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1

iTunes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since its initial release, iTunes has become a popular favorite with Mac users. Recently, Apple released this free version of iTunes for Windows. For those who haven't tried iTunes yet, the program functions as a digital-jukebox, and includes the ability to listen to over 250 free Internet radio stations and the ability to burn custom playlists to CDs and MP3 CDs as well. Other novel features include iMix, which lets users post and email songs in their playlists for the consideration of others. This version of iTunes is compatible with those systems running Windows 2000 or XP.

2

iTunes U  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You may have been to Harvard and the Sorbonne, but have you ever looked at the handsome educational offerings at iTunesU? Well, it may not be an actual bricks and mortar campus, but this helpful application offers up a healthy sampling of lectures, discussions, and seminars from Duke, MIT, Texas A&M, and a number of equally fine institutions of higher learning. First-time visitors should take a listen to Martin Lewis's "Geography of World Cultures" or some of the lectures culled from Pennsylvania State University. Needless to say, this application is compatible with computers running iTunes.

3

Stanford on iTunes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those who canâÂÂt make it to the balmy climes of Palo Alto, this latest initiative from Stanford will be most welcome. With this program, visitors can download audio recordings of lectures, poetry readings, and even Stanford football games directly to their computer. Of course, this is no substitute to attending this fine institution, but the wide range of audio content available at no charge is very impressive. This version of Stanford on iTunes is compatible with all computers running Windows XP or 2000 or Mac OS X 10.3.

4

Live streaming performance of the Zattoo network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of commercial peer-to-peer systems for live streaming, such as PPLive, Joost, LiveStation, SOPCast, TVants, etc. have been introduced in recent years. The behavior of these popular systems has been extensively studied in several measurement papers. Due to the proprietary nature of these commercial systems, however, these studies have to rely on a \\

Hyunseok Chang; Sugih Jamin; Wenjie Wang

2009-01-01

5

iTunes 5.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many so-called "digital jukeboxes" make a number of promises in terms of their overall performance. iTunes 5.0 delivers on many of its promises with a number of fine new features. With this latest addition, users can control access with parental controls, find music faster with a new search bar, and download hundreds of radio shows as free podcasts. This version of iTunes is compatible with all operating systems running Windows 2000 or XP or Max OS X 10.2.8 or newer.

2005-01-01

6

Improving multipath live streaming performance with Markov Decision Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have demonstrated the benefit of multipath live contents streaming in the Internet best-effort environment. In this paper, we propose an approach to enhance performance of the multipath streaming by using Markov decision processes. We formulate the multipath live streaming problem with the minimum distortion rate objective as a Markov decision process (MDP) and solve the formulated MDP on

Vinh Bui; Weiping Zhu

2007-01-01

7

Single-stream versus multi-stream for live media synchronization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a performance comparison between the single-stream and the multi-stream approaches for lip synchronization of live media (voice and video). The former transmits a single transport stream of interleaved voice and video, while the latter treats the two media as separate transport streams. Each approach has an option not to exert the synchronization control at the destination, which

Shuji Tasaka; Yutaka Ishibashi

1998-01-01

8

Diagnosing Network-Wide P2P Live Streaming Inefficiencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Large-scale live peer-to-peer (P2P) streaming ap- plications have been successfully deployed in today’s Internet. While they can accommodate millions of users simultaneously with hundreds of channels of programming, there still commonly exist channels and times where and when the streaming quality is unsatisfactory. In this paper, based on more than two terabytes and one year worth of live traces from

Chuan Wu; Baochun Li; Shuqiao Zhao

2009-01-01

9

Epidemic live streaming: optimal performance trade-offs  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Several peer-to-peer systems for live streaming have been recently deployed (e.g. CoolStreaming, PPLive, SopCast). These all rely on distributed, epidemic-style dissemination mechanisms. Despite their popularity, the fundamental per- formance trade-os,of such mechanisms are still poorly un- derstood. In this paper we propose several results that con- tribute to the understanding of such trade-os. Specically, we prove that the so-called

Thomas Bonald; Laurent Massoulié; Fabien Mathieu; Diego Perino; Andrew Twigg

2008-01-01

10

Epidemic Live Streaming: Optimal Performance Trade-Offs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several peer-to-peer systems for live streaming have been recently deployed (e.g. CoolStreaming, PPLive, SopCast). These all rely on distributed, epidemic-style dissemination mechanisms. Despite their popularity, the fundamental per- formance trade-os of such mechanisms are still poorly un- derstood. In this paper we propose several results that con- tribute to the understanding of such trade-os. Specically, we prove that the so-called

Thomas Bonald; Laurent Massoulié; Fabien Mathieu; Diego Perino; Andrew Twigg

11

Supporting Seamless Mobility for P2P Live Streaming  

PubMed Central

With advent of various mobile devices with powerful networking and computing capabilities, the users' demand to enjoy live video streaming services such as IPTV with mobile devices has been increasing rapidly. However, it is challenging to get over the degradation of service quality due to data loss caused by the handover. Although many handover schemes were proposed at protocol layers below the application layer, they inherently suffer from data loss while the network is being disconnected during the handover. We therefore propose an efficient application-layer handover scheme to support seamless mobility for P2P live streaming. By simulation experiments, we show that the P2P live streaming system with our proposed handover scheme can improve the playback continuity significantly compared to that without our scheme.

Kim, Eunsam; Kim, Sangjin; Lee, Choonhwa

2014-01-01

12

A hierarchical characterization of a live streaming media workload  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present what we believe to be the first thorough characterization of live streaming media content delivered over the Internet. Our characterization of over 3.5 million requests spanning a 28-day period is done at three increasingly granular levels, corresponding to clients, sessions, and transfers. Our findings support two important conclusions. First, we show that the nature of interactions between users

Eveline Veloso; Virgílio A. F. Almeida; Wagner Meira Jr.; Azer Bestavros; Shudong Jin

2002-01-01

13

A hierarchical characterization of a live streaming media workload  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a thorough characterization of what we believe to be the first significant live Internet streaming media workload in the scientific literature. Our characterization of over 3.5 million requests spanning a 28-day period is done at three in- creasingly granular levels, corresponding to clients, sessions, and transfers. Our findings support two important conclusions. First, we show that the nature

Eveline Veloso; Virgílio A. F. Almeida; Wagner Meira Jr.; Azer Bestavros; Shudong Jin

2006-01-01

14

iTunes U: an opportunity for students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that, with a bit of creative thinking, elements of certain university-wide projects (in this case study, establishing an iTunes U site) can be incorporated into student studies and assessment as real-world learning opportunities. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Describes three different approaches adopted by Swinburne University of Technology to provide real-world learning opportunities

Lisa Germany

2011-01-01

15

Magellan: Charting Large-Scale Peer-to-Peer Live Streaming Topologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Live peer-to-peer (P2P) streaming applications have been successfully deployed in the Internet. With relatively simple peer selection protocol design, modern live P2P streaming applications are able to provide millions of con- current users adequately satisfying viewing experiences. That said, few existing research has provided sufficient in- sights on the time-varying internal characteristics of P2P topologies in live streaming. With 120

Chuan Wu; Baochun Li; Shuqiao Zhao

2007-01-01

16

A comprehensive study of delivery strategies with chunk scheduling for mesh P2P live streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet video distribution becomes popular in recent years. Peer-to-peer (P2P) live streaming based on mesh structures exploits successfully peers' bandwidth to deliver video content. Due to three characteristics: time sensitive data, small and time-shifted buffer, and long last streaming traffic for P2P live streaming, we believe that the appropriate delivery strategies and chunk scheduling can improve the QoE (quality

Jun-Li Kuo; Chen-Hua Shih; Yaw-Chung Chen

2011-01-01

17

Research and design of a new model for P2P live streaming system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the research and analysis of typical models for P2P (Peer to Peer) live streaming system, we overview and summarize the strengths and weaknesses of existing technologies. This paper proposes a new model for P2P live streaming system, which used a scheme combining unicast and multicast trees, and analysis the strategy of node management. The model combines advantages of easy maintenance of unicast tree and load balancing of multicast tree, and enhances the availability, stability and quality of service for live streaming system.

Li, Ying; Yang, Lijuan; Liu, Haiyan

2013-07-01

18

Design and evaluation of a system for mesh-based P2P live video streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces StreamComplete, a new architecture and prototype system for mesh-based P2P live video streaming; it realizes a new concept of overlay network's management as well as merges the best practices of treeand mesh-based approaches. StreamComplete creates a dynamic overlay network that optimizes itself on the basis of local conditions of peers. We have extensively evaluated the performance and

Federico Covino; Massimo Mecella

2008-01-01

19

Energy-Efficient Video Transmission Scheduling for Wireless Peer-to-Peer Live Streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Peer-to-Peer (P2P) streaming has shown as an effective solution for wireline video applications, while for the wireless video streaming applications, the limited radio resource and battery energy are the main constraints on the way of P2P applications. An important issue in live video streaming quality of service is to avoid playback buffer underflow, and a challenge from wireless applications

Ying Li; Zhu Li; Mung Chiang; A. Robert Calderbank

2009-01-01

20

A heuristic chunk scheduling algorithm reducing delay for Mesh-Pull P2P live streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many mesh-pull P2P live streaming systems deployed in Internet catch a large number of users during recent years. While they have high scalability and low cost, they suffer from bad delay performance. In this paper, we aim at reducing the delay caused by chunk scheduling for mesh-pull P2P live streaming in the environment of heterogeneous upload bandwidth, heterogeneous and dynamic

Chen Wei; Shuang Kai; Su Sen; Yang Fangchun

2009-01-01

21

Fetching Strategy in the Startup Stage of p2p Live Streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fetching Strategy in the Startup Stage of p2p Live Streaming 1 Abstract—A protocol named Threshold Bipolar (TB) is proposed as a fetching strategy at the startup stage of p2p live streaming systems. In this protocol, chunks are fetched consecutively from buffer head at the beginning. After the buffer is filled into a threshold, chunks at the buffer tail will be

Chunxi Li; Changjia Chen

2008-01-01

22

MIT on iTunes U: Video and Audio Files from MIT Tech  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Massachusetts Institute of Technology has created audio and video resources for their students, staff and faculty members to access via iTunes. Dubbed âÂÂMIT on iTunes Uâ by MITâÂÂs Information Services & Technology (IS&T) department, the audio and video files available from this web resource can be accessed from any computer or MP3 player with access to iTunes. Faculty can post lectures, multimedia class assignments, public speeches, and community events using this website and its sister resource, Video at MIT. Via this website, students can access the latest lectures and study guides any time, making it possible to study for finals while walking to class or eating lunch.

2008-02-12

23

Is There a Future for Mesh-Based live Video Streaming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Peer-to-peer live streaming systems allow a bandwidth- constrained source to broadcast a video feed to a large number of users. In addition, a design with high link uti- lization can achieve high stream rates, supporting high- quality video. Until now, only tree-based designs have been shown to achieve close-to-optimal rates in real-life condi- tions, leaving the question open as

Fabio Picconi; Laurent Massoulié

2008-01-01

24

Contribution-aware overlay optimization for mesh-based live streaming system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesh-based peer-to-peer (P2P) streaming has proven to be a robust and scalable way for delivering live video streams over the Internet. In this paper, we study how to optimize overlay in a contribution aware manner. We have designed a suite of protocols to construct and optimize the overlay. Our core idea is to promote nodes with larger contribution closer to

Hao Chen; Chao Liu; Dejian Ye

2009-01-01

25

LiveCod: A mesh-pull P2P live streaming system with XOR-based Network Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a mesh-pull peer-to-peer (P2P) live video streaming system. The proposed XOR-based Network Coding (XOR-NC) system is based on GIA protocol and introduces new search and answer data formats for chunks which are used by the network coding algorithm for exchanging data among peers. The search message contains the XORed GOP (Group of Picture) keys and some meta-data

Hoda S. Ayatollahi Tabatabaii; Mohammad Khansari; Hamid R. Rabiee

2010-01-01

26

Using Text Mining to Uncover Students' Technology-Related Problems in Live Video Streaming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of their capacity to sift through large amounts of data, text mining and data mining are enabling higher education institutions to reveal valuable patterns in students' learning behaviours without having to resort to traditional survey methods. In an effort to uncover live video streaming (LVS) students' technology related-problems and to…

Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu

2011-01-01

27

Recognition of Traffic Lights in Live Video Streams on Mobile Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mobile computer vision system is presented that helps visually impaired pedestrians cross roads. The system detects pedestrian lights in the environment and gives feedback about the current phase of the crucial light. For this purpose the live video stream of a mobile phone is analyzed in four steps: localization, classification, video analysis, and time-based verification. In particular, the temporal

Jan Roters; Xiaoyi Jiang; Kai Rothaus

2011-01-01

28

Who Wants To Live Here? Water Sampling At Our Local Pond and Stream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a field activity where students will perform various water quality tests to determine the types of organisms that live in a local pond and stream, and the characteristics that those aquatic environments seem to have that the organisms favor.

Van Kekerix, Susan

29

Promoting the Library's CD Collection via iTunes File Sharing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the hippest things staff can do with technology, is to use it to meet students on their own turf. As part of an outreach effort, one group of librarians at Union College's Schaffer Library (Schenectady, NY) started sharing its vast CD collection via iTunes. They were trying to show college students that there was a lot to discover at the…

Connolly, Bruce

2005-01-01

30

GLive: The Gradient Overlay as a Market Maker for Mesh-Based P2P Live Streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) live video streaming over the Internet is becoming increasingly popular, but it is still plagued by problems of high playback latency and intermittent playback streams. This paper presents GLive, a distributed market-based solution that builds a mesh overlay for P2P live streaming. The mesh overlay is constructed such that (i) nodes with increasing upload bandwidth are located closer

Amir H. Payberah; Jim Dowling; Seif Haridi

2011-01-01

31

Wireless live streaming video of laparoscopic surgery: a bandwidth analysis for handheld computers.  

PubMed

Over the last six years, streaming media has emerged as a powerful tool for delivering multimedia content over networks. Concurrently, wireless technology has evolved, freeing users from desktop boundaries and wired infrastructures. At the University of Kentucky Medical Center, we have integrated these technologies to develop a system that can wirelessly transmit live surgery from the operating room to a handheld computer. This study establishes the feasibility of using our system to view surgeries and describes the effect of bandwidth on image quality. A live laparoscopic ventral hernia repair was transmitted to a single handheld computer using five encoding speeds at a constant frame rate, and the quality of the resulting streaming images was evaluated. No video images were rendered when video data were encoded at 28.8 kilobytes per second (Kbps), the slowest encoding bitrate studied. The highest quality images were rendered at encoding speeds greater than or equal to 150 Kbps. Of note, a 15 second transmission delay was experienced using all four encoding schemes that rendered video images. We believe that the wireless transmission of streaming video to handheld computers has tremendous potential to enhance surgical education. For medical students and residents, the ability to view live surgeries, lectures, courses and seminars on handheld computers means a larger number of learning opportunities. In addition, we envision that wireless enabled devices may be used to telemonitor surgical procedures. However, bandwidth availability and streaming delay are major issues that must be addressed before wireless telementoring becomes a reality. PMID:15458077

Gandsas, Alex; McIntire, Katherine; George, Ivan M; Witzke, Wayne; Hoskins, James D; Park, Adrian

2002-01-01

32

Scheduling Algorithm used in Live Media Streaming Based on Data-drive Overlay Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the playback quality of P2P media streaming system terminal nodes and enhances the overall performance, a data scheduling algorithm(LDSA) is proposed, it is able to dynamically adjust the pending request according to the node ability. The algorithm in satisfies the media streaming living in the time response foundation, had considered how to minimize the waiting time for the requests in the node and the rapid distribution in network of scarce data blocks. Through compares with the existing scheduling algorithm, the experimental results are proved that the MDSA algorithm have the prominent performance in diminishing the accumulated latency and enhancing the media broadcast quality

Na, Xu; Shuang, Sun

33

A Measurement Study of P2P Live Video Streaming on WLANs  

Microsoft Academic Search

P2P live video streaming (P2PLVS) has become a very popular and successful service on Internet. As one of the most successful commercial P2PLVS systems, PPStream has attracted millions of users all over the world. Meanwhile, more and more WiFi access points present opportunity for enhancing the experience on watching Fl Grand Prix and vocal concerts with the help of P2PLVS

Qin Wang; Ke Lin; Kewen Lin; Dilin Mao; Min Yang

2008-01-01

34

Patterns of natural mortality in stream-living brown trout (Salmo trutta)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested the hypothesis that lifetime mortality patterns and their corresponding rates and causal factors differ among populations of stream-living salmonids. To this end, we examined the lifetime mortality patterns of several successive cohorts of two stream-living brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations in Spain and Denmark. In the southern population, we observed a consistent two-phase pattern, in which mortality was negligible during the first half of the lifetime and severe during the rest of the lifetime. In contrast, the northern population demonstrated a three-phase pattern with an earlier phase varying from negligible to severe, followed by a second stage of weak mortality, and lastly by a third life stage of severe mortality. Despite substantial differences in the mortality patterns between the two populations, the combined effect of recruitment (as a proxy of the density-dependent processes occurring during the lifetime) and mean body mass (as a proxy of growth experienced by individuals in a given cohort) explained c. 89% of the total lifetime mortality rates across cohorts and populations. A comparison with other published data on populations of stream-living brown trout within its native range highlighted lifetime mortality patterns of one, two, three and four phases, but also suggested that common patterns may occur in populations that experience similar individual growth and population density. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Lobon-Cervia, J.; Budy, P.; Mortensen, E.

