Science.gov

Sample records for item set mining

  1. Statistical evaluation of synchronous spike patterns extracted by frequent item set mining

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Emiliano; Picado-Muiño, David; Denker, Michael; Borgelt, Christian; Grün, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    We recently proposed frequent itemset mining (FIM) as a method to perform an optimized search for patterns of synchronous spikes (item sets) in massively parallel spike trains. This search outputs the occurrence count (support) of individual patterns that are not trivially explained by the counts of any superset (closed frequent item sets). The number of patterns found by FIM makes direct statistical tests infeasible due to severe multiple testing. To overcome this issue, we proposed to test the significance not of individual patterns, but instead of their signatures, defined as the pairs of pattern size z and support c. Here, we derive in detail a statistical test for the significance of the signatures under the null hypothesis of full independence (pattern spectrum filtering, PSF) by means of surrogate data. As a result, injected spike patterns that mimic assembly activity are well detected, yielding a low false negative rate. However, this approach is prone to additionally classify patterns resulting from chance overlap of real assembly activity and background spiking as significant. These patterns represent false positives with respect to the null hypothesis of having one assembly of given signature embedded in otherwise independent spiking activity. We propose the additional method of pattern set reduction (PSR) to remove these false positives by conditional filtering. By employing stochastic simulations of parallel spike trains with correlated activity in form of injected spike synchrony in subsets of the neurons, we demonstrate for a range of parameter settings that the analysis scheme composed of FIM, PSF and PSR allows to reliably detect active assemblies in massively parallel spike trains. PMID:24167487

  2. Using Frequent Item Set Mining and Feature Selection Methods to Identify Interacted Risk Factors - The Atrial Fibrillation Case Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Liu, Haifeng; Du, Xin; Hu, Gang; Xie, Guotong; Zhang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Disease risk prediction is highly important for early intervention and treatment, and identification of predictive risk factors is the key point to achieve accurate prediction. In addition to original independent features in a dataset, some interacted features, such as comorbidities and combination therapies, may have non-additive influence on the disease outcome and can also be used in risk prediction to improve the prediction performance. However, it is usually difficult to manually identify the possible interacted risk factors due to the combination explosion of features. In this paper, we propose an automatic approach to identify predictive risk factors with interactions using frequent item set mining and feature selection methods. The proposed approach was applied in the real world case study of predicting ischemic stroke and thromboembolism for atrial fibrillation patients on the Chinese atrial fibrillation registry dataset, and the results show that our approach can not only improve the prediction performance, but also identify the comorbidities and combination therapies that have potential influences on TE occurrence for AF. PMID:27577446

  3. Optimal Assembly of Tests with Item Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2000-01-01

    Presents six computational methods based on mixed-integer programming for assembling tests from a bank with an item-set structure and evaluated these methods using mathematical programming feasibiity and expected solution times. Illustrates these methods with two data sets from the Law School Admission Test. Discusses the best approximations to…

  4. Efficient Algorithms for Segmentation of Item-Set Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chundi, Parvathi; Rosenkrantz, Daniel J.

    We propose a special type of time series, which we call an item-set time series, to facilitate the temporal analysis of software version histories, email logs, stock market data, etc. In an item-set time series, each observed data value is a set of discrete items. We formalize the concept of an item-set time series and present efficient algorithms for segmenting a given item-set time series. Segmentation of a time series partitions the time series into a sequence of segments where each segment is constructed by combining consecutive time points of the time series. Each segment is associated with an item set that is computed from the item sets of the time points in that segment, using a function which we call a measure function. We then define a concept called the segment difference, which measures the difference between the item set of a segment and the item sets of the time points in that segment. The segment difference values are required to construct an optimal segmentation of the time series. We describe novel and efficient algorithms to compute segment difference values for each of the measure functions described in the paper. We outline a dynamic programming based scheme to construct an optimal segmentation of the given item-set time series. We use the item-set time series segmentation techniques to analyze the temporal content of three different data sets—Enron email, stock market data, and a synthetic data set. The experimental results show that an optimal segmentation of item-set time series data captures much more temporal content than a segmentation constructed based on the number of time points in each segment, without examining the item set data at the time points, and can be used to analyze different types of temporal data.

  5. Effects of Decreasing the Number of Common Items in Equating Link Item Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanick, Patricia L.; Huang, Chi-Yu

    The term "equating" refers to a statistical procedure that adjusts test scores on different forms of the same examination so that scores can be interpreted interchangeably. This study examines the impact of equating with fewer items than originally planned when items have been removed from the equating set for a variety of reasons. A real data set…

  6. Vocabulary Mining for Information Retrieval: Rough Sets and Fuzzy Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Padmini; Ruiz, Miguel E.; Kraft, Donald H.; Chen, Jianhua

    2001-01-01

    Explains vocabulary mining in information retrieval and describes a framework for vocabulary mining that allows the use of rough set-based approximations even when documents and queries are described using weighted, or fuzzy, representations. Examines coordination between multiple vocabulary views and applies the framework to the Unified Medical…

  7. Application of Item Response Theory in Standard Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Toh Poh; Gopal, Saminanthan

    1989-01-01

    A design for test equating based on Item Response Theory is proposed and illustrated through a simulation study of about 1,000 primary students taking two examinations. This test-equating method allows decision makers in a standard setting exercise access to high quality information. (SLD)

  8. Non-Derivable Item Set and Non-Derivable Literal Set Representations of Patterns Admitting Negation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryszkiewicz, Marzena

    The discovery of frequent patterns has attracted a lot of attention of the data mining community. While an extensive research has been carried out for discovering positive patterns, little has been offered for discovering patterns with negation. The main hindrance to the progress of such research is huge amount of frequent patterns with negation, which exceeds the number of frequent positive patterns by orders of magnitude. In this paper, we examine properties of derivable and non-derivable patterns, including those with negated items. In particular, we establish important relationships among patterns admitting negation that have the same canonical variant. By analogy to frequent non-derivable itemsets, which constitute a concise lossless representation NDR of frequent positive patterns, we introduce frequent non-derivable literal sets lossless representation NDRL of frequent positive patterns admitting negation. Then we use the derived properties of literal sets to offer a concise representation NDIR of frequent patterns admitting negation that is built only from positive non-derivable itemsets. The relationships between the three representations are identified. The transformation of the new representations into not less concise lossless closure representations is discussed.

  9. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the M5-50: An Implementation of the International Personality Item Pool Item Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Socha, Alan; Cooper, Christopher A.; McCord, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Goldberg's International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; Goldberg, 1999) provides researchers with public-domain, free-access personality measurement scales that are proxies of well-established published scales. One of the more commonly used IPIP sets employs 50 items to measure the 5 broad domains of the 5-factor model, with 10 items per factor. The…

  10. "Sample-Independent" Item Parameters? An Investigation of the Stability of IRT Item Parameters Estimated from Small Data Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.

    Whether item response theory (IRT) is useful to the small-scale testing practitioner is examined. The stability of IRT item parameters is evaluated with respect to the classical item parameters (i.e., p-values, biserials) obtained from the same data set. Previous research investigating the effect of sample size on IRT parameter estimation has…

  11. Double Mine Building, general view in setting; view northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Double Mine Building, general view in setting; view northeast - Fort McKinley, Double Mine Building, East side of East Side Drive, approximately 125 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  12. Method of data mining including determining multidimensional coordinates of each item using a predetermined scalar similarity value for each item pair

    DOEpatents

    Meyers, Charles E.; Davidson, George S.; Johnson, David K.; Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Wylie, Brian N.

    1999-01-01

    A method of data mining represents related items in a multidimensional space. Distance between items in the multidimensional space corresponds to the extent of relationship between the items. The user can select portions of the space to perceive. The user also can interact with and control the communication of the space, focusing attention on aspects of the space of most interest. The multidimensional spatial representation allows more ready comprehension of the structure of the relationships among the items.

  13. Method of data mining including determining multidimensional coordinates of each item using a predetermined scalar similarity value for each item pair

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, C.E.; Davidson, G.S.; Johnson, D.K.; Hendrickson, B.A.; Wylie, B.N.

    1999-11-16

    A method of data mining represents related items in a multidimensional space. Distance between items in the multidimensional space corresponds to the extent of relationship between the items. The user can select portions of the space to perceive. The user also can interact with and control the communication of the space, focusing attention on aspects of the space of most interest. The multidimensional spatial representation allows more ready comprehension of the structure of the relationships among the items.

  14. Data Mining Using Extensions of the Rough Set Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingras, P. J.; Yao, Y. Y.

    1998-01-01

    Examines basic issues of data mining using the theory of rough sets, a recent proposal for generalizing classical set theory. Demonstrates that a generalized rough set model can be used for generating rules from incomplete databases. Discusses the importance of rule extraction from incomplete databases in data mining. (AEF)

  15. Matching the Judgmental Task with Standard Setting Panelist Expertise: The Item-Descriptor (ID) Matching Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Perie, Marianne; Johnson, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Psychometricians continue to introduce new approaches to setting cut scores for educational assessments in an attempt to improve on current methods. In this paper we describe the Item-Descriptor (ID) Matching method, a method based on IRT item mapping. In ID Matching, test content area experts match items (i.e., their judgments about the knowledge…

  16. Combining the Best of Two Standard Setting Methods: The Ordered Item Booklet Angoff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Russell W.; Davis-Becker, Susan L.; O'Leary, Lisa S.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a hybrid standard setting method that combines characteristics of the Angoff (1971) and Bookmark (Mitzel, Lewis, Patz & Green, 2001) methods. The proposed approach utilizes strengths of each method while addressing weaknesses. An ordered item booklet, with items sorted based on item difficulty, is used in combination…

  17. Application of rough set for medical images data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuyan; Wang, Chunmei; Chen, Yan

    2010-08-01

    To study the application of Rough set algorithm for diagnosis breast cancer, attribute reduction strategies of rough set are applied to the data mining of the mammography classification, proposes a medical images classifier based on association rules. Attribute reduction strategies of rough set for medical image data mining are realized. The experiment results are given. The experimental results show that the system performs well in accuracy, verified the great potential of rough set in assistant medical treatment.

  18. Identifying an Efficient Set of Items Sensitive to Clinical-Range Externalizing Problems in Children

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Isaac T.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied item response theory to identify an efficient set of items of the Achenbach Externalizing scale from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; 33 items) and Teacher's Report Form (TRF; 35 items) that were sensitive to clinical-range scores. Mothers and teachers rated children's externalizing problems annually from ages 5 to 13 years in two independent samples (Ns = 585 and 1,199). Item properties for each rater across ages 5–8 and 9–13 were examined with item response theory. We identified 10 mother- and teacher-reported items from both samples based on the items' measurement precision for sub-clinical and clinical levels of externalizing problems: externalizing problems that involve meanness to others, destroying others' things, fighting, lying and cheating, attacking people, screaming, swearing/obscene language, temper tantrums, threatening people, and being loud. Scores on the scales using these items had strong reliability and psychometric properties, capturing nearly as much information as the full Externalizing scale for classifying clinical levels of externalizing problems. Scores on the scale with the 10 CBCL items had moderate accuracy, equivalent to the full Externalizing scale, in classifying diagnoses of conduct disorder based on a research diagnostic interview. Of course, comprehensive clinical assessment would consider additional items, dimensions of behavior, and sources of information, too, but it appears that the behaviors tapped by this select set of items may be core to externalizing psychopathology in children. PMID:26322800

  19. Identifying an efficient set of items sensitive to clinical-range externalizing problems in children.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Isaac T; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Lansford, Jennifer E; Pettit, Gregory S

    2016-05-01

    The present study applied item response theory to identify an efficient set of items of the Achenbach Externalizing scale from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; 33 items) and Teacher's Report Form (TRF; 35 items) that were sensitive to clinical-range scores. Mothers and teachers rated children's externalizing problems annually from ages 5 to 13 years in 2 independent samples (Ns = 585 and 1,199). Item properties for each rater across ages 5-8 and 9-13 were examined with item response theory. We identified 10 mother- and teacher-reported items from both samples based on the items' measurement precision for subclinical and clinical levels of externalizing problems: externalizing problems that involve meanness to others, destroying others' things, fighting, lying and cheating, attacking people, screaming, swearing/obscene language, temper tantrums, threatening people, and being loud. Scores on the scales using these items had strong reliability and psychometric properties, capturing nearly as much information as the full Externalizing scale for classifying clinical levels of externalizing problems. Scores on the scale with the 10 CBCL items had moderate accuracy, equivalent to the full Externalizing scale, in classifying diagnoses of conduct disorder based on a research diagnostic interview. Of course, comprehensive clinical assessment would consider additional items, dimensions of behavior, and sources of information, too, but it appears that the behaviors tapped by this select set of items may be core to externalizing psychopathology in children. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26322800

  20. Psychometric aspects of item mapping for criterion-referenced interpretation and bookmark standard setting.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Huynh

    2010-01-01

    Locating an item on an achievement continuum (item mapping) is well-established in technical work for educational/psychological assessment. Applications of item mapping may be found in criterion-referenced (CR) testing (or scale anchoring, Beaton and Allen, 1992; Huynh, 1994, 1998a, 2000a, 2000b, 2006), computer-assisted testing, test form assembly, and in standard setting methods based on ordered test booklets. These methods include the bookmark standard setting originally used for the CTB/TerraNova tests (Lewis, Mitzel, Green, and Patz, 1999), the item descriptor process (Ferrara, Perie, and Johnson, 2002) and a similar process described by Wang (2003) for multiple-choice licensure and certification examinations. While item response theory (IRT) models such as the Rasch and two-parameter logistic (2PL) models traditionally place a binary item at its location, Huynh has argued in the cited papers that such mapping may not be appropriate in selecting items for CR interpretation and scale anchoring. PMID:20351450

  1. Physics Mining of Multi-Source Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helly, John; Karimabadi, Homa; Sipes, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Powerful new parallel data mining algorithms can produce diagnostic and prognostic numerical models and analyses from observational data. These techniques yield higher-resolution measures than ever before of environmental parameters by fusing synoptic imagery and time-series measurements. These techniques are general and relevant to observational data, including raster, vector, and scalar, and can be applied in all Earth- and environmental science domains. Because they can be highly automated and are parallel, they scale to large spatial domains and are well suited to change and gap detection. This makes it possible to analyze spatial and temporal gaps in information, and facilitates within-mission replanning to optimize the allocation of observational resources. The basis of the innovation is the extension of a recently developed set of algorithms packaged into MineTool to multi-variate time-series data. MineTool is unique in that it automates the various steps of the data mining process, thus making it amenable to autonomous analysis of large data sets. Unlike techniques such as Artificial Neural Nets, which yield a blackbox solution, MineTool's outcome is always an analytical model in parametric form that expresses the output in terms of the input variables. This has the advantage that the derived equation can then be used to gain insight into the physical relevance and relative importance of the parameters and coefficients in the model. This is referred to as physics-mining of data. The capabilities of MineTool are extended to include both supervised and unsupervised algorithms, handle multi-type data sets, and parallelize it.

  2. Optimal Assembly of Tests with Item Sets. Research Report 98-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    Six methods for assembling tests from a pool with an item-set structure are presented. All methods are computational and based on the technique of mixed integer programming. The methods are evaluated using such criteria as the feasibility of their linear programming problems and their expected solution times. The methods are illustrated for two…

  3. Conversion of Proportion-Correct Standard-Setting Judgments to Cutoff Scores on the Item Response Theory Theta Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtz, Gregory M.; Jones, J. Patrick; Jones, Christian N.

    2008-01-01

    This study compares the efficacy of different strategies for translating item-level, proportion-correct standard-setting judgments into a theta-metric test cutoff score for use with item response theory (IRT) scoring, using Monte Carlo methods. Simulated Angoff-type ratings, consisting of 1,000 independent 75 Item x13 Rater matrices, were…

  4. Intelligent Archiving and Physics Mining of Large Data Sets (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimabadi, H.

    2009-12-01

    There are unique challenges in all aspects related to large data sets, from storage, search and access, to analysis and file sharing. With few exceptions, the adoption of the latest technologies to deal with the management and mining of large data sets has been slow in heliosciences. Web services such as CDAweb have been very successful and have been widely adopted by the community. There are also significant efforts going towards Virtual Observatories (VxOs). The main thrust of VxOs has so far been on data discovery, aggregation and uniform presentation. While work remains, many VxOs can now be used to access data. However data is not knowledge and the challenge of extracting physics from the large data sets remains. Here we review our efforts on (i) implementing advanced data mining techniques as part of the data-to-knowledge discovery pipeline, and (ii) use of social networking paradigm in the development of a science collaboratory environment that enables sharing of large files, creation of projects, among others. We will present new data mining software that works on a variety of data formats and demonstrate its capability through several examples of analysis of spacecraft data. The use of such techniques in intelligent archiving will be discussed. Finally, the use of our science collaboratory service and its unique sharing features such as universal accessibility of staged files will be illustrated.

  5. Using Data Mining to Predict K-12 Students' Performance on Large-Scale Assessment Items Related to Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiufeng; Ruiz, Miguel E.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study on using data mining to predict K-12 students' competence levels on test items related to energy. Data sources are the 1995 Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 1999 TIMSS-Repeat, 2003 Trend in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), and the National Assessment of Educational…

  6. Method using a density field for locating related items for data mining

    DOEpatents

    Wylie, Brian N.

    2002-01-01

    A method for locating related items in a geometric space transforms relationships among items to geometric locations. The method locates items in the geometric space so that the distance between items corresponds to the degree of relatedness. The method facilitates communication of the structure of the relationships among the items. The method makes use of numeric values as a measure of similarity between each pairing of items. The items are given initial coordinates in the space. An energy is then determined for each item from the item's distance and similarity to other items, and from the density of items assigned coordinates near the item. The distance and similarity component can act to draw items with high similarities close together, while the density component can act to force all items apart. If a terminal condition is not yet reached, then new coordinates can be determined for one or more items, and the energy determination repeated. The iteration can terminate, for example, when the total energy reaches a threshold, when each item's energy is below a threshold, after a certain amount of time or iterations.

  7. A Clarification on the Response Probability Criterion RP67 for Standard Settings Based on Bookmark and Item Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Huynh

    2006-01-01

    By analyzing the Fisher information allotted to the correct response of a Rasch binary item, Huynh (1994) established the response probability criterion 0.67 (RP67) for standard settings based on bookmarks and item mapping. The purpose of this note is to help clarify the conceptual and psychometric framework of the RP criterion.

  8. Assembling a Computerized Adaptive Testing Item Pool as a Set of Linear Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Ariel, Adelaide; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2006-01-01

    Test-item writing efforts typically results in item pools with an undesirable correlational structure between the content attributes of the items and their statistical information. If such pools are used in computerized adaptive testing (CAT), the algorithm may be forced to select items with less than optimal information, that violate the content…

  9. Discovering Psychological Principles by Mining Naturally Occurring Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Robert L; Lupyan, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The very expertise with which psychologists wield their tools for achieving laboratory control may have had the unwelcome effect of blinding psychologists to the possibilities of discovering principles of behavior without conducting experiments. When creatively interrogated, a diverse range of large, real-world data sets provides powerful diagnostic tools for revealing principles of human judgment, perception, categorization, decision-making, language use, inference, problem solving, and representation. Examples of these data sets include patterns of website links, dictionaries, logs of group interactions, collections of images and image tags, text corpora, history of financial transactions, trends in twitter tag usage and propagation, patents, consumer product sales, performance in high-stakes sporting events, dialect maps, and scientific citations. The goal of this issue is to present some exemplary case studies of mining naturally existing data sets to reveal important principles and phenomena in cognitive science, and to discuss some of the underlying issues involved with conducting traditional experiments, analyses of naturally occurring data, computational modeling, and the synthesis of all three methods. PMID:27404718

  10. Method of locating related items in a geometric space for data mining

    DOEpatents

    Hendrickson, B.A.

    1999-07-27

    A method for locating related items in a geometric space transforms relationships among items to geometric locations. The method locates items in the geometric space so that the distance between items corresponds to the degree of relatedness. The method facilitates communication of the structure of the relationships among the items. The method is especially beneficial for communicating databases with many items, and with non-regular relationship patterns. Examples of such databases include databases containing items such as scientific papers or patents, related by citations or keywords. A computer system adapted for practice of the present invention can include a processor, a storage subsystem, a display device, and computer software to direct the location and display of the entities. The method comprises assigning numeric values as a measure of similarity between each pairing of items. A matrix is constructed, based on the numeric values. The eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the matrix are determined. Each item is located in the geometric space at coordinates determined from the eigenvectors and eigenvalues. Proper construction of the matrix and proper determination of coordinates from eigenvectors can ensure that distance between items in the geometric space is representative of the numeric value measure of the items' similarity. 12 figs.

  11. Method of locating related items in a geometric space for data mining

    DOEpatents

    Hendrickson, Bruce A.

    1999-01-01

    A method for locating related items in a geometric space transforms relationships among items to geometric locations. The method locates items in the geometric space so that the distance between items corresponds to the degree of relatedness. The method facilitates communication of the structure of the relationships among the items. The method is especially beneficial for communicating databases with many items, and with non-regular relationship patterns. Examples of such databases include databases containing items such as scientific papers or patents, related by citations or keywords. A computer system adapted for practice of the present invention can include a processor, a storage subsystem, a display device, and computer software to direct the location and display of the entities. The method comprises assigning numeric values as a measure of similarity between each pairing of items. A matrix is constructed, based on the numeric values. The eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the matrix are determined. Each item is located in the geometric space at coordinates determined from the eigenvectors and eigenvalues. Proper construction of the matrix and proper determination of coordinates from eigenvectors can ensure that distance between items in the geometric space is representative of the numeric value measure of the items' similarity.

  12. Identification of Differential Item Functioning in Multiple-Group Settings: A Multivariate Outlier Detection Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magis, David; De Boeck, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We focus on the identification of differential item functioning (DIF) when more than two groups of examinees are considered. We propose to consider items as elements of a multivariate space, where DIF items are outlying elements. Following this approach, the situation of multiple groups is a quite natural case. A robust statistics technique is…

  13. Large-Scale Constraint-Based Pattern Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Feida

    2009-01-01

    We studied the problem of constraint-based pattern mining for three different data formats, item-set, sequence and graph, and focused on mining patterns of large sizes. Colossal patterns in each data formats are studied to discover pruning properties that are useful for direct mining of these patterns. For item-set data, we observed robustness of…

  14. Data mining in big data sets of spectroscopic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, A.-Li

    2015-08-01

    More and more spectroscopic surveys provide many big datasets, in which various rare objects could be found. In this presentation, we suggested two different data mining approaches based on spectral feature by detection and machine learning way respectively. The most difficult thing of data mining is try to understand the result, and most of found outliers were finally identified as bad data. Candidates need follow up observations or multi waveband data to be confirmed. Some successful examples of newly discovered rare objects in SDSS and LAMOST data release are presented in this talk.

  15. Evidence for a Global Sampling Process in Extraction of Summary Statistics of Item Sizes in a Set

    PubMed Central

    Tokita, Midori; Ueda, Sachiyo; Ishiguchi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown that our visual system may construct a “summary statistical representation” over groups of visual objects. Although there is a general understanding that human observers can accurately represent sets of a variety of features, many questions on how summary statistics, such as an average, are computed remain unanswered. This study investigated sampling properties of visual information used by human observers to extract two types of summary statistics of item sets, average and variance. We presented three models of ideal observers to extract the summary statistics: a global sampling model without sampling noise, global sampling model with sampling noise, and limited sampling model. We compared the performance of an ideal observer of each model with that of human observers using statistical efficiency analysis. Results suggest that summary statistics of items in a set may be computed without representing individual items, which makes it possible to discard the limited sampling account. Moreover, the extraction of summary statistics may not necessarily require the representation of individual objects with focused attention when the sets of items are larger than 4. PMID:27242622

  16. Set of Criteria for Efficiency of the Process Forming the Answers to Multiple-Choice Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybanov, Alexander Aleksandrovich

    2013-01-01

    Is offered the set of criteria for assessing efficiency of the process forming the answers to multiple-choice test items. To increase accuracy of computer-assisted testing results, it is suggested to assess dynamics of the process of forming the final answer using the following factors: loss of time factor and correct choice factor. The model…

  17. Improving the Scalability of an Exact Approach for Frequent Item Set Hiding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMacchia, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances have led to the generation of large databases of organizational data recognized as an information-rich, strategic asset for internal analysis and sharing with trading partners. Data mining techniques can discover patterns in large databases including relationships considered strategically relevant to the owner of the data.…

  18. Metals and metalloids in nestling tree swallows and their dietary items near oilsands mine operations in Northern Alberta.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Christine M; Smits, Judit E G; Barclay, Robert M R

    2016-08-15

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting near oilsands development in northern Alberta are potentially exposed to elevated levels of metals. The objective of this study was to determine whether levels of metals and metalloid elements in dietary items and tissues of nestling tree swallows inhabiting areas near oilsands mine operations were higher compared to those of reference sites. We hypothesized that if there was increased, industry-related exposure to metals, it would be via the diet. We identified the invertebrate prey in the stomach contents of nestlings. We also collected invertebrates using Malaise traps near nest boxes, and analyzed those taxa found in the nestling diet to understand potential variability in metal exposure. For most elements, we found no significant differences in concentrations in the liver, kidney, or stomach contents between sites near to and far from oilsands operations. Concentrations of five elements were positively correlated among tissues and stomach contents. For invertebrates collected from Malaise traps, location differences occurred in some absolute elemental concentrations, which were most often highest at reference sites away from mining operations. We found no evidence that nestling tree swallows accumulated metals approaching toxic levels. Tree swallows consumed relatively high quantities of terrestrial insects, possibly limiting exposure to water borne, food-web-related contaminants. We suggest that annual variability associated with elemental exposure and dietary levels of elements be considered when interpreting concentrations in bird tissues. PMID:27110982

  19. Mining knowledge in One Night Stands data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansaturio, M. E.; Arratia, O.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we set up a procedure that aims at improving the orbits of the known near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) by making use of the One Night Stands (ONS) file distributed by the Minor Planet Center. The identification algorithm employed is of the observation attribution type and takes into account the higher apparent motion exhibited by this kind of asteroids. The application of this algorithm together with the ONS file is not straightforward, as in practice such a file presents several problems that must be managed prior to the massive treatment of the information contained in it. We include a three-step protocol to handle these drawbacks. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of the results obtained with this procedure, the main conclusion being that more than 80 NEA orbits have been improved.

  20. Development and Validation of the Standard Chinese Version of the CARE Item Set (CARE-C) for Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ke-Vin; Hung, Chen-Yu; Kao, Chien-Wei; Tan, Fuk-Tang; Gage, Barbara; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Han, Der-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Continuity Assessment Record and Evaluation (CARE) item set is a standardized, integrative scale for evaluation of functional status across acute and postacute care (PAC) providers. The aim of this study was to develop a Chinese version of the CARE (CARE-C) item set and to examine its reliability and validity for assessment of functional outcomes among stroke patients. The CARE-C was administered in two samples. Sample 1 included 30 stroke patients in the outpatient clinic setting for the purpose of examining interrater and test–retest reliabilities and internal consistency. Sample 2 included 138 stroke patients admitted to rehabilitation units for the purpose of investigating criterion-related validity with the Barthel index, Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale, EuroQOL five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D), and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The CARE-C was categorized into 11 subscales, 52 items of which were analyzed. At the subscale level, the interrater reliability and test–retest reliability expressed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.72 to 0.99 and 0.60 to 1.00, respectively. Six of the 11 subscales met acceptable levels of internal consistency (Cronbach alpha > 0.7). The criterion-related validity of the CARE-C showed moderate to high correlations of its subscales of cognition and basic and instrumental activities of daily living with the Barthel index, IADL scale, and MMSE. The CARE-C is a useful instrument for evaluating functional quality metrics in the Chinese stroke population. The development of the CARE-C also facilitates the assessment of the PAC program in Taiwan and future research is warranted for validating the capability of CARE-C to identify patients’ functional change over time and its generalizability for nonstroke populations. PMID:26496322

  1. Mining temporal data sets: hypoplastic left heart syndrome case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusiak, Andrew; Caldarone, Christopher A.; Kelleher, Michael D.; Lamb, Fred S.; Persoon, Thomas J.; Gan, Yuan; Burns, Alex

    2003-03-01

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) affects infants and is uniformly fatal without surgery. Post-surgery mortality rates are highly variable and dependent on postoperative management. The high mortality after the first stage surgery usually occurs within the first few days after procedure. Typically, the deaths are attributed to the unstable balance between the pulmonary and systemic circulations. An experienced team of physicians, nurses, and therapists is required to successfully manage the infant. However, even the most experienced teams report significant mortality due to the extremely complex relationships among physiologic parameters in a given patient. A data acquisition system was developed for the simultaneous collection of 73 physiologic, laboratory, and nurse-assessed variables. Data records were created at intervals of 30 seconds. An expert-validated wellness score was computed for each data record. A training data set consisting of over 5000 data records from multiple patients was collected. Preliminary results demonstratd that the knowledge discovery approach was over 94.57% accurate in predicting the "wellness score" of an infant. The discovered knowledge can improve care of complex patients by development of an intelligent simulator that can be used to support decisions.

  2. Testing whether the DSM-5 personality disorder trait model can be measured with a reduced set of items: An item response theory investigation of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Maples, Jessica L; Carter, Nathan T; Few, Lauren R; Crego, Cristina; Gore, Whitney L; Samuel, Douglas B; Williamson, Rachel L; Lynam, Donald R; Widiger, Thomas A; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F; Miller, Joshua D

    2015-12-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes an alternative model of personality disorders (PDs) in Section III, consisting in part of a pathological personality trait model. To date, the 220-item Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012) is the only extant self-report instrument explicitly developed to measure this pathological trait model. The present study used item response theory-based analyses in a large sample (n = 1,417) to investigate whether a reduced set of 100 items could be identified from the PID-5 that could measure the 25 traits and 5 domains. This reduced set of PID-5 items was then tested in a community sample of adults currently receiving psychological treatment (n = 109). Across a wide range of criterion variables including NEO PI-R domains and facets, DSM-5 Section II PD scores, and externalizing and internalizing outcomes, the correlational profiles of the original and reduced versions of the PID-5 were nearly identical (rICC = .995). These results provide strong support for the hypothesis that an abbreviated set of PID-5 items can be used to reliably, validly, and efficiently assess these personality disorder traits. The ability to assess the DSM-5 Section III traits using only 100 items has important implications in that it suggests these traits could still be measured in settings in which assessment-related resources (e.g., time, compensation) are limited. PMID:25844534

  3. Keeping it simple: studying grammatical encoding with lexically reduced item sets.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Alma; Acheson, Daniel J; Meyer, Antje S

    2014-01-01

    Compared to the large body of work on lexical access, little research has been done on grammatical encoding in language production. An exception is the generation of subject-verb agreement. Here, two key findings have been reported: (1) speakers make more agreement errors when the head and local noun of a phrase mismatch in number than when they match [e.g., the key to the cabinet(s)]; and (2) this attraction effect is asymmetric, with stronger attraction for singular than for plural head nouns. Although these findings are robust, the cognitive processes leading to agreement errors and their significance for the generation of correct agreement are not fully understood. We propose that future studies of agreement, and grammatical encoding in general, may benefit from using paradigms that tightly control the variability of the lexical content of the material. We report two experiments illustrating this approach. In both of them, the experimental items featured combinations of four nouns, four color adjectives, and two prepositions. In Experiment 1, native speakers of Dutch described pictures in sentences such as the circle next to the stars is blue. In Experiment 2, they carried out a forced-choice task, where they read subject noun phrases (e.g., the circle next to the stars) and selected the correct verb-phrase (is blue or are blue) with a button press. Both experiments showed an attraction effect, with more errors after subject phrases with mismatching, compared to matching head and local nouns. This effect was stronger for singular than plural heads, replicating the attraction asymmetry. In contrast, the response times recorded in Experiment 2 showed similar attraction effects for singular and plural head nouns. These results demonstrate that critical agreement phenomena can be elicited reliably in lexically reduced contexts. We discuss the theoretical implications of the findings and the potential and limitations of studies using lexically simple materials. PMID

  4. Evaluating the Bookmark Standard Setting Method: The Impact of Random Item Ordering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Becker, Susan L.; Buckendahl, Chad W.; Gerrow, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the world, cut scores are an important aspect of a high-stakes testing program because they are a key operational component of the interpretation of test scores. One method for setting standards that is prevalent in educational testing programs--the Bookmark method--is intended to be a less cognitively complex alternative to methods…

  5. Diesel exhaust and coal mine dust: lung cancer risk in occupational settings

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, B.; Jockel, K.H.

