Science.gov

Sample records for itg growth rates

  1. Effects of radial electric fields on linear ITG instabilities in W7-X and LHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riemann, J.; Kleiber, R.; Borchardt, M.

    2016-07-01

    The impact of radial electric fields on the properties of linear ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) modes in stellarators is studied. Numerical simulations have been carried out with the global particle-in-cell (PIC) code EUTERPE, modelling the behaviour of ITG modes in Wendelstein 7-X and an LHD-like configuration. In general, radial electric fields seem to lead to a reduction of ITG instability growth, which can be related to the action of an induced E× B -drift. Focus is set on the modification of mode properties (frequencies, power spectrum, spatial structure and localization) to understand the observed growth rates as the result of competing stabilizing mechanisms.

  2. ITG sideband coupling models for zonal flows

    SciTech Connect

    Stransky, M.

    2011-05-15

    Four-wave interaction model between ITG mode and zonal flow was derived using fluid equations. In this model, the zonal flow is excited non-linearly by ITG turbulence via Reynolds stress. Numerical simulations show that the system allows for a small range above the ITG threshold where the zonal flow can stabilize an unstable ITG mode, effectively increasing {eta}{sub i} threshold, an effect which has been called the Dimits shift. However, the shift is smaller than in known cases such that in the Cyclone base.

  3. Growth rates made easy.

    PubMed

    Hall, Barry G; Acar, Hande; Nandipati, Anna; Barlow, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    In the 1960s-1980s, determination of bacterial growth rates was an important tool in microbial genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, and microbial physiology. The exciting technical developments of the 1990s and the 2000s eclipsed that tool; as a result, many investigators today lack experience with growth rate measurements. Recently, investigators in a number of areas have started to use measurements of bacterial growth rates for a variety of purposes. Those measurements have been greatly facilitated by the availability of microwell plate readers that permit the simultaneous measurements on up to 384 different cultures. Only the exponential (logarithmic) portions of the resulting growth curves are useful for determining growth rates, and manual determination of that portion and calculation of growth rates can be tedious for high-throughput purposes. Here, we introduce the program GrowthRates that uses plate reader output files to automatically determine the exponential portion of the curve and to automatically calculate the growth rate, the maximum culture density, and the duration of the growth lag phase. GrowthRates is freely available for Macintosh, Windows, and Linux. We discuss the effects of culture volume, the classical bacterial growth curve, and the differences between determinations in rich media and minimal (mineral salts) media. This protocol covers calibration of the plate reader, growth of culture inocula for both rich and minimal media, and experimental setup. As a guide to reliability, we report typical day-to-day variation in growth rates and variation within experiments with respect to position of wells within the plates. PMID:24170494

  4. ITG: A New Global GNSS Tropospheric Correction Model

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yibin; Xu, Chaoqian; Shi, Junbo; Cao, Na; Zhang, Bao; Yang, Junjian

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric correction models are receiving increasing attentions, as they play a crucial role in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Most commonly used models to date include the GPT2 series and the TropGrid2. In this study, we analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of existing models and developed a new model called the Improved Tropospheric Grid (ITG). ITG considers annual, semi-annual and diurnal variations, and includes multiple tropospheric parameters. The amplitude and initial phase of diurnal variation are estimated as a periodic function. ITG provides temperature, pressure, the weighted mean temperature (Tm) and Zenith Wet Delay (ZWD). We conducted a performance comparison among the proposed ITG model and previous ones, in terms of meteorological measurements from 698 observation stations, Zenith Total Delay (ZTD) products from 280 International GNSS Service (IGS) station and Tm from Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) products. Results indicate that ITG offers the best performance on the whole. PMID:26196963

  5. ITG: A New Global GNSS Tropospheric Correction Model.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yibin; Xu, Chaoqian; Shi, Junbo; Cao, Na; Zhang, Bao; Yang, Junjian

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric correction models are receiving increasing attentions, as they play a crucial role in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Most commonly used models to date include the GPT2 series and the TropGrid2. In this study, we analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of existing models and developed a new model called the Improved Tropospheric Grid (ITG). ITG considers annual, semi-annual and diurnal variations, and includes multiple tropospheric parameters. The amplitude and initial phase of diurnal variation are estimated as a periodic function. ITG provides temperature, pressure, the weighted mean temperature (Tm) and Zenith Wet Delay (ZWD). We conducted a performance comparison among the proposed ITG model and previous ones, in terms of meteorological measurements from 698 observation stations, Zenith Total Delay (ZTD) products from 280 International GNSS Service (IGS) station and Tm from Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) products. Results indicate that ITG offers the best performance on the whole. PMID:26196963

  6. Gyrokinetic Simulations of ETG and ITG Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Dimits, A; Nevins, W; Shumaker, D; Hammett, G; Dannert, T; Jenko, F; Dorland, W; Leboeuf, J; Rhodes, T; Candy, J; Estrada-Mila, C

    2006-10-03

    Published gyrokinetic continuum-code simulations indicated levels of the electron thermal conductivity {chi}{sub e} due to electron-temperature-gradient (ETG) turbulence large enough to be significant in some tokamaks, while subsequent global particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations gave significantly lower values. We have carried out an investigation of this discrepancy. We have reproduced the key features of the aforementioned PIC simulations using the flux-tube gyrokinetic PIC code, PG3EQ, thereby eliminating global effects and as the cause of the discrepancy. We show that the late-time low-transport state in both of these sets of PIC simulations is a result of discrete particle noise, which is a numerical artifact. Thus, the low value of {chi}{sub e} along with conclusions about anomalous transport drawn from these particular PIC simulations are unjustified. In our attempts to benchmark PIC and continuum codes for ETG turbulence at the plasma parameters used above, both produce very large intermittent transport. We have therefore undertaken benchmarks at an alternate reference point, magnetic shear s=0.1 instead of s=0.796, and have found that PIC and continuum codes reproduce the same transport levels. Scans in the magnetic shear show an abrupt transition to a high-{chi}{sub e} state as the shear is increased above s=0.4. When nonadiabatic ions are used, this abrupt transition is absent, and {chi}{sub e} increases gradually reaching values consistent with transport analyses of DIII-D, JET, and JT60-U discharges. New results on the balances of zonal-flow driving and damping terms in late-time quasi-steady ITG turbulence and on real-geometry gyrokinetic simulations of shaped DIII-D discharges are also reported.

  7. Growth Rate and Turgor Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Green, Paul B.; Cummins, W. Raymond

    1974-01-01

    Because turgor pressure is regarded as the driving force for cell extension, any general theory of plant growth requires quantitative information on the relationship between steady irreversible growth rate and turgor pressure. To investigate contrasting views of this relation an automated apparatus was constructed which perfused both the outer and inner epidermis of a single coleoptile while its growth rate was continuously recorded. Turgor was altered abruptly by perfusing with solutions of varying tonicity. With specially grown rye coleoptiles the half-time of the osmo-elastic response was reduced to 2 minutes or less. After decay of this response, however, rate continued to change (so as to partially compensate the effects of the turgor shift in question) for 30 to 60 minutes. Only then could a steady rate be taken. A characterization of steady rate versus turgor covering five turgor values for a single coleoptile thus required many hours. The conclusions are as follows. (a) The change in steady rate, per unit change in turgor, was much greater +IAA than −IAA. (b) Both auxin and turgor act to reset an apparent stabilizing system whose presence is shown in the partial compensation of the initial response to turgor shifts. The above “extensibility” changes are operational only. They need not reflect changes in the immediate physical extensibility of the wall; they could reflect changes in a process acting on the wall. (c) The growth rate versus turgor relation shows some hysteresis. PMID:16658991

  8. Growth rate for blackhole instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, Kartik; Wald, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Hollands and Wald showed that dynamic stability of stationary axisymmetric black holes is equivalent to positivity of canonical energy on a space of linearised axisymmetric perturbations satisfying certain boundary and gauge conditions. Using a reflection isometry of the background, we split the energy into kinetic and potential parts. We show that the kinetic energy is positive. In the case that potential energy is negative, we show existence of exponentially growing perturbations and further obtain a variational formula for the growth rate.

  9. Physics of Intrinsic Rotation in Flux-Driven ITG Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, S; Dimond, P H; Dif-Pradalier, G; Kwon, J M; Sarazin, Y; Hahm, T S; Garbet, X; Chang, C S; Latu, G; Yoon, E S; Ghendrih, Ph; Yi, S; Strugarek, A; Solomon, W

    2012-02-23

    Global, heat flux-driven ITG gyrokinetic simulations which manifest the formation of macroscopic, mean toroidal flow profiles with peak thermal Mach number 0.05, are reported. Both a particle-in-cell (XGC1p) and a semi-Lagrangian (GYSELA) approach are utilized without a priori assumptions of scale-separation between turbulence and mean fields. Flux-driven ITG simulations with different edge flow boundary conditions show in both approaches the development of net unidirectional intrinsic rotation in the co-current direction. Intrinsic torque is shown to scale approximately linearly with the inverse scale length of the ion temperature gradient. External momentum input is shown to effectively cancel the intrinsic rotation profile, thus confirming the existence of a local residual stress and intrinsic torque. Fluctuation intensity, intrinsic torque and mean flow are demonstrated to develop inwards from the boundary. The measured correlations between residual stress and two fluctuation spectrum symmetry breakers, namely E x B shear and intensity gradient, are similar. Avalanches of (positive) heat flux, which propagate either outwards or inwards, are correlated with avalanches of (negative) parallel momentum flux, so that outward transport of heat and inward transport of parallel momentum are correlated and mediated by avalanches. The probability distribution functions of the outward heat flux and the inward momentum flux show strong structural similarity

  10. Effects of Collisional Zonal Flow Damping on ITG turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhihong

    1999-11-01

    In most previous transport studies, ion-ion collisions have been assumed to have little or no effect on the ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) turbulence, and tokamak core ion thermal transport have been considered ``collisionless''. However, recent transport scaling studies on DIII-D(C.C. Petty and T.C. Luce, Phys. Plasmas) 6, 909 (1999). core plasmas showed that effective thermal diffusivity strongly depends on collisionality in the H-mode, and is almost independent of collisionality in the L-mode. Here we report results of massively parallel gyrokinetic particle simulations which show that the ion thermal transport from electrostatic ITG turbulence depends on ion-ion collisions for representative tokamak core H-mode plasma parameters. The collisionality-dependence of the turbulent transport comes from the neoclassical damping of self-generated E × B zonal flows(Z. Lin, T.S. Hahm, W.W. Lee, W.M. Tang, and R.B. White, Science) 281, 1835 (1998). which regulate the turbulence. The results from our full torus gyrokinetic simulations with a momentum and energy conserving Fokker-Planck operator are consistent with the experimental observation that the collisional dependence of transport is much more pronounced in the enhanced confinement regime where turbulence is expected to be weaker than that of typical L-mode plasmas. Furthermore, the fluctuations and heat transport in these simulations exhibit bursting behavior with a period corresponding to the collisional damping time of poloidal flows. This is consistent with the observation in TFTR core plasmas(E. Mazzucato et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3145 (1996). of a density fluctuation bursting with a period ( ~ 3 ms) close to the collisional flow damping time calculated from experimental plasma parameters.

  11. Growth rate study of canavalin single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demattei, R. C.; Feigelson, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    The dependence on supersaturation of the growth rate of single crystals of the protein canavalin is studied. In the supersaturation ranges studied, the rate-limiting step for growth is best described by a screw dislocation mechanism associated with interface attachment kinetics. Using a ln-ln plot, the growth-rate data is found to fit a predictive relationship of the form G = 0.012 x the supersaturation to the 6.66, which, together with the solubility curves, allows the growth rate to be estimated under a variety of conditions.

  12. Measurements of Protein Crystal Face Growth Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, S.

    2014-01-01

    Protein crystal growth rates will be determined for several hyperthermophile proteins.; The growth rates will be assessed using available theoretical models, including kinetic roughening.; If/when kinetic roughening supersaturations are established, determinations of protein crystal quality over a range of supersaturations will also be assessed.; The results of our ground based effort may well address the existence of a correlation between fundamental growth mechanisms and protein crystal quality.

  13. Growth Rates of Microbes in the Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchman, David L.

    2016-01-01

    A microbe's growth rate helps to set its ecological success and its contribution to food web dynamics and biogeochemical processes. Growth rates at the community level are constrained by biomass and trophic interactions among bacteria, phytoplankton, and their grazers. Phytoplankton growth rates are approximately 1 d-1, whereas most heterotrophic bacteria grow slowly, close to 0.1 d-1; only a few taxa can grow ten times as fast. Data from 16S rRNA and other approaches are used to speculate about the growth rate and the life history strategy of SAR11, the most abundant clade of heterotrophic bacteria in the oceans. These strategies are also explored using genomic data. Although the methods and data are imperfect, the available data can be used to set limits on growth rates and thus on the timescale for changes in the composition and structure of microbial communities.

  14. Growth Rates of Microbes in the Oceans.

    PubMed

    Kirchman, David L

    2016-01-01

    A microbe's growth rate helps to set its ecological success and its contribution to food web dynamics and biogeochemical processes. Growth rates at the community level are constrained by biomass and trophic interactions among bacteria, phytoplankton, and their grazers. Phytoplankton growth rates are approximately 1 d(-1), whereas most heterotrophic bacteria grow slowly, close to 0.1 d(-1); only a few taxa can grow ten times as fast. Data from 16S rRNA and other approaches are used to speculate about the growth rate and the life history strategy of SAR11, the most abundant clade of heterotrophic bacteria in the oceans. These strategies are also explored using genomic data. Although the methods and data are imperfect, the available data can be used to set limits on growth rates and thus on the timescale for changes in the composition and structure of microbial communities. PMID:26195108

  15. Imposing Constraints from the Source Tree on ITG Constraints for SMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Okuma, Hideo; Sumita, Eiichiro

    In the current statistical machine translation (SMT), erroneous word reordering is one of the most serious problems. To resolve this problem, many word-reordering constraint techniques have been proposed. Inversion transduction grammar (ITG) is one of these constraints. In ITG constraints, target-side word order is obtained by rotating nodes of the source-side binary tree. In these node rotations, the source binary tree instance is not considered. Therefore, stronger constraints for word reordering can be obtained by imposing further constraints derived from the source tree on the ITG constraints. For example, for the source word sequence { a b c d }, ITG constraints allow a total of twenty-two target word orderings. However, when the source binary tree instance ((a b) (c d)) is given, our proposed “imposing source tree on ITG” (IST-ITG) constraints allow only eight word orderings. The reduction in the number of word-order permutations by our proposed stronger constraints efficiently suppresses erroneous word orderings. In our experiments with IST-ITG using the NIST MT08 English-to-Chinese translation track's data, the proposed method resulted in a 1.8-points improvement in character BLEU-4 (35.2 to 37.0) and a 6.2% lower CER (74.1 to 67.9%) compared with our baseline condition.

  16. Temperature influence on phytoplankton community growth rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Elliot; Moore, J. Keith; Primeau, Francois; Tanouye, David

    2016-04-01

    A large database of field estimates of phytoplankton community growth rates in natural populations was compiled and analyzed to determine the apparent temperature effect on phytoplankton community growth rate. We conducted an ordinary least squares regression to optimize the parameters in two commonly used growth-temperature relations (Arrhenius and Q10 models). Both equations fit the observational data equally with the optimized parameter values. The optimum apparent Q10 value was 1.47 ± 0.08 (95% confidence interval, CI). Microzooplankton grazing rates closely matched the temperature trends for phytoplankton growth. This likely reflects a dynamic adjustment of biomass and grazing rates by the microzooplankton to match their available food source, illustrating tight coupling of phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates. The field-measured temperature effect and growth rates were compared with estimates from the satellite Carbon-based Productivity Model (CbPM) and three Earth System Models (ESMs), with model output extracted at the same month and sampling locations as the observations. The optimized, apparent Q10 value calculated for the CbPM was 1.51, with overestimation of growth rates. The apparent Q10 value in the Community Earth System Model (V1.0) was 1.65, with modest underestimation of growth rates. The GFDL-ESM2M and GFDL-ESM2G models produced apparent Q10 values of 1.52 and 1.39, respectively. Models with an apparent Q10 that is significantly greater than ~1.5 will overestimate the phytoplankton community growth response to the ongoing climate warming and will have spatial biases in estimated growth rates for the current era.

  17. Dinosaurian growth patterns and rapid avian growth rates.

    PubMed

    Erickson, G M; Rogers, K C; Yerby, S A

    2001-07-26

    Did dinosaurs grow in a manner similar to extant reptiles, mammals or birds, or were they unique? Are rapid avian growth rates an innovation unique to birds, or were they inherited from dinosaurian precursors? We quantified growth rates for a group of dinosaurs spanning the phylogenetic and size diversity for the clade and used regression analysis to characterize the results. Here we show that dinosaurs exhibited sigmoidal growth curves similar to those of other vertebrates, but had unique growth rates with respect to body mass. All dinosaurs grew at accelerated rates relative to the primitive condition seen in extant reptiles. Small dinosaurs grew at moderately rapid rates, similar to those of marsupials, but large species attained rates comparable to those of eutherian mammals and precocial birds. Growth in giant sauropods was similar to that of whales of comparable size. Non-avian dinosaurs did not attain rates like those of altricial birds. Avian growth rates were attained in a stepwise fashion after birds diverged from theropod ancestors in the Jurassic period. PMID:11473315

  18. Population growth rates: issues and an application.

    PubMed Central

    Godfray, H Charles J; Rees, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Current issues in population dynamics are discussed in the context of The Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'Population growth rate: determining factors and role in population regulation'. In particular, different views on the centrality of population growth rates to the study of population dynamics and the role of experiments and theory are explored. Major themes emerging include the role of modern statistical techniques in bringing together experimental and theoretical studies, the importance of long-term experimentation and the need for ecology to have model systems, and the value of population growth rate as a means of understanding and predicting population change. The last point is illustrated by the application of a recently introduced technique, integral projection modelling, to study the population growth rate of a monocarpic perennial plant, its elasticities to different life-history components and the evolution of an evolutionarily stable strategy size at flowering. PMID:12396521

  19. Gearbox gene expression and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Aldea, M; Garrido, T; Tormo, A

    1993-07-01

    Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotic cells usually takes place at the level of transcription initiation. Different forms of RNA polymerase recognizing specific promoters are engaged in the control of many prokaryotic regulons. This also seems to be the case for some Escherichia coli genes that are induced at low growth rates and by nutrient starvation. Their gene products are synthesized at levels inversely proportional to growth rate, and this mode of regulation has been termed gearbox gene expression. This kind of growth-rate modulation is exerted by specific transcriptional initiation signals, the gearbox promoters, and some of them depend on a putative new σ factor (RpoS). Gearbox promoters drive expression of morphogenetic and cell division genes at constant levels per cell and cycle to meet the demands of cell division and septum formation. A mechanism is proposed that could sense the growth rate of the cell to alter gene expression by the action of specific σ factors. PMID:24420108

  20. On growth rate hysteresis and catastrophic crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Cecília; Rocha, Fernando A.; Damas, Ana M.; Martins, Pedro M.

    2013-04-01

    Different crystal growth rates as supersaturation is increasing or decreasing in impure media is a phenomenon called growth rate hysteresis (GRH) that has been observed in varied systems and applications, such as protein crystallization or during biomineralization. We have recently shown that the transient adsorption of impurities onto newly formed active sites for growth (or kinks) is sensitive to the direction and rate of supersaturation variation, thus providing a possible explanation for GRH [6]. In the present contribution, we expand on this concept by deriving the analytical expressions for transient crystal growth based on the energetics of growth hillock formation and kink occupation by impurities. Two types of GRH results are described according to the variation of kink density with supersaturation: for nearly constant density, decreasing or increasing supersaturation induce, respectively, growth promoting or inhibiting effects relative to equilibrium conditions. This is the type of GRH measured by us during the crystallization of egg-white lysozyme. For variable kink density, slight changes in the supersaturation level may induce abrupt variations in the crystal growth rate. Different literature examples of this so-called 'catastrophic' crystal growth are discussed in terms of their fundamental consequences.

  1. Ultraslow growth rates of giant gypsum crystals

    PubMed Central

    Van Driessche, A. E. S.; García-Ruíz, J. M.; Tsukamoto, K.; Patiño-Lopez, L. D.; Satoh, H.

    2011-01-01

    Mineralogical processes taking place close to equilibrium, or with very slow kinetics, are difficult to quantify precisely. The determination of ultraslow dissolution/precipitation rates would reveal characteristic timing associated with these processes that are important at geological scale. We have designed an advanced high-resolution white-beam phase-shift interferometry microscope to measure growth rates of crystals at very low supersaturation values. To test this technique, we have selected the giant gypsum crystals of Naica ore mines in Chihuahua, Mexico, a challenging subject in mineral formation. They are thought to form by a self-feeding mechanism driven by solution-mediated anhydrite-gypsum phase transition, and therefore they must be the result of an extremely slow crystallization process close to equilibrium. To calculate the formation time of these crystals we have measured the growth rates of the {010} face of gypsum growing from current Naica waters at different temperatures. The slowest measurable growth rate was found at 55 °C, 1.4 ± 0.2 × 10-5 nm/s, the slowest directly measured normal growth rate for any crystal growth process. At higher temperatures, growth rates increase exponentially because of decreasing gypsum solubility and higher kinetic coefficient. At 50 °C neither growth nor dissolution was observed indicating that growth of giant crystals of gypsum occurred at Naica between 58 °C (gypsum/anhydrite transition temperature) and the current temperature of Naica waters, confirming formation temperatures determined from fluid inclusion studies. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of applying advanced optical techniques in laboratory experiments to gain a better understanding of crystal growth processes occurring at a geological timescale. PMID:21911400

  2. Revisiting the Estimation of Dinosaur Growth Rates

    PubMed Central

    Myhrvold, Nathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Previous growth-rate studies covering 14 dinosaur taxa, as represented by 31 data sets, are critically examined and reanalyzed by using improved statistical techniques. The examination reveals that some previously reported results cannot be replicated by using the methods originally reported; results from new methods are in many cases different, in both the quantitative rates and the qualitative nature of the growth, from results in the prior literature. Asymptotic growth curves, which have been hypothesized to be ubiquitous, are shown to provide best fits for only four of the 14 taxa. Possible reasons for non-asymptotic growth patterns are discussed; they include systematic errors in the age-estimation process and, more likely, a bias toward younger ages among the specimens analyzed. Analysis of the data sets finds that only three taxa include specimens that could be considered skeletally mature (i.e., having attained 90% of maximum body size predicted by asymptotic curve fits), and eleven taxa are quite immature, with the largest specimen having attained less than 62% of predicted asymptotic size. The three taxa that include skeletally mature specimens are included in the four taxa that are best fit by asymptotic curves. The totality of results presented here suggests that previous estimates of both maximum dinosaur growth rates and maximum dinosaur sizes have little statistical support. Suggestions for future research are presented. PMID:24358133

  3. Growth rates of Chinese and American alligators.

    PubMed

    Herbert, J D; Coulson, T D; Coulson, R A

    2002-04-01

    Growth rates in two closely related species, Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator) and Alligator sinensis (Chinese alligator), were compared under identical conditions for at least 1 year after hatching. When hatched, Chinese alligators were approximately 2/3 the length and approximately 1/2 the weight of American alligator hatchlings. At the end of 1 year of growth in captivity in heated chambers, the Chinese alligators were approximately 1/2 as long and weighed approximately 1/10 as much as American alligator yearlings. When the animals were maintained at 31 degrees C, Chinese alligator food consumption and length gain rates dropped to near zero during autumn and winter and body weights decreased slightly, apparently in response to the change in day length. At constant temperature (31 degrees C), food consumption by American alligators remained high throughout the year. Length gain rates in American alligators decreased slowly as size increased, but were not affected by photoperiod. Daily weight gains in American alligators increased steadily throughout the year. In autumn, provision of artificial light for 18 h a day initially stimulated both length and weight gain in Chinese alligators, but did not affect growth in American alligators. Continuation of the artificial light regimen seemed to cause deleterious effects in the Chinese alligators after several months, however, so that animals exposed to the normal light cycle caught up to and then surpassed the extra-light group in size. Even after removal of the artificial light, it was several months before these extra-light animals reverted to a normal growth pattern. These findings may be of interest to those institutions engaged in captive growth programs intended to provide animals for reintroduction to the wild or to protected habitat. PMID:11897202

  4. Controlling Growth Rates of Protein Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, Frederick T.; Herren, Blair J.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus enables control of humidity in chamber to control rates of growth of crystalline samples of protein. Size of drop of solution from which protein is grown made larger or smaller by condensation or evaporation of water. Situated between desiccant and water source, drop of protein solution shrinks or swells, according to which valve operator opens. Growing protein crystal viewed through polarizing film. Readily adapted to automation.

  5. Speeding up Growth: Selection for Mass-Independent Maximal Metabolic Rate Alters Growth Rates.

    PubMed

    Downs, Cynthia J; Brown, Jessi L; Wone, Bernard W M; Donovan, Edward R; Hayes, Jack P

    2016-03-01

    Investigations into relationships between life-history traits, such as growth rate and energy metabolism, typically focus on basal metabolic rate (BMR). In contrast, investigators rarely examine maximal metabolic rate (MMR) as a relevant metric of energy metabolism, even though it indicates the maximal capacity to metabolize energy aerobically, and hence it might also be important in trade-offs. We studied the relationship between energy metabolism and growth in mice (Mus musculus domesticus Linnaeus) selected for high mass-independent metabolic rates. Selection for high mass-independent MMR increased maximal growth rate, increased body mass at 20 weeks of age, and generally altered growth patterns in both male and female mice. In contrast, there was little evidence that the correlated response in mass-adjusted BMR altered growth patterns. The relationship between mass-adjusted MMR and growth rate indicates that MMR is an important mediator of life histories. Studies investigating associations between energy metabolism and life histories should consider MMR because it is potentially as important in understanding life history as BMR. PMID:26913943

  6. In situ investigation of growth rates and growth rate dispersion of α-lactose monohydrate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, T. D.; Ogden, M. I.; Parkinson, G. M.

    2009-02-01

    The growth rates and growth rate dispersion (GRD) of four different faces of α-lactose monohydrate crystal were measured at 30, 40 and 50 °C in the relative supersaturation range 0.55-2.33 in aqueous solutions. The overall growth rate of the crystal is around 50-60% of the (0 1 0) face of the crystal. The power law was applied to the growth rates of the four faces and the activation energies were calculated to be between 9.5 and 13.7 kcal/mol. This indicates a diffusion-controlled growth, but the exponents calculated are between 2.5 and 3.1 which are higher than unity. Introduction of critical supersaturation decreased the exponents to between 1.8 and 2.4. The variance of GRD for the (0 1 0) face is twice the variance of the GRD of the (1 1 0) and (1 0 0) faces and 10 times higher than the (1 1¯ 1¯) face at the same supersaturations and temperatures. The GRD of the four faces were similar when expressed as a function of growth rate. However, the (0 1 1) face displayed lower GRD than the other faces at the same temperatures and supersaturations.

  7. Growth rate degeneracies in kinematic dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, B.; Proctor, M. R. E.

    2013-09-01

    We consider the classical problem of kinematic dynamo action in simple steady flows. Due to the adjointness of the induction operator, we show that the growth rate of the dynamo will be exactly the same for two types of magnetic boundary conditions: the magnetic field can be normal (infinite magnetic permeability, also called pseudovacuum) or tangent (perfect electrical conductor) to the boundaries of the domain. These boundary conditions correspond to well-defined physical limits often used in numerical models and relevant to laboratory experiments. The only constraint is for the velocity field u to be reversible, meaning there exists a transformation changing u into -u. We illustrate this surprising property using S2T2 type of flows in spherical geometry inspired by [Dudley and James, Proc. R. Soc. London A1364-502110.1098/rspa.1989.0112 425, 407 (1989)]. Using both types of boundary conditions, it is shown that the growth rates of the dynamos are identical, although the corresponding magnetic eigenmodes are drastically different.

  8. GYSELA, a full-f global gyrokinetic Semi-Lagrangian code for ITG turbulence simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Besse, N.; Bertrand, P.

    2006-11-30

    This work addresses non-linear global gyrokinetic simulations of ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence with the GYSELA code. The particularity of GYSELA code is to use a fixed grid with a Semi-Lagrangian (SL) scheme and this for the entire distribution function. The 4D non-linear drift-kinetic version of the code already showns the interest of such a SL method which exhibits good properties of energy conservation in non-linear regime as well as an accurate description of fine spatial scales. The code has been upgrated to run 5D simulations of toroidal ITG turbulence. Linear benchmarks and non-linear first results prove that semi-lagrangian codes can be a credible alternative for gyrokinetic simulations.

  9. Effects of a sheared ion velocity on the linear stability of ITG modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lontano, M.; Varischetti, M. C.; Lazzaro, E.

    2006-11-01

    The linear dispersion of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes, in the presence of a non uniform background ion velocity U∥ = U∥(x) ez, in the direction of the sheared equilibrium magnetic field B0 = B0(x) ez, has been studied in the frame of the two-fluid guiding center approximation, in slab geometry. Generally speaking, the presence of an ion flow destabilizes the oscillations. The role of the excited K-H instability is discussed.

  10. The Determination of Relative Elemental Growth Rate Profiles from Segmental Growth Rates (A Methodological Evaluation).

    PubMed Central

    Peters, W. S.; Bernstein, N.

    1997-01-01

    Relative elemental growth rate (REGR) profiles describe spatial patterns of growth intensity; they are indispensable for causal growth analyses. Published methods of REGR profile determination from marking experiments fall in two classes: the profile is either described by a series of segmental growth rates, or calculated as the slope of a function describing the displacement velocities of points along the organ. The latter technique is usually considered superior for theoretical reasons, but to our knowledge, no comparative methodological study of the two approaches is currently available. We formulated a model REGR profile that resembles those reported from primary roots. We established the displacement velocity profile and derived growth trajectories, which enabled us to perform hypothetical marking experiments on the model with varying spacing of marks and durations of measurement. REGR profiles were determined from these data by alternative methods, and results were compared to the original profile. We find that with our model plotting of segmental relative growth rates versus segment position provides exact REGR profile estimations, if the initial segment length is less than 10% of the length of the whole growing zone, and if less than 20% of the growing zone is displaced past its boundary during the measurement. Based on our analysis, we discuss systematic errors that occur in marking experiments. PMID:12223680

  11. Derivatives of the Stochastic Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Steinsaltz, David; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Horvitz, Carol

    2011-01-01

    We consider stochastic matrix models for population driven by random environments which form a Markov chain. The top Lyapunov exponent a, which describes the long-term growth rate, depends smoothly on the demographic parameters (represented as matrix entries) and on the parameters that define the stochastic matrix of the driving Markov chain. The derivatives of a — the “stochastic elasticities” — with respect to changes in the demographic parameters were derived by Tuljapurkar (1990). These results are here extended to a formula for the derivatives with respect to changes in the Markov chain driving the environments. We supplement these formulas with rigorous bounds on computational estimation errors, and with rigorous derivations of both the new and the old formulas. PMID:21463645

  12. Growth rate dispersion of small ammonium alum crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodossiev, N.

    1987-01-01

    The growth rates of small (below 60 μm) and large (about 1 mm) crystals of ammonium alum was measured during batch crystallization from aqueous solutions. The growth rate distribution of small crystals is close to normal. With increasing supersaturation the growth rate of the large crystals increases more rapidly than that of small crystals.

  13. Fingernail Growth and Time-Distance Rates in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Stephen M.

    1983-01-01

    Fingernail growth rates are easily measured over a period of a few weeks and provide opportunities for students to improve graphing skills. Fingernail growth rates are approximately the same as sea-floor spreading rates and can be used for comparing the rates of other geological processes such as tectonic uplift. (Author/JN)

  14. Surprising decline in Iran's growth rates.

    PubMed

    Roudi, F

    1997-11-01

    According to Iran's 1996 census, the country's population was 60 million, about 6-7 million people fewer than estimates used by the UN and other international organizations. These findings surprised Iranian demographers and have been examined with skepticism outside of the country. However, if Iran's 1986 and 1996 censuses are comparable and children were not undercounted, these results indicate a remarkable decline in fertility. The proportion of Iran's population under age 5 years fell from 18% in 1986 to 10% in 1996. An Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, study published in 1996 estimated that Iran's total fertility rate (TFR) fell from an average of 6.2 children/woman in 1986 to 3.5 in 1993. However, based upon analyses of sample surveys, the Iranian government's health ministry reported that the TFR dropped from 5.0 in 1991 to 3.3 in 1995. Irrespective of questions over the magnitude of Iran's fertility decline, it is clear that the Iranian government is committed to limiting population growth. The UN Population Fund considers Iran's family planning program to be one of the world's best-functioning, with the Ministry of Health Care and Medical Education providing free contraceptives. A bill was passed in 1993 which penalizes couples who have more than 3 children and posters around the country encourage the one- or two-child family. Iran's family planning program is integrated into the national primary health care system and provides a broad range of reproductive health services to women. The program is also the only one in the region which promotes both male and female sterilization. PMID:12321257

  15. Calcite crystal growth rate inhibition by polycarboxylic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.; Hoch, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    Calcite crystal growth rates measured in the presence of several polycarboxyclic acids show that tetrahydrofurantetracarboxylic acid (THFTCA) and cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid (CPTCA) are effective growth rate inhibitors at low solution concentrations (0.01 to 1 mg/L). In contrast, linear polycarbocylic acids (citric acid and tricarballylic acid) had no inhibiting effect on calcite growth rates at concentrations up to 10 mg/L. Calcite crystal growth rate inhibition by cyclic polycarboxyclic acids appears to involve blockage of crystal growth sites on the mineral surface by several carboxylate groups. Growth morphology varied for growth in the absence and in the presence of both THFTCA and CPTCA. More effective growth rate reduction by CPTCA relative to THFTCA suggests that inhibitor carboxylate stereochemical orientation controls calcite surface interaction with carboxylate inhibitors. ?? 20O1 Academic Press.