2012-01-01

35

Fast-Mesh: A Low-Delay High-Bandwidth Mesh for Peer-to-Peer Live Streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has emerged as a promising scalable solution for live streaming to a large group. In this paper, we address the design of an overlay mesh which achieves low source-to-peer delay, accommodates asymmetric and diverse uplink bandwidth, and continuously improves delay based on an existing pool of peers. By considering a streaming mesh as an aggregation of data

Dongni Ren; Yui-Tung Hillman Li; Shueng-Han Gary Chan

2009-01-01

36

Hybrid CDN-P2P architectures for live video streaming: Comparative study of connected and unconnected meshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two main scalable methods for streaming live video over the Internet: Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks. Though both have their own problems, P2P streaming systems challenge delivering video with constant quality and CDNs approaches require deployment of large number of servers throughout the Internet that is costly. Recently, using hybrid architectures based on both CDN

S. M. Y. Seyyedi; B. Akbari

2011-01-01

37

Two Dimensional Array Based Overlay Network for Balancing Load of Peer-to-Peer Live Video Streaming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The live video data is streaming usually in a tree-based overlay network or in a mesh-based overlay network. In case of departure of a peer with additional upload bandwidth, the overlay network becomes very vulnerable to churn. In this paper, a two dimensional array-based overlay network is proposed for streaming the live video stream data. As there is always a peer or a live video streaming server to upload the live video stream data, so the overlay network is very stable and very robust to churn. Peers are placed according to their upload and download bandwidth, which enhances the balance of load and performance. The overlay network utilizes the additional upload bandwidth of peers to minimize chunk delivery delay and to maximize balance of load. The procedure, which is used for distributing the additional upload bandwidth of the peers, distributes the additional upload bandwidth to the heterogeneous strength peers in a fair treat distribution approach and to the homogeneous strength peers in a uniform distribution approach. The proposed overlay network has been simulated by Qualnet from Scalable Network Technologies and results are presented in this paper.

Faruq Ibn Ibrahimy, Abdullah; Rafiqul, Islam Md; Anwar, Farhat; Ibn Ibrahimy, Muhammad

2013-12-01

38

A transport layer for live streaming in a content delivery network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streaming media on the Internet has experienced rapid growth over the last few years and will continue to increase in importance as broadband technologies and authoring tools continue to improve. As the Internet becomes an increasingly popular alternative to traditional communications media, Internet streaming will become a significant component of many content providers' communications strategies. Internet streaming, however, poses significant

LEONIDAS KONTOTHANASSIS; RAMESH SITARAMAN; JOEL WEIN; DUKE HONG; ROBERT KLEINBERG; BRIAN MANCUSO; DAVID SHAW; DANIEL STODOLSKY

2004-01-01

39

Design of a P2P Live Multimedia Streaming System with Hybrid Push and Pull Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of network technology, many multimedia streaming services are developing rapidly. The traditional multimedia providers use client-server architecture, where the server bottleneck and the cost of transmission bandwidth are the most obvious drawbacks. Therefore, P2P technology has been used in multimedia streaming services to enhance the scalability and performance of the system. Basically, P2P multimedia streaming technology

Nen-Fu Huang; Yen-Ming Chu; Yi-Ru Chen

2010-01-01

40

Monitoring of mesh-pull P2P live media streaming system with random walk based sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesh-pull based P2P live media streaming system has gained a lot of interests and successes, and collecting key metrics in time from millions of peers to monitor the system level quality is very important for its successful commercial deployment. But the real-time monitoring still faces great technology obstacles, especially considering the dynamic and large-scale scenario which is very common in

Bo Wen; Feng Liu; Luoming Meng; Honghui Li; Zhen Liu

2008-01-01

41

Biology in focus: better lives through better science: new hope for acid streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Across the nation, a toxic pollutant turns clean streams orange, kills fish and plant life, and smells like rotten eggs. The culprit is acid mine drainage, the poisonous water leaking from more than 500,000 abandoned and inactive mines in 32 states. The toxic discharge is a problem for operational mines as well. In the Appalachian coal region, for example, acid mine drainage has degraded more than 8,000 miles of streams and has left some aquatic habitats virtually lifeless.

Watten, Barnaby

1998-01-01

42

A Study on Reducing Chunk Scheduling Delay for Mesh-Based P2P Live Streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

P2P streaming services have been gaining much success in recent years. In this paper, we address the design of chunk scheduling algorithm which achieves low delay for chunk distribution. We propose a distributed priority-based chunk scheduling algorithm (DPC algorithm). The proposed scheme can approach the minimum delay bound in homogeneous environment. We also extend our DPC algorithm to a general

Zhengjun Chen; Kaiping Xue; Peilin Hong

2008-01-01

43

Developing live video streaming materials and video segments in support of online course provision  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Spring of 2000 two colleagues and I developed an interest in the use for audio and video streaming for teaching and learning. Our previous experiences with broadcast television and its production and with online course provision and development offered a suitable background for exploration; our aim was to investigate how to best use this medium for teaching and

Michael O'Donoghue

44

An Optimal Pull-Push Scheduling Algorithm Based on Network Coding for Mesh Peer-to-Peer Live Streaming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most large-scale Peer-to-Peer (P2P) live streaming systems are constructed as a mesh structure, which can provide robustness in the dynamic P2P environment. The pull scheduling algorithm is widely used in this mesh structure, which degrades the performance of the entire system. Recently, network coding was introduced in mesh P2P streaming systems to improve the performance, which makes the push strategy feasible. One of the most famous scheduling algorithms based on network coding is R2, with a random push strategy. Although R2 has achieved some success, the push scheduling strategy still lacks a theoretical model and optimal solution. In this paper, we propose a novel optimal pull-push scheduling algorithm based on network coding, which consists of two stages: the initial pull stage and the push stage. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) we put forward a theoretical analysis model that considers the scarcity and timeliness of segments; 2) we formulate the push scheduling problem to be a global optimization problem and decompose it into local optimization problems on individual peers; 3) we introduce some rules to transform the local optimization problem into a classical min-cost optimization problem for solving it; 4) We combine the pull strategy with the push strategy and systematically realize our scheduling algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that decode delay, decode ratio and redundant fraction of the P2P streaming system with our algorithm can be significantly improved, without losing throughput and increasing overhead.

Cui, Laizhong; Jiang, Yong; Wu, Jianping; Xia, Shutao

45

Learner Outcomes and Satisfaction: A Comparison of Live Video-Streamed Instruction, Satellite Broadcast Instruction, and Face-to-Face Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the final grade and satisfaction level differences among students taking specific courses using three different methods: face-to-face in class, via satellite broadcasting at remote sites, and via live video-streaming at home or at work. In each case, the same course was taught by the same instructor in all three delivery…

Abdous, M'hammed; Yoshimura, Miki

2010-01-01

46

iPhone social networking for evidence investigations using iTunes forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The smart phone, like a small computer, providing not only the functions of normal phones and wireless Internet access, but also all kinds of application tools, serves as a platform of the sources of real-time information, information sharing and information exchange in our daily lives. As a result, the extract the crucial digital evidence in the smart phone, it has

Yu-Cheng Tso; Shiuh-Jeng Wang; Cheng-Ta Huang; Wei-Jen Wang

2012-01-01

47

MultiPeerCast: A Tree-Mesh-Hybrid P2P Live Streaming Scheme Design and Implementation Based on PeerCast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we firstly analyze the mechanism of PeerCast as a P2P live streaming solution. An then, based on the shortcoming analysis of tree-based PeerCast, we propose a improved tree-mesh-hybrid scheme-MultiPeerCast, including Multi-thread media transmission, multiple-to-one overlay network reconstruct, optimized buffer design, media retrieving style changing from push mode to pull mode. As part of experiment work, we discuss

Lv Zhihui; You Li; Jie Wu; Shiyong Zhang; Yiping Zhong

2008-01-01

48

StreamWorks: the live and on-demand audio/video server and its applications in medical information systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facing a world undergoing fundamental and rapid change, healthcare organizations are seeking ways to increase innovation, quality, productivity, and patient value, keys to more effective care. Individual clinics acting alone can respond in only a limited way, so re- engineering the process key which services are delivered demands real-time collaborative technology that provides immediate information sharing, improving the management and coordination of information in cross-functional teams. StreamWorks is a development stage architecture that uses a distribution technique to deliver an advanced information management system for telemedicine. The challenge of StreamWorks in telemedicine is to enable equity of the quality of Health Care of Telecommunications and Information Technology also to patients in less favored regions, like India or China, where the quality of medical care varies greatly by region, but where there are some very current communications facilities.

Akrout, Nabil M.; Gordon, Howard; Palisson, Patrice; Prost, Remy; Goutte, Robert

1996-05-01

49

MATIN: A Random Network Coding Based Framework for High Quality Peer-to-Peer Live Video Streaming  

PubMed Central

In recent years, Random Network Coding (RNC) has emerged as a promising solution for efficient Peer-to-Peer (P2P) video multicasting over the Internet. This probably refers to this fact that RNC noticeably increases the error resiliency and throughput of the network. However, high transmission overhead arising from sending large coefficients vector as header has been the most important challenge of the RNC. Moreover, due to employing the Gauss-Jordan elimination method, considerable computational complexity can be imposed on peers in decoding the encoded blocks and checking linear dependency among the coefficients vectors. In order to address these challenges, this study introduces MATIN which is a random network coding based framework for efficient P2P video streaming. The MATIN includes a novel coefficients matrix generation method so that there is no linear dependency in the generated coefficients matrix. Using the proposed framework, each peer encapsulates one instead of n coefficients entries into the generated encoded packet which results in very low transmission overhead. It is also possible to obtain the inverted coefficients matrix using a bit number of simple arithmetic operations. In this regard, peers sustain very low computational complexities. As a result, the MATIN permits random network coding to be more efficient in P2P video streaming systems. The results obtained from simulation using OMNET++ show that it substantially outperforms the RNC which uses the Gauss-Jordan elimination method by providing better video quality on peers in terms of the four important performance metrics including video distortion, dependency distortion, End-to-End delay and Initial Startup delay.

Barekatain, Behrang; Khezrimotlagh, Dariush; Aizaini Maarof, Mohd; Ghaeini, Hamid Reza; Salleh, Shaharuddin; Quintana, Alfonso Ariza; Akbari, Behzad; Cabrera, Alicia Trivino

2013-01-01

50

Stream Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stream Study provides a method to determine the water quality of a stream based on the collection and identification of stream-bottom macroinvertebrates. The site includes a catalog of common stream macroinvertebrates and a glossary of terms used to study streams.

Bull, Glenn; Deviney, Frank; Firehock, Karen; Rivers, Barbara; Webb, Susan

1999-03-01

51

Stream Morphometry, Stream Flow, Stream Competence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise combines field activities (i.e., topographic survey of a point bar; sediment sampling with a soil auger), laboratory analysis (i.e., particle size analysis of fluvial sediments), topographic map interpretation, and problem solving exercises. Key words: point bar, fluvial sediments, topographic surveying, particle size analysis, stream morphometry, stream discharge, stream flow competence

Aitken, Alec

52

Aquatic Insects in Mountain Streams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan from Clemson University, middle school students learn to recognize, characterize, and describe the microhabitats (riffle, run, and pool) of a mountain stream. They identify the abiotic (non-living) factors that might affect the insects living in different habitats within the stream and discuss morphological adaptations that insects need to prosper in each habitat. Armed with this information, students go into the field to collect insects, and then identify them in the lab.

Randy Newton (Belton-Honea Path High School;); Honea Path (Belton-Honea Path High School,;)

2010-05-27

53

Distributed & adaptive HTTP streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive streaming with HTTP has become popular in recent years, enabling continuous delivery of live and VOD content without the need for guaranteed bandwidth. It remains however challenging to maintain a smooth quality of experience under tough network conditions especially for bandwidth eater content like High Definition or 3D. In this paper we show that it is possible to both

Stephane Gouache; Guillaume Bichot; Amine Bsila; Christopher Howson

2011-01-01

54

Activities: Whatzzzzup-Stream?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this set of exercises, students will study rivers and waterways around them by using the Internet, maps, and their knowledge of local landscapes. The students will use an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website to investigate what is upstream and downstream of them. They will also look at graphs of flow in familiar river locations on a live United States Geological Survey website. Using small rocks and a washbasin, students will build a model that extends their understanding of streams in different geographic locations. A topographic map exercise will expose students to topographic maps and allow them to look for the origins of streams. Finally, a reading exercise will illustrate the issue of the importance of lower-order streams to downstream areas and students will be asked to implement their ideas to protect a stream on a dairy farm.

55

Stream Restoration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explores how Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest near Louisville, Kentucky has restored a channelized or straightened stream to its original meandering path, thereby improving the stream’s water quality and creating a better habitat for wildlife.

Ket

2011-01-11

56

Stream Processors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stream processors, like other multi core architectures partition their functional units and storage into multiple processing\\u000a elements. In contrast to typical architectures, which contain symmetric general-purpose cores and a cache hierarchy, stream\\u000a processors have a significantly leaner design. Stream processors are specifically designed for the stream execution model,\\u000a in which applications have large amounts of explicit parallel computation, structured and

Mattan Erez; William J. Dally

2009-01-01

57

Stream Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media applications can be cast as a set of computation kernels op- erating on sequential data streams. This representation exposes the structure of an application to the hardware as well as to the com- piler tools. Stream schedulingis a compiler technology that applies knowledge of the high-level structure of a program in order to tar- get stream hardware as well

Ujval J. Kapasi; Peter Mattson; William J. Dally; John D. Owens; Brian Towles

2001-01-01

58

Stream Terraces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We spend the first of three lab periods walking up a bedload-dominated stream bed that is a tributary stream to the Mohawk River. We notice the obvious flights of terraces along the stream. I ask the student to count them and walk up on them and think about how they came to be. We then think about how we might survey them, and document their presence. The students have a good idea what we're up to as we have stadia rods and abney levels. Then we go through the routine of measuring terrace heights using the modern stream as a datum. I then divide students into 3 teams and assign each team a different reach of the creek. In total we cover about 1 km., and teams are responsible for measuring the height of stream terraces above the modern stream and measuring with a tape measure their distance upstream from our starting point. On the second week we repeat this exercise on another stream, and then I compile all students data into an Excel spread sheet and ask them to do some simple calculations and plot longitudinal profiles of the modern streams, with terrace remnants plotted above the modern. They do this for both sides of each stream. They also plot a cross section of the stream valley at one point of their choosing to illustrate whether the terraces are paired or unpaired. On the final week, we tour the eastern Mohawk valley looking at much larger terraces that were produced by incision of the Mohawk, and we go to an outcrop of varves deposited in Glacial Lake Albany that crop out at the base of one of the terraces. The students thus get a sense of the large changes in base level that must have affected all the tributary streams in the region. Has minimal/no quantitative component Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills

Rodbell, Donald

59

Stream Processors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stream processors, like other multi core architectures partition their functional units and storage into multiple processing elements. In contrast to typical architectures, which contain symmetric general-purpose cores and a cache hierarchy, stream processors have a significantly leaner design. Stream processors are specifically designed for the stream execution model, in which applications have large amounts of explicit parallel computation, structured and predictable control, and memory accesses that can be performed at a coarse granularity. Applications in the streaming model are expressed in a gather-compute-scatter form, yielding programs with explicit control over transferring data to and from on-chip memory. Relying on these characteristics, which are common to many media processing and scientific computing applications, stream architectures redefine the boundary between software and hardware responsibilities with software bearing much of the complexity required to manage concurrency, locality, and latency tolerance. Thus, stream processors have minimal control consisting of fetching medium- and coarse-grained instructions and executing them directly on the many ALUs. Moreover, the on-chip storage hierarchy of stream processors is under explicit software control, as is all communication, eliminating the need for complex reactive hardware mechanisms.

Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J.

60

Stream Surveying  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The class breaks into groups of 3-4. Each week we go out to the same stream channel, and perform the stream survey activities in the USFS Harrelson document, one chapter per week. After the snow flies, collected data are used to calculate channel hydrologic and hydraulic data such as bankfull flow and critical shear stress. Designed for a geomorphology course

Williams, Karen

61

Stream Floods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to explore the nature of floods and flood prediction. Prediction of flooding relies heavily upon statistical techniques based on historical records of stream behavior. This series of exercises first reviews basic concepts in flood prediction such as calculating the Recurrence Interval (RI), which is the average interval in years between occurrences of two discharges of equal magnitude; and the Weibull equation, which calculates the probability that a given discharge will be exceeded in any particular year. The student then accesses historical data on U.S. stream flow and performs these calculations independently.

Huff, Warren

2000-11-03

62

Transient Caches and Object Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory latency limits program performance. Object-oriented lan- guages such as C# and Java exacerbate this problem, but their software engineering benefits make them increasingly popular. We show that current memory hierarchies are not particularly well suited to Java in which object streams write and read a window of short-lived objects that pollute the cache. These observations moti- vate the exploration

Stephen M. Blackburn; Kathryn S. McKinley

63

Stream Table  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use aluminum trays and wooden blocks to form stream tables to investigate river formations in two different landscape scenarios. Learners compare and contrast how the formation of the river differs if the topography of the land is changed from a flat plain to a terrain with hills and valleys.

Friday, Science

2010-01-01

64

ISS Live!  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

International Space Station Live! (ISSLive!) is a Web application that uses a proprietary commercial technology called Lightstreamer to push data across the Internet using the standard http port (port 80). ISSLive! uses the push technology to display real-time telemetry and mission timeline data from the space station in any common Web browser or Internet- enabled mobile device. ISSLive! is designed to fill a unique niche in the education and outreach areas by providing access to real-time space station data without a physical presence in the mission control center. The technology conforms to Internet standards, supports the throughput needed for real-time space station data, and is flexible enough to work on a large number of Internet-enabled devices. ISSLive! consists of two custom components: (1) a series of data adapters that resides server-side in the mission control center at Johnson Space Center, and (2) a set of public html that renders the data pushed from the data adapters. A third component, the Lightstreamer server, is commercially available from a third party and acts as an intermediary between custom components (1) and (2). Lightstreamer also provides proprietary software libraries that are required to use the custom components. At the time of this reporting, this is the first usage of Web-based, push streaming technology in the aerospace industry.

Price, Jennifer; Harris, Philip; Hochstetler, Bruce; Guerra, Mark; Mendez, Israel; Healy, Matthew; Khan, Ahmed

2013-01-01

65

The Stream Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stream Study provides a method to determine the water quality of a stream based on the collection and identification of stream-bottom macroinvertebrates. This is a multi-chapter activity designed for teachers, parents, and students. Specific sections of this site include the following: why it is important to study stream-bottom macroinvertebrates, identification of stream-bottom macroinvertebrates, collection and interpretation of data, and a glossary of terms used in the stream study.

Webb, Rick

1999-03-01

66

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

67

Cooperative P2P Video Streaming for Mobile Peers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-live P2P video streaming is already popular among consumers, but typically this type of application is bound to fixed Internet access, as streaming requires a sustained bitrate over time and is less tolerant to environments with volatile throughput rates. For users moving at speeds larger than walking speed, P2P video streaming is hardly possible, as the achievable throughput for a

Martin Stiemerling; Sebastian Kiesel

2010-01-01

68

Ecology of Streams and Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides an introduction to the ecology of streams and mountains. It discusses how trees falling into a mountain stream can provide habitat by creating logjams, even going so far as to float to the sea during spring floods, where they provide cover for ocean fish. There is also a description of alpine ecosystems, those which exist above the tree line, and the animals that live or visit there, and a discussion of the idea of structure and function as it pertains to organisms as diverse as elephants and fungi. A section on soil ecology describes the relationship between mushrooms, the soil, and other organisms such as trees. A quiz and glossary are also provided.

69

Delivering Instruction via Streaming Media: A Higher Education Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes streaming media, an audio/video presentation that is delivered across a network so that it is viewed while being downloaded onto the user's computer, including a continuous stream of video that can be pre-recorded or live. Discusses its use for nontraditional students in higher education and reports on implementation experiences. (LRW)

Mortensen, Mark; Schlieve, Paul; Young, Jon

2000-01-01

70

Weighing Lives  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are often faced with choices that involve the weighing of people's lives against each other, or the weighing of lives against other good things. These are choices both for individuals and for societies. A person who is terminally ill may have to choose between palliative care and more aggressive treatment, which will give her a longer life but at

John Broome

71

Distributing streaming media content using cooperative networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss the problem of distributing streaming media content, both live and on-demand, to a large number of hosts in a scalable way. Our work is set in the context of the traditional client-server framework. Specifically, we consider the problem that arises when the server is overwhelmed by the volume of requests from its clients. As a

Venkata N. Padmanabhan; Helen J. Wang; Philip A. Chou; Kunwadee Sripanidkulchai

2002-01-01

72

Family Living and Personal Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find links for various projects for Family Living and Personal Living classes. FAMILY LIVING Wayne County Clerk - Marriage License The Knot Martha Stewart Weddings *Travel Planning Sites* Northwest Airlines Amtrak Travelocity Spirit Air Orbitz PERSONAL LIVING (and Parenting): *Alcohol Research* Alcohol and Public Health - CDC MedlinePlus: Alcoholism NIAAA National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism *Birth Control* Health and Wellness Resource Center - - start at this site by typing Birth Control in the search bar on the right of the screen and select "full text articles" and consumer heatlh. It will list a range of birth ...

Schultz, Ms.

2007-11-05

73

Living Proof Podcast Series  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This podcast series is part of the SUNY University at Buffalo's School of Social Work outreach efforts and is a rather fascinating and useful resource. The purpose of the series is "to engage practitioners and researchers in lifelong learning and to promote research to practice, practice to research." The conversations here include interviews with top-notch researchers, professors, and others. On this site, visitors can browse through past podcasts, which include conversations about topics like online bullying, community organizing, and developing an effective relationship with patients. Also, visitors can sign up to receive each new podcast when it is released via iTunes. Finally, users are encouraged to leave feedback on the episodes they find compelling.

2012-10-15

74

The Many Streams of the Magellanic Stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The consortium for Galactic studies with the Arecibo L-band Feed Array (GALFA) has imaged an area of approximately 1125 square degrees at tip of the Magellanic Stream, the region located furthest away from the parent Magellanic Clouds. For the first time, four distinct filaments or branches of the Stream are revealed, each with their own respective large-scale structure, morphologies and velocity gradients. We compare spatial and velocity structure of the four streams with numerical simulations and find support for the tidal origin of the Magellanic Stream. We have also produced a catalog of 176 discrete HI clouds in the Stream, revealed by our high-resolution observations. Most of these clouds are small, with a characteristic angular size of 10 arcmin. Most importantly, about one fifth of the clouds present in this region show complex velocity profiles indicative of the multi-phase medium.

Hoffman, Samantha M.; Stanimirovic, S.; Heiles, C.; Douglas, K. A.; Putman, M.; Peek, J. E. G.

2007-12-01

75

Live work  

SciTech Connect

The practice of performing maintenance on live transmission lines has surged dramatically in the past two decades, as economic concerns have made the construction of redundant lines impractical. These days, utilities face the added pressure of the increasing demand for power and the need to accomplish the tasks quickly with smaller crews. Responding to utility needs, EPRI launched the `Live Working 2000` project in 1993. Through this project, researchers conduct tests of new tools and techniques at the Institute`s Power Delivery Center in Lenox, Massachusetts. The resulting data are made available to utilities and to regulatory groups that govern the practice of live working. 3 refs., 5 figs.

Garfinkel, P.

1995-09-01

76

Streaming potential in nature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, QUINCKE found in 1859 the phenomenon of electric streaming potential. Twenty years later HELMHOLTZ published a mathematical expression for the streaming potential. In the following years a number of scientists studied the phenomenon. BIKERMAN (1932) showed that each electric streaming potential causes an electric current in the contrary direction. SWARTZENDRUBER postulated in 1967 that this electric field tries to stop the streaming potential as a result of the energy balance.

Schuch, M.

77

Healthy Living  

MedlinePLUS

... Environmental Health Sciences Kids Pages skip navigation Home Discover & Explore What's That Word Scientific Kids Fun & Games Parents & Teachers About Contact Home » Discover & Explore » Print this page Share Healthy Living By ...

78

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...

79

Living Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a review of various methods of keeping live animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)

Mules, B. R.

1976-01-01

80

Scalable resilient media streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a low-overhead media streaming system, called SRMS (Scalable Resilient Media Streaming) that can be used to scalably deliver streaming data to a large group of receivers. SRMS uses overlay multicast for data distribution. to a large group of users. SRMS leverages a probabilistic loss recovery technique to provide high data delivery guarantees even under large network losses and

Suman Banerjee; Seungjoon Lee; Ryan Braud; Bobby Bhattacharjee; Aravind Srinivasan

2004-01-01

81

Merrimac: Supercomputing with Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Merrimac uses stream architecture and advanced interconnection networks to give an order of magnitude more performance per unit cost than cluster-based scientific computers built from the same technology. Organizing the computation into streams and exploiting the resulting locality using a register hierarchy enables a stream architecture to reduce the memory bandwidth required by representative applications by an order of magnitude

William J. Dally; Francois Labonte; Abhishek Das; Patrick Hanrahan; Jung-Ho Ahn; Jayanth Gummaraju; Mattan Erez; Nuwan Jayasena; Ian Buck; Timothy J. Knight; Ujval J. Kapasi

2003-01-01

82

Clustering Data Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study clustering under the data stream modelof computation where: given a sequence of points, theobjective is to maintain a consistently good clustering ofthe sequence observed so far, using a small amount ofmemory and time. The data stream model is relevantto new classes of applications involving massive datasets, such as web click stream analysis and multimediadata analysis. We give constant-factor

Sudipto Guha; Nina Mishra; Rajeev Motwani; Liadan O'callaghan

2000-01-01

83

Middle School Stream Investigation: observing stream erosion, calculating stream discharge, and determining stream chemistry and turbidity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This stream field investigation will allow students to look at stream erosional patterns, take measurements to determine discharge, and conduct a chemical and turbidity analysis of Garvin Brook in Stockton, MN. Based on this investigation students will create a presentation that includes a new testable question that may be carried out the following year along with a stream ecology study.

84

Living Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ecological studies have revealed that nature has an in-built system to restore itself, thereby sustaining its continuity.\\u000a In other words, natural ecosystems can act as “Living Machines” in keeping the ecosystems habitable. The biological communities\\u000a – microbes, plants, and animals – serve as the driving force of several living technological innovations – constructed wetlands,\\u000a Lake Restores, Eco-Restorers, and Reedbeds. These

Yung-Tse Hung; Joseph F. Hawumba; Lawrence K. Wang

85

ConcepTest: Stream Convergence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The diagram depicts the confluence of two perennial streams (A and B) forming C. Which of the following statements regarding stream C must be true? a. Stream flow velocity is greater than in A or B. b. Stream ...

86

Rivers and Streams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After collecting stream flow data in the field earlier in the semester, students collect new data to compare flow variations of an on-campus stream. Students collect data in the field then calculate flow velocity, and discharge. Students also use maps to calculate stream gradient. Additional activities include plotting clast size data collected in the field on a Hjulstrom Diagram to make connections between stream flow properties and erosion-deposition-and transport in streams. This activity gives students the opportunity to collect and analyze data as they practice quantitative skills by graphing data and calculating unit conversions.

Teasdale, Rachel

87

Stream Table Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in groups around home-made stream tables. Each person in the group is assigned a role that is involved in maintaining the stream table (such as the hose-holder, the bucket-holder, the person who turns on and off the water, and the recorder). As a group, they turn on the water and observe what happens when water and sand interact on a slope. Once a stream has formed, they draw the stream, noting locations where erosion and deposition have occurred. Then, they take measurements of the stream channel and stream flow in order to calculate velocity, sinuosity, gradient, and discharge. This activity encourages students to work in groups, use math within a scientific context, and learn about how streams work in a hands-on manner.

Rutzky, Sara M.

88

Positive Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Positive Lives project is "a unique international project that photographs and documents the social and emotional impact of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, illuminating positive human responses to this world crisis." Sponsored by the Levi Strauss Foundation and the Terrence Higgins Trust, the project has sponsored photographers from across the world to photograph various persons living with HIV/AIDS in a host of very different settings. While the project has sponsored a number of various photographic exhibits, this online collection represents a small portion of the work thus far. Using an interactive map of the world, users can click on different geographic areas to view photographic exhibits documenting the lived experience of this condition. In South Africa, visitors can learn about the work and the residents of Nazareth House, which is a children's home in Cape Town taking care of abandoned children with HIV or AIDS. In Edinburgh, visitors are taken through the lives of young drug abusers at the Muirhouse Estate who are also living with either HIV or AIDS. In the words of photographer John Sturrock, "In Muirhouse I witnessed the emotional struggle of people enduring a tragedy..." However, hope is present in these photographic essays as well, as they represent a broad range of emotions.

89

Palaeo-ice streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The location and behaviour of ice streams is one of the most important controls on ice sheet configuration and stability. In order to reconstruct former ice sheets we need to know ice stream location and timing. Once identified, the beds of palaeo-ice streams provide an unprecedented opportunity to glean information about their basal environment, something that remains very difficult under contemporary ice streams. This paper represents the first synthesis and discussion of palaeo-ice stream research from a variety of former ice sheets and includes new insights relating their configuration and activity to the evidence they leave behind. The ambiguous use of the term 'ice stream' is addressed and four possible configurations for ice streams are presented. Diagnostic landforms and landform assemblages that we would expect an ice stream to produce are discussed and the temporal context of bedform generation is described as either a 'rubber stamped' or 'smudged' bedform imprint, resulting from isochronous or time-transgressive landform generation. In particular, we focus on the configuration of terrestrially terminating ice streams, for which there are no modern analogues. Technological advances in marine geophysics are helping to generate a convergence of interest between Antarctic glaciology and palaeo glaciology. It is suggested that investigations around the fringes of contemporary ice sheets, (i.e. West Antarctica) can provide evidence that directly links the geomorphological record of palaeo-ice streams with their contemporary counterparts. In addition, computational advances and modelling adaptations have permitted the incorporation of ice streams within ice sheet models. We argue that data from palaeo-ice stream beds are invaluable to ice sheet/stream modelling experiments and will help us understand ice stream operation and the linkages between climate perturbations and both palaeo and contemporary ice sheets.

Stokes, Chris R.; Clark, Chris D.

2001-07-01

90

Innovative Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Innovative Lives Web Site is offered by the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation and the Smithsonian Institution. "Innovative Lives counters commonly held stereotypes about inventors by featuring speakers with diverse backgrounds," such as Dr. Patricia Bath, an African-American woman who invented the Laserphaco Probe for the treatment of cataracts and founded the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness. Over thirty inventors are featured on the site, which gives excellent information about each, telling of their lives and what they have accomplished. Although it is intended for kids, the site will be of interest to anyone looking to learn about many of the most important and unknown contributors to the scientific world.

