alloy by performing uniaxial tensile, creep, cyclic, stress relation, and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests as well as biaxial (tension/torsion) tests under proportional and nonproportional loading over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. Systematic approaches for evaluating material constants from a small subset of the data base are developed. Correlations of the uniaxial and biaxial tests data with the theories of Bodner-Partom and Walker are performed to establish the accuracy, range of applicability, and integability of the models. Both models are implemented in the MARC finite element computer code and used for TMF analyses. Benchmark notch round experiments are conducted and the results compared with finite-element analyses using the MARC code and the Walker model.
Limits to Poisson's ratio in isotropic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mott, P. H.; Roland, C. M.
2009-10-01
A long-standing question is why Poisson’s ratio ν nearly always exceeds 0.2 for isotropic materials, whereas classical elasticity predicts ν to be between -1 to (1)/(2) . We show that the roots of quadratic relations from classical elasticity divide ν into three possible ranges: -1<ν≤0 , 0≤ν≤(1)/(5) , and (1)/(5)≤ν<(1)/(2) . Since elastic properties are unique there can be only one valid set of roots, which must be (1)/(5)≤ν<(1)/(2) for consistency with the behavior of real materials. Materials with Poisson’s ratio outside of this range are rare, and tend to be either very hard (e.g., diamond, beryllium etc.) or porous (e.g., auxetic foams); such substances have more complex behavior than can be described by classical elasticity. Thus, classical elasticity is inapplicable whenever ν<(1)/(5) , and the use of the equations from classical elasticity for such materials is inappropriate.
Isotropic thaw subsidence in undisturbed permafrost landscapes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiklomanov, Nikolay I.; Streletskiy, Dmitry A.; Little, Jonathon D.; Nelson, Frederick E.
2013-12-01
in undisturbed terrain within some regions of the Arctic reveal limited correlation between increasing air temperature and the thickness of the seasonally thawed layer above ice-rich permafrost. Here we describe landscape-scale, thaw-induced subsidence lacking the topographic contrasts associated with thermokarst terrain. A high-resolution, 11 year record of temperature and vertical movement at the ground surface from contrasting physiographic regions of northern Alaska, obtained with differential global positioning systems technology, indicates that thaw of an ice-rich layer at the top of permafrost has produced decimeter-scale subsidence extending over the entire landscapes. Without specialized observation techniques the subsidence is not apparent to observers at the surface. This "isotropic thaw subsidence" explains the apparent stability of active layer thickness records from some landscapes of northern Alaska, despite warming near-surface air temperatures. Integrated over extensive regions, it may be responsible for thawing large volumes of carbon-rich substrate and could have negative impacts on infrastructure.
A Par-1-Par-3-Centrosome Cell Polarity Pathway and Its Tuning for Isotropic Cell Adhesion.
Jiang, Tao; McKinley, R F Andrew; McGill, Melanie A; Angers, Stephane; Harris, Tony J C
2015-10-19
To form regulated barriers between body compartments, epithelial cells polarize into apical and basolateral domains and assemble adherens junctions (AJs). Despite close links with polarity networks that generate single polarized domains, AJs distribute isotropically around the cell circumference for adhesion with all neighboring cells [1-3]. How AJs avoid the influence of polarity networks to maintain their isotropy has been unclear. In established epithelia, trans cadherin interactions could maintain AJ isotropy [4], but AJs are dynamic during epithelial development and remodeling [5, 6], and thus specific mechanisms may control their isotropy. In Drosophila, aPKC prevents hyper-polarization of junctions as epithelia develop from cellularization to gastrulation [7]. Here, we show that aPKC does so by inhibiting a positive feedback loop between Bazooka (Baz)/Par-3, a junctional organizer [5, 8-10], and centrosomes. Without aPKC, Baz and centrosomes lose their isotropic distributions and recruit each other to single plasma membrane (PM) domains. Surprisingly, our loss- and gain-of-function analyses show that the Baz-centrosome positive feedback loop is driven by Par-1, a kinase known to phosphorylate Baz and inhibit its basolateral localization [8, 11, 12]. We find that Par-1 promotes the positive feedback loop through both centrosome microtubule effects and Baz phosphorylation. Normally, aPKC attenuates the circuit by expelling Par-1 from the apical domain at gastrulation. The combination of local activation and global inhibition is a common polarization strategy [13-16]. Par-1 seems to couple both effects for a potent Baz polarization mechanism that is regulated for the isotropy of Baz and AJs around the cell circumference. PMID:26455305
A note on local unitary equivalence of isotropic-like states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ting-Gui; Hua, Bo-Bo; Li, Ming; Zhao, Ming-Jing; Yang, Hong
2015-12-01
We consider the local unitary equivalence of a class of quantum states in a bipartite case and a multipartite case. The necessary and sufficient condition is presented. As special cases, the local unitary equivalent classes of isotropic state and Werner state are provided. Then we study the local unitary similar equivalence of this class of quantum states and analyze the necessary and sufficient condition. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11401032, 61473325, 11501153, 11105226, 11275131, and 11401106), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 15CX08011A and 24720122013), the Natural Science Foundation of Hainan Province, China (Grant Nos. 20151005 and 20151010), and the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry.
Bojowald, Martin
2008-06-01
When quantum gravity is used to discuss the big bang singularity, the most important, though rarely addressed, question is what role genuine quantum degrees of freedom play. Here, complete effective equations are derived for isotropic models with an interacting scalar to all orders in the expansions involved. The resulting coupling terms show that quantum fluctuations do not affect the bounce much. Quantum correlations, however, do have an important role and could even eliminate the bounce. How quantum gravity regularizes the big bang depends crucially on properties of the quantum state. PMID:18643411
Blind loop syndrome occurs when digested food slows or stops moving through part of the intestines. This ... The name of this condition refers to the "blind loop" formed by part of the intestine that ...
Adaptive waveguide bends with homogeneous, nonmagnetic, and isotropic materials.
Han, Tiancheng; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Tang, Xiaohong
2011-01-15
We propose a method for adaptive waveguide bends using homogeneous, nonmagnetic, and isotropic materials, which simplifies the parameters of the bends to the utmost extent. The proposed bend has an adaptive and compact shape because of all the flat boundaries. The nonmagnetic property is realized by selecting OB'/OC = 0.5. Only two nonmagnetic isotropic dielectrics are needed throughout, and the transmission is not sensitive to nonmagnetic isotropic dielectrics. Results validate and illustrate these functionalities, which make the bend much easier to fabricate and apply, owing to its simple parameters, compact shape, and versatility in connecting different waveguides. PMID:21263493
Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, Kwai S.; Lindholm, Ulric S.; Bodner, S. R.; Hill, Jeff T.; Weber, R. M.; Meyer, T. G.
1986-01-01
The results of the third year of work on a program which is part of the NASA Hot Section Technology program (HOST) are presented. The goals of this program are: (1) the development of unified constitutive models for rate dependent isotropic materials; and (2) the demonstration of the use of unified models in structural analyses of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation are those of Bodner-Partom and of Walker. A test procedure was developed for assisting the generation of a data base for the Bodner-Partom model using a relatively small number of specimens. This test procedure involved performing a tensile test at a temperature of interest that involves a succession of strain-rate changes. The results for B1900+Hf indicate that material constants related to hardening and thermal recovery can be obtained on the basis of such a procedure. Strain aging, thermal recovery, and unexpected material variations, however, preluded an accurate determination of the strain-rate sensitivity parameter is this exercise. The effects of casting grain size on the constitutive behavior of B1900+Hf were studied and no particular grain size effect was observed. A systematic procedure was also developed for determining the material constants in the Bodner-Partom model. Both the new test procedure and the method for determining material constants were applied to the alternate material, Mar-M247 . Test data including tensile, creep, cyclic and nonproportional biaxial (tension/torsion) loading were collected. Good correlations were obtained between the Bodner-Partom model and experiments. A literature survey was conducted to assess the effects of thermal history on the constitutive behavior of metals. Thermal history effects are expected to be present at temperature regimes where strain aging and change of microstructure are important. Possible modifications to the Bodner-Partom model to account for these effects are outlined
One-loop QCD contribution to the potential of QQ¯
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Li-Quan; Zhao, Shu-Min; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Huang, De-Bao
2011-02-01
Without the non-relativistic approximation in one-loop function, the dominating one-loop contribution to the quark-antiquark potential is studied numerically in terms of perturbative Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). For Coulomb-like potential, the ratio of the one-loop correction to the tree diagram contribution is presented, whose absolute value is about 20%. Our result is consistent with the analysis that the one-loop contribution should be suppressed by a factor αs/π to the leading order contribution. This work can deepen the comprehension of αs in Cornel potential.
Theory of Nematic Fractional Quantum Hall States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, Yizhi; Cho, Gil Young; Fradkin, Eduardo
2014-10-01
We derive an effective field theory for the isotropic-nematic quantum phase transition of fractional quantum Hall states. We demonstrate that for a system with an isotropic background the low-energy effective theory of the nematic order parameter has z =2 dynamical scaling exponent, due to a Berry phase term of the order parameter, which is related to the nondissipative Hall viscosity. Employing the composite fermion theory with a quadrupolar interaction between electrons, we show that a sufficiently attractive quadrupolar interaction triggers a phase transition from the isotropic fractional quantum Hall fluid into a nematic fractional quantum Hall phase. By investigating the spectrum of collective excitations, we demonstrate that the mass gap of the Girvin-MacDonald-Platzman mode collapses at the isotropic-nematic quantum phase transition. On the other hand, Laughlin quasiparticles and the Kohn collective mode remain gapped at this quantum phase transition, and Kohn's theorem is satisfied. The leading couplings between the nematic order parameter and the gauge fields include a term of the same form as the Wen-Zee term. A disclination of the nematic order parameter carries an unquantized electric charge. We also discuss the relation between nematic degrees of freedom and the geometrical response of the fractional quantum Hall fluid.
Re-entrant isotropic-nematic phase behavior in polymer-depleted amyloid fibrils.
Zhao, Jianguo; Li, Chaoxu; Mezzenga, Raffaele
2014-11-19
Amyloid fibrils dispersed in water exhibit both isotropic (I) and nematic (N) phases, depending on concentration, but their coexistence, expected from the first order nature of the I - N thermodynamic transition is seldom observed. By adding a non-absorbing polymer to an amyloid fibrils suspension, we report, for the first time, an unusual closed-loop phase behavior. The phase diagrams reveal that the I + N coexistence does emerge, but only when the depleting polymer is present at intermediate concentrations. We combine depletion potentials in the dilute and semi-dilute polymer regime with the DLVO theory and the principle of equivalent law of corresponding states to calculate variations of the second virial coefficient with increasing polymer concentrations. We conclude that the decrease of the depletion potential range in the semi-dilute regime plays a pivotal role in the observed re-stabilization, leading to a closure of the I + N coexistence region. PMID:25347270
Re-entrant isotropic-nematic phase behavior in polymer-depleted amyloid fibrils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jianguo; Li, Chaoxu; Mezzenga, Raffaele
2014-11-01
Amyloid fibrils dispersed in water exhibit both isotropic (I) and nematic (N) phases, depending on concentration, but their coexistence, expected from the first order nature of the I - N thermodynamic transition is seldom observed. By adding a non-absorbing polymer to an amyloid fibrils suspension, we report, for the first time, an unusual closed-loop phase behavior. The phase diagrams reveal that the I + N coexistence does emerge, but only when the depleting polymer is present at intermediate concentrations. We combine depletion potentials in the dilute and semi-dilute polymer regime with the DLVO theory and the principle of equivalent law of corresponding states to calculate variations of the second virial coefficient with increasing polymer concentrations. We conclude that the decrease of the depletion potential range in the semi-dilute regime plays a pivotal role in the observed re-stabilization, leading to a closure of the I + N coexistence region.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
An empirical correlation of volumetric mass transfer coefficient was developed for a pilot scale internal-loop rectangular airlift bioreactor that was designed for biotechnology. The empirical correlation combines classic turbulence theory, Kolmogorov’s isotropic turbulence theory with Higbie’s pen...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danisch, Lee A.
1996-10-01
BEAM sensors include treated loops of optical fiber that modulate optical throughput with great sensitivity and linearity, in response to curvature of the loop out of its plane. This paper describes BEAM sensors that have two loops treated in opposed fashion, hermetically sealed in flexible laminations. The sensors include an integrated optoelectronics package that extracts curvature information from the treated portion of the loops while rejecting common mode errors. The laminated structure is used to sense various parameters including displacement, force, pressure, flow, and acceleration.
Azimuthally isotropic irradiance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with GaN microlens arrays.
Wu, Mount-Learn; Lee, Yun-Chih; Yang, Shih-Pu; Lee, Po-Shen; Chang, Jenq-Yang
2009-04-13
In this paper, the irradiance-modifying concept is proposed by introducing a microlens array on the p-GaN layer of GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED). Every microlens can locally modulate photons emitting from a micro-scaled active region of multiple quantum wells (MQWs) just beneath the microlens. The azimuthally isotropic irradiance from the GaN-based LED with microlens arrays is demonstrated numerically and experimentally. To realize such a novel LED, one-dimensional GaN microlens array with a period of 1.6 microm and a filling factor of 0.64 are fabricated by using dry etching. According to experimental results, the azimuthally isotropic light emission of proposed LED is observed. By using the angular-resolved photoluminescence, its intensity variation corresponding to the azimuth angles is as low as 10% within the angle region of +/-50 degrees. PMID:19365437
Observational Evidence for Loop-Loop Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guiping, W.; Guangli, H.; Yuhua, T.; Aoao, X.
2004-01-01
Through analysis of the data including the hard x-ray(BASTE) microwave(NoRP) and magnetogram(MDI from SOHO) as well as the images of soft x-ray(YHKOH) and EIT(SOHO) on Apr. 151998 solar flare in the active region 8203(N30W12) we found: (1) there are similar quasi period oscillation in the profile of hard x-ray flux (25-5050-100keV) and microwave flux(1GHz) with duration of 85+/-25s every peak includes two sub-peak structures; (2) in the preheat phase of the flare active magnetic field changes apparently and a s-pole spot emerges ; (3) several EIT and soft x-ray loops exist and turn into bright . All of these may suggest that loop-loop interaction indeed exist. Through reconnection the electrons may be accelerated and the hard x-ray and microwave emission take place.
The energy decay in self-preserving isotropic turbulence revisited
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Speziale, Charles G.; Bernard, Peter S.
1992-01-01
The assumption of self-preservation allows for an analytical determination of the energy decay in isotropic turbulence. Here, the self-preserving isotropic decay problem is analyzed, yielding a more complete picture of self-serving isotropic turbulence. It is proven rigorously that complete self-serving isotropic turbulence admits two general types of asymptotic solutions: one where the turbulent kinetic energy K approximately t (exp -1) and one where K approximately t (sup alpha) with an exponent alpha greater than 1 that is determined explicitly by the initial conditions. By a fixed point analysis and numerical integration of the exact one-point equations, it is demonstrated that the K approximately t (exp -1) and where K approximately t (sup -alpha) with an exponent alpha greater than 1 that is determined explicitly by the initial conditions. By a fixed point analysis and numerical integration of the exact one-point equations, it is demonstrated that the K approximately t (exp -1) power law decay is the asymptotically consistent high Reynolds number solution; the K approximately 1 (sup -alpha) decay law is only achieved in the limit as t yields infinity and the turbulence Reynolds number vanishes. Arguments are provided which indicate that a K approximately t (exp -1) power law decay is the asymptotic state toward which a complete self-preserving isotropic turbulence is driven at high Reynolds numbers in order to resolve the imbalance between vortex stretching and viscous diffusion.
The energy decay in self-preserving isotropic turbulence revisited
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Speziale, Charles G.; Bernard, Peter S.
1991-01-01
The assumption of self-preservation allows for an analytical determination of the energy decay in isotropic turbulence. Here, the self-preserving isotropic decay problem is analyzed, yielding a more complete picture of self-serving isotropic turbulence. It is proven rigorously that complete self-serving isotropic turbulence admits two general types of asymptotic solutions: one where the turbulent kinetic energy K approximately t (exp -1) and one where K approximately t (sup alpha) with an exponent alpha greater than 1 that is determined explicitly by the initial conditions. By a fixed point analysis and numerical integration of the exact one-point equations, it is demonstrated that the K approximately t (exp -1) and where K approximately t (sup -alpha) with an exponent alpha greater than 1 that is determined explicitly by the initial conditions. By a fixed point analysis and numerical integration of the exact one point equations, it is demonstrated that the K approximately t (exp -1) power law decay is the asymptotically consistent high Reynolds number solution; the K approximately 1 (sup - alpha) decay law is only achieved in the limit as t yields infinity and the turbulence Reynolds number vanishes. Arguments are provided which indicate that a K approximately t (exp -1) power law decay is the asymptotic state towards which a complete self-preseving isotropic turbulence is driven at high Reynolds numbers in order to resolve the imbalance between vortex stretching and viscous diffusion.
Fluctuation-induced dielectric permittivity in the isotropic phase of cholesteric liquid crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Prabir K.; Das, Asok K.
2016-03-01
The temperature and pressure dependence of the static dielectric permittivity in the isotropic phase of the isotropic to cholesteric phase transition is calculated using Landau-de Gennes’s fluctuation theory, allowing spatial variation of the orientational order parameter. A comparison is made with experimental data available in the isotropic phase of the isotropic to cholesteric phase transition.
Sudden relaminarisation and lifetimes in forced isotropic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Linkmann, Moritz; Morozov, Alexander
2015-11-01
We demonstrate an unexpected connection between isotropic turbulence and wall-bounded shear flows. We perform direct numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence forced at large scales at moderate Reynolds numbers and observe sudden transitions from chaotic dynamics to a spatially simple flow, analogous to the laminar state in wall bounded shear flows. We find that the survival probabilities of turbulence are exponential and the typical lifetimes increase super-exponentially with the Reynolds number, similar to results on relaminarisation of localised turbulence in pipe and plane Couette flow. Results from simulations subjecting the observed large-scale flow to random perturbations of variable amplitude demonstrate that it is a linearly stable simple exact solution that can be destabilised by a finite-amplitude perturbation, like the Hagen-Poiseuille profile in pipe flow. Our results suggest that both isotropic turbulence and wall-bounded shear flows qualitatively share the same phase-space dynamics.
Isotropic and anisotropic bouncing cosmologies in Palatini gravity
Barragan, Carlos; Olmo, Gonzalo J.
2010-10-15
We study isotropic and anisotropic (Bianchi I) cosmologies in Palatini f(R) and f(R,R{sub {mu}{nu}R}{sup {mu}{nu}}) theories of gravity with a perfect fluid and consider the existence of nonsingular bouncing solutions in the early universe. We find that all f(R) models with isotropic bouncing solutions develop shear singularities in the anisotropic case. On the contrary, the simple quadratic model R+aR{sup 2}/R{sub P}+R{sub {mu}{nu}R}{sup {mu}{nu}/}R{sub P} exhibits regular bouncing solutions in both isotropic and anisotropic cases for a wide range of equations of state, including dust (for a<0) and radiation (for arbitrary a). It thus represents a purely gravitational solution to the big bang singularity and anisotropy problems of general relativity without the need for exotic (w>1) sources of matter/energy or extra degrees of freedom.
Subtraction threshold for an isotropic fluorescence emission difference microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Nan; Kobayashi, Takayoshi
2015-12-01
Isotropic fluorescence emission difference microscopy proposed recently provides a simple method to enhance the spatial resolution in three-dimensions (3D) for fluorescence imaging. However, the subtraction threshold to achieve the condition for appropriately resolving the sample in 3D have not been studied. Then the subtraction factors used in this type of microscopes are still experientially chosen. Based on vector diffraction theory and a 3D numerical model developed here, the subtraction threshold is numerically investigated for the isotropic fluorescence subtraction microscopy. The subtraction factors and peak intensities at the threshold are obtained and comparied both in lateral and axial planes for achieving most appropriate subtraction and inspecting the isotropic characteristic. The effects of radius ratios of implemented 0-π annular phase plate for generating three dimensional donut spot on the subtracted resolution, peak intensity and negative sidebands are also discussed.
Stress waves in transversely isotropic media: The homogeneous problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marques, E. R. C.; Williams, J. H., Jr.
1986-01-01
The homogeneous problem of stress wave propagation in unbounded transversely isotropic media is analyzed. By adopting plane wave solutions, the conditions for the existence of the solution are established in terms of phase velocities and directions of particle displacements. Dispersion relations and group velocities are derived from the phase velocity expressions. The deviation angles (e.g., angles between the normals to the adopted plane waves and the actual directions of their propagation) are numerically determined for a specific fiber-glass epoxy composite. A graphical method is introduced for the construction of the wave surfaces using magnitudes of phase velocities and deviation angles. The results for the case of isotropic media are shown to be contained in the solutions for the transversely isotropic media.
Unexpected collapses during isotropic consolidation of model granular materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doanh, Thiep; Le Bot, Alain; Abdelmoula, Nouha; Gribaa, Lassad; Hans, Stéphane; Boutin, Claude
2016-02-01
This paper reports the unexpected instantaneous instabilities of idealized granular materials under simple isotropic drained compression. Specimens of monosized glass beads submitted to isotropic compression exhibit a series of local collapses under undetermined external stress with partial liquefaction, experience sudden volumetric compaction and axial contraction of various amplitude. Short-lived excess pore water pressure vibrates like an oscillating underdamped system in the first dynamic transient phase and rapidly disperses in the subsequent longer dissipation phase. However, very dense samples maintain a collapse-free behaviour below a threshold void ratio e30col at 30 kPa of stress. The potential mechanisms that could explain these spontaneous collapses are discussed.
Concurrence-based entanglement measures for isotropic states
Rungta, Pranaw; Caves, Carlton M.
2003-01-01
We discuss properties of entanglement measures called I-concurrence and tangle. For a bipartite pure state, I-concurrence and tangle are simply related to the purity of the marginal density operators. The I-concurrence (tangle) of a bipartite mixed state is the minimum average I-concurrence (tangle) of ensemble decompositions of pure states of the joint density operator. Terhal and Vollbrecht [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2625 (2000)] have given an explicit formula for the entanglement of formation of isotropic states in arbitrary dimensions. We use their formalism to derive comparable expressions for the I-concurrence and tangle of isotropic states.
An analytical model for permeability of isotropic porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiaohu; Lu, Tian Jian; Kim, Tongbeum
2014-06-01
We demonstrate that permeability of isotropic porous media e.g., open-cell foams can be analytically presented as a function of two morphological parameters: porosity and pore size. Adopting a cubic unit cell model, an existing tortuosity model from the branching algorithm method is incorporated into a generalized permeability model. The present model shows that dimensionless permeability significantly increases as the porosity of isotropic porous media and unifies the previously reported data in a wide range of porosity (ɛ=0.55-0.98) and pore size (Dp=0.254 mm-5.08 mm).
Equilibrium Shapes for Isotropic Elastic Tubes in the Planar Case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Qing-Hua; Zhou, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Yuan-Sheng; Wu, Ke-Jian; Wen, Jun
2013-05-01
When making an isotropic elastic shell into a curving tube, the crimp energy and bending energy determine the equilibrium shapes of the tube. In this study, we established a model to explore the elastic behavior of a tube made of an elastic shell. Two typical shapes: torus shape and periodic shape are discussed by studying the equilibrium shape equations in the planar case. Our study reveals that the crimp energy for an isotropic elastic tube is innegligible and will induce abundant shapes. It also reveals that varicose vein is more likely to occur when the blood vessels become thicker, which is in accordance with the clinic experiments.
A note on antenna models in a warm isotropic plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, N.
1980-01-01
The electron-transparent and electron-reflecting models of antennas in a warm isotropic plasma are reexamined. It is shown that a purely electrical treatment of both the models without an explicit use of the boundary condition on electron velocity yields the same results as those previously obtained through an electromechanical treatment. The essential difference between the two models is that for the electron-reflecting model, fields are nonzero only in the exterior region, while for the electron-transparent model, they are nonzero both in the exterior and interior regions of the antenna. This distinction helps in clarifying some misconceptions about these models of antennas in warm isotropic plasma.
Nuclear relaxation in an electric field enables the determination of isotropic magnetic shielding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garbacz, Piotr
2016-08-01
It is shown that in contrast to the case of nuclear relaxation in a magnetic field B, simultaneous application of the magnetic field B and an additional electric field E causes transverse relaxation of a spin-1/2 nucleus with the rate proportional to the square of the isotropic part of the magnetic shielding tensor. This effect can contribute noticeably to the transverse relaxation rate of heavy nuclei in molecules that possess permanent electric dipole moments. Relativistic quantum mechanical computations indicate that for 205Tl nucleus in a Pt-Tl bonded complex, Pt(CN)5Tl, the transverse relaxation rate induced by the electric field is of the order of 1 s-1 at E = 5 kV/mm and B = 10 T.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Mingda; Cui, Wenping; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Chen, Gang; MIT Team; Boston College Team
Crystal dislocations govern the plastic mechanical properties of materials but also affect the electrical and optical properties. However, a fundamental and decent quantum-mechanical theory of dislocation remains undiscovered for decades. Here we present an exact and manageable Hamiltonian theory for both edge and screw dislocation line in an isotropic media, where the effective Hamiltonian of a single dislocation line can be written in a harmonic-oscillator-like form, with closed-form quantized 1D phonon-like excitation. Moreover a closed-form, position dependent electron-dislocation coupling strength is obtained, from which we obtained good agreement of relaxation time when comparing with classical results. This Hamiltonian provides a platform to study the effect of dislocation to materials' non-mechanical properties from a fundamental Hamiltonian level.
Novel Kinetic Theory of the Classical Isotropic Oscillator Gas, the Flexible Shell Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schruben, Dale
2013-12-01
Ever since Chapman and Enskog first used the hard sphere model to evaluate the collision integral in the Boltzmann equation, more sophisticated models for molecular encounters have been sought. Rotation of molecules in kinetic theory has been pursued with a number of models, such as the spherocylinder or loaded sphere, to account for that aspect. As these efforts continued, more workers started to incorporate quantum mechanics methods in pursuit of solutions to the Boltzmann equation. Progress there with both rotational and vibrational features of molecules has been attained. Until now though, there has been no classical vibration model for molecules in kinetic theory. Far from standard kinetic theory, here a simple classical mechanics isotropic oscillator is combined, through a flexible shell, with the hard sphere model in a full Chapman Enskog procedure. The intent here has been to introduce the model, so items like translational-vibrational coupling have not been included. Still, the results compliment literature.