  16. Estimation of alga growth stage and lipid content growth rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Embaye, Tsegereda N. (Inventor); Trent, Jonathan D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Method and system for estimating a growth stage of an alga in an ambient fluid. Measured light beam absorption or reflection values through or from the alga and through an ambient fluid, in each of two or more wavelength sub-ranges, are compared with reference light beam absorption values for corresponding wavelength sub-ranges for in each alga growth stage to determine (1) which alga growth stage, if any, is more likely and (2) whether estimated lipid content of the alga is increasing or has peaked. Alga growth is preferably terminated when lipid content has approximately reached a maximum value.

  17. Growth rate enhancement of potash alum crystals by microcrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Masakuni; Kamada, Toyohiro; Takiyama, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    During the steady growth of a single crystal of potash alum fixed in a clear supersaturated solution, secondary nucleation was intentionally induced by adding ground potash alum crystals and the resulting changes in the growth rate and the solution concentration were measured. The growth rates after the nucleation were found to abruptly increase by a factor of up to 3, and to gradually return to the steady growth rates or to some constant values. At the same time, the solution concentration started to decrease at the moment of the nucleation. As a measure of the growth rate increase the enhancement coefficient, ɛ 0, was introduced which was defined as the ratio of the growth rates in the presence to the absence of microcrystals at the same supersaturation. The values of ɛ 0 were found to be almost independent of the growth rate in the absence of microcrystals, i.e. the solution supersaturation.

  18. ExB-Shear Effects on Magnetic-Flutter Diffusion of Electron-Drift Trajectories in ITG Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimits, A. M.; Nevins, W. M.; Wang, E.; Candy, J.; Holland, C.

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic-field stochasticity arises due to microtearing perturbations, which can be driven linearly or nonlinearly, even at very modest values of the plasma beta. The resulting magnetic-flutter contribution may or may not be a significant component of the overall electron (particle and thermal) transport. Initial investigations of the effect of ExB shear on electron-drift magnetic-flutter diffusion coefficient Dedr (r ,v||) using perturbed magnetic fields from GYRO simulations of ITG turbulence show two interesting results: 1) an absence of any peak in Dedr (r ,v||) at values of the ``resonant'' parallel velocity, v||, at which the ExB shear negates the magnetic shear, and 2) a significant increase in Dedr (r ,v||) for electrons with v|| surprisingly far from the resonant velocity. We explore these effects both through a more detailed quantification of the displacement and decorrelation rates of the orbits, as a function of parallel distance, and through a simplified model of electron drift motion in a poloidally localized turbulent magnetic field. Furthermore, we argue that a correct model will have ExB shearing of the perturbed magnetic field structures themselves, and we extend our investigations to include this effect. Prepared for US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and by GA under Contract DE-FG03-95ER54309.

  19. Growth rate determinations from radiocarbon in bamboo corals (genus Keratoisis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, Jesse R.; Robinson, Laura F.; Hönisch, Bärbel

    2015-11-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurements are an important tool for determining growth rates of bamboo corals, a cosmopolitan group of calcitic deep-sea corals. Published growth rate estimates for bamboo corals are highly variable, with potential environmental or ecological drivers of this variability poorly constrained. Here we systematically investigate the application of 14C for growth rate determinations in bamboo corals using 55 14C dates on the calcite and organic fractions of six bamboo corals (identified as Keratoisis sp.) from the western North Atlantic Ocean. Calcite 14C measurements on the distal surface of these corals and five previously published bamboo corals exhibit a strong one-to-one relationship with the 14C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DI14C) in ambient seawater (r2=0.98), confirming the use of Keratoisis sp. calcite 14C as a proxy for seawater 14C activity. Radial growth rates determined from 14C age-depth regressions, 14C plateau tuning and bomb 14C reference chronologies range from 12 to 78 μm y-1, in general agreement with previously published radiometric growth rates. We document potential biases to 14C growth rate determinations resulting from water mass variability, bomb radiocarbon, secondary infilling (ontogeny), and growth rate nonlinearity. Radial growth rates for Keratoisis sp. specimens do not correlate with ambient temperature, suggesting that additional biological and/or environmental factors may influence bamboo coral growth rates.

  20. Dinosaurian growth rates and bird origins.

    PubMed

    Padian, K; de Ricqlès, A J; Horner, J R

    2001-07-26

    Dinosaurs, like other tetrapods, grew more quickly just after hatching than later in life. However, they did not grow like most other non-avian reptiles, which grow slowly and gradually through life. Rather, microscopic analyses of the long-bone tissues show that dinosaurs grew to their adult size relatively quickly, much as large birds and mammals do today. The first birds reduced their adult body size by shortening the phase of rapid growth common to their larger theropod dinosaur relatives. These changes in timing were primarily related not to physiological differences but to differences in growth strategy. PMID:11473307

  1. Effect of impurities on crystal growth rate of ammonium pentaborate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Ö.; Özdemir, M.; Genli, N.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of sodium chloride, borax and boric acid of different concentrations on the growth rate of ammonium pentaborate octahydrate crystals (APBO) was measured and was found to depend on supersaturation in a fluidized bed crystallizer. The presence of impurities in APBO solution increases the growth rate compared with growth from pure solution. It was found that the presence of sodium chloride, borax and boric acid decreases the reaction rate constant kr, while it increases the mass-transfer coefficient, K, of APBO crystals. In pure aqueous solution, the crystal growth rate of APBO is mainly controlled by diffusion. However, both diffusion and integration steps affect the growth rate of APBO crystals in the presence of sodium chloride, borax and boric acid. The mass-transfer coefficient, K, reaction rate constant, kr and reaction order, r were calculated from general mass-transfer equation by using genetic algorithm method making no assumption.

  2. Allometries of Maximum Growth Rate versus Body Mass at Maximum Growth Indicate That Non-Avian Dinosaurs Had Growth Rates Typical of Fast Growing Ectothermic Sauropsids

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Jan; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2014-01-01

    We tested if growth rates of recent taxa are unequivocally separated between endotherms and ectotherms, and compared these to dinosaurian growth rates. We therefore performed linear regression analyses on the log-transformed maximum growth rate against log-transformed body mass at maximum growth for extant altricial birds, precocial birds, eutherians, marsupials, reptiles, fishes and dinosaurs. Regression models of precocial birds (and fishes) strongly differed from Case’s study (1978), which is often used to compare dinosaurian growth rates to those of extant vertebrates. For all taxonomic groups, the slope of 0.75 expected from the Metabolic Theory of Ecology was statistically supported. To compare growth rates between taxonomic groups we therefore used regressions with this fixed slope and group-specific intercepts. On average, maximum growth rates of ectotherms were about 10 (reptiles) to 20 (fishes) times (in comparison to mammals) or even 45 (reptiles) to 100 (fishes) times (in comparison to birds) lower than in endotherms. While on average all taxa were clearly separated from each other, individual growth rates overlapped between several taxa and even between endotherms and ectotherms. Dinosaurs had growth rates intermediate between similar sized/scaled-up reptiles and mammals, but a much lower rate than scaled-up birds. All dinosaurian growth rates were within the range of extant reptiles and mammals, and were lower than those of birds. Under the assumption that growth rate and metabolic rate are indeed linked, our results suggest two alternative interpretations. Compared to other sauropsids, the growth rates of studied dinosaurs clearly indicate that they had an ectothermic rather than an endothermic metabolic rate. Compared to other vertebrate growth rates, the overall high variability in growth rates of extant groups and the high overlap between individual growth rates of endothermic and ectothermic extant species make it impossible to rule out either

  3. Population growth rate and its determinants: an overview.

    PubMed Central

    Sibly, Richard M; Hone, Jim

    2002-01-01

    We argue that population growth rate is the key unifying variable linking the various facets of population ecology. The importance of population growth rate lies partly in its central role in forecasting future population trends; indeed if the form of density dependence were constant and known, then the future population dynamics could to some degree be predicted. We argue that population growth rate is also central to our understanding of environmental stress: environmental stressors should be defined as factors which when first applied to a population reduce population growth rate. The joint action of such stressors determines an organism's ecological niche, which should be defined as the set of environmental conditions where population growth rate is greater than zero (where population growth rate = r = log(e)(N(t+1)/N(t))). While environmental stressors have negative effects on population growth rate, the same is true of population density, the case of negative linear effects corresponding to the well-known logistic equation. Following Sinclair, we recognize population regulation as occurring when population growth rate is negatively density dependent. Surprisingly, given its fundamental importance in population ecology, only 25 studies were discovered in the literature in which population growth rate has been plotted against population density. In 12 of these the effects of density were linear; in all but two of the remainder the relationship was concave viewed from above. Alternative approaches to establishing the determinants of population growth rate are reviewed, paying special attention to the demographic and mechanistic approaches. The effects of population density on population growth rate may act through their effects on food availability and associated effects on somatic growth, fecundity and survival, according to a 'numerical response', the evidence for which is briefly reviewed. Alternatively, there may be effects on population growth rate of

  4. Triad interactions in multi-scale ITG/TEM/ETG turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeyama, Shinya; Watanabe, Tomohiko; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Nakata, Motoki; Ishizawa, Akihiro; Nunami, Masanori

    2015-11-01

    Most of turbulent transport studies assume scale separation between electron- and ion-scale turbulence. However, latest massively parallel simulations based on gyrokinetics reveal that multi-scale interactions between electron- and ion-scale turbulence can influence turbulent transport [S. Maeyama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 255002 (2015)]. The physical mechanism is investigated by applying triad transfer analysis. It is revealed that short-wave-length ITG turbulent eddies stabilize electron-scale streamers. Additionally, it is found that electron-scale turbulence has a damping effect on zonal flows. As a result, turbulent transport spectrum obtained from the multi-scale turbulence simulation differs from the sum of ones obtained from single-scale simulations. We will discuss gyrokinetic triad transfer analysis and the applicability of its fluid approximation, and explain the physical mechanism of multi-scale interactions by means of triad transfer analysis.

  5. Can we estimate bacterial growth rates from ribosomal RNA content?

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    Several studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between the quantity of RNA in bacterial cells and their growth rate under laboratory conditions. It may be possible to use this relationship to provide information on the activity of natural bacterial communities, and in particular on growth rate. However, if this approach is to provide reliably interpretable information, the relationship between RNA content and growth rate must be well-understood. In particular, a requisite of such applications is that the relationship must be universal among bacteria, or alternately that the relationship can be determined and measured for specific bacterial taxa. The RNA-growth rate relationship has not been used to evaluate bacterial growth in field studies, although RNA content has been measured in single cells and in bulk extracts of field samples taken from coastal environments. These measurements have been treated as probable indicators of bacterial activity, but have not yet been interpreted as estimators of growth rate. The primary obstacle to such interpretations is a lack of information on biological and environmental factors that affect the RNA-growth rate relationship. In this paper, the available data on the RNA-growth rate relationship in bacteria will be reviewed, including hypotheses regarding the regulation of RNA synthesis and degradation as a function of growth rate and environmental factors; i.e. the basic mechanisms for maintaining RNA content in proportion to growth rate. An assessment of the published laboratory and field data, the current status of this research area, and some of the remaining questions will be presented.

  6. ULTRASOUND INCREASES THE RATE OF BACTERIAL CELL GROWTH

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, William G.; Ross, S. Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasound was employed to increase the growth rate of bacterial cells attached to surfaces. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli cells adhered to and grew on a polyethylene surface in the presence of ultrasound. It was found that low frequency ultrasound (70 kHz) of low acoustic intensity (<2 W/cm2) increased the growth rate of the cells compared to growth without ultrasound. However, at high intensity levels, cells were partially removed from the surface. Ultrasound also enhanced planktonic growth of S. epidermidis and other planktonic bacteria. It is hypothesized that ultrasound increases the rate of transport of oxygen and nutrients to the cells and increases the rate of transport of waste products away from the cells, thus enhancing their growth. PMID:12790676

  7. Modeling the Growth Rates of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystal Faces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Meirong; Nadarajah, Arunan; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    The measured macroscopic growth rates of the (110) and (101) faces of tetragonal lysozyme show an unexpectedly complex dependence on the supersaturation. The growth rates decay asymptotically to zero when the supersaturation is lowered to zero and increase rapidly when the supersaturation is increased. When supersaturations are increased still further the growth rates attain a maximum before starting to decrease. However, growth of these crystals is known to proceed by the classical dislocation and 2D nucleation growth mechanisms. This anomaly can be explained if growth is assumed to occur not by monomer units but by lysozyme aggregates. Analysis of the molecular packing of these crystals revealed that they were constructed of strongly bonded 4(sub 3) helices, while weaker bonds were responsible for binding the helices to each other. It follows that during crystal growth the stronger bonds are formed before the weaker ones. Thus, the growth of these crystals could be viewed as a two step process: aggregate growth units corresponding to the 4(sub 3) helix are first formed in the bulk solution by stronger intermolecular bonds and then attached to the crystal face by weaker bonds on dislocation hillocks or 2D islands. This will lead to a distribution of aggregates in the solution with monomers and lower order aggregates being predominant at low supersaturations and higher order aggregates being predominant at high supersaturations. If the crystal grows mostly by higher order aggregates, such as tetramers and octamers, it would explain the anomalous dependence of the growth rates on the supersaturation. Besides the analysis of molecular packing, a comprehensive analysis of the measured (110) and (101) growth rates was also undertaken in this study. The distribution of aggregates in lysozyme nutrient solutions at various solution conditions were determined from reversible aggregation reactions at equilibrium. The supersaturation was defined for each aggregate species

  8. Seasonal Growth Rate of the Sponge Haliclona oculata (Demospongiae: Haplosclerida)

    PubMed Central

    Wijffels, René H.

    2008-01-01

    The interest in sponges has increased rapidly since the discovery of potential new pharmaceutical compounds produced by many sponges. A good method to produce these compounds by using aquaculture of sponges is not yet available, because there is insufficient knowledge about the nutritional needs of sponges. To gain more insight in the nutritional needs for growth, we studied the growth rate of Haliclona oculata in its natural environment and monitored environmental parameters in parallel. A stereo photogrammetry approach was used for measuring growth rates. Stereo pictures were taken and used to measure volumetric changes monthly during 1 year. Volumetric growth rate of Haliclona oculata showed a seasonal trend with the highest average specific growth rate measured in May: 0.012 ± 0.004 day−1. In our study a strong positive correlation (p < 0.01) was found for growth rate with temperature, algal biomass (measured as chlorophyll a), and carbon and nitrogen content in suspended particulate matter. A negative correlation (p < 0.05) was found for growth rate with salinity, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate. No correlation was found with dissolved organic carbon, suggesting that Haliclona oculata is more dependent on particulate organic carbon. PMID:18293037

  9. Analysis of Monomer Aggregation and Crystal Growth Rates of Lysozyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadarajah, Arunan

    1996-01-01

    This project was originally conceived to analyze the extensive data of tetragonal lysozyme crystal growth rates collected at NASA/MSFC by Dr. Marc L. Pusey's research group. At that time the lack of analysis of the growth rates was hindering progress in understanding the growth mechanism of tetragonal lysozyme and other protein crystals. After the project was initiated our initial analysis revealed unexpected complexities in the growth rate behavior. This resulted in an expansion in the scope of the project to include a comprehensive investigation of the growth mechanisms of tetragonal lysozyme crystals. A discussion of this research is included as well a list of presentations and publications resulting from the research. This project contributed significantly toward the education of several students and fostered extensive collaborations between investigators.

  10. A Simple Device to Measure Root Growth Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauser, Wilfried E.; Horton, Roger F.

    1975-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple auxanometer which students can use to accurately measure root growth rates of intact seedlings. Typical time course data are presented for the effect of ethylene and indole acetic acid on pea root growth. (Author/BR)

  11. Debris growth sensitivity to launch and cascade rates

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1996-10-24

    Two-component models provide a good description of debris growth from the outset of launch to the present, predictions of future trends, and assessments of their sensitivity. Launch rate reductions produce less than proportional reductions in debris, for reasons that are discussed. The shift of debris to higher altitudes is assessed quantitatively, although the details of the growth are discussed elsewhere.

  12. Growth of atmospheric clusters involving cluster-cluster collisions: comparison of different growth rate methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontkanen, Jenni; Olenius, Tinja; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Kulmala, Markku; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.

    2016-05-01

    We simulated the time evolution of atmospheric cluster concentrations in a one-component system where not only do clusters grow by condensation of monomers, but cluster-cluster collisions also significantly contribute to the growth of the clusters. Our aim was to investigate the consistency of the growth rates of sub-3 nm clusters determined with different methods and the validity of the common approach to use them to estimate particle formation rates. We compared the growth rate corresponding to particle fluxes (FGR), the growth rate derived from the appearance times of clusters (AGR), and the growth rate calculated based on irreversible vapor condensation (CGR). We found that the relation between the different growth rates depends strongly on the external conditions and the properties of the model substance. The difference between the different growth rates was typically highest at the smallest, sub-2 nm sizes. FGR was generally lower than AGR and CGR; at the smallest sizes the difference was often very large, while at sizes larger than 2 nm the growth rates were closer to each other. AGR and CGR were in most cases close to each other at all sizes. The difference between the growth rates was generally lower in conditions where cluster concentrations were high, and evaporation and other losses were thus less significant. Furthermore, our results show that the conventional method used to determine particle formation rates from growth rates may give estimates far from the true values. Thus, care must be taken not only in how the growth rate is determined but also in how it is applied.

  13. The influence of impurities on the growth rate of calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, H. J.

    1984-05-01

    The effects of 34 different additives on the growth rate of calcite were investigated. An initial growth rate of about one crystal monolayer (3 × 10 -8 cm) per minute was adjusted at a constant supersaturation which was maintained by a control circuit. Then the impurity was added step by step and the reduction of the growth rate was measured. The impurity concentration necessary to reduce the initial growth rate by a certain percentage increased in the order Fe 2+, ATP, P 3O 5-10, P 2O 4-7, (PO 3) 6-6, Zn 2+, ADP, Ce 3+, Pb 2+, carbamyl phosphate, Fe 3+, PO 3-4, Co 2+, Mn 2+, Be 2+, β-glycerophosphate, Ni 2+, Cd 2+, "Tris", phenylphosphate, chondroitine sulphate, Ba 2+, citrate, AMP, Sr 2+, tricarballylate, taurine, SO 2-4, Mg 2+ by 4 orders of magnitude. The most effective additives halved the initial growth rate in concentrations of 2 × 10 -8 mol/1. For Fe 2+ the halving concentration was nearly proportional to the initial rate. The mechanism of inhibition by adsorption of the impurities at growth sites (kinks) is discussed.

  14. Seasonal variations in ectotherm growth rates: Quantifying growth as an intermittent non steady state compensatory process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarini, Jean-Marc; Chauvaud, Laurent; Cloern, James E.; Clavier, Jacques; Coston-Guarini, Jennifer; Patry, Yann

    2011-04-01

    Generally, growth rates of living organisms are considered to be at steady state, varying only under environmental forcing factors. For example, these rates may be described as a function of light for plants or organic food resources for animals and these could be regulated (or not) by temperature or other conditions. But, what are the consequences for an individual's growth (and also for the population growth) if growth rate variations are themselves dynamic and not steady state? For organisms presenting phases of dormancy or long periods of stress, this is a crucial question. A dynamic perspective for quantifying short-term growth was explored using the daily growth record of the scallop Pecten maximus (L.). This species is a good biological model for ectotherm growth because the shell records growth striae daily. Independently, a generic mathematical function representing the dynamics of mean daily growth rate (MDGR) was implemented to simulate a diverse set of growth patterns. Once the function was calibrated with the striae patterns, the growth rate dynamics appeared as a forced damped oscillation during the growth period having a basic periodicity during two transitory phases (mean duration 43 days) and appearing at both growth start and growth end. This phase is most likely due to the internal dynamics of energy transfer within the organism rather than to external forcing factors. After growth restart, the transitory regime represents successive phases of over-growth and regulation. This pattern corresponds to a typical representation of compensatory growth, which from an evolutionary perspective can be interpreted as an adaptive strategy to coping with a fluctuating environment.

  15. Seasonal variations in ectotherm growth rates: Quantifying growth as an intermittent non steady state compensatory process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guarini, J.-M.; Chauvaud, Laurent; Cloern, J.E.; Clavier, J.; Coston-Guarini, J.; Patry, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Generally, growth rates of living organisms are considered to be at steady state, varying only under environmental forcing factors. For example, these rates may be described as a function of light for plants or organic food resources for animals and these could be regulated (or not) by temperature or other conditions. But, what are the consequences for an individual's growth (and also for the population growth) if growth rate variations are themselves dynamic and not steady state? For organisms presenting phases of dormancy or long periods of stress, this is a crucial question. A dynamic perspective for quantifying short-term growth was explored using the daily growth record of the scallop Pecten maximus (L.). This species is a good biological model for ectotherm growth because the shell records growth striae daily. Independently, a generic mathematical function representing the dynamics of mean daily growth rate (MDGR) was implemented to simulate a diverse set of growth patterns. Once the function was calibrated with the striae patterns, the growth rate dynamics appeared as a forced damped oscillation during the growth period having a basic periodicity during two transitory phases (mean duration 43. days) and appearing at both growth start and growth end. This phase is most likely due to the internal dynamics of energy transfer within the organism rather than to external forcing factors. After growth restart, the transitory regime represents successive phases of over-growth and regulation. This pattern corresponds to a typical representation of compensatory growth, which from an evolutionary perspective can be interpreted as an adaptive strategy to coping with a fluctuating environment. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Response of Escherichia coli growth rate to osmotic shock

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Enrique; Theriot, Julie A.; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2014-01-01

    It has long been proposed that turgor pressure plays an essential role during bacterial growth by driving mechanical expansion of the cell wall. This hypothesis is based on analogy to plant cells, for which this mechanism has been established, and on experiments in which the growth rate of bacterial cultures was observed to decrease as the osmolarity of the growth medium was increased. To distinguish the effect of turgor pressure from pressure-independent effects that osmolarity might have on cell growth, we monitored the elongation of single Escherichia coli cells while rapidly changing the osmolarity of their media. By plasmolyzing cells, we found that cell-wall elastic strain did not scale with growth rate, suggesting that pressure does not drive cell-wall expansion. Furthermore, in response to hyper- and hypoosmotic shock, E. coli cells resumed their preshock growth rate and relaxed to their steady-state rate after several minutes, demonstrating that osmolarity modulates growth rate slowly, independently of pressure. Oscillatory hyperosmotic shock revealed that although plasmolysis slowed cell elongation, the cells nevertheless “stored” growth such that once turgor was reestablished the cells elongated to the length that they would have attained had they never been plasmolyzed. Finally, MreB dynamics were unaffected by osmotic shock. These results reveal the simple nature of E. coli cell-wall expansion: that the rate of expansion is determined by the rate of peptidoglycan insertion and insertion is not directly dependent on turgor pressure, but that pressure does play a basic role whereby it enables full extension of recently inserted peptidoglycan. PMID:24821776

  17. Response of Escherichia coli growth rate to osmotic shock.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Enrique; Theriot, Julie A; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2014-05-27

    It has long been proposed that turgor pressure plays an essential role during bacterial growth by driving mechanical expansion of the cell wall. This hypothesis is based on analogy to plant cells, for which this mechanism has been established, and on experiments in which the growth rate of bacterial cultures was observed to decrease as the osmolarity of the growth medium was increased. To distinguish the effect of turgor pressure from pressure-independent effects that osmolarity might have on cell growth, we monitored the elongation of single Escherichia coli cells while rapidly changing the osmolarity of their media. By plasmolyzing cells, we found that cell-wall elastic strain did not scale with growth rate, suggesting that pressure does not drive cell-wall expansion. Furthermore, in response to hyper- and hypoosmotic shock, E. coli cells resumed their preshock growth rate and relaxed to their steady-state rate after several minutes, demonstrating that osmolarity modulates growth rate slowly, independently of pressure. Oscillatory hyperosmotic shock revealed that although plasmolysis slowed cell elongation, the cells nevertheless "stored" growth such that once turgor was reestablished the cells elongated to the length that they would have attained had they never been plasmolyzed. Finally, MreB dynamics were unaffected by osmotic shock. These results reveal the simple nature of E. coli cell-wall expansion: that the rate of expansion is determined by the rate of peptidoglycan insertion and insertion is not directly dependent on turgor pressure, but that pressure does play a basic role whereby it enables full extension of recently inserted peptidoglycan. PMID:24821776

  18. Growth Rates of Global Energy Systems and Future Outlooks

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeoek, Mikael; Li, Junchen; Johansson, Kersti; Snowden, Simon

    2012-03-15

    The world is interconnected and powered by a number of global energy systems using fossil, nuclear, or renewable energy. This study reviews historical time series of energy production and growth for various energy sources. It compiles a theoretical and empirical foundation for understanding the behaviour underlying global energy systems' growth. The most extreme growth rates are found in fossil fuels. The presence of scaling behaviour, i.e. proportionality between growth rate and size, is established. The findings are used to investigate the consistency of several long-range scenarios expecting rapid growth for future energy systems. The validity of such projections is questioned, based on past experience. Finally, it is found that even if new energy systems undergo a rapid 'oil boom'-development-i.e. they mimic the most extreme historical events-their contribution to global energy supply by 2050 will be marginal.

  19. Growth-rate influences on coral climate proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, A.; Hayashi, E.; Nakamura, T.; Iwase, A.; Ishimura, T.; Iguchi, A.; Sakai, K.; Okai, T.; Inoue, M.; Araoka, D.; Kawahata, H.

    2011-12-01

    Coral-based climate reconstruction has been increasingly reported from many tropical sites. Potential ambiguity of coral thermometers intrinsic in biomineralization process attracts much attention, including so-called 'vital effects', 'growth-rate-related kinetic effect', '[CO32-] effect' and so on. Here we study growth-rate influences on skeletal oxygen and carbon isotope ratios (δ18O and δ13C), as well as Sr/Ca ratio, based on a long-term culture experiment using Porites australiensis clone colonies. Variation in δ18O showed negligible influence against a large intercolony variation in growth rate based on the comparison of the seasonal minimum δ18O values during summer, while that was relatively sensitive to temporal growth-rate change due to health condition of each colony. Contrary, Sr/Ca ratio was robust against both the inter- and intra- colony variation in growth rate. Positive sift in δ13C for slower-growing corals was found, and it can be attributed to a kinetic behavior of calcification reaction. Seasonal fluctuation pattern in δ13C did not correspond to light intensity nor that in δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater. These lines warrant the signal recording ability of coral skeletal Sr/Ca ratio and δ18O from a long-lived colony of clonal growth as paleo-climate archives, and propose practical guideline for the proper interplication of coral records.

  20. Growth-rate-dependent dynamics of a bacterial genetic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osella, Matteo; Lagomarsino, Marco Cosentino

    2013-01-01

    Gene networks exhibiting oscillatory dynamics are widespread in biology. The minimal regulatory designs giving rise to oscillations have been implemented synthetically and studied by mathematical modeling. However, most of the available analyses generally neglect the coupling of regulatory circuits with the cellular “chassis” in which the circuits are embedded. For example, the intracellular macromolecular composition of fast-growing bacteria changes with growth rate. As a consequence, important parameters of gene expression, such as ribosome concentration or cell volume, are growth-rate dependent, ultimately coupling the dynamics of genetic circuits with cell physiology. This work addresses the effects of growth rate on the dynamics of a paradigmatic example of genetic oscillator, the repressilator. Making use of empirical growth-rate dependencies of parameters in bacteria, we show that the repressilator dynamics can switch between oscillations and convergence to a fixed point depending on the cellular state of growth, and thus on the nutrients it is fed. The physical support of the circuit (type of plasmid or gene positions on the chromosome) also plays an important role in determining the oscillation stability and the growth-rate dependence of period and amplitude. This analysis has potential application in the field of synthetic biology, and suggests that the coupling between endogenous genetic oscillators and cell physiology can have substantial consequences for their functionality.

  1. Investigation of growth rate dispersion in lactose crystallisation by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, T. D.; Ogden, M. I.; Parkinson, G. M.

    2014-09-01

    α-Lactose monohydrate crystals have been reported to exhibit growth rate dispersion (GRD). Variation in surface dislocations has been suggested as the cause of GRD, but this has not been further investigated to date. In this study, growth rate dispersion and the change in morphology were investigated in situ and via bottle roller experiments. The surfaces of the (0 1 0) faces of crystals were examined with Atomic Force Microscopy. Smaller, slow growing crystals tend to have smaller (0 1 0) faces with narrow bases and displayed a single double spiral in the centre of the crystal with 2 nm high steps. Additional double spirals in other crystals resulted in faster growth rates. Large, fast growing crystals were observed to have larger (0 1 0) faces with fast growth in both the a and b directions (giving a broader crystal base) with macro steps parallel to the (c direction). The number and location of spirals or existence of macro steps appears to influence the crystal morphology, growth rates and growth rate dispersion in lactose crystals.

  2. Insights for Analyzing Earnings Growth Rates: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannah, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    A study at one public university investigated the annualized rate of salary/wage increase of employees from the time of hiring until July 1992. It examined promotion patterns, equity adjustments, employee degree acquisition, and certification of clerical workers. The study underscored the wide variation in earnings growth rates due in large part…

  3. Increase in Growth Cone Size Correlates with Decrease in Neurite Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Several important discoveries in growth cone cell biology were made possible by the use of growth cones derived from cultured Aplysia bag cell neurons, including the characterization of the organization and dynamics of the cytoskeleton. The majority of these Aplysia studies focused on large growth cones induced by poly-L-lysine substrates at early stages in cell culture. Under these conditions, the growth cones are in a steady state with very little net advancement. Here, we offer a comprehensive cellular analysis of the motile behavior of Aplysia growth cones in culture beyond this pausing state. We found that average growth cone size decreased with cell culture time whereas average growth rate increased. This inverse correlation of growth rate and growth cone size was due to the occurrence of large growth cones with a peripheral domain larger than 100 μm2. The large pausing growth cones had central domains that were less consistently aligned with the direction of growth and could be converted into smaller, faster-growing growth cones by addition of a three-dimensional collagen gel. We conclude that the significant lateral expansion of lamellipodia and filopodia as observed during these culture conditions has a negative effect on neurite growth. PMID:27274874

  4. The effect of size and competition on tree growth rate in old-growth coniferous forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Das, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Tree growth and competition play central roles in forest dynamics. Yet models of competition often neglect important variation in species-specific responses. Furthermore, functions used to model changes in growth rate with size do not always allow for potential complexity. Using a large data set from old-growth forests in California, models were parameterized relating growth rate to tree size and competition for four common species. Several functions relating growth rate to size were tested. Competition models included parameters for tree size, competitor size, and competitor distance. Competitive strength was allowed to vary by species. The best ranked models (using Akaike’s information criterion) explained between 18% and 40% of the variance in growth rate, with each species showing a strong response to competition. Models indicated that relationships between competition and growth varied substantially among species. The results also suggested that the relationship between growth rate and tree size can be complex and that how we model it can affect not only our ability to detect that complexity but also whether we obtain misleading results. In this case, for three of four species, the best model captured an apparent and unexpected decline in potential growth rate for the smallest trees in the data set.