    2006-09-15

    Conflicting evidence on the carcinogenicity of diesel exhaust (DE) and coal mine dust in occupational settings exist. Exposure measurement in most studies is inferred on the basis of job classifications and may lead to misclassification. Confounding behavioral factors (i.e., smoking) and occupational risk factors (exposure to asbestos, arsenic, radon) need to be considered. We evaluated the epidemiological evidence and current findings of the carcinogenicity of DE and coal mine dust in occupational settings. Pertaining literature was identified through Medline search and recent review articles. Strengths and limitations of recent approaches are discussed. Many epidemiological studies have addressed the question of carcinogenicity in workers exposed to DE, and most showed a low-to-medium increase in the risk of bronchial carcinoma. The pooled relative risk (RR) estimates lie between 1.33 and 1.47, and a consistent rise in risk across various job categories and study designs point to a causal relationship. Data on the carcinogenicity of coal mine dust are less consistent and the potential for confounding by unmeasured risk factors (arsenic, radon, DE) are higher. While silica as one of its components has been evaluated as carcinogenic, there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of pure coal dust according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). There is sufficient evidence for a causal relationship between DE and lung cancer in occupational settings. The evidence for coal mine dust is less convincing, but individual studies show an increase in risk of lung cancer in exposed workers. 4 refs.

  6. Knowledge Mining from Clinical Datasets Using Rough Sets and Backpropagation Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Nahato, Kindie Biredagn; Harichandran, Khanna Nehemiah; Arputharaj, Kannan

    2015-01-01

    The availability of clinical datasets and knowledge mining methodologies encourages the researchers to pursue research in extracting knowledge from clinical datasets. Different data mining techniques have been used for mining rules, and mathematical models have been developed to assist the clinician in decision making. The objective of this research is to build a classifier that will predict the presence or absence of a disease by learning from the minimal set of attributes that has been extracted from the clinical dataset. In this work rough set indiscernibility relation method with backpropagation neural network (RS-BPNN) is used. This work has two stages. The first stage is handling of missing values to obtain a smooth data set and selection of appropriate attributes from the clinical dataset by indiscernibility relation method. The second stage is classification using backpropagation neural network on the selected reducts of the dataset. The classifier has been tested with hepatitis, Wisconsin breast cancer, and Statlog heart disease datasets obtained from the University of California at Irvine (UCI) machine learning repository. The accuracy obtained from the proposed method is 97.3%, 98.6%, and 90.4% for hepatitis, breast cancer, and heart disease, respectively. The proposed system provides an effective classification model for clinical datasets. PMID:25821508

  7. Acknowledging How Older Australian Women Experience Life After Stroke: How Does the WHO 18-Item Brief ICF Core Set for Stroke Compare?

    PubMed

    Tavener, Meredith; Thijsen, Amanda; Hubbard, Isobel J; Francis, J Lynn; Grennall, Claire; Levi, Christopher; Byles, Julie

    2015-01-01

    We examined older women's qualitative experiences of stroke with the World Health Organization's 18-item Brief International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for Stroke. Women were participants of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, born between 1921 and 1926, who had experienced a stroke in the previous 3 years. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted of women's qualitative experiences of stroke, which were then examined with the 18-item Brief Core Set for Stroke for congruency. Our analysis showed that for older Australian women, their concerns of poststroke living were not adequately classified, potentially impeding a full recovery. PMID:26042797

  8. Setting standards for severity of common symptoms in oncology using the PROMIS item banks and expert judgment

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung; Garcia, Sofia; Cook, Karon F.; Rosenbloom, Sarah; Lai, Jin-Shei; Tatum, Donna Surges; Gershon, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the use of patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) has increased markedly, clinical interpretation of scores remains lacking. We developed a method to identify clinical severity thresholds for pain, fatigue, depression, and anxiety in people with cancer. Methods Using available Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) item bank response data collected on 840 cancer patients, symptom vignettes across a range of symptom severity were developed and placed on index cards. Cards represented symptom severity at five-point intervals differences on the T score metric [mean = 50; standard deviation (SD) = 10]. Symptom vignettes for each symptom were anchored on these standardized scores at 0.5 SD increments across the full range of severity. Clinical experts, blind to the PROMIS score associated with each vignette, rank-ordered the vignettes by severity, then arrived at consensus regarding which two vignettes were at the upper and lower boundaries of normal and mildly symptomatic for each symptom. The procedure was repeated to identify cut scores separating mildly from moderately symptomatic, and moderately from severely symptomatic scores. Clinician severity rankings were then compared to the T scores upon which the vignettes were based. Results For each of the targeted PROs, the severity rankings reached by clinician consensus perfectly matched the numerical rankings of their associated T scores. Across all symptoms, the thresholds (cut scores) identified to differentiate normal from mildly symptomatic were near a T score of 50. Cut scores differentiating mildly from moderately symptomatic were at or near 60, and those separating moderately from severely symptomatic were at or near 70. Conclusions The study results provide empirically generated PROMIS T score thresholds that differentiate levels of symptom severity for pain interference, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. The convergence of clinical judgment with self

  9. The flexibility of context-specific control: evidence for context-driven generalization of item-specific control settings.

    PubMed

    Crump, Matthew J C; Milliken, Bruce

    2009-08-01

    In two experiments we address an ongoing debate concerning the processes driving context-driven modulations to the Stroop effect (Crump, Gong, & Milliken, 2006). In particular, we demonstrate that context-driven processes can modulate the size of the Stroop effect for frequency-unbiased item types. We also clarify the role of item frequency in producing context-driven modulations to the Stroop effect. Taken together, our results provide unambiguous support for the claim that contextual processing can impart fast and flexible control over the operation of selective attention processes during online performance. PMID:19370487

  10. Data mining and visualization techniques

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Pak Chung; Whitney, Paul; Thomas, Jim

    2004-03-23

    Disclosed are association rule identification and visualization methods, systems, and apparatus. An association rule in data mining is an implication of the form X.fwdarw.Y where X is a set of antecedent items and Y is the consequent item. A unique visualization technique that provides multiple antecedent, consequent, confidence, and support information is disclosed to facilitate better presentation of large quantities of complex association rules.

  11. Characterizing Ground-Water Flow Paths in High-Altitude Fractured Rock Settings Impacted by Mining Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wireman, M.; Williams, D.

    2003-12-01

    The Rocky Mountains of the western USA have tens of thousands of abandoned, inactive and active precious-metal(gold,silver,copper)mine sites. Most of these sites occur in fractured rock hydrogeologic settings. Mining activities often resulted in mobilization and transport of associated heavy metals (zinc,cadmium,lead) which pose a significant threat to aquatic communities in mountain streams.Transport of heavy metals from mine related sources (waste rock piles,tailings impoudments,underground workings, mine pits)can occur along numerous hydrological pathways including complex fracture controlled ground-water pathways. Since 1991, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the Colorado Division of Minerals and Geology and the University of Colorado (INSTAAR)have been conducting applied hydrologic research at the Mary Murphy underground mine. The mine is in the Chalk Creek mining district which is located on the southwestern flanks of the Mount Princeton Batholith, a Tertiary age intrusive comprised primarily of quartz monzonite.The Mount Princeton batholith comprises a large portion of the southern part of the Collegiate Range west of Buena Vista in Chaffee County, CO. Chalk Creek and its 14 tributaries drain about 24,900 hectares of the eastern slopes of the Range including the mining district. Within the mining district, ground-water flow is controlled by the distribution, orientation and permeability of discontinuities within the bedrock. Important discontinuities include faults, joints and weathered zones. Local and intermediate flow systems are perturbed by extensive underground excavations associated with mining (adits, shafts, stopes, drifts,, etc.). During the past 12 years numerous hydrological investigations have been completed. The investigations have been focused on developing tools for characterizing ground-water flow and contaminant transport in the vicinity of hard-rock mines in fractured-rock settings. In addition, the results from these

  12. The Underlying Student Reasons for Rating SET Questionnaire Items: How Student Solve the Problem of Filling Out Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalayci, Nurdan

    2009-01-01

    In order to enhance the quality of teaching in higher education establishments, as "stakeholders" of the institution, the opinions of students related to the teaching they receive are given precedence. This is achieved by using mandatory SET questionnaires on a routine basis in colleges and universities throughout the world. This study reports the…

  13. Item Response Models for Examinee-Selected Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Jin, Kuan-Yu; Qiu, Xue-Lan; Wang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    In some tests, examinees are required to choose a fixed number of items from a set of given items to answer. This practice creates a challenge to standard item response models, because more capable examinees may have an advantage by making wiser choices. In this study, we developed a new class of item response models to account for the choice…

  14. Item Banking with Embedded Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An item banking method that does not use Item Response Theory (IRT) is described. This method provides a comparable grading system across schools that would be suitable for low-stakes testing. It uses the Angoff standard-setting method to obtain item ratings that are stored with each item. An example of such a grading system is given, showing how…

  15. Chimpanzees remember the results of one-by-one addition of food items to sets over extended time periods.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Beran, Mary M

    2004-02-01

    Four chimpanzees were highly accurate in selecting the larger of two concurrent accumulations of bananas in two opaque containers over a span of 20 min. One at a time, bananas were placed into the containers, which were outside the chimpanzees' cages. The chimpanzees never saw more than one banana at a time, and there were no cues indicating the locations of the bananas after they were placed into the containers. The performance of these animals matched that of human infants and young children in similar tests. The chimpanzees were successful even when the sets to be compared were sufficiently large (5 vs. 8, 5 vs. 10, and 6 vs. 10) to cast doubt on the possibility that the chimpanzees were using an object file mechanism. These chimpanzees are the first nonhuman animals to demonstrate extended memory for accumulated quantity. PMID:14738515

  16. Handling Dynamic Weights in Weighted Frequent Pattern Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Chowdhury Farhan; Tanbeer, Syed Khairuzzaman; Jeong, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Young-Koo

    Even though weighted frequent pattern (WFP) mining is more effective than traditional frequent pattern mining because it can consider different semantic significances (weights) of items, existing WFP algorithms assume that each item has a fixed weight. But in real world scenarios, the weight (price or significance) of an item can vary with time. Reflecting these changes in item weight is necessary in several mining applications, such as retail market data analysis and web click stream analysis. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a dynamic weight for each item, and propose an algorithm, DWFPM (dynamic weighted frequent pattern mining), that makes use of this concept. Our algorithm can address situations where the weight (price or significance) of an item varies dynamically. It exploits a pattern growth mining technique to avoid the level-wise candidate set generation-and-test methodology. Furthermore, it requires only one database scan, so it is eligible for use in stream data mining. An extensive performance analysis shows that our algorithm is efficient and scalable for WFP mining using dynamic weights.

  17. DEVELOPING AND EXPLOITING A UNIQUE SEISMIC DATA SET FROM SOUTH AFRICAN GOLD MINES FOR SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION AND WAVE PROPAGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Julia, J; Nyblade, A A; Gok, R; Walter, W R; Linzer, L; Durrheim, R

    2008-07-08

    In this project, we are developing and exploiting a unique seismic data set to address the characteristics of small seismic events and the associated seismic signals observed at local (< 200 km) and regional (< 2000 km) distances. The dataset is being developed using mining-induced events from 3 deep gold mines in South Africa recorded on inmine networks (< 1 km) comprised of tens of high-frequency sensors, a network of 4 broadband stations installed as part of this project at the surface around the mines (1-10 km), and a network of existing broadband seismic stations at local/regional distances (50-1000 km) from the mines. After 1 year of seismic monitoring of mine activity (2007), over 10,000 events in the range -3.4 < ML < 4.4 have been catalogued and recorded by the in-mine networks. Events with positive magnitudes are generally well recorded by the surface-mine stations, while magnitudes 3.0 and larger are seen at regional distances (up to {approx}600 km) in high-pass filtered recordings. We have analyzed in-mine recordings in detail at one of the South African mines (Savuka) to (i) improve on reported hypocentral locations, (ii) verify sensor orientations, and (iii) determine full moment tensor solutions. Hypocentral relocations on all catalogued events have been obtained from P- and S-wave travel-times reported by the mine network operator through an automated procedure that selects travel-times falling on Wadati lines with slopes in the 0.6-0.7 range; sensor orientations have been verified and, when possible, corrected by correlating P-, SV-, and SH-waveforms obtained from theoretical and empirical (polarization filter) rotation angles; full moment tensor solutions have been obtained by inverting P-, SV-, and SH- spectral amplitudes measured on the theoretically rotated waveforms with visually assigned polarities. The relocation procedure has revealed that origin times often necessitate a negative correction of a few tenths of second and that hypocentral

  18. A Study of the Homogeneity of Items Produced From Item Forms Across Different Taxonomic Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Margaret B.; Argo, Jana K.

    This study determined whether item forms ( rules for constructing items related to a domain or set of tasks) would enable naive item writers to generate multiple-choice items at three taxonomic levels--knowledge, comprehension, and application. Students wrote 120 multiple-choice items from 20 item forms, corresponding to educational objectives…

  19. A Bayesian method to mine spatial data sets to evaluate the vulnerability of human beings to catastrophic risk.

    PubMed

    Li, Lianfa; Wang, Jinfeng; Leung, Hareton; Zhao, Sisi

    2012-06-01

    Vulnerability of human beings exposed to a catastrophic disaster is affected by multiple factors that include hazard intensity, environment, and individual characteristics. The traditional approach to vulnerability assessment, based on the aggregate-area method and unsupervised learning, cannot incorporate spatial information; thus, vulnerability can be only roughly assessed. In this article, we propose Bayesian network (BN) and spatial analysis techniques to mine spatial data sets to evaluate the vulnerability of human beings. In our approach, spatial analysis is leveraged to preprocess the data; for example, kernel density analysis (KDA) and accumulative road cost surface modeling (ARCSM) are employed to quantify the influence of geofeatures on vulnerability and relate such influence to spatial distance. The knowledge- and data-based BN provides a consistent platform to integrate a variety of factors, including those extracted by KDA and ARCSM to model vulnerability uncertainty. We also consider the model's uncertainty and use the Bayesian model average and Occam's Window to average the multiple models obtained by our approach to robust prediction of the risk and vulnerability. We compare our approach with other probabilistic models in the case study of seismic risk and conclude that our approach is a good means to mining spatial data sets for evaluating vulnerability. PMID:22404550

  20. Cluster Analysis-Based Approaches for Geospatiotemporal Data Mining of Massive Data Sets for Identification of Forest Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Richard T; Hoffman, Forrest M; Kumar, Jitendra; HargroveJr., William Walter

    2011-01-01

    We investigate methods for geospatiotemporal data mining of multi-year land surface phenology data (250 m2 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) in this study) for the conterminous United States (CONUS) as part of an early warning system for detecting threats to forest ecosystems. The approaches explored here are based on k-means cluster analysis of this massive data set, which provides a basis for defining the bounds of the expected or normal phenological patterns that indicate healthy vegetation at a given geographic location. We briefly describe the computational approaches we have used to make cluster analysis of such massive data sets feasible, describe approaches we have explored for distinguishing between normal and abnormal phenology, and present some examples in which we have applied these approaches to identify various forest disturbances in the CONUS.

  1. Mining Hesitation Information by Vague Association Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, An; Ng, Wilfred

    In many online shopping applications, such as Amazon and eBay, traditional Association Rule (AR) mining has limitations as it only deals with the items that are sold but ignores the items that are almost sold (for example, those items that are put into the basket but not checked out). We say that those almost sold items carry hesitation information, since customers are hesitating to buy them. The hesitation information of items is valuable knowledge for the design of good selling strategies. However, there is no conceptual model that is able to capture different statuses of hesitation information. Herein, we apply and extend vague set theory in the context of AR mining. We define the concepts of attractiveness and hesitation of an item, which represent the overall information of a customer's intent on an item. Based on the two concepts, we propose the notion of Vague Association Rules (VARs). We devise an efficient algorithm to mine the VARs. Our experiments show that our algorithm is efficient and the VARs capture more specific and richer information than do the traditional ARs.

  2. On Bayesian Rules for Selecting 3PL Binary Items for Criterion-Referenced Interpretations and Creating Booklets for Bookmark Standard Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Huynh

    By noting that a Rasch or two parameter logistic (2PL) item belongs to the exponential family of random variables and that the probability density function (pdf) of the correct response (X=1) and the incorrect response (X=0) are symmetric with respect to the vertical line at the item location, it is shown that the conjugate prior for ability is…

  3. Unlocking Data for Statistical Analyses and Data Mining: Generic Case Extraction of Clinical Items from i2b2 and tranSMART.

    PubMed

    Firnkorn, Daniel; Merker, Sebastian; Ganzinger, Matthias; Muley, Thomas; Knaup, Petra

    2016-01-01

    In medical science, modern IT concepts are increasingly important to gather new findings out of complex diseases. Data Warehouses (DWH) as central data repository systems play a key role by providing standardized, high-quality and secure medical data for effective analyses. However, DWHs in medicine must fulfil various requirements concerning data privacy and the ability to describe the complexity of (rare) disease phenomena. Here, i2b2 and tranSMART are free alternatives representing DWH solutions especially developed for medical informatics purposes. But different functionalities are not yet provided in a sufficient way. In fact, data import and export is still a major problem because of the diversity of schemas, parameter definitions and data quality which are described variously in each single clinic. Further, statistical analyses inside i2b2 and tranSMART are possible, but restricted to the implemented functions. Thus, data export is needed to provide a data basis which can be directly included within statistics software like SPSS and SAS or data mining tools like Weka and RapidMiner. The standard export tools of i2b2 and tranSMART are more or less creating a database dump of key-value pairs which cannot be used immediately by the mentioned tools. They need an instance-based or a case-based representation of each patient. To overcome this lack, we developed a concept called Generic Case Extractor (GCE) which pivots the key-value pairs of each clinical fact into a row-oriented format for each patient sufficient to enable analyses in a broader context. Therefore, complex pivotisation routines where necessary to ensure temporal consistency especially in terms of different data sets and the occurrence of identical but repeated parameters like follow-up data. GCE is embedded inside a comprehensive software platform for systems medicine. PMID:27577447

  4. Hydrogeologic setting and simulation of groundwater flow near the Canterbury and Leadville Mine Drainage Tunnels, Leadville, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wellman, Tristan P.; Paschke, Suzanne S.; Minsley, Burke; Dupree, Jean A.

    2011-01-01

    63 percent of the total water budget, respectively). The largest contributions to the water budget were groundwater entering from the upper reaches of the watershed and the hydrologic interaction of the groundwater with the East Fork Arkansas River. Potentiometric surface maps of the simulated model results were generated for depths of 50, 100, and 250 m. The surfaces revealed a positive trend in hydraulic head with land-surface altitude and evidence of increased control on fluid movement by the fault network structure at progressively greater depths in the aquifer. Results of advective particle-tracking simulations indicate that the sets of simulated flow paths for the Canterbury Tunnel and the Leadville Mine Drainage Tunnel were mutually exclusive of one another, which also suggested that no major hydraulic connection was present between the tunnels. Particle-tracking simulations also revealed that although the fault network generally restricted groundwater movement locally, hydrologic conditions were such that groundwater did cross the fault network at many locations. This cross-fault movement indicates that the fault network controls regional groundwater flow to some degree but is not a complete barrier to flow. The cumulative distributions of adjusted age results for the watershed indicate that approximately 30 percent of the flow pathways transmit groundwater that was younger than 68 years old (post-1941) and that about 70 percent of the flow pathways transmit old groundwater. The particle-tracking results are consistent with the apparent ages and mixing ratios developed from the chlorofluorocarbon and tritium results. The model simulations also indicate that approximately 50 percent of the groundwater flowing through the study area was less than 200 years old and about 50 percent of the groundwater flowing through the study area is old water stored in low-permeability geologic units and fault blocks. As a final examination of model response, the conductance

  5. A Condition-Enumeration Tree method for mining biclusters from DNA microarray data sets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiun-Rung; Chang, Ye-In

    2009-07-01

    Biclustering, which performs simultaneous clustering of rows (e.g., genes) and columns (e.g., conditions), has proved of great value for finding interesting patterns from microarray data. To find biclusters, a model called pCluster was proposed. A pCluster consists of a set of genes and a set of conditions, where the expression levels of these genes have a similar variation under these conditions. Based on this model, most of the previous methods need to compute MDSs (maximum dimension sets) for every two genes in the microarray data. Since the number of genes is far larger than the number of conditions, this step is inefficient. Another method called MicroCluster was proposed. This method does not compute MDSs for every two genes, and transforms the problem into a graph problem. However, it needs to solve the Maximal Clique problem, which is NP-Complete. To avoid the above disadvantages, in this paper, we propose a new method, CE-Tree (Condition-Enumeration Tree), for finding pClusters. Instead of generating MDSs for every two genes, we generate only MDSs for every two conditions. Then, based only on these MDSs, we expand the CE-Tree in a special local breadth-first within global depth-first manner to efficiently find all pClusters. We also utilize the idea of the traditional hash join approach to efficiently support the CE-Tree. From the simulation results, we show that the CE-Tree method could find pClusters more efficiently than those previous methods. PMID:19393714

  6. Data Mining on Large Data Set for Predicting Salmon Spawning Habitat

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, YuLong; Murray, Christopher J.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.

    2008-07-01

    Hydraulic properties related to river flow affect salmon spawning habitat. Accurate prediction of salmon spawning habitat and understanding the influential properties on the spawning behavior are of great interest for hydroelectric dam management. Previous research predicted salmon spawning habitat through deriving river specific spawning suitability indices and employing a function estimate method like logistic regression on several static river flow related properties and had some success. The objective of this study was two-fold. First dynamic river flow properties associated with upstream dam operation were successfully derived from a huge set of time series of both water velocity and water depth for about one fifth of a million habitat cells through principal component analysis (PCA) using nonlinear iterative partial least squares (NIPLAS). The inclusion of dynamic variables in the models greatly improved the model prediction. Secondly, nine machine learning methods were applied to the data and it was found that decision tree and rule induction methods were generally outperformed usually used logistic regression. Specifically random forest, an advanced decision tree algorithm, provided unanimous better results. Over-prediction problem in previous studies were greatly alleviated.

  7. Accommodations for English Language Learner Students: The Effect of Linguistic Modification of Math Test Item Sets. Final Report. NCEE 2009-4079

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Edynn; Rabinowitz, Stanley; Gallagher, Carole; Huang, Chun-Wei

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of linguistic modification on middle school students' ability to show what they know and can do on math assessments. REL West's study on middle school math assessment accommodations found that simplifying the language--or linguistic modification--on standardized math test items made it easier for English Language…

  8. Bibliomining for Automated Collection Development in a Digital Library Setting: Using Data Mining To Discover Web-Based Scholarly Research Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Scott

    2003-01-01

    Discusses quality issues regarding Web sites and describes research that created an intelligent agent for automated collection development in a digital academic library setting, which uses a predictive model based on facets of each Web page to select scholarly works. Describes the use of bibliomining, or data mining for libraries. (Author/LRW)

  9. Item-Writing Guidelines for Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Tom

    2015-01-01

    A teacher learning how to write test questions (test items) will almost certainly encounter item-writing guidelines--lists of item-writing do's and don'ts. Item-writing guidelines usually are presented as applicable across all assessment settings. Table I shows some guidelines that I believe to be generally applicable and two will be briefly…

  10. Empirical Mining of Large Data Sets Already Helps to Solve Practical Ecological Problems; A Panoply of Working Examples (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Hoffman, F. M.; Kumar, J.; Spruce, J.; Norman, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Here we present diverse examples where empirical mining and statistical analysis of large data sets have already been shown to be useful for a wide variety of practical decision-making problems within the realm of large-scale ecology. Because a full understanding and appreciation of particular ecological phenomena are possible only after hypothesis-directed research regarding the existence and nature of that process, some ecologists may feel that purely empirical data harvesting may represent a less-than-satisfactory approach. Restricting ourselves exclusively to process-driven approaches, however, may actually slow progress, particularly for more complex or subtle ecological processes. We may not be able to afford the delays caused by such directed approaches. Rather than attempting to formulate and ask every relevant question correctly, empirical methods allow trends, relationships and associations to emerge freely from the data themselves, unencumbered by a priori theories, ideas and prejudices that have been imposed upon them. Although they cannot directly demonstrate causality, empirical methods can be extremely efficient at uncovering strong correlations with intermediate "linking" variables. In practice, these correlative structures and linking variables, once identified, may provide sufficient predictive power to be useful themselves. Such correlation "shadows" of causation can be harnessed by, e.g., Bayesian Belief Nets, which bias ecological management decisions, made with incomplete information, toward favorable outcomes. Empirical data-harvesting also generates a myriad of testable hypotheses regarding processes, some of which may even be correct. Quantitative statistical regionalizations based on quantitative multivariate similarity have lended insights into carbon eddy-flux direction and magnitude, wildfire biophysical conditions, phenological ecoregions useful for vegetation type mapping and monitoring, forest disease risk maps (e.g., sudden oak

  11. Data set of world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences: Part A. geologic data; Part B. location and mineral economic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chernoff, Carlotta B.; Orris, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    An inventory of more than 1,600 world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences was compiled from smaller data sets collected as part of multiple research efforts by Carlotta Chernoff, University of Arizona, and Greta Orris, U.S. Geological Survey. These data have been utilized during studies of black shale depositional environments and to construct phosphate deposit models. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and additional location information has been added where possible. The database of compiled phosphate information is being released in two sections; the geologic data in one section and the location and mineral economic data in the second. This report, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–A, contains the geologic data and is best used with the complimentary data contained in Open-File Report 02–156–B. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–B contains commodity data, location and analytical data, a variety of mineral economic data, reference information, and pointers to related records in the U.S. Geological Survey National mineral databases—MASMILS and MRDS.

  12. Application of Optimal Designs to Item Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hung-Yi

    2014-01-01

    In computerized adaptive testing (CAT), examinees are presented with various sets of items chosen from a precalibrated item pool. Consequently, the attrition speed of the items is extremely fast, and replenishing the item pool is essential. Therefore, item calibration has become a crucial concern in maintaining item banks. In this study, a two-parameter logistic model is used. We applied optimal designs and adaptive sequential analysis to solve this item calibration problem. The results indicated that the proposed optimal designs are cost effective and time efficient. PMID:25188318

  13. Using the Advanced Progressive Matrices (Set I) to Assess Fluid Ability in a Short Time Frame: An Item Response Theory-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Primi, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    This article is aimed at evaluating the possibility that Set I of the Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM-Set I) can be employed to assess fluid ability in a short time frame. The APM-Set I was administered to a sample of 1,389 primary and secondary school students. Confirmatory factor analysis attested to the unidimensionality of the scale. Item…

  14. Transfer of terrestrial technology for lunar mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert A.; Green, Patricia A.

    1992-01-01

    The functions, operational procedures, and major items of equipment that comprise the terrestrial mining process are characterized. These data are used to synthesize a similar activity on the lunar surface. Functions, operations, and types of equipment that can be suitably transferred to lunar operation are identified. Shortfalls, enhancements, and technology development needs are described. The lunar mining process and what is required to adapt terrestrial equipment are highlighted. It is concluded that translation of terrestrial mining equipment and operational processes to perform similar functions on the lunar surface is practical. Adequate attention must be given to the harsh environment and logistical constraints of the lunar setting. By using earth-based equipment as a forcing function, near- and long-term benefits are derived (i.e., improved terrestrial mining in the near term vis-a-vis commercial production of helium-3 in the long term.

  15. Item Difficulty Modeling of Paragraph Comprehension Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, Joanna S.; Embretson, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    Recent assessment research joining cognitive psychology and psychometric theory has introduced a new technology, item generation. In algorithmic item generation, items are systematically created based on specific combinations of features that underlie the processing required to correctly solve a problem. Reading comprehension items have been more…

  16. Accuracy Assessment of Geometrical Elements for Setting-Out in Horizontal Plane of Conveying Chambers at the Bauxite Mine "KOSTURI" Srebrenica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milutinović, Aleksandar; Ganić, Aleksandar; Tokalić, Rade

    2014-03-01

    Setting-out of objects on the exploitation field of the mine, both in surface mining and in the underground mines, is determined by the specified setting-out accuracy of reference points, which are best to define spatial position of the object projected. For the purpose of achieving of the specified accuracy, it is necessary to perform a priori accuracy assessment of parameters, which are to be used when performing setting-out. Based on the a priori accuracy assessment, verification of the quality of geometrical setting- -out elements specified in the layout; definition of the accuracy for setting-out of geometrical elements; selection of setting-out method; selection at the type and class of instruments and tools that need to be applied in order to achieve predefined accuracy. The paper displays the accuracy assessment of geometrical elements for setting-out of the main haul gallery, haul downcast and helical conveying downcasts in shape of an inclined helix in horizontal plane, using the example of the underground bauxite mine »Kosturi«, Srebrenica. Wytyczanie obiektów na polu wydobywczym w kopalniach, zarówno podziemnych jak i odkrywkowych, zależy w dużej mierze od określonej dokładności wytyczania punktów referencyjnych, przy pomocy których określane jest następnie położenie przestrzenne pozostałych obiektów. W celu uzyskania założonej dokładności, należy przeprowadzić wstępną analizę dokładności oszacowania parametrów które następnie wykorzystane będą w procesie wytyczania. W oparciu o wyniki wstępnej analizy dokładności dokonuje się weryfikacji jakości geometrycznego wytyczenia elementów zaznaczonych na szkicu, uwzględniając te wyniki dobrać należy odpowiednią metodę wytyczania i rodzaj oraz klasę wykorzystywanych narzędzi i instrumentów, tak by osiągnąć założony poziom dokładności. W pracy przedstawiono oszacowanie dokładności wytyczania elementów geometrycznych dla głównego chodnika transportowego

  17. Perspectives on Knowledge Discovery Algorithms Recently Introduced in Chemoinformatics: Rough Set Theory, Association Rule Mining, Emerging Patterns, and Formal Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Eleanor J; Gillet, Valerie J

    2015-09-28

    Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) refers to the use of methodologies from machine learning, pattern recognition, statistics, and other fields to extract knowledge from large collections of data, where the knowledge is not explicitly available as part of the database structure. In this paper, we describe four modern data mining techniques, Rough Set Theory (RST), Association Rule Mining (ARM), Emerging Pattern Mining (EP), and Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), and we have attempted to give an exhaustive list of their chemoinformatics applications. One of the main strengths of these methods is their descriptive ability. When used to derive rules, for example, in structure-activity relationships, the rules have clear physical meaning. This review has shown that there are close relationships between the methods. Often apparent differences lie in the way in which the problem under investigation has been formulated which can lead to the natural adoption of one or other method. For example, the idea of a structural alert, as a structure which is present in toxic and absent in nontoxic compounds, leads to the natural formulation of an Emerging Pattern search. Despite the similarities between the methods, each has its strengths. RST is useful for dealing with uncertain and noisy data. Its main chemoinformatics applications so far have been in feature extraction and feature reduction, the latter often as input to another data mining method, such as an Support Vector Machine (SVM). ARM has mostly been used for frequent subgraph mining. EP and FCA have both been used to mine both structural and nonstructural patterns for classification of both active and inactive molecules. Since their introduction in the 1980s and 1990s, RST, ARM, EP, and FCA have found wide-ranging applications, with many thousands of citations in Web of Science, but their adoption by the chemoinformatics community has been relatively slow. Advances, both in computer power and in algorithm development

  18. How Important Are Items on a Student Evaluation? A Study of Item Salience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Stacey Barlow; Naegle, Natali; Bartkus, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    Although student evaluations of teaching (SETs) have been the subject of numerous research studies, the salience of SET items to students has not been examined. In the present study, the authors surveyed 484 students from a large public university. The authors suggest that not all items are viewed equally and that measures of item salience can…

  19. Automatic Item Generation of Probability Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holling, Heinz; Bertling, Jonas P.; Zeuch, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical word problems represent a common item format for assessing student competencies. Automatic item generation (AIG) is an effective way of constructing many items with predictable difficulties, based on a set of predefined task parameters. The current study presents a framework for the automatic generation of probability word problems…

  20. Computerized Numerical Control Test Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This guide contains 285 test items for use in teaching a course in computerized numerical control. All test items were reviewed, revised, and validated by incumbent workers and subject matter instructors. Items are provided for assessing student achievement in such aspects of programming and planning, setting up, and operating machines with…

  1. WWC Review of the Report "Accommodations for English Language Learner Students: The Effect of Linguistic Modification of Math Test Item Sets"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The research described in this report is a randomized controlled trial in which seventh- and eighth-grade students were randomly assigned to complete a set of 25 math questions delivered with either standard language or language that had undergone "linguistic modification" by the research team. The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of…

  2. Mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, G.A.

    1985-05-07

    A haulage system for a mining machine comprises a mining machine mounted on and/or guided by a conveyor and reciprocable with respect thereto, the conveyor being provided with a rack having plural rows of teeth of identical pitch, with the teeth of one row staggered with respect to an adjacent row(s), and the machine being provided with at least one power driven haulage sprocket comprising plural sets of peripherally arranged teeth of identical pitch, one set being angularly staggered with respect to an adjacent set(s), whereby one set is engageable with each row of teeth of the rack. The invention also includes a mining machine provided with such a power driven haulage sprocket, and a rack as above described and provided with end fittings for securing in articulated manner to an adjacent rack.