Noncontractible loops in the dense O(n) loop model on the cylinder.
Alcaraz, F C; Brankov, J G; Priezzhev, V B; Rittenberg, V; Rogozhnikov, A M
2014-11-01
A lattice model of critical dense polymers O(n) is considered for finite cylinder geometry. Due to the presence of noncontractible loops with a fixed fugacity ξ, the model at n=0 is a generalization of the critical dense polymers solved by Pearce, Rasmussen, and Villani. We found the free energy for any height N and circumference L of the cylinder. The density ρ of noncontractible loops is obtained for N→∞ and large L. The results are compared with those found for the anisotropic quantum chain with twisted boundary conditions. Using the latter method, we derived ρ for any O(n) model and an arbitrary fugacity. PMID:25493770
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, Yizhi; Cho, Gil Young; Fradkin, Eduardo
2016-05-01
We present a theory of the isotropic-nematic quantum phase transition in the composite Fermi liquid arising in half-filled Landau levels. We show that the quantum phase transition between the isotropic and the nematic phase is triggered by an attractive quadrupolar interaction between electrons, as in the case of conventional Fermi liquids. We derive the theory of the nematic state and of the phase transition. This theory is based on the flux attachment procedure, which maps an electron liquid in half-filled Landau levels into the composite Fermi liquid close to a nematic transition. We show that the local fluctuations of the nematic order parameters act as an effective dynamical metric interplaying with the underlying Chern-Simons gauge fields associated with the flux attachment. Both the fluctuations of the Chern-Simons gauge field and the nematic order parameter can destroy the composite fermion quasiparticles and drive the system into a non-Fermi liquid state. The effective-field theory for the isotropic-nematic phase transition is shown to have z =3 dynamical exponent due to the Landau damping of the dense Fermi system. We show that there is a Berry-phase-type term that governs the effective dynamics of the nematic order parameter fluctuations, which can be interpreted as a nonuniversal "Hall viscosity" of the dynamical metric. We also show that the effective-field theory of this compressible fluid has a Wen-Zee-type term. Both terms originate from the time-reversal breaking fluctuation of the Chern-Simons gauge fields. We present a perturbative (one-loop) computation of the Hall viscosity and also show that this term is also obtained by a Ward identity. We show that the topological excitation of the nematic fluid, the disclination, carries an electric charge. We show that a resonance observed in radio-frequency conductivity experiments can be interpreted as a Goldstone nematic mode gapped by lattice effects.
Loop quantization of the Schwarzschild interior revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corichi, Alejandro; Singh, Parampreet
2016-03-01
The loop quantization of the Schwarzschild interior region, as described by a homogeneous anisotropic Kantowski-Sachs model, is re-examined. As several studies of different—inequivalent—loop quantizations have shown, to date there exists no fully satisfactory quantum theory for this model. This fact poses challenges to the validity of some scenarios to address the black hole information problem. Here we put forward a novel viewpoint to construct the quantum theory that builds from some of the models available in the literature. The final picture is a quantum theory that is both independent of any auxiliary structure and possesses a correct low curvature limit. It represents a subtle but non-trivial modification of the original prescription given by Ashtekar and Bojowald. It is shown that the quantum gravitational constraint is well defined past the singularity and that its effective dynamics possesses a bounce into an expanding regime. The classical singularity is avoided, and a semiclassical spacetime satisfying vacuum Einstein’s equations is recovered on the ‘other side’ of the bounce. We argue that such a metric represents the interior region of a white-hole spacetime, but for which the corresponding ‘white hole mass’ differs from the original black hole mass. Furthermore, we find that the value of the white hole mass is proportional to the third power of the starting black hole mass.
Loop quantization of Schwarzschild interior revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Parampreet; Corichi, Alejandro
2016-03-01
Several studies of different inequivalent loop quantizations have shown, that there exists no fully satisfactory quantum theory for the Schwarzschild interior. Existing quantizations fail either on dependence on the fiducial structure or on the lack of the classical limit. Here we put forward a novel viewpoint to construct the quantum theory that overcomes all of the known problems of the existing quantizations. It is shown that the quantum gravitational constraint is well defined past the singularity and that its effective dynamics possesses a bounce into an expanding regime. The classical singularity is avoided, and a semiclassical spacetime satisfying vacuum Einstein's equations is recovered on the ``other side'' of the bounce. We argue that such metric represents the interior region of a white-hole spacetime, but for which the corresponding ``white-hole mass'' differs from the original black hole mass. We compare the differences in physical implications with other quantizations.
Effects of prestresses on mechanical properties of isotropic graphite materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oku, T.; Kurumada, A.; Imamura, Y.; Kawamata, K.; Shiraishi, M.
1998-10-01
Graphite materials which are used for plasma facing components and other components are subjected to stresses due to the high heat flux from the fusion plasma. Some mechanical properties of graphite materials can change due to the prestresses. The property changes should be considered for the design of the plasma facing components. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of prestresses on the mechanical properties of isotropic graphite materials. Compressive prestresses were applied to two kinds of isotropic fine-grained graphites (IG-430 and IG-11) at 298 K (both), 1873 K (IG-11), 2273 K (IG-11) and 2283 K (IG-430). As a result, the decrease in Young's modulus for IG-430 due to high-temperature prestressing was 56% which was much larger than the 6.4% that was due to prestressing at 298 K. The results for IG-11 were the same as those for IG-430 graphite. This finding was considered to be due primarily to a difference in degree of the preferred orientation of crystallites in the graphite on the basis of the Bacon anisotropy factor (BAF) obtained from X-ray diffraction measurement of the prestressed specimens. Furthermore, high-temperature compressive prestressing produced an increase in the strength of the isotropic graphite, although room temperature prestressing produced no such effect. The results obtained here suggest that the isotropic graphite which is subjected to high-temperature compressive stresses can become anisotropic in service.
On the accuracy and fitting of transversely isotropic material models.
Feng, Yuan; Okamoto, Ruth J; Genin, Guy M; Bayly, Philip V
2016-08-01
Fiber reinforced structures are central to the form and function of biological tissues. Hyperelastic, transversely isotropic material models are used widely in the modeling and simulation of such tissues. Many of the most widely used models involve strain energy functions that include one or both pseudo-invariants (I4 or I5) to incorporate energy stored in the fibers. In a previous study we showed that both of these invariants must be included in the strain energy function if the material model is to reduce correctly to the well-known framework of transversely isotropic linear elasticity in the limit of small deformations. Even with such a model, fitting of parameters is a challenge. Here, by evaluating the relative roles of I4 and I5 in the responses to simple loadings, we identify loading scenarios in which previous models accounting for only one of these invariants can be expected to provide accurate estimation of material response, and identify mechanical tests that have special utility for fitting of transversely isotropic constitutive models. Results provide guidance for fitting of transversely isotropic constitutive models and for interpretation of the predictions of these models. PMID:27136091
A Simple Mechanical Model for the Isotropic Harmonic Oscillator
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nita, Gelu M.
2010-01-01
A constrained elastic pendulum is proposed as a simple mechanical model for the isotropic harmonic oscillator. The conceptual and mathematical simplicity of this model recommends it as an effective pedagogical tool in teaching basic physics concepts at advanced high school and introductory undergraduate course levels. (Contains 2 figures.)
Optical torque on small bi-isotropic particles.
Nieto-Vesperinas, Manuel
2015-07-01
We establish the equations for the time-averaged optical torque on dipolar bi-isotropic particles. Due to the interference of the scattered fields, it has a term additional to the one that is commonly employed in theory and experiments. Its consequences for conservation of energy, angular momentum, and effects like negative torques are discussed. PMID:26125357
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gottschlich, Joseph M.; Richter, Robert
1991-01-01
The concept of a thermal power loop (TPL) to transport thermal power over relatively large distances is presented as an alternative to heat pipes and their derivatives. The TPL is compared to heat pipes, and capillary pumped loops with respect to size, weight, conservation of thermal potential, start-up, and 1-g testing capability. Test results from a proof of feasibility demonstrator at the NASA JPL are discussed. This analysis demonstrates that the development of specific thermal power loops will result in substantial weight and cost savings for many spacecraft.
Natively Unstructured Loops Differ from Other Loops
Schlessinger, Avner; Liu, Jinfeng; Rost, Burkhard
2007-01-01
Natively unstructured or disordered protein regions may increase the functional complexity of an organism; they are particularly abundant in eukaryotes and often evade structure determination. Many computational methods predict unstructured regions by training on outliers in otherwise well-ordered structures. Here, we introduce an approach that uses a neural network in a very different and novel way. We hypothesize that very long contiguous segments with nonregular secondary structure (NORS regions) differ significantly from regular, well-structured loops, and that a method detecting such features could predict natively unstructured regions. Training our new method, NORSnet, on predicted information rather than on experimental data yielded three major advantages: it removed the overlap between testing and training, it systematically covered entire proteomes, and it explicitly focused on one particular aspect of unstructured regions with a simple structural interpretation, namely that they are loops. Our hypothesis was correct: well-structured and unstructured loops differ so substantially that NORSnet succeeded in their distinction. Benchmarks on previously used and new experimental data of unstructured regions revealed that NORSnet performed very well. Although it was not the best single prediction method, NORSnet was sufficiently accurate to flag unstructured regions in proteins that were previously not annotated. In one application, NORSnet revealed previously undetected unstructured regions in putative targets for structural genomics and may thereby contribute to increasing structural coverage of large eukaryotic families. NORSnet found unstructured regions more often in domain boundaries than expected at random. In another application, we estimated that 50%–70% of all worm proteins observed to have more than seven protein–protein interaction partners have unstructured regions. The comparative analysis between NORSnet and DISOPRED2 suggested that long
Commutative law for products of infinitely large isotropic random matrices.
Burda, Zdzislaw; Livan, Giacomo; Swiech, Artur
2013-08-01
Ensembles of isotropic random matrices are defined by the invariance of the probability measure under the left (and right) multiplication by an arbitrary unitary matrix. We show that the multiplication of large isotropic random matrices is spectrally commutative and self-averaging in the limit of infinite matrix size N→∞. The notion of spectral commutativity means that the eigenvalue density of a product ABC... of such matrices is independent of the order of matrix multiplication, for example, the matrix ABCD has the same eigenvalue density as ADCB. In turn, the notion of self-averaging means that the product of n independent but identically distributed random matrices, which we symbolically denote by AAA..., has the same eigenvalue density as the corresponding power A(n) of a single matrix drawn from the underlying matrix ensemble. For example, the eigenvalue density of ABCCABC is the same as that of A(2)B(2)C(3). We also discuss the singular behavior of the eigenvalue and singular value densities of isotropic matrices and their products for small eigenvalues λ→0. We show that the singularities at the origin of the eigenvalue density and of the singular value density are in one-to-one correspondence in the limit N→∞: The eigenvalue density of an isotropic random matrix has a power-law singularity at the origin ~|λ|(-s) with a power sε(0,2) when and only when the density of its singular values has a power-law singularity ~λ(-σ) with a power σ=s/(4-s). These results are obtained analytically in the limit N→∞. We supplement these results with numerical simulations for large but finite N and discuss finite-size effects for the most common ensembles of isotropic random matrices. PMID:24032775
More uses for Wilson loops: Perturbation theory without Feynman diagrams
Celmaster, W.; Kovacs, E.
1984-04-15
For many arbitrary lattices with arbitrary SU(N) actions, it is easy to estimate the perturbative value of ..lambda../sub latt//..lambda../sub MOM/ without calculating any Feynman diagrams. This observation, first made by Creutz, is based on the fact that perturbative expansions of Wilson loop ratios can be trivially extracted from Monte Carlo data at large ..beta... Here, we extend Creutz's results to general loop ratios including those of polygons and parallelograms encountered on nonstandard lattices. In particular, we analytically compute the lowest-order quantum corrections to these loop ratios, discuss which ratios are free from divergences, and give specific Monte Carlo examples.
Perfect Quantum Cosmological Bounce
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gielen, Steffen; Turok, Neil
2016-07-01
We study quantum cosmology with conformal matter comprising a perfect radiation fluid and a number of conformally coupled scalar fields. Focusing initially on the collective coordinates (minisuperspace) associated with homogeneous, isotropic backgrounds, we are able to perform the quantum gravity path integral exactly. The evolution describes a "perfect bounce", in which the Universe passes smoothly through the singularity. We extend the analysis to spatially flat, anisotropic universes, treated exactly, and to generic inhomogeneous, anisotropic perturbations treated at linear and nonlinear order. This picture provides a natural, unitary description of quantum mechanical evolution across a cosmological bounce. We provide evidence for a semiclassical description in which all fields pass "around" the cosmological singularity along complex classical paths.
Perfect Quantum Cosmological Bounce.
Gielen, Steffen; Turok, Neil
2016-07-01
We study quantum cosmology with conformal matter comprising a perfect radiation fluid and a number of conformally coupled scalar fields. Focusing initially on the collective coordinates (minisuperspace) associated with homogeneous, isotropic backgrounds, we are able to perform the quantum gravity path integral exactly. The evolution describes a "perfect bounce", in which the Universe passes smoothly through the singularity. We extend the analysis to spatially flat, anisotropic universes, treated exactly, and to generic inhomogeneous, anisotropic perturbations treated at linear and nonlinear order. This picture provides a natural, unitary description of quantum mechanical evolution across a cosmological bounce. We provide evidence for a semiclassical description in which all fields pass "around" the cosmological singularity along complex classical paths. PMID:27447496
Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ku, Jentung
2015-01-01
This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. This course will discuss operating principles and performance characteristics of a loop heat pipe. Topics include: 1) pressure profiles in the loop; 2) loop operating temperature; 3) operating temperature control; 4) loop startup; 4) loop shutdown; 5) loop transient behaviors; 6) sizing of loop components and determination of fluid inventory; 7) analytical modeling; 8) examples of flight applications; and 9) recent LHP developments.
Quantum gravity: A brief history of ideas and some prospects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlip, Steven; Chiou, Dah-Wei; Ni, Wei-Tou; Woodard, Richard
2015-08-01
We present a bird's-eye survey on the development of fundamental ideas of quantum gravity, placing emphasis on perturbative approaches, string theory, loop quantum gravity (LQG) and black hole thermodynamics. The early ideas at the dawn of quantum gravity as well as the possible observations of quantum gravitational effects in the foreseeable future are also briefly discussed.
Quantum entanglement in the multiverse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robles-Pérez, S.; González-Díaz, P. F.
2014-01-01
We show that the quantum state of a multiverse made up of classically disconnected regions of the space-time, whose dynamical evolution is dominated by a homogeneous and isotropic fluid, is given by a squeezed state. These are typical quantum states that have no classical counterpart and therefore allow analyzing the violation of classical inequalities as well as the EPR argument in the context of the quantum multiverse. The thermodynamical properties of entanglement are calculated for a composite quantum state of two universes whose states are quantum-mechanically correlated. The energy of entanglement between the positive and negative modes of a scalar field, which correspond to the expanding and contracting branches of a phantom universe, are also computed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, Nedko B.; Ummethum, Jörg; Schnack, Jürgen
2014-10-01
For the time being isotropic three-body exchange interactions are scarcely explored and mostly used as a tool for constructing various exactly solvable one-dimensional models, although, generally speaking, such competing terms in generic Heisenberg spin systems can be expected to support specific quantum effects and phases. The Heisenberg chain constructed from alternating S = 1 and σ = 1/2 site spins defines a realistic prototype model admitting extra three-body exchange terms. Based on numerical density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) and exact diagonalization (ED) calculations, we demonstrate that the additional isotropic three-body terms stabilize a variety of partially-polarized states as well as two specific non-magnetic states including a critical spin-liquid phase controlled by two Gaussinal conformal theories as well as a critical nematic-like phase characterized by dominant quadrupolar S-spin fluctuations. Most of the established effects are related to some specific features of the three-body interaction such as the promotion of local collinear spin configurations and the enhanced tendency towards nearest-neighbor clustering of the spins. It may be expected that most of the predicted effects of the isotropic three-body interaction persist in higher space dimensions.
On the theory of Langmuir waves in a quantum plasma
Kuzelev, M. V.
2010-04-15
Nonlinear quantum-mechanical equations are derived for Langmuir waves in an isotropic electron collisionless plasma. A general analysis of dispersion relations is carried out for complex spectra of Langmuir waves and van Kampen waves in a quantum plasma with an arbitrary electron momentum distribution. Quantum nonlinear collisionless Landau damping in Maxwellian and degenerate plasmas is studied. It is shown that collisionless damping of Langmuir waves (including zero sound) occurs in collisionless plasmas due to quantum correction in the Cherenkov absorption condition, which is a purely quantum effect. Solutions to the quantum dispersion equation are obtained for a degenerate plasma.
Theory of quantum gravity beyond Einstein and space-time dynamics with quantum inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yue-Liang
2015-10-01
In this talk, I present a theory of quantum gravity beyond Einstein. The theory is established based on spinnic and scaling gauge symmetries by treating the gravitational force on the same footing as the electroweak and strong forces. A bi-frame space-time is initiated to describe the laws of nature. One frame space-time is a globally flat coordinate Minkowski space-time that acts as an inertial reference frame for the motions of fields, the other is a locally flat non-coordinate Gravifield space-time that functions as an interaction representation frame for the degrees of freedom of fields. The Gravifield is sided on both the globally flat coordinate space-time and locally flat non-coordinate space-time and characterizes the gravitational force. Instead of the principle of general coordinate invariance in Einstein theory of general relativity, some underlying principles with the postulates of coordinate independence and gauge invariance are motivated to establish the theory of quantum gravity. When transmuting the Gravifield basis into the coordinate basis in Minkowski space-time, it enables us to obtain equations of motion for all quantum fields and derive basic conservation laws for all symmetries. The gravity equation is found to be governed by the total energy-momentum tensor defined in the flat Minkowski space-time. When the spinnic and scaling gauge symmetries are broken down to a background structure that possesses the global Lorentz and scaling symmetries, we arrive at a Lorentz invariant and conformally flat background Gravifield space-time that is characterized by a cosmic vector with a non-zero cosmological mass scale. We also obtain the massless graviton and massive spinnon. The resulting universe is in general not isotropic in terms of conformal proper time and turns out to be inflationary in light of cosmic proper time. The conformal size of the universe has a singular at the cosmological horizon to which the cosmic proper time must be infinitely
Leptogenesis from loop effects in curved spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDonald, Jamie I.; Shore, Graham M.
2016-04-01
We describe a new mechanism — radiatively-induced gravitational leptogenesis — for generating the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe. We show how quantum loop effects in C and CP violating theories cause matter and antimatter to propagate differently in the presence of gravity, and prove this is forbidden in flat space by CPT and translation symmetry. This generates a curvature-dependent chemical potential for leptons, allowing a matter-antimatter asymmetry to be generated in thermal equilibrium in the early Universe. The time-dependent dynamics necessary for leptogenesis is provided by the interaction of the virtual self-energy cloud of the leptons with the expanding curved spacetime background, which violates the strong equivalence principle and allows a distinction between matter and antimatter. We show here how this mechanism is realised in a particular BSM theory, the see-saw model, where the quantum loops involve the heavy sterile neutrinos responsible for light neutrino masses. We demonstrate by explicit computation of the relevant two-loop Feynman diagrams how the size of the radiative corrections relevant for leptogenesis becomes enhanced by increasing the mass hierarchy of the sterile neutrinos, and show how the induced lepton asymmetry may be sufficiently large to play an important rôle in determining the baryon-to-photon ratio of the Universe.
Quantum Computation and Quantum Information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nielsen, Michael A.; Chuang, Isaac L.
2010-12-01
Part I. Fundamental Concepts: 1. Introduction and overview; 2. Introduction to quantum mechanics; 3. Introduction to computer science; Part II. Quantum Computation: 4. Quantum circuits; 5. The quantum Fourier transform and its application; 6. Quantum search algorithms; 7. Quantum computers: physical realization; Part III. Quantum Information: 8. Quantum noise and quantum operations; 9. Distance measures for quantum information; 10. Quantum error-correction; 11. Entropy and information; 12. Quantum information theory; Appendices; References; Index.
Multiproperty empirical isotropic interatomic potentials for CH4-inert gas mixtures.
El-Kader, M S A
2013-11-01
An approximate empirical isotropic interatomic potentials for CH4-inert gas mixtures are developed by simultaneously fitting the Exponential-Spline-Morse-Spline-van der Waals (ESMSV) potential form to viscosity, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusion factors, diffusion coefficient, interaction second pressure virial coefficient and scattering cross-section data. Quantum mechanical lineshapes of collision-induced absorption (CIA) at different temperatures for CH4-He and at T = 87 K for CH4-Ar are computed using theoretical values for overlap, octopole and hexadecapole mechanisms and interaction potential as input. Also, the quantum mechanical lineshapes of collision-induced light scattering (CILS) for the mixtures CH4-Ar and CH4-Xe at room temperature are calculated. The spectra of scattering consist essentially of an intense, purely translational component which includes scattering due to free pairs and bound dimers, and the other is due to the induced rotational scattering. These spectra have been interpreted by means of pair-polarizability terms, which arise from a long-range dipole-induced-dipole (DID) with small dispersion corrections and a short-range interaction mechanism involving higher-order dipole-quadrupole A and dipole-octopole E multipole polarizabilities. Good agreement between computed and experimental lineshapes of both absorption and scattering is obtained when the models of potential, interaction-induced dipole and polarizability components are used. PMID:25685458
Multiproperty empirical isotropic interatomic potentials for CH4–inert gas mixtures
El-Kader, M.S.A.
2012-01-01
An approximate empirical isotropic interatomic potentials for CH4–inert gas mixtures are developed by simultaneously fitting the Exponential-Spline-Morse-Spline-van der Waals (ESMSV) potential form to viscosity, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusion factors, diffusion coefficient, interaction second pressure virial coefficient and scattering cross-section data. Quantum mechanical lineshapes of collision-induced absorption (CIA) at different temperatures for CH4–He and at T = 87 K for CH4–Ar are computed using theoretical values for overlap, octopole and hexadecapole mechanisms and interaction potential as input. Also, the quantum mechanical lineshapes of collision-induced light scattering (CILS) for the mixtures CH4–Ar and CH4–Xe at room temperature are calculated. The spectra of scattering consist essentially of an intense, purely translational component which includes scattering due to free pairs and bound dimers, and the other is due to the induced rotational scattering. These spectra have been interpreted by means of pair-polarizability terms, which arise from a long-range dipole-induced-dipole (DID) with small dispersion corrections and a short-range interaction mechanism involving higher-order dipole–quadrupole A and dipole–octopole E multipole polarizabilities. Good agreement between computed and experimental lineshapes of both absorption and scattering is obtained when the models of potential, interaction-induced dipole and polarizability components are used. PMID:25685458
Femtosecond laser pulse induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass.
Vawter, Gregory Allen; Luk, Ting Shan; Guo, Junpeng; Yang, Pin; Burns, George Robert
2003-07-01
We used a regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser to create optical birefringence in an isotropic glass medium. Between two crossed polarizers, regions modified by the femtosecond laser show bright transmission with respect to the dark background of the isotropic glass. This observation immediately suggests that these regions possess optical birefringence. The angular dependence of transmission through the laser-modified region is consistent with that of an optically birefringent material. Laser-induced birefringence is demonstrated in different glasses, including fused silica and borosilicate glass. Experimental results indicate that the optical axes of laser-induced birefringence can be controlled by the polarization direction of the femtosecond laser. The amount of laser-induced birefringence depends on the pulse energy level and number of accumulated pulses.
Anomalous postcritical refraction behavior for certain transversely isotropic media
Fa, L.; Brown, R.L.; Castagna, J.P.
2006-01-01
Snell's law at the boundary between two transversely isotropic media with a vertical axis of symmetry (VTI media) can be solved by setting up a fourth order polynomial for the sine of the reflection/transmission angles. This approach reveals the possible presence of an anomalous postcritical angle for certain transversely isotropic media. There are thus possibly three incident angle regimes for the reflection/refraction of longitudinal or transverse waves incident upon a VTI medium: precritical, postcritical/preanomalous, and postanomalous. The anomalous angle occurs for certain strongly anisotropic media where the required root to the phase velocity equation must be switched in order to obey Snell's law. The reflection/transmission coefficients, polarization directions, and the phase velocity are all affected by both the anisotropy and the incident angle. The incident critical angles are also effected by the anisotropy. ?? 2006 Acoustical Society of America.
Dielectrophoretic manipulation of the mixture of isotropic and nematic liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Soo-Dong; Lee, Bomi; Kang, Shin-Woong; Song, Jang-Kun
2015-08-01
In various applications involving liquid crystals, the manipulation of the nanoscale molecular assembly and microscale director alignment is highly useful. Here we show that a nematic-isotropic mixture, a unique bi-liquid system, has potential for the fabrication of microstructures having an ordered phase within a disordered phase, or vice versa. The volume expansion and shrinkage, migration, splitting, mergence and elongation of one phase within the other are easily accomplished via thermal treatment and dielectrophoretic manipulation. This is particularly achievable when one phase is suspended in the middle. In that case, a highly biased ordered-phase preference of surfaces, that is, the nematic-philic nature of a polyimide layer and the nematic-phobic nature of a self-assembled monolayer of chlorosilane derivatives, is used. Further, by combining this approach with photopolymerization, the patterned microstructure is solidified as a patterned polymer film having both isotropic and anisotropic molecular arrangements simultaneously, or as a template with a morphological variation.
An endochronic theory for transversely isotropic fibrous composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pindera, M. J.; Herakovich, C. T.
1981-01-01
A rational methodology of modelling both nonlinear and elastic dissipative response of transversely isotropic fibrous composites is developed and illustrated with the aid of the observed response of graphite-polyimide off-axis coupons. The methodology is based on the internal variable formalism employed within the text of classical irreversible thermodynamics and entails extension of Valanis' endochronic theory to transversely isotropic media. Applicability of the theory to prediction of various response characteristics of fibrous composites is illustrated by accurately modelling such often observed phenomena as: stiffening reversible behavior along fiber direction; dissipative response in shear and transverse tension characterized by power-laws with different hardening exponents; permanent strain accumulation; nonlinear unloading and reloading; and stress-interaction effects.
Gravitational Landau damping for an isotropic cluster of stars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Habib, Salman; Kandrup, Henry E.; Yip, Ping F.