2002-01-01

91

Living History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

John Tinker and Mary Beth Tinker are back in a classroom in their hometown, once again wearing black armbands and drawing attention to a war. Now in their 50s, the siblings are living symbols of constitutional rights for secondary school students. In 1965, they and a handful of others were suspended for wearing black armbands to their public…

Walsh, Mark

2005-01-01

92

Retiring Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these experiences…

Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

2009-01-01

93

Living Heritage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living Heritage is a website that celebrates New Zealand heritage through the help of the schools and students of New Zealand. The "About Living Heritage" link states that the website is "an online bilingual initiative that enables New Zealand schools to develop and publish an online resource, based on a heritage treasure in their community." Visitors can also read about the five or so groups these stories "Benefit", including New Zealand and the World, in the About Living Heritage link. The "Schools' Stories" link takes visitors to 26 schools' websites produced since 2008, and an archive of 79 schools' websites produced before 2008. By browsing through the stories, visitors can learn about Paddy, the much-loved wandering Airedale who lived on Island Bay in Wellington in the 1930s. The story of Mitiaro High School in the Cook Islands describes how they learned how to build a canoe called a paiere. Finally, a group of Year 1 and 2 students at Russley School write about their discovery that a tree near their school is protected by the city council.

94

Gas stream purifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas stream purifier has been developed that is capable of removing corrosive acid, base, solvent, organic, inorganic, and water vapors as well as particulates from an inert mixed gas stream using only solid scrubbing agents. This small, lightweight purifier has demonstrated the ability to remove contaminants from an inert gas stream with a greater than 99 percent removal efficiency. The Gas Stream Purifier has outstanding market and sales potential in manufacturing, laboratory and science industries, medical, automotive, or any commercial industry where pollution, contamination, or gas stream purification is a concern. The purifier was developed under NASA contract NAS9-18200 Schedule A for use in the international Space Station. A patent application for the Gas Stream Purifier is currently on file with the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

Adam, Steven J.

1994-01-01

95

Gaia Live in School  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaia is the European Space Agency's (ESA) next major astronomy telescope mission that was launched December 19, 2013. Gaia will measure accurate distances to about one billion stars across our Milky Way, allowing us to better understand how our galaxy formed and evolved. Gaia will have a profound impact on our understand ing of the Universe and the nature of dark matter, and provide a deeper understanding of how planets form around stars in our local neighbourhood. Gaia scientists and science education advisors are organising a Gaia post-launch event to link approximately forty schools across Europe. The event will include a live stream connection to ESA Gaia Mission Control and local Gaia research students to act as “explainers” and give practical demonstrations in each school. This paper describes the challenges in conducting this Europe-wide event.

Walton, N. A.; Barnes, R.; Soubiran, C.; Vogt, S.

2014-07-01

96

Living and non-living things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living things often rely on non-living things to accomplish daily tasks. Living things have several characteristics that non-living things do not, such as the ability to move, eat, breathe, and reproduce. Living things and non-living things can interact even though they do not have the same characteristics.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-25

97

Dynamics of meteor streams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overwhelming majority of meteor streams are generally assumed to be formed due to the decay of comets. The most effective process of the release of solid particles from a cometary nucleus is their ejection by sublimating gases when the comet approaches the Sun. The results of investigation of the Geminids and Quadrantids meteor stream evolution show that under the influence of planetary perturbations, the stream may originally be flat but then thicken depending on the variation range of orbital inclinations. Eventually, due to planetary perturbations, a meteor stream may take such a shape as to cause the start of several active showers at different solar longitudes.

Babadjanov, P. B.; Obrubov, Yu. U.

1987-01-01

98

Estuary Live!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classrooms and individuals can log on to participate in a real-time field trip to a National Estuary Research Reserve. Ask questions, view live video and still images, and learn about estuaries from experts. Topics range from geology to water quality, estuary plants and animals, and cultural heritage. Includes: references and lesson plans, classroom activities and teachers' guides. Archives of previous years are available, featuring sessions from East, West and Gulf Coast estuaries.

99

An Efficient Stream Mining Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stream analysis is considered as a crucial component of strategic control over a broad variety of disciplines in business, science and engineering. Stream data is a sequence of observations collected over intervals of time. Each data stream describes a phenomenon. Analysis on Stream data includes discovering trends (or patterns) in a Stream sequence. In the last few years, data mining

Hatim A. Aboalsamh; Alaaeldin M. Hafez; Ghazy M. R. Assassa

2008-01-01

100

Streaming Audio Recorder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Streaming Audio Recorder application allows users to record any type of streaming audio via their computers' speakers or microphone. It's a simple way to record audio from sites such as Grooveshark, YouTube, BBC, and others. The program is compatible with computers running Windows 2000 and newer.

2012-11-02

101

ROADS NEAR STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into the stream, harming both water and habitat quality. This metric measured the length of roads within 30 meters of a...

102

FUTURE ROADS NEAR STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into the stream, harming both water and habitat quality. This metric measured the length of roads within 30 meters of a...

103

STREAM NETWORK TEMPERATURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Stream Network Temperature (SNTEMP) model is a mechanistic, one-dimensional heat transport formulation that predicts daily mean and maximum water temperature as a function of stream distance and environmental heat flux. Net heat flux is calculated as the sum of heat to or fr...

104

Solar wind stream interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements aboard Imp 6, 7, and 8 reveal that approximately one third of all high-speed solar wind streams observed at 1 AU contain a sharp boundary (of thickness less than approx.4 x 10⁴ km) near their leading edge, called a stream interface, which separates plasma of distinctly different properties and origins. Identified as discontinuities across which the density drops abruptly,

J. T. Gosling; J. R. Asbridge; S. J. Bame; W. C. Feldman

1978-01-01

105

MARYLAND BIOLOGICAL STREAM SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS) is a multi-year probability-based sampling program designed to assess the status of biological resources in non-tidal streams of Maryland. The MBSS is quantifying the extent to which acidic deposition and other human activities have af...

106

WADEABLE STREAMS ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) provides the first statistically defensible summary of the condition of the nation?s streams and small rivers, which are so integrally tied to our history. This report brings the results of this ground-breaking study to the American public....

107

Auditory streaming is cumulative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The auditory system appears to begin listening to an input with a bias toward hearing the input as a single stream, but it gradually accumulates evidence over a period of seconds which may lead to the input's being split into sub- streams. Several seconds of silence or of unpatterned noise slowly remove the bias of the mechanism in favor of

Albert S. Bregman

1978-01-01

108

Ramification of stream networks  

PubMed Central

The geometric complexity of stream networks has been a source of fascination for centuries. However, a comprehensive understanding of ramification—the mechanism of branching by which such networks grow—remains elusive. Here we show that streams incised by groundwater seepage branch at a characteristic angle of 2?/5 = 72°. Our theory represents streams as a collection of paths growing and bifurcating in a diffusing field. Our observations of nearly 5,000 bifurcated streams growing in a 100 km2 groundwater field on the Florida Panhandle yield a mean bifurcation angle of 71.9° ± 0.8°. This good accord between theory and observation suggests that the network geometry is determined by the external flow field but not, as classical theories imply, by the flow within the streams themselves.

Devauchelle, Olivier; Petroff, Alexander P.; Seybold, Hansjorg F.; Rothman, Daniel H.

2012-01-01

109

STREAM: The Stanford Stream Data Manager  

Microsoft Academic Search

STREAM is a general-purpose DSMS that supports a declarative query language and is designed to cope with high data rates and large numbers of continuous queries. A description of our current (Fall 2002) language design, algorithms, system design, and system implementation efforts can be found in [MW, 03]. Needless to say, we expect additional functionality to be in place by

Arvind Arasu; Brian Babcock; Shivnath Babu; Mayur Datar; Keith Ito; Itaru Nishizawa; Justin Rosenstein; Jennifer Widom; Dilys Thomas; Rohit Varma

2003-01-01

110

Asteroid/meteorite streams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The independent discovery of the same three streams (named alpha, beta, and gamma) among 139 Earth approaching asteroids and among 89 meteorite producing fireballs presents the possibility of matching specific meteorites to specific asteroids, or at least to asteroids in the same stream and, therefore, presumably of the same composition. Although perhaps of limited practical value, the three meteorites with known orbits are all ordinary chondrites. To identify, in general, the taxonomic type of the parent asteroid, however, would be of great scientific interest since these most abundant meteorite types cannot be unambiguously spectrally matched to an asteroid type. The H5 Pribram meteorite and asteroid 4486 (unclassified) are not part of a stream, but travel in fairly similar orbits. The LL5 Innisfree meteorite is orbitally similar to asteroid 1989DA (unclassified), and both are members of a fourth stream (delta) defined by five meteorite-dropping fireballs and this one asteroid. The H5 Lost City meteorite is orbitally similar to 1980AA (S type), which is a member of stream gamma defined by four asteroids and four fireballs. Another asteroid in this stream is classified as an S type, another is QU, and the fourth is unclassified. This stream suggests that ordinary chondrites should be associated with S (and/or Q) asteroids. Two of the known four V type asteroids belong to another stream, beta, defined by five asteroids and four meteorite-dropping (but unrecovered) fireballs, making it the most probable source of the eucrites. The final stream, alpha, defined by five asteroids and three fireballs is of unknown composition since no meteorites have been recovered and only one asteroid has an ambiguous classification of QRS. If this stream, or any other as yet undiscovered ones, were found to be composed of a more practical material (e.g., water or metalrich), then recovery of the associated meteorites would provide an opportunity for in-hand analysis of a potential near-Earth resource.

Drummond, J.

1991-01-01

111

Living Clocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about daily rhythms (on page 17 of the PDF), learners will explore circadian patterns in humans, animals and plants. They will observe that some behaviors and functions of living organisms vary predictably every 24 hours and many regular functions are governed by internal "clocks," which run independently but are cued or reset by the environment. Groups of learners can conduct one of four (or more) body clock investigations: body temperature, animal behavior, bean leaf, and alertness/heart rate. Materials required for each group will vary, depending on the investigation(s) being conducted. This lesson guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions and a handout.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Vogt, Greg L.

2009-01-01

112

Statewide Database for Stream Fishes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was undertaken to address the need for readily available quantitative data for sportfish management decisions, stream quality assessment, and for stream restoration needs in Illinois. The PC-based, Streams database has been developed to meet ...

P. B. Bayley R. F. Illyes S. T. Sobaski

1995-01-01

113

Streaming potential measurements of biosurfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique based on the measurement of streaming potentials has been developed to evaluate the electrokinetic region of the cell periphery. This approach is feasible for cell lines propagated in in-vitro cell cultures in monolayer form. The advantage of this system is that cells may be evaluated in the living state atttached to a substrate; it is not necessary to subject the cells to enzymatic, chemical, or mechanical trauma required to obtain monodisperse suspensions which are then normally evaluated by microelectrophoresis. In this manner, it should be possible to study the influence of substrate and environmental factors on the charge density and potential at the cell periphery. The apparatus and procedure are described as well as some results concerning the electrokinetic potential of borosilicate capillaries as a function of ionic strength, pH, and temperature. The effect that turbulence and entrance flow conditions have on accurate streaming-potential measurements is discussed. The electrokinetic potential of BALB/c 3T12 fibroblasts has been quantified as a function of pH, ionic strength, glutaraldehyde fixation, and Giemsa staining.

Van Wagenen, R. A.; Andrade, J. D.; Hibbs, J. B., Jr.

1976-01-01

114

Uncommon Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Uncommon Lives series on the National Archives of Australia website takes an approach to Australian history that not only encompasses the well-known history-makers, but also lesser known people's role in shaping Australian history. One of the stated goals of the Uncommon Lives series is to show how amateur historians and researchers alike can use the archives to find biographical resources. There are five stories the visitor can discover by simply clicking on the image of the person or people next to the brief description of their story including, "Muslim Journeys", "Charles and Ruth Lane Poole", "Jessie Street", "Wolf Klaphake", and "Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda". By clicking on any choice, visitors will find each story divided into subsections. Explanatory text accompanies the thumbnails of each image and these can be expanded into a high quality image by clicking on them. Each of these stories provides a unique and compelling look into Australian history. For instance in Wolf Klaphake's story you can listen to or read the transcript of segments of the ABC radio play "A Doubtful Character" which is about Klaphake's life and in Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda's story, you can view the actual court records of his case, which was the first for an Aboriginal Australian in the High Court.

2007-01-01

115

Understanding mesh-based peer-to-peer streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common approach to peer-to-peer (P2P) streaming is to form a tree-based overlay coupled with push content deliv- ery. This approach cannot effectively utilize the outgoing bandwidth of participating peers, and therefore it is not self-scaling. In contrast, swarm-like content delivery mech- anisms exhibit the self-scaling property but incorporating them into live P2P streaming applications are challenging for two reasons:

Nazanin Magharei; Reza Rejaie

2006-01-01

116

Stream Gages and GIS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise from SERC's Starting Point utilizes the national network of stream gage data provided by the USGS Water Resources Division as an online Geographic Information System (GIS). Students use real-time stream flow data to interpret recent regional-scale climate events based on current stream flow data, monitor changes in time, and consider additional interpretations that could be derived if other data were in map form. This exercise may be used to consider regional-scale conceptual problems in tandem with the traditional hydrology exercises.

Welch, Brian C.

2008-04-18

117

Living Links  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center at Emory University, the Living Links site specializes in "comparisons of the social life, ecology, cognition, neurology, and molecular genetics of apes and humans." With an emphasis on the four extant great apes (bonobos, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans), this educational site attempts "1) to reconstruct human evolution, 2) pinpoint the differences and similarities between humans and apes, and 3) educate the public about apes, and promote their well-being and conservation." The Info section provides a long (hyperlinked) list of general information on apes, from Allogrooming to Wooly spider monkeys. The Research section gives a brief overview of the Yerkes Center's research questions (and their evolutionary context), and Animals describes the Center's study animals -- three main social groups of chimpanzees -- with a special vocalizations feature. For those interested in learning more about apes and how our ancestry is intertwined with theirs, this site will be of interest.

118

American Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started as part of the American Culture studies program at Washington University, the American Lives Project is "a new resource for cultural inquiry that allows users to build connections and identify differences between materials." The project brings together oral histories, historical documents, artifacts, sound, and visual media into an online collection that serves as a model for others seeking to do such work. This particular project documents student activism at Washington University from 1964 to 1972. First-time visitors should look at the About area to learn about the design team, the goals of the project, and the technical aspects of this work. Moving on, visitors can click on the How to Use tab for information about examining the collection. Visitors will find protest banners, letters, handouts, photographs by student groups, and links to related media. Also, visitors can create their own curated collections via the My Objects area, which is a great way to highlight items of personal interest. [KMG

119

London Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"London Lives: Crime, Poverty and Social Policy in the Metropolis" is a project with the goal of "assessing the role of plebeians in the evolution of social practices in the modern metropolis." In other words, the website aims to make accessible the records of non-elite individuals in order to show how those users of particular social institutions charities, the penal system, and others shaped their development. Visitors can choose "Browse Documents" to see the types of documents available, such as "Parish Archives", "Criminal Records", and "Coroners' Records". The "City of London Coroners" records from the 1780s include an inquest into a suspicious death, with no less than a dozen interviews with people who knew the man who died, and one of whom attested to him being "a little touched in the head". The "Additional Datasets" link contains 16 other datasets, including one of boys recruited to serve at sea for the Marine Society.

120

Urban Stream Ecology  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban watersheds characteristically have high impervious surface cover, resulting in high surface runoff and low infiltration following storms. In response, urban streams experience ?flashy? stormflows, reduced baseflows, bank erosion, channel widening, and sedimentation. Urban ...

121

Estimating Flow in Streams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by West Virginia University, this site addresses flow rates in streams and how to accurately estimate these rates. The site contains thorough diagrams along with solid explanatory text. Overall, the presentation is strong and easily comprehended.

Porter, Dana O.

2008-10-14

122

Monitoring Wilderness Stream Ecosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A protocol and methods for monitoring the major physical, chemical, and biological components of stream ecosystems are presented. The monitoring protocol is organized into four stages. At stage 1 information is obtained on a basic set of parameters that d...