  5. Noise in gene expression is coupled to growth rate.

    PubMed

    Keren, Leeat; van Dijk, David; Weingarten-Gabbay, Shira; Davidi, Dan; Jona, Ghil; Weinberger, Adina; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran

    2015-12-01

    Genetically identical cells exposed to the same environment display variability in gene expression (noise), with important consequences for the fidelity of cellular regulation and biological function. Although population average gene expression is tightly coupled to growth rate, the effects of changes in environmental conditions on expression variability are not known. Here, we measure the single-cell expression distributions of approximately 900 Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoters across four environmental conditions using flow cytometry, and find that gene expression noise is tightly coupled to the environment and is generally higher at lower growth rates. Nutrient-poor conditions, which support lower growth rates, display elevated levels of noise for most promoters, regardless of their specific expression values. We present a simple model of noise in expression that results from having an asynchronous population, with cells at different cell-cycle stages, and with different partitioning of the cells between the stages at different growth rates. This model predicts non-monotonic global changes in noise at different growth rates as well as overall higher variability in expression for cell-cycle-regulated genes in all conditions. The consistency between this model and our data, as well as with noise measurements of cells growing in a chemostat at well-defined growth rates, suggests that cell-cycle heterogeneity is a major contributor to gene expression noise. Finally, we identify gene and promoter features that play a role in gene expression noise across conditions. Our results show the existence of growth-related global changes in gene expression noise and suggest their potential phenotypic implications. PMID:26355006

  6. Noise in gene expression is coupled to growth rate

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Leeat; van Dijk, David; Weingarten-Gabbay, Shira; Davidi, Dan; Jona, Ghil; Weinberger, Adina; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran

    2015-01-01

    Genetically identical cells exposed to the same environment display variability in gene expression (noise), with important consequences for the fidelity of cellular regulation and biological function. Although population average gene expression is tightly coupled to growth rate, the effects of changes in environmental conditions on expression variability are not known. Here, we measure the single-cell expression distributions of approximately 900 Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoters across four environmental conditions using flow cytometry, and find that gene expression noise is tightly coupled to the environment and is generally higher at lower growth rates. Nutrient-poor conditions, which support lower growth rates, display elevated levels of noise for most promoters, regardless of their specific expression values. We present a simple model of noise in expression that results from having an asynchronous population, with cells at different cell-cycle stages, and with different partitioning of the cells between the stages at different growth rates. This model predicts non-monotonic global changes in noise at different growth rates as well as overall higher variability in expression for cell-cycle–regulated genes in all conditions. The consistency between this model and our data, as well as with noise measurements of cells growing in a chemostat at well-defined growth rates, suggests that cell-cycle heterogeneity is a major contributor to gene expression noise. Finally, we identify gene and promoter features that play a role in gene expression noise across conditions. Our results show the existence of growth-related global changes in gene expression noise and suggest their potential phenotypic implications. PMID:26355006

  7. Pattern of variation in avian population growth rates.

    PubMed Central

    Saether, Bernt-Erik; Engen, Steinar

    2002-01-01

    A central question in population ecology is to understand why population growth rates differ over time. Here, we describe how the long-term growth of populations is not only influenced by parameters affecting the expected dynamics, for example form of density dependence and specific population growth rate, but is also affected by environmental and demographic stochasticity. Using long-term studies of fluctuations of bird populations, we show an interaction between the stochastic and the deterministic components of the population dynamics: high specific growth rates at small densities r(1) are typically positively correlated with the environmental variance sigma(e)(2). Furthermore, theta, a single parameter describing the form of the density regulation in the theta-logistic density-regulation model, is negatively correlated with r(1). These patterns are in turn correlated with interspecific differences in life-history characteristics. Higher specific growth rates, larger stochastic effects on the population dynamics and stronger density regulation at small densities are found in species with large clutch sizes or high adult mortality rates than in long-lived species. Unfortunately, large uncertainties in parameter estimates, as well as strong stochastic effects on the population dynamics, will often make even short-term population projections unreliable. We illustrate that the concept of population prediction interval can be useful in evaluating the consequences of these uncertainties in the population projections for the choice of management actions. PMID:12396511

  8. Validation of the gyrokinetic model in ITG and TEM dominated L-mode plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, N. T.; White, A. E.; Reinke, M. L.; Greenwald, M.; Holland, C.; Candy, J.; Walk, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    A rigorous validation of the gyrokinetic model was performed in both ion temperature gradient (ITG) and trapped electron mode (TEM) dominated Alcator C-Mod plasmas at (normalized midplane minor radius) r/a = 0.5 and 0.8. Analysis focuses on two L-mode discharges operated with 1.2 and 3.5 MW of ion cyclotron resonance heating. In depth investigation into the experimental uncertainties and simulation sensitivities in these discharges allows for a stringent test of the gyrokinetic model implemented by the GYRO code (Candy and Waltz 2003 J. Comput. Phys. 186 545) in both the centre of the stiff gradient region (r/a = 0.5) and the middle of the region often associated with the transport ‘shortfall’(r/a = 0.8). To identify the nature of the plasma turbulence and to ensure a robust evaluation of the model's ability to reproduce experiment, the sensitivity of the simulation results to experimental uncertainty in turbulence drive and suppression terms were determined at both radial locations. When significant TEM activity is present, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations are found to reproduce both electron and ion experimental heat fluxes within their diagnosed uncertainties. In contrast, in the absence of TEM, electron heat fluxes are robustly under predicted by low-k, gyrokinetic simulation.

  9. Greenhouse Gas Growth Rates from AIRS Hyperspectral Radiance Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strow, L. L.; Desouza-Machado, S. G.; Hannon, S.; Imbiriba, B.; Schou, P.

    2009-12-01

    The AIRS seven year hyperspectral radiance record provides an ideal platform for measurings growth rates of infrared active minor gases, especially carbon dioxide and methane. The largest changes in CLARREO radiances will likely be due to increasing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. We have produced a 5+ year record of almost cloud-free AIRS radiances, from which we have derived the radiance anomaly and linear time rate of change. The source of these radiances are the L1b radiances corrected for small frequency drifts. Growth rates of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, ozone, and CFC11 are simultaneously derived from zonal averages of these radiance rates for tropics, and mid-latitude northern and southern hemispheres. The effective linear rate of change of ~5 layers of water vapor and temperature, plus the surface temperature are also simultaneously derived with the minor gas rates. No model data or prior is needed and more than 1000 channels are used in the fit. Sampling issues may preclude the use of the mid-latitude temperature and water vapor rates for climate analysis, but possibly not for the tropics. The resulting greenhouse gas growth rates agree very well with in-situ measurements, which suggests high radiometric stability for AIRS. Radiance intercomparisons for climate analysis between IASI and AIRS will also be presented.

  10. Growth rate distribution in the forming lateral root of arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Szymanowska-Pułka, Joanna; Lipowczan, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Microscopic observations of lateral roots (LRs) in Arabidopsis thaliana reveal that the cross-sectional shape of the organ changes from its basal to its apical region. The founder cells for LRs are elongated along the parent root axis, and thus from the site of initiation the base of LRs resemble an ellipse. The circumference of the apical part of LRs is usually a circle. The objective of this study was to analyse the characteristics of changes in the growth field of LRs possessing various shapes in their basal regions. Methods The LRs of the wild type (Col-0) and two transgenic arabidopsis lines were analysed. On the basis of measurements of the long and short diameters (DL and DS, respectively) of the ellipse-like figure representing the bases of particular LRs, their asymmetry ratios (DL/DS) were determined. Possible differences between accessions were analysed by applying statistical methods. Key Results No significant differences between accessions were detected. Comparisons were therefore made of the maximal, minimal and mean value of the ratio of all the LRs analysed. Taking into consideration the lack of circular symmetry of the basal part, rates of growth were determined at selected points on the surface of LRs by the application of the growth tensor method, a mathematical tool previously applied only to describe organs with rotational symmetry. Maps showing the distribution of growth rates were developed for surfaces of LRs of various asymmetry ratios. Conclusions The maps of growth rates on the surfaces of LRs having various shapes of the basal part show differences in both the geometry and the manner of growth, thus indicating that the manner of growth of the LR primordium is correlated to its shape. This is the first report of a description of growth of an asymmetric plant organ using the growth tensor method. The mathematical modelling adopted in the study provides new insights into plant organ formation and shape. PMID:25108392

  11. Energetics and growth rate of northern Shrike (Lanius excubitor) nestlings

    SciTech Connect

    Degen, A.A.; Kam, M. ); Pinshow, B.; Yosef, R. ); Nagy, K.A. )

    1992-12-01

    Northern Shrikes (Lanius excubitor) breed in a variety of habitats, including deserts. Deserts are characterized by unpredictable food supplies, which can lead to a slow growth rate of nestlings. However, given that Northern Shrike males use prey from their caches to augment freshly caught prey in providing food for their mates and nestlings, we hypothesized that their nestlings do not have a slow growth rate, but one that is equivalent to that in other passerine nestlings from temperate areas. To test this hypothesis, we measured growth rates and energy use in Northern Shrike nestlings and fledglings. We also measured energy expenditure in two adult males that were attending nests. Growth rate of Northern Shrike nestlings was similar to that predicted for passerines in temperate areas and therefore our hypothesis was supported. However, metabolizable energy available in the cache amounted to only [approx] 7.2% of the total energy requirements of the nestlings or 4.2% of the total energy requirements of parents and nestlings during the nestling period. This suggested that other factors in addition to the cache were important in determining growth rate. These included (1) an extremely low maintenance energy requirement of the nestling; 30% of that predicted for a bird of its body mass when it weighed 10 g, which gradually increased to 70% at 50 g. This allowed for more of the energy intake to be used for growth and also reduced foraging costs of males; (2) the relatively low amount of body energy retained as a fraction of metabolizable energy intake, 0.15 to 0.16, indicating that more water per unit growth was incorporated than in other passerines. 47 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Influence of corruption on economic growth rate and foreign investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnik, Boris; Shao, Jia; Njavro, Djuro; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Stanley, H. E.

    2008-06-01

    We analyze the dependence of the Gross Domestic Product ( GDP) per capita growth rates on changes in the Corruption Perceptions Index ( CPI). For the period 1999 2004 for all countries in the world, we find on average that an increase of CPI by one unit leads to an increase of the annual GDP per capita growth rate by 1.7%. By regressing only the European countries with transition economies, we find that an increase of CPI by one unit generates an increase of the annual GDP per capita growth rate by 2.4%. We also analyze the relation between foreign direct investments received by different countries and CPI, and we find a statistically significant power-law functional dependence between foreign direct investment per capita and the country corruption level measured by the CPI. We introduce a new measure to quantify the relative corruption between countries based on their respective wealth as measured by GDP per capita.

  13. Radiocarbon Based Ages and Growth Rates: Hawaiian Deep Sea Corals

    SciTech Connect

    Roark, E B; Guilderson, T P; Dunbar, R B; Ingram, B L

    2006-01-13

    The radial growth rates and ages of three different groups of Hawaiian deep-sea 'corals' were determined using radiocarbon measurements. Specimens of Corallium secundum, Gerardia sp., and Leiopathes glaberrima, were collected from 450 {+-} 40 m at the Makapuu deep-sea coral bed using a submersible (PISCES V). Specimens of Antipathes dichotoma were collected at 50 m off Lahaina, Maui. The primary source of carbon to the calcitic C. secundum skeleton is in situ dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Using bomb {sup 14}C time markers we calculate radial growth rates of {approx} 170 {micro}m y{sup -1} and ages of 68-75 years on specimens as tall as 28 cm of C. secundum. Gerardia sp., A. dichotoma, and L. glaberrima have proteinaceous skeletons and labile particulate organic carbon (POC) is their primary source of architectural carbon. Using {sup 14}C we calculate a radial growth rate of 15 {micro}m y{sup -1} and an age of 807 {+-} 30 years for a live collected Gerardia sp., showing that these organisms are extremely long lived. Inner and outer {sup 14}C measurements on four sub-fossil Gerardia spp. samples produce similar growth rate estimates (range 14-45 {micro}m y{sup -1}) and ages (range 450-2742 years) as observed for the live collected sample. Similarly, with a growth rate of < 10 {micro}m y{sup -1} and an age of {approx}2377 years, L. glaberrima at the Makapuu coral bed, is also extremely long lived. In contrast, the shallow-collected A. dichotoma samples yield growth rates ranging from 130 to 1,140 {micro}m y{sup -1}. These results show that Hawaiian deep-sea corals grow more slowly and are older than previously thought.

  14. Crystallographic anisotropy of growth and etch rates of CVD diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfer, M; Biener, J; El-dasher, B S; Biener, M M; Hamza, A V; Kriele, A; Wild, C

    2008-08-05

    The investigation of orientation dependent crystal growth and etch processes can provide deep insights into the underlying mechanisms and thus helps to validate theoretical models. Here, we report on homoepitaxial diamond growth and oxygen etch experiments on polished, polycrystalline CVD diamond wafers by use of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and white-light interferometry (WLI). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied to provide additional atomic scale surface morphology information. The main advantage of using polycrystalline diamond substrates with almost random grain orientation is that it allows determining the orientation dependent growth (etch) rate for different orientations within one experiment. Specifically, we studied the effect of methane concentration on the diamond growth rate, using a microwave plasma CVD process. At 1 % methane concentration a maximum of the growth rate near <100> and a minimum near <111> is detected. Increasing the methane concentration up to 5 % shifts the maximum towards <110> while the minimum stays at <111>. Etch rate measurements in a microwave powered oxygen plasma reveal a pronounced maximum at <111>. We also made a first attempt to interpret our experimental data in terms of local micro-faceting of high-indexed planes.

  15. Cooling rate based on schreibersite growth for the Emery mesosiderite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulpecz, A. A., Jr.; Hewins, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Computer simulation of diffusion-controlled growth of the large Ni-rich grains of schreibersite found in the Emery mesosiderite indicates that exsolution from kamacite occurred during cooling at the rate of 0.1 C/Myr. This finding agrees with the mesosiderite cooling rate determined by Powell (1969) from taenite-kamacite data. The cooling rate is the lowest found for any meteorite group, and implications for the cooling history, with a possibility of reheating, are considered. The procedure for computing a family of cooling rate curves is based on Randich's (1975) method.

  16. The growth rate of gas hydrate from refrigerant R12

    SciTech Connect

    Kendoush, Abdullah Abbas; Jassim, Najim Abid; Joudi, Khalid A.

    2006-07-15

    Experimental and theoretical investigations were presented dealing with three phase direct-contact heat transfer by evaporation of refrigerant drops in an immiscible liquid. Refrigerant R12 was used as the dispersed phase, while water and brine were the immiscible continuous phase. A numerical solution is presented to predict the formation rate of gas hydrates in test column. The solution provided an acceptable agreement when compared with experimental results. The gas hydrate growth rate increased with time. It increased with increasing dispersed phase flow rate. The presence of surface-active sodium chloride in water had a strong inhibiting effect on the gas hydrate formation rate. (author)

  17. 3D fold growth rates in transpressional tectonic settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frehner, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    Geological folds are inherently three-dimensional (3D) structures; hence, they also grow in 3D. In this study, fold growth in all three dimensions is quantified numerically using a finite-element algorithm for simulating deformation of Newtonian media in 3D. The presented study is an extension and generalization of the work presented in Frehner (2014), which only considered unidirectional layer-parallel compression. In contrast, the full range from strike slip settings (i.e., simple shear) to unidirectional layer-parallel compression is considered here by varying the convergence angle of the boundary conditions; hence the results are applicable to general transpressional tectonic settings. Only upright symmetrical single-layer fold structures are considered. The horizontal higher-viscous layer exhibits an initial point-like perturbation. Due to the mixed pure- and simple shear boundary conditions a mechanical buckling instability grows from this perturbation in all three dimensions, described by: Fold amplification (vertical growth): Fold amplification describes the growth from a fold shape with low limb-dip angle to a shape with higher limb-dip angle. Fold elongation (growth parallel to fold axis): Fold elongation describes the growth from a dome-shaped (3D) structure to a more cylindrical fold (2D). Sequential fold growth (growth perpendicular to fold axial plane): Sequential fold growth describes the growth of secondary (and further) folds adjacent to the initial isolated fold. The term 'lateral fold growth' is used as an umbrella term for both fold elongation and sequential fold growth. In addition, the orientation of the fold axis is tracked as a function of the convergence angle. Even though the absolute values of all three growth rates are markedly reduced with increasing simple-shear component at the boundaries, the general pattern of the quantified fold growth under the studied general-shear boundary conditions is surprisingly similar to the end

  18. Growth rate and cell size: A re-examination of the growth law

    PubMed Central

    Vadia, Stephen; Levin, Petra Anne

    2015-01-01

    Research into the mechanisms regulating bacterial cell size has its origins in a single paper published over 50 years ago. In it Schaechter and colleagues made the observation that the chemical composition and size of a bacterial cell is a function of growth rate, independent of the medium used to achieve that growth rate, a finding that is colloquially referred to as the growth law. Recent findings hint at unforeseen complexity in the growth law, and suggest that nutrients rather than growth rate are the primary arbiter of size. The emerging picture suggests that size is a complex, multifactorial phenomenon mediated through the varied impacts of central carbon metabolism on cell cycle progression and biosynthetic capacity. PMID:25662920

  19. Concentration dependence of variability in growth rates of microtubules.

    PubMed Central

    Pedigo, Susan; Williams, Robley C

    2002-01-01

    Growth and shortening of microtubules in the course of their polymerization and depolymerization have previously been observed to occur at variable rates. To gain insight into the meaning of this prominent variability, we studied the way in which its magnitude depends on the growth rate of experimentally observed and computer-simulated microtubules. The dynamic properties of plus-ended microtubules nucleated by pieces of Chlamydomonas flagellar axonemes were observed in real time by video-enhanced differential interference contrast light microscopy at differing tubulin concentrations. By means of a Monte Carlo algorithm, populations of microtubules were simulated that had similar growth and dynamic properties to the experimentally observed microtubules. By comparison of the experimentally observed and computer-simulated populations of microtubules, we found that 1) individual microtubules displayed an intrinsic variability that did not change as the rate of growth for a population increased, and 2) the variability was approximately fivefold greater than predicted by a simple model of subunit addition and loss. The model used to simulate microtubule growth has no provision for incorporation of lattice defects of any type, nor sophisticated geometry of the growing end. Thus, these as well as uncontrolled experimental variables were eliminated as causes for the prominent variability. PMID:12324403

  20. Islamic Republic of Iran population growth rate declines.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In April 1996, at the 52nd Session of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), the delegate from the Islamic Republic of Iran announced that social indicators indicate acceptable improvement. The average population growth rate fell from 3.9% (1981-1991) to less than 2% (1995). High birth rates and an influx of refugees during 1981-1991 accounted for the high population growth rate. The marked decline in the birth rate, brought about mainly by effective family planning and health programs, has contributed greatly to the reduced population growth rate. The government has focused on rural areas. 86% of rural households now have access to piped water. More than 60% have electricity. The overall literacy rate in Iran has reached 79%. The entire population has access to free or subsidized primary health care services. The Second Development Plan of Iran centers on the significance of the role that mothers have in shaping society and individuals by their child raising abilities, particularly in the early years. The Iranian delegate endorsed the secretariat's plan for helping members and associate members to reach their development goals and objectives. PMID:12291139

  1. Upscaling Calcite Growth Rates From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale

    SciTech Connect

    Bracco, Jacquelyn N; Stack, Andrew G; Steefel, Carl I

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative prediction of mineral reaction rates in the subsurface remains a daunting task partly because a key parameter for macroscopic models, the reactive site density, is poorly constrained. Here we report atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on the calcite surface of monomolecular step densities, treated as equivalent to the reactive site density, as a function of aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratio and saturation index. Data for the obtuse step orientation are combined with existing step velocity measurements to generate a model that predicts overall macroscopic calcite growth rates. The model is quantitatively consistent with several published macroscopic rates under a range of alkaline solution conditions, particularly for two of the most comprehensive data sets without the need for additional fit parameters. The model reproduces peak growth rates and its functional form is simple enough to be incorporated into reactive transport or other macroscopic models designed for predictions in porous media. However, it currently cannot model equilibrium, pH effects, and may overestimate rates at high aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratios. The discrepancies in rates at high calcium-to-carbonate ratios may be due to differences in pre-treatment, such as exposing the seed material to SI 1.0 to generate/develop growth hillocks, or other factors.

  2. Net Assimilation Rate Determines the Growth Rates of 14 Species of Subtropical Forest Trees

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuefei; Schmid, Bernhard; Wang, Fei; Paine, C. E. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Growth rates are of fundamental importance for plants, as individual size affects myriad ecological processes. We determined the factors that generate variation in RGR among 14 species of trees and shrubs that are abundant in subtropical Chinese forests. We grew seedlings for two years at four light levels in a shade-house experiment. We monitored the growth of every juvenile plant every two weeks. After one and two years, we destructively harvested individuals and measured their functional traits and gas-exchange rates. After calculating individual biomass trajectories, we estimated relative growth rates using nonlinear growth functions. We decomposed the variance in log(RGR) to evaluate the relationships of RGR with its components: specific leaf area (SLA), net assimilation rate (NAR) and leaf mass ratio (LMR). We found that variation in NAR was the primary determinant of variation in RGR at all light levels, whereas SLA and LMR made smaller contributions. Furthermore, NAR was strongly and positively associated with area-based photosynthetic rate and leaf nitrogen content. Photosynthetic rate and leaf nitrogen concentration can, therefore, be good predictors of growth in woody species. PMID:26953884

  3. Net Assimilation Rate Determines the Growth Rates of 14 Species of Subtropical Forest Trees.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuefei; Schmid, Bernhard; Wang, Fei; Paine, C E Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Growth rates are of fundamental importance for plants, as individual size affects myriad ecological processes. We determined the factors that generate variation in RGR among 14 species of trees and shrubs that are abundant in subtropical Chinese forests. We grew seedlings for two years at four light levels in a shade-house experiment. We monitored the growth of every juvenile plant every two weeks. After one and two years, we destructively harvested individuals and measured their functional traits and gas-exchange rates. After calculating individual biomass trajectories, we estimated relative growth rates using nonlinear growth functions. We decomposed the variance in log(RGR) to evaluate the relationships of RGR with its components: specific leaf area (SLA), net assimilation rate (NAR) and leaf mass ratio (LMR). We found that variation in NAR was the primary determinant of variation in RGR at all light levels, whereas SLA and LMR made smaller contributions. Furthermore, NAR was strongly and positively associated with area-based photosynthetic rate and leaf nitrogen content. Photosynthetic rate and leaf nitrogen concentration can, therefore, be good predictors of growth in woody species. PMID:26953884

  4. Linear Stability of Binary Alloy Solidification for Unsteady Growth Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    An extension of the Mullins and Sekerka (MS) linear stability analysis to the unsteady growth rate case is considered for dilute binary alloys. In particular, the stability of the planar interface during the initial solidification transient is studied in detail numerically. The rapid solidification case, when the system is traversing through the unstable region defined by the MS criterion, has also been treated. It has been observed that the onset of instability is quite accurately defined by the "quasi-stationary MS criterion", when the growth rate and other process parameters are taken as constants at a particular time of the growth process. A singular behavior of the governing equations for the perturbed quantities at the constitutional supercooling demarcation line has been observed. However, when the solidification process, during its transient, crosses this demarcation line, a planar interface is stable according to the linear analysis performed.

  5. Delays and Growth Rates of Multiple TEOAE Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Shawn S.; Mertes, Ian B.; Scheperle, Rachel A.

    2011-11-01

    Bandpass-filtered transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) show multiple energy peaks with time delays that are invariant with level and growth rates that vary with delay and stimulus level, suggesting that multiple generation mechanisms may be involved at moderate and high stimulus levels. We measured delays and magnitude growths of multiple TEOAE energy peaks and compared the results obtained from linear and nonlinear extraction methods. To test the hypothesis that early components are generated at the basal portion of the cochlea, delays and growth rates were also measured in the presence of highpass masking noise for a subset of subjects. No effect of the highpass masking was seen. The results are discussed in terms of potential generation mechanisms of the multiple energy peaks.

  6. Lateral growth rates in laser CVD of microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzoldt, F.; Piglmayer, K.; Kräuter, W.; Bäuerle, D.

    1984-11-01

    Lateral growth rates of Ni spots deposited on absorbing substrates by decomposition of Ni(CO)4 with visible Kr+ laser light have been measured. The experimental data are consistent with the calculated temperature distributions. The mechanism of decomposition is thermal with an apparent chemical activation energy of 22±3 kcal/mole for the temperature range 350 K≦ T≦500 K.

  7. Does growth rate determine the rate of metabolism in shorebird chicks living in the Arctic?

    PubMed

    Williams, Joseph B; Tieleman, B Irene; Visser, G Henk; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2007-01-01

    We measured resting and peak metabolic rates (RMR and PMR, respectively) during development of chicks of seven species of shorebirds: least sandpiper (Calidris minutilla; adult mass 20-22 g), dunlin (Calidris alpina; 56-62 g), lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes; 88-92 g), short-billed dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus; 85-112 g), lesser golden plover (Pluvialis dominicana; 150-156 g), Hudsonian godwit (Limosa haemastica; 205-274 g), and whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus; 380 g). We tested two opposing hypotheses: the growth rate-maturity hypothesis, which posits that growth rate in chicks is inversely related to functional maturity of tissues, and the fast growth rate-high metabolism hypothesis, which suggests that rapid growth is possible only with a concomitant increase in either RMR or PMR. We have found no evidence that chicks of shorebirds with fast growth rates have lower RMRs or lower PMRs, as would be predicted by the growth rate-maturity hypothesis, but our data suggested that faster-growing chest muscles resulted in increased thermogenic capacity, consistent with the fast growth-high metabolism hypothesis. The development of homeothermy in smaller species is a consequence primarily of greater metabolic intensities of heat-generating tissues. The maximum temperature gradient between a chick's body and environment that can be maintained in the absence of a net radiative load increased rapidly with body mass during development and was highest in least sandpipers and lowest among godwits. Chicks of smaller species could maintain a greater temperature gradient at a particular body mass because of their higher mass-specific maximum metabolic rates. PMID:17717813

  8. Inhibition of rate of tumor growth by creatine and cyclocreatine.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, E E; Evans, A E; Cohn, M

    1993-01-01

    Growth rate inhibition of subcutaneously implanted tumors results from feeding rats and athymic nude mice diets containing 1% cyclocreatine or 1%, 2%, 5%, or 10% creatine. The tumors studied included rat mammary tumors (Ac33tc in Lewis female rats and 13762A in Fischer 344 female rats), rat sarcoma MCI in Lewis male rats, and tumors resulting from the injection of two human neuroblastoma cell lines, IMR-5 and CHP-134, in athymic nude mice. Inhibition was observed regardless of the time experimental diets were administered, either at the time of tumor implantation or after the appearance of palpable tumors. For mammary tumor Ac33tc, the growth inhibition during 24 days after the implantation was approximately 50% for both 1% cyclocreatine and 1% creatine, and inhibition increased as creatine was increased from 2% to 10% of the diet. For the other rat mammary tumor (13762A), there was approximately 35% inhibition by both 1% cyclocreatine and 2% creatine. In the case of the MCI sarcoma, the inhibitory effect appeared more pronounced at earlier periods of growth, ranging from 26% to 41% for 1% cyclocreatine and from 30% to 53% for 1% creatine; there was no significant difference in growth rate between the tumors in the rats fed 1% and 5% creatine. The growth rate of tumors in athymic nude mice, produced by implantation of the human neuroblastoma IMR-5 cell line, appeared somewhat more effectively inhibited by 1% cyclocreatine than by 1% creatine, and 5% creatine feeding was most effective. For the CHP-134 cell line, 33% inhibition was observed for the 1% cyclocreatine diet and 71% for the 5% creatine diet. In several experiments, a delay in appearance of tumors was observed in animals on the experimental diets. In occasional experiments, neither additive inhibited tumor growth rate for the rat tumors or the athymic mouse tumors. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8475072

  9. Relating Productivity Events to Holocene Bivalve Shell Growth Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntley, J. W.; Krause, R. A.; Kowalewski, M.; Romanek, C. S.; Kaufman, D. S.; Simoes, M. G.

    2007-12-01

    The growth rate of a bivalve can be influenced by many environmental factors that can change during the life of the organism. In this contribution we present initial data from a millennium scale chronology to assess the relationship between ontogenetic growth in the bivalve Semele casali and paleoenvironmental conditions preserved in the shell using growth increment analysis, radiocarbon-calibrated amino acid racemization dating techniques, stable isotopes (C and O) and high spatial resolution (125-150 samples per cm of shell profile) trace element (Ba, Mn) analysis (LA-ICPMS). Time-averaged specimens of S. casali were dredged from two sites at 10 meters and 30 meters depth along the inner continental shelf at Ubatuba Bay in the Southeast Brazilian Bight, an area influenced by productivity pulses triggered by coastal runoff events and coastal upwelling. Seventy-five individual valves were dated using amino acid racemization (aspartic acid). Dates were calculated using an expanded version of a previously published relationship (Barbour Wood et al., 2006 Quaternary Research 323- 331) between aspartic acid ratios and AMS radiocarbon dates of twelve S. casali individuals from the same sampling locations. The resulting time series has complete coverage for the past three thousand years at centennial resolution. From this time series, a sub-sample of dated valves was selected for more detailed growth increment, stable isotope and high-resolution trace element (Ba/Ca and Mn/Ca) analyses. Oceanic productivity is expressed differentially in the trace element profiles of S. casali with elevated Ba/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios capturing nutrient input through coastal runoff events while elevated Ba/Ca and depressed Mn/Ca ratios represent input through coastal upwelling. Fluctuations in Ba/Ca and Mn/Ca are not correlated to fluctuations in relative growth throughout the ontogeny of an individual bivalve, nor are they expected to be as periods of increased productivity are transient

  10. Scaling laws in the dynamics of crime growth rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Luiz G. A.; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Mendes, Renio S.

    2013-06-01

    The increasing number of crimes in areas with large concentrations of people have made cities one of the main sources of violence. Understanding characteristics of how crime rate expands and its relations with the cities size goes beyond an academic question, being a central issue for contemporary society. Here, we characterize and analyze quantitative aspects of murders in the period from 1980 to 2009 in Brazilian cities. We find that the distribution of the annual, biannual and triannual logarithmic homicide growth rates exhibit the same functional form for distinct scales, that is, a scale invariant behavior. We also identify asymptotic power-law decay relations between the standard deviations of these three growth rates and the initial size. Further, we discuss similarities with complex organizations.

  11. Density, ages, and growth rates in old-growth and young-growth forests in coastal Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappeiner, J. C., II; Huffman, D.; Spies, T.; Bailey, John D.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the ages and diameter growth rates of trees in former Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)Franco) old-growth stands on 10 sites and compared them with young-growth stands (50-70 years old, regenerated after timber harvest) in the Coast Range of western Oregon. The diameters and diameter growth rates for the first 100 years of trees in the old-growth stands were significantly greater than those in the young-growth stands. Growth rates in the old stands were comparable with those from long-term studies of young stands in which density is about 100-120 trees/ha; often young-growth stand density is well over 500 trees/ha. Ages of large trees in the old stands ranged from 100 to 420 years; ages in young stands varied by only about 5 to 10 years. Apparently, regeneration of old-growth stands on these sites occurred over a prolonged period, and trees grew at low density with little self-thinning; in contrast, after timber harvest, young stands may develop with high density of trees with similar ages and considerable self-thinning. The results suggest that thinning may be needed in dense young stands where the management objective is to speed development of old-growth characteristics.

  12. A study of the growth rates and growth habits of ice crystals in a solution of antifreeze (glyco) proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qianzhong; Luo, Liaofu

    1996-12-01

    The mechanism of the antifreeze glycoprotein/antifreeze protein interaction on the surface of ice is analyzed. The theory of ice crystal growth in an AF(G)P solution is presented. A quantitative calculation of the growth rates for gain growth has been obtained. The anisotropic growth habits and growth rates of ice crystals in an AF(G)P solution are explained.

  13. Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size Distribution and Growth Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Woehl, Taylor J.; Park, Chiwoo; Evans, James E.; Arslan, Ilke; Ristenpart, William D.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2014-01-08

    Direct observations of solution-phase nanoparticle growth using in situ liquid transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have demonstrated the importance of “non-classical” growth mechanisms, such as aggregation and coalescence, on the growth and final morphology of nanocrystals at the atomic and single nanoparticle scales. To date, groups have quantitatively interpreted the mean growth rate of nanoparticles in terms of the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) model for Ostwald ripening, but less attention has been paid to modeling the corresponding particle size distribution. Here we use in situ fluid stage scanning TEM to demonstrate that silver nanoparticles grow by a length-scale dependent mechanism, where individual nanoparticles grow by monomer attachment but ensemble-scale growth is dominated by aggregation. Although our observed mean nanoparticle growth rate is consistent with the LSW model, we show that the corresponding particle size distribution is broader and more symmetric than predicted by LSW. Following direct observations of aggregation, we interpret the ensemble-scale growth using Smoluchowski kinetics and demonstrate that the Smoluchowski model quantitatively captures the mean growth rate and particle size distribution.

  14. The effect of growth rate, diameter and impurity concentration on structure in Czochralski silicon crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digges, T. G., Jr.; Shima, R.