1986-01-01
The problem of ascertaining the dynamical stability and the existence of Landau damping in static, isotropic 'collisionless' star clusters is addressed. The second-order formalism of Kandrup and Sygnet (1985) is applied to a homogeneous and isotropic plasma, demonstrating formally that the unperturbed configuration will always be stable and that the modes must be purely oscillatory. The form of these modes is explicitly examined, culminating in an analytic expression for the time evolution of the density induced by an initial perturbation. It is shown how these considerations can be adapted trivially to localized, nonradial disturbances of a self-gravitating system of stars. The possible existence of gravitational Landau damping for more generic perturbations is discussed.
Emergence of Chirality from Isotropic Interactions of Three Length Scales.
Mkhonta, S K; Elder, K R; Huang, Zhi-Feng
2016-05-20
Chirality is known to play a pivotal role in determining material properties and functionalities. However, it remains a great challenge to understand and control the emergence of chirality and the related enantioselective process particularly when the building components of the system are achiral. Here we explore the generic mechanisms driving the formation of two-dimensional chiral structures in systems characterized by isotropic interactions and three competing length scales. We demonstrate that starting from isotropic and rotationally invariant interactions, a variety of chiral ordered patterns and superlattices with anisotropic but achiral units can self-assemble. The mechanisms for selecting specific states are related to the length-scale coupling and the selection of resonant density wave vectors. Sample phase diagrams and chiral elastic properties are identified. These findings provide a viable route for predicting chiral phases and selecting the desired handedness. PMID:27258877
Isotropic and nematic liquid crystalline phases of adaptive rotaxanes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Hao; Sevick, Edith M.; Williams, David R. M.
2016-03-01
We describe the thermodynamics of a solution of rotaxanes which can change their length from a short state of length L to a long state of length qL in response to their surrounding environment. We call these rotaxanes "adaptive." We show that such a system can exhibit both isotropic and nematic liquid crystalline phases. The system shows several interesting kinds of behaviour. First we predict that the fraction of short-length rotaxanes increases linearly with concentration and is a maximum at the critical concentration that marks the isotropic to nematic transition. Second, the critical concentration shows a minimum at a certain value of q. Our model suggests that the effect of adaptive length changes is most dramatic at small q and where the long state is slightly favoured.
Emergence of Chirality from Isotropic Interactions of Three Length Scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mkhonta, S. K.; Elder, K. R.; Huang, Zhi-Feng
2016-05-01
Chirality is known to play a pivotal role in determining material properties and functionalities. However, it remains a great challenge to understand and control the emergence of chirality and the related enantioselective process particularly when the building components of the system are achiral. Here we explore the generic mechanisms driving the formation of two-dimensional chiral structures in systems characterized by isotropic interactions and three competing length scales. We demonstrate that starting from isotropic and rotationally invariant interactions, a variety of chiral ordered patterns and superlattices with anisotropic but achiral units can self-assemble. The mechanisms for selecting specific states are related to the length-scale coupling and the selection of resonant density wave vectors. Sample phase diagrams and chiral elastic properties are identified. These findings provide a viable route for predicting chiral phases and selecting the desired handedness.
Random magnetic anisotropy in isotropic nanocrystalline composite permanent magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Suguru; Lee, S. J.; Mitsumata, Chiharu; Yanagihara, Hideto; Kita, Eiji
2011-04-01
In this study, the random magnetic anisotropy in isotropic nanocrystalline composite permanent magnets was investigated by means of numerical simulations. The magnetization reversal of randomly oriented hard-soft exchange-coupled grains was simulated using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in which the magnetization in a particular grain is assumed to align in the same direction (single-spin model). The calculations show that the energy product (BH)max of nanocomposite magnets has a peak value 50 MGOe at 6 nm. It is about 80% of that of single-crystal Nd2Fe14B. The coercivity HC exhibits a steep decrease toward smaller grain size, which is the result of the suppression of the random magnetic anisotropy by exchange interaction. Therefore, in isotropic nanocomposite magnets, the enhancement of energy product is limited by the suppression of the random magnetic anisotropy by exchange interaction.
Narrow-field radiometry in a quasi-isotropic atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, A.; Palmer, J. M.; Tomasko, M. G.
1979-01-01
If a radiometer having a narrow field of view is used to measure the radiance of a source such as a quasi-isotropic atmosphere, a knowledge of the out-of-field responsivity is critical. For example, if a radiometer with a field of view of 5 deg (full-angle) has a relative responsivity of 0.0001 for the out-of-field radiation, the contribution of the out-of-field radiation (assuming an isotropic source subtending 2 steradians) is 10.5% of the total signal. Either the stray light suppression of the radiometer must be extremely high or methods of determining the out-of-field response must be developed. A description of one method of determining the effect of out-of-field response and its application to a planetary atmospheric radiometer is presented.
Vertical vibration of a pile in transversely isotropic multilayered soils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ai, Zhi Yong; Liu, Chun Lin
2015-11-01
A new method for the dynamic response of a vertically loaded single pile embedded in transversely isotropic multilayered soils is proposed in this paper. The dynamic response of the pile is governed by the one-dimensional (1D) vibration theory, and that of transversely isotropic multilayered soils is achieved by using an analytical layer-element method. Then, with the aid of the displacement compatibility and the contact forces equilibrium along the pile-soil contact surface, the dynamic pile-soil interaction problem is solved efficiently. The presented solution method is proved to be correct and efficient by comparing the obtained results with other existing solutions. Selected numerical results are presented to study the influence of mass density ratio, length-radius ratio, frequency of excitation, soil anisotropy and hard soil stratum on the pile vertical impedance.
Emerging singularities in the bouncing loop cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mielczarek, Jakub; Szydłowski, Marek
2008-06-01
In this paper we calculate O(μ4) corrections from holonomies in the loop quantum gravity, usually not taken into account. Allowance of the corrections of this kind is equivalent with the choice of the new quatization scheme. Quantization ambiguities in the loop quantum cosmology allow for this additional freedom and presented corrections are consistent with the standard approach. We apply these corrections to the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model and calculate the modified Friedmann equation. We show that the bounce appears in the models with the standard O(μ2) quantization scheme and is shifted to the higher energies ρbounce=3ρc. Also, a pole in the Hubble parameter appears for ρpole=(3)/(2)ρc corresponding to hyperinflation/deflation phases. This pole represents a curvature singularity at which the scale factor is finite. In this scenario the singularity and bounce coexist. Moreover, we find that an ordinary bouncing solution appears only when quantum corrections in the lowest order are considered. Higher order corrections can lead to nonperturbative effects.
Parity-time symmetric cloak with isotropic modulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Fan; Lei Mei, Zhong
2016-06-01
In this work, a different kind of parity-time (PT) symmetric one-way cloak is proposed. Different from conventional PT-cloak, it enjoys the property of isotropic modulation for refractive index profiles. By combining PT-symmetry with the concept of cloaking at a distance, the dilemma of realizing anisotropic modulation is removed. This combination facilitates the practical realization of PT-symmetric one-way cloak.
Isotropic-nematic phase transition in amyloid fibrilization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Chiu Fan
2009-09-01
We carry out a theoretical study on the isotropic-nematic phase transition and phase separation in amyloid fibril solutions. Borrowing the thermodynamic model employed in the study of cylindrical micelles, we investigate the variations in the fibril length distribution and phase behavior with respect to changes in the protein concentration, fibril’s rigidity, and binding energy. We then relate our theoretical findings to the nematic ordering experimentally observed in Hen Lysozyme fibril solution.
Domain walls of linear polarization in isotropic Kerr media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Louis, Y.; Sheppard, A. P.; Haelterman, M.
1997-09-01
We present a new type of domain-wall vector solitary waves in isotropic self-defocusing Kerr media. These domain walls consist of localized structures separating uniform field domains of orthogonal linear polarizations. They result from the interplay between diffraction, self-phase modulation and cross-phase modulation in cases where the nonlinear birefringence coefficient B = {χxyyx(3)}/{χxxxx(3)} is negative. Numerical simulations show that these new vector solitary waves are stable.
Wave spectrum of a conducting cylinder in an isotropic plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malakhov, V. A.; Raevskii, A. S.; Raevskii, S. B.
2016-01-01
The boundary value problem of the propagation of an electromagnetic field along a cylindrical conductor in an isotropic plasma medium has been solved by the impedance method. The boundedness of the wave spectrum of such a guiding structure has been shown. The spectrum includes fast intrinsic wave E 01 and extrinsic hybrid waves HE nm and EH nm , both fast and slow ones, their countable set being determined by the azimuthal index.
Rodlike localized structure in isotropic pattern-forming systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bordeu, Ignacio; Clerc, Marcel G.
2015-10-01
Stationary two-dimensional localized structures have been observed in a wide variety of dissipative systems. The existence, stability properties, dynamical evolution, and bifurcation diagram of an azimuthal symmetry breaking, rodlike localized structure in the isotropic prototype model of pattern formation, the Swift-Hohenberg model, is studied. These rodlike structures persist under the presence of nongradient perturbations. Interaction properties of the rodlike structures are studied. This allows us to envisage the possibility of different crystal-like configurations.
Sharp-Interface Nematic-Isotropic Phase Transformations With Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fried, Eliot
2008-11-01
We develop a sharp-interface theory for phase transformations between the isotropic and uniaxial nematic phases of a flowing liquid crystal. Aside from conventional evolution equations for the bulk phases and corresponding interface conditions, the theory includes a supplemental interface condition expressing the balance of configurational momentum. As an idealized illustrative application of the theory, we consider the problem of an evolving spherical droplet of the isotropic phase surrounded by the nematic phase in a radially-oriented state. For this problem, the bulk and interfacial equations collapse to a single nonlinear second-order ordinary differential equation for the radius of the droplet—an equation which, in essence, expresses the balance of configurational momentum on the interface. This droplet evolution equation, which closely resembles a previously derived and extensively studied equation for the expansion of contraction of a spherical gas bubble in an incompressible viscous liquid, includes terms accounting for the curvature elasticity and viscosity of the nematic phase, interfacial energy, interfacial viscosity, and the ordering kinetics of the phase transformation. We determine the equilibria of this equation and study their stability. Additionally, we find that motion of the interface generates a backflow, without director reorientation, in the nematic phase. Our analysis indicates that a backflow measurement has the potential to provide an independent means to determine the density difference between the isotropic and uniaxial nematic phases.
Depth migration in transversely isotropic media with explicit operators
Uzcategui, O.
1994-12-01
The author presents and analyzes three approaches to calculating explicit two-dimensional (2D) depth-extrapolation filters for all propagation modes (P, SV, and SH) in transversely isotropic media with vertical and tilted axis of symmetry. These extrapolation filters are used to do 2D poststack depth migration, and also, just as for isotropic media, these 2D filters are used in the McClellan transformation to do poststack 3D depth migration. Furthermore, the same explicit filters can also be used to do depth-extrapolation of prestack data. The explicit filters are derived by generalizations of three different approaches: the modified Taylor series, least-squares, and minimax methods initially developed for isotropic media. The examples here show that the least-squares and minimax methods produce filters with accurate extrapolation (measured in the ability to position steep reflectors) for a wider range of propagation angles than that obtained using the modified Taylor series method. However, for low propagation angles, the modified Taylor series method has smaller amplitude and phase errors than those produced by the least-squares and minimax methods. These results suggest that to get accurate amplitude estimation, modified Taylor series filters would be somewhat preferred in areas with low dips. In areas with larger dips, the least-squares and minimax methods would give a distinctly better delineation of the subsurface structures.
Studies of Shock Wave Interactions with Homogeneous and Isotropic Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Briassulis, G.; Agui, J.; Watkins, C. B.; Andreopoulos, Y.
1998-01-01
A nearly homogeneous nearly isotropic compressible turbulent flow interacting with a normal shock wave has been studied experimentally in a large shock tube facility. Spatial resolution of the order of 8 Kolmogorov viscous length scales was achieved in the measurements of turbulence. A variety of turbulence generating grids provide a wide range of turbulence scales. Integral length scales were found to substantially decrease through the interaction with the shock wave in all investigated cases with flow Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 0.7 and shock Mach numbers from 1.2 to 1.6. The outcome of the interaction depends strongly on the state of compressibility of the incoming turbulence. The length scales in the lateral direction are amplified at small Mach numbers and attenuated at large Mach numbers. Even at large Mach numbers amplification of lateral length scales has been observed in the case of fine grids. In addition to the interaction with the shock the present work has documented substantial compressibility effects in the incoming homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flow. The decay of Mach number fluctuations was found to follow a power law similar to that describing the decay of incompressible isotropic turbulence. It was found that the decay coefficient and the decay exponent decrease with increasing Mach number while the virtual origin increases with increasing Mach number. A mechanism possibly responsible for these effects appears to be the inherently low growth rate of compressible shear layers emanating from the cylindrical rods of the grid.
The Isotropic Radio Background and Annihilating Dark Matter
Hooper, Dan; Belikov, Alexander V.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Linden, Tim; Profumo, Stefano; Slatyer, Tracy R.
2012-11-01
Observations by ARCADE-2 and other telescopes sensitive to low frequency radiation have revealed the presence of an isotropic radio background with a hard spectral index. The intensity of this observed background is found to exceed the flux predicted from astrophysical sources by a factor of approximately 5-6. In this article, we consider the possibility that annihilating dark matter particles provide the primary contribution to the observed isotropic radio background through the emission of synchrotron radiation from electron and positron annihilation products. For reasonable estimates of the magnetic fields present in clusters and galaxies, we find that dark matter could potentially account for the observed radio excess, but only if it annihilates mostly to electrons and/or muons, and only if it possesses a mass in the range of approximately 5-50 GeV. For such models, the annihilation cross section required to normalize the synchrotron signal to the observed excess is sigma v ~ (0.4-30) x 10^-26 cm^3/s, similar to the value predicted for a simple thermal relic (sigma v ~ 3 x 10^-26 cm^3/s). We find that in any scenario in which dark matter annihilations are responsible for the observed excess radio emission, a significant fraction of the isotropic gamma ray background observed by Fermi must result from dark matter as well.
Macroscopic entanglement between a Bose Einstein condensate and a superconducting loop.
Singh, Mandip
2009-02-16
We theoretically study macroscopic entanglement between a magnetically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate and a superconducting loop. We treat the superconducting loop in a quantum superposition of two different flux states coupling with the magnetic trap to generate macroscopic entanglement. The scheme also provides a platform to investigate interferometry with an entangled Bose Einstein condensate and to explore physics at the quantum-classical interface. PMID:19219163
Perturbative quantum field theory in the framework of the fermionic projector
Finster, Felix
2014-04-15
We give a microscopic derivation of perturbative quantum field theory, taking causal fermion systems and the framework of the fermionic projector as the starting point. The resulting quantum field theory agrees with standard quantum field theory on the tree level and reproduces all bosonic loop diagrams. The fermion loops are described in a different formalism in which no ultraviolet divergences occur.
Molecular motor driven transportation on microtubule loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sikora, Aurelien; Federici, Filippo; Kim, Kyongwan; Nakazawa, Hikaru; Umetsu, Mitsuo; Hwang, Wonmuk; Teizer, Winfried
2015-03-01
Molecular motors such as kinesin are naturally fitted for the transport of cargo. By offering an unlimited path, microtubule loops allow the study of kinesin motility on distances exceeding that offered by a single microtubule. Moreover, the periodicity of the path allows the comparisons of trajectories between laps. Here we study the motility of quantum dot labeled kinesin on microtubule loops. Motility of kinesins over multiple laps is observed and their trajectories are extracted from kymograph using a custom algorithm. Distribution of velocities at given locations do not vary randomly but show a correlation with the presence of obstacles. Possible mechanisms responsible for the long range transport are discussed in the context of available theories.
Isotropic behavior of an anisotropic material: single crystal silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCarter, Douglas R.; Paquin, Roger A.
2013-09-01
Zero defect single crystal silicon (Single-Crystal Si), with its diamond cubic crystal structure, is completely isotropic in most properties important for advanced aerospace systems. This paper will identify behavior of the three most dominant planes of the Single-Crystal Si cube (110), (100) and (111). For example, thermal and optical properties are completely isotropic for any given plane. The elastic and mechanical properties however are direction dependent. But we show through finite element analysis that in spite of this, near-isotropic behavior can be achieved with component designs that utilize the optimum elastic modulus in directions with the highest loads. Using glass frit bonding to assemble these planes is the only bonding agent that doesn't degrade the performance of Single-Crystal Si. The most significant anisotropic property of Single-Crystal Si is the Young's modulus of elasticity. Literature values vary substantially around a value of 145 GPa. The truth is that while the maximum modulus is 185 GPa, the most useful <110< crystallographic direction has a high 169 GPa, still higher than that of many materials such as aluminum and invar. And since Poisson's ratio in this direction is an extremely low 0.064, distortion in the plane normal to the load is insignificant. While the minimum modulus is 130 GPa, a calculated average value is close to the optimum at approximately 160 GPa. The minimum modulus is therefore almost irrelevant. The (111) plane, referred to as the natural cleave plane survives impact that would overload the (110) and/or (100) plane due to its superior density. While mechanical properties vary from plane to plane each plane is uniform and response is predictable. Understanding the Single-Crystal Si diamond cube provides a design and manufacture path for building lightweight Single-Crystal Si systems with near-isotropic response to loads. It is clear then that near-isotropic elastic behavior is achievable in Single-Crystal Si
From chiral quark dynamics with Polyakov loop to the hadron resonance gas model
Arriola, E. R.; Salcedo, L. L.; Megias, E.
2013-03-25
Chiral quark models with Polyakov loop at finite temperature have been often used to describe the phase transition. We show how the transition to a hadron resonance gas is realized based on the quantum and local nature of the Polyakov loop.
Gradiometer Using Middle Loops as Sensing Elements in a Low-Field SQUID MRI System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob; Ho Eom, Byeong
2009-01-01
A new gradiometer scheme uses middle loops as sensing elements in lowfield superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This design of a second order gradiometer increases its sensitivity and makes it more uniform, compared to the conventional side loop sensing scheme with a comparable matching SQUID. The space between the two middle loops becomes the imaging volume with the enclosing cryostat built accordingly.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Kimyeong; Holman, Richard; Kolb, Edward W.
1987-01-01
Wilson-loop symmetry breaking is considered on a space-time of the form M4 x K, where M4 is a four-dimensional space-time and K is an internal space with nontrivial and finite fundamental group. It is shown in a simple model that the different vacua obtained by breaking a non-Abelian gauge group by Wilson loops are separated in the space of gauge potentials by a finite energy barrier. An interpolating gauge configuration is then constructed between these vacua and shown to have minimum energy. Finally some implications of this construction are discussed.
Automatic one-loop calculations with Sherpa+OpenLoops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cascioli, F.; Höche, S.; Krauss, F.; Maierhöfer, P.; Pozzorini, S.; Siegert, F.
2014-06-01
We report on the OpenLoops generator for one-loop matrix elements and its application to four-lepton production in association with up to one jet. The open loops algorithm uses a numerical recursion to construct the numerator of one-loop Feynman diagrams as functions of the loop momentum. In combination with tensor integrals this results in a highly efficient and numerically stable matrix element generator. In order to obtain a fully automated setup for the simulation of next-to-leading order scattering processes we interfaced OpenLoops to the Sherpa Monte Carlo event generator.
On microstates counting in many body polymer quantum systems
Chacon-Acosta, Guillermo; Morales-Tecotl, Hugo A.; Dagdug, Leonardo
2011-10-14
Polymer quantum systems are mechanical models quantized in a similar way as loop quantum gravity but in which loops/graphs resembling polymers are replaced by discrete sets of points. Such systems have allowed to study in a simpler context some novel aspects of loop quantum gravity. Although thermal aspects play a crucial role in cosmology and black hole physics little attention has been given to the thermostatistics of many body polymer quantum systems. In this work we explore how the features of a one-dimensional effective polymer gas, affect its microstate counting and hence the corresponding thermodynamical quantities.
Quantum self-gravitating collapsing matter in a quantum geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campiglia, Miguel; Gambini, Rodolfo; Olmedo, Javier; Pullin, Jorge
2016-09-01
The problem of how space–time responds to gravitating quantum matter in full quantum gravity has been one of the main questions that any program of quantization of gravity should address. Here we analyze this issue by considering the quantization of a collapsing null shell coupled to spherically symmetric loop quantum gravity. We show that the constraint algebra of canonical gravity is Abelian both classically and when quantized using loop quantum gravity techniques. The Hamiltonian constraint is well defined and suitable Dirac observables characterizing the problem were identified at the quantum level. We can write the metric as a parameterized Dirac observable at the quantum level and study the physics of the collapsing shell and black hole formation. We show how the singularity inside the black hole is eliminated by loop quantum gravity and how the shell can traverse it. The construction is compatible with a scenario in which the shell tunnels into a baby universe inside the black hole or one in which it could emerge through a white hole.
Livermore Compiler Analysis Loop Suite
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2013-03-01
LCALS is designed to evaluate compiler optimizations and performance of a variety of loop kernels and loop traversal software constructs. Some of the loop kernels are pulled directly from "Livermore Loops Coded in C", developed at LLNL (see item 11 below for details of earlier code versions). The older suites were used to evaluate floating-point performances of hardware platforms prior to porting larger application codes. The LCALS suite is geared toward assissing C++ compiler optimizationsmore » and platform performance related to SIMD vectorization, OpenMP threading, and advanced C++ language features. LCALS contains 20 of 24 loop kernels from the older Livermore Loop suites, plus various others representative of loops found in current production appkication codes at LLNL. The latter loops emphasize more diverse loop constructs and data access patterns than the others, such as multi-dimensional difference stencils. The loops are included in a configurable framework, which allows control of compilation, loop sampling for execution timing, which loops are run and their lengths. It generates timing statistics for analysis and comparing variants of individual loops. Also, it is easy to add loops to the suite as desired.« less
Livermore Compiler Analysis Loop Suite
Hornung, R. D.
2013-03-01
LCALS is designed to evaluate compiler optimizations and performance of a variety of loop kernels and loop traversal software constructs. Some of the loop kernels are pulled directly from "Livermore Loops Coded in C", developed at LLNL (see item 11 below for details of earlier code versions). The older suites were used to evaluate floating-point performances of hardware platforms prior to porting larger application codes. The LCALS suite is geared toward assissing C++ compiler optimizations and platform performance related to SIMD vectorization, OpenMP threading, and advanced C++ language features. LCALS contains 20 of 24 loop kernels from the older Livermore Loop suites, plus various others representative of loops found in current production appkication codes at LLNL. The latter loops emphasize more diverse loop constructs and data access patterns than the others, such as multi-dimensional difference stencils. The loops are included in a configurable framework, which allows control of compilation, loop sampling for execution timing, which loops are run and their lengths. It generates timing statistics for analysis and comparing variants of individual loops. Also, it is easy to add loops to the suite as desired.
NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor
2013-07-24
NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.
NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor
None
2014-06-26
NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walsh, R. W.
2004-01-01
Loop-like structures are the fundamental magnetic building blocks of the solar atmosphere. Recent space-based EUV and X-ray satellite observations (from Yohkoh SOHO and TRACE) have challenged the view that these features are simply static gravitationally stratified plasma pipes. Rather it is now surmised that each loop may consist of a bundle of fine plasma threads that are twisted around one another and can brighten independently. This invited review will outline the latest developments in ""untangling"" the topology of these features through three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic modelling and how their properties are being deduced through spectroscopic observations coupled to theoretical scaling laws. In particular recent interest has centred on how the observed thermal profile along loops can be employed as a tool to diagnose any localised energy input to the structure and hence constrain the presence of a particular coronal heating mechanism. The dynamic nature of loops will be highlighted and the implications of superior resolution plasma thread observations (whether spatial temporal or spectral) from future space missions (SolarB STEREO SDO and Solar Orbiter) will be discussed.
Kung, Johnny T.Y.; Lee, Jeannie T.
2013-01-01
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in a variety of biological roles, particularly as cis or trans gene expression regulators. Reporting recently in Nature, Lai et al. (2013) show that a class of gene-activating lncRNAs combines two gene regulation paradigms: enhancer-directed chromosomal looping and RNA-mediated protein effector recruitment. PMID:23537627
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.
Closing the Loop (CTL) is a science curriculum designed to introduce students to integrated waste management through awareness. This document presents five lesson plans focusing on developing an understanding of natural resources, solid wastes, conservation, and the life of landfills. Contents include: (1) "What Are Natural Resources?"; (2)…
Intra-connected three-dimensionally isotropic bulk negative index photonic metamaterial
Guney, Durdu; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas
2010-05-26
Isotropic negative index metamaterials (NIMs) are highly desired, particularly for the realization of ultra-high resolution lenses. However, existing isotropic NIMs function only two-dimensionally and cannot be miniaturized beyond microwaves. Direct laser writing processes can be a paradigm shift toward the fabrication of three-dimensionally (3D) isotropic bulk optical metamaterials, but only at the expense of an additional design constraint, namely connectivity. Here, we demonstrate with a proof-of-principle design that the requirement connectivity does not preclude fully isotropic left-handed behavior. This is an important step towards the realization of bulk 3D isotropic NIMs at optical wavelengths.
Topological Characterization of Extended Quantum Ising Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, G.; Song, Z.
2015-10-01
We show that a class of exactly solvable quantum Ising models, including the transverse-field Ising model and anisotropic X Y model, can be characterized as the loops in a two-dimensional auxiliary space. The transverse-field Ising model corresponds to a circle and the X Y model corresponds to an ellipse, while other models yield cardioid, limacon, hypocycloid, and Lissajous curves etc. It is shown that the variation of the ground state energy density, which is a function of the loop, experiences a nonanalytical point when the winding number of the corresponding loop changes. The winding number can serve as a topological quantum number of the quantum phases in the extended quantum Ising model, which sheds some light upon the relation between quantum phase transition and the geometrical order parameter characterizing the phase diagram.
Topological Characterization of Extended Quantum Ising Models.
Zhang, G; Song, Z
2015-10-23
We show that a class of exactly solvable quantum Ising models, including the transverse-field Ising model and anisotropic XY model, can be characterized as the loops in a two-dimensional auxiliary space. The transverse-field Ising model corresponds to a circle and the XY model corresponds to an ellipse, while other models yield cardioid, limacon, hypocycloid, and Lissajous curves etc. It is shown that the variation of the ground state energy density, which is a function of the loop, experiences a nonanalytical point when the winding number of the corresponding loop changes. The winding number can serve as a topological quantum number of the quantum phases in the extended quantum Ising model, which sheds some light upon the relation between quantum phase transition and the geometrical order parameter characterizing the phase diagram. PMID:26551140
Characterization of Small Isotropic Bicelles with Various Compositions.