  3. SiBIC: A Web Server for Generating Gene Set Networks Based on Biclusters Obtained by Maximal Frequent Itemset Mining

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kei-ichiro; Takigawa, Ichigaku; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Detecting biclusters from expression data is useful, since biclusters are coexpressed genes under only part of all given experimental conditions. We present a software called SiBIC, which from a given expression dataset, first exhaustively enumerates biclusters, which are then merged into rather independent biclusters, which finally are used to generate gene set networks, in which a gene set assigned to one node has coexpressed genes. We evaluated each step of this procedure: 1) significance of the generated biclusters biologically and statistically, 2) biological quality of merged biclusters, and 3) biological significance of gene set networks. We emphasize that gene set networks, in which nodes are not genes but gene sets, can be more compact than usual gene networks, meaning that gene set networks are more comprehensible. SiBIC is available at http://utrecht.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp:8080/miami/faces/index.jsp. PMID:24386124

  4. SiBIC: a web server for generating gene set networks based on biclusters obtained by maximal frequent itemset mining.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kei-ichiro; Takigawa, Ichigaku; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Detecting biclusters from expression data is useful, since biclusters are coexpressed genes under only part of all given experimental conditions. We present a software called SiBIC, which from a given expression dataset, first exhaustively enumerates biclusters, which are then merged into rather independent biclusters, which finally are used to generate gene set networks, in which a gene set assigned to one node has coexpressed genes. We evaluated each step of this procedure: 1) significance of the generated biclusters biologically and statistically, 2) biological quality of merged biclusters, and 3) biological significance of gene set networks. We emphasize that gene set networks, in which nodes are not genes but gene sets, can be more compact than usual gene networks, meaning that gene set networks are more comprehensible. SiBIC is available at http://utrecht.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp:8080/miami/faces/index.jsp. PMID:24386124

  5. Item-Writing Guidelines for Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, Tom

    2015-11-01

    A teacher learning how to write test questions (test items) will almost certainly encounter item-writing guidelines—lists of item-writing do's and don'ts. Item-writing guidelines usually are presented as applicable across all assessment settings. Table I shows some guidelines that I believe to be generally applicable and two will be briefly discussed here. The teacher may also encounter some guidelines that are not applicable in all assessment settings, or that can be applied to physics only with care. Two such guidelines, and their limitations, will be discussed as well.

  6. Defining Deficient Items by IRT Analysis of Calibration Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krass, Iosif A.; Thomasson, Gary L.

    New items are being calibrated for the next generation of the computerized adaptive (CAT) version of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) (Forms 5 and 6). The requirements that the items be "good" three-parameter logistic (3-PL) model items and typically "like" items in the previous CAT-ASVAB tests have resulted in a set of…

  7. Utilizing Response Time Distributions for Item Selection in CAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Zhewen; Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Douglas, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Traditional methods for item selection in computerized adaptive testing only focus on item information without taking into consideration the time required to answer an item. As a result, some examinees may receive a set of items that take a very long time to finish, and information is not accrued as efficiently as possible. The authors propose two…

  8. The Licensing of Negative Sensitive Items in Jordanian Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsarayreh, Atef

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the licensing conditions on Negative Sensitive Items (NSIs) in Jordanian Arabic (JA). JA exhibits both types of NSIs that are discussed in the literature: Negative Polarity Items (NPIs) and Negative Concord Items (NCIs). Although these two sets of items seem to form a natural class in the sense that they show certain…

  9. Automated Item Selection Using Item Response Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocking, Martha L.; And Others

    This paper presents a new heuristic approach to interactive test assembly that is called the successive item replacement algorithm. This approach builds on the work of W. J. van der Linden (1987) and W. J. van der Linden and E. Boekkooi-Timminga (1989) in which methods of mathematical optimization are combined with item response theory to…

  10. Item Purification Does Not Always Improve DIF Detection: A Counterexample with Angoff's Delta Plot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magis, David; Facon, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Item purification is an iterative process that is often advocated as improving the identification of items affected by differential item functioning (DIF). With test-score-based DIF detection methods, item purification iteratively removes the items currently flagged as DIF from the test scores to get purified sets of items, unaffected by DIF. The…

  11. Estimation of general and set steps of roof caving in rock mass with excavations at mining. Numerical modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, M.; Makarov, P.

    2016-04-01

    The results of 2D modelling of rock mass elements fracture are shown in the article. The results of modelling are in a good agreement with empirical and theoretical estimations of roof caving steps for the flat-dipping coal seams when the horizons are not so deep (less than 600 m). The estimations of the general and set steps of roof caving are given for the lava conditions at different lengths of the main roof containing sandstone.

  12. 48 CFR 852.214-72 - Alternate item(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternate item(s). 852.214... Alternate item(s). As prescribed in 814.201-6(b)(2), insert the following provision: Alternate Item(s) (JAN... .** * Contracting officer will insert an alternate item that is considered acceptable. ** Contracting officer...

  13. 48 CFR 852.214-72 - Alternate item(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate item(s). 852.214... Alternate item(s). As prescribed in 814.201-6(b)(2), insert the following provision: Alternate Item(s) (JAN... .** * Contracting officer will insert an alternate item that is considered acceptable. ** Contracting officer...

  14. 48 CFR 852.214-72 - Alternate item(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternate item(s). 852.214... Alternate item(s). As prescribed in 814.201-6(b)(2), insert the following provision: Alternate Item(s) (JAN... .** * Contracting officer will insert an alternate item that is considered acceptable. ** Contracting officer...

  15. Random Item IRT Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Boeck, Paul

    2008-01-01

    It is common practice in IRT to consider items as fixed and persons as random. Both, continuous and categorical person parameters are most often random variables, whereas for items only continuous parameters are used and they are commonly of the fixed type, although exceptions occur. It is shown in the present article that random item parameters…

  16. Item versus System Learning: Explaining Free Variation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    1999-01-01

    Provides an explanation for the existence of free variation in learner language. Argues that interlanguage is best conceptualized as sets of loose lexical networks that are gradually reorganized into a system or systems. Free variation arises when learners add items to those they have already acquired and before they analyze these items and…

  17. Simulated Equating Using Several Item Response Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldt, R. F.

    The comparison of item response theory models for the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) was extended to an equating context as simulation trials were used to "equate the test to itself." Equating sample data were generated from administration of identical item sets. Equatings that used procedures based on each model (simple item…

  18. A Novel Computational Tool for Mining Real-Life Data: Application in the Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Siegelmann-Danieli, Nava; Farkash, Ariel; Katzir, Itzhak; Vesterman Landes, Janet; Rotem Rabinovich, Hadas; Lomnicky, Yossef; Carmeli, Boaz; Parush-Shear-Yashuv, Naama

    2016-01-01

    Background Randomized clinical trials constitute the gold-standard for evaluating new anti-cancer therapies; however, real-life data are key in complementing clinically useful information. We developed a computational tool for real-life data analysis and applied it to the metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) setting. This tool addressed the impact of oncology/non-oncology parameters on treatment patterns and clinical outcomes. Methods The developed tool enables extraction of any computerized information including comorbidities and use of drugs (oncological/non-oncological) per individual HMO member. The study in which we evaluated this tool was a retrospective cohort study that included Maccabi Healthcare Services members with mCRC receiving bevacizumab with fluoropyrimidines (FP), FP plus oxaliplatin (FP-O), or FP plus irinotecan (FP-I) in the first-line between 9/2006 and 12/2013. Results The analysis included 753 patients of whom 15.4% underwent subsequent metastasectomy (the Surgery group). For the entire cohort, median overall survival (OS) was 20.5 months; in the Surgery group, median duration of bevacizumab-containing therapy (DOT) pre-surgery was 6.1 months; median OS was not reached. In the Non-surgery group, median OS and DOT were 18.7 and 11.4 months, respectively; no significant OS differences were noted between FP-O and FP-I, whereas FP use was associated with shorter OS (12.3 month; p <0.002; notably, these patients were older). Patients who received both FP-O- and FP-I-based regimens achieved numerically longer OS vs. those who received only one of these regimens (22.1 [19.9–24.0] vs. 18.9 [15.5–21.9] months). Among patients assessed for wild-type KRAS and treated with subsequent anti-EGFR agent, OS was 25.4 months and 18.7 months for 124 treated vs. 37 non-treated patients (non-significant). Cox analysis (controlling for age and gender) identified several non-oncology parameters associated with poorer clinical outcomes including concurrent use of

  19. Linking pain items from two studies onto a common scale using item response theory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Hung; Revicki, Dennis A; Lai, Jin-Shei; Cook, Karon F; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2009-10-01

    This study examined two approaches to linking items from two pain surveys to form a single item bank with a common measurement scale. Secondary analysis of two independent surveys: Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials Survey with Main Survey (959 chronic pain patients; 42 pain items) and Pain Module (n=148; 36 pain items), and Center on Outcomes, Research and Education Survey (400 cancer patients; 43 pain items). There were common items included among the three data sets. In the first approach, all items were calibrated to an item response theory (IRT) model simultaneously, and in the second approach, items were calibrated separately and then the scales were transformed to a common metric. The two approaches produced similar linking results across the two sets of pain interference items because there was sufficient number of common items and large enough sample size. For pain intensity, simultaneous calibration yielded more stable results. Separated calibration yielded an unsatisfactory linking result for pain intensity because of a single common item with small sample size. The results suggested that a simultaneous IRT calibration method produces the more stable item parameters across independent samples, and hence, should be recommended for developing comprehensive item banks. Patient-reported health outcome surveys are often limited in sample sizes and the number of items owing to the difficulty of recruitment and the burden to the patients. As a result, the surveys either lack statistical power or are limited in scope. Using IRT methodology, survey data can be pooled to lend strength to each other to expand the scope and to increase the sample sizes. PMID:19577422

  20. An Analysis of Sex-Related Differential Item Functioning in Attitude Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodeen, Hamzeh; Johanson, George A.

    2003-01-01

    Analyzed and classified items that display sex-related differential item functioning (DIF) in attitude assessment. Analyzed 982 items, from 23 real data sets, that measure attitudes. Found that sex DIF is common in attitude scales: more than 27 percent of items showed DIF related to sex, 15 percent of the items exhibited moderate to large DIF, and…

  1. Minimum Redundancy Item Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, John A.; Jackson, Douglas N.

    1976-01-01

    Illustrates a multivariate approach to item analysis. Previous formulation is extended by investigating techniques simultaneously taking into account scale variance with the goal of reducing the average correlation between scales. Study examines problems in determining optimum values for combinations of item parameters selected for personality…

  2. Evaluating Common Item Block Options When Faced with Practical Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolkowitz, Amanda; Davis-Becker, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of common item characteristics on the outcome of equating in credentialing examinations when traditionally recommended representation is not possible. This research used real data sets from several credentialing exams to test the impact of content representation, item statistics, and number of common items on…

  3. 17 CFR 210.4-02 - Items not material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Items not material. 210.4-02... 1975 Rules of General Application § 210.4-02 Items not material. If the amount which would otherwise be required to be shown with respect to any item is not material, it need not be separately set forth....

  4. 17 CFR 210.4-02 - Items not material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Items not material. 210.4-02... 1975 Rules of General Application § 210.4-02 Items not material. If the amount which would otherwise be required to be shown with respect to any item is not material, it need not be separately set forth....

  5. 17 CFR 210.4-02 - Items not material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Items not material. 210.4-02... 1975 Rules of General Application § 210.4-02 Items not material. If the amount which would otherwise be required to be shown with respect to any item is not material, it need not be separately set forth....

  6. The Effects of Testlets on Reliability and Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teker, Gulsen Tasdelen; Dogan, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Reliability and differential item functioning (DIF) analyses were conducted on testlets displaying local item dependence in this study. The data set employed in the research was obtained from the answers given by 1,500 students to the 20 items included in six testlets given in English Proficiency Exam by the School of Foreign Languages of a state…

  7. The MMPI Critical Items: How Well Do They Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The theoretical foundation and empirical performance of two sets of "critical items" that are a common feature of most automated Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory interpretations are examined. These items purportedly alert the clinician to serious pathology and is a scale of general maladjustment. The critical items resulted in numerous…

  8. A Lognormal Model for Response Times on Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2006-01-01

    A lognormal model for the response times of a person on a set of test items is investigated. The model has a parameter structure analogous to the two-parameter logistic response models in item response theory, with a parameter for the speed of each person as well as parameters for the time intensity and discriminating power of each item. It is…

  9. The Use of Unidimensional Item Parameter Estimates of Multidimensional Items in Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Terry A.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using multidimensional items in a computer adaptive test (CAT) setting which assumes a unidimensional item response theory (IRT) framework. Previous research has suggested that the composite of multidimensional abilities being estimated by a unidimensional IRT model is not constant…

  10. Commercial Data Mining Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingyu; Segall, Richard S.

    This chapter discusses selected commercial software for data mining, supercomputing data mining, text mining, and web mining. The selected software are compared with their features and also applied to available data sets. The software for data mining are SAS Enterprise Miner, Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0, PASW (formerly SPSS Clementine), IBM Intelligent Miner, and BioDiscovery GeneSight. The software for supercomputing are Avizo by Visualization Science Group and JMP Genomics from SAS Institute. The software for text mining are SAS Text Miner and Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0. The software for web mining are Megaputer PolyAnalyst and SPSS Clementine . Background on related literature and software are presented. Screen shots of each of the selected software are presented, as are conclusions and future directions.

  11. Collaborative Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyle, Steve

    Collaborative Data Mining is a setting where the Data Mining effort is distributed to multiple collaborating agents - human or software. The objective of the collaborative Data Mining effort is to produce solutions to the tackled Data Mining problem which are considered better by some metric, with respect to those solutions that would have been achieved by individual, non-collaborating agents. The solutions require evaluation, comparison, and approaches for combination. Collaboration requires communication, and implies some form of community. The human form of collaboration is a social task. Organizing communities in an effective manner is non-trivial and often requires well defined roles and processes. Data Mining, too, benefits from a standard process. This chapter explores the standard Data Mining process CRISP-DM utilized in a collaborative setting.

  12. Increasing Item Complexity: A Possible Cause of Scale Shrinkage for Unidimensional Item Response Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Wendy M.

    1985-01-01

    An approximate relationship is devised between the unidimensional model used in data analysis and a multidimensional model hypothesized to be generating the item responses. Scale shrinkage is successfully predicted for several sets of simulated data. (Author/LMO)

  13. Item Writer Judgments of Item Difficulty versus Actual Item Difficulty: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sydorenko, Tetyana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how accurate one item writer can be on item difficulty estimates and whether factors affecting item writer judgments correspond to predictors of actual item difficulty. The items were based on conversational dialogs (presented as videos online) that focus on pragmatic functions. Thirty-five 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-year learners…

  14. Classification accuracy across multiple tests following item method directed forgetting.

    PubMed

    Goernert, Phillip N; Widner, Robert L; Otani, Hajime

    2007-09-01

    We investigated recall of line-drawing pictures paired at study with an instruction either to remember (TBR items) or to forget (TBF items). Across three 7-minute tests, net recall (items reported independent of accuracy in instructional designation) and correctly classified recall (recall conditional on correct instructional designation) showed directed forgetting. That is, for both measures, recall of TBR items always exceeded recall of TBF items. Net recall for both item types increased across tests at comparable levels showing hypermnesia. However, across tests, correct classification of both item types decreased at comparable levels. Collectively, hypermnesia as measured by net recall is possible for items from multiple sets, but at the cost of accurate source information. PMID:17676551

  15. Development of the PROMIS® Coping Expectancies of Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Edelen, Maria Orlando; Tucker, Joan S.; Stucky, Brian D.; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Smoking is a coping strategy for many smokers who then have difficulty finding new ways to cope with negative affect when they quit. This paper describes analyses conducted to develop and evaluate item banks for assessing the coping expectancies of smoking for daily and nondaily smokers. Methods: Using data from a large sample of daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N = 1,183) smokers, we conducted a series of item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning (DIF) analyses (according to gender, age, and ethnicity) to arrive at a unidimensional set of items for daily and nondaily smokers. We also evaluated performance of short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) for assessing coping expectancies of smoking. Results: For both daily and nondaily smokers, the unidimensional Coping Expectancies item banks (21 items) are relatively DIF free and are highly reliable (0.96 and 0.97, respectively). A common 4-item SF for daily and nondaily smokers also showed good reliability (0.85). Adaptive tests required an average of 4.3 and 3.7 items for simulated daily and nondaily respondents, respectively, and achieved reliabilities of 0.91 for both when the maximum test length was 10 items. Conclusions: This research provides a new set of items that can be used to reliably assess coping expectancies of smoking, through a SF, CAT, or a tailored set selected for a specific research purpose. PMID:25118227

  16. The Role of Item Models in Automatic Item Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2012-01-01

    Automatic item generation represents a relatively new but rapidly evolving research area where cognitive and psychometric theories are used to produce tests that include items generated using computer technology. Automatic item generation requires two steps. First, test development specialists create item models, which are comparable to templates…

  17. Item Overexposure in Computerized Classification Tests Using Sequential Item Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Computerized classification tests (CCTs) often use sequential item selection which administers items according to maximizing psychometric information at a cut point demarcating passing and failing scores. This paper illustrates why this method of item selection leads to the overexposure of a significant number of items, and the performances of…

  18. Extending item response theory to online homework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2014-06-01

    Item response theory (IRT) becomes an increasingly important tool when analyzing "big data" gathered from online educational venues. However, the mechanism was originally developed in traditional exam settings, and several of its assumptions are infringed upon when deployed in the online realm. For a large-enrollment physics course for scientists and engineers, the study compares outcomes from IRT analyses of exam and homework data, and then proceeds to investigate the effects of each confounding factor introduced in the online realm. It is found that IRT yields the correct trends for learner ability and meaningful item parameters, yet overall agreement with exam data is moderate. It is also found that learner ability and item discrimination is robust over a wide range with respect to model assumptions and introduced noise. Item difficulty is also robust, but over a narrower range.

  19. Reading Current Events Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    People who live in a democracy should be well informed of local, state, national, and international happenings. Students should become curious about news items and relate current happenings to the personal self. They must possess skills in word recognition and in diverse kinds of comprehension since reading is an important way to glean current…

  20. Limited life item management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaglen, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    Plans are available for age-sensitive hardware management. Control plan identifies shelf life or age control requirements for materials considered age sensitive, use sensitive, or time service or shelf life controlled items, and describes methods of arriving at age controls through adherence to detailed specifications.

  1. Selecting Lower Priced Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinert, Harold L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A program used to teach moderately to severely mentally handicapped students to select the lower priced items in actual shopping activities is described. Through a five-phase process, students are taught to compare prices themselves as well as take into consideration variations in the sizes of containers and varying product weights. (VW)

  2. EnvMine: A text-mining system for the automatic extraction of contextual information

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background For ecological studies, it is crucial to count on adequate descriptions of the environments and samples being studied. Such a description must be done in terms of their physicochemical characteristics, allowing a direct comparison between different environments that would be difficult to do otherwise. Also the characterization must include the precise geographical location, to make possible the study of geographical distributions and biogeographical patterns. Currently, there is no schema for annotating these environmental features, and these data have to be extracted from textual sources (published articles). So far, this had to be performed by manual inspection of the corresponding documents. To facilitate this task, we have developed EnvMine, a set of text-mining tools devoted to retrieve contextual information (physicochemical variables and geographical locations) from textual sources of any kind. Results EnvMine is capable of retrieving the physicochemical variables cited in the text, by means of the accurate identification of their associated units of measurement. In this task, the system achieves a recall (percentage of items retrieved) of 92% with less than 1% error. Also a Bayesian classifier was tested for distinguishing parts of the text describing environmental characteristics from others dealing with, for instance, experimental settings. Regarding the identification of geographical locations, the system takes advantage of existing databases such as GeoNames to achieve 86% recall with 92% precision. The identification of a location includes also the determination of its exact coordinates (latitude and longitude), thus allowing the calculation of distance between the individual locations. Conclusion EnvMine is a very efficient method for extracting contextual information from different text sources, like published articles or web pages. This tool can help in determining the precise location and physicochemical variables of sampling sites, thus

  3. ICCS 2009 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 5: ICCS 2009 Released Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brese, Falk; Jung, Michael; Mirazchiyski, Plamen; Schulz, Wolfram; Zuehlke, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    This document contains released items used in the ICCS 2009 main survey. Seven clusters of items were used in the study in a rotated booklet design with three clusters per test booklet. Clusters 1 and 7 comprise the released item set. Cluster 1 comprises items that were newly developed for ICCS 2009 and Cluster 7 is drawn from previously secure…

  4. Longwall mining

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-14

    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  5. Extending Item Response Theory to Online Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) becomes an increasingly important tool when analyzing "big data" gathered from online educational venues. However, the mechanism was originally developed in traditional exam settings, and several of its assumptions are infringed upon when deployed in the online realm. For a large-enrollment physics course for…

  6. Development of the PROMIS® Health Expectancies of Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Shadel, William G.; Stucky, Brian D.; Cerully, Jennifer; Li, Zhen; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smokers’ health-related outcome expectancies are associated with a number of important constructs in smoking research, yet there are no measures currently available that focus exclusively on this domain. This paper describes the development and evaluation of item banks for assessing the health expectancies of smoking. Methods: Using data from a sample of daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N = 1,183) smokers, we conducted a series of item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning analyses (according to gender, age, and race/ethnicity) to arrive at a unidimensional set of health expectancies items for daily and nondaily smokers. We also evaluated the performance of short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) to efficiently assess health expectancies. Results: A total of 24 items were included in the Health Expectancies item banks; 13 items are common across daily and nondaily smokers, 6 are unique to daily, and 5 are unique to nondaily. For both daily and nondaily smokers, the Health Expectancies item banks are unidimensional, reliable (reliability = 0.95 and 0.96, respectively), and perform similarly across gender, age, and race/ethnicity groups. A SF common to daily and nondaily smokers consists of 6 items (reliability = 0.87). Results from simulated CATs showed that health expectancies can be assessed with good precision with an average of 5–6 items adaptively selected from the item banks. Conclusions: Health expectancies of smoking can be assessed on the basis of these item banks via SFs, CATs, or through a tailored set of items selected for a specific research purpose. PMID:25118229

  7. Development of the PROMIS® Nicotine Dependence Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Edelen, Maria Orlando; Tucker, Joan S.; Stucky, Brian D.; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Nicotine dependence is a core construct important for understanding cigarette smoking and smoking cessation behavior. This article describes analyses conducted to develop and evaluate item banks for assessing nicotine dependence among daily and nondaily smokers. Methods: Using data from a sample of daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N =1,183) smokers, we conducted a series of item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning analyses (according to gender, age, and race/ethnicity) to arrive at a unidimensional set of nicotine dependence items for daily and nondaily smokers. We also evaluated performance of short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) to efficiently assess dependence. Results: A total of 32 items were included in the Nicotine Dependence item banks; 22 items are common across daily and nondaily smokers, 5 are unique to daily smokers, and 5 are unique to nondaily smokers. For both daily and nondaily smokers, the Nicotine Dependence item banks are strongly unidimensional, highly reliable (reliability = 0.97 and 0.97, respectively), and perform similarly across gender, age, and race/ethnicity groups. SFs common to daily and nondaily smokers consist of 8 and 4 items (reliability = 0.91 and 0.81, respectively). Results from simulated CATs showed that dependence can be assessed with very good precision for most respondents using fewer than 6 items adaptively selected from the item banks. Conclusions: Nicotine dependence on cigarettes can be assessed on the basis of these item banks via one of the SFs, by using CATs, or through a tailored set of items selected for a specific research purpose. PMID:25118226

  8. Mining fuzzy association rules in spatio-temporal databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Hong; Dong, Lin; Zhu, Xinyan

    2008-12-01

    A huge amount of geospatial and temporal data have been collected through various networks of environment monitoring stations. For instance, daily precipitation and temperature are observed at hundreds of meteorological stations in Northeastern China. However, these massive raw data from the stations are not fully utilized for meeting the requirements of human decision-making. In nature, the discovery of geographical data mining is the computation of multivariate spatio-temporal correlations through the stages of data mining. In this paper, a procedure of mining association rules in regional climate-changing databases is introduced. The methods of Kriging interpolation, fuzzy cmeans clustering, and Apriori-based logical rules extraction are employed subsequently. Formally, we define geographical spatio-temporal transactions and fuzzy association rules. Innovatively, we make fuzzy data conceptualization by means of fuzzy c-means clustering, and transform fuzzy data items with membership grades into Boolean data items with weights by means ofλ-cut sets. When the algorithm Apriori is executed on Boolean transactions with weights, fuzzy association rules are derived. Fuzzy association rules are more nature than crisp association rules for human cognition about the reality.

  9. Research on parallel algorithm for sequential pattern mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lijuan; Qin, Bai; Wang, Yu; Hao, Zhongxiao

    2008-03-01

    Sequential pattern mining is the mining of frequent sequences related to time or other orders from the sequence database. Its initial motivation is to discover the laws of customer purchasing in a time section by finding the frequent sequences. In recent years, sequential pattern mining has become an important direction of data mining, and its application field has not been confined to the business database and has extended to new data sources such as Web and advanced science fields such as DNA analysis. The data of sequential pattern mining has characteristics as follows: mass data amount and distributed storage. Most existing sequential pattern mining algorithms haven't considered the above-mentioned characteristics synthetically. According to the traits mentioned above and combining the parallel theory, this paper puts forward a new distributed parallel algorithm SPP(Sequential Pattern Parallel). The algorithm abides by the principal of pattern reduction and utilizes the divide-and-conquer strategy for parallelization. The first parallel task is to construct frequent item sets applying frequent concept and search space partition theory and the second task is to structure frequent sequences using the depth-first search method at each processor. The algorithm only needs to access the database twice and doesn't generate the candidated sequences, which abates the access time and improves the mining efficiency. Based on the random data generation procedure and different information structure designed, this paper simulated the SPP algorithm in a concrete parallel environment and implemented the AprioriAll algorithm. The experiments demonstrate that compared with AprioriAll, the SPP algorithm had excellent speedup factor and efficiency.

  10. Item-focussed Trees for the Identification of Items in Differential Item Functioning.

    PubMed

    Tutz, Gerhard; Berger, Moritz

    2016-09-01

    A novel method for the identification of differential item functioning (DIF) by means of recursive partitioning techniques is proposed. We assume an extension of the Rasch model that allows for DIF being induced by an arbitrary number of covariates for each item. Recursive partitioning on the item level results in one tree for each item and leads to simultaneous selection of items and variables that induce DIF. For each item, it is possible to detect groups of subjects with different item difficulties, defined by combinations of characteristics that are not pre-specified. The way a DIF item is determined by covariates is visualized in a small tree and therefore easily accessible. An algorithm is proposed that is based on permutation tests. Various simulation studies, including the comparison with traditional approaches to identify items with DIF, show the applicability and the competitive performance of the method. Two applications illustrate the usefulness and the advantages of the new method. PMID:26596721

  11. Item Sampling: Optimum Number of People and Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moy, Mabel L. Y.; Barcikowski, Robert S.

    Using a computer-based Monte Carlo approach to generate item responses, the results of this study indicate that, when item discrimination indices are considered, item-examinee sampling procedures having the same number of observations have different standard errors in estimating both test mean and test variance. With certain types of tests, a…

  12. Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David; Hagquist, Curt

    2015-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) for an item between two groups is present if, for the same person location on a variable, persons from different groups have different expected values for their responses. Applying only to dichotomously scored items in the popular Mantel-Haenszel (MH) method for detecting DIF in which persons are classified by…

  13. Faculty Development on Item Writing Substantially Improves Item Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeem, Naghma; van der Vleuten, Cees; Alfaris, Eiad Abdelmohsen

    2012-01-01

    The quality of items written for in-house examinations in medical schools remains a cause of concern. Several faculty development programs are aimed at improving faculty's item writing skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a faculty development program in item development. An objective method was developed and used…

  14. Component Identification and Item Difficulty of Raven's Matrices Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathy E.; Kluever, Raymond C.

    Item components that might contribute to the difficulty of items on the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) were studied. Subjects providing responses to CPM items were 269 children aged 2 years 9 months to 11 years 8 months, most of whom were referred for testing as potentially gifted. A second…

  15. The Communicative Participation Item Bank (CPIB): Item bank calibration and development of a disorder-generic short form

    PubMed Central

    Baylor, Carolyn; Yorkston, Kathryn; Eadie, Tanya; Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to calibrate the items for the Communicative Participation Item Bank (CPIB) using Item Response Theory (IRT). One overriding objective was to examine if the IRT item parameters would be consistent across different diagnostic groups, thereby allowing creation of a disorder-generic instrument. The intended outcomes were the final item bank and a short form ready for clinical and research applications. Methods Self-report data were collected from 701 individuals representing four diagnoses: multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and head and neck cancer. Participants completed the CPIB and additional self-report questionnaires. CPIB data were analyzed using the IRT Graded Response Model (GRM). Results The initial set of 94 candidate CPIB items were reduced to an item bank of 46 items demonstrating unidimensionality, local independence, good item fit, and good measurement precision. Differential item function (DIF) analyses detected no meaningful differences across diagnostic groups. A 10-item, disorder-generic short form was generated. Conclusions The CPIB provides speech-language pathologists with a unidimensional, self-report outcomes measurement instrument dedicated to the construct of communicative participation. This instrument may be useful to clinicians and researchers wanting to implement measures of communicative participation in their work. PMID:23816661

  16. Detecting Local Item Dependence in Polytomous Adaptive Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Jessica L.; Rupp, Andre A.; Harring, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    A rapidly expanding arena for item response theory (IRT) is in attitudinal and health-outcomes survey applications, often with polytomous items. In particular, there is interest in computer adaptive testing (CAT). Meeting model assumptions is necessary to realize the benefits of IRT in this setting, however. Although initial investigations of…

  17. Tree versus Geometric Representation of Tests and Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beller, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Geometric approaches to representing interrelations among tests and items are compared with an additive tree model (ATM), using 2,644 examinees and 2 other data sets. The ATM's close fit to the data and its coherence of presentation indicate that it is the best means of representing tests and items. (TJH)

  18. The Effect of Item Sequence on Bar Examination Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.; Bolus, Roger

    A solution to reduce the likelihood of one examinee copying another's answers on large scale tests that require all examinees to answer the same set of questions is to use multiple test forms that differ in terms of item ordering. This study was conducted to determine whether varying the sequence in which blocks of items were presented to…

  19. Comparison of Bookmark Difficulty Locations Under Different Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2004-01-01

    In the bookmark standard-setting procedure, judges place "bookmarks" in a reordered test booklet containing items presented in order of increasing difficulty. Traditionally, the bookmark difficulty location (BDL) is on the trait continuum where, for dichotomous items, there is a two-thirds probability of a correct response and, for a score of "k"…

  20. Technical evaluation process for specifying replacement items

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, W.E. ); Mulford, T.J. )

    1989-01-01

    As nuclear power plants continue in the transition to a strictly operating and maintenance mode, the engineering involvement required to specify and procure replacement parts and components continues to increase. The evaluation process for a replacement item has one simple goal: to specify an effective set of technical and quality requirements that will result in the procurement of an item meeting the plant design basis. The evaluation process is depicted in a simplified block diagram showing the elements of engineering evaluation from a functional perspective. These elements are the following: (1) need for a technical evaluation; (2) components and part classification; (3) failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA); (4) critical characteristics for design determination; (5) like-for-like or alternate item evaluation; and (6) technical and quality requirements determination.

  1. Methodological Issues in Using the Rasch Model To Select Cross Culturally Equivalent Items in Order To Develop a Quality of Life Index: The Analysis of Four WHOQOL-100 Data Sets (Argentina, France, Hong Kong, United Kingdom).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leplege, Alain; Ecosse, Emmanuel

    2000-01-01

    Describes the source instrument, the database, and the experimental methodology that have been used in developing the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) profiles to allow the comparison of quality of life findings from a variety of cultural settings. Illustrates the precautions necessary in interpreting scores from different…

  2. Effects of Ignoring Item Interaction on Item Parameter Estimation and Detection of Interacting Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Cheng-Te; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the effects of ignoring item interaction on item parameter estimation and the efficiency of using the local dependence index Q[subscript 3] and the SAS NLMIXED procedure to detect item interaction under the three-parameter logistic model and the generalized partial credit model. Through simulations, it was found that ignoring…

  3. Web Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürnkranz, Johannes

    The World-Wide Web provides every internet citizen with access to an abundance of information, but it becomes increasingly difficult to identify the relevant pieces of information. Research in web mining tries to address this problem by applying techniques from data mining and machine learning to Web data and documents. This chapter provides a brief overview of web mining techniques and research areas, most notably hypertext classification, wrapper induction, recommender systems and web usage mining.