    1980-01-01

    It is demonstrated that maximum growth rates of up to 80% of the theoretical limit can be attained in Czochralski-grown silicon crystals while maintaining single crystal structure. Attaining the other 20% increase is dependent on design changes in the grower, to reduce the temperature gradient in the liquid while increasing the gradient in the solid. The conclusions of Hopkins et al. (1977) on the effect of diameter on the breakdown of structure at fast growth rates are substantiated. Copper was utilized as the test impurity. At large diameters (greater than 7.5 cm), concentrations of greater than 1 ppm copper were attained in the solid (45,000 ppm in the liquid) without breakdown at maximum growth speeds. For smaller diameter crystals, the sensitivity of impurities is much more apparent. For solar cell applications, impurities will limit cell performance before they cause crystal breakdown for fast growth rates of large diameter crystals.

  15. Improvements in plant growth rate using underwater discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaki, K.; Takahata, J.; Watanabe, S.; Satta, N.; Yamada, O.; Fujio, T.; Sasaki, Y.

    2013-03-01

    The drainage water from plant pots was irradiated by plasma and then recycled to irrigate plants for improving the growth rate by supplying nutrients to plants and inactivating the bacteria in the bed-soil. Brassica rapa var. perviridis (Chinese cabbage; Brassica campestris) plants were cultivated in pots filled with artificial soil, which included the use of chicken droppings as a fertiliser. The water was recycled once per day from a drainage water pool and added to the bed-soil in the pots. A magnetic compression type pulsed power generator was used to produce underwater discharge with repetition rate of 250 pps. The plasma irradiation times were set as 10 and 20 minutes per day over 28 days of cultivation. The experimental results showed that the growth rate increased significantly with plasma irradiation into the drainage water. The growth rate increased with the plasma irradiation time. The nitrogen concentration of the leaves increased as a result of plasma irradiation based on chlorophyll content analysis. The bacteria in the drainage water were inactivated by the plasma irradiation.

  16. Growth Rate Analysis of an Untreated Glomus Vagale on MRI

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jeffrey Tzu-Yu; Wang, Allen Yu-Yu; Cheng, Sheila; Gomes, Lavier; Da Cruz, Melville

    2016-01-01

    Paragangliomas are slow growing, hypervascular neuroendocrine tumors that develop in the extra-adrenal paraganglion tissues. Paraganglioma involving the vagus nerve ganglia is termed glomus vagale. The slow growth of head and neck paragangliomas especially in the absence of symptom may obviate the necessity for any active intervention, in which case, a “wait and scan” policy is implemented involving long-term clinical and radiologic follow-ups. We present a case of a 71-year-old female with an untreated left glomus vagale who underwent a conservative “wait and rescan” plan of management and the tumor was observed with 8 serial MRI scans over a period of 7.4 years. A growth rate analysis was conducted which demonstrated a slow growth. A literature review of radiologic studies examining the natural history of head and neck paragangliomas was also performed. PMID:27073708

  17. Flute growth rate of plasma jet in mirror machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Be'ery, I.; Seemann, O.; Goldstein, G.; Fisher, A.; Ron, A.

    2014-02-01

    The evolution of flute instability in a cold, high-density hydrogen plasma jet, injected into a mirror machine, is studied. The experiment was designed to minimize the interaction of the plasma with the walls, thus bringing it close to the ideal magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability conditions. The modal growth rate was measured in various settings to demonstrate the effects of the finite Larmor radius, Bohm diffusion, conductive limiter, biased limiter and neutral background gas. In this paper we will demonstrate that lowering the magnetic field increases stability, as does the insertion of a conducting ring. However, if the ring is biased, the stability is reduced due to inhomogeneous coupling between the plasma and the limiter. It was also found that heavy background gas dramatically reduces the flute instability growth rate.

  18. Simulation of Crack Growth Rate in Martensitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odukwe, A. O.; Ajayi, O. O.; Oluwadare, G. O.

    This research used the stress intensity factor with rate of crack growth per cycle of loading to model and simulates the crack growth in Martensitic steel in air environment. The basic parameters used were da/dN and ΔK, log (da/dN) was analyzed against log (ΔK) and a regression analysis using data from log (da/dN) vs log (ΔK) was carried out and the outcome employed to develop a model and simulation which gave rise to interactive software that can be used to predict the behavior of a structural member under conditions of certain loading. Additionally, it can be employed to have quick access to data and design considerations, when input data are supplied. This became useful in monitoring the point at which crack can initiate and the rate at which it would grow in a particular structural member of interest. The software has been tested with theoretical and experimental data.

  19. Polar cap plasma patch primary linear instability growth rates compared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burston, Robert; Mitchell, Cathryn; Astin, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Four primary plasma instability processes have been proposed in the literature to explain the generation of phase scintillation associated with polar cap plasma patches. These are the gradient drift, current convective, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and a small-scale "turbulence" process. In this paper the range of possible values of the linear growth rates for each of these processes is explored using Dynamics Explorer 2 satellite observations. It is found that the inertial turbulence instability is the dominant process, followed by inertial gradient drift, collisional turbulence, and collisional shortwave current convective instabilities. The other processes, such as Kelvin-Helmholtz, collisional gradient drift, and inertial shortwave current convective instabilities, very rarely (<1% of the time) give rise to a growth rate exceeding 1/60, that is deemed to be significant (in publications) to give rise to GPS scintillation.

  20. Slow growth rates of Amazonian trees: Consequences for carbon cycling

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Simone; Trumbore, Susan; Camargo, Plinio B.; Selhorst, Diogo; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Higuchi, Niro; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Quantifying age structure and tree growth rate of Amazonian forests is essential for understanding their role in the carbon cycle. Here, we use radiocarbon dating and direct measurement of diameter increment to document unexpectedly slow growth rates for trees from three locations spanning the Brazilian Amazon basin. Central Amazon trees, averaging only ≈1mm/year diameter increment, grow half as fast as those from areas with more seasonal rainfall to the east and west. Slow growth rates mean that trees can attain great ages; across our sites we estimate 17-50% of trees with diameter >10 cm have ages exceeding 300 years. Whereas a few emergent trees that make up a large portion of the biomass grow faster, small trees that are more abundant grow slowly and attain ages of hundreds of years. The mean age of carbon in living trees (60-110 years) is within the range of or slightly longer than the mean residence time calculated from C inventory divided by annual C allocation to wood growth (40-100 years). Faster C turnover is observed in stands with overall higher rates of diameter increment and a larger fraction of the biomass in large, fast-growing trees. As a consequence, forests can recover biomass relatively quickly after disturbance, whereas recovering species composition may take many centuries. Carbon cycle models that apply a single turnover time for carbon in forest biomass do not account for variations in life strategy and therefore may overestimate the carbon sequestration potential of Amazon forests. PMID:16339903

  1. On Growth Rates of Subadditive Functions for Semiflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Sebastian J.

    1998-09-01

    Letφ: X×T+→Xbe a semiflow on a compact metric spaceX. A functionF: X×T+→Xis subadditive with respect toφifF(x, t+s)⩽F(x, t)+F(φ(x, t),nbsp;s). We define the maximal growth rate ofFto be supx∈X lim supt→∞(1/t) F(x, t). This growth rate is shown to equal the maximal growth rate of the subadditive function restricted to the minimal center of attraction of the semiflow. Applications to Birkhoff sums, characteristic exponents of linear skew-product semiflows on Banach bundles, and average Lyapunov functions are developed. In particular, a relationship between the dynamical spectrum and the measurable spectrum of a linear skew-product flow established by R. A. Johnson, K. J. Palmer, and G. R. Sell (SIAM J. Math. Anal.18, 1987, 1-33) is extended to semiflows in an infinite dimensional setting.

  2. Interspecific synchrony of seabird population growth rate and breeding success

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, James P W; Dornelas, Maria; Ojanguren, Alfredo F

    2013-01-01

    Environmental variability can destabilize communities by causing correlated interspecific fluctuations that weaken the portfolio effect, yet evidence of such a mechanism is rare in natural systems. Here, we ask whether the population dynamics of similar sympatric species of a seabird breeding community are synchronized, and if these species have similar exceptional responses to environmental variation. We used a 24-year time series of the breeding success and population growth rate of a marine top predator species group to assess the degree of synchrony between species demography. We then developed a novel method to examine the species group – all species combined – response to environmental variability, in particular, whether multiple species experience similar, pronounced fluctuations in their demography. Multiple species were positively correlated in breeding success and growth rate. Evidence of “exceptional” years was found, where the species group experienced pronounced fluctuations in their demography. The synchronous response of the species group was negatively correlated with winter sea surface temperature of the preceding year for both growth rate and breeding success. We present evidence for synchronous, exceptional responses of a species group that are driven by environmental variation. Such species covariation destabilizes communities by reducing the portfolio effect, and such exceptional responses may increase the risk of a state change in this community. Our understanding of the future responses to environmental change requires an increased focus on the short-term fluctuations in demography that are driven by extreme environmental variability. PMID:23919147

  3. Growth axis maturation is linked to nutrition, growth and developmental rate.

    PubMed

    Hetz, Jennifer A; Menzies, Brandon R; Shaw, Geoffrey; Rao, Alexandra; Clarke, Iain J; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2015-08-15

    Maturation of the mammalian growth axis is thought to be linked to the transition from fetal to post-natal life at birth. However, in an altricial marsupial, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), this process occurs many months after birth but at a time when the young is at a similar developmental stage to that of neonatal eutherian mammals. Here we manipulate growth rates and demonstrate in slow, normal and fast growing tammar young that nutrition and growth rate affect the time of maturation of the growth axis. Maturation of GH/IGF-I axis components occurred earlier in fast growing young, which had significantly increased hepatic GHR, IGF1 and IGFALS expression, plasma IGF-I concentrations, and significantly decreased plasma GH concentrations compared to age-matched normal young. These data support the hypothesis that the time of maturation of the growth axis depends on the growth rate and maturity of the young, which can be accelerated by changing their nutritional status. PMID:25896544

  4. Salamander growth rates increase along an experimental stream phosphorus gradient.

    PubMed

    Bumpers, Phillip M; Maerz, John C; Rosemond, Amy D; Benstead, Jonathan P

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient-driven perturbations to the resource base of food webs are predicted to attenuate with trophic distance, so it is unclear whether higher-level consumers will generally respond to anthropogenic nutrient loading. Few studies have tested whether nutrient (specifically, nitrogen [N] and phosphorus [P]) enrichment of aquatic ecosystems propagates through multiple trophic levels to affect predators, or whether N vs. P is relatively more important in driving effects on food webs. We conducted two-year whole-stream N and P additions to five streams to generate gradients in N and P concentration and N:P ratio (target N:P = 2, 8, 16, 32, 128). Larval salamanders are vertebrate predators of primary and secondary macroinvertebrate consumers in many heterotrophic headwater streams in which the basal resources are detritus and associated microorganisms. We determined the effects of N and P on the growth rates of caged and free-roaming larval Desmognathus quadramaculatus and the average body size of larval Eurycea wilderae. Growth rates and average body size increased by up to 40% and 60%, respectively, with P concentration and were negatively related to N:P ratio. These findings were consistent across both species of salamanders using different methodologies (cage vs. free-roaming) and at different temporal scales (3 months vs. 2 yr). Nitrogen concentration was not significantly related to increased growth rate or body size of the salamander species tested. Our findings suggest that salamander growth responds to the relaxation of ecosystem-level P limitation and that moderate P enrichment can have relatively large effects on vertebrate predators in detritus-based food webs. PMID:27070018

  5. Imaging System For Measuring Macromolecule Crystal Growth Rates in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corder, Eric L.; Briscoe, Jeri

    2004-01-01

    In order to determine how macromolecule crystal quality improvement in microgravity is related to crystal growth characteristics, a team of scientists and engineers at NASA's Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed flight hardware capable of measuring the crystal growth rates of a population of crystals growing under the same conditions. As crystal growth rate is defined as the change or delta in a defined dimension or length (L) of crystal over time, the hardware was named Delta-L. Delta-L consists of three sub assemblies: a fluid unit including a temperature-controlled growth cell, an imaging unit, and a control unit (consisting of a Data Acquisition and Control Unit (DACU), and a thermal control unit). Delta-L will be used in connection with the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT) inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), onboard the International Space Station. This paper will describe the Delta-L imaging system. The Delta-L imaging system was designed to locate, resolve, and capture images of up to 10 individual crystals ranging in size from 10 to 500 microns with a point-to-point accuracy of +/- 2.0 microns within a quartz growth cell observation area of 20 mm x 10 mm x 1 mm. The optical imaging system is comprised of a video microscope camera mounted on computer controlled translation stages. The 3-axis translation stages and control units provide crewmembers the ability to search throughout the growth cell observation area for crystals forming in size of approximately 10 microns. Once the crewmember has selected ten crystals of interest, the growth of these crystals is tracked until the size reaches approximately 500 microns. In order to resolve these crystals an optical system with a magnification of 10X was designed. A black and white NTSC camera was utilized with a 20X microscope objective and a 0.5X custom designed relay lens with an inline light to meet the magnification requirement. The design allows a 500 pm

  6. Diffusion-controlled growth rate of stepped interfaces.

    PubMed

    Saidi, P; Hoyt, J J

    2015-07-01

    For many materials, the structure of crystalline surfaces or solid-solid interphase boundaries is characterized by an array of mobile steps separated by immobile terraces. Despite the prevalence of step-terraced interfaces a theoretical description of the growth rate has not been completely solved. In this work the boundary element method (BEM) has been utilized to numerically compute the concentration profile in a fluid phase in contact with an infinite array of equally spaced surface steps and, under the assumption that step motion is controlled by diffusion through the fluid phase, the growth rate is computed. It is also assumed that a boundary layer exists between the growing surface and a point in the liquid where complete convective mixing occurs. The BEM results are presented for varying step spacing, supersaturation, and boundary layer width. BEM calculations were also used to study the phenomenon of step bunching during crystal growth, and it is found that, in the absence of elastic strain energy, a sufficiently large perturbation in the position of a step from its regular spacing will lead to a step bunching instability. Finally, an approximate analytic solution using a matched asymptotic expansion technique is presented for the case of a stagnant liquid or equivalently a solid-solid stepped interface. PMID:26274183

  7. On the effect of a non-uniform longitudinal ion flow on the linear ITG mode stability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lontano, Maurizio; Lazzaro, Enzo; Varischetti, Maria Cecilia

    2006-10-01

    A one-dimensional model for slab ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes, in the presence of an inhomogeneous equilibrium plasma velocity along the main magnetic field direction, has been formulated in the frame of a two-fluid guiding-center approximation. The physical effects of a magnetic field gradient and of the line curvature are included by means of a gravitational drift velocity. The magnetic shear across the plasma slab is also taken into account. The linear stability of slow plasma dynamics, under the assumptions of quasi-neutrality and adiabatic electrons, is described by means of a third-degree dispersion relation. Generally speaking, the presence of a sheared longitudinal ion velocity leads to the linear destabilization of the ITG modes, especially for flat equilibrium density profiles. Transverse quasi-linear fluxes of ion thermal energy and longitudinal momentum are calculated for different equilibrium profiles of the density, temperature, momentum, and magnetic shear. Plasma configurations leading to zero transverse (or even negative) momentum fluxes are exploited and discussed in the light of their experimental implementation.

  8. Validation studies of gyrokinetic ITG and TEM turbulence simulations in a JT-60U tokamak using multiple flux matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Motoki; Honda, Mitsuru; Yoshida, Maiko; Urano, Hajime; Nunami, Masanori; Maeyama, Shinya; Watanabe, Tomo-Hiko; Sugama, Hideo

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative validation studies of flux-tube gyrokinetic Vlasov simulations on ion and electron heat transport are carried out for the JT-60U tokamak experiment. The ion temperature gradient (ITG) and/or trapped electron modes (TEM) driven turbulent transport and zonal flow generations are investigated for an L-mode plasma in the local turbulence limit with a sufficiently small normalized ion thermal gyroradius and weak mean radial electric fields. Nonlinear turbulence simulations by the GKV code successfully reproduce radial profiles of the ion and electron energy fluxes in the core region. The numerical results show that the TEM-driven zonal flow generation in the outer region is more significant than that in the core region with ITG- and ITG–TEM-dominated turbulence, leading to moderate transport shortfall of the ion energy flux. Error levels in the prediction of the ion and electron temperature gradient profiles in the core region are estimated as less than +/- 30% , based on a multiple flux matching technique, where the simulated ion and electron energy fluxes are simultaneously matched to the experimental values.

  9. A model of northern pintail productivity and population growth rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Grand, J.B.; Rockwell, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Our objective was to synthesize individual components of reproductive ecology into a single estimate of productivity and to assess the relative effects of survival and productivity on population dynamics. We used information on nesting ecology, renesting potential, and duckling survival of northern pintails (Anas acuta) collected on the Yukon-Kuskokvim Delta (Y-K Delta), Alaska, 1991-95, to model the number of ducklings produced under a range of nest success and duckling survival probabilities. Using average values of 25% nest success, 11% duckling survival, and 56% renesting probability from our study population, we calculated that all young in our population were produced by 13% of the breeding females, and that early-nesting females produced more young than later-nesting females. Further, we calculated, on average, that each female produced only 0.16 young females/nesting season. We combined these results with estimates of first-year and adult survival to examine the growth rate (??) of the population and the relative contributions of these demographic parameters to that growth rate. Contrary to aerial survey data, the population projection model suggests our study population is declining rapidly (?? = 0.6969). The relative effects on population growth rate were 0.1175 for reproductive success, 0.1175 for first-year survival, and 0.8825 for adult survival. Adult survival had the greatest influence on ?? for our population, and this conclusion was robust over a range of survival and productivity estimates. Given published estimates of annual survival for adult females (61%), our model suggested nest success and duckling survival need to increase to approximately 40% to achieve population stability. We discuss reasons for the apparent discrepancy in population trends between our model and aerial surveys in terms of bias in productivity and survival estimates.

  10. The effects of accelerated growth rates and estrogen implants in prepubertal Holstein heifers on growth, feed efficiency, and blood parameters.

    PubMed

    Lammers, B P; Heinrichs, A J; Kensinger, R S

    1999-08-01

    Sixty-eight Holstein heifers were used to determine the effects of accelerated growth rates by increased nutrient intake and estrogen implants on feed efficiency, structural growth, and blood parameters in heifers between 19 and 39 wk of age. At the beginning of the treatment period, the heifers were assigned to one of four treatment groups by using a randomized complete block design in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. The treatments were standard growth rate (700 g/d), accelerated growth rate (1000 g/d), standard growth rate with an estradiol implant, and accelerated growth rate with an estradiol implant. All heifers received the same diet, but dry matter intake was adjusted weekly to achieve the target rate of gain. Accelerating heifer growth rates from 705 to 1007 g/d improved feed efficiency 5.1%, increased the rate of withers height, heart girth, and hip width growth 12, 27, and 27%, respectively, and body condition scores 0.25 points. Estradiol implants improved feed efficiency 2.4% and decreased the rate of withers height 6% and heart girth growth 3.5%. Increased nutrient intake and average daily gain depressed mean plasma growth hormone and urea nitrogen content 17 and 7%, respectively, while elevating insulin-like growth factor-1 levels by 10%. Estradiol implants increased mean plasma growth hormone content by 29% and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels by 17%, but decreased urea nitrogen content by 11%. Feeding prepubertal heifers for accelerated growth rates increased structural growth with a small increase in body condition, whereas estradiol implants improved feed efficiency and decreased the growth rate of withers height and heart girth without affecting the rate of hip width growth. PMID:10480101

  11. Estimation of Eruption Source Parameters from Plume Growth Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouget, Solene; Bursik, Marcus; Webley, Peter; Dehn, Jon; Pavalonis, Michael; Singh, Tarunraj; Singla, Puneet; Patra, Abani; Pitman, Bruce; Stefanescu, Ramona; Madankan, Reza; Morton, Donald; Jones, Matthew

    2013-04-01

    The eruption of Eyjafjallajokull, Iceland in April and May, 2010, brought to light the hazards of airborne volcanic ash and the importance of Volcanic Ash Transport and Dispersion models (VATD) to estimate the concentration of ash with time. These models require Eruption Source Parameters (ESP) as input, which typically include information about the plume height, the mass eruption rate, the duration of the eruption and the particle size distribution. However much of the time these ESP are unknown or poorly known a priori. We show that the mass eruption rate can be estimated from the downwind plume or umbrella cloud growth rate. A simple version of the continuity equation can be applied to the growth of either an umbrella cloud or the downwind plume. The continuity equation coupled with the momentum equation using only inertial and gravitational terms provides another model. Numerical modeling or scaling relationships can be used, as necessary, to provide values for unknown or unavailable parameters. Use of these models applied to data on plume geometry provided by satellite imagery allows for direct estimation of plume volumetric and mass growth with time. To test our methodology, we compared our results with five well-studied and well-characterized historical eruptions: Mount St. Helens, 1980; Pinatubo, 1991, Redoubt, 1990; Hekla, 2000 and Eyjafjallajokull, 2010. These tests show that the methodologies yield results comparable to or better than currently accepted methodologies of ESP estimation. We then applied the methodology to umbrella clouds produced by the eruptions of Okmok, 12 July 2008, and Sarychev Peak, 12 June 2009, and to the downwind plume produced by the eruptions of Hekla, 2000; Kliuchevsko'i, 1 October 1994; Kasatochi 7-8 August 2008 and Bezymianny, 1 September 2012. The new methods allow a fast, remote assessment of the mass eruption rate, even for remote volcanoes. They thus provide an additional path to estimation of the ESP and the forecasting

  12. Adaptation to Low Temperature Exposure Increases Metabolic Rates Independently of Growth Rates.

    PubMed

    Williams, Caroline M; Szejner-Sigal, Andre; Morgan, Theodore J; Edison, Arthur S; Allison, David B; Hahn, Daniel A

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic cold adaptation is a pattern where ectotherms from cold, high-latitude, or -altitude habitats have higher metabolic rates than ectotherms from warmer habitats. When found, metabolic cold adaptation is often attributed to countergradient selection, wherein short, cool growing seasons select for a compensatory increase in growth rates and development times of ectotherms. Yet, ectotherms in high-latitude and -altitude environments face many challenges in addition to thermal and time constraints on lifecycles. In addition to short, cool growing seasons, high-latitude and - altitude environments are characterized by regular exposure to extreme low temperatures, which cause ectotherms to enter a transient state of immobility termed chill coma. The ability to resume activity quickly after chill coma increases with latitude and altitude in patterns consistent with local adaptation to cold conditions. We show that artificial selection for fast and slow chill coma recovery among lines of the fly Drosophila melanogaster also affects rates of respiratory metabolism. Cold-hardy fly lines, with fast recovery from chill coma, had higher respiratory metabolic rates than control lines, with cold-susceptible slow-recovering lines having the lowest metabolic rates. Fast chill coma recovery was also associated with higher respiratory metabolism in a set of lines derived from a natural population. Although their metabolic rates were higher than control lines, fast-recovering cold-hardy lines did not have faster growth rates or development times than control lines. This suggests that raised metabolic rates in high-latitude and -altitude species may be driven by adaptation to extreme low temperatures, illustrating the importance of moving "Beyond the Mean". PMID:27103615

  13. The Effect of Growth Rate on Interface Morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trivedi, R.; Somboonsuk, K.

    1984-01-01

    Since significantly different solidification structures of a given alloy can be obtained by varying experimental growth rates, it is desirable to understand the basic factors which control the formation and stability of these microstructures when conditions are altered. Directional solidification experiments are described and the results obtained in metallic and transparent organic systems are presented. Emphasis is on the characteristics of dendritic structures obtained under different solidification conditions. Specifically, the effect of the growth rate on the primary dendritic spacing, the secondary dendrite spacing, and the dendrite tip radius is discussed. It is shown that significant changes in the primary spacing are observed when a dendrite to cellular transition takes place at lower velocities. It is found that the primary cellular spacing is much smaller than the primary dendrite spacing so that a maximum in the primary spacing occurs as a function of velocity at the dendrite-cellular transition. A theoretical model is also described which quantitatively explains various microstructural features of dendritic and cellular structures.

  14. Stationary Vortices in Karman Grooves. I.Vortex Growth Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balle, Gregory J.; Kier, Thiemo M.; Breidenthal, Robert E.

    1999-11-01

    The effect of a stationary vortex on wall fluxes in turbulent flow is predicted by the vortex persistence theory of turbulence. As a first step to test the theory, the feasibility of holding a vortex sufficiently stationary whilst embedded in a turbulent boundary layer is investi gated. Exploiting the stationarity of von Karman vortices in a wake, the dividing stream line is replaced by a wavy wall. Vortex generators are accurately positioned in the valleys (the "Karman grooves") so that the resulting streamwise vortices correspond to those in the vortex street. Complex potential theory predicts stationary points for such vortices, while there are no such points near a flat wall. Flow visualization experiments explore the basic properties of these vortices. In comparison to vortices near a flat plate, the growth rate of the stationary vortex in a Karman groove is reduced dramatically, i.e. by about an order of magnitude. This is consistent with the idea that the stationarity, persistence and growth rate of a turbulent vortex are intimately linked. Passive control of near-wall stream wise vortices is demonstrated, a foundation for the next step, measurement of a wall flux.

  15. Damage segregation at fissioning may increase growth rates

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Steven N.; Steinsaltz, David

    2007-01-01

    A fissioning organism may purge unrepairable damage by bequeathing it preferentially to one of its daughters. Using the mathematical formalism of superprocesses, we propose a flexible class of analytically tractable models that allow quite general effects of damage on death rates and splitting rates and similarly general damage segregation mechanisms. We show that, in a suitable regime, the effects of randomness in damage segregation at fissioning are indistinguishable from those of randomness in the mechanism of damage accumulation during the organism’s lifetime. Moreover, the optimal population growth is achieved for a particular finite, non-zero level of combined randomness from these two sources. In particular, when damage accumulates deterministically, optimal population growth is achieved by a moderately unequal division of damage between the daughters, while too little or too much division is sub-optimal. Connections are drawn both to recent experimental results on inheritance of damage in protozoans, and to theories of aging and resource division between siblings. PMID:17442356

  16. Non-linear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-04-09

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a non-linear, stochastic relation between θ = ∇ ∙ v(x,t)/aH and δ. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean <θ|δ>, together with the fluctuations of θ around this mean. We also measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10 per cent at k < 0.2 h Mpc-1 to 25 per cent at k ~ 0.45 h Mpc-1 at z = 0. Both the stochastic relation and non-linearity are more pronounced for haloes, M ≤ 5 × 1012 M h-1, compared to the dark matter at z = 0 and 1. Non-linear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean <θ|δ> away from the linear theory prediction -fLTδ, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) fork < 0.1 h Mpc-1. Furthermore, the stochasticity in the θ – δ relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of fLT from two-point statistics in redshift space. Furthermore, given that the relationship between δ and θ is stochastic and non-linear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.

  17. Non-linear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-06-01

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a non-linear, stochastic relation between θ = nabla \\cdot v({x},t)/aH and δ. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean <θ|δ>, together with the fluctuations of θ around this mean. We measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ˜10 per cent at k < 0.2 h Mpc-1 to 25 per cent at k ˜ 0.45 h Mpc-1 at z = 0. Both the stochastic relation and non-linearity are more pronounced for haloes, M ≤ 5 × 1012 M⊙ h-1, compared to the dark matter at z = 0 and 1. Non-linear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean <θ|δ> away from the linear theory prediction -fLTδ, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) for k < 0.1 h Mpc-1. The stochasticity in the θ-δ relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of fLT from two-point statistics in redshift space. Given that the relationship between δ and θ is stochastic and non-linear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.

  18. Non-linear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-04-09

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a non-linear, stochastic relation between θ = ∇ ∙ v(x,t)/aH and δ. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean <θ|δ>, together with the fluctuations of θ around this mean. We also measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10 per cent at k < 0.2 h Mpc-1 to 25 per cent at kmore » ~ 0.45 h Mpc-1 at z = 0. Both the stochastic relation and non-linearity are more pronounced for haloes, M ≤ 5 × 1012 M⊙ h-1, compared to the dark matter at z = 0 and 1. Non-linear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean <θ|δ> away from the linear theory prediction -fLTδ, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) fork < 0.1 h Mpc-1. Furthermore, the stochasticity in the θ – δ relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of fLT from two-point statistics in redshift space. Furthermore, given that the relationship between δ and θ is stochastic and non-linear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.« less

  19. Perspectives on massive coral growth rates in a changing ocean.

    PubMed

    Lough, Janice M; Cantin, Neal E

    2014-06-01

    The tropical ocean environment is changing at an unprecedented rate, with warming and severe tropical cyclones creating obvious impacts to coral reefs within the last few decades and projections of acidification raising concerns for the future of these iconic and economically important ecosystems. Documenting variability and detecting change in global and regional climate relies upon high-quality observational records of climate variables supplemented, prior to the mid-19th century, with reconstructions from various sources of proxy climate information. Here we review how annual density banding patterns that are recorded in the skeletons of massive reef-building corals have been used to document environmental change and impacts within coral reefs. Massive corals provide a historical perspective of continuous calcification processes that pre-date most ecological observations of coral reefs. High-density stress bands, abrupt declines in annual linear extension, and evidence of partial mortality within the skeletal growth record reveal signatures of catastrophic stress events that have recently been attributed to mass bleaching events caused by unprecedented thermal stress. Comparison of recent trends in annual calcification with century-scale baseline calcification rates reveals that the frequency of growth anomalies has increased since the late 1990s throughout most of the world's coral reef ecosystems. Continuous coral growth histories provide valuable retrospective information on the coral response to environmental change and the consequences of anthropogenic climate change. Co-ordinated efforts to synthesize and combine global calcification histories will greatly enhance our understanding of current calcification responses to a changing ocean. PMID:25070864

  20. Growth rate controlled barium partitioning in calcite and aragonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetschl, Katja Elisabeth; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Baldermann, Andre; Purgstaller, Bettina; Dietzel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The barium (Ba) content and the Ba/Ca molar ratios in biogenic and abiotic carbonates have been widely used from the scientific community as a geochemical proxy especially in marine and early diagenetic settings. The Ba content of carbonate minerals has been earlier associated to changes in oceanic circulation that may have been caused by upwelling, changes in weathering regimes and river-runoff as well as melt water discharge. The physicochemical controls of Ba ion incorporation in the two most abundant CaCO3 polymorphs found in Earth's surface environments, i.e. calcite and aragonite, have adequately been studied only for calcite. These earlier studies (i.e. [1]) suggest that at increasing growth rate, Ba partitioning in calcite is increasing as well. In contrast, to date the effect of growth rate on the partitioning of Ba in aragonite remains questionable, despite the fact that this mineral phase is the predominant carbonate-forming polymorph in shallow marine environments. To shed light on the mechanisms controlling Ba ion uptake in carbonates in this study we performed steady-state Ba co-precipitation experiments with calcite and aragonite at 25°C. The obtained results for the partitioning of Ba in calcite are in good agreement with those reported earlier by [1], whereas those for aragonite indicate a reduction of Ba partitioning at elevated aragonite growth rates, with the partitioning coefficient value between solid and fluid to be approaching the unity. This finding is good agreement with the formation of a solid solution in the aragonite-witherite system, owing to the isostructural crystallography of the two mineral phases. Moreover, our data set provides new insights that are required for reconstructing the evolution of the Ba content of pristine marine versus diagenetically altered carbonate minerals commonly occurring in marine subfloor settings, as the thermodynamically less stable aragonite will transform to calcite enriched in Ba, whilst affecting

  1. Does seed mass drive the differences in relative growth rate between growth forms?

    PubMed

    Houghton, Jennie; Thompson, Ken; Rees, Mark

    2013-07-01

    The idea that herbaceous plants have higher relative growth rates (RGRs) compared with woody plants is fundamental to many of the most influential theories in plant ecology. This difference in growth rate is thought to reflect systematic variation in physiology, allocation and leaf construction. Previous studies documenting this effect have, however, ignored differences in seed mass. As woody species often have larger seeds and RGR is negatively correlated with seed mass, it is entirely possible the lower RGRs observed in woody species is a consequence of having larger seeds rather than different growth strategies. Using a synthesis of the published literature, we explored the relationship between RGR and growth form, accounting for the effects of seed mass and study-specific effects (e.g. duration of study and pot volume), using a mixed-effects model. The model showed that herbaceous species do indeed have higher RGRs than woody species, and that the difference was independent of seed mass, thus at all seed masses, herbaceous species on average grow faster than woody ones. PMID:23677351

  2. Extended Simulations of Graphene Growth with Updated Rate Coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Whitesides, R; You, X; Frenklach, M

    2010-03-18

    New simulations of graphene growth in flame environments are presented. The simulations employ a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm coupled to molecular mechanics (MM) geometry optimization to track individual graphenic species as they evolve. Focus is given to incorporation of five-member rings and resulting curvature and edge defects. The model code has been re-written to be more computationally efficient enabling a larger set of simulations to be run, decreasing stochastic fluctuations in the averaged results. The model also includes updated rate coefficients for graphene edge reactions recently published in the literature. The new simulations are compared to results from the previous model as well as to hydrogen to carbon ratios recorded in experiment and calculated with alternate models.