Mineev, K S; Nadezhdin, K D; Goncharuk, S A; Arseniev, A S
2016-07-01
Structural studies of membrane proteins are of great importance and interest, with solution and solid state NMR spectroscopy being very promising tools for that task. However, such investigations are hindered by a number of obstacles, and in the first place by the fact that membrane proteins need an adequate environment that models the cell membrane. One of the most widely used and prospective membrane mimetics is isotropic bicelles. While large anisotropic bicelles are well-studied, the field of small bicelles contains a lot of "white spots". The present work reports the radii of particles and concentration of the detergents in the monomeric state in solutions of isotropic bicelles, formed by 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC), 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS), 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPSO), and sodium cholate, as a function of lipid/detergent ratio and temperature. These parameters were measured using (1)H NMR diffusion spectroscopy for the bicelles composed of lipids with saturated fatty chains of different length and lipids, containing unsaturated fatty acid residue. The influence of a model transmembrane protein (membrane domain of rat TrkA) on the properties of bicelles and the effect of the bicelle size and composition on the properties of the transmembrane protein were investigated with heteronuclear NMR and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy. We show that isotropic bicelles that are applicable for solution NMR spectroscopy behave as predicted by the theoretical models and are likely to be bicelles rather than mixed micelles. Using the obtained data, we propose a simple approach to control the size of bicelles at low concentrations. On the basis of our results, we compared different rim-forming agents and selected CHAPS as a detergent of choice for structural studies in bicelles, if the deuteration of the detergent is not required. PMID:27285636
Subdiffusive dynamics of a liquid crystal in the isotropic phase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Gaetani, Luca; Prampolini, Giacomo; Tani, Alessandro
2008-05-01
The isotropic phase dynamics of a system of 4-n-hexyl-4'-cyano-biphenyl (6CB) molecules has been studied by molecular dynamics computer simulations. We have explored the range of 275-330K keeping the system isotropic, although supercooled under its nematic transition temperature. The weak rototranslational coupling allowed us to separately evaluate translational (TDOF) and orientational degrees of freedom (ODOF). Evidences of subdiffusive dynamics, more apparent at the lowest temperatures, are found in translational and orientational dynamics. Mean square displacement as well as self-intermediate center of mass and rotational scattering functions show a plateau, also visible in the orientational correlation function. According to the mode coupling theory (MCT), this plateau is the signature of the β-relaxation regime. Three-time intermediate scattering functions reveal that the plateau is related to a homogeneous dynamics, more extended in time for the orientational degrees of freedom (up to 1ns). The time-temperature superposition principle and the factorization property predicted by the idealized version of MCT hold, again for both kinds of dynamics. The temperature dependence of diffusion coefficient and orientational relaxation time is well described by a power law. Critical temperatures Tc are 244±6 and 258±6K, respectively, the latter is some 10K below the corresponding experimental values. The different values of Tc we obtained indicate that ODOF freezes earlier than TDOF. This appears due to the strongly anisotropic environment that surrounds a 6CB molecule, even in the isotropic phase. The lifetime of these "cages," estimated by time dependent conditional probability functions, is strongly temperature dependent, ranging from some hundreds of picoseconds at 320K to a few nanoseconds at 275K.
Identifying Isotropic Events Using a Regional Moment Tensor Inversion
Ford, S R; Dreger, D S; Walter, W R
2008-11-04
We calculate the deviatoric and isotropic source components for 17 explosions at the Nevada Test Site, as well as 12 earthquakes and 3 collapses in the surrounding region of the western US, using a regional time-domain full waveform inversion for the complete moment tensor. The events separate into specific populations according to their deviation from a pure double-couple and ratio of isotropic to deviatoric energy. The separation allows for anomalous event identification and discrimination between explosions, earthquakes, and collapses. Confidence regions of the model parameters are estimated from the data misfit by assuming normally distributed parameter values. We investigate the sensitivity of the resolved parameters of an explosion to imperfect Earth models, inaccurate event depths, and data with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) assuming a reasonable azimuthal distribution of stations. In the band of interest (0.02-0.10 Hz) the source-type calculated from complete moment tensor inversion is insensitive to velocity models perturbations that cause less than a half-cycle shift (<5 sec) in arrival time error if shifting of the waveforms is allowed. The explosion source-type is insensitive to an incorrect depth assumption (for a true depth of 1 km), and the goodness-of-fit of the inversion result cannot be used to resolve the true depth of the explosion. Noise degrades the explosive character of the result, and a good fit and accurate result are obtained when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is greater than 5. We assess the depth and frequency dependence upon the resolved explosive moment. As the depth decreases from 1 km to 200 m, the isotropic moment is no longer accurately resolved and is in error between 50-200%. However, even at the most shallow depth the resultant moment tensor is dominated by the explosive component when the data have a good SNR.
COLD TEST LOOP INTEGRATED TEST LOOP RESULTS
Abraham, TJ
2003-10-22
A testing facility (Cold Test Loop) was constructed and operated to demonstrate the efficacy of the Accelerated Waste Retrieval (AWR) Project's planned sluicing approach to the remediation of Silos 1 and 2 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati, Ohio. The two silos contain almost 10,000 tons of radium-bearing low-level waste, which consists primarily of solids of raffinates from processing performed on ores from the Democratic Republic of Congo (commonly referred to as ''Belgium Congo ores'') for the recovery of uranium. These silos are 80 ft in diameter, 36 ft high to the center of the dome, and 26.75 ft to the top of the vertical side walls. The test facility contained two test systems, each designed for a specific purpose. The first system, the Integrated Test Loop (ITL), a near-full-scale plant including the actual equipment to be installed at the Fernald Site, was designed to demonstrate the sluicing operation and confirm the selection of a slurry pump, the optimal sluicing nozzle operation, and the preliminary design material balance. The second system, the Component Test Loop (CTL), was designed to evaluate many of the key individual components of the waste retrieval system over an extended run. The major results of the initial testing performed during July and August 2002 confirmed that the AWR approach to sluicing was feasible. The ITL testing confirmed the following: (1) The selected slurry pump (Hazleton 3-20 type SHW) performed well and is suitable for AWR application. However, the pump's motor should be upgraded to a 200-hp model and be driven by a 150-hp variable-frequency drive (VFD). A 200-hp VFD is not much more expensive and would allow the pump to operate at full speed. (2) The best nozzle performance was achieved by using 15/16-in. nozzles operated alternately. This configuration appeared to most effectively mine the surrogate. (3) The Solartron densitometer, which was tested as an alternative mass flow measurement
Simultaneous amplification and attenuation in isotropic chiral materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mackay, Tom G.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh
2016-05-01
The electromagnetic field phasors in an isotropic chiral material (ICM) are superpositions of two Beltrami fields of different handedness. Application of the Bruggeman homogenization formalism to two-component composite materials delivers ICMs wherein Beltrami fields of one handedness attenuate whereas Beltrami fields of the other handedness amplify. One component material is a dissipative ICM, the other an active dielectric material. The range of the volume fraction of the active component material for which simultaneous amplification and attenuation is exhibited decreases—but does not vanish—as the ICM component becomes more dissipative and as its chirality parameter reduces in magnitude.
Rotation of slender swimmers in isotropic-drag media.
Koens, Lyndon; Lauga, Eric
2016-04-01
The drag anisotropy of slender filaments is a critical physical property allowing swimming in low-Reynolds number flows, and without it linear translation is impossible. Here we show that, in contrast, net rotation can occur under isotropic drag. We first demonstrate this result formally by considering the consequences of the force- and torque-free conditions on swimming bodies and we then illustrate it with two examples (a simple swimmers made of three rods and a model bacterium with two helical flagellar filaments). Our results highlight the different role of hydrodynamic forces in generating translational versus rotational propulsion. PMID:27176408
Reflection of electromagnetic waves at a biaxial-isotropic interface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Njoku, E. G.
1983-01-01
The reflection of electromagnetic waves at a plane boundary between isotropic and biaxial media has been investigated using the kDB approach. The general case has been considered in which the principal dielectric axes of the biaxial medium are oriented at an arbitrary angle to the normal of the plane boundary. In general, two characteristic waves propagate in the biaxial medium, leading to coupling of vertical and horizontal polarizations in the reflected waves. Some special cases are illustrated. The results have applications to problems in remote sensing and integrated optics.
Computation of large-scale statistics in decaying isotropic turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chasnov, Jeffrey R.
1993-01-01
We have performed large-eddy simulations of decaying isotropic turbulence to test the prediction of self-similar decay of the energy spectrum and to compute the decay exponents of the kinetic energy. In general, good agreement between the simulation results and the assumption of self-similarity were obtained. However, the statistics of the simulations were insufficient to compute the value of gamma which corrects the decay exponent when the spectrum follows a k(exp 4) wave number behavior near k = 0. To obtain good statistics, it was found necessary to average over a large ensemble of turbulent flows.
Identifying Isotropic Events Using a Regional Moment Tensor Inversion
Dreger, D S; Ford, S R; Walter, W R
2009-08-03
In our previous work the deviatoric and isotropic source components for 17 explosions at the Nevada Test Site, as well as 12 earthquakes and 4 collapses in the surrounding region of the western US, were calculated using a regional time-domain full waveform inversion for the complete moment tensor (Dreger et al., 2008; Ford et al., 2008; Ford et al., 2009a). The events separate into specific populations according to their deviation from a pure double-couple and ratio of isotropic to deviatoric energy. The separation allows for anomalous event identification and discrimination between explosions, earthquakes, and collapses. Confidence regions of the model parameters are estimated from the data misfit by assuming normally distributed parameter values. We developed a new Network Sensitivity Solution (NSS) in which the fit of sources distributed over a source-type plot (Hudson et al., 1989) show the resolution of the source parameters. The NSS takes into account the unique station distribution, frequency band, and signal-to-noise ratio of a given event scenario. The NSS compares both a hypothetical pure source (for example an explosion or an earthquake) and the actual data with several thousand sets of synthetic data from a uniform distribution of all possible sources. The comparison with a hypothetical pure source provides the theoretically best-constrained source-type region for a given set of stations, and with it one can determine whether further analysis with the data is warranted. We apply the NSS to a NTS nuclear explosion, and earthquake, as well as the 2006 North Korean explosion, and a nearby earthquake. The results show that explosions and earthquakes are distinguishable, however the solution space depends strongly on the station coverage. Finally, on May 25, 2009 a second North Korean test took place. Our preliminary results show that the explosive nature of the event may be determined using the regional distance moment tensor method. Results indicate that
Computation of dimensional changes in isotropic cesium-graphite reservoirs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Joe N.; Heffernan, Timothy
1992-01-01
Cs-graphite reservoirs have been utilized in many operating thermionic converters and TFEs, in both in-core and out-of-core tests. The vapor pressure of cesium over Cs-intercalated graphite is well documented for unirradiated reservoirs. The vapor pressure after irradiation is the subject of on-going study. Dimensional changes due to both intercalation and to neutron irradiation have been quantified only for highly oriented graphite. This paper describes extrapolation of the data for intercalated oriented graphite, to provide a qualitative description of the response of isotropic graphite to exposure to both cesium and neutrons.
Homogenous isotropic invisible cloak based on geometrical optics.
Sun, Jingbo; Zhou, Ji; Kang, Lei
2008-10-27
Invisible cloak derived from the coordinate transformation requires its constitutive material to be anisotropic. In this work, we present a cloak of graded-index isotropic material based on the geometrical optics theory. The cloak is realized by concentric multilayered structure with designed refractive index to achieve the low-scattering and smooth power-flow. Full-wave simulations on such a design of a cylindrical cloak are performed to demonstrate the cloaking ability to incident wave of any polarization. Using normal nature material with isotropy and low absorption, the cloak shows light on a practical path to stealth technology, especially that in the optical range. PMID:18958058
Anomalous glassy relaxation near the isotropic-nematic phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jose, Prasanth P.; Chakrabarti, Dwaipayan; Bagchi, Biman
2005-03-01
Dynamical heterogeneity in a system of Gay-Berne ellipsoids near its isotropic-nematic (I-N) transition, and also in an equimolar mixture of Lennard-Jones spheres and Gay-Berne ellipsoids in deeply supercooled regime, is probed by the time evolution of non-Gaussian parameters (NGP). The appearance of a dominant second peak in the rotational NGP near the I-N transition signals the growth of pseudonematic domains. Surprisingly, such a second peak is instead observed in the translational NGP for the glassy binary mixture. Localization of orientational motion near the I-N transition is found to be responsible for the observed anomalous orientational relaxation.
Rotation of slender swimmers in isotropic-drag media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koens, Lyndon; Lauga, Eric
2016-04-01
The drag anisotropy of slender filaments is a critical physical property allowing swimming in low-Reynolds number flows, and without it linear translation is impossible. Here we show that, in contrast, net rotation can occur under isotropic drag. We first demonstrate this result formally by considering the consequences of the force- and torque-free conditions on swimming bodies and we then illustrate it with two examples (a simple swimmers made of three rods and a model bacterium with two helical flagellar filaments). Our results highlight the different role of hydrodynamic forces in generating translational versus rotational propulsion.
A non-isotropic multiple-scale turbulence model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, C. P.
1990-01-01
A newly developed non-isotropic multiple scale turbulence model (MS/ASM) is described for complex flow calculations. This model focuses on the direct modeling of Reynolds stresses and utilizes split-spectrum concepts for modeling multiple scale effects in turbulence. Validation studies on free shear flows, rotating flows and recirculating flows show that the current model perform significantly better than the single scale k-epsilon model. The present model is relatively inexpensive in terms of CPU time which makes it suitable for broad engineering flow applications.
Loop quantization of vacuum Bianchi I cosmology
Martin-Benito, M.; Mena Marugan, G. A.; Pawlowski, T.
2008-09-15
We analyze the loop quantization of the family of vacuum Bianchi I spacetimes, a gravitational system of which classical solutions describe homogeneous anisotropic cosmologies. We rigorously construct the operator that represents the Hamiltonian constraint, showing that the states of zero volume completely decouple from the rest of quantum states. This fact ensures that the classical cosmological singularity is resolved in the quantum theory. In addition, this allows us to adopt an equivalent quantum description in terms of a well-defined densitized Hamiltonian constraint. This latter constraint can be regarded in a certain sense as a difference evolution equation in an internal time provided by one of the triad components, which is polymerically quantized. Generically, this evolution equation is a relation between the projection of the quantum states in three different sections of constant internal time. Nevertheless, around the initial singularity the equation involves only the two closest sections with the same orientation of the triad. This has a double effect: on the one hand, physical states are determined just by the data on one section, on the other hand, the evolution defined in this way never crosses the singularity, without the need of any special boundary condition. Finally, we determine the inner product and the physical Hilbert space employing group averaging techniques, and we specify a complete algebra of Dirac observables. This completes the quantization program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreuzer, Alexander
1998-01-01
K-loops have their origin in the theory of sharply 2-transitive groups. In this paper a proof is given that K-loops and Bruck loops are the same. For the proof it is necessary to show that in a (left) Bruck loop the left inner mappings L(b)L(a) L(ab)[minus sign]1 are automorphisms. This paper generalizes results of Glauberman [3], Kist [8] and Kreuzer [9].
Loop Heat Pipes and Capillary Pumped Loops: An Applications Perspective
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Butler, Dan; Ku, Jentung; Swanson, Theodore; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Capillary pumped loops (CPLS) and loop heat pipes (LHPS) are versatile two-phase heat transfer devices which have recently gained increasing acceptance in space applications. Both systems work based on the same principles and have very similar designs. Nevertheless, some differences exist in the construction of the evaporator and the hydro-accumulator, and these differences lead to very distinct operating characteristics for each loop. This paper presents comparisons of the two loops from an applications perspective, and addresses their impact on spacecraft design, integration, and test. Some technical challenges and issues for both loops are also addressed.
LE Guen, Morgan; Liu, Ngai; Chazot, Thierry; Fischler, Marc
2016-05-01
Automated anesthesia which may offer to the physician time to control hemodynamic and to supervise neurological outcome and which may offer to the patient safety and quality was until recently consider as a holy grail. But this field of research is now increasing in every component of general anesthesia (hypnosis, nociception, neuromuscular blockade) and literature describes some successful algorithms - single or multi closed-loop controller. The aim of these devices is to control a predefined target and to continuously titrate anesthetics whatever the patients' co morbidities and surgical events to reach this target. Literature contains many randomized trials comparing manual and automated anesthesia and shows feasibility and safety of this system. Automation could quickly concern other aspects of anesthesia as fluid management and this review proposes an overview of closed-loop systems in anesthesia. PMID:26554614
Large Deformation Constitutive Laws for Isotropic Thermoelastic Materials
Plohr, Bradley J.; Plohr, Jeeyeon N.
2012-07-25
We examine the approximations made in using Hooke's law as a constitutive relation for an isotropic thermoelastic material subjected to large deformation by calculating the stress evolution equation from the free energy. For a general thermoelastic material, we employ the volume-preserving part of the deformation gradient to facilitate volumetric/shear strain decompositions of the free energy, its first derivatives (the Cauchy stress and entropy), and its second derivatives (the specific heat, Grueneisen tensor, and elasticity tensor). Specializing to isotropic materials, we calculate these constitutive quantities more explicitly. For deformations with limited shear strain, but possibly large changes in volume, we show that the differential equations for the stress components involve new terms in addition to the traditional Hooke's law terms. These new terms are of the same order in the shear strain as the objective derivative terms needed for frame indifference; unless the latter terms are negligible, the former cannot be neglected. We also demonstrate that accounting for the new terms requires that the deformation gradient be included as a field variable
Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiore, A.; Berger, V.; Rosencher, E.; Bravetti, P.; Nagle, J.
1998-01-01
Frequency conversion in nonlinear optical crystals, is an effective means of generating coherent light at frequencies where lasers perform poorly or are unavailable. For efficient conversion, it is necessary to compensate for optical dispersion, which results in different phase velocities for light of different frequencies. In anisotropic birefringent crystals such as LiNbO3 or KH2PO4 (`KDP'), phase matching can be achieved between electromagnetic waves having different polarizations. But this is not possible for optically isotropic materials, and as a result, cubic materials such as GaAs (which otherwise have attractive nonlinear optical properties) have been little exploited for frequency conversion applications. Quasi-phase-matching schemes,, which have achieved considerable success in LiNbO3 (ref. 4), provide a route to circumventing this problem,, but the difficulty of producing the required pattern of nonlinear properties in isotropic materials, particularly semiconductors, has limited the practical utility of such approaches. Here we demonstrate a different route to phase matching - based on a concept proposed by Van der Ziel 22 years ago - which exploits the artificial birefringence of multilayer composites of GaAs and oxidised AlAs. As GaAs is the material of choice for semiconductor lasers, such optical sources could be integrated in the core of frequency converters based on these composite structures.
Dielectrophoretic manipulation of the mixture of isotropic and nematic liquid.
Kim, Soo-Dong; Lee, Bomi; Kang, Shin-Woong; Song, Jang-Kun
2015-01-01
In various applications involving liquid crystals, the manipulation of the nanoscale molecular assembly and microscale director alignment is highly useful. Here we show that a nematic-isotropic mixture, a unique bi-liquid system, has potential for the fabrication of microstructures having an ordered phase within a disordered phase, or vice versa. The volume expansion and shrinkage, migration, splitting, mergence and elongation of one phase within the other are easily accomplished via thermal treatment and dielectrophoretic manipulation. This is particularly achievable when one phase is suspended in the middle. In that case, a highly biased ordered-phase preference of surfaces, that is, the nematic-philic nature of a polyimide layer and the nematic-phobic nature of a self-assembled monolayer of chlorosilane derivatives, is used. Further, by combining this approach with photopolymerization, the patterned microstructure is solidified as a patterned polymer film having both isotropic and anisotropic molecular arrangements simultaneously, or as a template with a morphological variation. PMID:26242251
Computation of the sound generated by isotropic turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sarkar, S.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1993-01-01
The acoustic radiation from isotropic turbulence is computed numerically. A hybrid direct numerical simulation approach which combines direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the turbulent flow with the Lighthill acoustic analogy is utilized. It is demonstrated that the hybrid DNS method is a feasible approach to the computation of sound generated by turbulent flows. The acoustic efficiency in the simulation of isotropic turbulence appears to be substantially less than that in subsonic jet experiments. The dominant frequency of the computed acoustic pressure is found to be somewhat larger than the dominant frequency of the energy-containing scales of motion. The acoustic power in the simulations is proportional to epsilon (M(sub t))(exp 5) where epsilon is the turbulent dissipation rate and M(sub t) is the turbulent Mach number. This is in agreement with the analytical result of Proudman (1952), but the constant of proportionality is smaller than the analytical result. Two different methods of computing the acoustic power from the DNS data bases yielded consistent results.
Large Deviation Statistics of Vorticity Stretching in Isotropic Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Perry; Meneveau, Charles
2015-11-01
A key feature of 3D fluid turbulence is the stretching/re-alignment of vorticity by the action of the strain-rate. It is shown using the cumulant-generating function that cumulative vorticity stretching along a Lagrangian path in isotropic turbulence behaves statistically like a sum of i.i.d. variables. The Cramer function for vorticity stretching is computed from the JHTDB isotropic DNS (Reλ = 430) and compared to those of the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) for material deformation. As expected the mean cumulative vorticity stretching is slightly less than that of the most-stretched material line (largest FTLE), due to the vorticity's preferential alignment with the second-largest eigenvalue of strain-rate and the material line's preferential alignment with the largest eigenvalue. However, the vorticity stretching tends to be significantly larger than the second-largest FTLE, and the Cramer functions reveal that the statistics of vorticity stretching fluctuations are more similar to those of largest FTLE. A model Fokker-Planck equation is constructed by approximating the viscous destruction of vorticity with a deterministic non-linear relaxation law matching conditional statistics, while the fluctuations in vorticity stretching are modelled by stochastic noise matching the statistics encoded in the Cramer function. The model predicts a stretched-exponential tail for the vorticity magnitude PDF, with good agreement for the exponent but significant error (30-40%) in the pre-factor. Supported by NSF Graduate Fellowship (DGE-1232825) and NSF Grant CMMI-0941530.
Even harmonic generation in isotropic media of dissociating homonuclear molecules.
Silva, R E F; Rivière, P; Morales, F; Smirnova, O; Ivanov, M; Martín, F
2016-01-01
Isotropic gases irradiated by long pulses of intense IR light can generate very high harmonics of the incident field. It is generally accepted that, due to the symmetry of the generating medium, be it an atomic or an isotropic molecular gas, only odd harmonics of the driving field can be produced. Here we show how the interplay of electronic and nuclear dynamics can lead to a marked breakdown of this standard picture: a substantial part of the harmonic spectrum can consist of even rather than odd harmonics. We demonstrate the effect using ab-initio solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for and its isotopes in full dimensionality. By means of a simple analytical model, we identify its physical origin, which is the appearance of a permanent dipole moment in dissociating homonuclear molecules, caused by light-induced localization of the electric charge during dissociation. The effect arises for sufficiently long laser pulses and the region of the spectrum where even harmonics are produced is controlled by pulse duration. Our results (i) show how the interplay of femtosecond nuclear and attosecond electronic dynamics, which affects the charge flow inside the dissociating molecule, is reflected in the nonlinear response, and (ii) force one to augment standard selection rules found in nonlinear optics textbooks by considering light-induced modifications of the medium during the generation process. PMID:27596609
Subfilter scalar-flux vector orientation in homogeneous isotropic turbulence.
Verma, Siddhartha; Blanquart, G
2014-06-01
The geometric orientation of the subfilter-scale scalar-flux vector is examined in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Vector orientation is determined using the eigenframe of the resolved strain-rate tensor. The Schmidt number is kept sufficiently large so as to leave the velocity field, and hence the strain-rate tensor, unaltered by filtering in the viscous-convective subrange. Strong preferential alignment is observed for the case of Gaussian and box filters, whereas the sharp-spectral filter leads to close to a random orientation. The orientation angle obtained with the Gaussian and box filters is largely independent of the filter width and the Schmidt number. It is shown that the alignment direction observed numerically using these two filters is predicted very well by the tensor-diffusivity model. Moreover, preferred alignment of the scalar gradient vector in the eigenframe is shown to mitigate any probable issues of negative diffusivity in the tensor-diffusivity model. Consequentially, the model might not suffer from solution instability when used for large eddy simulations of scalar transport in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Further a priori tests indicate poor alignment of the Smagorinsky and stretched vortex model predictions with the exact subfilter flux. Finally, strong filter dependence of subfilter scalar-flux orientation suggests that explicit filtering may be preferable to implicit filtering in large eddy simulations. PMID:25019887
Isotropic probability measures in infinite-dimensional spaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Backus, George
1987-01-01
Let R be the real numbers, R(n) the linear space of all real n-tuples, and R(infinity) the linear space of all infinite real sequences x = (x sub 1, x sub 2,...). Let P sub in :R(infinity) approaches R(n) be the projection operator with P sub n (x) = (x sub 1,...,x sub n). Let p(infinity) be a probability measure on the smallest sigma-ring of subsets of R(infinity) which includes all of the cylinder sets P sub n(-1) (B sub n), where B sub n is an arbitrary Borel subset of R(n). Let p sub n be the marginal distribution of p(infinity) on R(n), so p sub n(B sub n) = p(infinity) (P sub n to the -1 (B sub n)) for each B sub n. A measure on R(n) is isotropic if it is invariant under all orthogonal transformations of R(n). All members of the set of all isotropic probability distributions on R(n) are described. The result calls into question both stochastic inversion and Bayesian inference, as currently used in many geophysical inverse problems.
Measuring and quantifying scatter from non-isotropic sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stover, John C.
2015-08-01
The usual definition for BRDF assumes that the illuminated surface is isotropic. This is why when the primary source of scatter is a surface pit or particle the differential scattering cross-section is used to quantify scatter. In these cases the DSC is independent of changes in illumination spot size and thus is a more meaningful characterization than the measured BRDF. The same thing is true for other situations. These include scatter from isolated scratches, non-isotropic roughness (such as a rolled surface) and scatter from the edge or corner of a surface. In these situations the measurements may be done differently and the quantified scatter often has different units - such as area/sr or 1/deg instead of the common 1/sr associated with BRDF. If the data is being taken for use in one of the stray radiation codes this can cause problems because those codes require BRDF as an input. This paper reviews these situations for both measurement and analysis issues.