  4. The Body Appreciation Scale-2: item refinement and psychometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L

    2015-01-01

    Considered a positive body image measure, the 13-item Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos, Tylka, & Wood-Barcalow, 2005) assesses individuals' acceptance of, favorable opinions toward, and respect for their bodies. While the BAS has accrued psychometric support, we improved it by rewording certain BAS items (to eliminate sex-specific versions and body dissatisfaction-based language) and developing additional items based on positive body image research. In three studies, we examined the reworded, newly developed, and retained items to determine their psychometric properties among college and online community (Amazon Mechanical Turk) samples of 820 women and 767 men. After exploratory factor analysis, we retained 10 items (five original BAS items). Confirmatory factor analysis upheld the BAS-2's unidimensionality and invariance across sex and sample type. Its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, incremental, and discriminant) validity were supported. The BAS-2 is a psychometrically sound positive body image measure applicable for research and clinical settings. PMID:25462882

  5. Text Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  6. Data Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    Discusses data mining (DM) and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD), taking the view that KDD is the larger view of the entire process, with DM emphasizing the cleaning, warehousing, mining, and visualization of knowledge discovery in databases. Highlights include algorithms; users; the Internet; text mining; and information extraction.…

  7. The DIF-Free-Then-DIF Strategy for the Assessment of Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin; Sun, Guo-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The DIF-free-then-DIF (DFTD) strategy consists of two steps: (a) select a set of items that are the most likely to be DIF-free and (b) assess the other items for DIF (differential item functioning) using the designated items as anchors. The rank-based method together with the computer software IRTLRDIF can select a set of DIF-free polytomous items…

  8. 10 CFR 74.55 - Item monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... days for Category IA items and 60 calendar days for Category IB items contained in a vault or in a... days for Category IA items and seven calendar days for Category BI items located elsewhere in the...

  9. 10 CFR 74.55 - Item monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... days for Category IA items and 60 calendar days for Category IB items contained in a vault or in a... days for Category IA items and seven calendar days for Category BI items located elsewhere in the...

  10. Linking Item Response Model Parameters.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Wim J; Barrett, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    With a few exceptions, the problem of linking item response model parameters from different item calibrations has been conceptualized as an instance of the problem of test equating scores on different test forms. This paper argues, however, that the use of item response models does not require any test score equating. Instead, it involves the necessity of parameter linking due to a fundamental problem inherent in the formal nature of these models-their general lack of identifiability. More specifically, item response model parameters need to be linked to adjust for the different effects of the identifiability restrictions used in separate item calibrations. Our main theorems characterize the formal nature of these linking functions for monotone, continuous response models, derive their specific shapes for different parameterizations of the 3PL model, and show how to identify them from the parameter values of the common items or persons in different linking designs. PMID:26155754

  11. Item-properties may influence item-item associations in serial recall.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Jeremy B; Madan, Christopher R; Bedwell, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Attributes of words, such as frequency and imageability, can influence memory for order. In serial recall, Hulme, Stuart, Brown, and Morin (Journal of Memory and Language, 49(4), 500-518, 2003) found that high-frequency words were recalled worse, and low-frequency words better, when embedded in alternating lists than pure lists. This is predicted by associative chaining, wherein each recalled list-item becomes a recall-cue for the next item. However, Hulme, Stuart, Brown, and Morin (Journal of Memory and Language, 49(4), 500-518, 2003) argued their findings supported positional-coding models, wherein items are linked to a representation of position, with no direct associations between items. They suggested their serial-position effects were due to pre-experimental semantic similarity between pairs of items, which depended on frequency, or a complex tradeoff between item- and order-coding (Morin, Poirier, Fortin, & Hulme, Psychonomic Bulletin Review, 13(4), 724-729, 2006). We replicated the smooth serial-position effects, but accounts based on pre-existing similarity or item-order tradeoffs were untenable. Alternative accounts based, on imageability, phonological and lexical neighbourhood sizes were also ruled out. The standard chaining account predicts that if accuracy is conditionalized on whether the prior item was correct, the word-frequency effect should reappear in alternating lists; however, this prediction was not borne out, challenging this retrieval-based chaining account. We describe a new account, whereby frequency influences the strengths of item-item associations, symmetrically, during study. A manipulation of word-imageability also produced a pattern consistent with item-item cueing at study, but left room for effects of imageability at the final stage of recall. These findings provide further support for the contribution of associative chaining to serial-recall behaviour and show that item-properties may influence serial-recall in multiple ways. PMID

  12. Selecting Items for Criterion-Referenced Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellenbergh, Gideon J.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    1982-01-01

    Three item selection methods for criterion-referenced tests are examined: the classical theory of item difficulty and item-test correlation; the latent trait theory of item characteristic curves; and a decision-theoretic approach for optimal item selection. Item contribution to the standardized expected utility of mastery testing is discussed. (CM)

  13. A Mixed Effects Randomized Item Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, J.-P.; Wyrick, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    The randomized response technique ensures that individual item responses, denoted as true item responses, are randomized before observing them and so-called randomized item responses are observed. A relationship is specified between randomized item response data and true item response data. True item response data are modeled with a (non)linear…

  14. Three controversies over item disclosure in medical licensure examinations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon Soo; Yang, Eunbae B.

    2015-01-01

    In response to views on public's right to know, there is growing attention to item disclosure – release of items, answer keys, and performance data to the public – in medical licensure examinations and their potential impact on the test's ability to measure competence and select qualified candidates. Recent debates on this issue have sparked legislative action internationally, including South Korea, with prior discussions among North American countries dating over three decades. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze three issues associated with item disclosure in medical licensure examinations – 1) fairness and validity, 2) impact on passing levels, and 3) utility of item disclosure – by synthesizing existing literature in relation to standards in testing. Historically, the controversy over item disclosure has centered on fairness and validity. Proponents of item disclosure stress test takers’ right to know, while opponents argue from a validity perspective. Item disclosure may bias item characteristics, such as difficulty and discrimination, and has consequences on setting passing levels. To date, there has been limited research on the utility of item disclosure for large scale testing. These issues requires ongoing and careful consideration. PMID:26374693

  15. Three controversies over item disclosure in medical licensure examinations.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon Soo; Yang, Eunbae B

    2015-01-01

    In response to views on public's right to know, there is growing attention to item disclosure - release of items, answer keys, and performance data to the public - in medical licensure examinations and their potential impact on the test's ability to measure competence and select qualified candidates. Recent debates on this issue have sparked legislative action internationally, including South Korea, with prior discussions among North American countries dating over three decades. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze three issues associated with item disclosure in medical licensure examinations - 1) fairness and validity, 2) impact on passing levels, and 3) utility of item disclosure - by synthesizing existing literature in relation to standards in testing. Historically, the controversy over item disclosure has centered on fairness and validity. Proponents of item disclosure stress test takers' right to know, while opponents argue from a validity perspective. Item disclosure may bias item characteristics, such as difficulty and discrimination, and has consequences on setting passing levels. To date, there has been limited research on the utility of item disclosure for large scale testing. These issues requires ongoing and careful consideration. PMID:26374693

  16. MIMIC Methods for Assessing Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Three multiple indicators-multiple causes (MIMIC) methods, namely, the standard MIMIC method (M-ST), the MIMIC method with scale purification (M-SP), and the MIMIC method with a pure anchor (M-PA), were developed to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. In a series of simulations, it appeared that all three methods…

  17. Evaluating Item Fit for Multidimensional Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Bo; Stone, Clement A.

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the utility of the s-x[superscript 2] statistic proposed by Orlando and Thissen (2000) in evaluating item fit for multidimensional item response models. Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to investigate both the Type I error and statistical power of this fit statistic in analyzing two kinds of multidimensional test…

  18. Differential Item Functioning Analysis Using Rasch Item Information Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Mapuranga, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis is a statistical technique used for ensuring the equity and fairness of educational assessments. This study formulates a new DIF analysis method using the information similarity index (ISI). ISI compares item information functions when data fits the Rasch model. Through simulations and an international…

  19. 17 CFR 229.104 - (Item 104) Mine safety disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and orders referenced in Subpart B of 29 CFR part 2700; 2. Contests of proposed penalties referenced in Subpart C of 29 CFR part 2700; 3. Complaints for compensation referenced in Subpart D of 29 CFR part 2700; 4. Complaints of discharge, discrimination or interference referenced in Subpart E of 29...

  20. 17 CFR 229.104 - (Item 104) Mine safety disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and orders referenced in Subpart B of 29 CFR part 2700; 2. Contests of proposed penalties referenced in Subpart C of 29 CFR part 2700; 3. Complaints for compensation referenced in Subpart D of 29 CFR part 2700; 4. Complaints of discharge, discrimination or interference referenced in Subpart E of 29...

  1. 17 CFR 229.104 - (Item 104) Mine safety disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and orders referenced in Subpart B of 29 CFR part 2700; 2. Contests of proposed penalties referenced in Subpart C of 29 CFR part 2700; 3. Complaints for compensation referenced in Subpart D of 29 CFR part 2700; 4. Complaints of discharge, discrimination or interference referenced in Subpart E of 29...

  2. Mine system

    SciTech Connect

    Stoppani, B.R.

    1983-10-04

    A mine system comprises at least one mining machine adapted to haul itself, in a reciprocating manner, along a mineral face, and a control box housing means to control the various electrical elements of the machine(s), the box being located in a mine roadway at one end of the mineral face along which the machine(s) is reciprocating, and the box being electrically connected to a terminal box housed in a body of the machine(s).

  3. Career and Occupational Development Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    The career and occupational development items contained in this document are part of a kit consisting of four documents which bring together different types of items that measure a number of career and occupational development (COD) objectives developed by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). (NAEP--which completed a national…

  4. Generalizability in Item Response Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Wilson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    An approach called generalizability in item response modeling (GIRM) is introduced in this article. The GIRM approach essentially incorporates the sampling model of generalizability theory (GT) into the scaling model of item response theory (IRT) by making distributional assumptions about the relevant measurement facets. By specifying a random…

  5. Agriculture Library of Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Duncan, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection is reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test…

  6. Automatic Association of News Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrick, Christina; Watters, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of electronic news delivery systems and the automatic generation of electronic editions focuses on the association of related items of different media type, specifically photos and stories. The goal is to be able to determine to what degree any two news items refer to the same news event. (Author/LRW)

  7. Diverse Food Items Are Similarly Categorized by 8- to 13-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Alicia; Knight Sepulveda, Karina; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Islam, Noemi; Missaghian, Mariam

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Assess how 8- to 13-year-old children categorized and labeled food items for possible use as part of a food search strategy in a computerized 24-hour dietary recall. Design: A set of 62 cards with pictures and names of food items from 18 professionally defined food groups was sorted by each child into piles of similar food items.…

  8. Item Difficulty in the Evaluation of Computer-Based Instruction: An Example from Neuroanatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chariker, Julia H.; Naaz, Farah; Pani, John R.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports large item effects in a study of computer-based learning of neuroanatomy. Outcome measures of the efficiency of learning, transfer of learning, and generalization of knowledge diverged by a wide margin across test items, with certain sets of items emerging as particularly difficult to master. In addition, the outcomes of…

  9. Assessing Acquiescence in Binary Responses: IRT-Related Item-Factor-Analytic Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Condon, Lorena

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes procedures for assessing acquiescence in a balanced set of binary personality items. These procedures are based on the bidimensional item-factor analysis model, which is an alternative parameterization of the bidimensional 2-parameter normal-ogive item response theory model. First the rationale and general approach are…

  10. An Efficiency Balanced Information Criterion for Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Kyung T.

    2012-01-01

    Successful administration of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs in educational settings requires that test security and item exposure control issues be taken seriously. Developing an item selection algorithm that strikes the right balance between test precision and level of item pool utilization is the key to successful implementation…

  11. The Asymptotic Distribution of Ability Estimates: Beyond Dichotomous Items and Unidimensional IRT Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    The maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of the ability parameter of an item response theory model with known item parameters was proved to be asymptotically normally distributed under a set of regularity conditions for tests involving dichotomous items and a unidimensional ability parameter (Klauer, 1990; Lord, 1983). This article first considers…

  12. Deep mine cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Conan, J.

    1984-11-06

    A deep mine cooling system comprising a compressor supplied with air and rotatively driven by a motor and an expansion turbine supplied with compressed air from said compressor and driving an actuating unit, wherein the compressed air, after leaving the compressor but prior to reaching the expansion turbine, passes through a steam generator whose output provides the energy required to operate an absorption refrigeration machine used to cool utility water for mining, said compressed air on leaving the steam generator going to a first heat exchanger in which it yields calories to a water circuit comprising a second heat exchanger, said second heat exchanger giving off the calories absorbed by the water in the first heat exchanger to the air fed by the second heat exchanger to a drying cell that is regenerated by said air from the second heat exchanger, said drying cell being part of a set of two cells working in alternation, the other cell in the set receiving the compressed air from the first heat exchanger, such that the compressed air is fed to said expansion turbine after leaving said drying unit, and wherein the air exhausted from said expansion turbine is sent to a third heat exchanger after which it is distributed according to the needs of the mine, said third exchanger being traversed by the water collected in the mine, cooled in said exchanger and circulated upon leaving said exchanger to meet the cool water requirements of the mine.

  13. Assessing item fit for unidimensional item response theory models using residuals from estimated item response functions.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Shelby J; Sinharay, Sandip; Chon, Kyong Hee

    2013-07-01

    Residual analysis (e.g. Hambleton & Swaminathan, Item response theory: principles and applications, Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1985; Hambleton, Swaminathan, & Rogers, Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) is a popular method to assess fit of item response theory (IRT) models. We suggest a form of residual analysis that may be applied to assess item fit for unidimensional IRT models. The residual analysis consists of a comparison of the maximum-likelihood estimate of the item characteristic curve with an alternative ratio estimate of the item characteristic curve. The large sample distribution of the residual is proved to be standardized normal when the IRT model fits the data. We compare the performance of our suggested residual to the standardized residual of Hambleton et al. (Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) in a detailed simulation study. We then calculate our suggested residuals using data from an operational test. The residuals appear to be useful in assessing the item fit for unidimensional IRT models. PMID:25106393

  14. African mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference addressing the development of the minerals industry in Africa. Topics covered include: A review - past, present and future - of Zimbabwe's mining industry; Geomorphological processes and related mineralization in Tanzania; and Rock mechanics investigations at Mufulira mine, Zambia.

  15. Integrating Entropy and Closed Frequent Pattern Mining for Social Network Modelling and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan, Muhaimenul; Alhajj, Reda; Rokne, Jon

    The recent increase in the explicitly available social networks has attracted the attention of the research community to investigate how it would be possible to benefit from such a powerful model in producing effective solutions for problems in other domains where the social network is implicit; we argue that social networks do exist around us but the key issue is how to realize and analyze them. This chapter presents a novel approach for constructing a social network model by an integrated framework that first preparing the data to be analyzed and then applies entropy and frequent closed patterns mining for network construction. For a given problem, we first prepare the data by identifying items and transactions, which arc the basic ingredients for frequent closed patterns mining. Items arc main objects in the problem and a transaction is a set of items that could exist together at one time (e.g., items purchased in one visit to the supermarket). Transactions could be analyzed to discover frequent closed patterns using any of the well-known techniques. Frequent closed patterns have the advantage that they successfully grab the inherent information content of the dataset and is applicable to a broader set of domains. Entropies of the frequent closed patterns arc used to keep the dimensionality of the feature vectors to a reasonable size; it is a kind of feature reduction process. Finally, we analyze the dynamic behavior of the constructed social network. Experiments were conducted on a synthetic dataset and on the Enron corpus email dataset. The results presented in the chapter show that social networks extracted from a feature set as frequent closed patterns successfully carry the community structure information. Moreover, for the Enron email dataset, we present an analysis to dynamically indicate the deviations from each user's individual and community profile. These indications of deviations can be very useful to identify unusual events.

  16. Determining the Significance of Item Order in Randomized Problem Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardos, Zachary A.; Heffernan, Neil T.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers who make tutoring systems would like to know which sequences of educational content lead to the most effective learning by their students. The majority of data collected in many ITS systems consist of answers to a group of questions of a given skill often presented in a random sequence. Following work that identifies which items…

  17. Item Disordinality with the Bookmark Standard Setting Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaggs, Gary; Tessema, Aster

    This paper presents an application of the bookmark procedure to a test comprised of increasing text difficulty levels. The Test of English Proficiency for Adults (TEPA) was used for this study. Three forms of the TEPA were field tested in 1999 with approximately 1,000 non-native English speaking students enrolled in English-as-a-Second-Language…

  18. Bureau takes lead in 1983 R and D. [US Bureau of Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Chironis, N.P.

    1983-02-01

    Items from the US Bureau of Mines research programme are described. Those relating to underground mining include SAMS, a semi-autonomous mining system; Kloswall, a more productive longwall system; automated roof bolting and miner-bolters; new types of haulage and roof support; and airborne dust monitors.

  19. 7 CFR 3201.5 - Item designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Item designation. 3201.5 Section 3201.5 Agriculture....5 Item designation. (a) Procedure. Designated items are listed in subpart B. In designating items, USDA will designate items composed of generic groupings of specific products and will identify...

  20. 7 CFR 3201.5 - Item designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Item designation. 3201.5 Section 3201.5 Agriculture....5 Item designation. (a) Procedure. Designated items are listed in subpart B. In designating items, USDA will designate items composed of generic groupings of specific products and will identify...

  1. 7 CFR 3201.5 - Item designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Item designation. 3201.5 Section 3201.5 Agriculture....5 Item designation. (a) Procedure. Designated items are listed in subpart B. In designating items, USDA will designate items composed of generic groupings of specific products and will identify...

  2. Item Banking. ERIC/AE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence

    This digest discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using item banks, and it provides useful information for those who are considering implementing an item banking project in their school districts. The primary advantage of item banking is in test development. Using an item response theory method, such as the Rasch model, items from multiple…

  3. Computerized Adaptive Testing with Item Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2003-01-01

    Developed a multilevel item response (IRT) model that allows for differences between the distributions of item parameters of families of item clones. Results from simulation studies based on an item pool from the Law School Admission Test illustrate the accuracy of the item pool calibration and adaptive testing procedures based on the model. (SLD)

  4. Multilevel Modeling of Item Position Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albano, Anthony D.

    2013-01-01

    In many testing programs it is assumed that the context or position in which an item is administered does not have a differential effect on examinee responses to the item. Violations of this assumption may bias item response theory estimates of item and person parameters. This study examines the potentially biasing effects of item position. A…

  5. How Item Banks and Their Application Can Influence Measurement Practice in Rehabilitation Medicine: A PROMIS Fatigue Item Bank Example

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jin-Shei; Cella, David; Choi, Seung; Junghaenel, Doerte U.; Christodoulou, Christopher; Gershon, Richard; Stone, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Objective To illustrate how measurement practices can be advanced using as an example the fatigue item bank (FIB) and its applications (short-forms and computerized adaptive test) that were developed via the NIH Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Cooperative Group. Design Psychometric analysis of data collected by an internet survey company using Item Response Theory (IRT) related techniques. Setting A United States general population representative sample collected via internet. Participants 803 respondents used for dimensionality evaluation of the PROMIS FIB and 14,931 respondents used for item calibrations Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures 112 fatigue items developed by the PROMIS fatigue domain working group, 13-item Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue, and 4-item SF-36 Vitality scale. Results The PROMIS FIB version 1 which consists of 95 items demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties. Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) showed consistently better precision than short-forms. However, all three short-forms showed good precision for the majority of participants, in that more than 95% of sample could be precisely measured with a reliability greater than 0.9. Conclusions Measurement practice can be advanced by using a psychometrically sound measurement tool and its applications. This example shows that CAT and short-forms derived from the PROMIS FIB can reliably estimate fatigue reported by the US general population. Evaluation in clinical populations is warranted before the item bank can be used for clinical trials. PMID:21958919

  6. 30 CFR 57.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft sets. 57.19106 Section 57.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material....

  7. 30 CFR 56.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft sets. 56.19106 Section 56.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material....

  8. Real-time intelligent decision making with data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Deepak P.; Gopalakrishnan, Bhaskaran

    2004-03-01

    Database mining, widely known as knowledge discovery and data mining (KDD), has attracted lot of attention in recent years. With the rapid growth of databases in commercial, industrial, administrative and other applications, it is necessary and interesting to extract knowledge automatically from huge amount of data. Almost all the organizations are generating data and information at an unprecedented rate and they need to get some useful information from this data. Data mining is the extraction of non-trivial, previously unknown and potentially useful patterns, trends, dependence and correlation known as association rules among data values in large databases. In last ten to fifteen years, data mining spread out from one company to the other to help them understand more about customers' aspect of quality and response and also distinguish the customers they want from those they do not. A credit-card company found that customers who complete their applications in pencil rather than pen are more likely to default. There is a program that identifies callers by purchase history. The bigger the spender, the quicker the call will be answered. If you feel your call is being answered in the order in which it was received, think again. Many algorithms assume that data is static in nature and mine the rules and relations in that data. But for a dynamic database e.g. in most of the manufacturing industries, the rules and relations thus developed among the variables/items no longer hold true. A simple approach may be to mine the associations among the variables after every fixed period of time. But again, how much the length of this period should be, is a question to be answered. The next problem with the static data mining is that some of the relationships that might be of interest from one period to the other may be lost after a new set of data is used. To reflect the effect of new data set and current status of the association rules where some of the strong rules might become

  9. The Effects of Various Item Selection Methods on the Classification Accuracy and Classification Consistency of Criterion-Referenced Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas U.

    This study examined the effects of certain item selection methods on the classification accuracy and classification consistency of criterion-referenced instruments. Three item response data sets, representing varying situations of instructional effectiveness, were simulated. Five methods of item selection were then applied to each data set for the…

  10. The Identification of Neurologically Relevant Items in the MMPI-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Balen, H. G. G.; Van Limbeek, J.; De Mey, H. R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Forty neuropsychologists, neurologists, psychiatrists, and physiatrists identified neurologically relevant items (NRIs) in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). Raters identified four sets of NRIs: one for brain damage in general and three partially overlapping sets for stroke, traumatic brain damage, and whiplash.…

  11. Mining apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ingle, J.E.; Lane, A.J.; Mcgee, D.A.

    1981-03-10

    An improved mining apparatus for excavating material, such as coal, for example, from an earth formation, such as a coal seam, for example, wherein a miner, having a forward and a rearward cutter, is guided through the coal seam and excavates a borehole therein, the borehole being filled with a working fluid during the operation of the miner, the working fluid facilitating the operation of the miner and providing a vehicle for removing the mined material. Substantially all of the operations of the miner are controlled from the earth's surface thereby eliminating the necessity and accompanying hazards and costs involved in utilizing personnel underground during the mining operations.

  12. Penn State researches acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-27

    A brief news item reports that work is being carried out at Penn State University on the effectiveness of sphagnum moss and other marsh-type plants in removing iron from acid mine water. A sphagnum moss bog has been established in a greenhouse at the University and field work is also being undertaken in a natural environment in Clearfield County.

  13. Optimizing data collection for public health decisions: a data mining approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Collecting data can be cumbersome and expensive. Lack of relevant, accurate and timely data for research to inform policy may negatively impact public health. The aim of this study was to test if the careful removal of items from two community nutrition surveys guided by a data mining technique called feature selection, can (a) identify a reduced dataset, while (b) not damaging the signal inside that data. Methods The Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys for stores (NEMS-S) and restaurants (NEMS-R) were completed on 885 retail food outlets in two counties in West Virginia between May and November of 2011. A reduced dataset was identified for each outlet type using feature selection. Coefficients from linear regression modeling were used to weight items in the reduced datasets. Weighted item values were summed with the error term to compute reduced item survey scores. Scores produced by the full survey were compared to the reduced item scores using a Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results Feature selection identified 9 store and 16 restaurant survey items as significant predictors of the score produced from the full survey. The linear regression models built from the reduced feature sets had R2 values of 92% and 94% for restaurant and grocery store data, respectively. Conclusions While there are many potentially important variables in any domain, the most useful set may only be a small subset. The use of feature selection in the initial phase of data collection to identify the most influential variables may be a useful tool to greatly reduce the amount of data needed thereby reducing cost. PMID:24919484

  14. Metacognition influences item-method directed forgetting.

    PubMed

    Foster, Nathaniel L; Sahakyan, Lili

    2012-09-01

    In 4 experiments, we examined whether metacognitive beliefs about item memorability influence item-method directed forgetting. In Experiment 1, participants studied loud and quiet items, which were subsequently cued as to-be-remembered (TBR) or to-be-forgotten (TBF). Typically, the volume of stimuli does not influence recall, although loud items are judged as more memorable than quiet items (Rhodes & Castel, 2009). In contrast, we found a recall advantage for loud items in directed forgetting, although this was observed for TBR items but not TBF items. The loud item advantage disappeared in Experiment 2, when we eliminated all TBF trials and instead inserted additional trials during which participants could engage in extra rehearsal of earlier presented items. In Experiments 3 and 4, a recall advantage for loud items was observed again when items were assigned a mixture of positive and negative values, but it did not emerge when items were assigned graded positive values. Overall, the results showed that the recall advantage for loud items emerges only in response to the need to forget some items. We propose 2 mechanisms to account for these results-either participants select to rehearse loud items as a controlled strategy that allows them to forget some items, or they have an unconscious preference for loud items that emerges only in response to the need to forget. PMID:22468801

  15. Mining wavelet transformed boiler data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letsche, Terry Lee

    Accurate combustion models provide information that allows increased boiler efficiency optimization, saving money and resources while reducing waste. Boiler combustion processes are noted for being complex, nonstationary and nonlinear. While numerous methods have been used to model boiler processes, data driven approaches reflect actual operating conditions within a particular boiler and do not depend on idealized, complex, or expensive empirical models. Boiler and combustion processes vary in time, requiring a denoising technique that preserves the temporal and frequency nature of the data. Moving average, a common technique, smoothes data---low frequency noise is not removed. This dissertation examines models built with wavelet denoising techniques that remove low and high frequency noise in both time and frequency domains. The denoising process has a number of parameters, including choice of wavelet, threshold value, level of wavelet decomposition, and disposition of attributes that appear to be significant at multiple thresholds. A process is developed to experimentally evaluate the predictive accuracy of these models and compares this result against two benchmarks. The first research hypothesis compares the performance of these wavelet denoised models to the model generated from the original data. The second research hypothesis compares the performance of the models generated with this denoising approach to the most effective model generated from a moving average process. In both experiments it was determined that the Daubechies 4 wavelet was a better choice than the more typically chosen Haar wavelet, wavelet packet decomposition outperforms other levels of wavelet decomposition, and discarding all but the lowest threshold repeating attributes produces superior results. The third research hypothesis examined using a two-dimensional wavelet transform on the data. Another parameter for handling the boundary condition was introduced. In the two-dimensional case, the CDF(4,6) wavelet and zero symmetric padded boundary produced the best results. The two-dimensional transform produces models six percent more accurate than the one-dimensional transform, nearly eight percent more accurate than non-transformed data, and four percent more accurate than moving average transformed model.

  16. Social Interest for User Selecting Items in Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Da-Cheng; Ding, Ming-Jing; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Jun-Lin; Zhang, Zi-Ke

    2013-04-01

    Recommender systems have developed rapidly and successfully. The system aims to help users find relevant items from a potentially overwhelming set of choices. However, most of the existing recommender algorithms focused on the traditional user-item similarity computation, other than incorporating the social interests into the recommender systems. As we know, each user has their own preference field, they may influence their friends' preference in their expert field when considering the social interest on their friends' item collecting. In order to model this social interest, in this paper, we proposed a simple method to compute users' social interest on the specific items in the recommender systems, and then integrate this social interest with similarity preference. The experimental results on two real-world datasets Epinions and Friendfeed show that this method can significantly improve not only the algorithmic precision-accuracy but also the diversity-accuracy.

  17. Australian Item Bank Program: Science Item Bank. Book 3: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The Australian Science Item Bank consists of three volumes of multiple-choice questions. Book 3 contains questions on the biological sciences. The questions are designed to be suitable for high school students (year 8 to year 12 in Australian schools). The questions are classified by the subject content of the question, the cognitive skills…

  18. Evaluating the Magnitude of Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; Thayer, Dorothy T.

    1996-01-01

    Two possible standard error formulas for the polytomous differential item functioning index proposed by N. J. Dorans and A. P. Schmitt (1991) were derived. These standard errors, and associated hypothesis-testing procedures, were evaluated through simulated data. The standard error that performed better is based on N. Mantel's (1963)…

  19. Coastal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) declared by President Reagan in March 1983 has met with a mixed response from those who would benefit from a guaranteed, 200-nautical-mile (370-km) protected underwater mining zone off the coasts of the United States and its possessions. On the one hand, the U.S. Department of the Interior is looking ahead and has been very successful in safeguarding important natural resources that will be needed in the coming decades. On the other hand, the mining industry is faced with a depressed metals and mining market.A report of the Exclusive Economic Zone Symposium held in November 1983 by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Mineral Management Service, and the Bureau of Mines described the mixed response as: “ … The Department of Interior … raring to go into promotion of deep-seal mining but industrial consortia being very pessimistic about the program, at least for the next 30 or so years.” (Chemical & Engineering News, February 5, 1983).

  20. 18 CFR 367.8 - Extraordinary items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Extraordinary items... Instructions § 367.8 Extraordinary items. Extraordinary items are to be recognized according to the rules which are considered generally accepted accounting principles. These items are related to the effects...

  1. 7 CFR 1767.24 - Extraordinary items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extraordinary items. 1767.24 Section 1767.24....24 Extraordinary items. The extraordinary items accounts identified in this section shall be used by all RUS borrowers. Extraordinary Items 434Extraordinary Income 435Extraordinary Deductions...

  2. 18 CFR 367.8 - Extraordinary items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Extraordinary items... Instructions § 367.8 Extraordinary items. Extraordinary items are to be recognized according to the rules which are considered generally accepted accounting principles. These items are related to the effects...

  3. 18 CFR 367.8 - Extraordinary items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Extraordinary items... Instructions § 367.8 Extraordinary items. Extraordinary items are to be recognized according to the rules which are considered generally accepted accounting principles. These items are related to the effects...

  4. 7 CFR 2902.5 - Item designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Item designation. 2902.5 Section 2902.5 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT General § 2902.5 Item designation. (a) Procedure. Designated items are listed in subpart B. In designating items, USDA...

  5. 12 CFR 210.13 - Unpaid items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unpaid items. 210.13 Section 210.13 Banks and... OTHER ITEMS BY FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS AND FUNDS TRANSFERS THROUGH FEDWIRE (REGULATION J) Collection of Checks and Other Items By Federal Reserve Banks § 210.13 Unpaid items. (a) Right of recovery. If...

  6. 7 CFR 1767.24 - Extraordinary items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extraordinary items. 1767.24 Section 1767.24....24 Extraordinary items. The extraordinary items accounts identified in this section shall be used by all RUS borrowers. Extraordinary Items 434Extraordinary Income 435Extraordinary Deductions...

  7. 18 CFR 367.8 - Extraordinary items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extraordinary items... Instructions § 367.8 Extraordinary items. Extraordinary items are to be recognized according to the rules which are considered generally accepted accounting principles. These items are related to the effects...

  8. 12 CFR 210.13 - Unpaid items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unpaid items. 210.13 Section 210.13 Banks and... OTHER ITEMS BY FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS AND FUNDS TRANSFERS THROUGH FEDWIRE (REGULATION J) Collection of Checks and Other Items By Federal Reserve Banks § 210.13 Unpaid items. (a) Right of recovery. If...

  9. 7 CFR 1767.24 - Extraordinary items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Extraordinary items. 1767.24 Section 1767.24....24 Extraordinary items. The extraordinary items accounts identified in this section shall be used by all RUS borrowers. Extraordinary Items 434Extraordinary Income 435Extraordinary Deductions...

  10. 42 CFR 414.224 - Customized items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Customized items. 414.224 Section 414.224 Public... Medical Equipment and Prosthetic and Orthotic Devices § 414.224 Customized items. (a) Criteria for a customized item. To be considered a customized item for payment purposes under paragraph (b) of this...

  11. 7 CFR 1767.24 - Extraordinary items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extraordinary items. 1767.24 Section 1767.24....24 Extraordinary items. The extraordinary items accounts identified in this section shall be used by all RUS borrowers. Extraordinary Items 434Extraordinary Income 435Extraordinary Deductions...

  12. 42 CFR 414.224 - Customized items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Customized items. 414.224 Section 414.224 Public... Medical Equipment, Prosthetic and Orthotic Devices, and Surgical Dressings § 414.224 Customized items. (a) Criteria for a customized item. To be considered a customized item for payment purposes under paragraph...

  13. 18 CFR 367.8 - Extraordinary items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Extraordinary items... Instructions § 367.8 Extraordinary items. Extraordinary items are to be recognized according to the rules which are considered generally accepted accounting principles. These items are related to the effects...

  14. 42 CFR 414.224 - Customized items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Customized items. 414.224 Section 414.224 Public... and Prosthetic and Orthotic Devices § 414.224 Customized items. (a) Criteria for a customized item. To be considered a customized item for payment purposes under paragraph (b) of this section, a...

  15. 12 CFR 210.13 - Unpaid items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unpaid items. 210.13 Section 210.13 Banks and... OTHER ITEMS BY FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS AND FUNDS TRANSFERS THROUGH FEDWIRE (REGULATION J) Collection of Checks and Other Items By Federal Reserve Banks § 210.13 Unpaid items. (a) Right of recovery. If...

  16. 12 CFR 210.13 - Unpaid items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unpaid items. 210.13 Section 210.13 Banks and... OTHER ITEMS BY FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS AND FUNDS TRANSFERS THROUGH FEDWIRE (REGULATION J) Collection of Checks and Other Items By Federal Reserve Banks § 210.13 Unpaid items. (a) Right of recovery. If...