  3. Carbon dioxide limitation of marine phytoplankton growth rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebesell, U.; Wolf-Gladrow, D. A.; Smetacek, V.

    1993-01-01

    THE supply of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is not considered to limit oceanic primary productivity1, as its concentration in sea water exceeds that of other plant macronutrients such as nitrate and phosphate by two and three orders of magnitude, respectively. But the bulk of oceanic new production2 and a major fraction of vertical carbon flux is mediated by a few diatom genera whose ability to use DIG components other than CO2, which comprises < 1% of total DIC3, is unknown4. Here we show that under optimal light and nutrient conditions, diatom growth rate can in fact be limited by the supply of CO2. The doubling in surface water pCO2 levels since the last glaciation from 180 to 355 p.p.m.5,6 could therefore have stimulated marine productivity, thereby increasing oceanic carbon sequestration by the biological pump.

  4. Aerosol observations and growth rates in the tropical tropopause layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddicor, D. A.; Vaughan, G.; Choularton, T. W.; Bower, K. N.; Coe, H.; Gallagher, M.; Williams, P. I.; Flynn, M.; Volz-Thomas, A.; Pätz, W.; Isaac, P.; Hacker, J.; Arnold, F.; Schlager, H.; Whiteway, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a case study of Aitken and accumulation mode aerosol observed downwind of the anvils of deep tropical thunderstorms. The measurements were made by condensation nuclei counters flown on the Egrett high-altitude aircraft from Darwin during the ACTIVE campaign, in monsoon conditions producing widespread convection over land and ocean. Maximum measured concentrations of aerosol in the size range 10-100 nm were 25 000 cm-3 STP. By calculating back-trajectories from the observations, and projecting on to infrared satellite images, the time since the air exited cloud was estimated. In this way a time scale of ~ 3-4 h was derived for the 10-100 nm aerosol concentration to reach its peak. We examine the hypothesis that the growth in aerosol concentrations can be explained by production of sulphuric acid from SO2 followed by particle nucleation and coagulation. Estimates of the sulphuric acid production rate show that the observations are only consistent with this hypothesis if the particles coagulate to sizes > 10 nm much more quickly than is suggested by current theory. Alternatively, other condensible gases (possibly organic) drive the growth of aerosol particles in the TTL.

  5. Age, growth rates, and paleoclimate studies of deep sea corals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, Nancy G; Roark, E. Brendan; Andrews, Allen; Robinson, Laura; Hill, Tessa; Sherwood, Owen; Williams, Branwen; Guilderson, Thomas P.; Fallon, Stewart

    2015-01-01

    Deep-water corals are some of the slowest growing, longest-lived skeletal accreting marine organisms. These habitat-forming species support diverse faunal assemblages that include commercially and ecologically important organisms. Therefore, effective management and conservation strategies for deep-sea corals can be informed by precise and accurate age, growth rate, and lifespan characteristics for proper assessment of vulnerability and recovery from perturbations. This is especially true for the small number of commercially valuable, and potentially endangered, species that are part of the black and precious coral fisheries (Tsounis et al. 2010). In addition to evaluating time scales of recovery from disturbance or exploitation, accurate age and growth estimates are essential for understanding the life history and ecology of these habitat-forming corals. Given that longevity is a key factor for population maintenance and fishery sustainability, partly due to limited and complex genetic flow among coral populations separated by great distances, accurate age structure for these deep-sea coral communities is essential for proper, long-term resource management.

  6. Error Growth Rate in the MM5 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, S.; Palamarchuk, J.

    2006-12-01

    The goal of this work is to estimate model error growth rates in simulations of the atmospheric circulation by the MM5 model all the way from the short range to the medium range and beyond. The major topics are addressed to: (i) search the optimal set of parameterization schemes; (ii) evaluate the spatial structure and scales of the model error for various atmospheric fields; (iii) determine geographical regions where model errors are largest; (iv) define particular atmospheric patterns contributing to the fast and significant model error growth. Results are presented for geopotential, temperature, relative humidity and horizontal wind components fields on standard surfaces over the Atlantic-European region during winter 2002. Various combinations of parameterization schemes for cumulus, PBL, moisture and radiation are used to identify which one provides a lesser difference between the model state and analysis. The comparison of the model fields is carried out versus ERA-40 reanalysis of the ECMWF. Results show that the rate, at which the model error grows as well as its magnitude, varies depending on the forecast range, atmospheric variable and level. The typical spatial scale and structure of the model error also depends on the particular atmospheric variable. The distribution of the model error over the domain can be separated in two parts: the steady and transient. The first part is associated with a few high mountain regions including Greenland, where model error is larger. The transient model error mainly moves along with areas of high gradients in the atmospheric flow. Acknowledgement: This study has been supported by NATO Science for Peace grant #981044. The MM5 modelling system used in this study has been provided by UCAR. ERA-40 re-analysis data have been obtained from the ECMWF data server.

  7. A Bayesian analysis of the effect of selection for growth rate on growth curves in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Blasco, Agustín; Piles, Miriam; Varona, Luis

    2003-01-01

    Gompertz growth curves were fitted to the data of 137 rabbits from control (C) and selected (S) lines. The animals came from a synthetic rabbit line selected for an increased growth rate. The embryos from generations 3 and 4 were frozen and thawed to be contemporary of rabbits born in generation 10. Group C was the offspring of generations 3 and 4, and group S was the contemporary offspring of generation 10. The animals were weighed individually twice a week during the first four weeks of life, and once a week thereafter, until 20 weeks of age. Subsequently, the males were weighed weekly until 40 weeks of age. The random samples of the posterior distributions of the growth curve parameters were drawn by using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. As a consequence of selection, the selected animals were heavier than the C animals throughout the entire growth curve. Adult body weight, estimated as a parameter of the Gompertz curve, was 7% higher in the selected line. The other parameters of the Gompertz curve were scarcely affected by selection. When selected and control growth curves are represented in a metabolic scale, all differences disappear. PMID:12605849

  8. Permanent draft genome sequence of the probiotic strain Propionibacterium freudenreichii CIRM-BIA 129 (ITG P20).

    PubMed

    Falentin, Hélène; Deutsch, Stéphanie-Marie; Loux, Valentin; Hammani, Amal; Buratti, Julien; Parayre, Sandrine; Chuat, Victoria; Barbe, Valérie; Aury, Jean-Marc; Jan, Gwenaël; Le Loir, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii belongs to the class Actinobacteria (Gram positive with a high GC content). This "Generally Recognized As Safe" (GRAS) species is traditionally used as (i) a starter for Swiss-type cheeses where it is responsible for holes and aroma production, (ii) a vitamin B12 and propionic acid producer in white biotechnologies, and (iii) a probiotic for use in humans and animals because of its bifidogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Until now, only strain CIRM-BIA1T had been sequenced, annotated and become publicly available. Strain CIRM-BIA129 (commercially available as ITG P20) has considerable anti-inflammatory potential. Its gene content was compared to that of CIRM-BIA1 T. This strain contains 2384 genes including 1 ribosomal operon, 45 tRNA and 30 pseudogenes. PMID:26779303

  9. Climate Forcing Growth Rates: Doubling Down on Our Faustian Bargain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko

    2013-01-01

    Rahmstorf et al 's (2012) conclusion that observed climate change is comparable to projections, and in some cases exceeds projections, allows further inferences if we can quantify changing climate forcings and compare those with projections. The largest climate forcing is caused by well-mixed long-lived greenhouse gases. Here we illustrate trends of these gases and their climate forcings, and we discuss implications. We focus on quantities that are accurately measured, and we include comparison with fixed scenarios, which helps reduce common misimpressions about how climate forcings are changing. Annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions have shot up in the past decade at about 3/yr, double the rate of the prior three decades (figure 1). The growth rate falls above the range of the IPCC (2001) 'Marker' scenarios, although emissions are still within the entire range considered by the IPCC SRES (2000). The surge in emissions is due to increased coal use (blue curve in figure 1), which now accounts for more than 40 of fossil fuel CO2 emissions.

  10. Percolation model for growth rates of aggregates and its application for business firm growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Dongfeng; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Salinger, Michael A.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2006-09-01

    Motivated by recent empirical studies of business firm growth, we develop a dynamic percolation model which captures some of the features of the economical system—i.e., merging and splitting of business firms—represented as aggregates on a d -dimensional lattice. We find the steady-state distribution of the aggregate size and explore how this distribution depends on the model parameters. We find that at the critical threshold, the standard deviation of the aggregate growth rates, σ , increases with aggregate size S as σ˜Sβ , where β can be explained in terms of the connectedness length exponent ν and the fractal dimension df , with β=1/(2νdf)≈0.20 for d=2 and 0.125 for d→∞ . The distributions of aggregate growth rates have a sharp peak at the center and pronounced wings extending over many standard deviations, giving the distribution a tent-shape form—the Laplace distribution. The distributions for different aggregate sizes scaled by their standard deviations collapse onto the same curve.

  11. Body composition of piglets exhibiting different growth rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growth and composition of the neonatal pig is of interest because of potential impact on subsequent growth and finally, composition at market weight. The purpose of this study was to compare at weaning the growth and body composition of the largest and smallest pigs (excluding runts) from each o...

  12. Long-run growth rate in a random multiplicative model

    SciTech Connect

    Pirjol, Dan

    2014-08-01

    We consider the long-run growth rate of the average value of a random multiplicative process x{sub i+1} = a{sub i}x{sub i} where the multipliers a{sub i}=1+ρexp(σW{sub i}₋1/2 σ²t{sub i}) have Markovian dependence given by the exponential of a standard Brownian motion W{sub i}. The average value (x{sub n}) is given by the grand partition function of a one-dimensional lattice gas with two-body linear attractive interactions placed in a uniform field. We study the Lyapunov exponent λ=lim{sub n→∞}1/n log(x{sub n}), at fixed β=1/2 σ²t{sub n}n, and show that it is given by the equation of state of the lattice gas in thermodynamical equilibrium. The Lyapunov exponent has discontinuous partial derivatives along a curve in the (ρ, β) plane ending at a critical point (ρ{sub C}, β{sub C}) which is related to a phase transition in the equivalent lattice gas. Using the equivalence of the lattice gas with a bosonic system, we obtain the exact solution for the equation of state in the thermodynamical limit n → ∞.

  13. An assessment of bird habitat quality using population growth rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Powell, L.A.; Hines, R.K.; Friberg, M.A.; Niemi, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Survival and reproduction directly affect population growth rate (lambda) making lambda a fundamental parameter for assessing habitat quality. We used field data, literature review, and a computer simulation to predict annual productivity and lambda for several species of landbirds breeding in floodplain and upland forests in the Midwestern United States. We monitored 1735 nests of 27 species; 760 nests were in the uplands and 975 were in the floodplain. Each type of forest habitat (upland and floodplain) was a source habitat for some species. Despite a relatively low proportion of regional forest cover, the majority of species had stable or increasing populations in all or some habitats, including six species of conservation concern. In our search for a simple analog for lambda, we found that only adult apparent survival, juvenile survival, and annual productivity were correlated with lambda; daily nest survival and relative abundance estimated from point counts were not. Survival and annual productivity are among the most costly demographic parameters to measure and there does not seem to be a low-cost alternative. In addition, our literature search revealed that the demographic parameters needed to model annual productivity and lambda were unavailable for several species. More collective effort across North America is needed to fill the gaps in our knowledge of demographic parameters necessary to model both annual productivity and lambda. Managers can use habitat-specific predictions of annual productivity to compare habitat quality among species and habitats for purposes of evaluating management plans.

  14. Dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser: Finite axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Kheiri, Golshad; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi

    2013-12-15

    A theoretical analysis is presented for dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser with finite axial magnetic field. It is shown that the growth rate and the resonance frequency of Cherenkov free electron laser increase with increasing axial magnetic field for low axial magnetic fields, while for high axial magnetic fields, they go to a saturation value. The growth rate and resonance frequency saturation values are exactly the same as those for infinite axial magnetic field approximation. The effects of electron beam self-fields on growth rate are investigated, and it is shown that the growth rate decreases in the presence of self-fields. It is found that there is an optimum value for electron beam density and Lorentz relativistic factor at which the maximum growth rate can take place. Also, the effects of velocity spread of electron beam are studied and it is found that the growth rate decreases due to the electron velocity spread.

  15. Growth rate regulation of rRNA content of a marine Synechococcus (cyanobacterium) strain

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, B.J.; Liu, Y.C.

    1998-09-01

    The relationship between growth rate and rRNA content in a marine Synechococcus strain was examined. A combination of flow cytometry and whole-cell hybridization with fluorescently labeled 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes was used to measure the rRNA content of Synechococcus strain WH8101 cells grown at a range of light-limited growth rates. The sensitivity of this approach was sufficient for the analysis of rRNA even in very slowly growing Synechococcus cells. The relationship between growth rate and cellular rRNA content comprised three phases: (1) at low growth rates, rRNA cell{sup {minus}1} remained approximately constant; (2) at intermediate rates, rRNA cell{sup {minus}1} increased proportionally with growth rate; and (3) at the highest, light-saturated rates, rRNA cell{sup {minus}1} dropped abruptly. Total cellular RNA was well correlated with the probe-based measure of rRNA and varied in a similar manner with growth rate. Mean cell volume and rRNA concentration were related to growth rate in a manner similar to rRNA cell{sup {minus}1}, although the overall magnitude linear increase in ribosome efficiency with increasing growth rate, which is consistent with the prevailing prokaryotic model at low growth rates. Taken together, these results support the notion that measurements of cellular rRNA content might be useful for estimating in situ growth rates in natural Synechococcus populations.

  16. Effect of Tides On Sea Ice Deformation and Growth Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchings, J.; Heil, P.; Hibler, W. D.

    Due to high ice strength in present formulations of non-linear plastic sea ice dynamic models, the relatively small tides in the Arctic Basin produces little relative motion. However, recent work with a stand alone sea ice model including a more realistic for- mulation of ice-ocean coupling [Heil & Hibler, accepted] has produced more realistic inertial motion in agreement with observations. With such improved model physics, we expect tidal motion of the ice pack to have a more pronounced effect on simulated periodic lead opening and closing, enhancing winter ice growth rate. To investigate this process, tidal forcing [Kowalik 1998] is included in the momentum balance of a stand alone sea ice model [Heil & Hibler, accepted]. The model includes a modi- fied coulombic rheology, hourly interpolated NCEP reanalysis atmospheric forcing, climatological cloud fraction [Gorshkov,1980] , oceanic currents and heat flux from Polyakov et al. [1998] and inertial embedding as Hibler et al. [1998]. Arctic sea ice is simulated for the period 1948-2000 and compared to a control without tidal forcing. It is investigated how tidal motion and inertial motion interact. As the inertial period is close to the major semi-diurnal tidal period we expect ice deformation in tidally active regions (such as the Barents Sea) to be amplified through inertial resonance. The tidal influence on ice mass balance is estimated. The interannual variability of ice mass is examined to show how tidal influence differs between years of high Arctic Oscillation (AO) index, when ice divergence is increased and trans-polar transport widened, and low AO index, when the Arctic high dominates and convergent motion prevails.

  17. A study of the growth rate of GaSb using TEGa and TMSb or TESb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Rajaram; Caneau, Catherine G.

    2015-09-01

    The growth rate of gallium antimonide using triethylgallium and either trimethylantimony or triethylantimony has been studied over a wide temperature range, from 475 to 675 °C. In contrast to earlier reports of the growth being diffusion controlled when trimethylantimony is used, we find that it is kinetically controlled at temperatures below 650 °C. The growth rate of gallium antimonide when trietylantimony is used varies in a complex way with temperature but is ultimately diffusion controlled above 650 °C, with both trimethylantimony and triethylantimony yielding the same growth rate. For comparison, the growth rate of gallium arsenide was studied with triethylgallium and arsine or tertiarybutylarsine, and with trimethylgallium and arsine: in both case, it is diffusion controlled in the entire temperature range studied. However, the diffusion controlled growth rate of gallium antimonide predicted from the gallium arsenide growth rate is lower than what is experimentally observed.

  18. Implications of a concentration-dependent growth rate on the boundary layer crystal-melt model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaga, Antonio C.

    1981-12-01

    The influence of a melt boundary layer on crystal growth is analyzed. The treatment extends the results of Burton, Prim and Slichter (1953) and incorporates composition-dependent growth rates. It is shown that in these general cases the growth rate cannot be arbitrarily fixed but must satisfy a self-consistent equation. Self-consistency problems arise because the growth rate determines the composition profile in the melt and, in turn, the composition profile determines the growth rate. The self-consistent growth rate is shown to vary markedly with the ratio δ/D, where δ is the thickness of the boundary layer and D is the appropriate diffusion coefficient in the melt. This self-consistency can be very important in the analysis of both field and laboratory growth rates as well as in trace element partition kinetic models.

  19. Adoption of multivariate copulae in prognostication of economic growth by means of interest rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saputra, Dewi Tanasia; Indratno, Sapto Wahyu, Dr.

    2015-12-01

    Inflation, at a healthy rate, is a sign of growing economy. Nonetheless, when inflation rate grows uncontrollably, it will negatively influence economic growth. Many tackle this problem by increasing interest rate to help protecting the value of money which is detained by inflation. There are few, however, who study the effects of interest rate in economic growth. The main purposes of this paper are to find how the change of interest rate affects economic growth and to use the relationship in prognostication of economic growth. By using expenditure model, a linear relationship between economic growth and interest rate is developed. The result is then used for prediction by normal copula and Vine Archimedean copula. It is shown that increasing interest rate to tackle inflation is a poor solution. Whereas implementation of copula in predicting economic growth yields an accurate result, with not more than 0.5% difference.

  20. Estimation of the growth curve and heritability of the growth rate for giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) cubs.

    PubMed

    Che, T D; Wang, C D; Jin, L; Wei, M; Wu, K; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, H M; Li, D S

    2015-01-01

    Giant panda cubs have a low survival rate during the newborn and early growth stages. However, the growth and developmental parameters of giant panda cubs during the early lactation stage (from birth to 6 months) are not well known. We examined the growth and development of giant panda cubs by the Chapman growth curve model and estimated the heritability of the maximum growth rate at the early lactation stage. We found that 83 giant panda cubs reached their maximum growth rate at approximately 75-120 days after birth. The body weight of cubs at 75 days was 4285.99 g. Furthermore, we estimated that the heritability of the maximum growth rate was moderate (h(2) = 0.38). Our study describes the growth and development of giant panda cubs at the early lactation stage and provides valuable growth benchmarks. We anticipate that our results will be a starting point for more detailed research on increasing the survival rate of giant panda cubs. Feeding programs for giant panda cubs need further improvement. PMID:25867378

  1. Ice Crystal Growth Rates Under Upper Troposphere Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Harold S.; Bailey, Matthew; Hallett, John

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions for growth of ice crystals (temperature and ice supersaturation) are often not well constrained and it is necessary to simulate such conditions in the laboratory to investigate such growth under well controlled conditions over many hours. The growth of ice crystals from the vapour in both prism and basal planes was observed at temperatures of -60 C and -70 C under ice supersaturation up to 100% (200% relative humidity) at pressures derived from the standard atmosphere in a static diffusion chamber. Crystals grew outward from a vertical glass filament, thickening in the basal plane by addition of macroscopic layers greater than 2 m, leading to growth in the prism plane by passing of successive layers conveniently viewed by time lapse video.

  2. Ice Particle Growth Rates Under Upper Troposphere Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Harold; Bailey, Matthew; Hallett, John

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions for growth of ice crystals (temperature and ice supersaturation) are often not well constrained and it is necessary to simulate such conditions in the laboratory to investigate such growth under well controlled conditions over many hours. The growth of ice crystals from the vapour in both prism and basal planes was observed at temperatures of -60 C and -70 C under ice supersaturation up to 100% (200% relative humidity) at pressures derived from the standard atmosphere in a static diffusion chamber. Crystals grew outward from a vertical glass filament, thickening in the basal plane by addition of macroscopic layers greater than 2 m, leading to growth in the prism plane by passing of successive layers conveniently viewed by time lapse video.

  3. Simulation of sandsage-bluestem forage growth under varying stocking rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of stocking rate on forage growth has attracted a great deal of research attention in forage science. Findings show that forage growth may be affected by stocking rate and there is the consensus that high stocking rates lead to soil compaction, which could also in turn affect forage growt...

  4. Metabolism correlates with variation in post-natal growth rate among songbirds at three latitudes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ton, Riccardo; Martin, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    4. Our results suggest that variation in metabolic rates has an important influence on broad patterns of avian growth rates at a global scale. We suggest further studies that address the ecological and physiological costs and consequences of variation in metabolism and growth rates.

  5. Climate forcing growth rates: doubling down on our Faustian bargain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko

    2013-03-01

    Rahmstorf et al 's (2012) conclusion that observed climate change is comparable to projections, and in some cases exceeds projections, allows further inferences if we can quantify changing climate forcings and compare those with projections. The largest climate forcing is caused by well-mixed long-lived greenhouse gases. Here we illustrate trends of these gases and their climate forcings, and we discuss implications. We focus on quantities that are accurately measured, and we include comparison with fixed scenarios, which helps reduce common misimpressions about how climate forcings are changing. Annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions have shot up in the past decade at about 3% yr-1, double the rate of the prior three decades (figure 1). The growth rate falls above the range of the IPCC (2001) 'Marker' scenarios, although emissions are still within the entire range considered by the IPCC SRES (2000). The surge in emissions is due to increased coal use (blue curve in figure 1), which now accounts for more than 40% of fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Figure 1. Figure 1. CO2 annual emissions from fossil fuel use and cement manufacture, an update of figure 16 of Hansen (2003) using data of British Petroleum (BP 2012) concatenated with data of Boden et al (2012). The resulting annual increase of atmospheric CO2 (12-month running mean) has grown from less than 1 ppm yr-1 in the early 1960s to an average ~2 ppm yr-1 in the past decade (figure 2). Although CO2 measurements were not made at sufficient locations prior to the early 1980s to calculate the global mean change, the close match of global and Mauna Loa data for later years suggests that Mauna Loa data provide a good approximation of global change (figure 2), thus allowing a useful estimate of annual global change beginning with the initiation of Mauna Loa measurements in 1958 by Keeling et al (1973). Figure 2. Figure 2. Annual increase of CO2 based on data from the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL 2012). CO2 change

  6. Growth rates of gibbsite single crystals determined using in situ optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mei-yin; Parkinson, Gordon M.

    1999-03-01

    Although the crystallization of gibbsite via the Bayer process is an established industry, the mechanism by which gibbsite crystallizes is not well understood. In the microscopic investigation of gibbsite crystal growth, the phenomenon of growth rate dispersion was observed. The study of the growth rate dependence on supersaturation showed that growth of the prismatic faces is occurring via a spiral growth mechanism. In the case of the basal face, above a relative supersaturation of 0.67, birth and spread is the principal mechanism operating, while spiral growth is the major mechanism operating below a relative supersaturation of 0.67.

  7. Generalised Central Limit Theorems for Growth Rate Distribution of Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayasu, Misako; Watanabe, Hayafumi; Takayasu, Hideki

    2014-04-01

    We introduce a solvable model of randomly growing systems consisting of many independent subunits. Scaling relations and growth rate distributions in the limit of infinite subunits are analysed theoretically. Various types of scaling properties and distributions reported for growth rates of complex systems in a variety of fields can be derived from this basic physical model. Statistical data of growth rates for about 1 million business firms are analysed as a real-world example of randomly growing systems. Not only are the scaling relations consistent with the theoretical solution, but the entire functional form of the growth rate distribution is fitted with a theoretical distribution that has a power-law tail.

  8. Climate forcing growth rates: doubling down on our Faustian bargain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko

    2013-03-01

    Rahmstorf et al 's (2012) conclusion that observed climate change is comparable to projections, and in some cases exceeds projections, allows further inferences if we can quantify changing climate forcings and compare those with projections. The largest climate forcing is caused by well-mixed long-lived greenhouse gases. Here we illustrate trends of these gases and their climate forcings, and we discuss implications. We focus on quantities that are accurately measured, and we include comparison with fixed scenarios, which helps reduce common misimpressions about how climate forcings are changing. Annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions have shot up in the past decade at about 3% yr-1, double the rate of the prior three decades (figure 1). The growth rate falls above the range of the IPCC (2001) 'Marker' scenarios, although emissions are still within the entire range considered by the IPCC SRES (2000). The surge in emissions is due to increased coal use (blue curve in figure 1), which now accounts for more than 40% of fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Figure 1. Figure 1. CO2 annual emissions from fossil fuel use and cement manufacture, an update of figure 16 of Hansen (2003) using data of British Petroleum (BP 2012) concatenated with data of Boden et al (2012). The resulting annual increase of atmospheric CO2 (12-month running mean) has grown from less than 1 ppm yr-1 in the early 1960s to an average ~2 ppm yr-1 in the past decade (figure 2). Although CO2 measurements were not made at sufficient locations prior to the early 1980s to calculate the global mean change, the close match of global and Mauna Loa data for later years suggests that Mauna Loa data provide a good approximation of global change (figure 2), thus allowing a useful estimate of annual global change beginning with the initiation of Mauna Loa measurements in 1958 by Keeling et al (1973). Figure 2. Figure 2. Annual increase of CO2 based on data from the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL 2012). CO2 change

  9. Growth-rate dependent global effects on gene expression in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Stefan; Zhang, Zhongge; Hwa, Terence

    2010-01-01

    Summary Bacterial gene expression depends not only on specific regulations but also directly on bacterial growth, because important global parameters such as the abundance of RNA polymerases and ribosomes are all growth-rate dependent. Understanding these global effects is necessary for a quantitative understanding of gene regulation and for the robust design of synthetic genetic circuits. The observed growth-rate dependence of constitutive gene expression can be explained by a simple model using the measured growth-rate dependence of the relevant cellular parameters. More complex growth dependences for genetic circuits involving activators, repressors and feedback control were analyzed, and salient features were verified experimentally using synthetic circuits. The results suggest a novel feedback mechanism mediated by general growth-dependent effects and not requiring explicit gene regulation, if the expressed protein affects cell growth. This mechanism can lead to growth bistability and promote the acquisition of important physiological functions such as antibiotic resistance and tolerance (persistence). PMID:20064380

  10. Stimulant-Related Reductions of Growth Rates in the PATS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, James; Greenhill, Laurence; Wigal, Tim; Kollins, Scott; Stehli, Annamarie; Davies, Mark; Chuang, Shirley; Vitiello, Benedetto; Skrobala, Anne; Posner, Kelly; Abikoff, Howard; Oatis, Melvin; McCracken, James; McGough, James; Riddle, Mark; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Cunningham, Charles; Wigal, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate growth of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS) before and after initiation of treatment with methylphenidate at titrated doses (average, 14.2 mg/day) administered three times daily, 7 days/week for approximately equal to 1 year. Method: The heights and…

  11. MEDUSAHEAD OUTPERFORMS SQUIRRELTAIL THROUGH INTERFERENCE AND GROWTH RATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the ecological processes fostering invasion and dominance by medusahead is central to its management. The objectives of this study were 1) to quantify and compare interference between medusahead and squirreltail under different concentrations of soil N and P and 2) to compare growth r...

  12. The physiological basis of reaction norms: the interaction among growth rate, the duration of growth and body size.

    PubMed

    Davidowitz, Goggy; Nijhout, H Frederik

    2004-12-01

    The general effects of temperature and nutritional quality on growth rate and body size are well known. We know little, however, about the physiological mechanisms by which an organism translates variation in diet and temperature into reaction norms of body size or development time. We outline an endocrine-based physiological mechanism that helps explain how this translation occurs in the holometabolous insect Manduca sexta (Sphingidae). Body size and development time are controlled by three factors: (i) growth rate, (ii) the timing of the cessation of juvenile hormone secretion (measured by the critical weight) and (iii) the timing of ecdysteroid secretion leading to pupation (the interval to cessation of growth [ICG] after reaching the critical weight). Thermal reaction norms of body size and development time are a function of how these three factors interact with temperature. Body size is smaller at higher temperatures, because the higher growth rate decreases the ICG, thereby reducing the amount of mass that can accumulate. Development time is shorter at higher temperatures because the higher growth rate decreases the time required to attain the critical weight and, independently, controls the duration of the ICG. Life history evolution along altitudinal, latitudinal and seasonal gradients may occur through differential selection on growth rate and the duration of the two independently controlled determinants of the growth period. PMID:21676730

  13. The Effect of Load-Line Displacement Rate on the SCC Growth Rate of Nickel Alloys and Mechanistic Implications

    SciTech Connect

    D Morton

    2005-10-19

    A key set of SCC growth experiments was designed to test the hypothesis that deformation/creep is the rate controlling step in LPSCC. These tests were performed on Alloy X-750 AH compact tension specimens at a various constant displacement rates. The deformation/creep rate within the crack tip zone is proportional to the test displacement rate. If crack growth rates were observed to increase with the load-line displacement rate, then this would indicate that deformation/creep is a critical SCC mechanism process. However, results obtained from the load-line displacement tests did not find X-750 AH SCC growth rate to be dependent on the position rate and therefore do not support the assumption that deformation/creep is the rate controlling process in LPSCC. The similarities between the SCC response of X-750, Alloy 600 and EN82H suggests that it is likely that the same SCC process is occurring for all these alloys (i.e., the same rate controlling step) and that deformation based models are also inappropriate for Alloy 600 and EN82H. The strong temperature and coolant hydrogen dependencies exhibited by these alloys make it more likely that nickel alloy LPSCC is controlled by an environmental or corrosion driven process.

  14. A Minimalistic Resource Allocation Model to Explain Ubiquitous Increase in Protein Expression with Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Leeat; Segal, Eran; Milo, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Most proteins show changes in level across growth conditions. Many of these changes seem to be coordinated with the specific growth rate rather than the growth environment or the protein function. Although cellular growth rates, gene expression levels and gene regulation have been at the center of biological research for decades, there are only a few models giving a base line prediction of the dependence of the proteome fraction occupied by a gene with the specific growth rate. We present a simple model that predicts a widely coordinated increase in the fraction of many proteins out of the proteome, proportionally with the growth rate. The model reveals how passive redistribution of resources, due to active regulation of only a few proteins, can have proteome wide effects that are quantitatively predictable. Our model provides a potential explanation for why and how such a coordinated response of a large fraction of the proteome to the specific growth rate arises under different environmental conditions. The simplicity of our model can also be useful by serving as a baseline null hypothesis in the search for active regulation. We exemplify the usage of the model by analyzing the relationship between growth rate and proteome composition for the model microorganism E.coli as reflected in recent proteomics data sets spanning various growth conditions. We find that the fraction out of the proteome of a large number of proteins, and from different cellular processes, increases proportionally with the growth rate. Notably, ribosomal proteins, which have been previously reported to increase in fraction with growth rate, are only a small part of this group of proteins. We suggest that, although the fractions of many proteins change with the growth rate, such changes may be partially driven by a global effect, not necessarily requiring specific cellular control mechanisms. PMID:27073913

  15. A Minimalistic Resource Allocation Model to Explain Ubiquitous Increase in Protein Expression with Growth Rate.

    PubMed

    Barenholz, Uri; Keren, Leeat; Segal, Eran; Milo, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Most proteins show changes in level across growth conditions. Many of these changes seem to be coordinated with the specific growth rate rather than the growth environment or the protein function. Although cellular growth rates, gene expression levels and gene regulation have been at the center of biological research for decades, there are only a few models giving a base line prediction of the dependence of the proteome fraction occupied by a gene with the specific growth rate. We present a simple model that predicts a widely coordinated increase in the fraction of many proteins out of the proteome, proportionally with the growth rate. The model reveals how passive redistribution of resources, due to active regulation of only a few proteins, can have proteome wide effects that are quantitatively predictable. Our model provides a potential explanation for why and how such a coordinated response of a large fraction of the proteome to the specific growth rate arises under different environmental conditions. The simplicity of our model can also be useful by serving as a baseline null hypothesis in the search for active regulation. We exemplify the usage of the model by analyzing the relationship between growth rate and proteome composition for the model microorganism E.coli as reflected in recent proteomics data sets spanning various growth conditions. We find that the fraction out of the proteome of a large number of proteins, and from different cellular processes, increases proportionally with the growth rate. Notably, ribosomal proteins, which have been previously reported to increase in fraction with growth rate, are only a small part of this group of proteins. We suggest that, although the fractions of many proteins change with the growth rate, such changes may be partially driven by a global effect, not necessarily requiring specific cellular control mechanisms. PMID:27073913

  16. Exploring Latent Class Based on Growth Rates in Number Sense Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongil; Shin, Jaehyun; Lee, Kijyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore latent class based on growth rates in number sense ability by using latent growth class modeling (LGCM). LGCM is one of the noteworthy methods for identifying growth patterns of the progress monitoring within the response to intervention framework in that it enables us to analyze latent sub-groups based not…

  17. Effects of winter stocker growth rate and finishing system on: I. Animal performance and carcass characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-crossbred steers (n = 216) were used in a three-year study to assess the effects of winter stocker growth rate and finishing system on finishing performance and carcass characteristics. During winter months (December to April) steers were randomly allotted to three stocker growth rates: low (...