Dynamic elastic moduli during isotropic densification of initially granular media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasseur, Jérémie; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Lavallée, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B.
2016-03-01
The elastic properties of homogeneous, isotropic materials are well constrained. However, in heterogeneous and evolving materials, these essential properties are less well-explored. During sintering of volcanic ash particles by viscous processes as well as during compaction and cementation of sediments, microstructure and porosity undergo changes that affect bulk dynamic elastic properties. Here using a model system of glass particles as an analogue for initially granular rock-forming materials, we have determined porosity and P-wave velocity during densification. Using these results, we test models for the kinetics of densification and the resultant evolution of the elastic properties to derive a quantitative description of the coupling between the kinetics of isotropic densification and the evolving dynamic elastic moduli. We demonstrate the power of the resultant model on a wide range of data for non-coherent sediments as well as sedimentary and volcanic rocks. We propose that such constraints be viewed as an essential ingredient of time-dependent models for the deformation of evolving materials in volcanoes and sedimentary basins.
Charge pariticle transport in the non-isotropic turbulences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, P.; Jokipii, J. R.
2015-12-01
The scattering and diffusion of energetic charged particles is not only important for understanding phenomena such as diffusive shock acceleration but it also is a natural probe of the statistical characteristics of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. Although Parker's transport equation (Parker 1965) allows us to describe the propagation of charged particles, the transport coefficients needed in the equation must be determined. Using Quasi-Linear Theory (QLT, e.g. Jokipii (1966)), one finds that coefficients can be related to the correlation function or power spectrum of homogeneous magnetic turbulence. However, different turbulence models will generally have a different influence on particle's scattering and diffusion. Among those models developed in MHD Turbulence, such as isotropic, Slab plus 2D (Tu & Marsch 1993; Gray et al 1996; Bieber et al 1996), etc. Here, using test-particle orbit simulations to calculate the transport coefficients, we study particle transport in synthesized asymmetric turbulence using the form first proposed by Goldreich & Sridhar (1995). We developed and introduce a systematic method to synthesize scale-dependent non-isotropic magnetic turbulences. We also developed and introduce a method to synthesize the 3d turbulent magnetic field from the observed solar wind time series dataset. We present the comparison of their effects on charge particle transport with previous theories and models.
Even harmonic generation in isotropic media of dissociating homonuclear molecules
Silva, R. E. F.; Rivière, P.; Morales, F.; Smirnova, O.; Ivanov, M.; Martín, F.
2016-01-01
Isotropic gases irradiated by long pulses of intense IR light can generate very high harmonics of the incident field. It is generally accepted that, due to the symmetry of the generating medium, be it an atomic or an isotropic molecular gas, only odd harmonics of the driving field can be produced. Here we show how the interplay of electronic and nuclear dynamics can lead to a marked breakdown of this standard picture: a substantial part of the harmonic spectrum can consist of even rather than odd harmonics. We demonstrate the effect using ab-initio solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for and its isotopes in full dimensionality. By means of a simple analytical model, we identify its physical origin, which is the appearance of a permanent dipole moment in dissociating homonuclear molecules, caused by light-induced localization of the electric charge during dissociation. The effect arises for sufficiently long laser pulses and the region of the spectrum where even harmonics are produced is controlled by pulse duration. Our results (i) show how the interplay of femtosecond nuclear and attosecond electronic dynamics, which affects the charge flow inside the dissociating molecule, is reflected in the nonlinear response, and (ii) force one to augment standard selection rules found in nonlinear optics textbooks by considering light-induced modifications of the medium during the generation process. PMID:27596609
Simple theory of transitions between smectic, nematic, and isotropic phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emelyanenko, A. V.; Khokhlov, A. R.
2015-05-01
The transitions between smectic, nematic, and isotropic phases are investigated in the framework of a unified molecular-statistical approach. The new translational order parameter is different from the one introduced in K. Kobayashi [Phys. Lett. A 31, 125 (1970)] and W. L. McMillan [Phys. Rev. A 4, 1238 (1971)]. The variance of the square sine of intermolecular shift angle along the director is introduced to take self-consistently into account the most probable location of the molecules with respect to each other, which is unique for every liquid crystal (LC) material and is mainly responsible for the order parameters and phase sequences. The mean molecular field was treated in terms of only two parameters specific to any intermolecular potential of elongated molecules: (1) its global minimum position with respect to the shift of two interacting molecules along the director and (2) its inhomogeneity/anisotropy ratio. A simple molecular model is also introduced, where the global minimum position is determined by the linking groups elongation Δ/d, while the inhomogeneity/anisotropy ratio Gβ/Gγ is determined by the ratio of electrostatic and dispersion contributions. All possible phase sequences, including abrupt/continuous transformation between the smectic and nematic states and the direct smectic-isotropic phase transition, are predicted. The theoretical prediction is in a good agreement with experimental data for some simple materials correlating with our molecular model, but it is expected to be valid for any LC material.
Direction of unsaturated flow in a homogeneous and isotropic hillslope
Lu, N.; Kaya, B.S.; Godt, J.W.
2011-01-01
The distribution of soil moisture in a homogeneous and isotropic hillslope is a transient, variably saturated physical process controlled by rainfall characteristics, hillslope geometry, and the hydrological properties of the hillslope materials. The major driving mechanisms for moisture movement are gravity and gradients in matric potential. The latter is solely controlled by gradients of moisture content. In a homogeneous and isotropic saturated hillslope, absent a gradient in moisture content and under the driving force of gravity with a constant pressure boundary at the slope surface, flow is always in the lateral downslope direction, under either transient or steady state conditions. However, under variably saturated conditions, both gravity and moisture content gradients drive fluid motion, leading to complex flow patterns. In general, the flow field near the ground surface is variably saturated and transient, and the direction of flow could be laterally downslope, laterally upslope, or vertically downward. Previous work has suggested that prevailing rainfall conditions are sufficient to completely control these flow regimes. This work, however, shows that under time-varying rainfall conditions, vertical, downslope, and upslope lateral flow can concurrently occur at different depths and locations within the hillslope. More importantly, we show that the state of wetting or drying in a hillslope defines the temporal and spatial regimes of flow and when and where laterally downslope and/or laterally upslope flow occurs. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
Direction of unsaturated flow in a homogeneous and isotropic hillslope
Lu, Ning; Kaya, Basak Sener; Godt, Jonathan W.
2011-01-01
The distribution of soil moisture in a homogeneous and isotropic hillslope is a transient, variably saturated physical process controlled by rainfall characteristics, hillslope geometry, and the hydrological properties of the hillslope materials. The major driving mechanisms for moisture movement are gravity and gradients in matric potential. The latter is solely controlled by gradients of moisture content. In a homogeneous and isotropic saturated hillslope, absent a gradient in moisture content and under the driving force of gravity with a constant pressure boundary at the slope surface, flow is always in the lateral downslope direction, under either transient or steady state conditions. However, under variably saturated conditions, both gravity and moisture content gradients drive fluid motion, leading to complex flow patterns. In general, the flow field near the ground surface is variably saturated and transient, and the direction of flow could be laterally downslope, laterally upslope, or vertically downward. Previous work has suggested that prevailing rainfall conditions are sufficient to completely control these flow regimes. This work, however, shows that under time-varying rainfall conditions, vertical, downslope, and upslope lateral flow can concurrently occur at different depths and locations within the hillslope. More importantly, we show that the state of wetting or drying in a hillslope defines the temporal and spatial regimes of flow and when and where laterally downslope and/or laterally upslope flow occurs.
Isotropic beam bouquets for shaped beam linear accelerator radiosurgery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, Thomas H.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Bova, Frank J.; Friedman, William A.; Buatti, John M.; Bouchet, Lionel G.
2001-10-01
In stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy treatment planning, the steepest dose gradient is obtained by using beam arrangements with maximal beam separation. We propose a treatment plan optimization method that optimizes beam directions from the starting point of a set of isotropically convergent beams, as suggested by Webb. The optimization process then individually steers each beam to the best position, based on beam's-eye-view (BEV) critical structure overlaps with the target projection and the target's projected cross sectional area at each beam position. This final optimized beam arrangement maintains a large angular separation between adjacent beams while conformally avoiding critical structures. As shown by a radiosurgery plan, this optimization method improves the critical structure sparing properties of an unoptimized isotropic beam bouquet, while maintaining the same degree of dose conformity and dose gradient. This method provides a simple means of designing static beam radiosurgery plans with conformality indices that are within established guidelines for radiosurgery planning, and with dose gradients that approach those achieved in conventional radiosurgery planning.
Penetrative phototactic bioconvection in an isotropic scattering suspension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panda, M. K.; Ghorai, S.
2013-07-01
Phototaxis is a directed swimming response dependent upon the light intensity sensed by micro-organisms. Positive (negative) phototaxis denotes the motion directed towards (away from) the source of light. Using the phototaxis model of Ghorai, Panda, and Hill ["Bioconvection in a suspension of isotropically scattering phototactic algae," Phys. Fluids 22, 071901 (2010)], 10.1063/1.3457163, we investigate two-dimensional phototactic bioconvection in an absorbing and isotropic scattering suspension in the nonlinear regime. The suspension is confined by a rigid bottom boundary, and stress-free top and lateral boundaries. The governing equations for phototactic bioconvection consist of Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible fluid coupled with a conservation equation for micro-organisms and the radiative transfer equation for light transport. The governing system is solved efficiently using a semi-implicit second-order accurate conservative finite-difference method. The radiative transfer equation is solved by the finite volume method using a suitable step scheme. The resulting bioconvective patterns differ qualitatively from those found by Ghorai and Hill ["Penetrative phototactic bioconvection," Phys. Fluids 17, 074101 (2005)], 10.1063/1.1947807 at a higher critical wavelength due to the effects of scattering. The solutions show transition from steady state to periodic oscillations as the governing parameters are varied. Also, we notice the accumulation of micro-organisms in two horizontal layers at two different depths via their mean swimming orientation profile for some governing parameters at a higher scattering albedo.
Verification of Loop Diagnostics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winebarger, A.; Lionello, R.; Mok, Y.; Linker, J.; Mikic, Z.
2014-01-01
Many different techniques have been used to characterize the plasma in the solar corona: density-sensitive spectral line ratios are used to infer the density, the evolution of coronal structures in different passbands is used to infer the temperature evolution, and the simultaneous intensities measured in multiple passbands are used to determine the emission measure. All these analysis techniques assume that the intensity of the structures can be isolated through background subtraction. In this paper, we use simulated observations from a 3D hydrodynamic simulation of a coronal active region to verify these diagnostics. The density and temperature from the simulation are used to generate images in several passbands and spectral lines. We identify loop structures in the simulated images and calculate the loop background. We then determine the density, temperature and emission measure distribution as a function of time from the observations and compare with the true temperature and density of the loop. We find that the overall characteristics of the temperature, density, and emission measure are recovered by the analysis methods, but the details of the true temperature and density are not. For instance, the emission measure curves calculated from the simulated observations are much broader than the true emission measure distribution, though the average temperature evolution is similar. These differences are due, in part, to inadequate background subtraction, but also indicate a limitation of the analysis methods.
Chemical Looping Combustion Kinetics
Edward Eyring; Gabor Konya
2009-03-31
One of the most promising methods of capturing CO{sub 2} emitted by coal-fired power plants for subsequent sequestration is chemical looping combustion (CLC). A powdered metal oxide such as NiO transfers oxygen directly to a fuel in a fuel reactor at high temperatures with no air present. Heat, water, and CO{sub 2} are released, and after H{sub 2}O condensation the CO{sub 2} (undiluted by N{sub 2}) is ready for sequestration, whereas the nickel metal is ready for reoxidation in the air reactor. In principle, these processes can be repeated endlessly with the original nickel metal/nickel oxide participating in a loop that admits fuel and rejects ash, heat, and water. Our project accumulated kinetic rate data at high temperatures and elevated pressures for the metal oxide reduction step and for the metal reoxidation step. These data will be used in computational modeling of CLC on the laboratory scale and presumably later on the plant scale. The oxygen carrier on which the research at Utah is focused is CuO/Cu{sub 2}O rather than nickel oxide because the copper system lends itself to use with solid fuels in an alternative to CLC called 'chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling' (CLOU).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Opolski, Antoni
2014-12-01
Professor Antoni Opolski was actively interested in astronomy after his retirement in 1983. He especially liked to study the works of the famous astronomer Copernicus getting inspiration for his own work. Opolski started his work on planetary loops in 2011 continuing it to the end of 2012 . During this period calculations, drawings, tables, and basic descriptions of all the planets of the Solar System were created with the use of a piece of paper and a pencil only. In 2011 Antoni Opolski asked us to help him in editing the manuscript and preparing it for publication. We have been honored having the opportunity to work on articles on planetary loops with Antoni Opolski in his house for several months. In the middle of 2012 the detailed material on Jupiter was ready. However, professor Opolski improved the article by smoothing the text and preparing new, better drawings. Finally the article ''Loops of Jupiter'', written by the 99- year old astronomer, was published in the year of his 100th birthday.
Toward precision holography with supersymmetric Wilson loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faraggi, Alberto; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Trancanelli, Diego
2016-04-01
We consider certain 1/4 BPS Wilson loop operators in SU( N) N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, whose expectation value can be computed exactly via supersymmetric localization. Holographically, these operators are mapped to fundamental strings in AdS 5 × S 5. The string on-shell action reproduces the large N and large coupling limit of the gauge theory expectation value and, according to the AdS/CFT correspondence, there should also be a precise match between subleading corrections to these limits. We perform a test of such match at next-to-leading order in string theory, by deriving the spectrum of quantum fluctuations around the classical string solution and by computing the corresponding 1-loop effective action. We discuss in detail the supermultiplet structure of the fluctuations. To remove a possible source of ambiguity in the ghost zero mode measure, we compare the 1/4 BPS configuration with the 1/2 BPS one, dual to a circular Wilson loop. We find a discrepancy between the string theory result and the gauge theory prediction, confirming a previous result in the literature. We are able to track the modes from which this discrepancy originates, as well as the modes that by themselves would give the expected result.
Wilson loops from supergravity and string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sonnenschein, J.
2000-03-01
We present a theorem that determines the value of the Wilson loop associated with a Nambu-Goto action which generalizes the action of the AdS 5 × S 5 model. In particular, we derive sufficient conditions for confining behaviour. We then apply this theorem to various string models. We go beyond the classical string picture by incorporating quadratic quantum fluctuations. We show that the bosonic determinant of Dp -branes with 16 supersymmetries yields a Lüscher term. We confirm that the free energy associated with a BPS configuration of a single quark is free from divergences. We show that unlike for a string in flat spacetime in the case of AdS 5 × S 5 the fermionic determinant does not cancel the bosonic one. For a set-up that corresponds to a confining gauge theory the correction to the potential is attractive. We determine the form of the Wilson loop for actions that include non-trivial B µicons/Journals/Common/nu" ALT="nu" ALIGN="TOP"/> field. The issue of an exact determination of the value of the stringy Wilson loop is discussed.
Effective methods for quantum theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brahma, Suddhasattwa
Whenever a full theory is unavailable, effective frameworks serve as powerful tools for examining physical phenomena below some energy scale. However, standard quantum field theory techniques are not always applicable in various exotic, yet physically relevant, systems. This thesis presents a new effective method for quantum theories, which is particularly tailored towards background independent theories such as gravity. Our main motivation is to utilize these techniques to extract the semi-classical dynamics from canonical quantum gravity theories. Application to field theoretic toy models of loop quantum gravity and non-associative quantum mechanics is elaborated in detail. We also extend this framework to fully constrained systems, as is required for gravity, and discuss several consequences for quantum gravity.
Topology-driven quantum phase transitions in time-reversal-invariant anyonic quantum liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gils, Charlotte; Trebst, Simon; Kitaev, Alexei; Ludwig, Andreas W. W.; Troyer, Matthias; Wang, Zhenghan
2009-11-01
Indistinguishable particles in two dimensions can be characterized by anyonic quantum statistics, which is more general than that of bosons or fermions. Anyons emerge as quasiparticles in fractional quantum Hall states and in certain frustrated quantum magnets. Quantum liquids of anyons show degenerate ground states, where the degeneracy depends on the topology of the underlying surface. Here, we present a new type of continuous quantum phase transition in such anyonic quantum liquids, which is driven by quantum fluctuations of the topology. The critical state connecting two anyonic liquids on surfaces with different topologies is reminiscent of the notion of a `quantum foam' with fluctuations on all length scales. This exotic quantum phase transition arises in a microscopic model of interacting anyons for which we present an exact solution in a linear geometry. We introduce an intuitive physical picture of this model that unifies string nets and loop gases, and provide a simple description of topological quantum phases and their phase transitions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asgari, Shadnaz; Ali, Andreas M.; Collier, Travis C.; Yao, Yuan; Hudson, Ralph E.; Yao, Kung; Taylor, Charles E.
2007-09-01
The focus of most direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation problems has been based mainly on a two-dimensional (2D) scenario where we only need to estimate the azimuth angle. But in various practical situations we have to deal with a three-dimensional scenario. The importance of being able to estimate both azimuth and elevation angles with high accuracy and low complexity is of interest. We present the theoretical and the practical issues of DOA estimation using the Approximate-Maximum-Likelihood (AML) algorithm in a 3D scenario. We show that the performance of the proposed 3D AML algorithm converges to the Cramer-Rao Bound. We use the concept of an isotropic array to reduce the complexity of the proposed algorithm by advocating a decoupled 3D version. We also explore a modified version of the decoupled 3D AML algorithm which can be used for DOA estimation with non-isotropic arrays. Various numerical results are presented. We use two acoustic arrays each consisting of 8 microphones to do some field measurements. The processing of the measured data from the acoustic arrays for different azimuth and elevation angles confirms the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Polymer quantum mechanics and its continuum limit
Corichi, Alejandro; Vukasinac, Tatjana; Zapata, Jose A.
2007-08-15
A rather nonstandard quantum representation of the canonical commutation relations of quantum mechanics systems, known as the polymer representation, has gained some attention in recent years, due to its possible relation with Planck scale physics. In particular, this approach has been followed in a symmetric sector of loop quantum gravity known as loop quantum cosmology. Here we explore different aspects of the relation between the ordinary Schroedinger theory and the polymer description. The paper has two parts. In the first one, we derive the polymer quantum mechanics starting from the ordinary Schroedinger theory and show that the polymer description arises as an appropriate limit. In the second part we consider the continuum limit of this theory, namely, the reverse process in which one starts from the discrete theory and tries to recover back the ordinary Schroedinger quantum mechanics. We consider several examples of interest, including the harmonic oscillator, the free particle, and a simple cosmological model.
New two-sided bound on the isotropic Lorentz-violating parameter of modified Maxwell theory
Klinkhamer, F. R.; Schreck, M.
2008-10-15
There is a unique Lorentz-violating modification of the Maxwell theory of photons, which maintains gauge invariance, CPT, and renormalizability. Restricting the modified-Maxwell theory to the isotropic sector and adding a standard spin-(1/2) Dirac particle p{sup {+-}} with minimal coupling to the nonstandard photon {gamma}-tilde, the resulting modified-quantum-electrodynamics model involves a single dimensionless 'deformation parameter', {kappa}-tilde{sub tr}. The exact tree-level decay rates for two processes have been calculated: vacuum Cherenkov radiation p{sup {+-}}{yields}p{sup {+-}}{gamma}-tilde for the case of positive {kappa}-tilde{sub tr} and photon decay {gamma}-tilde{yields}p{sup +}p{sup -} for the case of negative {kappa}-tilde{sub tr}. From the inferred absence of these decays for a particular high-quality ultrahigh-energy-cosmic-ray event detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory and a well-established excess of TeV gamma-ray events observed by the High Energy Stereoscopic System telescopes, a two-sided bound on {kappa}-tilde{sub tr} is obtained, which improves by 8 orders of magnitude upon the best direct laboratory bound. The implications of this result are briefly discussed.
A computational analysis of ordering in ABCHN at the nematic-isotropic transition.
Ojha, Durga Prasad
2006-01-01
A computational analysis of ordering in the nematogenic compound 4-alkenyl bicyclohexylnitrile has been carried out based on quantum mechanics and intermolecular forces. The evaluation of atomic charge and dipole moment at each atomic center has been carried out using the complete neglect differential overlap (CNDO/2) method. Modified Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbation theory along with a multicentered- multipole expansion method has been employed to evaluate long-range intermolecular interactions, while a '6-exp' potential function has been assumed for short-range interactions. The total interaction energy values obtained through these computations were used to calculate the probability of each configuration at room temperature (300 K), the nematic-isotropic transition temperature (364.7 K) and above transition temperature (450 K) using the Maxwell-Boltzmann formula. The various possible configurations during the different modes (i.e., stacking, in-plane and terminal) of interactions have been studied in terms of variation of probability due to small departures from the most probable configurations. An attempt has been made to analyze the characteristic features of liquid crystallinity in terms of their relative order with molecular parameters introduced in this paper. PMID:16133092
Creating Only Isotropic Homogeneous Turbulence in Liquid Helium near Absolute Zero
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ihas, G. G.; Thompson, K. J.; Labbe, G.; McClintock, P. V. E.
2012-02-01
Flow through a grid is a standard method to produce isotropic, homogeneous turbulence for laboratory study. This technique has been used to generate quantum turbulence (QT) above 1 K in superfluid heliumootnotetextS. R. Stalp, L. Skrbek, and R. J. Donnelly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4831 (1999). where QT seems to mimic classical turbulence. Efforts have been made recentlyootnotetextG. G. Ihas, G. Labbe, S-c. Liu, and K. J. Thompson, J. Low Temp. Phys. 150, 384 (2008). to make similar measurements near absolute zero, where there is an almost total absence of normal fluid and hence classical viscosity. This presents the difficulty that most motive force devices produce heat which overwhelms the phenomena being investigated. The process of designing and implimenting a ``dissipation-free'' motor for pulling a grid through superfluid helium at millikelvin temperatures has resulted in the development of new techniques which have broad application in low temperature research. Some of these, such as Meissner-affect magnetic drives, capacitive and inductive position sensors, and magnetic centering devices will be described. Heating results for devices which can move in a controlled fashion from very low speed up to 10 cm/s will be presented. Acknowledgement: We thank W.F. Vinen for many useful discussions.
Optical Third Harmonic Generation from Isotropic Multilayer Media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaatz, Philip Gerald
Optical third harmonic generation, THG, has been used to characterize the nonlinear optical response in several types of isotropic multilayer media at fundamental wavelengths of 1064, 1542, and 1907 nm. The boundary conditions and the interaction of the optical waves produced by intense electromagnetic fields are presented and solved for the case of an isotropic slab, a polymeric film deposited onto an optical flat, and an optical glass cuvette filled with an organic liquid. The third harmonic from fused silica and BK7 optical glasses has been measured on optically flat samples of these glasses. The relative nonlinear susceptibility, chi^{(3)} , of BK7 optical glass to fused silica as measured by the intensity of the THG interference pattern and known refractive index data for these glasses varies from 1.28 at 1907 nm to 1.33 at 1542 nm and 1.42 at 1064 nm. The nonlinear wave interactions in bilayer media were analyzed and characterized for two polymeric materials deposited by spin casting from solutions onto fused silica optical flats. Poly(methylmethacrylate), PMMA films were used for the THG measurement. Refractive indices were measured by quasiwaveguiding onto PMMA films deposited onto heavy flint glass prisms for the visible wavelengths and by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy in the infrared. Poly(di-n-hexylsilylene) films of thicknesses ranging from.37 to 1.44 mu were also characterized by the preceding methods. These films exhibit a reversible thermochromism at 42^circ C, where the wavelength at the absorption maximum increases by ~60 nm to 374 nm below the thermochromic transition temperature. The third order nonlinear susceptibility, chi^{(3) }, relative to fused silica ranges from ~11 at 50^circC to ~55 below the thermochromic transition at 23^circC. An empirical relationship for chi^{(3) } as a function of the wavelength at maximum absorption was proposed and applied to polymeric media. The nonlinear optical response of several organic liquids was characterized
Identifying isotropic events using a regional moment tensor inversion
Ford, S R; Dreger, D S; Walter, W R
2008-07-16
The deviatoric and isotropic source components for 17 explosions at the Nevada Test Site, as well as 12 earthquakes and 3 collapses in the surrounding region of the western US, are calculated using a regional time-domain full waveform inversion for the complete moment tensor. The events separate into specific populations according to their deviation from a pure double-couple and ratio of isotropic to deviatoric energy. The separation allows for anomalous event identification and discrimination between explosions, earthquakes, and collapses. Confidence regions of the model parameters are estimated from the data misfit by assuming normally distributed parameter values. We investigate the sensitivity of the resolved parameters of an explosion to imperfect Earth models, inaccurate event depths, and data with a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) assuming a reasonable azimuthal distribution of stations. In the band of interest (0.02-0.10 Hz) the source-type calculated from complete moment tensor inversion is insensitive to velocity models perturbations that cause less than a half-cycle shift (<5 sec) in arrival time error if shifting of the waveforms is allowed. The explosion source-type is insensitive to an incorrect depth assumption (for a true depth of 1 km), but the goodness-of-fit of the inversion result cannot be used to resolve the true depth of the explosion. Noise degrades the explosive character of the result, and a good fit and accurate result are obtained when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is greater than 5. We assess the depth and frequency dependence upon the resolved explosive moment. As the depth decreases from 1 km to 200 m, the isotropic moment is no longer accurately resolved and is in error between 50-200%. However, even at the most shallow depth the resultant moment tensor is dominated by the explosive component when the data has a good SNR. The sensitivity investigation is extended via the introduction of the network sensitivity solution, which takes
Robust and efficient in situ quantum control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrie, Christopher; Moussa, Osama
2015-05-01
Precision control of quantum systems is the driving force for both quantum technology and the probing of physics at the quantum and nanoscale levels. We propose an implementation-independent method for in situ quantum control that leverages recent advances in the direct estimation of quantum gate fidelity. Our algorithm takes account of the stochasticity of the problem, is suitable for closed-loop control, and requires only a constant number of fidelity-estimating experiments per iteration independent of the dimension of the control space. It is efficient and robust to both statistical and technical noise.