  17. 42 CFR 414.224 - Customized items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Customized items. 414.224 Section 414.224 Public... Medical Equipment and Prosthetic and Orthotic Devices § 414.224 Customized items. (a) Criteria for a customized item. To be considered a customized item for payment purposes under paragraph (b) of this...

  18. 12 CFR 210.13 - Unpaid items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unpaid items. 210.13 Section 210.13 Banks and... OTHER ITEMS BY FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS AND FUNDS TRANSFERS THROUGH FEDWIRE (REGULATION J) Collection of Checks and Other Items By Federal Reserve Banks § 210.13 Unpaid items. (a) Right of recovery. If...

  19. Unidimensional Interpretations for Multidimensional Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahraman, Nilufer

    2013-01-01

    This article considers potential problems that can arise in estimating a unidimensional item response theory (IRT) model when some test items are multidimensional (i.e., show a complex factorial structure). More specifically, this study examines (1) the consequences of model misfit on IRT item parameter estimates due to unintended minor item-level…

  20. Adaptable Learning Assistant for Item Bank Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuntiyagul, Atorn; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick; Wongsawang, Damras

    2008-01-01

    We present PKIP, an adaptable learning assistant tool for managing question items in item banks. PKIP is not only able to automatically assist educational users to categorize the question items into predefined categories by their contents but also to correctly retrieve the items by specifying the category and/or the difficulty level. PKIP adapts…

  1. Multisource causal data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Shallenberger, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    Analysts are faced with mountains of data, and finding that relevant piece of information is the proverbial needle in a haystack, only with dozens of haystacks. Analysis tools that facilitate identifying causal relationships across multiple data sets are sorely needed. 21st Century Systems, Inc. (21CSi) has initiated research called Causal-View, a causal datamining visualization tool, to address this challenge. Causal-View is built on an agent-enabled framework. Much of the processing that Causal-View will do is in the background. When a user requests information, Data Extraction Agents launch to gather information. This initial search is a raw, Monte Carlo type search designed to gather everything available that may have relevance to an individual, location, associations, and more. This data is then processed by Data- Mining Agents. The Data-Mining Agents are driven by user supplied feature parameters. If the analyst is looking to see if the individual frequents a known haven for insurgents he may request information on his last known locations. Or, if the analyst is trying to see if there is a pattern in the individual's contacts, the mining agent can be instructed with the type and relevance of the information fields to look at. The same data is extracted from the database, but the Data Mining Agents customize the feature set to determine causal relationships the user is interested in. At this point, a Hypothesis Generation and Data Reasoning Agents take over to form conditional hypotheses about the data and pare the data, respectively. The newly formed information is then published to the agent communication backbone of Causal- View to be displayed. Causal-View provides causal analysis tools to fill the gaps in the causal chain. We present here the Causal-View concept, the initial research into data mining tools that assist in forming the causal relationships, and our initial findings.

  2. Text Mining for Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupattur, Naveen; Lapish, Christopher C.; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-06-01

    Text mining, sometimes alternately referred to as text analytics, refers to the process of extracting high-quality knowledge from the analysis of textual data. Text mining has wide variety of applications in areas such as biomedical science, news analysis, and homeland security. In this paper, we describe an approach and some relatively small-scale experiments which apply text mining to neuroscience research literature to find novel associations among a diverse set of entities. Neuroscience is a discipline which encompasses an exceptionally wide range of experimental approaches and rapidly growing interest. This combination results in an overwhelmingly large and often diffuse literature which makes a comprehensive synthesis difficult. Understanding the relations or associations among the entities appearing in the literature not only improves the researchers current understanding of recent advances in their field, but also provides an important computational tool to formulate novel hypotheses and thereby assist in scientific discoveries. We describe a methodology to automatically mine the literature and form novel associations through direct analysis of published texts. The method first retrieves a set of documents from databases such as PubMed using a set of relevant domain terms. In the current study these terms yielded a set of documents ranging from 160,909 to 367,214 documents. Each document is then represented in a numerical vector form from which an Association Graph is computed which represents relationships between all pairs of domain terms, based on co-occurrence. Association graphs can then be subjected to various graph theoretic algorithms such as transitive closure and cycle (circuit) detection to derive additional information, and can also be visually presented to a human researcher for understanding. In this paper, we present three relatively small-scale problem-specific case studies to demonstrate that such an approach is very successful in

  3. Asteroid mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    The earliest studies of asteroid mining proposed retrieving a main belt asteroid. Because of the very long travel times to the main asteroid belt, attention has shifted to the asteroids whose orbits bring them fairly close to the Earth. In these schemes, the asteroids would be bagged and then processed during the return trip, with the asteroid itself providing the reaction mass to propel the mission homeward. A mission to one of these near-Earth asteroids would be shorter, involve less weight, and require a somewhat lower change in velocity. Since these asteroids apparently contain a wide range of potentially useful materials, our study group considered only them. The topics covered include asteroid materials and properties, asteroid mission selection, manned versus automated missions, mining in zero gravity, and a conceptual mining method.

  4. Randomized Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The randomized response (RR) technique is often used to obtain answers on sensitive questions. A new method is developed to measure latent variables using the RR technique because direct questioning leads to biased results. Within the RR technique is the probability of the true response modeled by an item response theory (IRT) model. The RR…

  5. Paradoxical Results and Item Bundles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Giles; Finkelman, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Hooker, Finkelman, and Schwartzman ("Psychometrika," 2009, in press) defined a paradoxical result as the attainment of a higher test score by changing answers from correct to incorrect and demonstrated that such results are unavoidable for maximum likelihood estimates in multidimensional item response theory. The potential for these results to…

  6. Kernel-Smoothing Estimation of Item Characteristic Functions for Continuous Personality Items: An Empirical Comparison with the Linear and the Continuous-Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.

    2004-01-01

    This study used kernel-smoothing procedures to estimate the item characteristic functions (ICFs) of a set of continuous personality items. The nonparametric ICFs were compared with the ICFs estimated (a) by the linear model and (b) by Samejima's continuous-response model. The study was based on a conditioned approach and used an error-in-variables…

  7. 15 CFR 752.3 - Eligible items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible items. 752.3 Section 752.3... LICENSE § 752.3 Eligible items. (a) All items subject to the EAR, including items eligible for License... 2E301 on the CCL controlled for CB reasons; (3) Items controlled by ECCNs 1C350, 1C995, 1D390,...

  8. 15 CFR 752.3 - Eligible items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible items. 752.3 Section 752.3... LICENSE § 752.3 Eligible items. (a) All items subject to the EAR, including items eligible for License... 2E301 on the CCL controlled for CB reasons; (3) Items controlled by ECCNs 1C350, 1C995, 1D390,...

  9. Mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, J.R.; Spence, A.M.

    1981-06-23

    In a system for the supply of fluid under pressure to machinery of an underground mine working, lengths of fixed conduit are secured to parts of the conveyor assembly, prior to the assembly of said parts at the underground mine working. When the conveyor assembly has been assembled, the length of fixed conduits are interconnected, either by straight lengths of flexible conduit, or by branched lengths of flexible conduit, where take off for fluid under pressure is required for the machinery, for example a roof support unit.

  10. Converging evidence for control of color-word Stroop interference at the item level.

    PubMed

    Bugg, Julie M; Hutchison, Keith A

    2013-04-01

    Prior studies have shown that cognitive control is implemented at the list and context levels in the color-word Stroop task. At first blush, the finding that Stroop interference is reduced for mostly incongruent items as compared with mostly congruent items (i.e., the item-specific proportion congruence [ISPC] effect) appears to provide evidence for yet a third level of control, which modulates word reading at the item level. However, evidence to date favors the view that ISPC effects reflect the rapid prediction of high-contingency responses and not item-specific control. In Experiment 1, we first show that an ISPC effect is obtained when the relevant dimension (i.e., color) signals proportion congruency, a problematic pattern for theories based on differential response contingencies. In Experiment 2, we replicate and extend this pattern by showing that item-specific control settings transfer to new stimuli, ruling out alternative frequency-based accounts. In Experiment 3, we revert to the traditional design in which the irrelevant dimension (i.e., word) signals proportion congruency. Evidence for item-specific control, including transfer of the ISPC effect to new stimuli, is apparent when 4-item sets are employed but not when 2-item sets are employed. We attribute this pattern to the absence of high-contingency responses on incongruent trials in the 4-item set. These novel findings provide converging evidence for reactive control of color-word Stroop interference at the item level, reveal theoretically important factors that modulate reliance on item-specific control versus contingency learning, and suggest an update to the item-specific control account (Bugg, Jacoby, & Chanani, 2011). PMID:22845037

  11. The effects of item familiarity on the neural correlates of successful associative memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Nancy A; Turney, Indira C; Webb, Christina E; Overman, Amy A

    2015-12-01

    Associative memory is considered to be resource-demanding, requiring individuals to learn individual items and the specific relationships between those items. Previous research has shown that prior studying of items aids in associative memory for pairs composed of those same items, as compared to pairs of items that have not been prelearned (e.g., Kilb & Naveh-Benjamin, 2011). In the present study, we sought to elucidate the neural correlates mediating this memory facilitation. After being trained on individual items, participants were scanned while encoding item pairs composed of items from the pretrained phase (familiarized-item pairs) and pairs whose items had not been previously learned (unfamiliarized-item pairs). Consistent with previous findings, the overall subsequent recollection showed the engagement of bilateral parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and hippocampus, when compared to subsequent forgetting. However, a direct comparison between familiarized- and unfamiliarized-item pairs showed that subsequently recollected familiarized-item pairs were associated with decreased activity across much of the encoding network, including bilateral PHG, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and regions associated with item-specific processing within occipital cortex. Increased activity for familiarized-item pairs was found in a more limited set of regions, including bilateral parietal cortex, which has been associated with the formation of novel associations. Additionally, activity in the right parietal cortex correlated with associative memory success in the familiarized condition. Taken together, these results suggest that prior exposure to items can reduce the demands incurred on neural processing throughout the associative encoding network and can enhance associative memory performance by focusing resources within regions supporting the formation of associative links. PMID:25939781

  12. Implementations of the Branch-and-Bound Method for Test Construction Problems. Project Psychometric Aspects of Item Banking No. 46. Research Report 89-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adema, Jos J.

    Item banks, large sets of test items, can be used for the construction of achievement tests. Mathematical programming models have been proposed for the selection of items from an item bank for a test. These models make automated test construction possible. However, to find an optimal or even an approximate optimal solution to a test construction…

  13. Radioecological impacts of tin mining.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Bununu, Yakubu Aliyu

    2015-12-01

    The tin mining activities in the suburbs of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, have resulted in technical enhancement of the natural background radiation as well as higher activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in the topsoil of mining sites and their environs. Several studies have considered the radiological human health risks of the mining activity; however, to our knowledge no documented study has investigated the radiological impacts on biota. Hence, an attempt is made to assess potential hazards using published data from the literature and the ERICA Tool. This paper considers the effects of mining and milling on terrestrial organisms like shrubs, large mammals, small burrowing mammals, birds (duck), arthropods (earth worm), grasses, and herbs. The dose rates and risk quotients to these organisms are computed using conservative values for activity concentrations of natural radionuclides reported in Bitsichi and Bukuru mining areas. The results suggest that grasses, herbs, lichens, bryophytes and shrubs receive total dose rates that are of potential concern. The effects of dose rates to specific indicator species of interest are highlighted and discussed. We conclude that further investigation and proper regulations should be set in place in order to reduce the risk posed by the tin mining activity on biota. This paper also presents a brief overview of the impact of mineral mining on biota based on documented literature for other countries. PMID:26093469

  14. [Introduction to medical data mining].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lingyun; Wu, Baoming; Cao, Changxiu

    2003-09-01

    Modern medicine generates a great deal of information stored in the medical database. Extracting useful knowledge and providing scientific decision-making for the diagnosis and treatment of disease from the database increasingly becomes necessary. Data mining in medicine can deal with this problem. It can also improve the management level of hospital information and promote the development of telemedicine and community medicine. Because the medical information is characteristic of redundancy, multi-attribution, incompletion and closely related with time, medical data mining differs from other one. In this paper we have discussed the key techniques of medical data mining involving pretreatment of medical data, fusion of different pattern and resource, fast and robust mining algorithms and reliability of mining results. The methods and applications of medical data mining based on computation intelligence such as artificial neural network, fuzzy system, evolutionary algorithms, rough set, and support vector machine have been introduced. The features and problems in data mining are summarized in the last section. PMID:14565039

  15. The 4-Item Negative Symptom Assessment (NSA-4) Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Morlock, Robert; Coon, Cheryl; van Willigenburg, Arjen; Panagides, John

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To assess the ability of mental health professionals to use the 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment instrument, derived from the Negative Symptom Assessment-16, to rapidly determine the severity of negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Design. Open participation. Setting. Medical education conferences. Participants. Attendees at two international psychiatry conferences. Measurements. Participants read a brief set of the 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment instructions and viewed a videotape of a patient with schizophrenia. Using the 1 to 6 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment severity rating scale, they rated four negative symptom items and the overall global negative symptoms. These ratings were compared with a consensus rating determination using frequency distributions and Chi-square tests for the proportion of participant ratings that were within one point of the expert rating. Results. More than 400 medical professionals (293 physicians, 50% with a European practice, and 55% who reported past utilization of schizophrenia ratings scales) participated. Between 82.1 and 91.1 percent of the 4-items and the global rating determinations by the participants were within one rating point of the consensus expert ratings. The differences between the percentage of participant rating scores that were within one point versus the percentage that were greater than one point different from those by the consensus experts was significant (p<0.0001). Participants rating of negative symptoms using the 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment did not generally differ among the geographic regions of practice, the professional credentialing, or their familiarity with the use of schizophrenia symptom rating instruments. Conclusion. These findings suggest that clinicians from a variety of geographic practices can, after brief training, use the 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment effectively to rapidly assess negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:20805916

  16. Scores Based on Dangerous Responses to Multiple-Choice Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Martin E.

    1986-01-01

    Scores based on the number of correct answers were compared with scores based on dangerous responses to items in the same multiple choice test developed by American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery. Results showed construct validity for both sets of scores. However, both scores were redundant when evaluated by correlation coefficient. (Author/JAZ)

  17. Design Patterns for Digital Item Types in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draaijer, S.; Hartog, R. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    A set of design patterns for digital item types has been developed in response to challenges identified in various projects by teachers in higher education. The goal of the projects in question was to design and develop formative and summative tests, and to develop interactive learning material in the form of quizzes. The subject domains involved…

  18. Item Response Theory: Overview, Applications, and Promise for Institutional Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Nicholas A.; Herzog, Serge; Sharkness, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Item Response Theory (IRT) is a measurement theory that is ideal for scale and test development in institutional research, but it is not without its drawbacks. This chapter provides an overview of IRT, describes an example of its use, and highlights the pros and cons of using IRT in applied settings.

  19. Development of the PROMIS® Negative Psychosocial Expectancies of Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Edelen, Maria Orlando; Tucker, Joan S.; Shadel, William G.; Cerully, Jennifer; Kuhfeld, Megan; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Negative psychosocial expectancies of smoking include aspects of social disapproval and disappointment in oneself. This paper describes analyses conducted to develop and evaluate item banks for assessing psychosocial expectancies among daily and nondaily smokers. Methods: Using data from a sample of daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N =1,183) smokers, we conducted a series of item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning analyses (according to gender, age, and race/ethnicity) to arrive at a unidimensional set of psychosocial expectancies items for daily and nondaily smokers. We also evaluated performance of short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) to efficiently assess psychosocial expectancies. Results: A total of 21 items were included in the Psychosocial Expectancies item banks: 14 items are common across daily and nondaily smokers, 6 are unique to daily, and 1 is unique to nondaily. For both daily and nondaily smokers, the Psychosocial Expectancies item banks are strongly unidimensional, highly reliable (reliability = 0.95 and 0.93, respectively), and perform similarly across gender, age, and race/ethnicity groups. A SF common to daily and nondaily smokers consists of 6 items (reliability = 0.85). Results from simulated CATs showed that, on average, fewer than 8 items are needed to assess psychosocial expectancies with adequate precision when using the item banks. Conclusions: Psychosocial expectancies of smoking can be assessed on the basis of these item banks via the SF, by using CAT, or through a tailored set of items selected for a specific research purpose. PMID:25118230

  20. Data Mining and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samms, Kevin O.

    2015-01-01

    The Data Mining project seeks to bring the capability of data visualization to NASA anomaly and problem reporting systems for the purpose of improving data trending, evaluations, and analyses. Currently NASA systems are tailored to meet the specific needs of its organizations. This tailoring has led to a variety of nomenclatures and levels of annotation for procedures, parts, and anomalies making difficult the realization of the common causes for anomalies. Making significant observations and realizing the connection between these causes without a common way to view large data sets is difficult to impossible. In the first phase of the Data Mining project a portal was created to present a common visualization of normalized sensitive data to customers with the appropriate security access. The tool of the visualization itself was also developed and fine-tuned. In the second phase of the project we took on the difficult task of searching and analyzing the target data set for common causes between anomalies. In the final part of the second phase we have learned more about how much of the analysis work will be the job of the Data Mining team, how to perform that work, and how that work may be used by different customers in different ways. In this paper I detail how our perspective has changed after gaining more insight into how the customers wish to interact with the output and how that has changed the product.

  1. A survey of data mining techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, A. M.; Karimabadi, H.

    2005-12-01

    Data mining is the act of extracting useful knowledge from a data set. This knowledge can take many forms. It can be in the detection of features of interest. It can be in the form of statistical analysis of data sets. It can be in the form of predictive expressions describing the data or relationships between data. It can be in the form of anomaly detection, serendipitous events which require further investigation. The simplest form of data mining consists of manual inspection of the data sets. This has been the norm in space physics for decades. The most advanced forms of data mining make use of emerging computer science methods, including advances in artificial intelligence. In this presentation we will give a brief introduction to some of the resources that are available for performing advanced data mining. We will focus on giving an overview of some data mining techniques, and how they have been, or could be, applied to space physics problems.

  2. The Disgust Scale: Item Analysis, Factor Structure, and Suggestions for Refinement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Williams, Nathan L.; Tolin, David F.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Sawchuk, Craig N.; Lohr, Jeffrey M.; Elwood, Lisa S.

    2007-01-01

    In the 4 studies presented (N = 1,939), a converging set of analyses was conducted to evaluate the item adequacy, factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Disgust Scale (DS; J. Haidt, C. McCauley, & P. Rozin, 1994). The results suggest that 7 items (i.e., Items 2, 7, 8, 21, 23, 24, and 25) should be considered for removal from the DS.…

  3. Underground mining methods handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hustrulid, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Sections discuss: mine design considerations; stopes requiring minimum support (includes room-and-pillar mining and sublevel stoping); stopes requiring some additional support other than pillars (includes shrinkage stoping, cut-and-fill stoping, undercut-and-fill mining, timber-supported system, top-slice mining, longwall mining and shortwall mining); caving methods (sublevel and block caving); underground equipment; financial considerations; design; and mine ventilation.

  4. Development and community-based validation of eight item banks to assess mental health.

    PubMed

    Batterham, Philip J; Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Calear, Alison L

    2016-09-30

    There is a need for precise but brief screening of mental health problems in a range of settings. The development of item banks to assess depression and anxiety has resulted in new adaptive and static screeners that accurately assess severity of symptoms. However, expansion to a wider array of mental health problems is required. The current study developed item banks for eight mental health problems: social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, drug use, psychosis and suicidality. The item banks were calibrated in a population-based Australian adult sample (N=3175) by administering large item pools (45-75 items) and excluding items on the basis of local dependence or measurement non-invariance. Item Response Theory parameters were estimated for each item bank using a two-parameter graded response model. Each bank consisted of 19-47 items, demonstrating excellent fit and precision across a range of -1 to 3 standard deviations from the mean. No previous study has developed such a broad range of mental health item banks. The calibrated item banks will form the basis of a new system of static and adaptive measures to screen for a broad array of mental health problems in the community. PMID:27500552

  5. FISH HABITATS IMPACTED BY ACIDIC MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set represents in-stream fish spawning and hatching areas that have been impacted by elevated acid content waters discharging from areas near mining activities. It is based on an EPA fisheries survey completed in 1995. Acid Mine Drainage, or AMD, occurs when water co...

  6. A Bifactor Multidimensional Item Response Theory Model for Differential Item Functioning Analysis on Testlet-Based Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuhara, Hirotaka; Kamata, Akihito

    2011-01-01

    A differential item functioning (DIF) detection method for testlet-based data was proposed and evaluated in this study. The proposed DIF model is an extension of a bifactor multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) model for testlets. Unlike traditional item response theory (IRT) DIF models, the proposed model takes testlet effects into…

  7. Data mining

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Kargupta, H.; Stafford, B.G.; Buescher, K.L.; Ravindran, B.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop and implement data mining technology suited to the analysis of large collections of unstructured data. This has taken the form of a software tool, PADMA (Parallel Data Mining Agents), which incorporates parallel data accessing, parallel scalable hierarchical clustering algorithms, and a web-based user interface for submitting Structured Query Language (SQL) queries and interactive data visualization. The authors have demonstrated the viability and scalability of PADMA by applying it to an unstructured text database of 25,000 documents running on an IBM SP2 at Argonne National Laboratory. The utility of PADMA for discovering patterns in data has also been demonstrated by applying it to laboratory test data for Hepatitis C patients and autopsy reports in collaboration with the University of New Mexico School of Medicine.

  8. Item Overlap Correlations: Definitions, Interpretations, and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Louis M.

    1994-01-01

    Item overlap coefficient (IOC) formulas are discussed, providing six warnings about their calculation and interpretation and some explanations of why item overlap influences the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory factor structures. (SLD)

  9. Acid mine drainage on public and private lands, the Walker Mine experience, Plumas County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Croyle, W.A.; Rosenbaum, S.E.

    1996-11-01

    A widespread environmental problem associated with abandoned mines and their tailings is acid mine drainage (AMD). AMID typically has low pH and elevated metal concentrations that are toxic to aquatic life. In Northern California, Iron Mountain and other mines in the Shasta mining districts are the largest sources of AMD. Additional sources lie to the south along a discontinuous belt of copper and zinc mineralization in the western Sierra foothills. Between these areas lies a remote group of copper mines in northeastern Plumas County including the Walker, Engels and Superior mines. Of this group, AMD from Walker Mine has caused the most severe water quality impairment. This paper describes the history and environmental setting of Walker Mine and the approaches used by the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board, a state regulatory agency, to improve water quality at the site. Both the mine and its tailings contribute pollutants to the watershed. The mine has a portal discharge with depressed pH and high copper concentrations. The tailings add fine grained sediment to the creek and generate low but significant concentrations of dissolved copper. The mine is on private property and the tailings are on land managed by the U. S. Forest Service. Because of these differences in pollution problems and ownership, the methods employed by the Regional Board to improve conditions at the mine and tailings have been on different, but parallel tracks. Monitoring shows these efforts have significantly improved water quality in the watershed over the last 10 years.

  10. Toward improved branch prediction through data mining.

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmert, K. Scott; Johnson, D. Eric

    2009-09-01

    Data mining and machine learning techniques can be applied to computer system design to aid in optimizing design decisions, improving system runtime performance. Data mining techniques have been investigated in the context of branch prediction. Specifically, a comparison of traditional branch predictor performance has been made to data mining algorithms. Additionally, the possiblity of whether additional features available within the architectural state might serve to further improve branch prediction has been evaluated. Results show that data mining techniques indicate potential for improved branch prediction, especially when register file contents are included as a feature set.

  11. The Mechanization of Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marovelli, Robert L.; Karhnak, John M.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanization of mining is explained in terms of its effect on the mining of coal, focusing on, among others, types of mining, productivity, machinery, benefits to retired miners, fatality rate in underground coal mines, and output of U.S. mining industry. (Author/JN)

  12. TEDS-M 2008 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 4: TEDS-M Released Mathematics and Mathematics Pedagogy Knowledge Assessment Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brese, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The goal for selecting the released set of test items was to have approximately 25% of each of the full item sets for mathematics content knowledge (MCK) and mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK) that would represent the full range of difficulty, content, and item format used in the TEDS-M study. The initial step in the selection was to…

  13. Addressing Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Mining Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieber, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    Mining companies deal with naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) issues on their sites in two ways, avoidance and management. Avoidance simply means that to the extent practical, new mines are located in areas where NOA is unlikely to occur. Where mines are located in areas where NOA may be present, mines implement management procedures to identify and control potential sources of NOA. Management practices may include procedures set forth in regulations such as California's Air Toxicity Control Measure that deals with surface mining, voluntary procedures, or a combination of both. The mining industry generally recognizes that addressing NOA issues is a cost of doing business.;

  14. Processing Polarity Items: Contrastive Licensing Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saddy, Douglas; Drenhaus, Heiner; Frisch, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment that investigated the failure to license polarity items in German using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). The results reveal distinct processing reflexes associated with failure to license positive polarity items in comparison to failure to license negative polarity items. Failure to license both negative and…

  15. Effects of Assigning Raters to Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Robert C.; Ito, Kyoko; Wang, Zhen

    2008-01-01

    Student responses to a large number of constructed response items in three Math and three Reading tests were scored on two occasions using three ways of assigning raters: single reader scoring, a different reader for each response (item-specific), and three readers each scoring a rater item block (RIB) containing approximately one-third of a…

  16. 76 FR 60474 - Commercial Item Handbook

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Commercial Item Handbook AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations... Commercial Item Handbook. The purpose of the Handbook is to help acquisition personnel develop sound business strategies for procuring commercial items. DoD is seeking industry input on the contents before...

  17. Computer Equipment Repair Test Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This guide contains 321 test items for use in teaching a course in repairing computer equipment. All test items were reviewed, revised, and validated by incumbent workers and subject matter instructors. Items are provided for assessing student achievement in the following skill areas (with selected skills mentioned in brackets): performing…

  18. Measuring Student Learning with Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young-Jin; Palazzo, David J.; Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate short-term learning from hints and feedback in a Web-based physics tutoring system. Both the skill of students and the difficulty and discrimination of items were determined by applying item response theory (IRT) to the first answers of students who are working on for-credit homework items in an introductory Newtonian physics…

  19. 18 CFR 367.10 - Unaudited items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Unaudited items. 367.10... Instructions § 367.10 Unaudited items. Whenever a financial statement is required by the Commission, if it is... anticipate minor items that would not appreciably affect the accounts....

  20. 18 CFR 367.10 - Unaudited items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Unaudited items. 367.10... Instructions § 367.10 Unaudited items. Whenever a financial statement is required by the Commission, if it is... anticipate minor items that would not appreciably affect the accounts....

  1. 18 CFR 367.10 - Unaudited items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Unaudited items. 367.10... Instructions § 367.10 Unaudited items. Whenever a financial statement is required by the Commission, if it is... anticipate minor items that would not appreciably affect the accounts....

  2. 10 CFR 74.55 - Item monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Item monitoring. 74.55 Section 74.55 Energy NUCLEAR... Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.55 Item monitoring. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51... containing less than 0.05 formula kilograms of SSNM and any uniquely identified items of SSNM that have...

  3. 47 CFR 32.7600 - Extraordinary items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extraordinary items. 32.7600 Section 32.7600... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Other Income Accounts § 32.7600 Extraordinary items... account shall also include the related income tax effect of the extraordinary items. (b) This...

  4. 47 CFR 32.7600 - Extraordinary items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Extraordinary items. 32.7600 Section 32.7600... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Other Income Accounts § 32.7600 Extraordinary items... account shall also include the related income tax effect of the extraordinary items. (b) This...

  5. 47 CFR 32.7600 - Extraordinary items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Extraordinary items. 32.7600 Section 32.7600... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Other Income Accounts § 32.7600 Extraordinary items... account shall also include the related income tax effect of the extraordinary items. (b) This...

  6. 10 CFR 74.55 - Item monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Item monitoring. 74.55 Section 74.55 Energy NUCLEAR... Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.55 Item monitoring. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51... containing less than 0.05 formula kilograms of SSNM and any uniquely identified items of SSNM that have...

  7. 18 CFR 367.10 - Unaudited items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Unaudited items. 367.10... Instructions § 367.10 Unaudited items. Whenever a financial statement is required by the Commission, if it is... anticipate minor items that would not appreciably affect the accounts....

  8. 18 CFR 367.10 - Unaudited items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unaudited items. 367.10... Instructions § 367.10 Unaudited items. Whenever a financial statement is required by the Commission, if it is... anticipate minor items that would not appreciably affect the accounts....

  9. 47 CFR 32.7600 - Extraordinary items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Extraordinary items. 32.7600 Section 32.7600... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Other Income Accounts § 32.7600 Extraordinary items... account shall also include the related income tax effect of the extraordinary items. (b) This...

  10. 10 CFR 74.55 - Item monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Item monitoring. 74.55 Section 74.55 Energy NUCLEAR... Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.55 Item monitoring. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51... containing less than 0.05 formula kilograms of SSNM and any uniquely identified items of SSNM that have...

  11. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Included items. 65.820 Section 65.820... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.820 Included items. (a... allowance either by performing a lead-lag study of interstate revenue and expense items or by using...

  12. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Included items. 65.820 Section 65.820... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.820 Included items. (a... allowance either by performing a lead-lag study of interstate revenue and expense items or by using...

  13. 47 CFR 32.7600 - Extraordinary items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Extraordinary items. 32.7600 Section 32.7600... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Other Income Accounts § 32.7600 Extraordinary items... account shall also include the related income tax effect of the extraordinary items. (b) This...

  14. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Included items. 65.820 Section 65.820... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.820 Included items. (a... allowance either by performing a lead-lag study of interstate revenue and expense items or by using...

  15. Identification of a Semiparametric Item Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peress, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We consider the identification of a semiparametric multidimensional fixed effects item response model. Item response models are typically estimated under parametric assumptions about the shape of the item characteristic curves (ICCs), and existing results suggest difficulties in recovering the distribution of individual characteristics under…

  16. Item Selection in Computerized Classification Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Several alternatives for item selection algorithms based on item response theory in computerized classification testing (CCT) have been suggested, with no conclusive evidence on the substantial superiority of a single method. It is argued that the lack of sizable effect is because some of the methods actually assess items very similarly through…

  17. Criterion-Referenced Test Items for Welding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    This test item bank on welding contains test questions based upon competencies found in the Missouri Welding Competency Profile. Some test items are keyed for multiple competencies. These criterion-referenced test items are designed to work with the Vocational Instructional Management System. Questions have been statistically sampled and validated…

  18. Item Analysis in Introductory Economics Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinari, Frank D.

    1979-01-01

    Computerized analysis of multiple choice test items is explained. Examples of item analysis applications in the introductory economics course are discussed with respect to three objectives: to evaluate learning; to improve test items; and to help improve classroom instruction. Problems, costs and benefits of the procedures are identified. (JMD)

  19. Item Response Modeling with Sum Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the distinctions between classical test theory and item response theory is that the former focuses on sum scores and their relationship to true scores, whereas the latter concerns item responses and their relationship to latent scores. Although item response theory is often viewed as the richer of the two theories, sum scores are still…

  20. 42 CFR 414.224 - Customized items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for the same purpose that the two items cannot be grouped together for pricing purposes. (b) Payment rule. Payment is made on a lump sum basis for the purchase of a customized item based on the carrier's... individual consideration takes into account written documentation on the costs of the item including at...

  1. 16 CFR 436.5 - Disclosure items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosure items. 436.5 Section 436.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS CONCERNING FRANCHISING Contents of a Disclosure Document § 436.5 Disclosure items. (a) Item 1: The Franchisor, and any Parents, Predecessors,...

  2. A Balance Sheet for Educational Item Banking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiscox, Michael D.

    Educational item banking presents observers with a considerable paradox. The development of test items from scratch is viewed as wasteful, a luxury in times of declining resources. On the other hand, item banking has failed to become a mature technology despite large amounts of money and the efforts of talented professionals. The question of which…

  3. On the Relationship between Differential Item Functioning and Item Difficulty: An Issue of Methods? Item Response Theory Approach to Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelices, Maria Veronica; Wilson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between differential item functioning (DIF) and item difficulty on the SAT is such that more difficult items tended to exhibit DIF in favor of the focal group (usually minority groups). These results were reported by Kulick and Hu, and Freedle and have been enthusiastically discussed by more recent literature. Examining the…

  4. Differential Item Functioning in Survey Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, George A.; Johanson, Susan N.

    Differential item functioning (DIF), or item bias, occurs when individuals in a focal group respond differently to a test item than do individuals in a reference group even when comparisons are restricted to individuals with similar overall skill levels on the trait in question. It is common in constructing a questionnaire or survey to recommend…

  5. 7 CFR 2902.5 - Item designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., USDA will use life cycle cost information only from tests using the BEES analytical method. (c... availability of such items and the economic and technological feasibility of using such items, including life cycle costs. USDA will gather information on individual products within an item and extrapolate...