J. C. Davis G. W. Minshall C. T. Robinson P. Landres

2001-01-01

123

Meteor Streams and Comets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress on the interrelation between meteor streams and comets is reviewed both on dynamical and physical aspects.\\u000a The topics include the recent concept of the structure of meteor streams, resulted success of the prediction of the meteor\\u000a storms, and the recent observational situation on the cometary dust grains and meteoroids. Two possible explanations for the\\u000a origin of the meteoroids

Jun-Ichi Watanabe

2004-01-01

124

Meteor Streams and Comets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress on the interrelation between meteor streams and comets is reviewed both on dynamical and physical aspects.\\u000a The topics include the recent concept of the structure of meteor streams, resulted success of the prediction of the meteor\\u000a storms, and the recent observational situation on the cometary dust grains and meteoroids. Two possible explanations for the\\u000a origin of the meteoroids

Jun-Ichi Watanabe

125

Streams, Flows and Torrents  

Microsoft Academic Search

RTFM (RFCs 2720-2724) considers network traffic as being made up of bidirectional flows, which are arbitrary groupings of packets defined only by attributes of their end-points. This paper extends RTFM's view of traffic by adding two further concepts, streams and torrents. Streams are individual IP sessions (e.g. TCP or UDP) between ports on pairs of hosts, while a torrent refers

Nevil Brownlee; Margaret Murray

2001-01-01

126

The endoplasmic reticulum exerts control over organelle streaming during cell expansion.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic streaming is crucial for cell homeostasis and expansion but the precise driving forces are largely unknown. In plants, partial loss of cytoplasmic streaming due to chemical and genetic ablation of myosins supports the existence of yet-unknown motors for organelle movement. Here we tested a role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as propelling force for cytoplasmic streaming during cell expansion. Through quantitative live-cell analyses in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana cells and mutants with compromised ER structure and streaming, we demonstrate that cytoplasmic streaming undergoes profound changes during cell expansion and that it depends on motor forces co-exerted by the ER and the cytoskeleton. PMID:24424025

Stefano, Giovanni; Renna, Luciana; Brandizzi, Federica

2014-03-01

127

Live Your Life Well  

MedlinePLUS

... here Home » Living Well » Live Your Life Well Live Your Life Well The 10 Tools These proven ... ability to build a rewarding life. About the Live Your Life Well Campaign Mental Health America is ...

128

Of isbræ and ice streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast flowing ice streams and outlet glaciers provide the major avenues for ice flow from past and present ice sheets. These ice streams move faster than the surrounding ice sheet by a factor of one hundred or more. Several mechanisms for fast ice stream flow have been identified, leading to a spectrum of different ice stream types. In this paper

Martin Truffer; Keith A. Echelmeyer

2003-01-01

129

FACTORS CONTROLLING HYDROLOGIC PERMANENCE OF HEADWATER STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Headwater streams compose the majority of stream miles within most drainages. Interest in monitoring headwater streams is increasing because headwater streams are vital linkages between upland land use and downstream water bodies. However, traditional stream assessment tools ar...

130

Nature Online Video Streaming Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nature is an international, interdisciplinary, weekly peer-reviewed journal of science that has an impressive website that conveys its information in written, audio or video formats. The video offerings here "feature interviews with scientists behind the research and analysis from Nature editors." Nature also has a YouTube channel that can be used to "upload and share our videos across the Internet through websites, mobile devices, blogs and email." Visitors will note that most, but not all, of the videos in the video archive have "free access" next to the title of the video. Some of the pay videos are available via iTunes. When visitors click on a video in the video archive, they will find that they can choose to watch the video in high or low quality and they can download the required Flash Plugin, if needed. Additionally, visitors will find a section entitled "Background Information", which gives links to Nature podcasts and articles about the research presented in the video.

131

Evaluating the Imagine Stream Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experimental evaluation of theprototype Imagine stream processor. Imagine [Imagine: Media processing with streams] is a stream processor that employs a two-level register hierarchy with9.7 Kbytes of local register file capacity and 128 Kbytesof stream register file (SRF) capacity to capture producer-consumerlocality in stream applications. Parallelism is exploitedusing an array of 48 floating-point arithmetic unitsorganized as eight

Jung Ho Ahn; William J. Dally; Brucek Khailany; Ujval J. Kapasi; Abhishek Das

2004-01-01

132

Inventory of miscellaneous streams  

SciTech Connect

On December 23, 1991, the U.S. Dep of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order No. DE 9INM-177 (Consent Order) (Ecology and U.S. DOE 1991). The Consent Order lists the regulatory milestones for liquid effluent at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-216 (State Waste Discharge Permit Program) or WAC 173-218 (Washington Underground Injection Control Progam) where applicable. DOE-RL provided the U.S Congress a plan and schedule to discontinue disposal of contaminated liquid effluent into the soil column on the Hanford Site (DOE 1987). The plan and schedule document contained a strategy for the implementation of alternative treatment and disposal systems. This strategy included prioritizing the into two phases. The Phase I streams were considered to be higher priority than the Phase II streams. The actions recommended for the Phase I and II streams were incorporated in the Hanford Federal Facility A and Consent Order (Tri Party Agreement ) (Ecology, et al. 1994). Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluent identified within the Consent Order that are discharged to the ground but are not categorized as Phase I or Phase II Streams. Miscellaneous discharging to the soil column on the Hanford Site are subject to requirements of several milestones identified in the Consent Order. The Plan and Schedule for Disposition and Regulatory Compliance for Miscellaneous Streams (DOE/RL,93-94) provides a plan and schedule for the disposition of Miscellaneous Streams to satisfy one of the Consent Order requirements. One of the commitments (Activity 6-2.2) established in the plan and schedule is to annually update the Miscellaneous Stream Inventory. The annual update will continue until September of 1998, at which time four categorical permit applications are scheduled to have been submitted to Ecology. This document constitutes the 1996 revision of the Inventory of Miscellaneous Streanu. This inventory has been used to prepare the State Waste Discharge Permit Application for Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges (DOE/RL,96-41) and the Miscellaneous Stream Best Management Practice Report (DOE/RL-96-40). This inventory will also be used to prepare the third and fourth categorical permit applications as defined in the plan and schedule.

Atencio, B.P.

1996-09-01

133

The Gulf Stream Voyage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gulf Stream Voyage is an online multidisciplinary project which utilizes both real time data and primary source materials to help guide students to discover the science and history of the Gulf Stream. Students investigate the driving forces behind this ocean current, how it affects the Atlantic Ocean and some of mankind's experiences dealing with it. This voyage includes activities for marine science, earth science, chemistry, physics, biology, math, history and language arts. This project has been developed to be used as a complete tutorial on the Gulf Stream. However, the activities are presented in a manner so that each may be used individually to supplement traditional classroom lessons. Students access real time ocean data, atmospheric data and historical primary source materials. Students utilize these resources, all in the context of an authentic real world problem.

2011-05-31

134

Visualizing Data Streams  

SciTech Connect

We introduce two dynamic visualization techniques using multi-dimensional scaling to analyze transient data streams such as newswires and remote sensing imagery. While the time-sensitive nature of these data streams requires immediate attention in many applications, the unpredictable and unbounded characteristics of this information can potentially overwhelm many scaling algorithms that require a full re-computation for every update. We present an adaptive visualization technique based on data stratification to ingest stream information adaptively when influx rate exceeds processing rate. We also describe an incremental visualization technique based on data fusion to project new information directly onto a visualization subspace spanned by the singular vectors of the previously processed neighboring data. The ultimate goal is to leverage the value of legacy and new information and minimize re-processing of the entire dataset in full resolution. We demonstrate these dynamic visualization results using a newswire corpus and a remote sensing imagery sequence.

Wong, Pak C.; Foote, Harlan P.; Adams, Daniel R.; Cowley, Wendy E.; Leung, Lai R.; Thomas, James J.

2004-12-01

135

ORSP: An Efficient Resource Acquisition Policy for Peer-to-Peer Mesh Streaming Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a superior approach for peer-to-peer (P2P) streaming live media, mesh-based overlay has made much success due to its potential scalability and ease of deployment. Peers in mesh streaming systems employ a swarming content delivery mechanism to exchange resources. However, the limited availability of new content heavily affects the quality of delivered stream. Aiming at leveraging and optimizing the resources

Feng Xiao; Zhongzhi Luan; Rui Wang; Depei Qian

2010-01-01

136

Auditory streaming is cumulative.  

PubMed

The auditory system appears to begin listening to an input with a basis toward hearing the input as a single stream, but it gradually accumulates evidence over a period of seconds which may lead to the input's being split into substreams. Several seconds of silence or of unpatterned noise slowly remove the bias of the mechanism in favor of these streams. The effects were demonstrated in experiments in which young adult listeners sped up sequences of tones until they split. The sequences varied in the number of tones packaged between recurrent "separators" (periods of silence or of white noise) and in the lengths of these separators. PMID:681887

Bregman, A S

1978-08-01

137

Paleo-ice stream types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During mapping of the Laurentide and Fennoscandian ice sheet beds we have observed and mapped a large number of paleo-ice streams, including apparently anomalous ice streams ocurring on high shear-stress bed materials, and with little or no topographic guidance. In addition, we have found evidence that in several places in the Canadian Arctic there developed a special category of small ephemeral ice streams during the deglaciation. They indicate flow patterns that are very different from older semi-stable ice streams in the respective areas. These observations of several types of "anomalous" ice streams lead us to think that scientific understanding of ice-stream behaviour has been hampered by an over-simplified terminology that presupposes that ice streams are one phenomenon, largely governed by one set of controls. Instead we hold the view that an understanding of ice-stream behaviour must start with a subdivision of the term "ice stream" into genetically distinct categories, with research focused at clarifying the controls for each category. A tentative classification scheme for paleo-ice streams should comprise at least five different types of ice streams, i/ Classical ice streams which occur on an excessively lubricated bed, i.e. preferably over fine-grained substrate with low permeability. Most of these ice streams terminated in lacustrine or marine water bodies. The numerous Baltic Ice Streams and the Cochrane surges into glacial lakes Agassis/Ojibway are examples of this type, ii/ Semi-stable ice streams which exist in locations where overall ice-sheet geometry favors the occurrence of long-lasting convergent flow, i.e. downstream of saddles in the ice-sheet surface. The Åre - Trondheim area in Scandinavia was likely a site for such an ice stream, iii/ Transient rigid-bed ice streams, which form without obvious topographical or substratum control when thawed spots start to develop under a largely cold-based ice sheet, which then finds itself with a steeper profile than the reduced bed traction can sustain. The unnamed Finnish ice streams that terminate in the Salpausselkä lobes are prime examples, and the Dubawnt ice stream in Keewatin may also be of this type, iiii/ Topographic ice streams, which are constrained by topography and fixed in space but variable in time. The Hudson Strait, Laurentian Channel, and Norwegian Channel ice streams are prime candidates for this type, and iiiii/ Re-equilibration ice streams, which probably develop as a response to rapid calving and breakup of ice in adjacent marine areas. Good examples are the east-trending ice stream on Prince of Wales Island, the small Cap Krusenstern ice stream and numerous ice streams on Baffin Island.

Kleman, J.; de Angelis, H.; Greenwood, S.

2010-12-01

138

Life histories and life history strategies of invertebrates inhabiting intermittent streams in Hawke's Bay, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermittent streams are predicted to harbour macroinvertebrate taxa with particular life history traits that allow them to complete development in a limited time and survive periods without water. Three intermittent headwater streams in Hawke's Bay, New Zealand, had more taxa with very small body size, plurivoltine life cycles, low dissemination potential, long-lived adults and asexual reproduction than three nearby perennial

RG Storey; JM Quinn

2011-01-01

139

Situation-awareness and sensor stream mining for sustainable society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criminal activities are causing a huge amount of loss both in term of financial and human lives. Due to these acts, business and social sectors are striving. This paper is aimed to develop an online sensor stream mining system, able to analyze situational behavior of all persons in some specific vicinity and proposes real-time alert system to take countermeasures. This

Z. ur Rehman; M. Shaheen

2009-01-01

140

Examining topography and stream discharge at Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry based geologic field lab students will be estimating and measuring stream flow. Students will also map out a full scale live topography map of a dry streambed to help them estimate flow discharge. Students will use their journals to record their hypothesis, lab report questions, graphed data and evidence to backs up their observations.

Todd Koenig Zimmerman High School ISD 728 Zimmerman, MN I will be using a modified concept of the contour mapping exercise we did at St. Thomas and the Hydrology flow lab we preformed at Coon Creek.

141

Video Coding for Streaming Media Delivery on the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invited Paper Abstract—We provide an overview of an architecture of today's Internet streaming media delivery networks and describe various problems that such systems pose with regard to video coding. We demonstrate that based on the distribution model (live or on-demand), the type of the network delivery mechanism (unicast versus multicast), and optimization criteria associated with partic- ular segments of the

Gregory J. Conklin; Gary S. Greenbaum; Karl Olav Lillevold; Alan F. Lippman; Yuriy A. Reznik

2001-01-01

142

Open Source Initiative Powers Real-Time Data Streams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under an SBIR contract with Dryden Flight Research Center, Creare Inc. developed a data collection tool called the Ring Buffered Network Bus. The technology has now been released under an open source license and is hosted by the Open Source DataTurbine Initiative. DataTurbine allows anyone to stream live data from sensors, labs, cameras, ocean buoys, cell phones, and more.

2014-01-01

143

Stream Management: A Rebirth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a stream management course designed to give non-science majors an in-depth study of water quality. The course includes work in determining and measuring water quality parameters and the discussion of management techniques. Construction of a Hewitt Ramp and wing deflectors are illustrated in the article. (MA)

Coler, Robert A.; Zatryka, Simon A.

1974-01-01

144

Calculating Stream Discharge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Streamflow, or discharge, is defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the volume of water flowing past a fixed point in a fixed unit of time. The discharge of a stream can be affected by many things, including topography and channel morphology. How

Van Faasen, Carl; Peaslee, Graham; Soukhome, Jennifer; Statema, William

2009-04-01

145

STREAMS_P  

EPA Science Inventory

Streams (polygon features) coverage showing some double line rivers and islands on the Colorado River Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...

146

Gulf Stream Rings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the most interesting features of the Gulf Stream is the horizontal wave motions, or meanders, of its path; frequently these become sufficiently large to pinch off from the main current and form large eddies. The formation process is analogous to th...

P. Richardson

1976-01-01

147

Video Streaming over Bluetooth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, multimedia content has become more accessible to mobile phone devices increasing the demand for multimedia services. Streaming video to or from mobile phones over mobile phone operator networks is one option. In this paper we report on the result of a study which analyzes the suitability of using the Bluetooth network as a last hop network for

Davide Catania; Saviour Zammit

148

STREAM WATER QUALITY MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

QUAL2K (or Q2K) is a river and stream water quality model that is intended to represent a modernized version of the QUAL2E (or Q2E) model (Brown and Barnwell 1987). Q2K is similar to Q2E in the following respects: One dimensional. The channel is well-mixed vertically a...

149

Two Phase Streaming Potentials  

SciTech Connect

The streaming potentials generated by the flow of both liquid and gas through either a Pyrex capillary tube or else an unconsolidated Pyrex porous medium were investigated. This mixture of distilled water plus nitrogen gas simulated wet stream but allowed experiments to be run at room temperature. Single-phase flow of distilled water alone resulted in a constant voltage-to-pressure drop ratio, E/?p, of +0.15 v/psi for the capillary tube and -0.52 v/psi for the porous medium. For both single- and two-phase flow through the capillary tube, the upstream potential was always positive relative to the downstream electrode while the opposite was true for the porous medium. The maximum two-phase potentials generated in the porous medium were about four times as great as those generated in the capillary tube for similar gas fractions, ?. For the capillary tube experiments the potentials generated when ? < ? 0.5 were equal to or slightly less than those for single-phase flow, while for the porous medium the potentials were always greater than those for single-phase flow. When ? > ? 0.5 for both kinds of flow systems ? had a profound effect on streaming potential and reached a pronounced maximum when 0.94 < ? < 0.99. The implications of these streaming potentials for geothermal exploration and delineation of geothermal reservoirs is also discussed in the paper. 7 figs., 10 refs.

Marsden, S.S.; Wheatall, M.W.

1987-01-20

150

WESTERN MARYLAND STREAM SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY WAS TO ASSESS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STREAM SENSITIVITY TO ACIDIFICATION, FISH DISTRIBUTION, AND ABUNDANCE. WATER QUALITY AND FISH SAMPLING WERE CONDUCTED AT 72 STATIONS WITHING THE APPALACHIAN PLATEAU OF WESTERN MARYLAND IN 1989. THE FISHERIES DATA...