Semi-Infinite Cohomology of Loop Spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shutler, Paul Maurice Edmund
Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis attempts to construct a de Rham model for the Floer homology of the space of free loops on a symplectic manifold. It derives its inspiration principally from the work of Witten on topological quantum field theories. Chapter 1 consist of a review of background material followed by a number of elementary results. It is seen how Floer homology should naturally be representable by a semi-infinite generalisation of the ordinary de Rham theory associated to a manifold. In Chapter 2 the main attempt at constructing such a semi-infinite theory is made by defining an exterior derivative. Two different kinds of divergences are encountered and resolved. A suitable space of semi-infinite forms is constructed and some remarks are made about the likelihood that this model captures the Floer homology. In Chapter 3 the obstruction to the existence of a chiral factorisation of the bundle of fermionic Fock spaces over the loop space of the two-sphere is computed. For this purpose the ordinary cohomology ring of the loop space is calculated, also the action of the deck transformation on the cohomology of the simply connected covering space. In Chapter 4 the supersymmetric path integral approach to quantising topological field theories is developed formally. The semi-infinite dimensionality of the differential forms involved emerges naturally. The Floer homology of loop space is shown to be a ring. Its structure is calculated for the simple case of complex projective space. Chapter 5 concludes the thesis with some remarks about the action of the super-Virasoro algebra on the space of ordinary and semi-infinite differential forms respectively. Two short appendices are included describing a polynomial generating function for spherical harmonics and the spectrum of curl on vector fields on the three -sphere.
Fluorescence microscopy with isotropic resolution using three objectives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huelsnitz, Thomas; Kner, Peter
2016-03-01
Widefield and confocal fluorescence microscopy using a single objective suffer from poor resolution and a strong anisotropy between the lateral and axial resolution. Coherently combining the excitation and emission from two coaxial objectives improves the axial resolution up to sevenfold, but leaves the lateral resolution unchanged. Here we investigate the coherent combination of three objectives to create a point spread function (PSF) that is isotropic with higher resolution in the plane of the objectives. We develop a theoretical framework for simulating the performance of interferometric imaging with three objectives. Using three identical objectives with a large working distance and 0.9 numerical aperture (NA), the full-width half maximum of the confocal PSF is 135 nm compared to the lateral FWHM of 274 nm for imaging with a single objective at a wavelength of 515 nm.
Isotropic-nematic transition and dynamics of rigid charged molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karatrantos, Argyrios
2016-03-01
Using molecular dynamics, an isotropic-nematic transition was found in bulk salt-free solutions of charged rods with their counterions in the semidilute regime. This phase transition is driven primarily by electrostatics, rather than by excluded volume. The counterion condensation effect, which is controlled by the Manning parameter, leads to liquid crystalline phases of rods. For elevated values of the Manning parameter, an attraction is obtained between the rods, and the nematic phase appears. For small values of the Manning parameter the counterions de-condense, and the nematic phase disappears. Instead, in a neutral system of rods and spheres there is no appearance of nematic phase. The diffusivity of both rods and counterions is reduced with the Manning parameter.
Fully developed isotropic turbulence: Symmetries and exact identities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Canet, Léonie; Delamotte, Bertrand; Wschebor, Nicolás
2015-05-01
We consider the regime of fully developed isotropic and homogeneous turbulence of the Navier-Stokes equation with a stochastic forcing. We present two gauge symmetries of the corresponding Navier-Stokes field theory and derive the associated general Ward identities. Furthermore, by introducing a local source bilinear in the velocity field, we show that these symmetries entail an infinite set of exact and local relations between correlation functions. They include in particular the Kármán-Howarth relation and another exact relation for a pressure-velocity correlation function recently derived in G. Falkovich, I. Fouxon, and Y. Oz [J. Fluid Mech. 644, 465 (2010)], 10.1017/S0022112009993429 that we further generalize.
Reverse time migration in tilted transversely isotropic media
Zhang, Linbing; Rector III, James W.; Hoversten, G. Michael
2004-07-01
This paper presents a reverse time migration (RTM) method for the migration of shot records in tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media. It is based on the tilted TI acoustic wave equation that was derived from the dispersion relation. The RTM is a full depth migration allowing for velocity to vary laterally as well as vertically and has no dip limitations. The wave equation is solved by a tenth-order finite difference scheme. Using 2D numerical models, we demonstrate that ignoring the tilt angle will introduce both lateral and vertical shifts in imaging. The shifts can be larger than 0.5 wavelength in the vertical direction and 1.5 wavelength in the lateral direction.
Asymptotic behavior of curvature of surface elements in isotropic turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Girimaji, S. S.
1991-01-01
The asymptotic behavior of the curvature of material elements in turbulence is investigated using Lagrangian velocity-gradient time series obtained from direct numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence. Several material-element ensembles of different initial curvatures and shapes are studied. It is found that, at long times, the (first five) moments of the logarithm of characteristic curvature and shape factor asymptote to values that are independent of the initial curvature or shape. This evidence strongly suggests that the asymptotic pdf's of the curvature and shape of material elements are stationary and independent of initial conditions. Irrespective of initial curvature or shape, the asymptotic shape of a material surface is cylindrical with a high probability.
Perturbation theory for isotropic velocity-dependent potentials: scattering case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaghoub, Mahmoud
2010-02-01
The time-independent Schr"odinger equation with an isotropic velocity-depen-dent potential is considered. Treating the velocity-dependent interaction as a small perturbation we develop analytical formulae for the changes in the scattering phase shifts and wave functions. It is shown that only the zeroth order solution and the perturbing potential are needed to determine the phase shift and wave function corrections. No prior knowledge of the unperturbed scattering states continuum is required. In order to test the validity of our approach we applied it to an exactly solvable model for nucleon-nucleon scattering. The results of the perturbation formalism compare quite well with the those of the exactly solvable model. The developed formalism can be applied in problems concerning pion-nucleon, nucleon-nucleon and electron-atom scattering. It may also be useful in studying the scattering of electrons in semiconductor heterostructures. )
Waterlike glass polyamorphism in a monoatomic isotropic Jagla model.
Xu, Limei; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Stanley, H Eugene
2011-02-14
We perform discrete-event molecular dynamics simulations of a system of particles interacting with a spherically-symmetric (isotropic) two-scale Jagla pair potential characterized by a hard inner core, a linear repulsion at intermediate separations, and a weak attractive interaction at larger separations. This model system has been extensively studied due to its ability to reproduce many thermodynamic, dynamic, and structural anomalies of liquid water. The model is also interesting because: (i) it is very simple, being composed of isotropically interacting particles, (ii) it exhibits polyamorphism in the liquid phase, and (iii) its slow crystallization kinetics facilitate the study of glassy states. There is interest in the degree to which the known polyamorphism in glassy water may have parallels in liquid water. Motivated by parallels between the properties of the Jagla potential and those of water in the liquid state, we study the metastable phase diagram in the glass state. Specifically, we perform the computational analog of the protocols followed in the experimental studies of glassy water. We find that the Jagla potential calculations reproduce three key experimental features of glassy water: (i) the crystal-to-high-density amorphous solid (HDA) transformation upon isothermal compression, (ii) the low-density amorphous solid (LDA)-to-HDA transformation upon isothermal compression, and (iii) the HDA-to-very-high-density amorphous solid (VHDA) transformation upon isobaric annealing at high pressure. In addition, the HDA-to-LDA transformation upon isobaric heating, observed in water experiments, can only be reproduced in the Jagla model if a free surface is introduced in the simulation box. The HDA configurations obtained in cases (i) and (ii) are structurally indistinguishable, suggesting that both processes result in the same glass. With the present parametrization, the evolution of density with pressure or temperature is remarkably similar to the
Isotropic graphite multistage depressed collectors - A progress report
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramins, Peter; Ebihara, Ben T.
1989-04-01
A small isotropic-graphite-electrode multistage depressed collector (MDC) was designed, fabricated, and evaluated in conjunction with a 500-W CW 4.8-9.6-GHz TWT. The carbon electrode surfaces were used to improve the TWT overall efficiency by minimizing the secondary-electron emission losses in the MDC. The design and fabrication of the brazed graphite MDC assembly are described. The TWT and graphite-electrode MDC bakeout and processing (outgassing) characteristics were evaluated and found to be comparable to those for TWTs equipped with copper-electrode MDCs. The TWT and MDC performance was optimized for broadband CW operation at saturation. The average RF, overall, and MDC efficiencies were 14.9, 46.4, and 83.6 percent, respectively, across the octave operating band. A 1500-h CW test showed no gas buildup and excellent stability of the electrode surfaces.
Diffusion of Heat from a Line Source in Isotropic Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Uberoi, Mahinder S; Corrsin, Stanley
1953-01-01
An experimental and analytical study has been made of some features of the turbulent heat diffusion behind a line heated wire stretched perpendicular to a flowing isotropic turbulence. The mean temperature distributions have been measured with systematic variations in wind speed, size of turbulence-producing grid, and downstream location of heat source. The nature of the temperature fluctuation field has been studied. A comparison of Lagrangian and Eulerian analyses for diffusion in a nondecaying turbulence yields an expression for turbulent-heat-transfer coefficient in terms of turbulence velocity and a Lagrangian "scale." the ratio of Eulerian to Lagrangian microscale has been determined theoretically by generalization of a result of Heisenberg and with arbitrary constants taken from independent sources, shows rough agreement with experimental results. A convenient form has been deduced for the criterion of interchangeability of instantaneous space and time derivatives in a flowing turbulence.
Dynamics of Aerosol Particles in Stationary, Isotropic Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, Lance R.; Meng, Hui
2004-01-01
A detailed study of the dynamics of sub-Kolmogorov-size aerosol particles in stationary isotropic turbulence has been performed. The study combined direct numerical simulations (DNS; directed by Prof. Collins) and high-resolution experimental measurements (directed by Prof. Meng) under conditions of nearly perfect geometric and parametric overlap. The goal was to measure the accumulation of particles in low-vorticity regions of the flow that arises from the effect commonly referred to as preferential concentration. The grant technically was initiated on June 13, 2000; however, funding was not available until July 11, 2000. The grant was originally awarded to Penn State University (numerical simulations) and SUNY-Buffalo (experiments); however, Prof. Collins effort was moved to Cornell University on January 2002 when he joined that university. He completed the study there. A list of the specific tasks that were completed under this study is presented.
Anomalous glassy relaxation near the isotropic-nematic phase transition.
Jose, Prasanth P; Chakrabarti, Dwaipayan; Bagchi, Biman
2005-03-01
Dynamical heterogeneity in a system of Gay-Berne ellipsoids near its isotropic-nematic (I-N) transition, and also in an equimolar mixture of Lennard-Jones spheres and Gay-Berne ellipsoids in deeply supercooled regime, is probed by the time evolution of non-Gaussian parameters (NGP). The appearance of a dominant second peak in the rotational NGP near the I-N transition signals the growth of pseudonematic domains. Surprisingly, such a second peak is instead observed in the translational NGP for the glassy binary mixture. Localization of orientational motion near the I-N transition is found to be responsible for the observed anomalous orientational relaxation. PMID:15903399
Electromagnetic Effects on Wave Propagation in an Isotropic Micropolar Plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaw, S.; Mukhopadhyay, B.
2015-11-01
The generalized theory of thermoelasticity is applied to study the propagation of plane harmonic waves in an infinitely long, isotropic, micropolar plate in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. The present analysis also includes the thermal relaxation time, electric displacement current, and the coupling of heat transfer and microrotation of the material. To determine the effect of the presence of thermal as well as magnetic fields on the phase velocity, two potential functions are used, and more general dispersive relations are obtained for symmetric and antisymmetric modes. The results for the cases of coupled thermoelasticity, magnetoelasticity, micropolar thermoelasticity, and classical micropolar elasticity as special cases are derived. The changes in the phase velocity and attenuation coefficient with the wave number are shown graphically.
Thermoelastic Waves with Thermal Diffusion in an Isotropic Micropolar Plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaw, S.; Mukhopadhyay, B.
2015-09-01
The generalized theory of thermodiffusion is applied to study the propagation of plane harmonic waves in an infinitely long isotropic micropolar plate. The present analysis also includes both the thermal and mass diffusive relaxation times, as well as the coupling of the thermal diffusion with microrotation of the material. To determine the effect of the presence of thermal as well as mass diffusion on the phase velocity of the wave propagation, two potential functions are used, and more general dispersive relations are obtained for symmetric and antisymmetric modes. The results for the cases of thermoelasticity, micropolar thermoelasticity, and thermodiffusive elasticity are derived. The changes in the phase velocity, attenuation coefficient, and the specific loss factor with the wave number are shown graphically.
Static Isotropic Space-Times with Radially Imperfect Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konopka, Tomasz
When one is solving the equations of general relativity in a symmetric sector, it is natural to consider the same symmetry for the geometry and stress-energy. This implies that for static and isotropic space-times, the most general natural stress-energy tensor is a sum of a perfect fluid and a radially imperfect fluid component. In the special situations where the perfect fluid component vanishes or is a space-time constant, the solutions to Einstein's equations can be thought of as modified Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-de Sitter spaces. Exact solutions of this type are derived and it is shown that whereas deviations from the unmodified solutions can be made small, among the manifestations of the imperfect fluid component is a shift in angular momentum scaling for orbiting test bodies at large radius. Based on this effect, the question of whether the imperfect fluid component can feasibly describe dark matter phenomenology is addressed.
Tunable dynamics of microtubule-based active isotropic gels
Henkin, Gil; DeCamp, Stephen J.; Chen, Daniel T. N.; Sanchez, Tim; Dogic, Zvonimir
2014-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of an active gel of bundled microtubules (MTs) that is driven by clusters of kinesin molecular motors. Upon the addition of ATP, the coordinated action of thousands of molecular motors drives the gel to a highly dynamical turbulent-like state that persists for hours and is only limited by the stability of constituent proteins and the availability of the chemical fuel. We characterize how enhanced transport and emergent macroscopic flows of active gels depend on relevant molecular parameters, including ATP, kinesin motor and depletant concentrations, MT volume fraction, as well as the stoichiometry of the constituent motor clusters. Our results show that the dynamical and structural properties of MT-based active gels are highly tunable. They also indicate existence of an optimal concentration of molecular motors that maximize far-from-equilibrium activity of active isotropic MT gels. PMID:25332391
Graphene as a Tunable Anisotropic or Isotropic Plasmonic Metasurface.
Huidobro, Paloma A; Kraft, Matthias; Maier, Stefan A; Pendry, John B
2016-05-24
We demonstrate a tunable plasmonic metasurface by considering a graphene sheet subject to a periodically patterned doping level. The unique optical properties of graphene result in electrically tunable plasmons that allow for extreme confinement of electromagnetic energy in the technologically significant regime of THz frequencies. Here, we add an extra degree of freedom by using graphene as a metasurface, proposing to dope it with an electrical gate patterned in the micron or submicron scale. By extracting the effective conductivity of the sheet, we characterize metasurfaces periodically modulated along one or two directions. In the first case, and making use of the analytical insight provided by transformation optics, we show an efficient control of THz radiation for one polarization. In the second case, we demonstrate a metasurface with an isotropic response that is independent of wave polarization and orientation. PMID:27092391
Charged Particle Diffusion in Isotropic Random Static Magnetic Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subedi, P.; Sonsrettee, W.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Wan, M.; Montgomery, D.
2013-12-01
Study of the transport and diffusion of charged particles in a turbulent magnetic field remains a subject of considerable interest. Research has most frequently concentrated on determining the diffusion coefficient in the presence of a mean magnetic field. Here we consider Diffusion of charged particles in fully three dimensional statistically isotropic magnetic field turbulence with no mean field which is pertinent to many astrophysical situations. We classify different regions of particle energy depending upon the ratio of Larmor radius of the charged particle to the characteristic outer length scale of turbulence. We propose three different theoretical models to calculate the diffusion coefficient each applicable to a distinct range of particle energies. The theoretical results are compared with those from computer simulations, showing very good agreement.
Bulk viscosity effect on freely decaying compressible homogeneous isotropic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Shaowu; Johnsen, Eric
2015-11-01
Despite growing interests in compressible turbulence, the effect of bulk viscosity has been long ignored. For certain gases, the bulk viscosity may be 1000 times greater than the shear viscosity and thus modify energy transfer and dissipation mechanisms. In this study, we use direct numerical simulations to investigate the role of bulk viscosity on decaying isotropic compressible turbulence. Our results show that bulk viscosity exhibits a negligible decrease on enstrophy, but moderate and significant increases on the turbulent kinetic energy and Taylor-scale Reynolds number, respectively. A Helmholtz decomposition of the velocity field indicates that the bulk viscosity has a negligible effect on the solenoidal part, but exhibits a cross-scale effect on the dilatational component.
Isotropic-nematic phase transition in aqueous sepiolite suspensions.
Woolston, Phillip; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen S
2015-01-01
Aqueous suspensions of sepiolite clay rods in water tend to form gels on increase of concentration. Here it is shown how addition of a small amount (0.1% of the clay mass) of a common stabiliser for clay suspensions, sodium polyacrylate, can allow the observation of an isotropic-nematic liquid crystal phase transition. This transition was found to move to higher clay concentrations upon adding NaCl, with samples containing 10(-3) M salt or above only displaying a gel phase. Even samples that initially formed liquid crystals had a tendency to form gels after several weeks, possibly due to Mg(2+) ions leaching from the clay mineral. PMID:25313468
Whirl speeds of mistuned bladed rotors supported by isotropic stator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kyung-Taek
2015-11-01
As an initial step toward understanding the fully coupled dynamics of mistuned bladed disk-shaft systems, this paper investigates the frequency characteristics of natural whirl speeds associated with the in-plain vibration of a rotating mistuned bladed disk mounted on an isotropic support. Through complex multi-blade coordinate transformation and modulation, a simplistic analysis model describing the essential in-plain whirling behavior of mistuned bladed rotor is derived in a typical form of linear differential equations with time-constant coefficients. By applying ordinary eigenvalue analysis for linear time-invariant systems, the whirl speeds of mistuned bladed rotor are examined for cases of weak and strong inter-blade coupling conditions. The mistuning effect on the whirl speeds of the bladed rotor is then explained by classifying the whirling modes into three types according to their cause of manifestation and the frequency relationship: namely, original, coupled multi-blade, and conjugate whirling modes.
Macroscopic dynamics near the isotropic{endash}smectic-A phase transition
Brand, Helmut R.; Mukherjee, Prabir K.; Pleiner, Harald
2001-06-01
The hydrodynamic theory for the smectic-A phase and the isotropic phase is generalized to the macroscopic dynamics in the vicinity of the isotropic{endash}smectic-A phase transition. The macroscopic dynamic equations are presented on the isotropic side as well as on the smectic-A side of the phase transition, incorporating the effect of an external electric field. Specific experiments to test some of the effects contained in the macroscopic dynamic equations are suggested.
On some physical aspects of isotropic cosmology in Riemann-Cartan spacetime
Minkevich, A.V.; Garkun, A.S.; Kudin, V.I. E-mail: awm@matman.uwm.edu.pl E-mail: kudzin_w@tut.by
2013-03-01
Isotropic cosmology built in the framework of the Poincaré gauge theory of gravity based on sufficiently general expression of gravitational Lagrangian is considered. The derivation of cosmological equations and equations for torsion functions in the case of the most general homogeneous isotropic models is given. Physical aspects of isotropic cosmology connected with possible solution of dark energy problem and problem of cosmological singularity are discussed.
Coupled dual loop absorption heat pump
Sarkisian, Paul H.; Reimann, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.
1985-01-01
A coupled dual loop absorption system which utilizes two separate complete loops. Each individual loop operates at three temperatures and two pressures. This low temperature loop absorber and condenser are thermally coupled to the high temperature loop evaporator, and the high temperature loop condenser and absorber are thermally coupled to the low temperature generator.
Determining Earth's magnetotail structure from low-altitude isotropic boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilie, R.; Ganushkina, N. Y.; Liemohn, M. W.
2014-12-01
Understanding the interplay between ionospheric, auroral and magnetospheric phenomena requires detailed knowledge of Earth's magnetic field geometry under various solar wind conditions. This geometry is directly relevant to the magnetic field mapping between different regions of near-Earth space. One method to evaluate the instantaneous geomagnetic field configuration is by probing the isotropic boundaries (IB) of energetic particles measured at low altitudes. Those are interpreted as the boundary between the regions of adiabatic and stochastic particle motion in the equatorial magnetotail and used as a proxy for the degree of magnetic field stretching. We investigate the topology and dynamics of the magnetotail current during active and quiet times as dependent on solar wind and IMF parameters based on NOAA/POES MEPED and DMSP SSJ/4 measurements in combination with global magnetospheric simulations using the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF). The extensive NOAA/POES MEPED low-altitude data sets give the locations of isotropic boundaries, which are used to extract information regarding particle distributions and field structure in the source regions in the magnetosphere. This study presents a comparison between the magnetic field lines with the observed IB latitude and those computed from the SWMF using the theoretical relation for IB locations in the magnetotail, i.e. where the ratio between curvature radius and Larmor radius is close to 8. This investigation assesses the accuracy of the model magnetic field and the structure of the magnetotail. The results are examined in relation to the solar wind and IMF conditions to determine the corresponding configuration and dynamics of the magnetotail.
Estimation of crystallinity in isotropic isotactic polypropylene with Raman spectroscopy.
Minogianni, Chrysa; Gatos, Konstantinos G; Galiotis, Costas
2005-09-01
The Raman spectrum of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) has been found to exhibit vibrational peaks in the region of 750 to 880 cm(-1) that are sensitive to the degree of crystallinity. These features are broadly assigned to various modes of methyl group rocking, rho(CH2), and there have been various attempts to assess crystallinity based on the integrated intensities of these bands. Various vibrational analyses performed in the past in combination with experimental studies have concluded that the presence of crystalline order with trans-gauche conformation gives rise to a peak at 809 cm(-1), which is assigned to a rho(CH2) mode coupled with the skeletal stretching mode. However, the presence of additional peaks at 830 cm(-1), 841 cm(-1), and 854 cm(-1), within the same envelope, have been the subject of controversy. In this work isotropic films of iPP derived from the same precursor of identical tacticity have been subjected to various degrees of annealing and the integrated intensities of the Raman bands were measured. The results showed that true 3d crystallinity in isotropic iPP can only be expressed by the 809 cm(-1) band whereas the band at 841 cm(-1) corresponds to an uncoupled rho(CH2) fundamental mode and thus is a measure of the amorphous content. The less intense satellite bands at 830 cm(-1) and 854 cm(-1) of solid iPP cannot be distinguished from the 841 cm(-1) band in the melt and are generally considered as intermediate phases possibly related to non-crystalline components with 3(1)-helical conformations. Independent differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) crystallinity measurements were in broad agreement with the Raman measurements based on the normalized intensity of the 809 cm(-1) Raman band. By comparing the Raman with the DSC data a new value for the theoretical heat of fusion for the 100% crystalline iPP has been proposed. PMID:18028610
The signature of initial production mechanisms in isotropic turbulence decay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meldi, M.
2016-03-01
In the present work the quantification of the time-lasting effects of production mechanisms in homogeneous isotropic turbulence decay is addressed. The analysis is developed through the use of theoretical tools as well as numerical calculations based on the eddy damped quasinormal Markovian (EDQNM) model. In both cases a modified Lin equation is used, which accounts for production mechanisms as proposed by Meldi, Lejemble, and Sagaut ["On the emergence of non-classical decay regimes in multiscale/fractal generated isotropic turbulence," J. Fluid Mech. 756, 816-843 (2014)]. The approaches used show that an exponential decay law can be observed if the intensity of the forcing is strong enough to drive the turbulence dynamics, before a power-law decay is eventually attained. The EDQNM numerical results indicate that the exponential regime can persist for long evolution times, longer than the observation time in grid turbulence experiments. A rigorous investigation of the self-similar behavior of the pressure spectrum has been performed by a comprehensive comparison of EDQNM data with direct numerical simulation (DNS)/experiments in the literature. While DNS and free decay EDQNM simulations suggest the need of a very high Reλ threshold in order to observe a clear -7/3 slope of the pressure inertial range, experimental data and forced EDQNM calculations indicate a significantly lower value. This observation suggests that the time-lasting effects of production mechanisms, which cannot be excluded in experiments, play a role in the lack of general agreement with classical numerical approaches. These results reinforce the urge to evolve the numerical simulation state of the art towards the prediction of realistic physical states.
Acoustic and photoacoustic scattering from transverse isotropic tissues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheu, Yae-lin; Ho, Yi-Ching; Li, Pai-Chi
2013-03-01
This research investigated anisotropic scattering of ultrasonic and photoacoustic waves from tissues consisting of transverse isotropic structures. Anisotropic scattering refers to the systematic variation in acoustic scattered energy. Take tendon as an example, the maximum occurs when the arrangement of the transducer and fiber orientation is perpendicular and minimum occurs when the arrangement is parallel. Experimental results indicate the apparent integrated backscatter (AIB), which is widely adopted to compute the scattered energy, for photoacoustic as well as ultrasonic waves decayed as the arrangement changed from perpendicular to parallel. The AIB decrement using transducers with center frequency of 3.5 MHz, 5 MHz, and 20 MHz were 10.50 dB, 18.01 dB, and 20.98 dB, respectively. Photoacoustic AIB decrement detected by transducers with center frequency of 3.5 MHz, 5 MHz, and 20 MHz were 7.63 dB, 15.54 dB, and 17.76 dB, respectively. It is shown that higher detection frequency resulted in a larger decrement. A hypothesis is proposed to explain why photoacoustic waves are less affected by the fibrous tissue. In ultrasonic scattering, incident direction for each scatterer were similar due to the relatively planar wavefront, hence the signal amplitudes scattered at the transducer direction are also similar. In photoacoustic scattering, the spherical-like wavefront causes different incident directions for different scatterers, therefore the variation of the signal amplitude collected by the transducer increases, resulting in a lower correlation with the microstructure. In addition, the decrement of backscattered energy decreased for a single scatterer when the incident wave was spherical. Experimental and simulation results verified the hypothesis. The discovery implies that photoacoustic imaging has the potential to detect tissues with transverse isotropic structure that may be overlooked by conventional ultrasound imaging.