  6. The Multidimensionality of Verbal Analogy Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullstadius, Eva; Carlstedt, Berit; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2008-01-01

    The influence of general and verbal ability on each of 72 verbal analogy test items were investigated with new factor analytical techniques. The analogy items together with the Computerized Swedish Enlistment Battery (CAT-SEB) were given randomly to two samples of 18-year-old male conscripts (n = 8566 and n = 5289). Thirty-two of the 72 items had…

  7. Ramsay-Curve Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when an item on a test, questionnaire, or interview has different measurement properties for one group of people versus another, irrespective of true group-mean differences on the constructs being measured. This article is focused on item response theory based likelihood ratio testing for DIF (IRT-LR or…

  8. Linking Item Parameters to a Base Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Taehoon; Petersen, Nancy S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares three methods of item calibration--concurrent calibration, separate calibration with linking, and fixed item parameter calibration--that are frequently used for linking item parameters to a base scale. Concurrent and separate calibrations were implemented using BILOG-MG. The Stocking and Lord in "Appl Psychol Measure"…

  9. Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David; Hagquist, Curt

    2012-01-01

    The literature in modern test theory on procedures for identifying items with differential item functioning (DIF) among two groups of persons includes the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) procedure. Generally, it is not recognized explicitly that if there is real DIF in some items which favor one group, then as an artifact of this procedure, artificial DIF…

  10. 16 CFR 436.5 - Disclosure items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure items. 436.5 Section 436.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS CONCERNING FRANCHISING Contents of a Disclosure Document § 436.5 Disclosure items. (a) Item 1: The Franchisor, and any Parents, Predecessors,...

  11. Generalized Full-Information Item Bifactor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li; Yang, Ji Seung; Hansen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Full-information item bifactor analysis is an important statistical method in psychological and educational measurement. Current methods are limited to single-group analysis and inflexible in the types of item response models supported. We propose a flexible multiple-group item bifactor analysis framework that supports a variety of…

  12. Improving the Quality of Innovative Item Types: Four Tasks for Design and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parshall, Cynthia G.; Harmes, J. Christine

    2009-01-01

    Many exam programs have begun to include innovative item types in their operational assessments. While innovative item types appear to have great promise for expanding measurement, there can also be genuine challenges to their successful implementation. In this paper we present a set of four activities that can be beneficially incorporated into…

  13. Latent Trait Theory Applications to Test Item Bias Methodology. Research Memorandum No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterlind, Steven J.; Martois, John S.

    This study discusses latent trait theory applications to test item bias methodology. A real data set is used in describing the rationale and application of the Rasch probabilistic model item calibrations across various ethnic group populations. A high school graduation proficiency test covering reading comprehension, writing mechanics, and…

  14. Predicting Item Difficulty in a Reading Comprehension Test with an Artificial Neural Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Kyle; And Others

    This paper reports the results of using a three-layer backpropagation artificial neural network to predict item difficulty in a reading comprehension test. Two network structures were developed, one with and one without a sigmoid function in the output processing unit. The data set, which consisted of a table of coded test items and corresponding…

  15. A Two-Decision Model for Responses to Likert-Type Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thissen-Roe, Anne; Thissen, David

    2013-01-01

    Extreme response set, the tendency to prefer the lowest or highest response option when confronted with a Likert-type response scale, can lead to misfit of item response models such as the generalized partial credit model. Recently, a series of intrinsically multidimensional item response models have been hypothesized, wherein tendency toward…

  16. A Comparison of Four Item-Selection Methods for Severely Constrained CATs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Wei; Diao, Qi; Hauser, Carl

    2014-01-01

    This study compared four item-selection procedures developed for use with severely constrained computerized adaptive tests (CATs). Severely constrained CATs refer to those adaptive tests that seek to meet a complex set of constraints that are often not conclusive to each other (i.e., an item may contribute to the satisfaction of several…

  17. Item Bank Development for a Revised Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Helene; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen; Coster, Wendy; Kramer, Jessica; Kao, Ying-Chia; Moed, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) is a useful clinical and research assessment, but it has limitations in content, age range, and efficiency. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of the item bank for a new computer adaptive testing version of the PEDI (PEDI-CAT). An expanded item set and response options…

  18. An Explanatory Item Response Theory Approach for a Computer-Based Case Simulation Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahraman, Nilüfer

    2014-01-01

    Problem: Practitioners working with multiple-choice tests have long utilized Item Response Theory (IRT) models to evaluate the performance of test items for quality assurance. The use of similar applications for performance tests, however, is often encumbered due to the challenges encountered in working with complicated data sets in which local…

  19. 75 FR 53639 - Best Practices for Transit, Transshipment, and Reexport of Items Subject to the Export...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Best Practices for Transit, Transshipment, and Reexport of Items Subject... public comments on a set of proposed ``Best Practices for Transit, Transshipment, and Reexport of Items... dialogue with industry regarding new transshipment principles and best practices that complement...

  20. Considering the Use of General and Modified Assessment Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    This article used several data sets from a large-scale state testing program to examine the feasibility of combining general and modified assessment items in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for different groups of students. Results suggested that several of the assumptions made when employing this type of mixed-item CAT may not be met for…

  1. Diverse Food Items Are Similarly Categorized by 8- to 13-year-old Children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objective was to assess how 8- to 13-year-old children categorized and labeled food items, for possible use as part of a food search strategy in a computerized 24-hour dietary recall. A set of 62 cards with pictures and names of food items from 18 professionally defined food groups was sor...

  2. Studying Differential Item Functioning via Latent Variable Modeling: A Note on a Multiple-Testing Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Lee, Chun-Lung; Chang, Chi

    2013-01-01

    This note is concerned with a latent variable modeling approach for the study of differential item functioning in a multigroup setting. A multiple-testing procedure that can be used to evaluate group differences in response probabilities on individual items is discussed. The method is readily employed when the aim is also to locate possible…

  3. A Comparison of Item-Level and Scale-Level Multiple Imputation for Questionnaire Batteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottschall, Amanda C.; West, Stephen G.; Enders, Craig K.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral science researchers routinely use scale scores that sum or average a set of questionnaire items to address their substantive questions. A researcher applying multiple imputation to incomplete questionnaire data can either impute the incomplete items prior to computing scale scores or impute the scale scores directly from other scale…

  4. Using Empirical Data to Set Cutoff Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, John R.

    Six experimental approaches to the problems of setting cutoff scores and choosing proper test length are briefly mentioned. Most of these methods share the premise that a test is a random sample of items, from a domain associated with a carefully specified objective. Each item is independent and is scored zero or one, with no provision for…

  5. Advice on Setting up a STEM Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    Setting up a STEM club can be the most daunting item that one faces on a department's development plan. Coupled with all the other demands that exist within teaching and learning, teachers can be easily forgiven for pushing this task further and further into the school year until it eventually becomes one of next year's "to-do" items.…

  6. Suspect/Counterfeit Items Information Guide for Subcontractors/Suppliers

    SciTech Connect

    Tessmar, Nancy D.; Salazar, Michael J.

    2012-09-18

    Counterfeiting of industrial and commercial grade items is an international problem that places worker safety, program objectives, expensive equipment, and security at risk. In order to prevent the introduction of Suspect/Counterfeit Items (S/CI), this information sheet is being made available as a guide to assist in the implementation of S/CI awareness and controls, in conjunction with subcontractor's/supplier's quality assurance programs. When it comes to counterfeit goods, including industrial materials, items, and equipment, no market is immune. Some manufactures have been known to misrepresent their products and intentionally use inferior materials and processes to manufacture substandard items, whose properties can significantly cart from established standards and specifications. These substandard items termed by the Department of Energy (DOE) as S/CI, pose immediate and potential threats to the safety of DOE and contractor workers, the public, and the environment. Failure of certain systems and processes caused by an S/CI could also have national security implications at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Nuclear Safety Rules (federal Laws), DOE Orders, and other regulations set forth requirements for DOE contractors to implement effective controls to assure that items and services meet specified requirements. This includes techniques to implement and thereby minimizing the potential threat of entry of S/CI to LANL. As a qualified supplier of goods or services to the LANL, your company will be required to establish and maintain effective controls to prevent the introduction of S/CI to LANL. This will require that your company warrant that all items (including their subassemblies, components, and parts) sold to LANL are genuine (i.e. not counterfeit), new, and unused, and conform to the requirements of the LANL purchase orders/contracts unless otherwise approved in writing to the Los Alamos National Security (LANS) contract administrator

  7. Item Selection, Evaluation, and Simple Structure in Personality Data

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Erik; Turkheimer, Eric

    2010-01-01

    We report an investigation of the genesis and interpretation of simple structure in personality data using two very different self-reported data sets. The first consists of a set of relatively unselected lexical descriptors, whereas the second is based on responses to a carefully constructed instrument. In both data sets, we explore the degree of simple structure by comparing factor solutions to solutions from simulated data constructed to have either strong or weak simple structure. The analysis demonstrates that there is little evidence of simple structure in the unselected items, and a moderate degree among the selected items. In both instruments, however, much of the simple structure that could be observed originated in a strong dimension of positive vs. negative evaluation. PMID:20694168

  8. A Preliminary Investigation of the Direct Standard Setting Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, J. Patrick; And Others

    Three studies assessed the psychometric characteristics of the Direct Standard Setting Method (DSSM). The Angoff technique was also used in each study. The DSSM requires judges to consider an examination 10 items at a time and determine the minimum items in that set a candidate should answer correctly to receive the credential. Nine judges set a…

  9. Computerized Adaptive Testing with Item Clones. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    To reduce the cost of item writing and to enhance the flexibility of item presentation, items can be generated by item-cloning techniques. An important consequence of cloning is that it may cause variability on the item parameters. Therefore, a multilevel item response model is presented in which it is assumed that the item parameters of a…

  10. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  11. Historical archaeology at the Clarkson Mine, an eastern Ohio mining complex

    SciTech Connect

    Keener, C.S.

    2003-07-01

    This study examines the Clarkson Mine (33BL333), an eastern Ohio coal mine complex dating to the 1910s to 1920s, situated along Wheeling Creek. The results of preliminary surveys and the subsequent mitigation of four structures at the site are presented. The historical archaeology conducted at the site demonstrates the significant research possibilities inherent at many of these early industrial mine complexes. Of particular interest is the findings of depositional patterning around residential structures that revealed the influence of architecture on where and how items were deposited on the land surface. The ceramic and faunal assemblage were analyzed and provide significant details on socioeconomic attributes associated with the workers or staff. Artifacts recovered at the site provide an excellent diagnostic framework from which other similarly aged sites can be compared and dated. The findings at the Clarkson Mine are also placed into a more regional perspective and compared with other contemporary studies.

  12. Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement (ITEMS) Module: Using Automated Processes to Generate Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2013-01-01

    Changes to the design and development of our educational assessments are resulting in the unprecedented demand for a large and continuous supply of content-specific test items. One way to address this growing demand is with automatic item generation (AIG). AIG is the process of using item models to generate test items with the aid of computer…

  13. RIM: A Random Item Mixture Model to Detect Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickx, Sofie; Tuerlinckx, Francis; De Boeck, Paul; Magis, David

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new methodology for detecting differential item functioning (DIF). We introduce a DIF model, called the random item mixture (RIM), that is based on a Rasch model with random item difficulties (besides the common random person abilities). In addition, a mixture model is assumed for the item difficulties such that the…

  14. Assessing the Item Response Theory with Covariate (IRT-C) Procedure for Ascertaining Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Louis; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the item response theory with covariates (IRT-C) procedure for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) without preknowledge of anchor items (Tay, Newman, & Vermunt, 2011). This procedure begins with a fully constrained baseline model, and candidate items are tested for uniform and/or nonuniform DIF using the Wald statistic.…

  15. Expected Equating Error Resulting from Incorrect Handling of Item Parameter Drift among the Common Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, G. Edward; Fitzpatrick, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Incorrect handling of item parameter drift during the equating process can result in equating error. If the item parameter drift is due to construct-irrelevant factors, then inclusion of these items in the estimation of the equating constants can be expected to result in equating error. On the other hand, if the item parameter drift is related to…

  16. An Investigation of Multiple-Response-Option Multiple-Choice Items: Item Performance and Processing Demands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntley, Renee M.; Plake, Barbara S.

    The combinational-format item (CFI)--multiple-choice item with combinations of alternatives presented as response choices--was studied to determine whether CFIs were different from regular multiple-choice items in item characteristics or in cognitive processing demands. Three undergraduate Foundations of Education classes (consisting of a total of…

  17. Developing an Interpretation of Item Parameters for Personality Items: Content Correlates of Parameter Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zickar, Michael J.; Ury, Karen L.

    2002-01-01

    Attempted to relate content features of personality items to item parameter estimates from the partial credit model of E. Muraki (1990) by administering the Adjective Checklist (L. Goldberg, 1992) to 329 undergraduates. As predicted, the discrimination parameter was related to the item subtlety ratings of personality items but the level of word…

  18. Differential Item Functioning of GRE Mathematics Items across Computerized and Paper-and-Pencil Testing Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Lixiong; Drake, Samuel; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2006-01-01

    This study seeks to determine whether item features are related to observed differences in item difficulty (DIF) between computer- and paper-based test delivery media. Examinees responded to 60 quantitative items similar to those found on the GRE general test in either a computer-based or paper-based medium. Thirty-eight percent of the items were…

  19. How the Collapsing of Categories Impacts the Item Information Function in Polytomous Item Response Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecointe, Darius A.

    The purpose of this Item Response Theory study was to investigate how the expected reduction in item information, due to the collapsing of response categories in performance assessment data, was affected by varying testing conditions: item difficulty, item discrimination, inter-rater reliability, and direction of collapsing. The investigation used…

  20. RESTRICTED INTERESTS AND TEACHER PRESENTATION OF ITEMS

    PubMed Central

    Stocco, Corey S; Thompson, Rachel H; Rodriguez, Nicole M

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is more pervasive, prevalent, frequent, and severe in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) than in their typical peers. One subtype of RRB is restricted interests in items or activities, which is evident in the manner in which individuals engage with items (e.g., repetitious wheel spinning), the types of items or activities they select (e.g., preoccupation with a phone book), or the range of items or activities they select (i.e., narrow range of items). We sought to describe the relation between restricted interests and teacher presentation of items. Overall, we observed 5 teachers interacting with 2 pairs of students diagnosed with an ASD. Each pair included 1 student with restricted interests. During these observations, teachers were free to present any items from an array of 4 stimuli selected by experimenters. We recorded student responses to teacher presentation of items and analyzed the data to determine the relation between teacher presentation of items and the consequences for presentation provided by the students. Teacher presentation of items corresponded with differential responses provided by students with ASD, and those with restricted preferences experienced a narrower array of items. PMID:21941381

  1. Restricted interests and teacher presentation of items.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Corey S; Thompson, Rachel H; Rodriguez, Nicole M

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is more pervasive, prevalent, frequent, and severe in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) than in their typical peers. One subtype of RRB is restricted interests in items or activities, which is evident in the manner in which individuals engage with items (e.g., repetitious wheel spinning), the types of items or activities they select (e.g., preoccupation with a phone book), or the range of items or activities they select (i.e., narrow range of items). We sought to describe the relation between restricted interests and teacher presentation of items. Overall, we observed 5 teachers interacting with 2 pairs of students diagnosed with an ASD. Each pair included 1 student with restricted interests. During these observations, teachers were free to present any items from an array of 4 stimuli selected by experimenters. We recorded student responses to teacher presentation of items and analyzed the data to determine the relation between teacher presentation of items and the consequences for presentation provided by the students. Teacher presentation of items corresponded with differential responses provided by students with ASD, and those with restricted preferences experienced a narrower array of items. PMID:21941381

  2. Mining review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCartan, L.; Morse, D.E.; Plunkert, P.A.; Sibley, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    The average annual growth rate of real gross domestic product (GDP) from the third quarter of 2001 through the second quarter of 2003 in the United States was about 2.6 percent. GDP growth rates in the third and fourth quarters of 2003 were about 8 percent and 4 percent, respectively. The upward trends in many sectors of the U.S. economy in 2003, however, were shared by few of the mineral materials industries. Annual output declined in most nonfuel mining and mineral processing industries, although there was an upward turn toward yearend as prices began to increase.

  3. Noise in longwall mining

    SciTech Connect

    Antel, J.W.

    1983-03-01

    A series of full-shift noise surveys conducted on longwall sections of six randomly selected coal mines has indicated that the potential exists for 58 percent of the total number of longwall operators surveyed (i.e. shearer operators, headgate and tailgate operators) to be overexposed according to limits set forth in the Code of Federal Regulation; Title 30, Subpart F, Part 70.510. A breakdown by occupation shows that 50 percent of the headgate operators surveyed and 67 percent of the shearer operators surveyed potentially failed to comply with the noise standards.

  4. Representation of item position in immediate serial recall: Evidence from intrusion errors.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; McCloskey, Michael

    2015-09-01

    In immediate serial recall, participants are asked to recall novel sequences of items in the correct order. Theories of the representations and processes required for this task differ in how order information is maintained; some have argued that order is represented through item-to-item associations, while others have argued that each item is coded for its position in a sequence, with position being defined either by distance from the start of the sequence, or by distance from both the start and the end of the sequence. Previous researchers have used error analyses to adjudicate between these different proposals. However, these previous attempts have not allowed researchers to examine the full set of alternative proposals. In the current study, we analyzed errors produced in 2 immediate serial recall experiments that differ in the modality of input (visual vs. aural presentation of words) and the modality of output (typed vs. spoken responses), using new analysis methods that allow for a greater number of alternative hypotheses to be considered. We find evidence that sequence positions are represented relative to both the start and the end of the sequence, and show a contribution of the end-based representation beyond the final item in the sequence. We also find limited evidence for item-to-item associations, suggesting that both a start-end positional scheme and item-to-item associations play a role in representing item order in immediate serial recall. PMID:25730307

  5. A Factor Analysis of Need-Fulfillment Items Designed to Measure Maslow Need Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, L. K.; Roach, Darrell

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to factor analyze a set of items frequently used to measure Maslow need categories to obtain further information on their structure in relation to the Maslow system. (Author)

  6. Establishing Concurrent Mands for Items and Mands for Information about Location in Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Somers, Alexis; Sidener, Tina M; DeBar, Ruth M; Sidener, David W

    2014-06-01

    This study replicated and extended the methodology used in Howlett et al. (Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44, 943-947 2011) to bring the mands "Where's (item)?" and "I want (item)" under appropriate antecedent control in two boys diagnosed with autism. Trials were alternated in which items were present, missing, and within view (but inaccessible) and missing and out of view. To program for generalization, fifteen items, multiple trainers, and multiple settings were used during teaching. For both participants, manding generalized to novel items, instructors, settings, and situations and maintained after 2 weeks following teaching. Results of the social validity assessment indicated that school staff found the procedures highly acceptable. PMID:27274971

  7. CBM in the vicinity of active mining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölscher, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    In areas close to operating mines, optional CBM operations meet several advantages. Any consideration about CBM operations close to active or ex-mining areas can rely on a lot of existing knowledge from the nearby mine regarding Geological data: seam thickness and structure, rock structure and composition, overburden setup Structural data: fault system, fault style, Stratigraphic informations: seam and adjacent rock stratigraphic identification Petrographic data: coal composition data Coal quality data: heating values, volatile matter, maturity, gas contents which approximately correspond to the respective data sets of the adjacent mine. As well and of importance for drilling issues the knowledge from former exploration measure can be adapted. Permeability is not transferable between mined and un-mined areas due to higher stream for gaseous and liquid matter in mining areas as a result of mining induced rock disaggregation. However, the vicinity permits the option of drilling operations for CBM purposes from the open subsurface architecture. Experiences in the USA and in India document the application of CBM projects for coal mine degassing: in mining fields adjacent to future coal mining, the gas content is severely reduced by CBM measures prior to mining. As a result of that, subsequent to CBM operations a mine can be run at reduced gas content to be emitted which means higher mine safety. At least the production potential will be increased as e.g. the gas alert driven power interruptions will be reduced.

  8. New technologies for item monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, J.A.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-12-01

    This report responds to the Department of Energy`s request that Sandia National Laboratories compare existing technologies against several advanced technologies as they apply to DOE needs to monitor the movement of material, weapons, or personnel for safety and security programs. The authors describe several material control systems, discuss their technologies, suggest possible applications, discuss assets and limitations, and project costs for each system. The following systems are described: WATCH system (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling); Tag system (an electrostatic proximity sensor); PANTRAK system (Personnel And Material Tracking); VRIS (Vault Remote Inventory System); VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System); AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System); EIVS (Experimental Inventory Verification System); Metrox system (canister monitoring system); TCATS (Target Cueing And Tracking System); LGVSS (Light Grid Vault Surveillance System); CSS (Container Safeguards System); SAMMS (Security Alarm and Material Monitoring System); FOIDS (Fiber Optic Intelligence & Detection System); GRADS (Graded Radiation Detection System); and PINPAL (Physical Inventory Pallet).

  9. Mine seepage problems in drift mine operations

    SciTech Connect

    DeRossett, C.; Johnson, D.E.; Bradshaw, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    Extensive mining in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Region has occurred in coal deposits located above valley floors. Underground mines present unique stability problems resulting from the creation of mine pools in abandoned works. {open_quotes}Blowouts{close_quotes} occur when hydrostatic pressures result in the cataclysmic failure of an outcrop-barrier. Additionally, seepage from flooded works results in saturation of colluvium, which may ultimately mobilize as landslides. Several case studies of both landslides and blowouts illustrate that considerations should be taken into account to control or prevent these problems. Underground mine maps and seepage conditions at the individual sites were examined to determine the mine layouts, outcrop-barrier widths, and structure of the mine floors. Discharge monitoring points were established in and near the landslides. These studies depict how mine layout, operation, and geology influence drainage conditions. The authors suggest that mine designs should incorporate drainage control to insure long-term stability and limit liability. The goal of the post-mining drainage plan is control of the mine drainage, which will reduce the size of mine pools and lower the hydrostatic pressure. Recommendations are made as to several methods that may be useful in controlling mine drainage.

  10. Setting Time Limits on Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown how the time limit on a test can be set to control the probability of a test taker running out of time before completing it. The probability is derived from the item parameters in the lognormal model for response times. Examples of curves representing the probability of running out of time on a test with given parameters as a function…

  11. Underground coal mining section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabrill, C. P.; Urie, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    A set of tables which display the allocation of time for ten personnel and eight pieces of underground coal mining equipment to ten function categories is provided. Data from 125 full shift time studies contained in the KETRON database was utilized as the primary source data. The KETRON activity and delay codes were mapped onto JPL equipment, personnel and function categories. Computer processing was then performed to aggregate the shift level data and generate the matrices. Additional, documented time study data were analyzed and used to supplement the KETRON databased. The source data including the number of shifts are described. Specific parameters of the mines from which there data were extracted are presented. The result of the data processing including the required JPL matrices is presented. A brief comparison with a time study analysis of continuous mining systems is presented. The procedures used for processing the source data are described.

  12. Design risk assessment for burst-prone mines: Application in a Canadian mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, David J.

    reduce both exposure risk (personnel and equipment), and economical risk (revenue and costs). Fatal and catastrophic consequences can be averted through robust planning and design. Two customized approaches were developed to conduct risk assessment of case studies at Craig Mine. Firstly, the Brownfield Approach utilizes the seismic database to determine the seismic hazard from a rating system that evaluates frequency-magnitude, event size, and event-blast relation. Secondly, the Greenfield Approach utilizes the seismic database, focusing on larger magnitude events, rocktype, and geological structure. The customized Greenfield Approach can also be applied in the evaluation of design risk in deep mines with the same setting and condition as Craig Mine. Other mines with different settings and conditions can apply the principles in the methodology to evaluate design alternatives and risk reduction strategies for burst-prone mines.

  13. Top-down vertical itemset mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, Mohammad Karim; Ghods, Vahid

    2015-03-01

    Vertical itemset mining is an important frequent pattern mining problem with broad applications. It is challenging since one may need to examine a combinatorial explosive number of possible patterns of items of a dataset in a traditional horizontal algorithm. Since high dimensional datasets typically contain a large number of columns and a small number of rows, vertical itemset mining algorithms, which extract the frequent itemsets of dataset by producing all combination of rows ids, are a good alternative for horizontal algorithms in mining frequent itemsets from high dimensional dataset. Since a rowset can be simply produced from its subsets by adding a new row id to a sub rowset, many bottom up vertical itemset mining algorithms are designed and represented in the literature. However, bottom up vertical mining algorithms suffer from a main drawback. Bottom-up algorithms start the process of generating and testing of rowsets from the small rowsets and go on to the larger rowsets, whereas the small rowsets cannot produce a frequent itemsets because they contain less than minimum support threshold number of rows. In this paper, we described a new efficient vertical top down algorithm called VTD (Vertical Top Down) to conduct mining of frequent itemsets in high dimensional datasets. Our top down approach employed the minimum support threshold to prune the rowsets which any itemset could not be extracted from them. Several experiments on real bioinformatics datasets showed that VTD is orders of magnitude better than previous closed pattern mining algorithms. Our performance study showed that this algorithm outperformed substantially the best former algorithms.

  14. Neural measures reveal a fixed item limit in subitizing

    PubMed Central

    Ester, Edward F.; Drew, Trafton; Klee, Daniel; Vogel, Edward K.; Awh, Edward

    2012-01-01

    For centuries, it has been known that humans can rapidly and accurately enumerate small sets of items, a process referred to as subitizing. However, there is still active debate regarding the mechanisms that mediate this ability. For example, some have argued that subitizing reflects the operation of a fixed-capacity individuation mechanism that enables concurrent access to a small number of items. However, others have argued that subitizing reflects the operation of a continuous numerical estimation mechanism whose precision varies with numerosity in a manner consistent with Weber's law. Critically, quantitative models based on either of these predictions can provide a reasonable description of subitizing performance, making it difficult to discriminate between these alternatives solely on the basis of subjects' behavioral performance. Here, we attempted to discriminate between fixed-capacity and continuous estimation models of subitizing using neural measures. In two experiments, we recorded EEG while subjects performed a demanding subitizing task and examined set-size dependent changes in a neurophysiological marker of visual selection (the N2pc ERP component) evoked by an array of to-be-enumerated items. In both experiments, N2pc amplitudes increased monotonically within the subitizing range before reaching an asymptotic limit at around 3 items. Moreover, inter-participant differences in the location of this asymptote were strongly predictive of behavioral estimates of subitizing span derived from a fixed-capacity model. Thus, neural activity linked with subitizing ability shows evidence of an early and discrete limit in the number of items that can be concurrently apprehended, supporting a fixed-capacity model of this process. PMID:22623661

  15. 41 CFR 101-30.101-12 - Item identification data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Item identification data... CATALOG SYSTEM 30.1-General § 101-30.101-12 Item identification data. Item identification data means recorded data which are used to differentiate an item from all other items. Item identification data...

  16. 41 CFR 101-30.101-12 - Item identification data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Item identification data... CATALOG SYSTEM 30.1-General § 101-30.101-12 Item identification data. Item identification data means recorded data which are used to differentiate an item from all other items. Item identification data...

  17. 41 CFR 101-30.701-1 - Item reduction study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Item reduction study. 101....7-Item Reduction Program § 101-30.701-1 Item reduction study. Item reduction study means the study... so identified, a replacement item shall be proposed. The result of item reduction studies...

  18. 41 CFR 101-30.701-1 - Item reduction study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Item reduction study. 101....7-Item Reduction Program § 101-30.701-1 Item reduction study. Item reduction study means the study... so identified, a replacement item shall be proposed. The result of item reduction studies...

  19. Detection of Differential Item Functioning Using the Lasso Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magis, David; Tuerlinckx, Francis; De Boeck, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a novel approach to detect differential item functioning (DIF) among dichotomously scored items. Unlike standard DIF methods that perform an item-by-item analysis, we propose the "LR lasso DIF method": logistic regression (LR) model is formulated for all item responses. The model contains item-specific intercepts,…

  20. Software Note: Using BILOG for Fixed-Anchor Item Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.; Jurich, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups anchor test (NEAT) design is often used to scale item parameters from two different test forms. A subset of items, called the anchor items or common items, are administered as part of both test forms. These items are used to adjust the item calibrations for any differences in the ability distributions of the groups taking…

  1. Effects of underground mining and mine collapse on the hydrology of selected basins in West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hobba, William A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of underground mining and mine collapse on areal hydrology were determined at one site where the mined bed of coal lies above major streams and at two sites where the bed of coal lies below major streams. Subsidence cracks observed at land surface generally run parallel to predominant joint sets in the rocks. The mining and subsidence cracks increase hydraulic conductivity and interconnection of water-bearing rock units, which in turn cause increased infiltration of precipitation and surface water, decreased evapotranspiration, and higher base flows in some small streams. Water levels in observation wells in mined areas fluctuate as much as 100 ft annually. Both gaining and losing streams are found in mined areas. Mine pumpage and drainage can cause diversion of water underground from one basin to another. Areal and single-well aquifer tests indicated that near-surface rocks have higher transmissivity in a mine-subsided basin than in unmined basins. Increased infiltration and circulation through shallow subsurface rocks increase dissolved mineral loads in streams, as do treated and untreated contributions from mine pumpage and drainage. Abandoned and flooded underground mines make good reservoirs because of their increased transmissivity and storage. Subsidence cracks were not detectable by thermal imagery, but springs and seeps were detectable.

  2. Geography: Library of Test Items. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouimanos, John, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The…

  3. 47 CFR 65.830 - Deducted items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... deposits and other deferred credits shall be determined as prescribed by 47 CFR part 36. (c) The interstate... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deducted items. 65.830 Section 65.830... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.830 Deducted items. (a)...

  4. 47 CFR 65.830 - Deducted items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... deposits and other deferred credits shall be determined as prescribed by 47 CFR part 36. (c) The interstate... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deducted items. 65.830 Section 65.830... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.830 Deducted items. (a)...

  5. 47 CFR 65.830 - Deducted items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... deposits and other deferred credits shall be determined as prescribed by 47 CFR part 36. (c) The interstate... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Deducted items. 65.830 Section 65.830... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.830 Deducted items. (a)...

  6. Optimal Linear Ordering of Information Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Philip M.

    Efficient search of items in a store of information, such as books in a library, abstracts of articles, information in a computer data bank or the like, requires that the items most closely connected in content be close together, in order that a person looking for some particular information may concentrate his search on as small a part of the…

  7. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Included items. 65.820 Section 65.820 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.820 Included items....

  8. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Included items. 65.820 Section 65.820 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.820 Included items....

  9. 47 CFR 65.830 - Deducted items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... deposits and other deferred credits shall be determined as prescribed by 47 CFR part 36. (c) The interstate... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.830 Deducted items. (a) The following items shall be deducted from the interstate rate base. (1) The interstate portion of...

  10. Detecting Gender Bias through Test Item Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson J.

    2009-01-01

    Many physical science and physics instructors might not be trained in pedagogically appropriate test construction methods. This could lead to test items that do not measure what they are intended to measure. A subgroup of these items might show bias against some groups of students. This paper describes how the author became aware of potentially…

  11. East Asians' Responses to Western Health Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kwang B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The disparity between interview and self-report data on East Asian mental health has been attributed to the following explanations: (1) incomparability of item content; and (2) cultural differences in the social desirability of questionnaire items. Examination of groups of elderly Korean, Japanese, and European-American subjects undermine these…

  12. Geography Library of Test Items. Volume Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouimanos, John, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The…

  13. Geography Library of Test Items. Volume One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouimanos, John, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The…

  14. Item Banks: What, Where, Why and How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzaldua, Ric M.

    This paper discusses item banks calibrated to indicate levels of difficulty to assist in test development. The item bank topics discussed are: (1) purpose; (2) development issues; (3) advantages and disadvantages; and (4) practical issues. The most common issues are content validity, reliability, concerns with software purchase and programming,…

  15. Restricted Interests and Teacher Presentation of Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocco, Corey S.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rodriguez, Nicole M.

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is more pervasive, prevalent, frequent, and severe in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) than in their typical peers. One subtype of RRB is restricted interests in items or activities, which is evident in the manner in which individuals engage with items (e.g., repetitious wheel spinning),…

  16. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transportation items. 3... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... shipment. (6) Cost of transportation by common carrier including amounts paid as Federal taxes. (7) Cost...

  17. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transportation items. 3... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... shipment. (6) Cost of transportation by common carrier including amounts paid as Federal taxes. (7) Cost...

  18. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transportation items. 3... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... shipment. (6) Cost of transportation by common carrier including amounts paid as Federal taxes. (7) Cost...

  19. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation items. 3... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... shipment. (6) Cost of transportation by common carrier including amounts paid as Federal taxes. (7) Cost...

  20. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transportation items. 3... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... shipment. (6) Cost of transportation by common carrier including amounts paid as Federal taxes. (7) Cost...