151

Practical Meteor Stream Forecasting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inspired by the recent Leonid meteor storms, researchers have made great strides in our ability to predict enhanced meteor activity. However, the necessary calibration of the meteor stream models with Earth-based ZHRs (Zenith Hourly Rates) has placed emphasis on the terran observer and meteor activity predictions are published in such a manner to reflect this emphasis. As a consequence, many predictions are often unusable by the satellite community, which has the most at stake and the greatest interest in meteor forecasting. This paper suggests that stream modelers need to pay more attention to the needs of this community and publish not just durations and times of maxima for Earth, but everything needed to characterize the meteor stream in and out of the plane of the ecliptic, which, at a minimum, consists of the location of maximum stream density (ZHR) and the functional form of the density decay with distance from this point. It is also suggested that some of the terminology associated with meteor showers may need to be more strictly defined in order to eliminate the perception of crying wolf by meteor scientists. An outburst is especially problematic, as it usually denotes an enhancement by a factor of 2 or more to researchers, but conveys the notion of a sky filled with meteors to satellite operators and the public. Experience has also taught that predicted ZHRs often lead to public disappointment, as these values vastly overestimate what is seen.

Cooke, William J.; Suggs, Robert M.

2003-01-01

152

Biomonitoring our streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biomonitoring is often used to enhance or replace chemical monitoring when evaluating water quality in our streams. This report is intended to introduce the theories behind biomonitoring and some of the techniques used in a biomonitoring study. It also lists some of the advantages and limitations of biomonitoring.

Byl, Thomas; Duane, Smith, George F.

1994-01-01

153

Auditory streaming is cumulative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments with 27 student observers indicated that the auditory system appears to begin listening to an input with a bias toward hearing the input as a single stream, but it gradually accumulates evidence over a period of seconds which may lead to the input's being split into substreams. Several seconds of silence or of unpatterned noise slowly remove the

Albert S. Bregman

1978-01-01

154

Stream Profile Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use elevation and distance data to construct graphic profiles and determine the average gradients for three streams. A series of discussion questions addresses concepts of deposition, erosion, and nickpoints, and gives students practice compiling evidence to provide scientific explanations. Graphs can be constructed by hand on paper or generated using graphing software.

Miller, Zach

155

Generic architecture for live video transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibilities for video transmission via the Internet have improved a great deal over the last 2 years. The state of the art in this field is Streaming Video which allows video data to be transmitted via the network in real time and simultaneously displayed. Streaming Video technology is being developed continuously. Our examinations of this technology have shown that special protocols are preferable for real time applications. Technologies such as Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) in particular can make a significant contribution to the Quality of Service provided during video transmission by enabling bandwidth reservation. This paper analyzes specific requirements for video-on-demand and those for live transmission. Based on the resulting ideal properties, we propose a generic architecture for a live video server which can be flexibly adapted to various transfer protocols.

Manhart, Sonia; Kampa, Andreas

1998-09-01

156

A Simulated Stream Ecology Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simulated field experience to study stream ecology in the classroom. Secondary students determine the composition of the stream community, describe the distribution of the benthic invertebrates, and design a food web. (Author/MA)

Zampella, Robert A.

1979-01-01

157

Total Solar Eclipse: Live from Turkey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On March 29, 2006, a team from the Exploratorium filmed and broadcast live the total eclipse of the Sun as seen from Side, Turkey. The web site created around this event includes streaming video of the eclipse, a slide show from first contact through totality and fourth contact, and an image gallery with photos of the eclipse and the chosen site in Turkey, a Roman-era amphitheater. There is also information about how the location was chosen, a map showing the path of totality, how the eclipse was filmed and broadcast live by satellite, and the mechanics of a solar eclipse.

2006-02-23

158

The comet — Meteor stream complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic relationship between short-period comets and meteor streams is investigated. It is shown that mechanisms exist for the radial and the longitudinal focussing of particles in meteor streams with characteristic time scales of agglomeration significantly smaller than those of any of the known dispersive processes. Consequently, it is claimed that meteor streams may not merely form a sink for

D. A. Mendis

1973-01-01

159

Neutron Streaming Through Hydrogenous Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study of neutron streaming through paraffin is reported herein. This work is essential to the beginning of experiments in which neutrons streaming through air ducts in concrete will be studied. In the study of neutron streaming through paraffin the en...

L. B. Gardner A. J. Mettler D. L. Peterson

1965-01-01

160

National Science Digital Library: iTunes U  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is very well-regarded among educators and other professionals, and not surprisingly, has a great presence on iTunesU. On the site, visitors can download a wide range of audio, video, and other multimedia resources on a range of subjects like electrical engineering, biology, and anatomy. The What's New area is a good place to start, as it includes short films for young people, including "A Dolphin's Return" and "Against the Current." The thematic areas on the site include Physical Science and Technology, Life Science, and Earth and Environmental Science. Also, visitors can look over the Top Downloads area or browse by contributing partner organization. [KMG

161

The Gulf Stream Voyage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online multidisciplinary project is part of the Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE) program, which has developed internet activities for the elementary, middle, and high school level student. It utilizes both real time data and primary source materials to help guide students to discover the science and history of the Gulf Stream. Students investigate the driving forces behind this great ocean current, how it affects the Atlantic Ocean, and some of mankinds experiences in dealing with it. This project can be used as a complete tutorial on the Gulf Stream, however, the activities are presented in a manner that allows each to be used individually to supplement traditional classroom lessons. The project provides instructions, activities, worksheets, data links, reference materials, on-line help, back-up information, and a teacher area for help and ideas.

2007-12-12

162

The Imagine Stream Processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Imagine Stream Processor is a single-chip pro- grammable media processor with 48 parallel ALUs. At 400 MHz, this translates to a peak arithmetic rate of 16 GFLOPS on single-precision data and 32 GOPS on 16- bit fixed-point data. The scalability of Imagine's program- ming model and architecture enable it to achieve such high arithmetic rates. Imagine executes applications that

Ujval J. Kapasi; William J. Dally; Brucek Khailany; John D. Owens; Scott Rixner

2002-01-01

163

Gulf Stream Voyage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use real-time data to investigate the driving forces behind the Gulf Stream, learn how it affects the Atlantic Ocean, and explore how it affects mankind on a daily basis. This website provides classroom activities in science, math, history and language arts. Use the material as a complete tutorial, or use pieces individually to supplement traditional classroom lessons. Many external links that provide a wealth of information and data.

164

Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

2013-01-01

165

ConcepTest: Perennial Stream Confluence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The diagram depicts the confluence of two perennial streams (A and B) forming C. Which of the following statements regarding stream C must be true? a. Stream flow velocity is greater than in A or B. b. Stream ...

166

MultiDimensional Analysis of Data Streams Using Stream Cubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large volumes of dynamic stream data pose great challenges to its analysis. Besides its dynamic and transient behavior, stream\\u000a data has another important characteristic:multi-dimensionality. Much of stream data resides at a multidimensional space and at rather low level of abstraction, whereas\\u000a most analysts are interested in relatively high-level dynamic changes in some combination of dimensions. To discover high-level dynamic and

Jiawei Han; Y. Cai; Yixin Chen; Guozhu Dong; Jian Pei; Benjamin Wah; Jianyong Wang

167

Squeeze the Stream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity related to flight, learners build a tiny stream channel to investigate how fluids (air and water) change speed as they flow between and around objects. It includes an explanation "What's Going on? The Simple Explanation..." for an introductory explanation. See related resource "What's Going on? The Advanced Explanation..." for an explanation of what is happening to the water and pressure during this experiment as well as how it relates to airplanes and flight. This resource is related to other resources in the SMILE Pathway: Look Mom, No Wings! and Bernoulli Brain Teasers.

History, National M.; Museum, Smithsonian I.

2010-01-01

168

8.F Video Streaming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: You work for a video streaming company that has two monthly plans to choose from: Plan 1: A flat rate of \\$7 per month plus \\$2.50 per video viewed Pla...

169

MSRI: Streaming Video Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI) maintains an impressive archive of streaming video lectures and presentations. This site contains archives of the videos from various workshops and special topics held before 2004. From the Fall of 2002, of particular interest is the "Introductory Workshop in Quantum Computation." It consists of fifteen lectures, each with complete textual slides provided in addition to the roughly hour-long presentations. Quantum computation is a science that is still in its infancy, and the theories discussed by the lecturers are significant. There are also videos about commutative algebra, random matrix theory, and semidefinite programming.

2002-01-01

170

StreamingMediaLand.com: Resources for Streaming Media Professionals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Streaming media is one of the dominant technologies on the Internet for viewing digital audio and video. Debuting about a year and a half ago, Streaming Media Land has many features covering this important topic. People working in information technology will benefit from industry coverage, white papers, and technology and protocol descriptions. Links to streaming media news and organizations are also given. Users of streaming media and related technologies will find information about bandwidths for a variety of connection and transmission types, as well as market data and projections.

2000-01-01

171

Riparian deforestation, stream narrowing, and loss of stream ecosystem services  

PubMed Central

A study of 16 streams in eastern North America shows that riparian deforestation causes channel narrowing, which reduces the total amount of stream habitat and ecosystem per unit channel length and compromises in-stream processing of pollutants. Wide forest reaches had more macroinvertebrates, total ecosystem processing of organic matter, and nitrogen uptake per unit channel length than contiguous narrow deforested reaches. Stream narrowing nullified any potential advantages of deforestation regarding abundance of fish, quality of dissolved organic matter, and pesticide degradation. These findings show that forested stream channels have a wider and more natural configuration, which significantly affects the total in-stream amount and activity of the ecosystem, including the processing of pollutants. The results reinforce both current policy of the United States that endorses riparian forest buffers as best management practice and federal and state programs that subsidize riparian reforestation for stream restoration and water quality. Not only do forest buffers prevent nonpoint source pollutants from entering small streams, they also enhance the in-stream processing of both nonpoint and point source pollutants, thereby reducing their impact on downstream rivers and estuaries.

Sweeney, Bernard W.; Bott, Thomas L.; Jackson, John K.; Kaplan, Louis A.; Newbold, J. Denis; Standley, Laurel J.; Hession, W. Cully; Horwitz, Richard J.

2004-01-01

172

The southeast stream quality assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) is assessing stream quality across the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountains in the southeastern United States. The goal of the Southeast Stream Quality Assessment (SESQA) is to characterize multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life—contaminants, nutrients, sediment, and streamflow alteration—and the relation of these stressors to ecological conditions in streams throughout the region. Findings will provide communities and policymakers with information on which human and environmental factors are the most critical in controlling stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect or improve stream quality. The SESQA study will be the second regional study by the NAWQA program, and it will be of similar design and scope as the Midwest Stream Quality Assessment conducted in 2013 (Van Metre and others, 2012).

VanMetre, Peter C.; Journey, Celeste A.

2014-01-01

173

Tidal Streams Near and Far  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pandas survey of stars in M31's disk and halo is crisscrossed by numerous tidal features from both M31 and the Milky Way. Here I focus on two narrow stellar streams visible in the survey. They have comparable angular extent in the survey (10-13 degrees long versus only 0.3 degree wide), but one is a local Milky Way stream at about 30 kpc and one is in M31, roughly 25 times more distant. I estimate the stellar mass and metallicity in the streams and the distance gradient along them. The kinematics of the M31 stream is sparsely sampled by red giant stars and globular clusters. Bayesian modeling of the stream data yields accurate constraints on the orbital parameters of the streams.

Fardal, Mark A.

2014-06-01

174

Mixing of Supersonic Streams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during low speed flight. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane during simulate low speed flight conditions. Cold flow testing of a 1/6 scale Strutjet model is underway and nearing completion. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic methods are being employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air simulating low speed, air augmented operation of the RBCC. These diagnostics are supplemented by pressure profile measurements across the various jet streams present in the flow duct downstream of the model exit plane. The results of these experiments will be presented.

Hawk, Clark W.; Landrum, D. Brian; Moser, Marlow D.; Muller, Sam; Lambert, James

1998-01-01

175

Streaming potential revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Streaming-potential phenomena refer to the generation of bulk electric fields by imposed relative motion between a charged solid and the Debye layer adjacent to it. Realistic scenarios are adequately described by the thin-Debye-layer limit ?->0 (? denoting the dimensionless Debye thickness), which has been addressed by Cox (1997). Cox's analysis has established that the perturbation to the flow, neglected in the earlier investigations, gives rise to an O(4?) force that dominates that contributed by Maxwell stresses. Cox's theory is founded upon the assumption of O(1) Hartmann and P'eclet numbers. We demonstrate that the product of these numbers is actually O(&-2circ;) and accordingly revisit the generic problem of streaming-potential. Electric-current matching between the Debye layer and the bulk provides an inhomogeneous Neumann condition governing the electric field in the latter. This field, in turn, results in a velocity perturbation animated by a Smoluchowski-type slip condition. Owing to dominant convection, the present analysis yields an asymptotic structure considerably simpler than that of Cox (1997): the electro-viscous effect now already appears at O(2?) and is contributed by both Maxwell and viscous stresses. The present paradigm is illustrated for the prototypic problem of a sphere sedimenting in an unbounded fluid, with the resulting drag correction differing from that calculated by Cox (1997).

Yariv, Ehud; Schnitzer, Ory; Frankel, Itzchak

2011-11-01

176

Producing a Live HDTV Program from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By the year 2000, NASA had flown HDTV camcorders on three Space Shuttle missions: STS-95, STS-93 and STS-99. All three flights of these camcorders were accomplished with cooperation from the Japanese space agency (then known as NASDA and now known as JAXA). The cameras were large broadcast-standard cameras provided by NASDA and flight certified by both NASA and NASDA. The high-definition video shot during these missions was spectacular. Waiting for the return of the tapes to Earth emphasized the next logical step: finding a way to downlink the HDTV live from space. Both the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) programs were interested in live HDTV from space, but neither had the resources to fully fund the technology. Technically, downlinking from the ISS was the most effective approach. Only when the Japanese broadcaster NHK and the Japanese space agency expressed interest in covering a Japanese astronaut's journey to the ISS did the project become possible. Together, JAXA and NHK offered equipment, technology, and funding toward the project. In return, NHK asked for a live HDTV downlink during one of its broadcast programs. NASA and the ISS Program sought a US partner to broadcast a live HDTV program and approached the Discovery Channel. The Discovery Channel had proposed a live HDTV project in response to NASA's previous call for offers. The Discovery Channel agreed to provide addItional resources. With the final partner in place, the project was under way. Engineers in the Avionics Systems Division at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) had already studied the various options for downlinking HDTV from the ISS. They concluded that the easiest way was to compress the HDTV so that the resulting data stream would "look" like a payload data stream. The flight system would consist of a professional HDTV camcorder with live HD-SDI output, an HDTV MPEG-2 encoder, and a packetizer/protocol converter.

Grubbs, Rodney; Fontanot, Carlos; Hames, Kevin

2007-01-01

177

Stream Discharge Measurements From Cableways  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cableways have been used for decades as a platform for making stream discharge measurements. Use of cableways eliminates the need to expose personnel to hazards associated with working from highway bridges. In addition, cableways allow sites to be selected that offer the best possible hydraulic characteristics for measuring stream discharge. This training presentation describes methods currently used by the U.S. Geological Survey to make stream discharge measurements from cableways.

Nolan, K. Michael; Sultz, Lucky

2000-01-01

178

Towards a streaming SQL standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a unification of two different SQL extensions for streams and its associated semantics. We use the data models from Oracle and StreamBase as our examples. Oracle uses a time-based execution model while StreamBase uses a tuple-based execution model. Time-based execution provides a way to model simultaneity while tuple-based execution provides a way to react to primitive events

Namit Jain; Shailendra Mishra; Anand Srinivasan; Johannes Gehrke; Jennifer Widom; Hari Balakrishnan; Ugur Çetintemel; Mitch Cherniack; Richard Tibbetts

2008-01-01

179

Stream-oriented turbo codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work considers the design and performance of a stream-oriented approach to turbo codes which avoids the need for data framing. The stream paradigm applies to both serial and parallel turbo codes using continuous, free-running constituent encoders along with continuous, periodic interleavers. A stream-oriented turbo code based on parallel concatenated convolutional codes (PCCC) is considered and interleaver design criteria are

Eric K. Hall; Stephen G. Wilson

2001-01-01

180

Test Your Stream Erosion IQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test Your Stream Erosion IQ is an online activity for students to examine topographical maps of stream erosion, and identify the type of landforms that would be created by the stream channels shown on the maps. From the elevation contour lines, students decide if the dome, mountain peak, U-shaped canyon, irregular, or V-shaped canyon landforms are represented. There are also photographs to illustrate the landforms.