  18. Growth rates and water stability of 2D boronate ester covalent organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brian J; Hwang, Nicky; Chavez, Anton D; Novotney, Jennifer L; Dichtel, William R

    2015-05-01

    We examine the growth rates, activation energies, and hydrolytic stability of multiple 2D boronate ester covalent organic frameworks by turbidity measurements, observing a 200-fold range in stability. The rate-determining step in boronate ester 2D COF growth is not in-solution condensation, but rather interlayer polymer stacking through a nucleation-elongation process. PMID:25848654

  19. Gradient of Growth, Spontaneous Changes in Growth Rate and Response to Auxin of Excised Hypocotyl Segments of Phaseolus aureus 1

    PubMed Central

    Prat, Roger

    1978-01-01

    Spontaneous growth was studied in excised mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) hypocotyl segments. Measurements were made with a growth-recording apparatus using displacement transducers on single 5- to 6-millimeter samples excised from the growth zone immediately below the hook. Even for a given zone and under controlled experimental conditions, there are differences in the spontaneous growth of individual explants. Nevertheless, in every case, two phases of endogenous acceleration are found at 15 to 20 minutes, and 120 to 150 minutes after excision. Accelerations were separated by steady growth phases. Knowledge of the spontaneous growth curve appears important for the choice of the time of application of experimental stimuli. Auxin was added at various times after excision (0 to 6 hours). The classical biphasic response to auxin was obtained when the hormone was added during a steady phase of growth. However, the response was difficult to interpret when the hormone was added during an acceleration phase. Spontaneous and indoleacetic acid-induced growth were studied along the hypocotyl. Spontaneous growth rate and growth potential revealed by indoleacetic acid changed markedly along the growth gradient. The nature of spontaneous changes according to experimental time and state of differentiation of the cells is discussed. PMID:16660473

  20. Family Poverty Affects the Rate of Human Infant Brain Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jamie L.; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G.; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H.; Wolfe, Barbara L.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems. PMID:24349025

  1. Family poverty affects the rate of human infant brain growth.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H; Wolfe, Barbara L; Pollak, Seth D

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems. PMID:24349025

  2. Taste development: differential growth rates of tongue regions in humans.

    PubMed

    Temple, Elizabeth C; Hutchinson, Ian; Laing, David G; Jinks, Anthony L

    2002-04-30

    There is a paucity of information about the anatomical and functional development of the human gustatory system. Although the anatomical development of the taste-sensitive fungiform, circumvallate and foliate papillae in the respective anterior, posterior and latero-posterior regions of the dorsal surface of the tongue has been well documented in the fetus, there is limited information about how these regions grow and when they exhibit adult function. The present study is concerned with determining when the growth of one of these taste-sensitive regions becomes adult in size, namely, the anterior region, and how this growth compares with that of the remaining posterior region. Two-hundred and thirty-two living subjects aged between 4 and 32 years participated. Following the identification and marking of a series of landmarks on the dorsal surface of the tongue with blue food dye, five measurements of the width and length of various parts of the tongue allowed calculation of the growth of the anterior and posterior regions. The results indicate that the fungiform papillae-rich anterior region attains adult-size by 8-10 years of age whilst the posterior region continues to grow until 15-16 years. Interestingly, this early development is not matched by achievement of adult function [Dev. Brain Res. 82 (1994) 286] or adult size papillae or taste pores [Dev. Brain Res., submitted]. Finally, the findings of the present study will allow studies of the development of taste function in humans to be conducted using equivalent tongue areas in subjects of different ages. PMID:11978394

  3. The effect of density gradient on the growth rate of relativistic Weibel instability

    SciTech Connect

    Mahdavi, M.; Khodadadi Azadboni, F.

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, the effect of density gradient on the Weibel instability growth rate is investigated. The density perturbations in the near corona fuel, where temperature anisotropy, η, is larger than the critical temperature anisotropy, η{sub c}, (η > η{sub c}), enhances the growth rate of Weibel instability due to the sidebands coupled with the electron oscillatory velocity. But for η < η{sub c}, the thermal spread of the energetic electrons reduces the growth rate. Also, the growth rate can be reduced if the relativistic parameter (Lorentz factor) is sufficiently large, γ > 2. The analysis shows that relativistic effects and density gradient tend to stabilize the Weibel instability. The growth rate can be reduced by 88% by reducing η by a factor of 100 and increasing relativistic parameter by a factor of 3.

  4. The relationship between the growth rate and the lifetime in carbon nanotube synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guohai; Davis, Robert C.; Kimura, Hiroe; Sakurai, Shunsuke; Yumura, Motoo; Futaba, Don N.; Hata, Kenji

    2015-05-01

    We report an inverse relationship between the carbon nanotube (CNT) growth rate and the catalyst lifetime by investigating the dependence of growth kinetics for ~330 CNT forests on the carbon feedstock, carbon concentration, and growth temperature. We found that the increased growth temperature led to increased CNT growth rate and shortened catalyst lifetime for all carbon feedstocks, following an inverse relationship of a fairly constant maximum height. For the increased carbon concentration, the carbon feedstocks fell into two groups where ethylene/butane showed an increased/decreased growth rate and a decreased/increased lifetime indicating different rate-limiting growth processes. In addition, this inverse relationship held true for different types of CNTs synthesized by various chemical vapor deposition techniques and continuously spanned a 1000-times range in both the growth rate and catalyst lifetime, indicating the generality and fundamental nature of this behavior originating from the growth mechanism of CNTs itself. These results suggest that it would be fundamentally difficult to achieve a fast growth with a long lifetime.

  5. The relationship between the growth rate and the lifetime in carbon nanotube synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guohai; Davis, Robert C; Kimura, Hiroe; Sakurai, Shunsuke; Yumura, Motoo; Futaba, Don N; Hata, Kenji

    2015-05-21

    We report an inverse relationship between the carbon nanotube (CNT) growth rate and the catalyst lifetime by investigating the dependence of growth kinetics for ∼330 CNT forests on the carbon feedstock, carbon concentration, and growth temperature. We found that the increased growth temperature led to increased CNT growth rate and shortened catalyst lifetime for all carbon feedstocks, following an inverse relationship of a fairly constant maximum height. For the increased carbon concentration, the carbon feedstocks fell into two groups where ethylene/butane showed an increased/decreased growth rate and a decreased/increased lifetime indicating different rate-limiting growth processes. In addition, this inverse relationship held true for different types of CNTs synthesized by various chemical vapor deposition techniques and continuously spanned a 1000-times range in both the growth rate and catalyst lifetime, indicating the generality and fundamental nature of this behavior originating from the growth mechanism of CNTs itself. These results suggest that it would be fundamentally difficult to achieve a fast growth with a long lifetime. PMID:25913386

  6. DIFFERENTIAL PHYTOPLANKTON SINKING- AND GROWTH-RATES: AN EIGENVALUE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An eigenvalue analysis of the vertical phytoplankton biomass equation is applied to calculate the differential sinking- and loss-rates of phytoplankton for different taxonomic groups in Lake Lyndon B. Johnson (Texas) and in Lake Erie. The analysis includes factors determining the...

  7. Growth Rate Lags Again in Graduate Schools' International Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The number of foreign students admitted to graduate schools at American colleges and universities grew in 2008 for the fourth straight year, but the rate of increase over the previous year declined for the third consecutive year, according to survey results released by the Council of Graduate Schools. Based on previous years' data, this year's…

  8. Effects of Eucommia ulmoides extract on longitudinal bone growth rate in adolescent female rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Jeong-Il; Song, MiKyung; Lee, Donghun; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Soo Young; Park, Juyeon; Choi, Ho-Young; Kim, Hocheol

    2015-01-01

    Eucommia ulmoides is one of the popular tonic herbs for the treatment of low back pain and bone fracture and is used in Korean medicine to reinforce muscles and bones. This study was performed to investigate the effects of E. ulmoides extract on longitudinal bone growth rate, growth plate height, and the expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in adolescent female rats. In two groups, we administered a twice-daily dosage of E. ulmoides extract (at 30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively) per os over 4 days, and in a control group, we administered vehicle only under the same conditions. Longitudinal bone growth rate in newly synthesized bone was observed using tetracycline labeling. Chondrocyte proliferation in the growth plate was observed using cresyl violet dye. In addition, we analyzed the expressions of BMP-2 and IGF-1 using immunohistochemistry. Eucommia ulmoides extract significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate and growth plate height in adolescent female rats. In the immunohistochemical study, E. ulmoides markedly increased BMP-2 and IGF-1 expressions in the proliferative and hypertrophic zones. In conclusion, E. ulmoides increased longitudinal bone growth rate by promoting chondrogenesis in the growth plate and the levels of BMP-2 and IGF-1. Eucommia ulmoides could be helpful for increasing bone growth in children who have growth retardation. PMID:25087723

  9. Rate limits in silicon sheet growth - The connections between vertical and horizontal methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Paul D.; Brown, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Meniscus-defined techniques for the growth of thin silicon sheets fall into two categories: vertical and horizontal growth. The interactions of the temperature field and the crystal shape are analyzed for both methods using two-dimensional finite-element models which include heat transfer and capillarity. Heat transfer in vertical growth systems is dominated by conduction in the melt and the crystal, with almost flat melt/crystal interfaces that are perpendicular to the direction of growth. The high axial temperature gradients characteristic of vertical growth lead to high thermal stresses. The maximum growth rate is also limited by capillarity which can restrict the conduction of heat from the melt into the crystal. In horizontal growth the melt/crystal interface stretches across the surface of the melt pool many times the crystal thickness, and low growth rates are achievable with careful temperature control. With a moderate axial temperature gradient in the sheet a substantial portion of the latent heat conducts along the sheet and the surface of the melt pool becomes supercooled, leading to dendritic growth. The thermal supercooling is surpressed by lowering the axial gradient in the crystal; this configuration is the most desirable for the growth of high quality crystals. An expression derived from scaling analysis relating the growth rate and the crucible temperature is shown to be reliable for horizontal growth.

  10. Growth rate and transition to turbulence of a gas curtain

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobieff, P.; Rightley, P.; Benjamin, R.

    1997-09-01

    The authors conduct shock-tube experiments to investigate Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability of a narrow curtain of heavy gas (SF{sub 6}) embedded in lighter gas (air). Initial perturbations of the curtain can be varied, producing different flow patterns in the subsequent evolution of the curtain. Multiple-exposure video flow visualization provides images of the growth of the instability and its transition to turbulence, making it possible to extract quantitative information such as the width of the perturbed curtain. They demonstrate that the width of the curtain with initial perturbation on the downstream side is non-monotonic. As the initial perturbation undergoes phase inversion, the width of the curtain actually decreases before beginning to grow as the RM instability evolves.

  11. Microalgal growth with intracellular phosphorus for achieving high biomass growth rate and high lipid/triacylglycerol content simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yin-Hu; Yu, Yin; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2015-09-01

    Nutrient deprivation is a commonly-used trigger for microalgal lipid accumulation, but its adverse impact on microalgal growth seems to be inevitable. In this study, Scenedesmus sp. LX1 was found to show similar physiological and biochemical variation under oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions during growth with intracellular phosphorus. Under both conditions microalgal chlorophyll content and photosynthesis activity was stable during this growth process, leading to significant increase of single cell weight and size. Therefore, while algal density growth rate dropped significantly to below 1.0 × 10(5)cells mL(-1) d(-1) under oligotrophic condition, the biomass dry weight growth rate still maintained about 40 mg L(-1) d(-1). Meanwhile, the lipid content in biomass and triacylglycerols (TAGs) content in lipids increased significantly to about 35% and 65%, respectively. Thus, high biomass growth rate and high lipid/TAG content were achieved simultaneously at the late growth phase with intracellular phosphorus. Besides, microalgal biomass produced was rich in carbohydrate with low protein content. PMID:26056779

  12. Growth rate, organic carbon and nutrient removal rates of Chlorella sorokiniana in autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunjin; Park, Jeong-eun; Cho, Yong-Beom; Hwang, Sun-Jin

    2013-09-01

    This study sought to investigate the growth rate and organic carbon and nutrient removal efficiency of Chlorella sorokiniana under autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. Growth rates of the microalgae were 0.24 d(-1), 0.53 d(-1) and 0.44 d(-1) in autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic conditions, respectively. The growth rate of C. sorokiniana was significantly higher for that grown under heterotrophic conditions. The nitrogen removal rates were 13.1 mg-N/L/day, 23.9 mg-N/L/day and 19.4 mg-N/L/day, respectively. The phosphorus removal rates reached to 3.4 mg-P/L/day, 5.6 mg-P/L/day and 5.1 mg-P/L/day, respectively. Heterotrophic conditions were superior in terms of the microalgae growth and removal of nitrogen and phosphorus compared to autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions, suggesting that microalgae cultured under this condition would be most useful for application in wastewater treatment systems. PMID:23850820

  13. The effects of temperature and NaCl concentration on tetragonal lysozyme face growth rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc Lee

    1994-01-01

    Measurements were made of the (110) and (101) face growth rates of the tetragonal form of hen egg white lysozyme at 0.1M sodium acetate buffer, pH 4.0, from 4 to 22 C and with 3.0%, 5.0%, and 7.0% NaCl used as the precipitating salt. The data were collected at supersaturation ratios ranging from approximately 4 to approximately 63. Both decreasing temperature and increasing salt concentrations shifted plots of the growth rate versus C/C(sat) to the right, i.e. higher supersaturations were required for comparable growth rates. The observed trends in the growth data are counter to those expected from the solubility data. If tetragonal lysozyme crystal growth is by addition of ordered aggregates from the solution, then the observed growth data could be explained as a result of the effects of lowered temperature and increased salt concentration on the kinetics and equilibrium processes governing protein-protein interactions in solution. The data indicate that temperature would be a more tractable means of controlling the growth rate for tetragonal lysozyme crystals contrary to the usual practice in, e.g., vapor diffusion protein crystal growth, where both the precipitant and protein concentrations are simultaneously increased. However, the available range for control is dependent upon the protein concentration, with the greatest growth rate control being at the lower concentration.

  14. The effects of temperature and NaCl concentration on tetragonal lysozyme face growth rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth; Lee Pusey, Marc

    1994-05-01

    Measurements were made of the (110) and (101) face growth rates of the tetragonal form of hen egg white lysozyme at 0.1M sodium acetate buffer, pH 4.0, from 4 to 22°C and with 3.0%, 5.0%, and 7.0% NaCl used as the precipitating salt. The data were collected at supersaturation ratios ranging from ˜4 to ˜63. Both decreasing temperature and increasing salt concentrations shifted plots of the growth rate versus C/ Csat to the right, i.e. higher supersaturations were required for comparable growth rates. The observed trends in the growth data are counter to those expected from the solubility data. If tetragonal lysozyme crystal growth is by addition of ordered aggregates from the solution, then the observed growth data could be explained as a result of the effects of lowered temperature and increased salt concentration on the kinetics and equilibrium processes governing protein-protein interactions in solution. The data indicate that temperature would be a more tractable means of controlling the growth rate for tetragonal lysozyme crystals contrary to the usual practice in, e.g., vapor diffusion protein crystal growth, where both the precipitant and protein concentrations are simultaneously increased. However, the available range for control is dependent upon the protein concentration, with the greatest growth rate control being at the lower concentration.

  15. Growth rates and energy intake of hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bell, K M; Rutherfurd, S M; Morton, R H

    2012-04-01

    Growth rate is an important factor in neonatal survival. The aim of this study was to determine growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs in South Africa fed a prescribed energy intake, calculated for growth in the domestic cat. Growth was then compared with previously published data from hand-reared cubs in North America and the relationship between growth and energy intake explored. Daily body weight (BW) gain, feed and energy intake data was collected from 18 hand-reared cheetah cubs up to 120 days of age. The average pre-weaning growth rate was 32 g/day, which is lower than reported in mother-reared cubs and hand-reared cubs in North American facilities. However, post-weaning growth increased to an average of 55 g/day. Growth was approximately linear prior to weaning, but over the entire age range it exhibited a sigmoidal shape with an asymptotic plateau averaging 57 kg. Energy intake associated with pre-weaning growth was 481 kJ ME/kg BW(0.75). Regression analysis described the relationship between metabolic BW, metabolisable energy (ME) intake, and hence daily weight gain. This relationship may be useful in predicting energy intake required to achieve growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs similar to those observed for their mother-reared counterparts. PMID:21429043

  16. Effect of diffusion from a lateral surface on the rate of GaN nanowire growth

    SciTech Connect

    Sibirev, N. V. Tchernycheva, M.; Cirlin, G. E.; Patriarche, G.; Harmand, J. C.; Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2012-06-15

    The kinetics of the growth of GaN crystalline nanowires on a Si (111) surface with no catalyst is studied experimentally and theoretically. Noncatalytic GaN nanowires were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with AlN inserts, which makes it possible to determine the rate of the vertical growth of nanowires. A model for the formation of GaN nanowires is developed, and an expression for their rate of growth is derived. It is shown that, in the general case, the dependence of the rate of growth on the nanowire diameter has a minimum. The diameter corresponding to the experimentally observed minimum of the rate of growth steadily increases with increasing diffusion flux from the lateral surface.

  17. The effect of environment on the sustained load crack growth rates of forged WASPALOY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasatis, Ioannis P.; Pelloux, Regis M.

    1985-08-01

    The sustained load crack growth rates of wrought WASPALOY* were measured in air and in high purity argon at 650 °C using single edge notched (SEN) and compact tension (CT) specimens machined out of a turbine disk. The crack growth rates measured in air exhibited great variability across the WASPALOY disk, while the crack growth rates measured in purified argon were of the same order of magnitude. This difference in crack growth rates is attributed to local variations in oxidation resistance at the tip of the growing crack. The density and the distribution of carbides in different locations of the WASPALOY disk accounts for the variability in crack growth resistance in air.

  18. Extension growth rates in two coral species from high-latitude reefs of Bermuda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, A.; Tomascik, T.

    1991-09-01

    Mean annual growth rates (skeletal linear extension) in the hermatypic corals Porites astreoides Lamarck and Diploria labyrinthiformis (L.) were investigated mainly by X-radiography from a variety of localities at various depths on the high-latitude coral reefs of Bermuda. Growth rates of both species show an inverse curvilinear relationship with depth, with highest growth rates in the shallow inshore waters of Castle Harbour and lowest at the edge of the Bermuda platform and on the adjacent fore-reef slope. Annual density bands form seasonal couplets, with narrow, high density bands appearing to form in the spring-summer months and wider, low density bands over the rest of the year in both species. Comparison of the growth rates of P. astreoides from Bermuda with those from lower latitude West Indian localities, particularly Jamaica, indicates an inverse relationship with latitude and a similar inverse curvilinear relationship with depth at both geographic locations. Growth rate-locality differences in Bermuda for both species are suggested to be controlled mainly by local differences in wave energy and food supply and possibly seasonal water temperature fluctuations; growth rate-depth differences by decreasing illumination with depth; and growth rate-latitudinal differences by reduction in winter water temperatures and light levels with increasing latitude.

  19. Faster is not always better: selection on growth rate fluctuates across life history and environments.

    PubMed

    Monro, Keyne; Marshall, Dustin J

    2014-06-01

    Growth rate is increasingly recognized as a key life-history trait that may affect fitness directly rather than evolve as a by-product of selection on size or age. An ongoing challenge is to explain the abundant levels of phenotypic and genetic variation in growth rates often seen in natural populations, despite what is expected to be consistently strong selection on this trait. Such a paradox suggests limits to how contemporary growth rates evolve. We explored limits arising from variation in selection, based on selection differentials for age-specific growth rates expressed under different ecological conditions. We present results from a field experiment that measured growth rates and reproductive output in wild individuals of a colonial marine invertebrate (Hippopodina iririkiensis), replicated within and across the natural range of succession in its local community. Colony growth rates varied phenotypically throughout this range, but not all such variation was available for selection, nor was it always targeted by selection as expected. While the maintenance of both phenotypic and genetic variation in growth rate is often attributed to costs of growing rapidly, our study highlights the potential for fluctuating selection pressures throughout the life history and across environments to play an important role in this process. PMID:24823823

  20. Does the aerobic capacity of fish muscle change with growth rates?

    PubMed

    Pelletier, D; Guderley, H; Dutil, J D

    1993-08-01

    To ascertain whether growth rate modifies the oxidative capacity of fish white muscle, we examined the effects of individual growth rate on the activities of four mitochondrial enzymes in white muscle of the fast growing Atlantic cod,Gadus morhua. Growth rates were individually monitored in cod held at three acclimation temperatures during experiments repeated in four seasons. The size dependence of citrate synthase (CS), cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) and β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (HOAD) activities was established using wild cod ranging from 115 to 17,350 g. Given their negative allometry, CS and CCO activities in the experimental cod were corrected to those expected for a 1.2 kg animal. HOAD activities did not change with size. The specific activities of CCO and CS were positively correlated with growth rate. However, for both enzymes, season explained more of the variability than growth rate or temperature. Season was the only factor to significantly affect the activity of HOAD, while temperature and season interacted to determine glutamate dehydrogenase activity. CS activity was positively correlated with the initial condition of the cod, which differed among the seasons. The other enzymes did not show this relationship. The independent changes of these enzymes suggest that mitochondria undergo qualitative modifications with changes in growth rate, season and size. Although growth rate and the activities of CCO and CS are positively correlated, the activity of the mitochondrial enzymes is more affected by size, physical condition and season. PMID:24202687

  1. High growth rate 4H-SiC epitaxial growth using dichlorosilane in a hot-wall CVD reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Iftekhar; Chandrasekhar, M. V. S.; Klein, Paul B.; Caldwell, Joshua D.; Sudarshan, Tangali

    2011-02-01

    Thick, high quality 4H-SiC epilayers have been grown in a vertical hot-wall chemical vapor deposition system at a high growth rate on (0 0 0 1) 8° off-axis substrates. We discuss the use of dichlorosilane as the Si-precursor for 4H-SiC epitaxial growth as it provides the most direct decomposition route into SiCl 2, which is the predominant growth species in chlorinated chemistries. A specular surface morphology was attained by limiting the hydrogen etch rate until the system was equilibrated at the desired growth temperature. The RMS roughness of the grown films ranged from 0.5-2.0 nm with very few morphological defects (carrots, triangular defects, etc.) being introduced, while enabling growth rates of 30-100 μm/h, 5-15 times higher than most conventional growths. Site-competition epitaxy was observed over a wide range of C/Si ratios, with doping concentrations <1×10 14 cm -3 being recorded. X-ray rocking curves indicated that the epilayers were of high crystallinity, with linewidths as narrow as 7.8 arcsec being observed, while microwave photoconductive decay (μPCD) measurements indicated that these films had high injection (ambipolar) carrier lifetimes in the range of 2 μs.

  2. Effect of Growth Rate on Histidine Catabolism and Histidase Synthesis in Aerobacter aerogenes1

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Donald E.; Neidhardt, Frederick C.

    1969-01-01

    A study was made of how the catabolism of a carbon and energy source is affected by the biosynthetic demands of growing bacterial cells. Cultures of Aerobacter aerogenes in l-histidine medium were grown in a chemostat at rates determined by the supply of either sulfate or a required amino acid, l-arginine. It was discovered that the rate at which these cells grow under a biosynthetic restriction determines both the rate and the pattern of histidine degradation. (i) Histidine catabolism is partially coupled to the growth rate. This coupling is achieved by catabolite repression of histidase (histidine ammonia lyase; EC 4.3.1.3.), and also by a slightly decreased in vivo function of this enzyme at low growth rates. (ii) The looseness of the coupling results in a direct relationship between growth rate and growth yield, and possibly is correlated with an altered pattern of carbon flow from histidine. (iii) Sudden decreases in growth rate cause total repression of histidase synthesis for substantial periods of time. (iv) Sudden release of biosynthetic restriction leads rapidly to an increase in the functioning of the cells' complement of histidase, an increase in the rate of synthesis of this enzyme, and an increase in the growth yield from histidine. PMID:5781570

  3. Growth pattern and carcase development in male ducks selected for growth rate.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, K; Akbar, M K; Turk, C M

    1999-05-01

    1. Growth patterns of the whole body, eviscerated carcases, breast muscle, leg and thigh muscles and abdominal fat pads were compared in 4 lines (Lines A, B, C, and D) of male ducks selected for market weight (n = 1305) using growth curve analysis, allometric growth analysis and repeated measure analysis. At 49 d of age, Line A was heaviest, followed by Line B, Line C and Line D. 2. Ducks were fed ad libitum under 24-h lighting and 12 or 24 ducks were killed to determine body, carcase, breast-muscle, leg and thigh-muscle, and abdominal fat weights at time points from hatching until 53 d of age. 3. The Weibull function was chosen for growth curve analysis. The asymptote and inflection point from the Weibull growth curves identified 3 lines (Lines B, C, and D) with discrete body and carcase growth patterns but did not distinguish Line A from Line B. In all 4 lines the asymptote ranged from 4437 g to 3008 g for body weight and from 3334 g to 2098 g for carcase weight; the inflection point ranged from 22.5 d to 25.3 d for body weight and from 25.4 d to 29.6 d for carcase weight. 4. The allometric growth coefficient, relative to whole-body growth, was higher than 1.00 for breast muscle and lower than 1.00 for leg and thigh muscles during from 4 d to 53 d of age. 5. Body fat accumulation was estimated by abdominal fat. Line D accumulated more abdominal fat than other lines. The pattern of fat accumulation in Line D was different from Lines A, B and C and there were no differences between Lines A, B and C. PMID:10465391

  4. Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumors increase growth rate with time

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Alexander T.; Finkel, Kelsey A.; Warner, Kristy A.; Nör, Felipe; Tice, David; Martins, Manoela D.; Jackson, Trachette L.; Nör, Jacques E.

    2016-01-01

    Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are frequently used for translational cancer research, and are assumed to behave consistently as the tumor ages. However, growth rate constancy as a function of time is unclear. Notably, variable PDX growth rates over time might have implications for the interpretation of translational studies. We characterized four PDX models through several in vivo passages from primary human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma. We developed a mathematical approach to merge growth data from different passages into a single measure of relative tumor volume normalized to study initiation size. We analyzed log-relative tumor volume increase with linear mixed effect models. Two oral pathologists analyzed the PDX tissues to determine if histopathological feature changes occurred over in vivo passages. Tumor growth rate increased over time. This was determined by repeated measures linear regression statistical analysis in four different PDX models. A quadratic statistical model for the temporal effect predicted the log-relative tumor volume significantly better than a linear time effect model. We found a significant correlation between passage number and histopathological features of higher tumor grade. Our mathematical treatment of PDX data allows statistical analysis of tumor growth data over long periods of time, including over multiple passages. Non-linear tumor growth in our regression models revealed the exponential growth rate increased over time. The dynamic tumor growth rates correlated with quantifiable histopathological changes that related to passage number in multiple types of cancer. PMID:26783960

  5. Effects of loading on the growth rates of deep stress-corrosion cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Christman, T.K.

    1990-08-01

    The goal of this research program was to determine the effects of loading on growth of stress-corrosion cracks (SCC) in line pipe steel and whether special loading procedures could actually inhibit crack growth. Of particular interest was the effect of hydrostatic retesting on the subsequent growth of existing cracks. The growth rate experiments showed that the slow-strain rate loading could successfully nucleate a group of fine cracks with depths up to 0.025 inches (0.64 mm). However, the subsequent cyclic loading at typical operating stress levels (lower than experienced during the slow- strain rate loading) produced minimal crack growth and stopped soon after the test was started. The limited growth is believed to be a real phenomenon which means this is not a suitable procedure for the measurement of average crack growth rates. These experiments indicate that cracks grown at high stress (as in the slow-strain rate phase) do not readily propagate at lower stress levels. This may be because of crack closure (compressive crack tip residual stress) induced by the initial higher stress level. If that is true, then hydrostatic retests could inhibit the growth of existing stress-corrosion cracks, especially if the hydrostatic tests are conducted at high stress levels. 15 figures, 3 tabs.

  6. Energy-release rate associated with diffusional crack growth

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, T.

    1982-12-01

    A general expression for the energy release rates (G) that arise during steady state crack propagation by diffusion is derived from the standpoint of irreversible thermodynamics. Three contributing components of G are identified: (1) the Griffith energy (G/sub Gr/); (2) heat generated in the process of surface diffusion; and (3) grain-boundary diffusion. Further, the total G is shown to be directly related to the well-known J-integral if formulated in the framework of finite deformation elasticity. This expression for G is valid in general even if the response of the material is not linear and the mass transport kinetics does not follow Fick's law. Quantitative evaluations of each component are made for the linear case where field solutions are available. The results show that component (2) is approximately equal to G/sub Gr/ and is independent of the crack velocity (nu) whereas component (3) is a monotonically increasing function with G starting from 0.85 G/sub Gr/ when nu is at threshold value; and that strain energy contributions can be neglected leading to G = J = (1-..nu../sup 2/)K/sup 2//E. This means that G is not primarily associated with the release of the strain energy; rather, it stems mostly from the negative work done by the normal stresses on the thickening of the grain boundary due to nonuniform deposition of matter along it.

  7. Crack growth rate in core shroud horizontal welds using two models for a BWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arganis Juárez, C. R.; Hernández Callejas, R.; Medina Almazán, A. L.

    2015-05-01

    An empirical crack growth rate correlation model and a predictive model based on the slip-oxidation mechanism for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) were used to calculate the crack growth rate in a BWR core shroud. In this study, the crack growth rate was calculated by accounting for the environmental factors related to aqueous environment, neutron irradiation to high fluence and the complex residual stress conditions resulting from welding. In estimating the SCC behavior the crack growth measurements data from a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plant are referred to, and the stress intensity factor vs crack depth throughout thickness is calculated using a generic weld residual stress distribution for a core shroud, with a 30% stress relaxation induced by neutron irradiation. Quantitative agreement is shown between the measurements of SCC growth rate and the predictions of the slip-oxidation mechanism model for relatively low fluences (5 × 1024 n/m2), and the empirical model predicted better the SCC growth rate than the slip-oxidation model for high fluences (>1 × 1025 n/m2). The relevance of the models predictions for SCC growth rate behavior depends on knowing the model parameters.

  8. Phytoplankton growth rates in a light-limited environment, San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpine, Andrea E.; Cloern, James E.

    1988-01-01

    This study was motivated by the need for quantitative measures of phytoplankton population growth rate in an estuarine environment, and was designed around the presumption that growth rates can be related empirically to light exposure. We conducted the study in San Francisco Bay (California, USA), which has large horizontal gradients in light availability (Zp:Zm) typical of many coastal plain estuaries, and nutrient concentrations that often exceed those presumed to limit phytoplankton growth (Cloern et al. 1985). We tested the hypothesis that light availability is the primary control of phytoplankton growth, and that previous estimates of growth rate based on the ratio of productivity to biomass (Cloern et al. 1985) are realistic. Specifically, we wanted to verify that growth rate varies spatially along horizontal gradients of light availability indexed as Zp:Zm, such that phytoplankton turnover rate is rapid in shallow clear areas (high Zp:Zm) and slow in deep turbid areas (low Zp:Zm). We used an in situ incubation technique which simulated vertical mixing, and measured both changes in cell number and carbon production as independent estimates of growth rate across a range of Zp:Zm ratios.

  9. Interrelationship between single- and multi-wall carbon nanotube growth rates for CVD process

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard F; Pannala, Sreekanth; Wells, Jack C; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B

    2007-01-01

    Recent time-resolved measurements of carbon nanotube (CNT) growth on Fe and Fe/Mo catalysts have identified a maximum growth rate and temperature corresponding to the onset of small-diameter, single-wall CNT (SWNT) formation. A simple model described here emphasizes the essential role of the SWNTs in the growth process of CNTs. Remarkably, it shows that the growth rate (i.e. the time derivative of the length) of a multi-walled CNT (MWNT) is the same as that of a SWNT at the carbon flux and diffusion coefficient corresponding to a given temperature. Moreover, below ~700C, the temperature above which SWNT growth is observed for a 6 sccm C2H2 flow rate, the number of walls as a function of temperature is uniquely determined by the interplay of the incident flux of atomic C and diffusion rates consistent with bulk diffusion. Even partial melting of the catalytic particle is unnecessary to explain the experimental results on growth rate and number of walls. Above 700C, where severe catalyst poisoning ordinarily begins, the growth rate without poisoning is consistent with recent results of Hata and co-workers for "supergrowth".