  1. Modeling Rule-Based Item Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geerlings, Hanneke; Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2011-01-01

    An application of a hierarchical IRT model for items in families generated through the application of different combinations of design rules is discussed. Within the families, the items are assumed to differ only in surface features. The parameters of the model are estimated in a Bayesian framework, using a data-augmented Gibbs sampler. An obvious…

  2. Developing and evaluating innovative items for the NCLEX: Part 2, item characteristics and cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Anne; Harmes, J Christine

    2009-01-01

    This article is a continuation of the research on the development and evaluation of innovative item formats for the NCLEX examinations that was published in the March/April 2009 edition of Nurse Educator. The authors discuss the innovative item templates and evaluate the statistical characteristics and level of cognitive processing required to answer the examination items. PMID:19412048

  3. Conditional Item-Exposure Control in Adaptive Testing Using Item-Ineligibility Probabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2007-01-01

    Two conditional versions of the exposure-control method with item-ineligibility constraints for adaptive testing in van der Linden and Veldkamp (2004) are presented. The first version is for unconstrained item selection, the second for item selection with content constraints imposed by the shadow-test approach. In both versions, the exposure rates…

  4. Ramsay-Curve Item Response Theory for the Three-Parameter Logistic Item Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.

    2008-01-01

    In Ramsay-curve item response theory (RC-IRT), the latent variable distribution is estimated simultaneously with the item parameters of a unidimensional item response model using marginal maximum likelihood estimation. This study evaluates RC-IRT for the three-parameter logistic (3PL) model with comparisons to the normal model and to the empirical…

  5. Test Anxiety and Item Order: New Parameters for Item Response Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershon, Richard C.

    Examinees (N=1,233) at the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation (JOCRF) were administered one of three test forms in which only item order differed. The study was undertaken to determine the validity of the assumption underlying item response theory (IRT) that there are fixed item parameters that can predict performance. The Rasch IRT model was…

  6. A Generalized Model with Internal Restrictions on Item Difficulty for Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Jin, Kuan-Yu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors extend the standard item response model with internal restrictions on item difficulty (MIRID) to fit polytomous items using cumulative logits and adjacent-category logits. Moreover, the new model incorporates discrimination parameters and is rooted in a multilevel framework. It is a nonlinear mixed model so that existing…

  7. Comparing Methods for Item Analysis: The Impact of Different Item-Selection Statistics on Test Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    Practitioners often depend on item analysis to select items for exam forms and have a variety of options available to them. These include the point-biserial correlation, the agreement statistic, the B index, and the phi coefficient. Although research has demonstrated that these statistics can be useful for item selection, no research as of yet has…

  8. Asymptotic Standard Errors for Item Response Theory True Score Equating of Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cher Wong, Cheow

    2015-01-01

    Building on previous works by Lord and Ogasawara for dichotomous items, this article proposes an approach to derive the asymptotic standard errors of item response theory true score equating involving polytomous items, for equivalent and nonequivalent groups of examinees. This analytical approach could be used in place of empirical methods like…

  9. Assessing the Utility of Item Response Theory Models: Differential Item Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheuneman, Janice Dowd

    The current status of item response theory (IRT) is discussed. Several IRT methods exist for assessing whether an item is biased. Focus is on methods proposed by L. M. Rudner (1975), F. M. Lord (1977), D. Thissen et al. (1988) and R. L. Linn and D. Harnisch (1981). Rudner suggested a measure of the area lying between the two item characteristic…

  10. Content Analysis of Gender-Related Differential Item Functioning TIMSS Items in Mathematics in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Innabi, Hanan; Dodeen, Hamzeh

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze items that exhibit gender-related Differential Item Functioning (DIF) in Mathematics in Jordan. Data was taken from the TIMSS 1999 of Jordan, which includes responses of 5, 299 eighth grade students. Mantel-Haenszel (MH) DIF procedure was applied to 124 multiple-choice items. The results showed that 37 items…

  11. Examining the Relationship between Race-Based Differential Item Functioning and Item Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherbaum, Charles A.; Goldstein, Harold W.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research examining racial differences on standardized cognitive tests has focused on the impact of test item difficulty. Studies using data from the SAT and GRE have reported a correlation between item difficulty and differential item functioning (DIF) such that minority test takers are less likely than majority test takers to respond…

  12. Item Purification in Differential Item Functioning Using Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Qian

    2011-01-01

    For this dissertation, four item purification procedures were implemented onto the generalized linear mixed model for differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, and the performance of these item purification procedures was investigated through a series of simulations. Among the four procedures, forward and generalized linear mixed model (GLMM)…

  13. Psychometric Changes on Item Difficulty Due to Item Review by Examinees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2015-01-01

    If good measurement depends in part on the estimation of accurate item characteristics, it is essential that test developers become aware of discrepancies that may exist on the item parameters before and after item review. The purpose of this study was to examine the answer changing patterns of students while taking paper-and-pencil multiple…

  14. Designing P-Optimal Item Pools in Computerized Adaptive Tests with Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xuechun

    2012-01-01

    Current CAT applications consist of predominantly dichotomous items, and CATs with polytomously scored items are limited. To ascertain the best approach to polytomous CAT, a significant amount of research has been conducted on item selection, ability estimation, and impact of termination rules based on polytomous IRT models. Few studies…

  15. German mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

  16. Concept learning set-size functions for Clark's nutcrackers.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anthony A; Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Leonard, Kevin; Kelly, Debbie M

    2016-01-01

    Same/Different abstract-concept learning by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) was tested with novel stimuli following learning of training set expansion (8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, and 1024 picture items). The resulting set-size function was compared to those from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and pigeons (Columba livia). Nutcrackers showed partial concept learning following initial eight-item set learning, unlike the other species (Magnotti, Katz, Wright, & Kelly, 2015). The mean function for the nutcrackers' novel-stimulus transfer increased linearly as a function of the logarithm of training set size, which intersected its baseline function at the 128-item set size. Thus, nutcrackers on average achieved full concept learning (i.e., transfer statistically equivalent to baseline performance) somewhere between set sizes of 64 to 128 items, similar to full concept learning by monkeys. Pigeons required a somewhat larger training set (256 items) for full concept learning, but results from other experiments (initial training and transfer with 32- and 64-item set sizes) suggested carryover effects with smaller set sizes may have artificially prolonged the pigeon's full concept learning. We find it remarkable that these diverse species with very different neural architectures can fully learn this same/different abstract concept, and (at least under some conditions) do so with roughly similar sets sizes (64-128 items) and numbers of training exemplars, despite initial concept learning advantages (nutcrackers), learning disadvantages (pigeons), or increasing baselines (monkeys). PMID:26615450

  17. 4. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, SHOWING MINE CAR TRACKS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, SHOWING MINE CAR TRACKS, SNOWSHEDS AND TIPPLE (LEFT BACKGROUND). VIEW TO EAST. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

  18. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE FROM KEETLEY MINE ROAD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE FROM KEETLEY MINE ROAD, SHOWING TAILING DUMP. VIEW TO WEST. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

  19. Mining lease handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Mining leases and similar agreements are some of the most common documents encountered by mining attorneys. The mining Lease Handbook contains a collection of mining lease clauses which have been organized and assembled for over 25 years. The clauses in this book have been coordinated and cross-referenced to enable the Handbook user to create a mining lease having a logical structure with consistent terminology throughout. In many cases, alternative clauses are included. The accompanying commentary provides insight into the use of the various clauses while pointing our pitfalls to be avoided. This Handbook is devoted primarily to mining leases, several chapters cover the subjects of options, subleases, and ancillary documents.

  20. An Incremental High-Utility Mining Algorithm with Transaction Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Wensheng; Zhang, Binbin

    2015-01-01

    Association-rule mining is commonly used to discover useful and meaningful patterns from a very large database. It only considers the occurrence frequencies of items to reveal the relationships among itemsets. Traditional association-rule mining is, however, not suitable in real-world applications since the purchased items from a customer may have various factors, such as profit or quantity. High-utility mining was designed to solve the limitations of association-rule mining by considering both the quantity and profit measures. Most algorithms of high-utility mining are designed to handle the static database. Fewer researches handle the dynamic high-utility mining with transaction insertion, thus requiring the computations of database rescan and combination explosion of pattern-growth mechanism. In this paper, an efficient incremental algorithm with transaction insertion is designed to reduce computations without candidate generation based on the utility-list structures. The enumeration tree and the relationships between 2-itemsets are also adopted in the proposed algorithm to speed up the computations. Several experiments are conducted to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of runtime, memory consumption, and number of generated patterns. PMID:25811038

  1. Generalized Full-Information Item Bifactor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Li; Yang, Ji Seung; Hansen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Full-information item bifactor analysis is an important statistical method in psychological and educational measurement. Current methods are limited to single group analysis and inflexible in the types of item response models supported. We propose a flexible multiple-group item bifactor analysis framework that supports a variety of multidimensional item response theory models for an arbitrary mixing of dichotomous, ordinal, and nominal items. The extended item bifactor model also enables the estimation of latent variable means and variances when data from more than one group are present. Generalized user-defined parameter restrictions are permitted within or across groups. We derive an efficient full-information maximum marginal likelihood estimator. Our estimation method achieves substantial computational savings by extending Gibbons and Hedeker’s (1992) bifactor dimension reduction method so that the optimization of the marginal log-likelihood only requires two-dimensional integration regardless of the dimensionality of the latent variables. We use simulation studies to demonstrate the flexibility and accuracy of the proposed methods. We apply the model to study cross-country differences, including differential item functioning, using data from a large international education survey on mathematics literacy. PMID:21534682

  2. Differential item functioning analysis of the Vanderbilt Expertise Test for cars.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Yeol; Cho, Sun-Joo; McGugin, Rankin W; Van Gulick, Ana Beth; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Expertise Test for cars (VETcar) is a test of visual learning for contemporary car models. We used item response theory to assess the VETcar and in particular used differential item functioning (DIF) analysis to ask if the test functions the same way in laboratory versus online settings and for different groups based on age and gender. An exploratory factor analysis found evidence of multidimensionality in the VETcar, although a single dimension was deemed sufficient to capture the recognition ability measured by the test. We selected a unidimensional three-parameter logistic item response model to examine item characteristics and subject abilities. The VETcar had satisfactory internal consistency. A substantial number of items showed DIF at a medium effect size for test setting and for age group, whereas gender DIF was negligible. Because online subjects were on average older than those tested in the lab, we focused on the age groups to conduct a multigroup item response theory analysis. This revealed that most items on the test favored the younger group. DIF could be more the rule than the exception when measuring performance with familiar object categories, therefore posing a challenge for the measurement of either domain-general visual abilities or category-specific knowledge. PMID:26418499

  3. Environmental Factors Item Development for Persons With Stroke, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Magasi, Susan; Hammel, Joy; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Garcia, Sofia F.; Hahn, Elizabeth A.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Tulsky, David; Gray, David B.; Hollingsworth, Holly; Jerousek, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe methods used in operationalizing environmental factors; to describe the results of a research project to develop measures of environmental factors that affect participation; and to define an initial item set of facilitators and barriers to participation after stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Design Instrument development included an extensive literature review, item classification and selection, item writing, and cognitive testing following the approach of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. Setting Community. Participants Content area and outcome measurement experts (n=10) contributed to instrument development; individuals (n=200) with the target conditions participated in focus groups and in cognitive testing (n=15). Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures Environmental factor items were categorized in 6 domains: assistive technology; built and natural environment; social environment; services, systems, and policies; access to information and technology; and economic quality of life. Results We binned 2273 items across the 6 domains, winnowed this pool to 291 items for cognitive testing, and recommended 274 items for pilot data collection. Conclusions Five of the 6 domains correspond closely to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health taxonomy of environmental factors; the sixth domain, economic quality of life, reflects an important construct that reflects financial resources that affect participation. Testing with a new and larger sample is underway to evaluate reliability, validity, and sensitivity. PMID:24378804

  4. Differential item functioning analysis of the Vanderbilt Expertise Test for cars

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo-Yeol; Cho, Sun-Joo; McGugin, Rankin W.; Van Gulick, Ana Beth; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Expertise Test for cars (VETcar) is a test of visual learning for contemporary car models. We used item response theory to assess the VETcar and in particular used differential item functioning (DIF) analysis to ask if the test functions the same way in laboratory versus online settings and for different groups based on age and gender. An exploratory factor analysis found evidence of multidimensionality in the VETcar, although a single dimension was deemed sufficient to capture the recognition ability measured by the test. We selected a unidimensional three-parameter logistic item response model to examine item characteristics and subject abilities. The VETcar had satisfactory internal consistency. A substantial number of items showed DIF at a medium effect size for test setting and for age group, whereas gender DIF was negligible. Because online subjects were on average older than those tested in the lab, we focused on the age groups to conduct a multigroup item response theory analysis. This revealed that most items on the test favored the younger group. DIF could be more the rule than the exception when measuring performance with familiar object categories, therefore posing a challenge for the measurement of either domain-general visual abilities or category-specific knowledge. PMID:26418499

  5. Mine drainage and surface mine reclamation. Volume I. Mine water and mine waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. This publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. These comprise Volume 1. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts; these have been placed in the back of both volumes.

  6. Mine drainage and surface mine reclamation. Volume II. Mine reclamation, abandoned mine lands and policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. This publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. These comprise Volume 1. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts; these have been placed in the back of both volumes.

  7. Environmental assessment of a contemporary coal mining system

    SciTech Connect

    Dutzi, E.J.; Sullivan, P.J.; Hutchinson, C.F.; Stevens, C.M.

    1980-12-15

    A contemporary underground coal mine in eastern Kentucky was assessed in order to determine potential off-site and on-site environmental impacts associated with the mining system in the given environmental setting. A 4-section, continuous room-and-pillar mine plan was developed for an appropriate site in eastern Kentucky. Potential environmental impacts were identified, and mitigation costs determined, using an environmental assessment methodology for coal extraction systems developed by Sullivan et al., 1980 (JPL Publication 79-82). The major potential environmental impacts were determined to be: (1) acid water drainage from the mine and refuse site, (2) uneven subsidence of the surface as a result of mining activity, and (3) alteration of ground-water aquifers in the subsidence zone. In the specific case examined, the costs of environmental impact mitigation to levels prescribed by regulations would not exceed $1/ton of coal mined, and post-mining land values would not be affected.

  8. The enviornmental assessment of a contemporary coal mining system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutzi, E. J.; Sullivan, P. J.; Hutchinson, C. F.; Stevens, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    A contemporary underground coal mine in eastern Kentucky was assessed in order to determine potential off-site and on-site environmental impacts associated with the mining system in the given environmental setting. A 4 section, continuous room and pillor mine plan was developed for an appropriate site in eastern Kentucky. Potential environmental impacts were identified, and mitigation costs determined. The major potential environmental impacts were determined to be: acid water drainage from the mine and refuse site, uneven subsidence of the surface as a result of mining activity, and alteration of ground water aquifers in the subsidence zone. In the specific case examined, the costs of environmental impact mitigation to levels prescribed by regulations would not exceed $1/ton of coal mined, and post mining land values would not be affected.

  9. Proceedings: Fourth Workshop on Mining Scientific Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C

    2001-07-24

    Commercial applications of data mining in areas such as e-commerce, market-basket analysis, text-mining, and web-mining have taken on a central focus in the JCDD community. However, there is a significant amount of innovative data mining work taking place in the context of scientific and engineering applications that is not well represented in the mainstream KDD conferences. For example, scientific data mining techniques are being developed and applied to diverse fields such as remote sensing, physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, structural mechanics, computational fluid dynamics etc. In these areas, data mining frequently complements and enhances existing analysis methods based on statistics, exploratory data analysis, and domain-specific approaches. On the surface, it may appear that data from one scientific field, say genomics, is very different from another field, such as physics. However, despite their diversity, there is much that is common across the mining of scientific and engineering data. For example, techniques used to identify objects in images are very similar, regardless of whether the images came from a remote sensing application, a physics experiment, an astronomy observation, or a medical study. Further, with data mining being applied to new types of data, such as mesh data from scientific simulations, there is the opportunity to apply and extend data mining to new scientific domains. This one-day workshop brings together data miners analyzing science data and scientists from diverse fields to share their experiences, learn how techniques developed in one field can be applied in another, and better understand some of the newer techniques being developed in the KDD community. This is the fourth workshop on the topic of Mining Scientific Data sets; for information on earlier workshops, see http://www.ahpcrc.org/conferences/. This workshop continues the tradition of addressing challenging problems in a field where the diversity of applications is

  10. A Strategy for Optimizing Item-Pool Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariel, Adelaide; van der Linden, Wim J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2006-01-01

    Item-pool management requires a balancing act between the input of new items into the pool and the output of tests assembled from it. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management is presented that is based on the idea of a periodic update of an optimal blueprint for the item pool to tune item production to test assembly. A simulation study with…

  11. 41 CFR 101-30.702 - Determining item reduction potential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Determining item... CATALOG SYSTEM 30.7-Item Reduction Program § 101-30.702 Determining item reduction potential. Item reduction studies are required where there are large numbers of generally similar items which are subject...

  12. 41 CFR 101-30.101-2 - Item of supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Item of supply. 101-30....1-General § 101-30.101-2 Item of supply. Item of supply means an item of production that is purchased, cataloged, and assigned a national stock number by the Government. The item of supply...

  13. 41 CFR 101-26.301-1 - Similar items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Similar items. 101-26.301... PROGRAM 26.3-Procurement of GSA Stock Items § 101-26.301-1 Similar items. (a) Agencies required to requisition, exclusively, items listed in the GSA Supply Catalog shall utilize such items in lieu of...

  14. 41 CFR 101-26.301-1 - Similar items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Similar items. 101-26... PROGRAM 26.3-Procurement of GSA Stock Items § 101-26.301-1 Similar items. (a) Agencies required to requisition, exclusively, items listed in the GSA Supply Catalog shall utilize such items in lieu of...

  15. 41 CFR 101-26.301-1 - Similar items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Similar items. 101-26.301... PROGRAM 26.3-Procurement of GSA Stock Items § 101-26.301-1 Similar items. (a) Agencies required to requisition, exclusively, items listed in the GSA Supply Catalog shall utilize such items in lieu of...

  16. 41 CFR 101-30.101-4 - Federal item identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Federal item... CATALOG SYSTEM 30.1-General § 101-30.101-4 Federal item identification. Federal item identification means the approved item identification for the item of supply, plus the national stock number assigned...

  17. 41 CFR 101-26.301-1 - Similar items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Similar items. 101-26.301... PROGRAM 26.3-Procurement of GSA Stock Items § 101-26.301-1 Similar items. (a) Agencies required to requisition, exclusively, items listed in the GSA Supply Catalog shall utilize such items in lieu of...

  18. 41 CFR 101-26.301-1 - Similar items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Similar items. 101-26.301... PROGRAM 26.3-Procurement of GSA Stock Items § 101-26.301-1 Similar items. (a) Agencies required to requisition, exclusively, items listed in the GSA Supply Catalog shall utilize such items in lieu of...

  19. 41 CFR 101-27.404 - Review of items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Review of items. 101-27...-Elimination of Items From Inventory § 101-27.404 Review of items. Except for standby or reserve stocks, items... supply reviews. The estimate of current or future requirements for an item shall be based on its...

  20. 41 CFR 101-27.404 - Review of items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Review of items. 101-27...-Elimination of Items From Inventory § 101-27.404 Review of items. Except for standby or reserve stocks, items... supply reviews. The estimate of current or future requirements for an item shall be based on its...

  1. 41 CFR 101-30.101-4 - Federal item identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Federal item... CATALOG SYSTEM 30.1-General § 101-30.101-4 Federal item identification. Federal item identification means the approved item identification for the item of supply, plus the national stock number assigned...

  2. 41 CFR 101-30.702 - Determining item reduction potential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Determining item... CATALOG SYSTEM 30.7-Item Reduction Program § 101-30.702 Determining item reduction potential. Item reduction studies are required where there are large numbers of generally similar items which are subject...

  3. 41 CFR 101-30.101-1 - Civil agency item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civil agency item. 101....1-General § 101-30.101-1 Civil agency item. Civil agency item means an item of supply in the supply... (includes direct delivery requirements as well as items stocked for issue)....

  4. 41 CFR 101-27.404 - Review of items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Review of items. 101-27...-Elimination of Items From Inventory § 101-27.404 Review of items. Except for standby or reserve stocks, items... supply reviews. The estimate of current or future requirements for an item shall be based on its...

  5. 41 CFR 101-30.101-2 - Item of supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Item of supply. 101-30....1-General § 101-30.101-2 Item of supply. Item of supply means an item of production that is purchased, cataloged, and assigned a national stock number by the Government. The item of supply...

  6. Constructing Rotating Item Pools for Constrained Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariel, Adelaide; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2004-01-01

    Preventing items in adaptive testing from being over- or underexposed is one of the main problems in computerized adaptive testing. Though the problem of overexposed items can be solved using a probabilistic item-exposure control method, such methods are unable to deal with the problem of underexposed items. Using a system of rotating item pools,…

  7. A Note on Item-Restscore Association in Rasch Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiner, Svend

    2011-01-01

    To rule out the need for a two-parameter item response theory (IRT) model during item analysis by Rasch models, it is important to check the Rasch model's assumption that all items have the same item discrimination. Biserial and polyserial correlation coefficients measuring the association between items and restscores are often used in an informal…

  8. An NCME Instructional Module on Polytomous Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall David

    2014-01-01

    A polytomous item is one for which the responses are scored according to three or more categories. Given the increasing use of polytomous items in assessment practices, item response theory (IRT) models specialized for polytomous items are becoming increasingly common. The purpose of this ITEMS module is to provide an accessible overview of…

  9. Calibration of Polytomous Item Families Using Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew S.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2005-01-01

    For complex educational assessments, there is an increasing use of item families, which are groups of related items. Calibration or scoring in an assessment involving item families requires models that can take into account the dependence structure inherent among the items that belong to the same item family. This article extends earlier works in…

  10. Investigating Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Nagihan Boztunc; Dogan, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of item exposure control methods on measurement precision and on test security under various item selection methods and item pool characteristics. In this study, the Randomesque (with item group sizes of 5 and 10), Sympson-Hetter, and Fade-Away methods were used as item exposure control methods. Moreover,…

  11. Learning User Preferences for Sets of Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desJardins, Marie; Eaton, Eric; Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2006-01-01

    Most work on preference learning has focused on pairwise preferences or rankings over individual items. In this paper, we present a method for learning preferences over sets of items. Our learning method takes as input a collection of positive examples--that is, one or more sets that have been identified by a user as desirable. Kernel density estimation is used to estimate the value function for individual items, and the desired set diversity is estimated from the average set diversity observed in the collection. Since this is a new learning problem, we introduce a new evaluation methodology and evaluate the learning method on two data collections: synthetic blocks-world data and a new real-world music data collection that we have gathered.

  12. Mine waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This book reports on mine waste management. Topics covered include: Performance review of modern mine waste management units; Mine waste management requirements; Prediction of acid generation potential; Attenuation of chemical constituents; Climatic considerations; Liner system design; Closure requirements; Heap leaching; Ground water monitoring; and Economic impact evaluation.

  13. Mountaintop mining update

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2006-07-15

    In a bad year for the US mining industry's safety record and public image, Morehead State University hosted a public meeting titled 'Mountaintop mining, health and safety forum'. This was a balanced event, with representatives from the mining industry as well as activists from the environmental community. A full account is given of the presentations and debate at the forum. 6 photos.

  14. Data Mining for CRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thearling, Kurt

    Data Mining technology allows marketing organizations to better understand their customers and respond to their needs. This chapter describes how Data Mining can be combined with customer relationship management to help drive improved interactions with customers. An example showing how to use Data Mining to drive customer acquisition activities is presented.

  15. Autonomous Mine Detection Sensors (AMDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navish, Frank, III; May, Michael

    2006-05-01

    The Autonomous Mine Detection Sensors (AMDS) program is developing a prototype autonomous mine-detection sensor suite designed to be mounted on a small robotic platform that can find buried anti-personnel mines. Over the past two years, CyTerra Corp. and NIITEK, Inc. have developed complementary senor suites using a variety of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor configurations. The AMDS program is also working with industry and academia to develop automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms. This paper provides a brief overview of evaluations that have been performed at Army facilities. Probability of Detection (Pd) and Probability of False Alarm (Pfa) results are provided for signal-to-noise type detection algorithms and also for promising pattern classification and neural network algorithms that were developed by Duke University, the University of Missouri-Columbia, and the University of Florida. After an evaluation in October 2005, both contractors' sensors performed comparably (about 90% Pd and 40% Pfa) against low-metal anti-personnel mines at an Army test site seeded with typical clutter. In some cases, university-developed pattern classification and neural network algorithms have reduced the Pfa by a factor of two against these clutter sets.

  16. The 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey : Phase 1 : Book 3 : Item-by-item Crosstabulations.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. End-Use Research Section; Applied Management & Planning Group

    1993-06-01

    This book constitutes a portion of the primary documentation for the 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey, Phase I. The complete 33-volume set of primary documentation provides information needed by energy analysts and interpreters with respect to planning, execution, data collection, and data management of the PNWRES92-I process. Thirty of these volumes are devoted to different ``views`` of the data themselves, with each view having a special purpose or interest as its focus. Analyses and interpretations of these data will be the subjects of forthcoming publications. Conducted during the late summer and fall months of 1992, PNWRES92-I had the over-arching goal of satisfying basic requirements for a variety of information about the stock of residential units in Bonneville`s service region. Surveys with a similar goal were conducted in 1979 and 1983. This volume discerns the information by the particular Bonneville Area Office. ``Selected crosstabulations`` refers to a set of nine survey items of wide interest (Dwelling Type, Ownership Type, Year-of-Construction, Dwelling Size, Primary Space-Heating Fuel, Primary Water-Heating Fuel, Household Income for 1991, Utility Type, and Space-Heating Fuels: Systems and Equipment) that were crosstabulated among themselves.

  17. Investigating the Impact of Item Parameter Drift for Item Response Theory Models with Mixture Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon Soo; Lee, Young-Sun; Xing, Kuan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of item parameter drift (IPD) on parameter and ability estimation when the underlying measurement model fits a mixture distribution, thereby violating the item invariance property of unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models. An empirical study was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of both IPD and an underlying mixture distribution using real-world data. Twenty-one trended anchor items from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 administrations of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) were analyzed using unidimensional and mixture IRT models. TIMSS treats trended anchor items as invariant over testing administrations and uses pre-calibrated item parameters based on unidimensional IRT. However, empirical results showed evidence of two latent subgroups with IPD. Results also showed changes in the distribution of examinee ability between latent classes over the three administrations. A simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of IPD on the estimation of ability and item parameters, when data have underlying mixture distributions. Simulations used data generated from a mixture IRT model and estimated using unidimensional IRT. Results showed that data reflecting IPD using mixture IRT model led to IPD in the unidimensional IRT model. Changes in the distribution of examinee ability also affected item parameters. Moreover, drift with respect to item discrimination and distribution of examinee ability affected estimates of examinee ability. These findings demonstrate the need to caution and evaluate IPD using a mixture IRT framework to understand its effects on item parameters and examinee ability. PMID:26941699

  18. Investigating the Impact of Item Parameter Drift for Item Response Theory Models with Mixture Distributions.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon Soo; Lee, Young-Sun; Xing, Kuan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of item parameter drift (IPD) on parameter and ability estimation when the underlying measurement model fits a mixture distribution, thereby violating the item invariance property of unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models. An empirical study was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of both IPD and an underlying mixture distribution using real-world data. Twenty-one trended anchor items from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 administrations of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) were analyzed using unidimensional and mixture IRT models. TIMSS treats trended anchor items as invariant over testing administrations and uses pre-calibrated item parameters based on unidimensional IRT. However, empirical results showed evidence of two latent subgroups with IPD. Results also showed changes in the distribution of examinee ability between latent classes over the three administrations. A simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of IPD on the estimation of ability and item parameters, when data have underlying mixture distributions. Simulations used data generated from a mixture IRT model and estimated using unidimensional IRT. Results showed that data reflecting IPD using mixture IRT model led to IPD in the unidimensional IRT model. Changes in the distribution of examinee ability also affected item parameters. Moreover, drift with respect to item discrimination and distribution of examinee ability affected estimates of examinee ability. These findings demonstrate the need to caution and evaluate IPD using a mixture IRT framework to understand its effects on item parameters and examinee ability. PMID:26941699

  19. An Introduction to Item Response Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Presents overview of Item Response Theory (IRT). Explores substantial advantages of IRT in both ability and attitude measurements. Describes and illustrates basic IRT models. Discusses instrument construction and computerized testing. (Author/BHK)

  20. 47 CFR 65.830 - Deducted items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... deposits and other deferred credits shall be determined as prescribed by 47 CFR part 36. (c) The interstate... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.830 Deducted items. (a)...

  1. Experiments in materials science from household items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, F. Xavier

    1993-01-01

    Everyday household items are used to demonstrate some unique properties of materials. A coat hanger, rubber band, balloon, and corn starch have typical properties which we often take for granted but can be truly amazing.

  2. Reminiscence and item recovery in free recall.

    PubMed

    Madigan, S

    1976-05-01

    The item recovery or reminiscence component of recall in RTT procedures was investigated in two free recall experiments. In the first, Erdelyi and Becker's (1974) "hypermnesia" effect was found with pictures as the to-be-remembered material: total amount recalled increased over two successive test trials, and included a large reminiscence effect, with some 27% of previously unrecalled items appearing in the second test. The second experiment, with word lists, showed that the frequency of occurrence of new items was greater following a 12-min separation of two test trials than in two relatively massed tests. This kind of item recovery is relevant to models of output interference and retrieval limitations in free recall, and may be also related to spontaneous recovery effects. PMID:21287027

  3. Guideline Implementation: Prevention of Retained Surgical Items.

    PubMed

    Fencl, Jennifer L

    2016-07-01

    A surgical item unintentionally retained in a patient after an operative or other invasive procedure is a serious, preventable medical error with the potential to cause the patient great harm. Perioperative RNs play a key role in preventing retained surgical items (RSIs). The updated AORN "Guideline for prevention of retained surgical items" provides guidance for implementing a consistent, multidisciplinary approach to RSI prevention; accounting for surgical items; preventing retention of device fragments; reconciling count discrepancies; and using adjunct technologies to supplement manual count procedures. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel provide optimal care during a procedure. Key points addressed include taking responsibility for RSI prevention as a team; minimizing distractions, noise, and interruptions during counts; using consistent counting methods; reconciling discrepancies; and participating in performance-improvement activities. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance in writing and updating policies and procedures. PMID:27350354

  4. Work plan for revising the RAMC mine costing methodology. [USA; regional; modifications; based on specific mines reviewed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-16

    Based on discussions with the Technical Project Officer and current budget constraints, the approach chosen for improving the RAMC mine costing methodology is as follows: Develop a set of regional model mines (both surface and underground) which reflect mining conditions and preference for each major producing district; develop regional equations relating capital and operating costs to various system components; and develop the input data necessary for each estimating relationship. To date, engineering work-ups for all model mines have been prepared, a preliminary surface mine cost model has been developed and steps have been taken to reduce EIA-7 data for use in developing an underground cost model. Descriptions of the surface and underground model mines are contained in Appendices A and B, respectively, and the preliminary surface mine cost model is contained in Appendix C.

  5. Comparison between Dichotomous and Polytomous Scoring of Innovative Items in a Large-Scale Computerized Adaptive Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Hong; Liu, Junhui; Haynie, Kathleen; Woo, Ada; Gorham, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the impact of partial credit scoring of one type of innovative items (multiple-response items) in a computerized adaptive version of a large-scale licensure pretest and operational test settings. The impacts of partial credit scoring on the estimation of the ability parameters and classification decisions in operational test…

  6. An Item-Level Psychometric Analysis of the Personality Assessment Inventory: Clinical Scales in a Psychiatric Inpatient Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siefert, Caleb J.; Sinclair, Samuel J.; Kehl-Fie, Kendra A.; Blais, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-item multiscale self-report measures are increasingly used in inpatient assessments. When considering a measure for this setting, it is important to evaluate the psychometric properties of the clinical scales and items to ensure that they are functioning as intended in a highly distressed clinical population. The present study examines scale…

  7. Evaluating SAT® II: Mathematics IC Items in the SAT I Population. Research Report No. 2005-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jinghua; Schuppan, Fred; Walker, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored whether the addition of the items with more advanced math content to the SAT Reasoning Test™ (SAT®) would impact test-taker performance. Two sets of SAT math equating sections were modified to form four subforms each. Different numbers of items with advanced content, taken from the SAT II: Mathematics Level IC Test (Math IC),…

  8. Some Alternatives to Sympson-Hetter Item-Exposure Control in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2003-01-01

    The Hetter and Sympson (1997; 1985) method is a method of probabilistic item-exposure control in computerized adaptive testing. Setting its control parameters to admissible values requires an iterative process of computer simulations that has been found to be time consuming, particularly if the parameters have to be set conditional on a realistic…

  9. Calorimetry of low mass Pu239 items

    SciTech Connect

    Cremers, Teresa L; Sampson, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Calorimetric assay has the reputation of providing the highest precision and accuracy of all nondestructive assay measurements. Unfortunately, non-destructive assay practitioners and measurement consumers often extend, inappropriately, the high precision and accuracy of calorimetric assay to very low mass items. One purpose of this document is to present more realistic expectations for the random uncertainties associated with calorimetric assay for weapons grade plutonium items with masses of 200 grams or less.