181

StreamFlex: High-throughput Stream Programming in Java  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stream programming paradigm aims to expose coarse- grained parallelism in applications that must process contin- uous sequences of events. The appeal of stream program- ming comes from its conceptual simplicity. A program is a collection of independent filters which communicate by the means of uni-directional data channels. This model lends it- self naturally to concurrent and efficient implementations on

Jesper H. Spring; Federale de Lausanne; Jan Vitek

182

1994 MARYLAND BIOLOGICAL STREAM SURVEY STREAM HABITAT ASSESSMENT (HABIT94)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS) is a multi-year probability-based sampling program designed to assess the status of biological resources in non-tidal streams of Maryland. The MBSS study area comprises eighteen drainage basins across the state of Maryland, providing ...

183

1995 MARYLAND BIOLOGICAL STREAM SURVEY STREAM HABITAT ASSESSMENT (HABIT95)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS) is a multi-year probability-based sampling program designed to assess the status of biological resources in non-tidal streams of Maryland. The MBSS study area comprises eighteen drainage basins across the state of Maryland, providing ...

184

Analyzing indicators of stream health for Minnesota streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent research has emphasized the importance of using physical, chemical, and biological indicators of stream health for diagnosing impaired watersheds and their receiving water bodies. A multidisciplinary team at the University of Minnesota is carrying out research to develop a stream classification system for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) assessment. Funding for this research is provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. One objective of the research study involves investigating the relationships between indicators of stream health and localized stream characteristics. Measured data from Minnesota streams collected by various government and non-government agencies and research institutions have been obtained for the research study. Innovative Geographic Information Systems tools developed by the Environmental Science Research Institute and the University of Texas are being utilized to combine and organize the data. Simple linear relationships between index of biological integrity (IBI) and channel slope, two-year stream flow, and drainage area are presented for the Redwood River and the Snake River Basins. Results suggest that more rigorous techniques are needed to successfully capture trends in IBI scores. Additional analyses will be done using multiple regression, principal component analysis, and clustering techniques. Uncovering key independent variables and understanding how they fit together to influence stream health are critical in the development of a stream classification for TMDL assessment.

Singh, U.; Kocian, M.; Wilson, B.; Bolton, A.; Nieber, J.; Vondracek, B.; Perry, J.; Magner, J.

2005-01-01

185

ASSESSING STREAM BED STABILITY AND EXCESS SEDIMENTATION IN MOUNTAIN STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Land use and resource exploitation in headwaters catchments?such as logging, mining, and road building?often increase sediment supply to streams, potentially causing excess sedimentation. Decreases in mean substrate size and increases in fine stream bed sediments can lead to inc...

186

Living with Alopecia Areata  

MedlinePLUS

... Areata > Living With Alopecia Areata | Intro Living with Alopecia Areata Alopecia Areata in Men Alopecia areata is a common ... of all patients with alopecia areata, including men. Alopecia Areata in Women Alopecia areata is a common ...

187

Sea Surface Temperature Trends of the Gulf Stream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the most studied and important ocean currents of the world lies along the eastern coast of the United States and is called the Gulf Stream. It derives its name from its source region of warm water in the Gulf of Mexico. For the past two decades, scientists have been collecting sea surface temperature (SST) data from satellites, buoys and ships in the Gulf Stream and Atlantic Basin. In this three-part lesson, students will explore the Live Access Server (LAS) and produce plots of sea surface temperature. They then prepare a time series of data for particular location(s) on the Gulf Stream and use Excel to produce and analyze graphs of sea surface temperature. The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links, sample graphs, follow-up questions, extensions, and teacher notes.

2006-10-31

188

Recognizing Safety and Liveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper substantiates that experience by formalizing safety and liveness in a way that permits the relationship between safety and invariance and between liveness and wellfoundedness to be demonstrated for a large class of properties. In so doing, we give new characterizations of safety and liveness and prove that they satisfy the formal definitions in [Alpera & Schneider 85a

Bowen Alpern

1986-01-01

189

Pacific Northwest Stream Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oregon State University Libraries has created this wonderful collection of 1,000 different images taken between 1934 and 1945 that document 390 streams in the Columbia River Basin. The photographs were taken by U.S. Bureau of Fisheries researchers who were interested in the spawning and rearing habitats for spring Chinook salmon. Visitors can use the clickable map on the homepage to move around through the images, which cover areas like the Puget Sound, the Clearwater region of Idaho, and the Willamette River Valley in Oregon. Each of these separate maps has a finer level of detail, and visitors can even click on various tributaries to look for detailed images. Visitors can use the keyword search, or the geographic search, which allows them to scroll around via major river basins. The site also contains technical reports on the salmon's spawning patterns created as part of this long-term project.

2005-01-01

190

Perturbing Streaming in Dictyostelium Discoideum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upon starvation the social amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum aggregate to form multicellular organisms. During the transition from single cells to full aggregates, cells relay the chemotactic signal, align in a head-to-tail fashion, and follow each other in streams. To gain more insight into streaming behavior we investigated its robustness by perturbing the strength of the relayed chemoattractant. We measured the effects

Colin McCann; Paul Kriebel; Carole Parent; Erin Rericha; Wolfgang Losert

2007-01-01

191

Issues in data stream management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional databases store sets of relatively static records with no pre-defined notion of time, unless timestamp attributes are explicitly added. While this model adequately represents commercial catalogues or repositories of personal information, many current and emerging applications require support for on-line analysis of rapidly changing data streams. Limitations of traditional DBMSs in supporting streaming applications have been recognized, prompting research

Lukasz Golab; M. Tamer Özsu

2003-01-01

192

Imagine: Media Processing with Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power-efficient Imagine stream processor achieves performance densities comparable to those of special-purpose embedded processors. Executing programs mapped to streams and kernels, a single Imagine processor is expected to have a peak performance of 20 gflops and sustain 18.3 gops on mpeg-2 encoding

Brucek Khailany; William J. Dally; Ujval J. Kapasi; Peter R. Mattson; Jinyung Namkoong; John D. Owens; Brian Towles; Andrew Chang; Scott Rixner

2001-01-01

193

Temperature of the Gulf Stream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site Presents a MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) image of the Gulf Stream. The image is color-coded to show the variation in temperature of the ocean water. A brief description of the Gulf Stream, its direction and speed, and a link to other related imagery are included.

194

Industrial-Strength Streaming Video.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Corporate training, financial services, entertainment, and education are among the top applications for streaming video servers, which send video to the desktop without downloading the whole file to the hard disk, saving time and eliminating copyrights questions. Examines streaming video technology, lists ten tips for better net video, and ranks…

Avgerakis, George; Waring, Becky

1997-01-01

195

Feeding ecology of stream invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of various aspects of invertebrate-microbial interactions is presented. Food resources of stream invertebrates are distinguished by particle size (detritus), the presence of chlorophyll (periphyton), and high protein content (macrophytes). Invertebrate functional feeding groups such as shredders, collectors, scrapers, piercers, and predators are discussed. The interactions between temperature and quantity and quality of stream macroinvertebrate food resouces are described.

K. W. Cummins; M. J. Klug

1979-01-01

196

Stream Features of North Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stream and drainage landforms of North Dakota are revealed through photographs illustrating a continental drainage divide, meander features, a meander scar, natural levees, necks, an oxbow lake, and suspended sediment load. Each image is accompanied by a brief description of the location, how each landform originated, and how it is likely to evolve as stream processes continue.

197

STREAMING IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Professor Lynn suggests that two investigations carried out by Dr. Barker Lunn have yielded inconsistent results: the first (cross?sectional) study showed that the attainment of children in streamed schools was superior and the second (longitudinal) study showed that streamed children did better on one set of tests and unstreamed children did better on a parallel set of tests. He suggests

R. Lynn; Susan L. Hampson; Joan C. Barker Lunn; Jill M. Tarryer

1971-01-01

198

CASTLE: Continuously Anonymizing Data Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the existing privacy-preserving techniques, such as k-anonymity methods, are designed for static data sets. As such, they cannot be applied to streaming data which are continuous, transient, and usually unbounded. Moreover, in streaming applications, there is a need to offer strong guarantees on the maximum allowed delay between incoming data and the corresponding anonymized output. To cope with

Jianneng Cao; Barbara Carminati; Elena Ferrari; Kian-Lee Tan

2011-01-01

199

Stream processing health card application.  

PubMed

In this paper, we propose a data stream management system embedded to a smart card for handling and storing user specific summaries of streaming data coming from medical sensor measurements and/or other medical measurements. The data stream management system that we propose for a health card can handle the stream data rates of commonly known medical devices and sensors. It incorporates a type of context awareness feature that acts according to user specific information. The proposed system is cheap and provides security for private data by enhancing the capabilities of smart health cards. The stream data management system is tested on a real smart card using both synthetic and real data. PMID:22127523

Polat, Seda; Gündem, Taflan Imre

2012-10-01

200

Role of monitoring in stream restoration  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydrology and dissolved organic carbon availability dictate nitrate dynamics in urban streams. So to improve N uptake, restore streams to: ? Slow down stream flow ? Add organic carbon ? Reconnect floodplain hydrology and riparian zones ...

201

Water discharged from the Gulf Stream north of Cape Hatteras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite radiometer-derived sea surface temperature images together with moored instrument and hydrographic survey data indicate that water ejected from the Gulf Stream often occupies the upper 200 m of the water column over the continental slope between Cape Hatteras and Hudson Canyon. At times this water resembles the energetic Gulf Stream frontal eddies commonly seen to the south of Cape Hatteras. However, many of the observed parcels of this water differ markedly from frontal eddies and Gulf Stream warm-core rings and so appear to form a class of discharged Gulf Stream water distinct from any previously reported. These parcels generally cover a broad area (compared with frontal eddies), contain relatively weak currents (generally < 40 cm s-1 at 100 m), and are remarkably long-lived (sometimes distinguishable for more than 2 months). Salinity anomaly distributions indicate that despite their persistence, these water masses contain intrusions of and mix with surrounding lower-salinity water, particularly in the upper 50 m. Continuity of various tracers along ?? surfaces reveals that the discharged Gulf Stream water observed near the sea surface originated within the nutrient-bearing stratum of the Gulf Stream, having upwelled hundreds of meters along density surfaces. As a result, it tends to enhance nutrient concentrations over the continental slope, to a significant extent at 100 m depth but only marginally at 50 m depth. By contrast, this water does not carry unusually large kinetic energy densities into the slope region, but apparently gives up a good deal of kinetic energy, on the order of 104 cm2 s-2 per unit mass, while leaving the Gulf Stream.

Churchill, James H.; Cornillon, Peter C.

1991-12-01

202

Tree-mesh structure for real-time streaming media to playback  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the function of playback for real-time streaming media turns into a hot issue. How to devise the structure and stored approach of video blocks in nodes is the main problem for playback. In this paper we designed a real-time streaming model-TM for live and playback. This model is designed as a combination of the tree and mesh

Tingtang Ming; Ruipeng Ding; Li jun

2010-01-01

203

SENSORS DATA-STREAM PROCESSING MIDDLEWARE BASED ON MULTI-AGENT MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study is to propose an architecture for an intelligent sensor data processing middleware. In order to fulfill the ambient assisted living data processing requirements we design a flexible and scalable architecture based on multi-agent model. This architecture allows acquisition, interpretation and aggregation of sensor data-streams. Our system is able to process different sensor data-streams, to adapt

OVIDIU ARITONI; VIOREL NEGRU

204

Mixing of Supersonic Streams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane. Initial cold flow testing of the model is underway to determine both, the behavior of the ingested air in the duct and to validate the mixing diagnostics. During the tests, each of the two rocket nozzles ejected up to two pounds mass per second into the 13.6 square inch duct. The tests showed that the mass flow of the rockets was great enough to cause the entrained air to go sonic at the strut, which is the location of the rocket nozzles. More tests are necessary to determine whether the entrained air chokes due to the reduction in the area of the duct at the strut (a physical choke), or because of the addition of mass inside the duct at the nozzle exit (a Fabri choke). The initial tests of the mixing diagnostics are showing promise.

Hawk, Clark W.; Landrum, D. Brian; Turner, Matthew; Wagner, David K.; Lambert, James

1998-01-01

205

Optimal placement of off-stream water sources for ephemeral stream recovery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Uneven and/or inefficient livestock distribution is often a product of an inadequate number and distribution of watering points. Placement of off-stream water practices (OSWP) in pastures is a key consideration in rangeland management plans and is critical to achieving riparian recovery by improving grazing evenness, while improving livestock performance. Effective OSWP placement also minimizes the impacts of livestock use radiating from OSWP, known as the “piosphere.” The objective of this study was to provide land managers with recommendations for the optimum placement of OSWP. Specifically, we aimed to provide minimum offset distances of OSWP to streams and assess the effective range of OSWP using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values, an indicator of live standing crop. NDVI values were determined from a time-series of Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) 20-m images of western South Dakota mixed-grass prairie. The NDVI values in ephemeral stream channels (in-channel) and uplands were extracted from pre- and post-OSWP images taken in 1989 and 2010, respectively. NDVI values were normalized to a reference imagine and subsequently by ecological site to produce nNDVI. Our results demonstrate a significant (P?2?=?0.49, P?=?0.05) and increased with average distance to OSWP in a pasture (R2?=?0.43, P?=?0.07). Piospheric reduction in nNDVI was observed within 200 m of OSWP, occasionally overlapping in-channel areas. The findings of this study suggest placement of OSWP 200 to 1?250 m from streams to achieve optimal results. These results can be used to increase grazing efficiency by effectively placing OSWP and insure that piospheres do not overlap ecologically important in-channel areas.

Rigge, Matthew B.; Smart, Alexander; Wylie, Bruce

2013-01-01

206

Fish species richness and stream order in Washington State streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  We sampled fish at pairs of sites of the same stream order on opposite sides of drainage divides in the Cascade Mountains\\u000a and in the southwest portion of Washington state. Elevation, gradient, drainage area, and stream order were significantly\\u000a correlated with number of fish species collected at a site. Elevation accounted for the greatest portion of the variation\\u000a in number

Hal A. Beecher; Eric R. Dott; Robert F. Fernau

1988-01-01

207

Living Wage Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In many parts of the United States, families working in low-wage jobs make insufficient income to live locally given the high cost of living. Some of this can be due to rising real estate costs and the like and a number of organizations have worked to craft living wage legislation in a number of cities. This Living Wage calculator helps visitors estimate the cost of living in their community or region. Visitors can get started by selecting a location from the list presented here. Additionally, they can also use the search engine to look for specific places. For each place, visitors can learn about the living wage, typical expenses, and so on. It's an interesting policy tool and it can be used to teach students about economics, the job market, and much more.

Glasmeier, Amy

208

Cytoplasmic streaming affects gravity-induced amyloplast sedimentation in maize coleoptiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Living maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptile cells were observed using a horizontal microscope to determine the interaction between cytoplasmic streaming and gravity-induced amyloplast sedimentation. Sedimentation is heavily influenced by streaming which may (1) hasten or slow the velocity of amyloplast movement and (2) displace the plastid laterally or even upwards before or after sedimentation. Amyloplasts may move through transvacuolar strands or through the peripheral cytoplasm which may be divided into fine cytoplasmic strands of much smaller diameter than the plastids. The results indicate that streaming may contribute to the dynamics of graviperception by influencing amyloplast movement.

Sack, F. D.; Leopold, A. C.

1985-01-01

209

Living Things and Where They Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on living things and their habitats includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Science, Houghton M.

210

Mixing of Supersonic Streams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during low speed flight. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane during simulated low speed flight conditions. Cold flow testing of a 1/6 scale Strutjet model is underway and nearing completion. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic methods are being employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air simulating low speed, air augmented operation of the RBCC. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust duct to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point of their intersection is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter. Qualitative results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the model to a distance of about 19 equivalent rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream. These data show the mixing to be confined in the vertical plane for all cases, The lateral expansion is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and suggests that mixing with the ingested flow would be likely beginning at a distance of 7 nozzle exit diameters downstream of the nozzle exit plane.