Dassau, E; Atlas, E; Phillip, M
2011-02-01
Closed-loop algorithms can be found in every aspect of everyday modern life. Automation and control are used constantly to provide safety and to improve quality of life. Closed-loop systems and algorithms can be found in home appliances, automobiles, aviation and more. Can one imagine nowadays driving a car without ABS, cruise control or even anti-sliding control? Similar principles of automation and control can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus (DM). The idea of an algorithmic/technological way to control glycaemia is not new and has been researched for more than four decades. However, recent improvements in both glucose-sensing technology and insulin delivery together with advanced control and systems engineering made this dream of an artificial pancreas possible. The artificial pancreas may be the next big step in the treatment of DM since the use of insulin analogues. An artificial pancreas can be described as internal or external devices that use continuous glucose measurements to automatically manage exogenous insulin delivery with or without other hormones in an attempt to restore glucose regulation in individuals with DM using a control algorithm. This device as described can be internal or external; can use different types of control algorithms with bi-hormonal or uni-hormonal design; and can utilise different ways to administer them. The different designs and implementations have transitioned recently from in silico simulations to clinical evaluation stage with practical applications in mind. This may mark the beginning of a new era in diabetes management with the introduction of semi-closed-loop systems that can prevent or minimise nocturnal hypoglycaemia, to hybrid systems that will manage blood glucose (BG) levels with minimal user intervention to finally fully automated systems that will take the user out of the loop. More and more clinical trials will be needed for the artificial pancreas to become a reality but initial encouraging
Line mixing effects in isotropic Raman spectra of pure N{sub 2}: A classical trajectory study
Ivanov, Sergey V.; Boulet, Christian; Buzykin, Oleg G.; Thibault, Franck
2014-11-14
Line mixing effects in the Q branch of pure N{sub 2} isotropic Raman scattering are studied at room temperature using a classical trajectory method. It is the first study using an extended modified version of Gordon's classical theory of impact broadening and shift of rovibrational lines. The whole relaxation matrix is calculated using an exact 3D classical trajectory method for binary collisions of rigid N{sub 2} molecules employing the most up-to-date intermolecular potential energy surface (PES). A simple symmetrizing procedure is employed to improve off-diagonal cross-sections to make them obeying exactly the principle of detailed balance. The adequacy of the results is confirmed by the sum rule. The comparison is made with available experimental data as well as with benchmark fully quantum close coupling [F. Thibault, C. Boulet, and Q. Ma, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 044303 (2014)] and refined semi-classical Robert-Bonamy [C. Boulet, Q. Ma, and F. Thibault, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 084310 (2014)] results. All calculations (classical, quantum, and semi-classical) were made using the same PES. The agreement between classical and quantum relaxation matrices is excellent, opening the way to the analysis of more complex molecular systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fideles, Bruna; Oliveira, Leonardo B. A.; Colherinhas, Guilherme
2016-01-01
We investigate the nuclear isotropic shielding constants and spin-spin coupling for oxygen and carbons atoms of isomers of tartaric acid in gas phase and in water solutions by Monte Carlo simulation and quantum mechanics calculations using the GIAO-B3LYP approach. Solute polarization effects are included iteratively and play an important role in the quantitative determination of shielding constants. Our MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ results show substantial increases of the dipole moment in solution as compared with the gas phase results (61-221%). The solvent effects on the σ(13O) values are in general small. More appreciable solvent effects can be seen on the σ(17O) and J(Csbnd O).
The double loop mattress suture
Biddlestone, John; Samuel, Madan; Creagh, Terry; Ahmad, Tariq
2014-01-01
An interrupted stitch type with favorable tissue characteristics will reduce local wound complications. We describe a novel high-strength, low-tension repair for the interrupted closure of skin, cartilage, and muscle, the double loop mattress stitch, and compare it experimentally with other interrupted closure methods. The performance of the double loop mattress technique in porcine cartilage and skeletal muscle is compared with the simple, mattress, and loop mattress interrupted sutures in both a novel porcine loading chamber and mechanical model. Wound apposition is assessed by electron microscopy. The performance of the double loop mattress in vivo was confirmed using a series of 805 pediatric laparotomies/laparoscopies. The double loop mattress suture is 3.5 times stronger than the loop mattress in muscle and 1.6 times stronger in cartilage (p ≤ 0.001). Additionally, the double loop mattress reduces tissue tension by 66% compared with just 53% for the loop mattress (p ≤ 0.001). Wound gapping is equal, and wound eversion appears significantly improved (p ≤ 0.001) compared with the loop mattress in vitro. In vivo, the double loop mattress performs as well as the loop mattress and significantly better than the mattress stitch in assessments of wound eversion and dehiscence. There were no episodes of stitch extrusion in our series of patients. The mechanical advantage of its intrinsic pulley arrangement gives the double loop mattress its favorable properties. Wound dehiscence is reduced because this stitch type is stronger and exerts less tension on the tissue than the mattress stitch. We advocate the use of this novel stitch wherever a high-strength, low-tension repair is required. These properties will enhance wound repair, and its application will be useful to surgeons of all disciplines. PMID:24698436
Modeling of compact loop antennas
Baity, F.W.
1987-01-01
A general compact loop antenna model which treats all elements of the antenna as lossy transmission lines has been developed. In addition to capacitively-tuned resonant double loop (RDL) antennas the model treats stub-tuned resonant double loop antennas. Calculations using the model have been compared with measurements on full-scale mockups of resonant double loop antennas for ATF and TFTR in order to refine the transmission line parameters. Results from the model are presented for RDL antenna designs for ATF, TFTR, Tore Supra, and for the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT).
Loop Heat Pipe Startup Behaviors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ku, Jentung
2016-01-01
A loop heat pipe must start successfully before it can commence its service. The startup transient represents one of the most complex phenomena in the loop heat pipe operation. This paper discusses various aspects of loop heat pipe startup behaviors. Topics include the four startup scenarios, the initial fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir that determines the startup scenario, factors that affect the fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir, difficulties encountered during the low power startup, and methods to enhance the startup success. Also addressed are the pressure spike and pressure surge during the startup transient, and repeated cycles of loop startup and shutdown under certain conditions.
Heating Profiles of Coronal Loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plowman, Joseph; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Martens, Petrus C.
2016-05-01
We analyze the temperature and density profiles of coronal loops, as a function of their length, using data from SDO/AIA and Hinode/EIS. The analysis considers the location of the heating along the loop's length, and we conduct a more throrough investigation of our previous preliminary result that heating is concentrated near the loop footpoints. The work now features a larger selection of coronal loops, compared to our previous presentations, and examines their scale-height temperatures to ascertain the extent to which they are hydrostatic.
Modeling of compact loop antennas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baity, F. W.
A general compact loop antenna model which treats all elements of the antenna as lossy transmission lines has been developed. In addition to capacitively-tuned resonant double loop (RDL) antennas the model treats stub-tuned resonant double loop antennas. Calculations using the model have been compared with measurements on full-scale mockups of resonant double loop antennas for ATF and TFTR in order to refine the transmission line parameters. Results from the model are presented for RDL antenna designs for ATF, TFTR, Tore Supra, and for the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT).
Completely inverted hysteresis loops: Inhomogeneity effects or experimental artifacts
Song, C. Cui, B.; Pan, F.; Yu, H. Y.
2013-11-14
Completely inverted hysteresis loops (IHL) are obtained by the superconducting quantum interference device with large cooling fields (>10 kOe) in (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3} films with self-assembled LaSrMnO{sub 4}, an antiferromagnetic interface. Although the behaviours of measured loops show many features characteristic to the IHL, its origin, however, is not due to the exchange coupling between (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3}/LaSrMnO{sub 4}, an often accepted view on IHL. Instead, we demonstrate that the negative remanence arises from the hysteresis of superconducting coils, which drops abruptly when lower cooling fields are utilized. Hence the completely inverted hysteresis loops are experimental artifacts rather than previously proposed inhomogeneity effects in complicated materials.
Design and Experimental Evaluation of Modified Square Loop Feeding for UHF RFID Tags.
Rokunuzzaman, Md; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Arshad, Haslina; Jit Singh, Mandeep; Misran, Norbahiah
2015-01-01
This paper addresses the performance evaluation of a modified square loop antenna design for UHF RFID applications that is excited through a narrow feed line connected to a square loop, an impedance matching network. The square loop dimensions are modified to reach a conjugate impedance matching. A gap is fixed between the feed-lines to link the chip. To achieve impedance matching, the structures of the feed-line are optimized accordingly. In addition, the antenna consists of a straightforward geometry. An 11.9-meter maximum read range is achieved using a compact size of 80 × 44 mm2 and 3.2 W for the effective isotropic radiated power. Additional findings reveal that the proposed tag antenna is able to provide a stable resonance response in the near field of a large metallic surface. PMID:26177376
Design and Experimental Evaluation of Modified Square Loop Feeding for UHF RFID Tags
Rokunuzzaman, Md.; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Arshad, Haslina; Jit Singh, Mandeep; Misran, Norbahiah
2015-01-01
This paper addresses the performance evaluation of a modified square loop antenna design for UHF RFID applications that is excited through a narrow feed line connected to a square loop, an impedance matching network. The square loop dimensions are modified to reach a conjugate impedance matching. A gap is fixed between the feed-lines to link the chip. To achieve impedance matching, the structures of the feed-line are optimized accordingly. In addition, the antenna consists of a straightforward geometry. An 11.9-meter maximum read range is achieved using a compact size of 80 × 44 mm2 and 3.2 W for the effective isotropic radiated power. Additional findings reveal that the proposed tag antenna is able to provide a stable resonance response in the near field of a large metallic surface. PMID:26177376
Loop-the-Loop: Bringing Theory into Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Suwonjandee, N.; Asavapibhop, B.
2012-01-01
During the Thai high-school physics teacher training programme, we used an aluminum loop-the-loop system built by the Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology (IPST) to demonstrate a circular motion and investigate the concept of the conservation of mechanical energy. There were 27 high-school teachers from three provinces,…
Chesi, Stefano; Jaffe, Arthur; Loss, Daniel; Pedrocchi, Fabio L.
2013-11-15
We investigate the role that vortex loops play in characterizing eigenstates of interacting Majoranas. We give some general results and then focus on ladder Hamiltonian examples as a test of further ideas. Two methods yield exact results: (i) A mapping of certain spin Hamiltonians to quartic interactions of Majoranas shows that the spectra of these two examples coincide. (ii) In cases with reflection-symmetric Hamiltonians, we use reflection positivity for Majoranas to characterize vortices in the ground states. Two additional methods suggest wider applicability of these results: (iii) Numerical evidence suggests similar behavior for certain systems without reflection symmetry. (iv) A perturbative analysis also suggests similar behavior without the assumption of reflection symmetry.
Pei, L.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.; Soyars, W.; Martinez, A.; Bossert, R.; DeGraff, B.; Darve, C.; /Fermilab
2011-06-01
The Horizontal Test Stand (HTS) SRF Cavity and Cryomodule 1 (CM1) of eight 9-cell, 1.3GHz SRF cavities are operating at Fermilab. For the cryogenic control system, how to hold liquid level constant in the cryostat by regulation of its Joule-Thompson JT-valve is very important after cryostat cool down to 2.0 K. The 72-cell cryostat liquid level response generally takes a long time delay after regulating its JT-valve; therefore, typical PID control loop should result in some cryostat parameter oscillations. This paper presents a type of PID parameter self-optimal and Time-Delay control method used to reduce cryogenic system parameters oscillation.
Isotropic three-dimensional MRI-Fricke-infused gel dosimetry
Cho, Nai-Yu; Chu, Woei-Chyn; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Chung, Wen-Yuh; Guo, Wan-Yuo
2013-05-15
Purpose: Fricke-infused gel has been shown to be a simple and attainable method for the conformal measurement of absorbed radiation dose. Nevertheless, its accuracy is seriously hindered by the irreversible ferric ion diffusion during magnetic resonance imaging, particularly when three-dimensional (3D) dose measurement in radiosurgery is considered. In this study, the authors developed a fast three-dimensional spin-echo based Fricke gel dosimetry technique to reduce the adverse effects of ferric ion diffusion and to obtain an accurate isotropic 3D dose measurement. Methods: A skull shaped phantom containing Fricke-infused gel was irradiated using Leksell Gamma Knife. The rapid image-based dosimetry technique was applied with the use of a 3D fast spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging sequence. The authors mathematically derived and experimentally validated the correlations between dose-response characteristics and parameters of the 3D fast spin-echo MR imaging sequence. Absorbed dose profiles were assessed and compared to the calculated profiles given by the Gamma Knife treatment planning system. Coefficient of variance (CV%) and coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) were used to evaluate the precision of dose-response curve estimation. The agreement between the measured and the planned 3D dose distributions was quantified by gamma-index analysis of two acceptance criteria. Results: Proper magnetic resonance imaging parameters were explored to render an accurate three-dimensional absorbed dose mapping with a 1 mm{sup 3} isotropic image resolution. The efficacy of the dose-response estimation was approved by an R{sup 2} > 0.99 and an average CV% of 1.6%. Average gamma pass-rate between the experimentally measured and GammaPlan calculated dose distributions were 83.8% and 99.7% for 2%/2 and 3%/3 mm criteria, respectively. Conclusions: With the designed MR imaging sequence and parameters, total 3D MR acquisition time was confined to within 20 min postirradiation
Modification of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence by solid particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Wontae
2005-12-01
Particle-laden flows are prevalent in natural and industrial environments. Dilute loadings of small, heavy particles have been observed to attenuate the turbulence levels of the carrier-phase flow, up to 80% in some cases. We attempt to increase the physical understanding of this complex phenomenon by studying the interaction of solid particles with the most fundamental type of turbulence, which is homogeneous and isotropic with no mean flow. A flow facility was developed that could create air turbulence in a nearly-spherical chamber by means of synthetic jet actuators mounted on the corners. Loudspeakers were used as the actuators. Stationary turbulence and natural decaying turbulence were investigated using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry for the base flow qualification. Results indicated that the turbulence was fairly homogeneous throughout the measurement domain and very isotropic, with small mean flow. The particle-laden flow experiments were conducted in two different environments, the lab and in micro-gravity, to examine the effects of particle wakes and flow structure distortion caused by settling particles. The laboratory experiments showed that glass particles with diameters on the order of the turbulence Kolmogorov length scale attenuated the fluid turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and dissipation rate with increasing particle mass loadings. The main source of fluid TKE production in the chamber was the speakers, but the loss of potential energy of the settling particles also resulted in a significant amount of production of extra TKE. The sink of TKE in the chamber was due to the ordinary fluid viscous dissipation and extra dissipation caused by particles. This extra dissipation could be divided into "unresolved" dissipation caused by local velocity disturbances in the vicinity of the small particles and dissipation caused by large-scale flow distortions from particle wakes and particle clusters. The micro-gravity experiments in NASA's KC-135
Taylor length-scale size particles in Isotropic Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucci, Francesco
The present study investigates the two-way coupling effects of finite-size solid spherical particles on decaying isotropic turbulence using an immersed boundary method. The conventional point particle assumption is valid only in the case of particles with a diameter, dp, much smaller than the Kolmogorov length scale, eta. In a simulation with particles of diameter dp > eta the flow around each particle needs to be resolved. In this study, we use a method similar to that of Uhlmann(2005) [55] that adapts the Immersed Boundary(IB) Method developed by Peskin [38] to simulate the flow around suspended spherical solid particles. The main idea of the method is to distribute a number of Lagrangian points uniformly over the surface of the particle. A force is applied at each Lagrangian point to represent the momentum exchange between the particle and the surrounding fluid. An analytic three-point delta function is used to distribute the force to the Eulerian grid points saddling the spherical surface to satisfy the no-slip condition at each Lagrangian point. Decaying turbulence is simulated in a periodic box with a uniform mesh of up to (512)3 grid points and an initial microscale Reynolds number of up to Relambda0 = 110. We compare the single phase flow (SPF) with particle-laden flows with particles of different diameters. The density of the particle varies from 2.56 to 10 times that of the fluid. The effects of the particles on the temporal development of turbulence kinetic energy E(t), its dissipation rate epsilon( t), its two-way coupling rate of change Ψp( t) and frequency spectra E(o) are discussed. In this study, in contrast to particles with dp < eta [15], particles with dp > eta always increase the dissipation rate of turbulence kinetic energy, epsilon( t). In addition, Ψp(t) is always positive, whereas it can be positive or negative for particles with dp < eta. The balance between these two effects caused E(t) to be smaller than that of the single-phase flow
Isotropic treatment of EMF effects in advanced photomasks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tirapu Azpiroz, Jaione; Rosenbluth, Alan E.; Graur, Ioana; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Villares, Gustavo
2009-10-01
Classical methods for modeling electromagnetic scattering from the topography of lithographic reticles must place a high premium on fast computation, and toward that end they apply pre-stored perturbations (e.g. the so-called boundary layers) to feature edges in order to approximate the impact of finite-thickness mask films. Though approximate, these methods involve E&M calculations with vector fields, and so employ edge-field corrections that are different for edges oriented parallel or perpendicular to the vector field. As a result these methods entail a requirement for two separate aerial image simulations using orthogonal source polarizations in order to represent unpolarized illumination. This imposes a minimum 2X runtime penalty relative to baseline thin-mask (TMA) simulations, since the known method for combining the effect of both polarizations into one single set of imaging TCCs applies only to thin-mask calculations. More severe performance penalties are common in so-called sparse imaging methodologies when topographic effects are included, since the separated treatment of feature edges and the internal area of the features can increase the number of memory lookups required. In this paper an isotropic field perturbation approach is evaluated, in which an isotropic edge field correction, common to all edge orientations, mimics the effect of the true parallel and perpendicular edge field perturbations when the mask is illuminated with unpolarized light, as well as in certain cases of polarized illumination. The isofield is not an ad hoc empirical correction but rather an accurate approximation in the limit of modest departures from scalar TMA. More specifically, we show that the isofield model accounts for vector imaging effects with full accuracy in the TMA terms, and in an approximate way in the electromagnetic edge-field terms that becomes accurate when the polarization dependence of the TMA terms is small. We will show with comparison to more rigorous
Prestack reverse time migration for tilted transversely isotropic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, Seonghyung; Hien, Doan Huy
2013-04-01
According to having interest in unconventional resource plays, anisotropy problem is naturally considered as an important step for improving the seismic image quality. Although it is well known prestack depth migration for the seismic reflection data is currently one of the powerful tools for imaging complex geological structures, it may lead to migration error without considering anisotropy. Asymptotic analysis of wave propagation in transversely isotropic (TI) media yields a dispersion relation of couple P- and SV wave modes that can be converted to a fourth order scalar partial differential equation (PDE). By setting the shear wave velocity equal zero, the fourth order PDE, called an acoustic wave equation for TI media, can be reduced to couple of second order PDE systems and we try to solve the second order PDE by the finite difference method (FDM). The result of this P wavefield simulation is kinematically similar to elastic and anisotropic wavefield simulation. We develop prestack depth migration algorithm for tilted transversely isotropic media using reverse time migration method (RTM). RTM is a method for imaging the subsurface using inner product of source wavefield extrapolation in forward and receiver wavefield extrapolation in backward. We show the subsurface image in TTI media using the inner product of partial derivative wavefield with respect to physical parameters and observation data. Since the partial derivative wavefields with respect to the physical parameters require extremely huge computing time, so we implemented the imaging condition by zero lag crosscorrelation of virtual source and back propagating wavefield instead of partial derivative wavefields. The virtual source is calculated directly by solving anisotropic acoustic wave equation, the back propagating wavefield on the other hand is calculated by the shot gather used as the source function in the anisotropic acoustic wave equation. According to the numerical model test for a simple
Ladd-Lively, Jennifer L
2008-10-01
The objectives of the work discussed in this report were to: (1) develop a flow loop that would simulate the purified uranium-bearing aqueous stream exiting the solvent extraction process in a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP); (2) develop a test plan that would simulate normal operation and disturbances that could be anticipated in an NUCP; (3) use the flow loop to test commercially available flowmeters for use as safeguards monitors; and (4) recommend a flowmeter for production-scale testing at an NUCP. There has been interest in safeguarding conversion plants because the intermediate products [uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}), uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}), and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6})] are all suitable uranium feedstocks for producing special nuclear materials. Furthermore, if safeguards are not applied virtually any nuclear weapons program can obtain these feedstocks without detection by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Historically, IAEA had not implemented safeguards until the purified UF{sub 6} product was declared as feedstock for enrichment plants. H. A. Elayat et al. provide a basic definition of a safeguards system: 'The function of a safeguards system on a chemical conversion plant is in general terms to verify that no useful nuclear material is being diverted to use in a nuclear weapons program'. The IAEA now considers all highly purified uranium compounds as candidates for safeguarding. DOE is currently interested in 'developing instruments, tools, strategies, and methods that could be of use to the IAEA in the application of safeguards' for materials found in the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle-prior to the production of the uranium hexafluoride or oxides that have been the traditional starting point for IAEA safeguards. Several national laboratories, including Oak Ridge, Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Brookhaven, have been involved in developing tools or techniques for safeguarding conversion plants. This study
Quantum graph as a quantum spectral filter
Turek, Ondrej; Cheon, Taksu
2013-03-15
We study the transmission of a quantum particle along a straight input-output line to which a graph {Gamma} is attached at a point. In the point of contact we impose a singularity represented by a certain properly chosen scale-invariant coupling with a coupling parameter {alpha}. We show that the probability of transmission along the line as a function of the particle energy tends to the indicator function of the energy spectrum of {Gamma} as {alpha}{yields}{infinity}. This effect can be used for a spectral analysis of the given graph {Gamma}. Its applications include a control of a transmission along the line and spectral filtering. The result is illustrated with an example where {Gamma} is a loop exposed to a magnetic field. Two more quantum devices are designed using other special scale-invariant vertex couplings. They can serve as a band-stop filter and as a spectral separator, respectively.
Quantum correlation via quantum coherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Chang-shui; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Haiqing
2014-06-01
Quantum correlation includes quantum entanglement and quantum discord. Both entanglement and discord have a common necessary condition—quantum coherence or quantum superposition. In this paper, we attempt to give an alternative understanding of how quantum correlation is related to quantum coherence. We divide the coherence of a quantum state into several classes and find the complete coincidence between geometric (symmetric and asymmetric) quantum discords and some particular classes of quantum coherence. We propose a revised measure for total coherence and find that this measure can lead to a symmetric version of geometric quantum correlation, which is analytic for two qubits. In particular, this measure can also arrive at a monogamy equality on the distribution of quantum coherence. Finally, we also quantify a remaining type of quantum coherence and find that for two qubits, it is directly connected with quantum nonlocality.
CALL FOR PAPERS: Quantum control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mancini, Stefano; Wiseman, Howard M.; Man'ko, Vladimir I.
2004-10-01
Over the last few decades, the achievements of highly precise technologies for manipulating systems at quantum scales have paved the way for the development of quantum control. Moreover, the proliferation of results in quantum information suggest that control theory might profitably be re-examined from this perspective. Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics will publish a topical issue devoted to quantum control. The Guest Editors invite contributions from researchers working in any area related to quantum control. Topics to be covered include: • Quantum Hamiltonian dynamics and programming control • Quantum decoherence control • Open loop control • Closed loop (feedback) control • Quantum measurement theory • Quantum noise and filtering • Estimation and decision theory • Quantum error correction • Group representation in quantum control • Coherent control in quantum optics and lasers • Coherent control in cavity QED and atom optics • Coherent control in molecular dynamics The topical issue is scheduled for publication in November 2005 and the DEADLINE for submission of contributions is 28 February 2005. All contributions will be peer-reviewed in accordance with the normal refereeing procedures and standards of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics. Submissions should preferably be in either standard LaTeX form or Microsoft Word. Advice on publishing your work in the journal may be found at www.iop.org/journals/authors/jopb. Enquiries regarding this topical issue may be addressed to the Publisher, Dr Claire Bedrock (claire.bedrock@iop.org). There are no page charges for publication. The corresponding author of each paper published will receive a complimentary copy of the topical issue. Contributions to the topical issue should preferably be submitted electronically at www.iop.org/journals/authors/jopb or by e-mail to jopb@iop.org. Authors unable to submit online or by e-mail may send hard copy contributions
Cloning quantum entanglement in arbitrary dimensions
Karpov, E.; Navez, P.; Cerf, N.J.
2005-10-15
We have found a quantum cloning machine that optimally duplicates the entanglement of a pair of d-dimensional quantum systems prepared in an arbitrary isotropic state. It maximizes the entanglement of formation contained in the two copies of any maximally entangled input state, while preserving the separability of unentangled input states. Moreover, it cannot increase the entanglement of formation of isotropic states. For large d, the entanglement of formation of each clone tends to one-half the entanglement of the input state, which corresponds to a classical behavior. Finally, we investigate a local entanglement cloner, which yields entangled clones with one-fourth the input entanglement in the large-d limit.
Loop-the-Loop: An Easy Experiment, A Challenging Explanation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asavapibhop, B.; Suwonjandee, N.
2010-07-01
A loop-the-loop built by the Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology (IPST) was used in Thai high school teachers training program to demonstrate a circular motion and investigate the concept of the conservation of mechanical energy. We took videos using high speed camera to record the motions of a spherical steel ball moving down the aluminum inclined track at different released positions. The ball then moved into the circular loop and underwent a projectile motion upon leaving the track. We then asked the teachers to predict the landing position of the ball if we changed the height of the whole loop-the-loop system. We also analyzed the videos using Tracker, a video analysis software. It turned out that most teachers did not realize the effect of the friction between the ball and the track and could not obtain the correct relationship hence their predictions were inconsistent with the actual landing positions of the ball.
Is quantum secret sharing different to the sharing of a quantum secret?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lance, Andrew M.; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P.; Tyc, Tomas; Sanders, Barry C.; Lam, Ping Koy
2004-02-01
We present an experimental scheme to perform continuous variable (2,3) threshold quantum secret sharing on the quadratures amplitudes of bright light beams. It requires a pair of entangled light beams and an electro-optic feedforward loop for the reconstruction of the secret. We examine the efficacy of quantum secret sharing in terms of fidelity, as well as the signal transfer coefficients and the conditional variances of the reconstructed output state. We show that, in the ideal limit, perfect secret reconstruction is possible. We discuss two different definitions of quantum secret sharing: the sharing of a quantum secret and the sharing of a classical secret with quantum resources.