  10. Growth against entropy in bacterial metabolism: the phenotypic trade-off behind empirical growth rate distributions in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Martino, Daniele De; Capuani, Fabrizio; Martino, Andrea De

    2016-01-01

    The solution space of genome-scale models of cellular metabolism provides a map between physically viable flux configurations and cellular metabolic phenotypes described, at the most basic level, by the corresponding growth rates. By sampling the solution space of E. coli's metabolic network, we show that empirical growth rate distributions recently obtained in experiments at single-cell resolution can be explained in terms of a trade-off between the higher fitness of fast-growing phenotypes and the higher entropy of slow-growing ones. Based on this, we propose a minimal model for the evolution of a large bacterial population that captures this trade-off. The scaling relationships observed in experiments encode, in such frameworks, for the same distance from the maximum achievable growth rate, the same degree of growth rate maximization, and/or the same rate of phenotypic change. Being grounded on genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions, these results allow for multiple implications and extensions in spite of the underlying conceptual simplicity. PMID:27232645

  11. Growth against entropy in bacterial metabolism: the phenotypic trade-off behind empirical growth rate distributions in E. coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Martino, Daniele; Capuani, Fabrizio; De Martino, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The solution space of genome-scale models of cellular metabolism provides a map between physically viable flux configurations and cellular metabolic phenotypes described, at the most basic level, by the corresponding growth rates. By sampling the solution space of E. coli's metabolic network, we show that empirical growth rate distributions recently obtained in experiments at single-cell resolution can be explained in terms of a trade-off between the higher fitness of fast-growing phenotypes and the higher entropy of slow-growing ones. Based on this, we propose a minimal model for the evolution of a large bacterial population that captures this trade-off. The scaling relationships observed in experiments encode, in such frameworks, for the same distance from the maximum achievable growth rate, the same degree of growth rate maximization, and/or the same rate of phenotypic change. Being grounded on genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions, these results allow for multiple implications and extensions in spite of the underlying conceptual simplicity.

  12. Strain-energy release rate analysis of cyclic delamination growth in compressively loaded laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitcomb, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Delamination growth in compressively loaded composite laminates was studied analytically and experimentally. The configuration used was a laminate with an across-the-width delamination. An approximate super-position stress analysis was developed to quantify the effects of various geometric, material, and load parameters on mode 1 and mode 2 strain energy release rates G sub 1 and G sub 2, respectively. Calculated values of G sub 1 and G sub 2 were then compared with measured cyclic delamination growth rates to determine the relative importance of G sub 1 and G sub 2. High growth rates were observed only when G sub 1 was large. However, slow growth was observed even when G sub 1 was negligibly small. This growth was apparently due to a large value of G sub 2.

  13. Strain energy release rate analysis of cyclic delamination growth in compressively loaded laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitcomb, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Delamination growth in compressively loaded composite laminates was studied analytically and experimentally. The configuration used was a laminate with an across-the-width delamination. An approximate super-position stress analysis was developed to quantify the effects of various geometric, material, and load parameters on mode 2 and mode 2 strain energy release rates G sub/1 and G sub 2, respectively. Calculated values of G sub 1 and G sub 2 were then compared with measured cyclic delamination growth rates to determine the relative importance of G sub 1 and G sub 2. High growth rates were observed only when G sub 1 was large. However, slow growth was observed even when G sub 1 was negligibly small. This growth apparently was due to a large value of G sub 2.

  14. Ab initio determination of the instability growth rate of warm dense beryllium-deuterium interface

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ping; Li, Zi; Li, DaFang

    2015-10-15

    Accurate knowledge about the interfacial unstable growth is of great importance in inertial confinement fusion. During implosions, the deuterium-tritium capsule is driven by laser beams or X-rays to access the strongly coupled and partially degenerated warm dense matter regime. At this stage, the effects of dissipative processes, such as diffusion and viscosity, have significant impact on the instability growth rates. Here, we present ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to determine the equations of state and the transport coefficients. Several models are used to estimate the reduction in the growth rate dispersion curves of Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities with considering the presence of these dissipative effects. We show that these instability growth rates are effectively reduced when considering diffusion. The findings provide significant insights into the microscopic mechanism of the instability growth at the ablator-fuel interface and will refine the models used in the laser-driven hydrodynamic instability experiments.

  15. Delta L: An Apparatus for Measuring Macromolecular Crystal Growth Rates in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, Russell A.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In order to determine how macromolecule crystal quality improvement in microgravity is related to crystal growth characteristics, is was necessary to develop new hardware that could measure the crystal growth rates of a population of crystals growing under the same solution conditions. As crystal growth rate is defined as the change or delta in a defined dimension or length (L) of a crystal over time, the hardware was named Delta L. Delta L consists of fluids, optics, and data acquisition, sub-assemblies. Temperature control is provided for the crystal growth chamber. Delta L will be used in connection with the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT) inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Delta L prototype hardware has been assembled. This paper will describe an overview of the design of Delta L and present preliminary crystal growth rate data.

  16. Ab initio determination of the instability growth rate of warm dense beryllium-deuterium interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cong; Li, Zi; Li, DaFang; Zhang, Ping

    2015-10-01

    Accurate knowledge about the interfacial unstable growth is of great importance in inertial confinement fusion. During implosions, the deuterium-tritium capsule is driven by laser beams or X-rays to access the strongly coupled and partially degenerated warm dense matter regime. At this stage, the effects of dissipative processes, such as diffusion and viscosity, have significant impact on the instability growth rates. Here, we present ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to determine the equations of state and the transport coefficients. Several models are used to estimate the reduction in the growth rate dispersion curves of Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities with considering the presence of these dissipative effects. We show that these instability growth rates are effectively reduced when considering diffusion. The findings provide significant insights into the microscopic mechanism of the instability growth at the ablator-fuel interface and will refine the models used in the laser-driven hydrodynamic instability experiments.

  17. Independence of buoyant cell density and growth rate in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Kubitchek, H.E.; Baldwin, W.W.; Schroeter, S.J.; Graetzer, R.

    1984-04-01

    The relationship between growth rate and buoyant density was determined for cells from exponential-phase cultures of Escherichia coli B/r NC32 by equilibrium centrifugation in Percoll gradients at growth rates ranging from 0.15 to 2.3 doublings per h. The mean buoyant density did not change significantly with growth rate in any of three sets of experiments in which different gradient conditions were used. In addition, when cultures were allowed to enter the stationary phase of growth, mean cell volumes and buoyant densities usually remained unchanged for extended periods. These and earlier results support the existence of a highly regulated, discrete state of buoyant density during steady-state growth of E. coli and other cells that divide by equatorial fission. 11 references, 3 figures.

  18. Effects of Phlomis umbrosa Root on Longitudinal Bone Growth Rate in Adolescent Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donghun; Kim, Young-Sik; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Guo, Hailing; Kim, Hocheol

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Phlomis umbrosa root on bone growth and growth mediators in rats. Female adolescent rats were administered P. umbrosa extract, recombinant human growth hormone or vehicle for 10 days. Tetracycline was injected intraperitoneally to produce a glowing fluorescence band on the newly formed bone on day 8, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was injected to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 8-10. To assess possible endocrine or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, we evaluated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in response to P. umbrosa administration in either growth plate or serum. Oral administration of P. umbrosa significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate, height of hypertrophic zone and chondrocyte proliferation of the proximal tibial growth plate. P. umbrosa also increased serum IGFBP-3 levels and upregulated the expressions of IGF-1 and BMP-2 in growth plate. In conclusion, P. umbrosa increases longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocyte with the increment of circulating IGFBP-3. Regarding the immunohistochemical study, the effect of P. umbrosa may also be attributable to upregulation of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expressions in the growth plate, which can be considered as a GH dependent autocrine/paracrine pathway. PMID:27070559

  19. The effects of population density on juvenile growth rate in white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Barr, Brannon; Wolverton, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Animal body size is driven by habitat quality, food availability, and nutrition. Adult size can relate to birth weight, to length of the ontogenetic growth period, and/or to the rate of growth. Data requirements are high for studying these growth mechanisms, but large datasets exist for some game species. In North America, large harvest datasets exist for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), but such data are collected under a variety of conditions and are generally dismissed for ecological research beyond local population and habitat management. We contend that such data are useful for studying the ecology of white-tailed deer growth and body size when analyzed at ordinal scale. In this paper, we test the response of growth rate to food availability by fitting a logarithmic equation that estimates growth rate only to harvest data from Fort Hood, Texas, and track changes in growth rate over time. Results of this ordinal scale model are compared to previously published models that include additional parameters, such as birth weight and adult weight. It is shown that body size responds to food availability by variation in growth rate. Models that estimate multiple parameters may not work with harvest data because they are prone to error, which renders estimates from complex models too variable to detect interannual changes in growth rate that this ordinal scale model captures. This model can be applied to harvest data, from which inferences about factors that influence animal growth and body size (e.g., habitat quality and nutritional availability) can be drawn. PMID:25148782

  20. The Effects of Population Density on Juvenile Growth Rate in White-Tailed Deer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Brannon; Wolverton, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Animal body size is driven by habitat quality, food availability, and nutrition. Adult size can relate to birth weight, to length of the ontogenetic growth period, and/or to the rate of growth. Data requirements are high for studying these growth mechanisms, but large datasets exist for some game species. In North America, large harvest datasets exist for white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus), but such data are collected under a variety of conditions and are generally dismissed for ecological research beyond local population and habitat management. We contend that such data are useful for studying the ecology of white-tailed deer growth and body size when analyzed at ordinal scale. In this paper, we test the response of growth rate to food availability by fitting a logarithmic equation that estimates growth rate only to harvest data from Fort Hood, Texas, and track changes in growth rate over time. Results of this ordinal scale model are compared to previously published models that include additional parameters, such as birth weight and adult weight. It is shown that body size responds to food availability by variation in growth rate. Models that estimate multiple parameters may not work with harvest data because they are prone to error, which renders estimates from complex models too variable to detect interannual changes in growth rate that this ordinal scale model captures. This model can be applied to harvest data, from which inferences about factors that influence animal growth and body size (e.g., habitat quality and nutritional availability) can be drawn.

  1. Is the Oort A-value a universal growth rate limit for accretion disk shear instabilities?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balbus, Steven A.; Hawley, John F.

    1992-01-01

    A weak-field local MHD instability that is of importance to accretion disks is examined. The maximum growth rate of the instability is found to be not only independent of the magnetic field strength but independent of field geometry as well. In particular, all Keplerian disks are unstable in the presence of any weak poloidal field, with the ratio of the maximum growth rate to disk angular velocity given by 3/4. The maximum growth rate of any weak field configuration that is not purely toroidal is given by the local Oort A-value of the disk. The behavior is studied by using a form of the dynamical Hill equations. It is conjectured that the Oort A-value is an upper bound to the growth rate of any instability feeding upon the free energy of differential rotation.

  2. Crossflow effects on the growth rate of inviscid Goertler vortices in a hypersonic boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Yibin; Hall, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The effects of crossflow on the growth rate of inviscid Goertler vortices in a hypersonic boundary layer with pressure gradient are studied. Attention is focused on the inviscid mode trapped in the temperature adjustment layer; this mode has greater growth rate than any other mode. The eigenvalue problem which governs the relationship between the growth rate, the crossflow amplitude, and the wavenumber is solved numerically, and the results are then used to clarify the effects of crossflow on the growth rate of inviscid Goertler vortices. It is shown that crossflow effects on Goertler vortices are fundamentally different for incompressible and hypersonic flows. The neutral mode eigenvalue problem is found to have an exact solution, and as a by-product, we have also found the exact solution to a neutral mode eigenvalue problem which was formulated, but unsolved before, by Bassom and Hall (1991).

  3. Selection on herbivory resistance and growth rate in an invasive plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive species face different conditions in their new range, which may lead to evolutionary change. The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis proposes that invasive species evolve decreased defense and increased growth rate and competitive ability following introduction. W...

  4. Dependence of growth rate of quartz in fused silica on pressure and impurity content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fratello, V. J.; Hays, J. F.; Turnbull, D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of pressure, temperature, and some variations in impurity content on the growth rate u of quartz into fused silica were measured. Under all conditions the growth rate was interface controlled and increased exponentially with pressure with an activation volume averaging -21.2 cu cm/mole. The activation enthalpy for all specimens is extrapolated to a zero pressure value of 64 kcal/mole, within the experimental uncertainty. At a given stoichiometry the effect of hydroxyl content on growth rate is described entirely by a linear term C(OH) in the prefactor of the equation for the growth rate. The effect of chlorine impurity can be described similarly. Also u is increased as the ideal stoichiometry is approached from the partially reduced state.

  5. Density but not climate affects the population growth rate of guanacos ( Lama guanicoe) (Artiodactyla, Camelidae).

    PubMed

    Zubillaga, María; Skewes, Oscar; Soto, Nicolás; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of population density and climatic variables on the rate of population growth in the guanaco ( Lama guanicoe), a wild camelid species in South America. We used a time series of 36 years (1977-2012) of population sampling in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Individuals were grouped in three age-classes: newborns, juveniles, and adults; for each year a female population transition matrix was constructed, and the population growth rate (λ) was estimated for each year as the matrix highest positive eigenvalue. We applied a regression analysis with finite population growth rate (λ) as dependent variable, and total guanaco population, sheep population, annual mean precipitation, and winter mean temperature as independent variables, with and without time lags. The effect of guanaco population size was statistically significant, but the effects of the sheep population and the climatic variables on guanaco population growth rate were not statistically significant. PMID:25187878

  6. Maximum likelihood estimation of population growth rates based on the coalescent.

    PubMed Central

    Kuhner, M K; Yamato, J; Felsenstein, J

    1998-01-01

    We describe a method for co-estimating 4Nemu (four times the product of effective population size and neutral mutation rate) and population growth rate from sequence samples using Metropolis-Hastings sampling. Population growth (or decline) is assumed to be exponential. The estimates of growth rate are biased upwards, especially when 4Nemu is low; there is also a slight upwards bias in the estimate of 4Nemu itself due to correlation between the parameters. This bias cannot be attributed solely to Metropolis-Hastings sampling but appears to be an inherent property of the estimator and is expected to appear in any approach which estimates growth rate from genealogy structure. Sampling additional unlinked loci is much more effective in reducing the bias than increasing the number or length of sequences from the same locus. PMID:9584114

  7. Density but not climate affects the population growth rate of guanacos ( Lama guanicoe) (Artiodactyla, Camelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zubillaga, María; Skewes, Oscar; Soto, Nicolás; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of population density and climatic variables on the rate of population growth in the guanaco ( Lama guanicoe), a wild camelid species in South America. We used a time series of 36 years (1977-2012) of population sampling in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Individuals were grouped in three age-classes: newborns, juveniles, and adults; for each year a female population transition matrix was constructed, and the population growth rate (λ) was estimated for each year as the matrix highest positive eigenvalue. We applied a regression analysis with finite population growth rate (λ) as dependent variable, and total guanaco population, sheep population, annual mean precipitation, and winter mean temperature as independent variables, with and without time lags. The effect of guanaco population size was statistically significant, but the effects of the sheep population and the climatic variables on guanaco population growth rate were not statistically significant. PMID:25187878

  8. Growth rates of rainbow smelt in Lake Champlain: Effects of density and diet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stritzel, Thomson J.L.; Parrish, D.L.; Parker-Stetter, S. L.; Rudstam, L. G.; Sullivan, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Stritzel Thomson JL, Parrish DL, Parker-Stetter SL, Rudstam LG, Sullivan PJ. Growth rates of rainbow smelt in Lake Champlain: effects of density and diet. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 2010. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract- We estimated the densities of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) using hydroacoustics and obtained specimens for diet analysis and groundtruthed acoustics data from mid-water trawl sampling in four areas of Lake Champlain, USA-Canada. Densities of rainbow smelt cohorts alternated during the 2-year study; age-0 rainbow smelt were very abundant in 2001 (up to 6fish per m2) and age-1 and older were abundant (up to 1.2fish per m2) in 2002. Growth rates and densities varied among areas and years. We used model selection on eight area-year-specific variables to investigate biologically plausible predictors of rainbow smelt growth rates. The best supported model of growth rates of age-0 smelt indicated a negative relationship with age-0 density, likely associated with intraspecific competition for zooplankton. The next best-fit model had age-1 density as a predictor of age-0 growth. The best supported models (N=4) of growth rates of age-1 fish indicated a positive relationship with availability of age-0 smelt and resulting levels of cannibalism. Other plausible models were contained variants of these parameters. Cannibalistic rainbow smelt consumed younger conspecifics that were up to 53% of their length. Prediction of population dynamics for rainbow smelt requires an understanding of the relationship between density and growth as age-0 fish outgrow their main predators (adult smelt) by autumn in years with fast growth rates, but not in years with slow growth rates. ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. ORAL N-CARBAMYLGLUTAMATE (NCG) SUPPLEMENTATION INCREASES GROWTH RATE IN SOW-REARED PIGLETS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oral supplementation of NCG, an analogue of N-acetylglutamate, increases plasma arginine concentrations and growth rate in sow-reared piglets. To investigate the mechanism involved in this growth response, nursing piglets (n = 18; BW = 3.19 kg) were orally administered 0 or 50 mg/kg BW of NCG twice...

  10. Modeling of kinetically limited growth rate for solution-synthesized germanium nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoop, Nicholas; Tribby, Louis J.; Han, Sang M.

    2015-08-01

    Solution synthesis is a common method for preparing semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs). For such solution synthesis, many investigations have considered diffusion-limited growth, in which the diffusion of reactants through the boundary layer (BL) limits the NC growth rate. These studies often model the growth rate with a diffusion BL thickness much larger than the NC size and with unphysically low diffusion constants on the order of 10-12 cm2 s-1. In this work, we have examined the growth of Ge NCs synthesized by injecting Ge amide precursors into a solution of 1-octadecene, oleylamine, and hexadecylamine. We have previously established this low-temperature, low-pressure synthesis route. The resulting Ge growth rate compares well with our model, in which we consider both BL diffusion and surface kinetics of Ge precursors and organic ligand adsorbates. Our modeling results suggest that the NC growth is limited not by diffusion, but by the surface adsorption and desorption kinetics. The BL thickness in the stirred reaction vessel is calculated to be on the same order of magnitude as the crystal radius; therefore, the surface kinetics cannot be ignored. Furthermore, the synthesis temperature is near 300 °C, where the Ge monomer diffusion coefficient within the growth solution is substantially increased and estimated to be on the order of 10-5 cm2 s-1. These considerations agree well with our experimentally measured growth rate and strongly suggest that the NC size evolution is controlled primarily by the surface kinetics.

  11. Effect of step edge transition rates and anisotropy in simulations of epitaxial growth

    SciTech Connect

    Chason, E.; Dodson, B.W.

    1990-01-01

    We present the results of a hybrid rate equation/Monte Carlo simulation of epitaxial growth on vicinal surfaces. We have studied the effect on surface morphology of changing transition rates at step edges, of changing detachment rates from step edges and clusters, and of adding anisotropy to the diffusion and incorporation kinetics at step edges and islands. The effect of the transition rates on surface morphology are discussed in terms of a balance between growth by nucleation and coalescence of islands and by the propagation of steps. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Phylogenetic, functional, and structural components of variation in bone growth rate of amniotes.

    PubMed

    Cubo, Jorge; Legendre, Pierre; de Ricqlès, Armand; Montes, Laëtitia; de Margerie, Emmanuel; Castanet, Jacques; Desdevises, Yves

    2008-01-01

    The biological features observed in every living organism are the outcome of three sets of factors: historical (inherited by homology), functional (biological adaptation), and structural (properties inherent to the materials with which organs are constructed, and the morphogenetic rules by which they grow). Integrating them should bring satisfactory causal explanations of empirical data. However, little progress has been accomplished in practice toward this goal, because a methodologically efficient tool was lacking. Here we use a new statistical method of variation partitioning to analyze bone growth in amniotes. (1) Historical component. The variation of bone growth rates contains a significant phylogenetic signal, suggesting that the observed patterns are partly the outcome of shared ancestry. (2) Functional causation. High growth rates, although energy costly, may be adaptive (i.e., they may increase survival rates) in taxa showing short growth periods (e.g., birds). In ectothermic amniotes, low resting metabolic rates may limit the maximum possible growth rates. (3) Structural constraint. Whereas soft tissues grow through a multiplicative process, growth of mineralized tissues is accretionary (additive, i.e., mineralization fronts occur only at free surfaces). Bone growth of many amniotes partially circumvents this constraint: it is achieved not only at the external surface of the bone shaft, but also within cavities included in the bone cortex as it grows centrifugally. Our approach contributes to the unification of historicism, functionalism, and structuralism toward a more integrated evolutionary biology. PMID:18315815

  13. Measuring the growth rate of UK dairy heifers to improve future productivity.

    PubMed

    Bazeley, Katrine J; Barrett, David C; Williams, Paul D; Reyher, Kristen K

    2016-06-01

    Sub-optimal heifer growth is associated with higher disease rates and reduced future performance and longevity in the dairy herd. This report describes a system for measuring heifer growth from birth to first calving that was used on commercial dairy farms in South West England, in order to gather benchmarking data to feed back to farmers. Weights (n = 8443) were collected from 20 farms. There was a marked variation in individual and herd mean growth rates. Overall, calves gained no weight in the first 8 days after birth and had a very low growth rate (median 0.12 kg/day) up to 30 days, a period when feed conversion efficiency is high and calves are vulnerable to disease. Heifers whose growth rate up to 180 days was low were significantly less likely to achieve target service weight (374 kg) by 420 days. Monitoring heifer growth during the rearing period enables farmers to improve heifer growth rates and so impact both the efficiency of heifer rearing and, potentially, the productivity and performance of the adult herd. PMID:27256019

  14. Effect of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) on the Growth Rate and Morphology of Borax Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suharso; Parkinson, Gordon; Ogden, Mark

    An investigation of the effect of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on both growth rate and morphology of borax crystal has been carried out. This experiment was carried out at temperature of 25°C and relative supersaturation of 0.21 and 0.74 under in situ cell optical microscopy method. The result shows that CTAB inhibits the growth rate and changes the morphology of borax crystal.

  15. Growth rate reduction of the curvature-driven flute instability by plasma blanket line tying

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, D.

    1983-09-01

    The effect of an annular, line-tied blanket, on the curvature-driven flute in a magnetic mirror is considered. The blanket is assumed to be line tied to a thermoionically emitting annular end plate. Reduction of the flute growth rate is computed as function of Larmor radius, blanket radius, and axial plasma conductance through either an external plasma or mirror sheath. It is found that significant reduction in growth rate can be achieved.

  16. Landscape scale measures of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) bioenergetic growth rate potential in Lake Michigan and comparison with angler catch rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hook, T.O.; Rutherford, E.S.; Brines, Shannon J.; Geddes, C.A.; Mason, D.M.; Schwab, D.J.; Fleischer, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    The relative quality of a habitat can influence fish consumption, growth, mortality, and production. In order to quantify habitat quality, several authors have combined bioenergetic and foraging models to generate spatially explicit estimates of fish growth rate potential (GRP). However, the capacity of GRP to reflect the spatial distributions of fishes over large areas has not been fully evaluated. We generated landscape scale estimates of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) GRP throughout Lake Michigan for 1994-1996, and used these estimates to test the hypotheses that GRP is a good predictor of spatial patterns of steelhead catch rates. We used surface temperatures (measured with AVHRR satellite imagery) and acoustically measured steelhead prey densities (alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus) as inputs for the GRP model. Our analyses demonstrate that potential steelhead growth rates in Lake Michigan are highly variable in both space and time. Steelhead GRP tended to increase with latitude, and mean GRP was much higher during September 1995, compared to 1994 and 1996. In addition, our study suggests that landscape scale measures of GRP are not good predictors of steelhead catch rates throughout Lake Michigan, but may provide an index of interannual variation in system-wide habitat quality.

  17. SCC crack growth rate of cold worked 316L stainless steel in PWR environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Donghai; Chen, Kai; Yu, Lun; lu, Hui; Zhang, Lefu; Shi, Xiuqiang; Xu, Xuelian

    2015-01-01

    Many component failures in nuclear power plants were found to be caused by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of cold worked austenitic steels. Some of the pressure boundary component materials are even cold worked up to 35% plastic deformation, leaving high residual stress and inducing high growth rate of corrosion crack. Controlling water chemistry is one of the best counter measure to mitigate this problem. In this work, the effects of temperature (200 up to 325 °C) and dissolved oxygen (0 up to 2000 μg/L) on SCC crack growth rates of cold worked austenitic stainless steel type 316L have been tested by using direct current potential drop (DCPD) method. The results showed that temperature affected SCC crack growth rates more significantly in oxygenated water than in deaerated water. In argon deaerated water, the crack growth rate exhibited a peak at about 250 °C, which needs further verification. At 325 °C, the SCC crack growth rate increased rapidly with the increase of dissolved oxygen concentration within the range from 0 up to 200 μg/L, while when dissolved oxygen was above 200 μg/L, the crack growth rate followed a shallower dependence on dissolved oxygen concentration.

  18. Factors influencing crystal growth rates from undercooled liquids of pharmaceutical compounds.

    PubMed

    Trasi, Niraj S; Baird, Jared A; Kestur, Umesh S; Taylor, Lynne S

    2014-08-21

    Amorphous forms of drugs are increasingly being used to deliver poorly water-soluble compounds. Therefore, understanding the magnitude and origin of differences in crystallization kinetics is highly important. The goal of this study was to better understand the factors that influence crystal growth rates from pharmaceutically relevant undercooled liquids and to evaluate the range of growth rates observed. The crystal growth rates of 31 drugs were determined using an optical microscope in the temperature region between the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the melting temperature (Tm). Thermodynamic parameters such as Tm, melting enthalpy, and Tg were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Selected viscosity values for the undercooled liquid were taken from the literature. The growth rates of the different compounds were found to be very different from each other with a variation of about 5 orders of magnitude between the fastest growing compounds and the slowest growing compounds. A comparison of the physicochemical properties showed that compounds that had fast crystal growth rates had smaller molecular weights, higher melting temperatures, lower melt entropies, lower melt viscosities, and higher crystal densities. Variations in the growth rates of the compounds could be rationalized to a large extent by considering the thermodynamic driving force for crystallization, the viscosity, and the entropy difference between the melt and undercooled liquid. This study therefore provides important insight into factors that may compromise the stability of amorphous pharmaceuticals. PMID:25076138

  19. Growth rate of a deep-sea coral using sup 210 Pb and other isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Druffel, E.R.M.; King, L.I.; Belastock, R.A.; Buesseler, K.O. )

    1990-05-01

    A deep-sea coral was studied to determine its growth rate and to reconstruct time histories of isotope distributions in the deep ocean. The specimen was collected at a depth of 600 m off Little Bahama Banks using the Deep Submergence Vehicle (DSV) Alvin. The growth rate of the calcitic coral trunk was determined using excess {sup 210}Pb measured in concentric bands. Excess {sup 210}Pb was found in the outer half of the coral's radius, and a growth rate of 0.11 {plus minus} 0.02 mm/a is calculated. Assuming a constant growth rate during formation of the entire trunk, an age of 180 {plus minus} 40 a is estimated for the coral. The decrease observed in radiocarbon activities measured on the same bands (Griffin and Druffel, 1989) concurred with the growth rate estimated from excess {sup 210}Pb activity. {sup 239,240}Pu activities measured by mass spectrometry were also detected in the outer two bands of the coral, as expected from the {sup 210}Pb chronology. Stable oxygen and carbon isotopes measured in samples collected by a variety of techniques are positively correlated. This is evidence of a variable kinetic isotope effect most likely caused by variations in the skeletal growth rate. Long-lived corals such as this specimen have the potential for serving as integrators of seawater chemistry in the deep-sea over several century timescales.

  20. Rapid, bilateral changes in growth rate and curvature during gravitropism of cucumber hypocotyls: implications for mechanism of growth control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The growth response of etiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls to gravitropic stimulation was examined by means of time-lapse photography and high-resolution analysis of surface expansion and curvature. In comparison with video analysis, the technique described here has five- to 20-fold better resolution; moreover, the mathematical fitting method (cubic splines) allows direct estimation of local and integrated curvature. After switching seedlings from a vertical to horizontal position, both upper and lower surfaces of the stem reacted after a lag of about 11 min with a two- to three-fold increase in surface expansion rate on the lower side and a cessation of expansion, or slight compression, on the upper surface. This growth asymmetry was initiated simultaneously along the length of the hypocotyl, on both upper and lower surfaces, and did not migrate basipetally from the apex. Later stages in the gravitropic response involved a complex reversal of the growth asymmetry, with the net result being a basipetal migration of the curved region. This secondary growth reversal may reflect oscillatory and/or self-regulatory behaviour of growing cells. With some qualifications, the kinetics and pattern of growth response are consistent with a mechanism involving hormone redistribution, although they do not prove such a mechanism. The growth kinetics require a growth mechanism which can be stimulated by two- to three-fold or completely inhibited within a few minutes.

  1. Biogeochemical implications of comparative growth rates of Emiliania huxleyi and Coccolithus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, C. J.; Sheward, R. M.; Poulton, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Coccolithophores, a diverse group of phytoplankton, make important contributions to pelagic calcite production and export, yet the comparative biogeochemical role of species other than the ubiquitous Emiliania huxleyi is poorly understood. The contribution of different coccolithophore species to total calcite production is controlled by inter-species differences in cellular calcite, growth rate and relative abundance within a mixed community. In this study we examined the relative importance of E. huxleyi and two Coccolithus species in terms of daily calcite production. Culture experiments compared growth rates and cellular calcite content of E. huxleyi (Arctic and temperate strains), Coccolithus pelagicus (novel Arctic strain) and Coccolithus braarudii (temperate strain). Despite assumptions that E. huxleyi is a fast-growing species, growth rates between the three species were broadly comparable (0.16-0.85 d-1) under identical temperature and light conditions. Emiliania huxleyi grew only 12% faster on average than C. pelagicus, and 28% faster than C. braarudii. As the cellular calcite content of C. pelagicus and C. braarudii is typically 30-80 times greater than E. huxleyi, comparable growth rates suggest that Coccolithus species have the potential to be major calcite producers in mixed populations. To further explore these results we devised a simplistic model comparing daily calcite production from Coccolithus and E. huxleyi across a realistic range of relative abundances and a wide range of relative growth rates. Using the relative differences in growth rates from our culture studies, we found that C. pelagicus would be a larger source of calcite if abundances of E. huxleyi to C. pelagicus were below 34:1. Relative abundance data collected from North Atlantic field samples (spring and summer 2010) suggest that, with a relative growth rate of 88%, C. pelagicus dominated calcite production at 69% of the sites sampled. With a more extreme difference in growth

  2. First size-dependent growth rate measurements of 1 to 5 nm freshly formed atmospheric nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, C.; Chen, M.; Zhao, J.; Smith, J.; McMurry, P. H.; Wang, J.

    2011-09-01

    This study presents the first measurements of size-dependent particle diameter growth rates for freshly nucleated particles down to 1 nm geometric diameter. Data analysis methods were developed, de-coupling the size and time-dependence of particle growth rates by fitting the aerosol general dynamic equation to size distributions obtained at an instant in time. Size distributions of freshly nucleated particles were measured during two intensive measurement campaigns in different environments (Atlanta, GA and Boulder, CO) using a recently developed electrical mobility spectrometer with a diethylene glycol-based ultrafine condensation particle counter as the detector. Size and time-dependent growth rates were obtained directly from measured size distributions and were found to increase approximately linearly with size from ~1 to 3 nm geometric diameter, ranging, for example, from 5.6 ± 2.0 to 27 ± 5.3 nm h-1 in Boulder (13:00) and from 5.5 ± 0.82 to 7.6 ± 0.56 nm h-1 in Atlanta (13:00). The resulting growth rate enhancement Γ, defined as the ratio of the observed growth rate to the growth rate due to the condensation of sulfuric acid only, was found to increase approximately linearly with size from ~1 to 3 nm geometric diameter, having lower limit values that approached ~1 at 1.2 nm geometric diameter in Atlanta and ~3 at 0.8 nm geometric diameter in Boulder, and having upper limit values that reached 8.3 at 4.1 nm geometric diameter in Atlanta and 25 at 2.7 nm geometric diameter in Boulder. Survival probability calculations comparing constant and size-dependent growth indicate that neglecting the strong growth rate size dependence from 1 to 3 nm observed in this study could lead to a significant overestimation of CCN survival probability.