  10. New developments in reprocessing semicritical items.

    PubMed

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2013-05-01

    Semicritical medical devices are defined as items that come into contact with mucous membranes or nonintact skin (eg, gastrointestinal endoscopes). Such medical devices require minimally high-level disinfection. Because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods must be used rather than steam sterilization. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because more outbreaks have been linked to inadequately cleaned or disinfected endoscopes undergoing high-level disinfection than any other medical device. PMID:23622752

  11. Item Difficulty in the Evaluation of Computer-Based Instruction: An Example from Neuroanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Chariker, Julia H.; Naaz, Farah; Pani, John R.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports large item effects in a study of computer-based learning of neuroanatomy. Outcome measures of the efficiency of learning, transfer of learning, and generalization of knowledge diverged by a wide margin across test items, with certain sets of items emerging as particularly difficult to master. In addition, the outcomes of comparisons between instructional methods changed with the difficulty of the items to be learned. More challenging items better differentiated between instructional methods. This set of results is important for two reasons. First, it suggests that instruction may be more efficient if sets of consistently difficult items are the targets of instructional methods particularly suited to them. Second, there is wide variation in the published literature regarding the outcomes of empirical evaluations of computer-based instruction. As a consequence, many questions arise as to the factors that may affect such evaluations. The present paper demonstrates that the level of challenge in the material that is presented to learners is an important factor to consider in the evaluation of a computer-based instructional system. PMID:22231801

  12. Boosting association rule mining in large datasets via Gibbs sampling.

    PubMed

    Qian, Guoqi; Rao, Calyampudi Radhakrishna; Sun, Xiaoying; Wu, Yuehua

    2016-05-01

    Current algorithms for association rule mining from transaction data are mostly deterministic and enumerative. They can be computationally intractable even for mining a dataset containing just a few hundred transaction items, if no action is taken to constrain the search space. In this paper, we develop a Gibbs-sampling-induced stochastic search procedure to randomly sample association rules from the itemset space, and perform rule mining from the reduced transaction dataset generated by the sample. Also a general rule importance measure is proposed to direct the stochastic search so that, as a result of the randomly generated association rules constituting an ergodic Markov chain, the overall most important rules in the itemset space can be uncovered from the reduced dataset with probability 1 in the limit. In the simulation study and a real genomic data example, we show how to boost association rule mining by an integrated use of the stochastic search and the Apriori algorithm. PMID:27091963

  13. Using Automatic Item Generation to Meet the Increasing Item Demands of High-Stakes Educational and Occupational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendasy, Martin E.; Sommer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The use of new test administration technologies such as computerized adaptive testing in high-stakes educational and occupational assessments demands large item pools. Classic item construction processes and previous approaches to automatic item generation faced the problems of a considerable loss of items after the item calibration phase. In this…

  14. Item-Weighted Likelihood Method for Ability Estimation in Tests Composed of Both Dichotomous and Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Jian; Shi, Ning-Zhong; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2012-01-01

    For mixed-type tests composed of both dichotomous and polytomous items, polytomous items often yield more information than dichotomous ones. To reflect the difference between the two types of items, polytomous items are usually pre-assigned with larger weights. We propose an item-weighted likelihood method to better assess examinees' ability…

  15. Text Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

  16. Remediation of acid mine drainage with sulfate reducing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Hauri, J.F.; Schaider, L.A.

    2009-02-15

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed changes in dissolved metal concentrations and pH. Using synthetic acid mine drainage and combinations of inputs, students monitor their bioreactors for decreases in dissolved copper and iron concentrations.

  17. Data Mining Model Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudici, Paolo

    The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the role of statistical models and, more generally, of statistics, in choosing a Data Mining model. After a preliminary introduction on the distinction between Data Mining and statistics, we will focus on the issue of how to choose a Data Mining methodology. This well illustrates how statistical thinking can bring real added value to a Data Mining analysis, as otherwise it becomes rather difficult to make a reasoned choice. In the third part of the paper we will present, by means of a case study in credit risk management, how Data Mining and statistics can profitably interact.

  18. Mined area detection overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, Ian A.; Deas, Robert M.; Port, Daniel M.

    2002-08-01

    An overview of the progress on the UK MOD Applied Research Program for Land Mine Detection. The Defense Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) carries out and manages the whole of the UK MOD's Mined Area Detection Applied Research Program both within its own laboratories and in partnership with industrial and academic research organizations. This paper will address two specific areas of Applied Research: hand held mine detection and vehicle mounted mine detection in support of the Mine Detection Neutralization and Route Marking System which started in April 1997. Both are multi-sensor systems, incorporating between them metal detection, ground penetrating radar, nuclear quadrupole resonance, ultra-wideband radar, and polarized thermal imaging.

  19. 48 CFR 204.7104 - Contract subline items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract subline items... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Uniform Contract Line Item Numbering System 204.7104 Contract subline items....

  20. 48 CFR 204.7103 - Contract line items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contract line items. 204..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Uniform Contract Line Item Numbering System 204.7103 Contract line items....

  1. 48 CFR 204.7103 - Contract line items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract line items. 204..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Uniform Contract Line Item Numbering System 204.7103 Contract line items....

  2. 48 CFR 46.709 - Warranties of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... items. 46.709 Section 46.709 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 46.709 Warranties of commercial items. The contracting... commercial items (see part 12)....

  3. 48 CFR 204.7104 - Contract subline items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract subline items... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Uniform Contract Line Item Numbering System 204.7104 Contract subline items....

  4. 48 CFR 204.7104 - Contract subline items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contract subline items... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Uniform Contract Line Item Numbering System 204.7104 Contract subline items....

  5. 48 CFR 46.709 - Warranties of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... items. 46.709 Section 46.709 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 46.709 Warranties of commercial items. The contracting... commercial items (see part 12)....

  6. 48 CFR 46.709 - Warranties of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... items. 46.709 Section 46.709 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 46.709 Warranties of commercial items. The contracting... commercial items (see part 12)....

  7. Data mining in radiology

    PubMed Central

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-01-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining. PMID:25024513

  8. Data mining in radiology.

    PubMed

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-04-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining. PMID:25024513

  9. Generalized Fiducial Inference for Binary Logistic Item Response Models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Hannig, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Generalized fiducial inference (GFI) has been proposed as an alternative to likelihood-based and Bayesian inference in mainstream statistics. Confidence intervals (CIs) can be constructed from a fiducial distribution on the parameter space in a fashion similar to those used with a Bayesian posterior distribution. However, no prior distribution needs to be specified, which renders GFI more suitable when no a priori information about model parameters is available. In the current paper, we apply GFI to a family of binary logistic item response theory models, which includes the two-parameter logistic (2PL), bifactor and exploratory item factor models as special cases. Asymptotic properties of the resulting fiducial distribution are discussed. Random draws from the fiducial distribution can be obtained by the proposed Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm. We investigate the finite-sample performance of our fiducial percentile CI and two commonly used Wald-type CIs associated with maximum likelihood (ML) estimation via Monte Carlo simulation. The use of GFI in high-dimensional exploratory item factor analysis was illustrated by the analysis of a set of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire data. PMID:26769340

  10. Food item use by coyote sex and age classes

    SciTech Connect

    Cypher, B.L.; Spencer, K.A.; Scrivner, J.H.

    1995-10-01

    Food item use by coyotes was compared between sexes and among age classes at the Naval Petroleum Reserves, California. Item use did not differ significantly between males and females. Although leporid was the item most frequently used by all age classes, item use differed significantly between pups (< 1 year), yearlings (1 year), and adults (> 1 year), probably due to differential use of secondary items. Variation in item use among age classes could potentially bias results of coyote food habit studies.

  11. Longwall mining of thin seams

    SciTech Connect

    Curth, E A

    1981-01-01

    Thin seam operations pose a challenge to the ingenuity of mining engineers to overcome the factor of human inconvenience in the restricted environment and associated high cost production. Surprisingly, low seam longwalls in the Federal Republic of Germany in an average thickness of 35 in. and dipping less than 18/sup 0/ come close to achieving the average production rate of all German longwall operations. They are all plow faces, and a consistent production of 3300 tons per day and a productivity of 40 tons per man shift are reported from one of the thin seam longwalls. These results were attained by reliable high-capacity equipment and roof support by shields that can be collapsed to as low as 22 inches. Maximum mining height for plow operated faces lies at 31.5 inches. Technology for mechanized mining of flat lying coalbeds less than 31.5 inches in thickness without rock cutting is not available, and firmness of coal, undulation of the strata, coalbed thickness variation, and the necessity of cutting rock, particularly through faults, set limits to plow application. The in-web shearer can be used in firm coal to a minimum mining height of 40 inches, and a daily production of 1650 to 2200 tons is reported from a longwall in the Saar district of Germany equipped with such a shearer and shields. Numerous in-web shearers are employed in the United Kingdom; reports as to their success are contradictory. Also, experience in the United States, though limited, has been negative. The steady increase in output from single drum shearer faces in Pennsylvania is a remarkable achievement, and occasional record breaking peaks in production indicate the potential of such mining. Technology development for the future is discussed.

  12. Development and validation of the 48-item Symptom Questionnaire (SQ-48) in patients with depressive, anxiety and somatoform disorders.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Ingrid; Schulte-Van Maaren, Yvonne; Wardenaar, Klaas; Giltay, Erik; Van Noorden, Martijn; Vergeer, Peter; Zitman, Frans

    2012-12-30

    Self-report measures of psychological distress or psychopathology are widely used and can be easily implemented as psychiatric screening tools. Positive psychological constructs such as vitality/optimism and work functioning have scarcely been incorporated. We aimed to develop and validate a psychological distress instrument, including measures of vitality and work functioning. A patient sample with suspected depressive, anxiety, and somatoform disorders (N=242) and a reference sample of the general population (N=516) filled in the 48-item Symptom Questionnaire (SQ-48) plus a battery of observer-rated and self-report scales (MINI Plus, MADR, BAS, INH, BSI), using a web-based ROM programme. The resulting SQ-48 is multidimensional and includes the following nine subscales: Depression (MOOD, six items), Anxiety (ANXI, six items), Somatization (SOMA, seven items), Agoraphobia (AGOR, four items), Aggression (AGGR, four items), Cognitive problems (COGN, five items), Social Phobia (SOPH, five items), Work functioning (WORK, five items), and Vitality (VITA, six items). The results showed good internal consistency as well as good convergent and divergent validity. The SQ-48 is meant to be available in the public domain for Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) and can be used as a screening/ monitoring tool in clinical settings (psychiatric and non-psychiatric), as a benchmark tool, or for research purposes. PMID:22884307

  13. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): an item response theory analysis.

    PubMed

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6-16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR-R, informant ratings on the ECR-R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores. PMID:24033268

  14. Applying negative rule mining to improve genome annotation

    PubMed Central

    Artamonova, Irena I; Frishman, Goar; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2007-01-01

    Background Unsupervised annotation of proteins by software pipelines suffers from very high error rates. Spurious functional assignments are usually caused by unwarranted homology-based transfer of information from existing database entries to the new target sequences. We have previously demonstrated that data mining in large sequence annotation databanks can help identify annotation items that are strongly associated with each other, and that exceptions from strong positive association rules often point to potential annotation errors. Here we investigate the applicability of negative association rule mining to revealing erroneously assigned annotation items. Results Almost all exceptions from strong negative association rules are connected to at least one wrong attribute in the feature combination making up the rule. The fraction of annotation features flagged by this approach as suspicious is strongly enriched in errors and constitutes about 0.6% of the whole body of the similarity-transferred annotation in the PEDANT genome database. Positive rule mining does not identify two thirds of these errors. The approach based on exceptions from negative rules is much more specific than positive rule mining, but its coverage is significantly lower. Conclusion Mining of both negative and positive association rules is a potent tool for finding significant trends in protein annotation and flagging doubtful features for further inspection. PMID:17659089

  15. Geophysical Technologies to Image Old Mine Works

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaan Hanna; Jim Pfeiffer

    2007-01-15

    ZapataEngineering, Blackhawk Division performed geophysical void detection demonstrations for the US Department of Labor Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). The objective was to advance current state-of-practices of geophysical technologies for detecting underground mine voids. The presence of old mine works above, adjacent, or below an active mine presents major health and safety hazards to miners who have inadvertently cut into locations with such features. In addition, the presence of abandoned mines or voids beneath roadways and highway structures may greatly impact the performance of the transportation infrastructure in terms of cost and public safety. Roads constructed over abandoned mines are subject to potential differential settlement, subsidence, sinkholes, and/or catastrophic collapse. Thus, there is a need to utilize geophysical imaging technologies to accurately locate old mine works. Several surface and borehole geophysical imaging methods and mapping techniques were employed at a known abandoned coal mine in eastern Illinois to investigate which method best map the location and extent of old works. These methods included: 1) high-resolution seismic (HRS) using compressional P-wave (HRPW) and S-wave (HRSW) reflection collected with 3-D techniques; 2) crosshole seismic tomography (XHT); 3) guided waves; 4) reverse vertical seismic profiling (RVSP); and 5) borehole sonar mapping. In addition, several exploration borings were drilled to confirm the presence of the imaged mine voids. The results indicated that the RVSP is the most viable method to accurately detect the subsurface voids with horizontal accuracy of two to five feet. This method was then applied at several other locations in Colorado with various topographic, geologic, and cultural settings for the same purpose. This paper presents the significant results obtained from the geophysical investigations in Illinois.

  16. Selection of multiple cued items is possible during visual short-term memory maintenance.

    PubMed

    Matsukura, Michi; Vecera, Shaun P

    2015-07-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that maintenance of a selected object feature held in visual short-term/working memory (VSTM/VWM) is supported by the same neural mechanisms that encode the sensory information. If VSTM operates by retaining "reasonable copies" of scenes constructed during sensory processing (Serences, Ester, Vogel, & Awh, 2009, p. 207, the sensory recruitment hypothesis), then attention should be able to select multiple items represented in VSTM as long as the number of these attended items does not exceed the typical VSTM capacity. It is well known that attention can select at least two noncontiguous locations at the same time during sensory processing. However, empirical reports from the studies that examined this possibility are inconsistent. In the present study, we demonstrate that (1) attention can indeed select more than a single item during VSTM maintenance when observers are asked to recognize a set of items in the manner that these items were originally attended, and (2) attention can select multiple cued items regardless of whether these items are perceptually organized into a single group (contiguous locations) or not (noncontiguous locations). The results also replicate and extend the recent finding that selective attention that operates during VSTM maintenance is sensitive to the observers' goal and motivation to use the cueing information. PMID:25824888

  17. ESTIMATE OF GLOBAL METHANE EMISSIONS FROM COAL MINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Country-specific emissions of methane (CH4) from underground coal mines, surface coal mines, and coal crushing and transport operations are estimated for 1989. Emissions for individual countries are estimated by using two sets of regression equations (R2 values range from 0.56 to...

  18. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  19. Redundancy and Novelty Mining in the Business Blogosphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Flora S.; Chan, Kap Luk

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to explore the performance of redundancy and novelty mining in the business blogosphere, which has not been studied before. Design/methodology/approach: Novelty mining techniques are implemented to single out novel information out of a massive set of text documents. This paper adopted the mixed metric approach which…

  20. Exploring the Integration of Data Mining and Data Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Due to the rapid advances in computing and sensing technologies, enormous amounts of data are being generated everyday in various applications. The integration of data mining and data visualization has been widely used to analyze these massive and complex data sets to discover hidden patterns. For both data mining and visualization to be…

  1. Development and assessment of floor and ceiling items for the PROMIS physical function item bank

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Disability and Physical Function (PF) outcome assessment has had limited ability to measure functional status at the floor (very poor functional abilities) or the ceiling (very high functional abilities). We sought to identify, develop and evaluate new floor and ceiling items to enable broader and more precise assessment of PF outcomes for the NIH Patient-Reported-Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Methods We conducted two cross-sectional studies using NIH PROMIS item improvement protocols with expert review, participant survey and focus group methods. In Study 1, respondents with low PF abilities evaluated new floor items, and those with high PF abilities evaluated new ceiling items for clarity, importance and relevance. In Study 2, we compared difficulty ratings of new floor items by low functioning respondents and ceiling items by high functioning respondents to reference PROMIS PF-10 items. We used frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations to analyze the data. Results In Study 1, low (n = 84) and high (n = 90) functioning respondents were mostly White, women, 70 years old, with some college, and disability scores of 0.62 and 0.30. More than 90% of the 31 new floor and 31 new ceiling items were rated as clear, important and relevant, leaving 26 ceiling and 30 floor items for Study 2. Low (n = 246) and high (n = 637) functioning Study 2 respondents were mostly White, women, 70 years old, with some college, and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores of 1.62 and 0.003. Compared to difficulty ratings of reference items, ceiling items were rated to be 10% more to greater than 40% more difficult to do, and floor items were rated to be about 12% to nearly 90% less difficult to do. Conclusions These new floor and ceiling items considerably extend the measurable range of physical function at either extreme. They will help improve instrument performance in populations with broad functional ranges and those concentrated at

  2. Qualitative Development of the PROMIS® Pediatric Stress Response Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, William; Pajer, Kathleen; Riley, Anne W.; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the qualitative development of the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Pediatric Stress Response item banks. Methods Stress response concepts were specified through a literature review and interviews with content experts, children, and parents. A library comprising 2,677 items derived from 71 instruments was developed. Items were classified into conceptual categories; new items were written and redundant items were removed. Items were then revised based on cognitive interviews (n = 39 children), readability analyses, and translatability reviews. Results 2 pediatric Stress Response sub-domains were identified: somatic experiences (43 items) and psychological experiences (64 items). Final item pools cover the full range of children’s stress experiences. Items are comprehensible among children aged ≥8 years and ready for translation. Conclusions Child- and parent-report versions of the item banks assess children’s somatic and psychological states when demands tax their adaptive capabilities. PMID:23124904

  3. Guidelines for establishing, maintaining, and extending the shelf life capability of limited life items (NCIG-13)

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, J.F.; Anderson, J.W.

    1992-05-01

    Under 10CFR50 Appendix B, utilities have a commitment to establish and maintain material control programs to assure the safety and reliability of their power plants. The guidelines in this report discuss methods of establishing, maintaining, and extending the shelf life of limited life items. In addition, these guidelines establish justifiable shelf lives for a sample of 70 items and review the effects of environmental conditions. Moreover, the guidelines are consistent with utility qualification test documentation and provide for evaluation of items with expired shelf lives. These guidelines set precedent by indicating that the shelf life is greater than previously available for many items. This increase in shelf life has been established through natural and accelerated aging tests.

  4. Dynamic changes in hypermnesia across early and late tests: a relational/item-specific account.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, M A; Moore, B A; Whiteman, H L

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments tested predictions derived from R. R. Hunt and M. A. McDaniel's (1993) relational/item-specific account of hypermnesia. According to this framework, participants encoding relational information should show greater hypermnesia on early test trials than on later test trials. In contrast, participants encoding item-specific information should show greater hypermnesia on later test trials than on early test trials. These predictions were not anticipated by other accounts but were confirmed by the results. Further, the patterns of reminiscence and intertest forgetting supported the theoretical underpinnings of these predictions. A 3rd experiment examined some factors by which item-specific encoding might enhance reminiscence (and thus hypermnesia) on later test trials. These results suggested that a richer set of encoded attributes rather than a fluctuating retrieval plan supported the beneficial effects of item-specific encoding on reminiscence. PMID:9438958

  5. Application of Unidimensional Item Response Models to Tests with Items Sensitive to Secondary Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Bo

    2008-01-01

    In this research, the author addresses whether the application of unidimensional item response models provides valid interpretation of test results when administering items sensitive to multiple latent dimensions. Overall, the present study found that unidimensional models are quite robust to the violation of the unidimensionality assumption due…

  6. A Conceptual Analysis of Differential Item Functioning in Terms of a Multidimensional Item Response Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilli, Gregory

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical model is proposed to describe how group differences in distributions of abilities, which are distinct from the target ability, influence the probability of a correct item response. In the multidimensional approach, differential item functioning is considered a function of the educational histories of the examinees. (SLD)

  7. 'Forget me (not)?' - Remembering Forget-Items Versus Un-Cued Items in Directed Forgetting.

    PubMed

    Zwissler, Bastian; Schindler, Sebastian; Fischer, Helena; Plewnia, Christian; Kissler, Johanna M

    2015-01-01

    Humans need to be able to selectively control their memories. This capability is often investigated in directed forgetting (DF) paradigms. In item-method DF, individual items are presented and each is followed by either a forget- or remember-instruction. On a surprise test of all items, memory is then worse for to-be-forgotten items (TBF) compared to to-be-remembered items (TBR). This is thought to result mainly from selective rehearsal of TBR, although inhibitory mechanisms also appear to be recruited by this paradigm. Here, we investigate whether the mnemonic consequences of a forget instruction differ from the ones of incidental encoding, where items are presented without a specific memory instruction. Four experiments were conducted where un-cued items (UI) were interspersed and recognition performance was compared between TBR, TBF, and UI stimuli. Accuracy was encouraged via a performance-dependent monetary bonus. Experiments varied the number of items and their presentation speed and used either letter-cues or symbolic cues. Across all experiments, including perceptually fully counterbalanced variants, memory accuracy for TBF was reduced compared to TBR, but better than for UI. Moreover, participants made consistently fewer false alarms and used a very conservative response criterion when responding to TBF stimuli. Thus, the F-cue results in active processing and reduces false alarm rate, but this does not impair recognition memory beyond an un-cued baseline condition, where only incidental encoding occurs. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26635657

  8. Multiple-Group Noncompensatory Differential Item Functioning in Raju's Differential Functioning of Items and Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, T. C.; Wright, Keith; White, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Raju, van der Linden, and Fleer (1995) introduced a framework for differential functioning of items and tests (DFIT) for unidimensional dichotomous models. Since then, DFIT has been shown to be a quite versatile framework as it can handle polytomous as well as multidimensional models both at the item and test levels. However, DFIT is still limited…

  9. Applying Bayesian Item Selection Approaches to Adaptive Tests Using Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.

    2006-01-01

    This study applied the maximum expected information (MEI) and the maximum posterior-weighted information (MPI) approaches of computer adaptive testing item selection to the case of a test using polytomous items following the partial credit model. The MEI and MPI approaches are described. A simulation study compared the efficiency of ability…

  10. Investigating Gender Differential Item Functioning across Countries and Test Languages for PISA Science Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Luc T.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses PISA cycle 3 field trial data to investigate the relationships between gender differential item functioning (DIF) across countries and test languages for science items and their formats and the four other dimensions defined in PISA framework: focus, context, competency, and scientific knowledge. The data used were collected from 60…

  11. Modeling Local Item Dependence in Cloze and Reading Comprehension Test Items Using Testlet Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghaei, Purya; Ravand, Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    In this study the magnitudes of local dependence generated by cloze test items and reading comprehension items were compared and their impact on parameter estimates and test precision was investigated. An advanced English as a foreign language reading comprehension test containing three reading passages and a cloze test was analyzed with a…

  12. Assessing Scientific Reasoning: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Item Features That Affect Item Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiller, Jurik; Hartmann, Stefan; Mathesius, Sabrina; Straube, Philipp; Tiemann, Rüdiger; Nordmeier, Volkhard; Krüger, Dirk; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the criterion-related test score interpretation of a text-based assessment of scientific reasoning competencies in higher education by evaluating factors which systematically affect item difficulty. To provide evidence about the specific demands which test items of various difficulty make on pre-service…

  13. Evaluating Item Discrimination Power of WHOQOL-BREF from an Item Response Model Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ting Hsiang; Yao, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) has become an important component of health. By using the methodology of psychometric theory, we examine the item properties of the WHOQOL-BRIEF. Samejima's graded response model with natural metrics of the logistic response function was fitted. The results showed items with negative natures were less discriminating. Items…

  14. Delaware Student Testing Program Item Sampler: Released Items for Social Studies, Grades 8 and 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover.

    The Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) is designed to assess progress toward the Delaware Content Standards. Every year a certain number of items are removed from the test and then selected for public release. This booklet contains multiple-choice and short-answer (constructed response) items released from the 2000 or 2001 administration of…

  15. A Comparison of the 27-Item and 12-Item Intolerance of Uncertainty Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khawaja, Nigar G.; Yu, Lai Ngo Heidi

    2010-01-01

    The 27-item Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) has become one of the most frequently used measures of Intolerance of Uncertainty. More recently, an abridged, 12-item version of the IUS has been developed. The current research used clinical (n = 50) and non-clinical (n = 56) samples to examine and compare the psychometric properties of both…

  16. Judgmental Standard Setting Using a Cognitive Components Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinty, Dixie; Neel, John H.

    A new standard setting approach is introduced, called the cognitive components approach. Like the Angoff method, the cognitive components method generates minimum pass levels (MPLs) for each item. In both approaches, the item MPLs are summed for each judge, then averaged across judges to yield the standard. In the cognitive components approach,…

  17. Implementation of the EM Algorithm in the Estimation of Item Parameters: The BILOG Computer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Bock, R. Darrell

    This paper reviews the basic elements of the EM approach to estimating item parameters and illustrates its use with one simulated and one real data set. In order to illustrate the use of the BILOG computer program, runs for 1-, 2-, and 3-parameter models are presented for the two sets of data. First is a set of responses from 1,000 persons to five…

  18. 48 CFR 19.502-5 - Insufficient causes for not setting aside an acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small... contracts for the required item(s) has been placed with small business concerns. (b) The item is on an established planning list under the Industrial Readiness Planning Program. However, a total small business...

  19. A Case-Based Toxicology Module on Agricultural- and Mining-Related Occupational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To develop and assess a toxicology module to teach pharmacy students about farming- and mining-related occupational exposures in the context of an existing toxicology elective course. Design. A teaching unit that included lectures and case studies was developed to address the unique occupational exposures of patients working in agricultural and mining environments. Upon completion of this 4-hour (2 class periods) module, students were expected to recognize the clinical signs and symptoms associated with these occupational exposures and propose acceptable therapeutic plans. Assessment. After completing the module, students scored significantly higher on a patient case involving suicide resulting from pesticide consumption. Seventy-three percent of the students scored higher than 90% on a 33-item multiple-choice examination. Eighty-two percent of students were able to correctly read a product label to determine the type of pesticide involved in an occupational exposure. Conclusion. Pharmacy students who completed a module on occupation exposure demonstrated competence in distinguishing occupational exposures from each other and from exposure to prescription and nonprescription drugs. This module can be used to educate future pharmacists about occupational health issues, some of which may be more prevalent in a rural setting. PMID:23049108

  20. Graph Mining Meets the Semantic Web

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sangkeun; Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Lim, Seung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The Resource Description Framework (RDF) and SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) were introduced about a decade ago to enable flexible schema-free data interchange on the Semantic Web. Today, data scientists use the framework as a scalable graph representation for integrating, querying, exploring and analyzing data sets hosted at different sources. With increasing adoption, the need for graph mining capabilities for the Semantic Web has emerged. We address that need through implementation of three popular iterative Graph Mining algorithms (Triangle count, Connected component analysis, and PageRank). We implement these algorithms as SPARQL queries, wrapped within Python scripts. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on 6 real world data sets and show graph mining algorithms (that have a linear-algebra formulation) can indeed be unleashed on data represented as RDF graphs using the SPARQL query interface.

  1. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Qingliang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  2. Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  3. Setting Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Aaron J.

    1977-01-01

    The author questions the extent to which educators have relied on "relevance" and learner participation in objective-setting in the past decade. He describes a useful approach to learner-oriented evaluation in which content relevance was not judged by participants until after they had been exposed to it. (MF)

  4. Mining agreements III

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book cover the following: Forms of mining agreements; Preliminary letter agreements; Acquisition of mineral interests involving securities; Partnership tax treatment in mining agreements; Non-tax consequences of partnerships under state law; Protection against joint venturers' liabilities; Joint venture decision making; Mining royalties; Commingling and unitization provisions; Indemnification and insurance provisions; Area of interest provision; Dispute resolution; and Non-participation and default provisions.

  5. Software tool for data mining and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Ye, Chenzhou; Chen, Nianyi

    2002-03-01

    A software tool for data mining is introduced, which integrates pattern recognition (PCA, Fisher, clustering, hyperenvelop, regression), artificial intelligence (knowledge representation, decision trees), statistical learning (rough set, support vector machine), computational intelligence (neural network, genetic algorithm, fuzzy systems). It consists of nine function models: pattern recognition, decision trees, association rule, fuzzy rule, neural network, genetic algorithm, Hyper Envelop, support vector machine, visualization. The principle and knowledge representation of some function models of data mining are described. The software tool of data mining is realized by Visual C++ under Windows 2000. Nonmonotony in data mining is dealt with by concept hierarchy and layered mining. The software tool of data mining has satisfactorily applied in the prediction of regularities of the formation of ternary intermetallic compounds in alloy systems, and diagnosis of brain glioma.

  6. ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection. ACER Chemtic Year 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The chemistry test item banks contains 225 multiple-choice questions suitable for diagnostic and achievement testing; a three-page teacher's guide; answer key with item facilities; an answer sheet; and a 45-item sample achievement test. Although written for the new grade 12 chemistry course in Victoria, Australia, the items are widely applicable.…

  7. Item Response Theory Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravand, Hamdollah

    2015-01-01

    Multilevel models (MLMs) are flexible in that they can be employed to obtain item and person parameters, test for differential item functioning (DIF) and capture both local item and person dependence. Papers on the MLM analysis of item response data have focused mostly on theoretical issues where applications have been add-ons to simulation…

  8. 48 CFR 12.603 - Streamlined solicitation for commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Streamlined Procedures for Evaluation and... Program, if applicable. (v) A list of contract line item number(s) and items, quantities and units of....212-2, Evaluation—Commercial Items, if used, and the specific evaluation criteria to be included...

  9. Item Difficulty Estimation: An Auspicious Collaboration between Data and Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wauters, Kelly; Desmet, Piet; Van Den Noortgate, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The evolution from static to dynamic electronic learning environments has stimulated the research on adaptive item sequencing. A prerequisite for adaptive item sequencing, in which the difficulty of the item is constantly matched to the ability level of the learner, is to have items with a known difficulty level. The difficulty level can be…

  10. 10 CFR 835.605 - Labeling items and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling items and containers. 835.605 Section 835.605... items and containers. Except as provided at § 835.606, each item or container of radioactive material... information to permit individuals handling, using, or working in the vicinity of the items or containers...

  11. Updated Item Parameter Estimates Using Sparse CAT Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert L.; Rizavi, Saba; Paez, Roxanna; Rotou, Ourania

    A study was conducted to investigate whether augmenting the calibration of items using computerized adaptive test (CAT) data matrices produced estimates that were unbiased and improved the stability of existing item parameter estimates. Item parameter estimates from four pools of items constructed for operational use were used in the study to…

  12. 41 CFR 101-28.306-6 - Sensitive items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Sensitive items. 101-28... 28.3-Customer Supply Centers § 101-28.306-6 Sensitive items. Many items stocked by the CSCs may be... accountable item of personal property. Each customer activity shall take all appropriate measures necessary...

  13. 41 CFR 101-28.304-1 - Types of items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Types of items. 101-28... 28.3-Customer Supply Centers § 101-28.304-1 Types of items. Items stocked in customer supply centers are based on customer agency requirements for common use expendable items. In addition...

  14. 10 CFR 835.605 - Labeling items and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling items and containers. 835.605 Section 835.605... items and containers. Except as provided at § 835.606, each item or container of radioactive material... information to permit individuals handling, using, or working in the vicinity of the items or containers...

  15. 41 CFR 109-1.5108-2 - Sensitive items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sensitive items. 109-1....51-Personal Property Management Standards and Practices § 109-1.5108-2 Sensitive items. Individual item records will be maintained for each sensitive item. Minimum dollar value thresholds...

  16. 48 CFR 552.211-93 - Unique Item Identification (UID).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unique Item Identification....211-93 Unique Item Identification (UID). As prescribed in 511.204(b)(12), insert the following clause: Unique Item Identification (UID) (JAN 2010) Unique Item Identification shall be required on...

  17. 10 CFR 835.605 - Labeling items and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling items and containers. 835.605 Section 835.605... items and containers. Except as provided at § 835.606, each item or container of radioactive material... information to permit individuals handling, using, or working in the vicinity of the items or containers...

  18. 32 CFR 507.14 - Controlled heraldic items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Controlled heraldic items. 507.14 Section 507.14... heraldic items. The articles listed in § 507.8 of this part are controlled heraldic items and will be... and cartoons are not provided to manufacturers for the items in paragraphs (a) through (e) of...

  19. 48 CFR 225.770-4 - Identifying USML items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shall identify any covered item(s) and shall provide the pertinent USML reference(s) from 22 CFR Part... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Identifying USML items... Identifying USML items. (a) Before issuance of a solicitation, the requiring activity shall notify...

  20. 48 CFR 204.7103 - Contract line items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract line items. 204..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Uniform Contract Line Item Numbering System 204.7103 Contract line items. Follow the procedures at PGI 204.7103 for establishing contract line items....