A Comprehensive Theory of Yielding and Failure for Isotropic Materials
Christensen, R M
2006-08-10
A theory of yielding and failure for homogeneous and isotropic materials is given. The theory is calibrated by two independent, measurable properties and from those it predicts possible failure for any given state of stress. It also differentiates between ductile yielding and brittle failure. The explicit ductile-brittle criterion depends not only upon the material specification through the two properties, but also and equally importantly depends upon the type of imposed stress state. The Mises criterion is a special (limiting) case of the present theory. A close examination of this case shows that the Mises material idealization does not necessarily imply ductile behavior under all conditions, only under most conditions. When the first invariant of the yield/failure stress state is sufficiently large relative to the distortional part, brittle failure will be expected to occur. For general material types, it is shown that it is possible to have a state of spreading plastic flow, but as the elastic-plastic boundary advances, the conditions for yielding on it can change over to conditions for brittle failure because of the evolving stress state. The general theory is of a three dimensional form and it applies to full density materials for which the yield/failure strength in uniaxial tension is less than or at most equal to the magnitude of that in uniaxial compression.
Statistics of pressure and pressure gradient in homogeneous isotropic turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gotoh, T.; Rogallo, R. S.
1994-01-01
The statistics of pressure and pressure gradient in stationary isotropic turbulence are measured within direct numerical simulations at low to moderate Reynolds numbers. It is found that the one-point pdf of the pressure is highly skewed and that the pdf of the pressure gradient is of stretched exponential form. The power spectrum of the pressure P(k) is found to be larger than the corresponding spectrum P(sub G)(k) computed from a Gaussian velocity field having the same energy spectrum as that of the DNS field. The ratio P(k)/P(sub G)(k), a measure of the pressure-field intermittence, grows with wavenumber and Reynolds number as -R(sub lambda)(exp 1/2)log(k/k(sub d)) for k less than k(sub d)/2 where k(sub d) is the Kolmogorov wavenumber. The Lagrangian correlations of pressure gradient and velocity are compared and the Lagrangian time scale of the pressure gradient is observed to be much shorter than that of the velocity.
Hindered Energy Cascade in Highly Helical Isotropic Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stepanov, Rodion; Golbraikh, Ephim; Frick, Peter; Shestakov, Alexander
2015-12-01
The conventional approach to the turbulent energy cascade, based on Richardson-Kolmogorov phenomenology, ignores the topology of emerging vortices, which is related to the helicity of the turbulent flow. It is generally believed that helicity can play a significant role in turbulent systems, e.g., supporting the generation of large-scale magnetic fields, but its impact on the energy cascade to small scales has never been observed. We suggest, for the first time, a generalized phenomenology for isotropic turbulence with an arbitrary spectral distribution of the helicity. We discuss various scenarios of direct turbulent cascades with new helicity effect, which can be interpreted as a hindering of the spectral energy transfer. Therefore, the energy is accumulated and redistributed so that the efficiency of nonlinear interactions will be sufficient to provide a constant energy flux. We confirm our phenomenology by high Reynolds number numerical simulations based on a shell model of helical turbulence. The energy in our model is injected at a certain large scale only, whereas the source of helicity is distributed over all scales. In particular, we found that the helical bottleneck effect can appear in the inertial interval of the energy spectrum.
Creep fatigue life prediction for engine hot section materials (isotropic)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moreno, V.
1983-01-01
The Hot Section Technology (HOST) program, creep fatigue life prediction for engine hot section materials (isotropic), is reviewed. The program is aimed at improving the high temperature crack initiation life prediction technology for gas turbine hot section components. Significant results include: (1) cast B1900 and wrought IN 718 selected as the base and alternative materials respectively; (2) fatigue test specimens indicated that measurable surface cracks appear early in the specimen lives, i.e., 15% of total life at 871 C and 50% of life at 538 c; (3) observed crack initiation sites are all surface initiated and are associated with either grain boundary carbides or local porosity, transgrannular cracking is observed at the initiation site for all conditions tested; and (4) an initial evaluation of two life prediction models, representative of macroscopic (Coffin-Mason) and more microscopic (damage rate) approaches, was conducted using limited data generated at 871 C and 538 C. It is found that the microscopic approach provides a more accurate regression of the data used to determine crack initiation model constants, but overpredicts the effect of strain rate on crack initiation life for the conditions tested.
Unsaturated Comptonization of isotropic photon spectra by relativistic electrons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loeb, Abraham; Mckee, Christopher F.; Lahav, Ofer
1991-01-01
The multiple scattering approach for evaluating the transformation of an arbitrary soft photon spectrum as a result of unsaturated Compton scatterings in a medium of relativistic electrons is explored. The medium is assumed to be infinite and spatially homogeneous but may be time-dependent, and the photons are isotropic. It is shown that the distortion of a radiation spectrum can be described analytically in a compact form using the Fourier transform of the single-scattering probability. In the nonrelativistic case, the validity of the known analytical results derived from the Kompaneets (1957) equation is extended to arbitrary electron distribution functions and photon spectra. For relativistic electrons, simple expressions are obtained for the total energy that is transferred from the electrons to the photons and for the distortion in the Rayleigh-Jeans regime of a blackbody spectrum. It is demonstrated that the treatment applies to Comptonization in a relativistic jet and that Comptonization of very soft trapped photons by semirelativistic electrons in an expanding medium leads naturally to a log Gaussian spectrum, of the form observed in blazars.
Coherent Vortex Simulations of 3D isotropic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldstein, Daniel E.; Vasilyev, Oleg V.; Kevlahan, Nicholas K.-R.
2006-11-01
This is the first of three talks on the wavelet filter based dynamically adaptive eddy capturing computational methodology that unifies variable fidelity simulation approaches such as wavelet-based DNS, Coherent Vortex Simulation (CVS), and Stochastic Coherent Adaptive Large Eddy Simulation. The commonality of these approaches is their ability to identify and ``track" on an adaptive mesh energetic coherent vortical structures. In CVS the velocity field is decomposed into two orthogonal parts: a coherent, inhomogeneous, non-Gaussian component and an incoherent, homogeneous, Gaussian component. This separation of coherent and incoherent components is achieved by wavelet thresholding which can be viewed as a non-linear filter that depends on each flow realization. The essence of the CVS approach is to solve for the coherent non-Gaussian component of a turbulent flow field. It has been shown previously that second generation bi-orthogonal wavelet threshold filtering is able to decompose a turbulent velocity field such that the total resulting SGS dissipation is approximately zero. This physically allows a CVS simulation to recover low order statistics with no SGS model. In this work CVS simulations of decaying incompressible 3D isotropic turbulence are compared to DNS results. -6pt
Pressure and higher-order spectra for homogeneous isotropic turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pullin, D. I.; Rogallo, R. S.
1994-01-01
The spectra of the pressure, and other higher-order quantities including the dissipation, the enstrophy, and the square of the longitudinal velocity derivative are computed using data obtained from direct numerical simulation of homogeneous isotropic turbulence at Taylor-Reynolds numbers R(sub lambda) in the range 38 - 170. For the pressure spectra we find reasonable collapse in the dissipation range (of the velocity spectrum) when scaled in Kolmogorov variables and some evidence, which is not conclusive, for the existence of a k(exp -7/3) inertial range where k = absolute value of K, is the modulus of the wavenumber. The power spectra of the dissipation, the enstrophy, and the square of the longitudinal velocity derivative separate in the dissipation range, but appear to converge together in the short inertial range of the simulations. A least-squares curve-fit in the dissipation range for one value of R(sub lambda) = 96 gives a form for the spectrum of the dissipation as k(exp 0)exp(-Ck eta), for k(eta) greater than 0.2, where eta is the Kolmogorov length and C is approximately equal to 2.5.
Component separation of a isotropic Gravitational Wave Background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parida, Abhishek; Mitra, Sanjit; Jhingan, Sanjay
2016-04-01
A Gravitational Wave Background (GWB) is expected in the universe from the superposition of a large number of unresolved astrophysical sources and phenomena in the early universe. Each component of the background (e.g., from primordial metric perturbations, binary neutron stars, milli-second pulsars etc.) has its own spectral shape. Many ongoing experiments aim to probe GWB at a variety of frequency bands. In the last two decades, using data from ground-based laser interferometric gravitational wave (GW) observatories, upper limits on GWB were placed in the frequency range of 0~ 50‑100 Hz, considering one spectral shape at a time. However, one strong component can significantly enhance the estimated strength of another component. Hence, estimation of the amplitudes of the components with different spectral shapes should be done jointly. Here we propose a method for "component separation" of a statistically isotropic background, that can, for the first time, jointly estimate the amplitudes of many components and place upper limits. The method is rather straightforward and needs negligible amount of computation. It utilises the linear relationship between the measurements and the amplitudes of the actual components, alleviating the need for a sampling based method, e.g., Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) or matched filtering, which are computationally intensive and cumbersome in a multi-dimensional parameter space. Using this formalism we could also study how many independent components can be separated using a given dataset from a network of current and upcoming ground based interferometric detectors.
Energy transfer and dissipation in forced isotropic turbulence.
McComb, W D; Berera, A; Yoffe, S R; Linkmann, M F
2015-04-01
A model for the Reynolds-number dependence of the dimensionless dissipation rate C(ɛ) was derived from the dimensionless Kármán-Howarth equation, resulting in C(ɛ)=C(ɛ,∞)+C/R(L)+O(1/R(L)(2)), where R(L) is the integral scale Reynolds number. The coefficients C and C(ɛ,∞) arise from asymptotic expansions of the dimensionless second- and third-order structure functions. This theoretical work was supplemented by direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of forced isotropic turbulence for integral scale Reynolds numbers up to R(L)=5875 (R(λ)=435), which were used to establish that the decay of dimensionless dissipation with increasing Reynolds number took the form of a power law R(L)(n) with exponent value n=-1.000±0.009 and that this decay of C(ɛ) was actually due to the increase in the Taylor surrogate U(3)/L. The model equation was fitted to data from the DNS, which resulted in the value C=18.9±1.3 and in an asymptotic value for C(ɛ) in the infinite Reynolds-number limit of C(ɛ,∞)=0.468±0.006. PMID:25974586
Three-dimensional magnetospheric equilibrium with isotropic pressure
Cheng, C.Z.
1995-05-01
In the absence of the toroidal flux, two coupled quasi two-dimensional elliptic equilibrium equations have been derived to describe self-consistent three-dimensional static magnetospheric equilibria with isotropic pressure in an optimal ({Psi},{alpha},{chi}) flux coordinate system, where {Psi} is the magnetic flux function, {chi} is a generalized poloidal angle, {alpha} is the toroidal angle, {alpha} = {phi} {minus} {delta}({Psi},{phi},{chi}) is the toroidal angle, {delta}({Psi},{phi},{chi}) is periodic in {phi}, and the magnetic field is represented as {rvec B} = {del}{Psi} {times} {del}{alpha}. A three-dimensional magnetospheric equilibrium code, the MAG-3D code, has been developed by employing an iterative metric method. The main difference between the three-dimensional and the two-dimensional axisymmetric solutions is that the field-aligned current and the toroidal magnetic field are finite for the three-dimensional case, but vanish for the two-dimensional axisymmetric case. With the same boundary flux surface shape, the two-dimensional axisymmetric results are similar to the three-dimensional magnetosphere at each local time cross section.
Clustering of vertically constrained passive particles in homogeneous isotropic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Pietro, Massimo; van Hinsberg, Michel A. T.; Biferale, Luca; Clercx, Herman J. H.; Perlekar, Prasad; Toschi, Federico
2015-05-01
We analyze the dynamics of small particles vertically confined, by means of a linear restoring force, to move within a horizontal fluid slab in a three-dimensional (3D) homogeneous isotropic turbulent velocity field. The model that we introduce and study is possibly the simplest description for the dynamics of small aquatic organisms that, due to swimming, active regulation of their buoyancy, or any other mechanism, maintain themselves in a shallow horizontal layer below the free surface of oceans or lakes. By varying the strength of the restoring force, we are able to control the thickness of the fluid slab in which the particles can move. This allows us to analyze the statistical features of the system over a wide range of conditions going from a fully 3D incompressible flow (corresponding to the case of no confinement) to the extremely confined case corresponding to a two-dimensional slice. The background 3D turbulent velocity field is evolved by means of fully resolved direct numerical simulations. Whenever some level of vertical confinement is present, the particle trajectories deviate from that of fluid tracers and the particles experience an effectively compressible velocity field. Here, we have quantified the compressibility, the preferential concentration of the particles, and the correlation dimension by changing the strength of the restoring force. The main result is that there exists a particular value of the force constant, corresponding to a mean slab depth approximately equal to a few times the Kolmogorov length scale η , that maximizes the clustering of the particles.
Decay Power Law in, High Intensity, Isotropic Turbulent Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koster, Timothy; Puga, Alejandro; Larue, John
2014-11-01
In the study reported here, isotropy is determined using the measure proposed by George (1992), where isotropy corresponds to those downstream positions where the product of the Taylor Reynolds number and the skewness of the velocity derivative is a constant. Straight forward approach can be used which is based on the observation of Batchelor (1953), that the square of the Talor micorscale is linearly related to downstream distance relative to the virtual origin. The fact that the decay of downstream velocity variance is described by a power law is shown to imply power law behavior for various other parameters such as the dissipation, the integral length scale, the Taylor microscale, the Kolmogorov microscale and the Taylor Reynolds number and that there is an algebraic relationship between the various power law exponents. Results are presented for mean velocities of 6 and 8 m/s for the downstream decay of the parameters listed in the preceding. The corresponding values of the Taylor Reynolds number at the start of the isotropic region are 290 and 400, and the variance decay exponent and virtual origin are found to be respectively -1.707 and -1.298 and -27.95 and -5.757. The exponents in the decay law for the other parameters are found to be within +/- 3% of the expected values. University of California Irvine Research Funds.
Interacting scales and energy transfer in isotropic turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhou, YE
1993-01-01
The dependence of the energy transfer process on the disparity of the interacting scales is investigated in the inertial and far-dissipation ranges of isotropic turbulence. The strategy for generating the simulated flow fields and the choice of a disparity parameter to characterize the scaling of the interactions is discussed. The inertial range is found to be dominated by relatively local interactions, in agreement with the Kolmogorov assumption. The far-dissipation is found to be dominated by relatively non-local interactions, supporting the classical notion that the far-dissipation range is slaved to the Kolmogorov scales. The measured energy transfer is compared with the classical models of Heisenberg, Obukhov, and the more detailed analysis of Tennekes and Lumley. The energy transfer statistics measured in the numerically simulated flows are found to be nearly self-similar for wave numbers in the inertial range. Using the self-similar form measured within the limited scale range of the simulation, an 'ideal' energy transfer function and the corresponding energy flux rate for an inertial range of infinite extent are constructed. From this flux rate, the Kolmogorov constant is calculated to be 1.5, in excellent agreement with experiments.
Inverse energy cascade in three-dimensional isotropic turbulence.
Biferale, Luca; Musacchio, Stefano; Toschi, Federico
2012-04-20
We study the statistical properties of homogeneous and isotropic three-dimensional (3D) turbulent flows. By introducing a novel way to make numerical investigations of Navier-Stokes equations, we show that all 3D flows in nature possess a subset of nonlinear evolution leading to a reverse energy transfer: from small to large scales. Up to now, such an inverse cascade was only observed in flows under strong rotation and in quasi-two-dimensional geometries under strong confinement. We show here that energy flux is always reversed when mirror symmetry is broken, leading to a distribution of helicity in the system with a well-defined sign at all wave numbers. Our findings broaden the range of flows where the inverse energy cascade may be detected and rationalize the role played by helicity in the energy transfer process, showing that both 2D and 3D properties naturally coexist in all flows in nature. The unconventional numerical methodology here proposed, based on a Galerkin decimation of helical Fourier modes, paves the road for future studies on the influence of helicity on small-scale intermittency and the nature of the nonlinear interaction in magnetohydrodynamics. PMID:22680722
Isotropically sensitive optical filter employing atomic resonance transitions
Marling, John B.
1981-01-01
An ultra-high Q isotropically sensitive optical filter or optical detector employing atomic resonance transitions. More specifically, atomic resonance transitions utilized in conjunction with two optical bandpass filters provide an optical detector having a wide field of view (.about.2.pi. steradians) and very narrow acceptance bandwidth approaching 0.01 A. A light signal to be detected is transmitted through an outer bandpass filter into a resonantly absorbing atomic vapor, the excited atomic vapor then providing a fluorescence signal at a different wavelength which is transmitted through an inner bandpass filter. The outer and inner bandpass filters have no common transmission band, thereby resulting in complete blockage of all optical signals that are not resonantly shifted in wavelength by the intervening atomic vapor. Two embodiments are disclosed, one in which the light signal raises atoms contained in the atomic vapor from the ground state to an excited state from which fluorescence occurs, and the other in which a pump laser is used to raise the atoms in the ground state to a first excited state from which the light signal then is resonantly absorbed, thereby raising the atoms to a second excited state from which fluorescence occurs. A specific application is described in which an optical detector according to the present invention can be used as an underwater detector for light from an optical transmitter which could be located in an orbiting satellite.
Isotropically sensitive optical filter employing atomic resonance transitions
Marling, J.B.
An ultra-high Q isotropically sensitive optical filter or optical detector is disclosed employing atomic resonance transitions. More specifically, atomic resonance transitions utilized in conjunction with two optical bandpass filters provide an optical detector having a wide field of view (approx. 2 ..pi.. steradians) and very narrow acceptance bandwidth approaching 0.01A. A light signal to be detected is transmitted through an outer bandpass filter into a resonantly absorbing atomic vapor, the excited atomic vapor than providing a fluorescence signal at a different wavelength which is transmitted through an inner bandpass filters have no common transmission band, therby resulting in complete blockage of all optical signals that are not resonantly shifted in wavelength by the intervening atomic vapor. Two embodiments are disclosed, one in which the light signal raises atoms contained in the atomic vapor from the ground state to an excited state from which fluorescence occurs, and the other in which a pump laser is used to raise the atoms in the ground state to a first excited state from which the light signal then is resonantly absorbed, thereby raising the atoms to a second excited state from which fluorescence occurs. A specific application is described in which an optical detector according to the present invention can be located in an orbiting satellite.
Hindered Energy Cascade in Highly Helical Isotropic Turbulence.
Stepanov, Rodion; Golbraikh, Ephim; Frick, Peter; Shestakov, Alexander
2015-12-01
The conventional approach to the turbulent energy cascade, based on Richardson-Kolmogorov phenomenology, ignores the topology of emerging vortices, which is related to the helicity of the turbulent flow. It is generally believed that helicity can play a significant role in turbulent systems, e.g., supporting the generation of large-scale magnetic fields, but its impact on the energy cascade to small scales has never been observed. We suggest, for the first time, a generalized phenomenology for isotropic turbulence with an arbitrary spectral distribution of the helicity. We discuss various scenarios of direct turbulent cascades with new helicity effect, which can be interpreted as a hindering of the spectral energy transfer. Therefore, the energy is accumulated and redistributed so that the efficiency of nonlinear interactions will be sufficient to provide a constant energy flux. We confirm our phenomenology by high Reynolds number numerical simulations based on a shell model of helical turbulence. The energy in our model is injected at a certain large scale only, whereas the source of helicity is distributed over all scales. In particular, we found that the helical bottleneck effect can appear in the inertial interval of the energy spectrum. PMID:26684120
A study of local anisotropy in globally isotropic incompressible MHD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milano, L. J.; Dmitruk, P.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Montgomery, D.
2000-10-01
It is a well known fact that in presence of a DC applied field, MHD turbulence develops spectral anisotropy from an isotropic initial condition [1]. Typically, the reduced spectrum is steeper in the direction of the magnetic field than it is in any transverse direction. Theoretical insight into the origin of this effect has been derived from simulations in which there is a uniform DC magnetic field, but suggestions of a similar anisotropy is seen in various laboratory devices and also in the solar wind [2,3]. One might expect that a DC field is not essential, and it is the local mean field that is responsible. Here we investigate the occurence of local anisotropy in 3 dimensional MHD, i.e. we search for a local version of the spectral anisotropy effect. We perform 3D MHD pseudo-spectral incompressible relaxation simulations, and compute structure functions accumulated according to whether the separation is parallel to, or transverse to, the local magnetic field. Preliminary results show that correlations decay slower in the locally averaged magnetic field direction. [1] J. Shebalin, W. Matthaeus and D. Montgomery, J. Plasma Phys. 29, 525 (1983) [2] W.H. Matthaeus, M.L. Goldsteon and D.A. Roberts, J. Geophys. Res. 95, 20 673 (1990) [3] J. Armstrong, W. Coles, M. Kojima and B. Rickett, Ap. J. 358, 685 (1990)
Transversely isotropic elastic properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Lianxi; Li, Jackie
2005-01-01
Five independent effective elastic moduli of a transversely isotropic multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) are studied by analyzing its deformations under four loading conditions, i.e., axial tension, torsional moment, in-plane biaxial tension, and in-plane tension-compression stress. Two distributions of the tension loading on the outermost tube and on all tubes are considered, which correspond to the tensile and compressive Young’s moduli. The general relations between the interwall stresses and strains are linearized due to the small strain condition, where the interwall stresses correspond to the variation of the interwall van der Waals forces. Three interwall elastic constants are used to characterize the linear relations associated with three basic interwall deformation modes, i.e., normal deformation in radial direction and two shear deformations in axial and circumferential directions. By taking each tube as a single-walled carbon nanotube, the analytical expressions for the interwall shear stress under the tensile loading on the outermost tube and five elastic moduli of a double-walled carbon nanotube are first obtained. Then, a replacement method is proposed to derive the corresponding expressions for the cases of more walls than two. These analytical expressions are plotted for the case of MWNT’s composed of armchair tubes, where the interwall elastic constants are approximated as the corresponding ones of the graphite. The effect of the wall number, diameter, chirality, and length of the MWNT on the shear stress and five elastic moduli are displayed and discussed.
Testing a similarity theory for isotropic turbulence on DNS data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melander, Mogens; Fabijonas, Bruce
2006-11-01
Using direct numerical simulations, we consider the issue of self-similarity in 3D incompressible isotropic turbulence. The starting point for our investigation is a similarity theory we have developed on the basis of high Reynolds number shell model calculations. Like Kolmogorov's 1941 theory, our theory calls for similarity across all scales in the inertial range. Unlike K41, our theory does not fail on account of intermittency, but is developed to blossom in that environment. To observe self-similarity, it is essential that the correct variables are used, otherwise one sees only intermittency. The correct variables are reasonably easy to spot for the shell model, but they are more difficult to identify for the full Navier-Stokes equations. Moreover, one has to overcome the fact that the DNS has lower Reynolds numbers than in the shell model simulations so that the inertial range is shorter. Using the technique ESS, we clear this obstacle with only a minor modification to the theory. The DNS data then collapse on the theoretical pdf at all scales.
Magnetic hysteresis measurements of thin films under isotropic stress.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holland, Patrick; Dubey, Archana; Geerts, Wilhelmus
2000-10-01
Nowadays, ferromagnetic thin films are widely applied in devices for information technology (credit cards, video recorder tapes, floppies, hard disks) and sensors (air bags, anti-breaking systems, navigation systems). Thus, with the increase in the use of magnetic media continued investigation of magnetic properties of materials is necessary to help in determining the useful properties of materials for new or improved applications. We are currently interested in studying the effect of applied external stress on Kerr hysteresis curves of thin magnetic films. The Ni and NiFe films were grown using DC magnetron sputtering with Ar as the sputter gas (pAr=4 mTorr; Tsub=55-190 C). Seed and cap layers of Ti were used on all films for adhesion and oxidation protection, respectively. A brass membrane pressure cell was designed to apply in-plane isotropic stress to thin films. In this pressure cell, gas pressure is used to deform a flexible substrate onto which a thin magnetic film has been sputtered. The curvature of the samples could be controlled by changing the gas pressure to the cell. Magneto-Optical in-plane hysteresis curves at different values of strain were measured. The results obtained show that the stress sensitivity is dependent on the film thickness. For the 500nm NiFe films, the coercivity strongly decreased as a function of the applied stress.
Creep fatigue life prediction for engine hot section materials (isotropic)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moreno, V.
1983-01-01
The activities performed during the first year of the NASA HOST Program, Creep Fatigue Life Prediction for Engine Hot Section Materials (Isotropic), being conducted by Pratt & Whitney Aircraft are summarized. The program is a 5 year, two part effort aimed at improving the high temperature crack initiation prediction technology for gas turbine hot section components. Significant results of the program produced thus far are discussed. Cast B1900 + Hf and wrought IN 718 were selected as the base and alternate materials, respectively. A single heat of B1900 + Hf was obtained and test specimens fabricated. The material was characterized with respect to grain size, gamma prime size, carbide distribution, and dislocation density. Monotonic tensile and creep testing has shown engineering properties within anticipated scatter for this material. Examination of the tensile tests has shown a transition from inhomogeneous planar slip within the grains at lower temperatures to more homogeneous matrix deformation. Examination of the creep tests has shown a transgranular failure mode at 1400 F and an intergranular failure mode at 1600 F and 1800 F.
Local topology of energy transport in isotropic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boschung, Jonas; Meneveau, Charles
2012-11-01
Similar to the velocity vector field, whose tangent (stream) lines represent how fluid volume (or mass in constant density flows) is transported in the flow, it is of interest to consider the vector field corresponding to the transport of mechanical energy (Meyers & Meneveau, 2012). The transport includes advection and viscous diffusion. In order to characterize the local topology of this vector field in turbulence, we examine statistical properties of its gradient field. This energy transport field is not divergence-free, due to dissipation and unsteady changes of kinetic energy. Therefore, the first invariant (the trace) of its gradient tensor is not zero, as in compressible flow. The three invariants PE, QE and RE of the energy transport gradient tensor are analyzed using concepts developed earlier for analysis of compressible flows. Data from DNS of isotropic turbulence is used, from the JHU database (Li et al. 2008, JoT), as well as other sources. Contracting node-like topology occurs very frequently, consistent with the dissipative nature of fluid turbulence. Further topological properties are established based on conditional PDFs of the invariants, and flow visualizations are used to develop insights into the local structure of the energy transport vector field. This work is supported by project CMMI-0941530. The authors also thank Prof. J. Meyers, Prof. N. Peters and Mr. P. Schaefer for interesting discussions on this topic.