  3. Simultaneous estimates of synechococcus spp. Growth and grazing mortality rates in the English Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Xiu-Ren; Vaulot, Daniel

    1996-03-01

    The marine chroococooid phycoerythrin-containing Synechococcus spp. cyanobacterium has been implicated as a substantial component of the photosynthetic picoplankton in the ocean. Although its importance as food source for heterotrophic nanoplankton is now recognized, information about the cycling of Synechococcus biomass and its diel pattern is limited and study methodology varies among authors. The selective metabolic inhibitor method was used to simultaneously estimate growth and grazing disappearance rates of Synechococcus in the English Channel where growth rates ranged from 0.25 to 0.72/d (mean ±SD=0.51±0.17/d) and grazing mortality rates ranged from 0.19 to 0.64/d (mean ±SD=0.48±0.17/d). Size-fractionated experiments demonstrated that up to 70% of Synechococcus disappearance could be attributed to grazers going through a 2 μm Nuclepore filter. Synechococcus grazing mortality rates (mean=0.74 ±0.25/d) during the day were always higher than that (mean=0.2±0.20/d) during the night, while growth rates showed no clear diel pattern. A positive correlation was observed between growth rates and in situ temperature ranging from 9 to 17°C, while in contrast grazing was independent of temperature. The close similatiry between average growth and grazing rates suggests a rapid recycling of Synechococcus biomass in English Channel coastal waters.

  4. Effects of Climate Change on Plant Population Growth Rate and Community Composition Change

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Bao-Ming; Liu, Gang; Zhou, Ting; Jia, Xiao-Rong; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on forest community composition are still not well known. Although directional trends in climate change and community composition change were reported in recent years, further quantitative analyses are urgently needed. Previous studies focused on measuring population growth rates in a single time period, neglecting the development of the populations. Here we aimed to compose a method for calculating the community composition change, and to testify the impacts of climate change on community composition change within a relatively short period (several decades) based on long-term monitoring data from two plots—Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China (DBR) and Barro Colorado Island, Panama (BCI)—that are located in tropical and subtropical regions. We proposed a relatively more concise index, Slnλ, which refers to an overall population growth rate based on the dominant species in a community. The results indicated that the population growth rate of a majority of populations has decreased over the past few decades. This decrease was mainly caused by population development. The increasing temperature had a positive effect on population growth rates and community change rates. Our results promote understanding and explaining variations in population growth rates and community composition rates, and are helpful to predict population dynamics and population responses to climate change. PMID:26039073

  5. Growth rates, grazing, sinking, and iron limitation of equatorial Pacific phytoplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, F.P.; Buck, K.R. ); Coale, K.H.; Martin, J.H.; DiTullio, G.R.; Welschmeyer, N.A. ); Barber, R.T. ); Jacobson, A.C.

    1991-12-01

    Concentrations of phytoplankton and NO{sub 3} are consistently low and high in surface waters of the oceanic eastern and central equatorial Pacific, and phytoplankton populations are dominated by small solitary phytoplankton. Growth rates of natural phytoplankton populations, needed to assess the relative importance of many of the processes considered in the equatorial Pacific, were estimated by several methods. The growth rates of natural phytoplankton populations were found to be {approximately}0.7 d{sup {minus}1} or 1 biomass doubling d{sup {minus}1} and were similar for all methods. To keep this system in its observed balance requires that loss rates approximate observed growth rates. Grazing rates, measured with a dilution grazing experiment, were high, accounting for a large fraction of the daily production. Additions of various forms of Fe to 5-7-d incubations utilizing ultraclean techniques resulted in significant shifts in autotrophic and heterotrophic assemblages between initial samples, controls, and Fe enrichments, which were presumably due to Fe, grazing by both protistan and metazoan components, and incubation artifacts. Estimated growth rates of small pennate diatoms showed increases in Fe enrichments with respect to controls. The growth rates of the pennate diatoms were similar to those estimated for the larger size fraction of the natural populations.

  6. Context-specific influence of water temperature on brook trout growth rates in the field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, C.; Letcher, B.H.; Nislow, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    1. Modelling the effects of climate change on freshwater fishes requires robust field-based estimates accounting for interactions among multiple factors.2. We used data from an 8-year individual-based study of a wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) population to test the influence of water temperature on season-specific growth in the context of variation in other environmental (i.e. season, stream flow) or biotic factors (local brook trout biomass density and fish age and size) in West Brook, a third-order stream in western Massachusetts, U.S.A.3. Changes in ambient temperature influenced individual growth rates. In general, higher temperatures were associated with higher growth rates in winter and spring and lower growth rates in summer and autumn. However, the effect of temperature on growth was strongly context-dependent, differing in both magnitude and direction as a function of season, stream flow and fish biomass density.4. We found that stream flow and temperature had strong and complex interactive effects on trout growth. At the coldest temperatures (in winter), high stream flows were associated with reduced trout growth rates. During spring and autumn and in typical summers (when water temperatures were close to growth optima), higher flows were associated with increased growth rates. In addition, the effect of flow at a given temperature (the flow-temperature interaction) differed among seasons.5. Trout density negatively affected growth rate and had strong interactions with temperature in two of four seasons (i.e. spring and summer) with greater negative effects at high temperatures.6. Our study provided robust, integrative field-based estimates of the effects of temperature on growth rates for a species which serves as a model organism for cold-water adapted ectotherms facing the consequences of environmental change. Results of the study strongly suggest that failure to derive season-specific estimates, or to explicitly consider interactions with

  7. A simplified method for determining reactive rate parameters for reaction ignition and growth in explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.J.

    1996-07-01

    A simplified method for determining the reactive rate parameters for the ignition and growth model is presented. This simplified ignition and growth (SIG) method consists of only two adjustable parameters, the ignition (I) and growth (G) rate constants. The parameters are determined by iterating these variables in DYNA2D hydrocode simulations of the failure diameter and the gap test sensitivity until the experimental values are reproduced. Examples of four widely different explosives were evaluated using the SIG model. The observed embedded gauge stress-time profiles for these explosives are compared to those calculated by the SIG equation and the results are described.

  8. 7075-T6 and 2024-T351 Aluminum Alloy Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forth, Scott C.; Wright, Christopher W.; Johnston, William M., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental test procedures for the development of fatigue crack growth rate data has been standardized by the American Society for Testing and Materials. Over the past 30 years several gradual changes have been made to the standard without rigorous assessment of the affect these changes have on the precision or variability of the data generated. Therefore, the ASTM committee on fatigue crack growth has initiated an international round robin test program to assess the precision and variability of test results generated using the standard E647-00. Crack growth rate data presented in this report, in support of the ASTM roundrobin, shows excellent precision and repeatability.

  9. An Improved Reaction Rate Equation for Simulating the Ignition and Growth of Reaction in High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M J

    2010-03-08

    We describe an improved reaction rate equation for simulating ignition and growth of reaction in high explosives. It has been implemented into CALE and ALE3D as an alternate to the baseline the Lee-Tarver reactive flow model. The reactive flow model treats the explosive in two phases (unreacted/reactants and reacted/products) with a reaction rate equation to determine the fraction reacted, F. The improved rate equation has fewer parameters, is continuous with continuous derivative, results in a unique set of reaction rate parameters for each explosive while providing the same functionality as the baseline rate equation. The improved rate equation uses a cosine function in the ignition term and a sine function in the growth and completion terms. The improved rate equation is simpler with fewer parameters.

  10. Trophic interactions and population growth rates: describing patterns and identifying mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Peter J; Dobson, Andy P; Cattadori, Isabella M; Newborn, David; Haydon, Dan T; Shaw, Darren J; Benton, Tim G; Grenfell, Bryan T

    2002-01-01

    While the concept of population growth rate has been of central importance in the development of the theory of population dynamics, few empirical studies consider the intrinsic growth rate in detail, let alone how it may vary within and between populations of the same species. In an attempt to link theory with data we take two approaches. First, we address the question 'what growth rate patterns does theory predict we should see in time-series?' The models make a number of predictions, which in general are supported by a comparative study between time-series of harvesting data from 352 red grouse populations. Variations in growth rate between grouse populations were associated with factors that reflected the quality and availability of the main food plant of the grouse. However, while these results support predictions from theory, they provide no clear insight into the mechanisms influencing reductions in population growth rate and regulation. In the second part of the paper, we consider the results of experiments, first at the individual level and then at the population level, to identify the important mechanisms influencing changes in individual productivity and population growth rate. The parasitic nematode Trichostrongylus tenuis is found to have an important influence on productivity, and when incorporated into models with their patterns of distribution between individuals has a destabilizing effect and generates negative growth rates. The hypothesis that negative growth rates at the population level were caused by parasites was demonstrated by a replicated population level experiment. With a sound and tested model framework we then explore the interaction with other natural enemies and show that in general they tend to stabilize variations in growth rate. Interestingly, the models show selective predators that remove heavily infected individuals can release the grouse from parasite-induced regulation and allow equilibrium populations to rise. By contrast, a

  11. Effects of pH on the growth rate, motility and photosynthesis in Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Danilov, R A; Ekelund, N G

    2001-01-01

    The influence of pH 3-10 on the growth, motility and photosynthesis in Euglena gracilis was demonstrated during a 7-d cultivation. The cells did not survive at pH < 4 and > 8, highest growth rate being detected at pH 7. Motility followed a similar pattern as growth rate. Photosynthetic response curves were shown to be of the same type over the whole pH range. High respiration was characteristic for cells grown at pH 5 and 6, the lowest one at 7. At high and also at low pH more active respiration was found which can be considered as a protective response on proton stress. Respiration was not completely inhibited with potassium cyanide. Photosynthesis was the most effective at pH 6; lower and higher pH decreased photosynthetic efficiency. pH affected more the growth rate than the photosynthesis. PMID:11898347

  12. Growth rate enhancement by microcrystals and the quality of resulting potash alum crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takiyama, H.; Tezuka, N.; Matsuoka, M.; Ristic, R. I.; Sherwood, J. N.

    1998-09-01

    Growth rate enhancement resulting from the addition of ground powder crystals to a growing larger crystal has been examined for the potash alum-water system. The crystal quality of the large crystal after the addition and subsequent growth rate enhancement was evaluated in terms of the formation of inclusions and dislocations. Inclusions were observed with an optical microscope and the dislocations were analysed using X-ray transmission topography. It was found that the development of inclusions occurs at the time of the addition to the solution of the ground powder crystals and their attachment to the growing crystal surface. Simultaneously, dislocation bundles were generated. It is proposed that the inclusions form as the growing crystal surface envelopes the adhering particles and that the dislocations form both as a consequence of the strain that develops and the lattice mismatch required to refacet the surface. Both result in the development of additional growth centres which cause the growth rate enhancement.

  13. Stress Ratio Effects on Crack Opening Loads and Crack Growth Rates in Aluminum Alloy 2024

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddell, William T.; Piascik, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of stress ratio (R) and crack opening behavior on fatigue crack growth rates (da/dN) for aluminum alloy (AA) 2024-T3 were investigated using constant-delta K testing, closure measurements, and fractography. Fatigue crack growth rates were obtained for a range of delta K and stress ratios. Results show that constant delta K fatigue crack growth for R ranging from near 0 to 1 is divided into three regions. In Region 1, at low R, da/dN increases with increasing R. In Region 2, at intermediate R, fatigue crack growth rates are relatively independent of R. In Region 3, at high R, further increases in da/dN are observed with increasing R.

  14. Measurement of Temperature Fluctuations and Microscopic Growth Rates in a Silicon Floating Zone and Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, Markus; Croell, Arne

    1999-01-01

    A silicon crystal growth experiment has been accomplished using the floating-zone technique under microgravity on a sounding rocket (TEXUS 36). Measurements of temperature fluctuations in the silicon melt zone due to time dependent thermocapillary convection (Marangoni convection) and an observation of the microscopic growth rate were simultaneously performed during the experiment. Temperature fluctuations of about 0.5 - 0.7 C with a frequency range < 0.5Hz were detectable. The microscopic growth rate fluctuates considerably around the average growth rate of 1 mm/min: Growth rates up to 3 to 4mm/min, close to zero mm/min, as well as negative values (backmelting) were observed. Dopant striations are clearly visible in the Sb-doped crystal. They were characterized by Spreading Resistance measurements and Differential Interference Contrast microscopy. The frequencies of temperature fluctuations, microscopic growth rates, and the dopant inhomogeneities correspond quite well, with main frequencies between 0.1 and 0.3 Hz. 3D numerical simulations were performed to predict the optimum position of the temperature sensor, and the characteristic temperature amplitudes and frequencies. At a position 3.4mm above the interface and 1.4mm inside the melt, equivalent to the sensor tip position in the experiment, temperature fluctuations up to 1.8 C and frequencies ? 0.25Hz were found in the simulations.

  15. Effects of nutrients on specific growth rate of bacterioplankton in oligotrophic lake water cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Coveney, M.F.; Wetzel, R.G. )

    1992-01-01

    The effects of organic and inorganic nutrient additions on the specific growth rates of bacterioplankton in oligotrophic lake water cultures were investigated. Lake water was first passed through 0.8-{mu}m-pore-size filters (prescreening) to remove bacterivores and to minimize confounding effects of algae. Specific growth rates were calculated from changes in both bacterial cell numbers and biovolumes over 36 h. Gross specific growth rates in unmanipulated control samples were estimated through separate measurements of grazing losses by use of penicillin. The addition of mixed organic substrates alone to prescreened water did not significantly increase bacterioplankton specific growth rates. The addition of inorganic phosphorus alone significantly increased one or both specific growth rates in three of four experiments, and one experiment showed a secondary stimulation by organic substrates. The stimulatory effects of phosphorus addition were greatest concurrently with the highest alkaline phosphatase activity in the lake water. Because bacteria have been shown to dominate inorganic phosphorus uptake in other P-deficient systems, the demonstration that phosphorus, rather than organic carbon, can limit bacterioplankton growth suggests direct competition between phytoplankton and bacterioplankton for inorganic phosphorus.

  16. Jackknife-corrected parametric bootstrap estimates of growth rates in bivalve mollusks using nearest living relatives.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Troy A; Kowalewski, Michał

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative estimates of growth rates can augment ecological and paleontological applications of body-size data. However, in contrast to body-size estimates, assessing growth rates is often time-consuming, expensive, or unattainable. Here we use an indirect approach, a jackknife-corrected parametric bootstrap, for efficient approximation of growth rates using nearest living relatives with known age-size relationships. The estimate is developed by (1) collecting a sample of published growth rates of closely related species, (2) calculating the average growth curve using those published age-size relationships, (3) resampling iteratively these empirically known growth curves to estimate the standard errors and confidence bands around the average growth curve, and (4) applying the resulting estimate of uncertainty to bracket age-size relationships of the species of interest. This approach was applied to three monophyletic families (Donacidae, Mactridae, and Semelidae) of mollusk bivalves, a group characterized by indeterministic shell growth, but widely used in ecological, paleontological, and geochemical research. The resulting indirect estimates were tested against two previously published geochemical studies and, in both cases, yielded highly congruent age estimates. In addition, a case study in applied fisheries was used to illustrate the potential of the proposed approach for augmenting aquaculture management practices. The resulting estimates of growth rates place body size data in a constrained temporal context and confidence intervals associated with resampling estimates allow for assessing the statistical uncertainty around derived temporal ranges. The indirect approach should allow for improved evaluation of diverse research questions, from sustainability of industrial shellfish harvesting to climatic interpretations of stable isotope proxies extracted from fossil skeletons. PMID:24071629

  17. Fatigue Crack Growth Rate and Stress-Intensity Factor Corrections for Out-of-Plane Crack Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forth, Scott C.; Herman, Dave J.; James, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth rate testing is performed by automated data collection systems that assume straight crack growth in the plane of symmetry and use standard polynomial solutions to compute crack length and stress-intensity factors from compliance or potential drop measurements. Visual measurements used to correct the collected data typically include only the horizontal crack length, which for cracks that propagate out-of-plane, under-estimates the crack growth rates and over-estimates the stress-intensity factors. The authors have devised an approach for correcting both the crack growth rates and stress-intensity factors based on two-dimensional mixed mode-I/II finite element analysis (FEA). The approach is used to correct out-of-plane data for 7050-T7451 and 2025-T6 aluminum alloys. Results indicate the correction process works well for high DeltaK levels but fails to capture the mixed-mode effects at DeltaK levels approaching threshold (da/dN approximately 10(exp -10) meter/cycle).

  18. Fishing directly selects on growth rate via behaviour: implications of growth-selection that is independent of size

    PubMed Central

    Biro, Peter A.; Sampson, Portia

    2015-01-01

    Size-selective harvest of fish and crustacean populations has reduced stock numbers, and led to reduced growth rates and earlier maturation. In contrast to the focus on size-selective effects of harvest, here, we test the hypothesis that fishing may select on life-history traits (here, growth rate) via behaviour, even in the absence of size selection. If true, then traditional size-limits used to protect segments of a population cannot fully protect fast growers, because at any given size, fast-growers will be more vulnerable owing to bolder behaviour. We repeatedly measured individual behaviour and growth of 86 crayfish and found that fast-growing individuals were consistently bold and voracious over time, and were subsequently more likely to be harvested in single- and group-trapping trials. In addition, there was some indication that sex had independent effects on behaviour and trappability, whereby females tended to be less active, shyer, slower-growing and less likely to be harvested, but not all these effects were significant. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first across-individual support for this hypothesis, and suggests that behaviour is an important mechanism for fishing selectivity that could potentially lead to evolution of reduced intrinsic growth rates. PMID:25608882

  19. Effects of light intensity and temperature on Cryptomonas ovata (Cryptophyceae) growth and nutrient uptake rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, James E.

    1977-01-01

    Specific growth rate of Cryptomonas ovata var. palustris Pringsheim was measured in batch culture at 14 light-temperature combinations. Both the maximum growth rate (μm) and optimum light intensity (Iopt) fit an empirical function that increases exponentially with temperature up to an optimum (Topt), then declines rapidly as temperature exceeds Topt. Incorporation of these functions into Steele's growth equation gives a good estimate of specific growth rate over a wide range of temperature and light intensity. Rates of phosphate, ammonium and nitrate uptake were measured separately at 16 combinations of irradiance and temperature and following a spike addition of all starved cells initially took up nutrient at a rapid rate. This transitory surge was followed by a period of steady, substrate-saturated uptake that persisted until external nutrient concentration fell. Substrate-saturated NO3−-uptake proceeded at very slow rates in the dark and was stimulated by both increased temperature and irradiance; NH4+-uptake apparently proceeded at a basal rate at 8 and l4 C and was also stimulated by increased temperature and irradiance. Rates of NH4−-uptake were much higher than NO3−-uptake at all light-temperature combinations. Below 20 C, PO4−3-uptake was more rapid in dark than in light, but was light enhanced at 26 C.

  20. Hydrogen Isotope Effect on the Fatigue Crack Growth Rate in Pipeline Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Matthew; Slifka, Andrew; Drexler, Elizabeth; Hydrogen Pipeline Safety Team

    Hydrogen (H2) is desirable for energy storage as it is cleaner burning and can store a larger amount of energy than an equal mass of gasoline. One problem in the development of a hydrogen economy is to find or develop materials that ensure the safe, reliable, and cost-effective flow of energy from the source to the user. It is expected steels will be needed to serve this function. However, the existing network of natural gas pipeline, for example, is constructed of ferrous materials which are susceptible to embrittlement and subsequent increased fatigue crack growth rates after exposure to hydrogen. It is expected that diffusion rates play an important role on fatigue crack growth rates. We report the measurement of the fatigue crack growth rate in a high strength pipeline steel in a gaseous deuterium (D2) environment, in an effort to determine the role of diffusion rate on FCGR, because D2 is chemically identical to H2, but with twice the mass. We found that the D2 fatigue crack growth rate was not enhanced compared to air as is seen in an H2 environment; in fact our D2 rate measurement was slightly slower than in air, a result which is not expected to be due to diffusion rates alone. NIST Materials Measurement Laboratory, Applied Chemicals and Materials Division.

  1. Slow Growth Rates of Amazonian Trees: Consequences for Carbon Sequestration and Forest Management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, S. A.; Camargo, P. B.; Selhorst, D.; Chambers, J.; Higuchi, N.; Martinelli, L. A.; Trumbore, S.

    2004-12-01

    Growth rates for tropical forest trees estimated from radiocarbon ages and dendrometer measurements illustrate differences in forest age and structure among three sites located in the eastern, central and western Amazon basin. Although growth rates vary dramatically among individual trees overall the slowest growing trees (averaging \\sim0.1mm yr-1 as opposed to 0.3mm yr-1 diameter increment) are found in the central Amazon. Small individuals (DBH \\<30cm) have slower growth rates than larger diameter trees, and trees in this size class with radiocarbon ages >500 yr are encountered at all sites. Only \\sim2MgC ha-1 year-1, or \\SIM7% of annual photosynthesis, is allocated to growth of living wood at the eastern and central Amazon sites. Rates of C allocation to stem growth are similar across the three sites we studied because slowest growth occurs at the central Amazon site that has highest stem density and greatest biomass. Extrapolating our growth increment data to forest stand, we estimate the mean age of individual trees is \\SIM350 years in the central Amazon but \\SIM200\\-250 years in the other two areas. The mean age of C making up the trees has a smaller range of \\SIM250\\-310 years, because of the greater fraction of biomass in larger individuals in the eastern and western Amazon sites. These residence times for C are longer than those of 100\\-180 years obtained by simply dividing the total biomass C by the rate of C allocation to new wood for the same reason. We estimate that >20% of trees at all sites should have ages >300 years, and that maximum tree ages of >1000 years, though not common, are in accord with the growth rates we find. The fact that many Amazon trees attain ages greater than several centuries should be accounted for in management practices in these forests.

  2. Size-dependent standard deviation for growth rates: empirical results and theoretical modeling.

    PubMed

    Podobnik, Boris; Horvatic, Davor; Pammolli, Fabio; Wang, Fengzhong; Stanley, H Eugene; Grosse, I

    2008-05-01

    We study annual logarithmic growth rates R of various economic variables such as exports, imports, and foreign debt. For each of these variables we find that the distributions of R can be approximated by double exponential (Laplace) distributions in the central parts and power-law distributions in the tails. For each of these variables we further find a power-law dependence of the standard deviation sigma(R) on the average size of the economic variable with a scaling exponent surprisingly close to that found for the gross domestic product (GDP) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3275 (1998)]. By analyzing annual logarithmic growth rates R of wages of 161 different occupations, we find a power-law dependence of the standard deviation sigma(R) on the average value of the wages with a scaling exponent beta approximately 0.14 close to those found for the growth of exports, imports, debt, and the growth of the GDP. In contrast to these findings, we observe for payroll data collected from 50 states of the USA that the standard deviation sigma(R) of the annual logarithmic growth rate R increases monotonically with the average value of payroll. However, also in this case we observe a power-law dependence of sigma(R) on the average payroll with a scaling exponent beta approximately -0.08 . Based on these observations we propose a stochastic process for multiple cross-correlated variables where for each variable (i) the distribution of logarithmic growth rates decays exponentially in the central part, (ii) the distribution of the logarithmic growth rate decays algebraically in the far tails, and (iii) the standard deviation of the logarithmic growth rate depends algebraically on the average size of the stochastic variable. PMID:18643131

  3. Size-dependent standard deviation for growth rates: Empirical results and theoretical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnik, Boris; Horvatic, Davor; Pammolli, Fabio; Wang, Fengzhong; Stanley, H. Eugene; Grosse, I.

    2008-05-01

    We study annual logarithmic growth rates R of various economic variables such as exports, imports, and foreign debt. For each of these variables we find that the distributions of R can be approximated by double exponential (Laplace) distributions in the central parts and power-law distributions in the tails. For each of these variables we further find a power-law dependence of the standard deviation σ(R) on the average size of the economic variable with a scaling exponent surprisingly close to that found for the gross domestic product (GDP) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3275 (1998)]. By analyzing annual logarithmic growth rates R of wages of 161 different occupations, we find a power-law dependence of the standard deviation σ(R) on the average value of the wages with a scaling exponent β≈0.14 close to those found for the growth of exports, imports, debt, and the growth of the GDP. In contrast to these findings, we observe for payroll data collected from 50 states of the USA that the standard deviation σ(R) of the annual logarithmic growth rate R increases monotonically with the average value of payroll. However, also in this case we observe a power-law dependence of σ(R) on the average payroll with a scaling exponent β≈-0.08 . Based on these observations we propose a stochastic process for multiple cross-correlated variables where for each variable (i) the distribution of logarithmic growth rates decays exponentially in the central part, (ii) the distribution of the logarithmic growth rate decays algebraically in the far tails, and (iii) the standard deviation of the logarithmic growth rate depends algebraically on the average size of the stochastic variable.

  4. Effect of cell size and shear stress on bacterium growth rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadlallah, Hadi; Jarrahi, Mojtaba; Herbert, Éric; Peerhossaini, Hassan; PEF Team

    2015-11-01

    Effect of shear stress on the growth rate of Synechocystis and Chlamydomonas cells is studied. An experimental setup was prepared to monitor the growth rate of the microorganisms versus the shear rate inside a clean room, under atmospheric pressure and 20 °C temperature. Digital magnetic agitators are placed inside a closed chamber provided with airflow, under a continuous uniform light intensity over 4 weeks. In order to study the effect of shear stress on the growth rate, different frequencies of agitation are tested, 2 vessels filled with 150 ml of each specie were placed on different agitating system at the desired frequency. The growth rate is monitored daily by measuring the optical density and then correlate it to the cellular concentration. The PH was adjusted to 7 in order to maintain the photosynthetic activity. Furthermore, to measure the shear stress distribution, the flow velocity field was measured using PIV. Zones of high and low shear stress were identified. Results show that the growth rate is independent of the shear stress magnitude, mostly for Synechocystis, and with lower independency for Chlamydomonas depending on the cell size for each species.

  5. Element content of Ochromonas danica: a replicated chemostat study controlling the growth rate and temperature.

    PubMed

    Simonds, Savannah; Grover, James P; Chrzanowski, Thomas H

    2010-11-01

    Ecological stoichiometry focuses on the balance between multiple nutrient elements in resources and in consumers of those resources. The major consumers of bacteria in aquatic food webs are heterotrophic and mixotrophic nanoflagellates. Despite the importance of this consumer-resource interaction to understanding nutrient dynamics in the aquatic food web, few data are available addressing the element stoichiometry of flagellate consumers. Ochromonas danica, a mixotrophic bacterivore, was used as a model organism to study the relationships among temperature, growth rate and element stoichiometry. Ochromonas danica was grown in chemostats at dilution rates ranging between 0.03 and 0.10 h(-1) and temperatures ranging between 15 and 28 °C. Cells accumulated elements as interactive functions of temperature and growth rate, with the highest element concentrations corresponding to cells grown at a low temperature and high growth rates. The highest concentrations of elements were associated with small cells. Temperature and growth rate affected the element stoichiometry (as C:N, C:P and N:P) of O. danica in a complex manner, but the growth rate had a greater effect on ratios than did temperature. PMID:21039649

  6. Effects of carbon source and growth rate on cell wall composition of Bacillus subtilis subsp. niger.

    PubMed Central

    Kruyssen, F J; de Boer, W R; Wouters, J T

    1980-01-01

    A study was made to determine whether factors other than the availability of phosphorus were involved in the regulation of synthesis of teichoic and teichuronic acids in Bacillus subtilis subsp. niger WM. First, the nature of the carbon source was varied while the dilution rate was maintained at about 0.3 h-1. Irrespective of whether the carbon source was glucose, glycerol, galactose, or malate, teichoic acid was the main anionic wall polymer whenever phosphorus was present in excess of the growth requirement, and teichuronic acid predominated in the walls of phosphate-limited cells. The effect of growth rate was studied by varying the dilution rate. However, only under phosphate limitation did the wall composition change with the growth rate: walls prepared from cells grown at dilution rates above 0.5 h-1 contained teichoic as well as teichuronic acid, despite the culture still being phosphate limited. The wall content of the cells did not vary with the nature of the growth limitation, but a correlation was observed between the growth rate and wall content. No indications were obtained that the composition of the peptidoglycan of B. subtilis subsp. niger WM was phenotypically variable. PMID:6774960

  7. Systems Level Regulation of Rhythmic Growth Rate and Biomass Accumulation in Grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, Steve A.

    2013-05-02

    Several breakthroughs have been recently made in our understanding of plant growth and biomass accumulation. It was found that plant growth is rhythmically controlled throughout the day by the circadian clock through a complex interplay of light and phytohormone signaling pathways. While plants such as the C4 energy crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and possibly the C3 grass (Brachypodium distachyon) also exhibit daily rhythms in growth rate, the molecular details of its regulation remain to be explored. A better understanding of diurnally regulated growth behavior in grasses may lead to species-specific mechanisms highly relevant to future strategies to optimize energy crop biomass yield. Here we propose to devise a systems approach to identify, in parallel, regulatory hubs associated with rhythmic growth in C3 and C4 plants. We propose to use rhythmicity in daily growth patterns to drive the discovery of regulatory network modules controlling biomass accumulation.

  8. Pretreatment Growth Rate Predicts Radiation Response in Vestibular Schwannomas

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Nina N.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Larvie, Mykol; Curtin, Hugh; Loeffler, Jay S.; McKenna, Michael J.; Shih, Helen A.

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are often followed without initial therapeutic intervention because many tumors do not grow and radiation therapy is associated with potential adverse effects. In an effort to determine whether maximizing initial surveillance predicts for later treatment response, the predictive value of preirradiation growth rate of VS on response to radiation therapy was assessed. Methods and Materials: Sixty-four patients with 65 VS were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiation surgery or fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. Pre- and postirradiation linear expansion rates were estimated using volumetric measurements on sequential magnetic resonance images (MRIs). In addition, postirradiation tumor volume change was classified as demonstrating shrinkage (ratio of volume on last follow-up MRI to MRI immediately preceding irradiation <80%), stability (ratio 80%-120%), or expansion (ratio >120%). The median pre- and postirradiation follow-up was 20.0 and 27.5 months, respectively. Seven tumors from neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients were excluded from statistical analyses. Results: In the 58 non-NF2 patients, there was a trend of correlation between pre- and postirradiation volume change rates (slope on linear regression, 0.29; P=.06). Tumors demonstrating postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 89%/year, and those without postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 41%/year (P=.02). As the preirradiation growth rate increased, the probability of postirradiation expansion also increased. Overall, 24.1% of tumors were stable, 53.4% experienced shrinkage, and 22.5% experienced expansion. Predictors of no postirradiation tumor expansion included no prior surgery (P=.01) and slower tumor growth rate (P=.02). The control of tumors in NF2 patients was only 43%. Conclusions: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for VS, but tumors that grow quickly preirradiation may be

  9. No Trade-Off between Growth Rate and Temperature Stress Resistance in Four Insect Species

    PubMed Central

    Karl, Isabell; Stoks, Robby; Bauerfeind, Stephanie S.; Dierks, Anneke; Franke, Kristin; Fischer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Although fast growth seems to be generally favored by natural selection, growth rates are rarely maximized in nature. Consequently, fast growth is predicted to carry costs resulting in intrinsic trade-offs. Disentangling such trade-offs is of great ecological importance in order to fully understand the prospects and limitations of growth rate variation. A recent study provided evidence for a hitherto unknown cost of fast growth, namely reduced cold stress resistance. Such relationships could be especially important under climate change. Against this background we here investigate the relationships between individual larval growth rate and adult heat as well as cold stress resistance, using eleven data sets from four different insect species (three butterfly species: Bicyclus anynana, Lycaena tityrus, Pieris napi; one Dipteran species: Protophormia terraenovae). Despite using different species (and partly different populations within species) and an array of experimental manipulations (e.g. different temperatures, photoperiods, feeding regimes, inbreeding levels), we were not able to provide any consistent evidence for trade-offs between fast growth and temperature stress resistance in these four insect species. PMID:23638084

  10. Human disturbance influences reproductive success and growth rate in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    French, Susannah S; González-Suárez, Manuela; Young, Julie K; Durham, Susan; Gerber, Leah R

    2011-01-01

    The environment is currently undergoing changes at both global (e.g., climate change) and local (e.g., tourism, pollution, habitat modification) scales that have the capacity to affect the viability of animal and plant populations. Many of these changes, such as human disturbance, have an anthropogenic origin and therefore may be mitigated by management action. To do so requires an understanding of the impact of human activities and changing environmental conditions on population dynamics. We investigated the influence of human activity on important life history parameters (reproductive rate, and body condition, and growth rate of neonate pups) for California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Increased human presence was associated with lower reproductive rates, which translated into reduced long-term population growth rates and suggested that human activities are a disturbance that could lead to population declines. We also observed higher body growth rates in pups with increased exposure to humans. Increased growth rates in pups may reflect a density dependent response to declining reproductive rates (e.g., decreased competition for resources). Our results highlight the potentially complex changes in life history parameters that may result from human disturbance, and their implication for population dynamics. We recommend careful monitoring of human activities in the Gulf of California and emphasize the importance of management strategies that explicitly consider the potential impact of human activities such as ecotourism on vertebrate populations. PMID:21436887