Hawk, C. W.; Landrum, D. B.; Muller, S.; Turner, M.; Parkinson, D.

1998-01-01

211

Mixing of Supersonic Streams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during low speed flight. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane during simulated low speed flight conditions. Cold flow testing of a 1/6 scale Strutjet model is underway and nearing completion. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic methods are being employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air simulating low speed, air augmented operation of the RBCC. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust duct to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point of their intersection is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter. Qualitative results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the model to a distance of about 10 rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream. These data show the mixing to be confined in the vertical plane for all cases, The lateral expansion is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and suggests that mixing with the ingested flow would be likely beginning at a distance of 7 nozzle exit diameters downstream of the nozzle exit plane.

Hawk, C. W.; Landrum, D. B.; Muller, S.; Turner, M.; Parkinson, D.

1998-01-01

212

Video streaming into the mainstream.  

PubMed

Changes in Internet technology are making possible the delivery of a richer mixture of media through data streaming. High-quality, dynamic content, such as video and audio, can be incorporated into Websites simply, flexibly and interactively. Technologies such as G3 mobile communication, ADSL, cable and satellites enable new ways of delivering medical services, information and learning. Systems such as Quicktime, Windows Media and Real Video provide reliable data streams as video-on-demand and users can tailor the experience to their own interests. The Learning Development Centre at the University of Portsmouth have used streaming technologies together with e-learning tools such as dynamic HTML, Flash, 3D objects and online assessment successfully to deliver on-line course content in economics and earth science. The Lifesign project--to develop, catalogue and stream health sciences media for teaching--is described and future medical applications are discussed. PMID:11802705

Garrison, W

2001-12-01

213

MODELING PLUMES IN SMALL STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Pesticides accumulate on land surfaces from agricultural, commercial, and domestic application, and wash into streams and rivers during dry and wet weather. Flood water retention basins or structures often collect this contaminated runoff, providing intermediate storage and limit...

214

What Causes the Gulf Stream?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even with the waves lapping at their feet, few people consider ocean currents and their importance to global climate. Although the Gulf Stream cannot be seen flowing by off North America's East Coast, in Western Europe, the current's warming effect is undeniable. This video segment, adapted from a NOVA television broadcast, uses satellite imagery to illustrate the Gulf Stream's path and animations to explain how atmospheric phenomena cause it to move. The segment is one minute fifty-one seconds in length.

2010-08-26

215

TIDAL STREAMS OF INTRACLUSTER LIGHT  

SciTech Connect

Using N-body simulations, we have modeled the production and evolution of substructures in the intracluster light (ICL) of a simulated galaxy cluster. We use a density-based definition of ICL, where ICL consists of luminous particles which are at low densities, to identify ICL particles and track their evolution. We have implemented a friends-of-friends-type clustering algorithm which finds groups of particles correlated in both position and velocity space to identify substructures in the ICL, hereafter referred to as 'streams'. We find that {approx}40% of the cluster's ICL is generated in the form of these massive (M {>=} 7.0 x 10{sup 8} M{sub sun}), dynamically cold streams. The fraction of the ICL generated in streams is greater early in the cluster's evolution, when galaxies are interacting in the group environment, than later in its evolution when the massive cluster potential has been assembled. The production of streams requires the strong tidal fields associated with close interactions between pairs of galaxies, and is usually associated with merging pairs of galaxies, or fast, close encounters with the cluster's central galaxy. Once streams are formed, they begin to decay as they are disrupted by the tidal field of the cluster. We find that streams have decay timescales which are {approx}1.5 times their dynamical time in the cluster.

Rudick, Craig S.; Christopher Mihos, J.; Frey, Lucille H. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); McBride, Cameron K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)], E-mail: csr10@case.edu, E-mail: mihos@case.edu, E-mail: lfrey@lanl.gov, E-mail: cameron.mcbride@vanderbilt.edu

2009-07-10

216

Animal Ecosystem Engineers in Streams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from BioScience is about animal ecosystem engineers in streams. An impressive array of animals function as ecosystem engineers in streams through a variety of activities, ranging from nest digging by anadromous salmon to benthic foraging by South American fishes, from the burrowing of aquatic insects to the trampling of hippos. These ecosystem engineers have local impacts on benthic habitat and also strongly affect downstream fluxes of nutrients and other resources. The impacts of ecosystem engineers are most likely some function of their behavior, size, and population density, modulated by the abiotic conditions of the stream. In streams, subsidies often control the body size and density of ecosystem engineers, while hydrologic energy controls their distribution, density, and life-history attributes, the habitats they create, and the resources and organisms they affect. Because ecosystem engineers can profoundly affect stream ecosystems, and because they themselves can be significantly affected positively or negatively by human activities, understanding ecosystem engineering in streams is increasingly important for the management of these ecosystems.

JONATHAN W. MOORE (;)

2006-03-01

217

Short-lived uncertainty?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-lived greenhouse gases and black-carbon aerosols have contributed to past climate warming. Curbing their emissions and quantifying the forcing by all short-lived components could both mitigate climate change in the short term and help to refine projections of global warming.

Penner, Joyce E.; Prather, Michael J.; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Klimont, Zbigniew; Stevenson, David S.

2010-09-01

218

Living anionic polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

For about 40 years living anionic polymerization has been the premier technique for the synthesis of model polymers of controlled architecture and narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD). Nowadays, despite the continuing development of new strategies for the synthesis of well-defined polymers and copolymers (e.g. group transfer polymerization, living radical polymerization, etc.), anionic polymerization continues to be the most reliable and

Kunlun Hong; David Uhrig; Jimmy W Mays

1999-01-01

219

Families and Assisted Living  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Despite growing research on assisted living (AL) as a residential care option for older adults, the social ramifications of residents' transitions to AL are relatively unexplored. This article examines family involvement in AL, including family structures of residents, types of involvement from family members living outside the AL…

Gaugler, Joseph E.; Kane, Robert L.

2007-01-01

220

Living with Grandparents  

MedlinePLUS

Ask any kid: Grandparents rule. They're known worldwide as great companions and often shower their grandchildren with special treats and lots of love. Some kids live far away from their grandparents so they stay in touch by phone, through email, and with letters. Other kids live ...

221

Living Systems Energy Module.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its sol...

1995-01-01

222

Is It Living?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The word "living" is commonly used throughout elementary science lessons that focus on the biological world. It is a word teachers often take for granted when teaching life science concepts. How similar the constructed meaning of a common word like "living" is to the meaning intended by the teacher or instructional materials depends on how a…

Keeley, Page

2011-01-01

223

Jet stream related observations by MST radars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the jet stream and its observation by MST radar is presented. The climatology and synoptic and mesoscale structure of jet streams is briefly reviewed. MST radar observations of jet stream winds, and associated waves and turbulence are then considered. The possibility of using a network of ST radars to track jet stream winds in near real time is explored.

Gage, K. S.

1983-01-01

224

Online Reactive Anomaly Detection over Stream Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outlier detection over data streams has attracted attention for many emerging applications, such as network intrusion detection, web click stream and aircraft health anomaly detection. Since the data stream is likely to change over time, it is important to be able to modify the outlier detection model appropriately with the evolution of the stream. Most existing approaches were using incremental

Yan Fu; Jun-Lin Zhou; Yue Wu

2008-01-01

225

DIVA: exploratory data analysis with multimedia streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

DIVA supports exploratory data analysis of multimedia streams, enabling users to visualize, explore and evaluate patterns in data that change over time. The underlying stream algebra provides the mathematical basis for operating on diverse kinds of streams. The streamer visualization technique provides a smooth transition between spatial and temporal views of the data. Mapping source and presentation streams into a

Wendy E. Mackay; Michel Beaudouin-Lafon

1998-01-01

226

Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system  

DOEpatents

A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

DuBose, Ronald Arthur (Marietta, GA)

2002-01-01

227

Living things and non-living things interact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living things and non-living things interact on a daily basis. The man is a human, a living thing. The corn crop and grass are also living things. The soil that the grass and corn crops are rooted in is a non-living thing.

Ken Hammond (USDA-ARS;)

2006-05-23

228

A secure transmission scheme of streaming media based on the encrypted control message  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the use of streaming media applications increased dramatically in recent years, streaming media security becomes an important presumption, protecting the privacy. This paper proposes a new encryption scheme in view of characteristics of streaming media and the disadvantage of the living method: encrypt the control message in the streaming media with the high security lever and permute and confuse the data which is non control message according to the corresponding control message. Here the so-called control message refers to the key data of the streaming media, including the streaming media header and the header of the video frame, and the seed key. We encrypt the control message using the public key encryption algorithm which can provide high security lever, such as RSA. At the same time we make use of the seed key to generate key stream, from which the permutation list P responding to GOP (group of picture) is derived. The plain text of the non-control message XORs the key stream and gets the middle cipher text. And then obtained one is permutated according to P. In contrast the decryption process is the inverse process of the above. We have set up a testbed for the above scheme and found our scheme is six to eight times faster than the conventional method. It can be applied not only between PCs but also between handheld devices.

Li, Bing; Jin, Zhigang; Shu, Yantai; Yu, Li

2007-09-01

229

Streaming Compression of Hexahedral Meshes  

SciTech Connect

We describe a method for streaming compression of hexahedral meshes. Given an interleaved stream of vertices and hexahedral our coder incrementally compresses the mesh in the presented order. Our coder is extremely memory efficient when the input stream documents when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. when it contains topological finalization tags). Our coder then continuously releases and reuses data structures that no longer contribute to compressing the remainder of the stream. This means in practice that our coder has only a small fraction of the whole mesh in memory at any time. We can therefore compress very large meshes - even meshes that do not file in memory. Compared to traditional, non-streaming approaches that load the entire mesh and globally reorder it during compression, our algorithm trades a less compact compressed representation for significant gains in speed, memory, and I/O efficiency. For example, on the 456k hexahedra 'blade' mesh, our coder is twice as fast and uses 88 times less memory (only 3.1 MB) with the compressed file increasing about 3% in size. We also present the first scheme for predictive compression of properties associated with hexahedral cells.

Isenburg, M; Courbet, C

2010-02-03

230

Tips for Healthy Living  

MedlinePLUS

... TTY: (888) 232-6348 Contact CDC-INFO Hemochromatosis Homepage Facts Causes Diagnosis Treatment Tips for Healthy Living Info for Families Training & Education Articles & Key Findings Free Materials My Story Links to Other Websites Information For... Media ...

231

Living with Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... 888) 232-6348 Contact CDC-INFO Spina Bifida Homepage Facts Health Issues & Treatments Living With Spina Bifida Infants Toddlers and Preschoolers School-Aged Adolescents & Teens Young Adults My Story Data and Statistics Research & Tracking Spina Bifida ...

232

"Regular Lives" (A Review).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a documentary videotape entitled "Regular Lives" that presents case studies of successful mainstreaming of the disabled. The video shows both the obstacles and benefits of placing children with physical and mental disabilities into regular classrooms with typical children. (TE)

D'Arcangelo, Marcia

1989-01-01

233

Assisted Living Resident Profile  

MedlinePLUS

... Certification Affordable Care Act Clinical Practice Guidelines In-Service Training Tools Labor, Workforce, and OSHA Life Safety & Disaster Preparedness Risk Management Events NCAL Spring Conference AHCA/NCAL Convention and NCAL Day Webinars National Assisted Living Week® ...

234

Living with Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... the United States suffer some form of disordered communication. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication ...

235

Living with Fanconi Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Fanconi Anemia Improvements in blood and marrow stem cell transplants ... FA can be costly). Rate This Content: Fanconi Anemia Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

236

Living with Oxygen Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Oxygen Therapy Oxygen therapy helps many people function better and be ... chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Although you may need oxygen therapy continuously or for long periods, it doesn' ...

237

Living and Nonliving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is it that distinguishes a living organism from a nonliving object? This collection of images presents examples that aren't as clear-cut as one might think, enticing students to question the meaning of life.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2003-09-26

238

Live Attenuated Coronavirus Vaccines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention is directed live, attenuated coronavirus vaccines. The vaccine comprises a viral genome encoding a p59 protein having at mutation at a specific tyrosine residue, and may include other attenuating mutations. Such viruses show reduced ...

M. Denison

2005-01-01

239

NIGMS's Living Labs  

MedlinePLUS

... similar to ours. Worm Harmless roundworms found in soil now live in lab dishes, helping scientists discover ... NIGMS Alison Davis, Ph.D., is an NIH science writer and editor. Summer 2007 Issue: Volume 2 ...

240

Living with Immune Thrombocytopenia  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Immune Thrombocytopenia If you have immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), you can ... more likely to become ill from certain infections. Immune Thrombocytopenia in Pregnancy In women who are pregnant and ...

241

Streaming simplification of tetrahedral meshes.  

PubMed

Unstructured tetrahedral meshes are commonly used in scientific computing to represent scalar, vector, and tensor fields in three dimensions. Visualization of these meshes can be difficult to perform interactively due to their size and complexity. By reducing the size of the data, we can accomplish real-time visualization necessary for scientific analysis. We propose a two-step approach for streaming simplification of large tetrahedral meshes. Our algorithm arranges the data on disk in a streaming, I/O-efficient format that allows coherent access to the tetrahedral cells. A quadric-based simplification is sequentially performed on small portions of the mesh in-core. Our output is a coherent streaming mesh which facilitates future processing. Our technique is fast, produces high quality approximations, and operates out-of-core to process meshes too large for main memory. PMID:17093343

Vo, Huy T; Callahan, Steven P; Lindstrom, Peter; Pascucci, Valerio; Silva, Cláudio T

2007-01-01

242

Dynamic visualization of data streams  

DOEpatents

One embodiment of the present invention includes a data communication subsystem to receive a data stream, and a data processing subsystem responsive to the data communication subsystem to generate a visualization output based on a group of data vectors corresponding to a first portion of the data stream. The processing subsystem is further responsive to a change in rate of receipt of the data to modify the visualization output with one or more other data vectors corresponding to a second portion of the data stream as a function of eigenspace defined with the group of data vectors. The system further includes a display device responsive to the visualization output to provide a corresponding visualization.

Wong, Pak Chung (Richalnd, WA); Foote, Harlan P. (Richland, WA); Adams, Daniel R. (Kennewick, WA); Cowley, Wendy E. (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA)

2009-07-07

243

Living Stock Collections (LSC)  

NSF Publications Database

The Living Stock Collections (LSC) program supports operation of and improvements in outstanding collections of living organisms used in basic biological research. The program provides support for two types of projects. Full Proposal Preparation Instructions: This solicitation contains information that supplements the standard Grant Proposal Guide (GPG) proposal preparation guidelines. More comprehensive information on NSF Award Conditions is contained in the NSF Grant Policy Manual (GPM) ...

244

ASHRAE's Living Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

ASHRAE recently remodeled its headquarters building in Atlanta with the intention of making the building a LEED Gold building. As part of that renovation the building was enhanced with additional sensors and monitoring equipment to allow it to serve as a Living Laboratory for use by members and the general public to study the detailed energy use and performance of buildings. This article provides an overview of the Living Laboratory and its capabilities.

Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Brambley, Michael R.

2008-10-01

245

Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells: the role of wall slip  

PubMed Central

We present a computer simulation study, via lattice Boltzmann simulations, of a microscopic model for cytoplasmic streaming in algal cells such as those of Chara corallina. We modelled myosin motors tracking along actin lanes as spheres undergoing directed motion along fixed lines. The sphere dimension takes into account the fact that motors drag vesicles or other organelles, and, unlike previous work, we model the boundary close to which the motors move as walls with a finite slip layer. By using realistic parameter values for actin lane and myosin density, as well as for endoplasmic and vacuole viscosity and the slip layer close to the wall, we find that this simplified view, which does not rely on any coupling between motors, cytoplasm and vacuole other than that provided by viscous Stokes flow, is enough to account for the observed magnitude of streaming velocities in intracellular fluid in living plant cells.

Wolff, K.; Marenduzzo, D.; Cates, M. E.

2012-01-01

246

Temperature of the Gulf Stream  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gulf Stream is one of the strong ocean currents that carries warm water from the sunny tropics to higher latitudes. The current stretches from the Gulf of Mexico up the East Coast of the United States, departs from North America south of the Chesapeake Bay, and heads across the Atlantic to the British Isles. The water within the Gulf Stream moves at the stately pace of 4 miles per hour. Even though the current cools as the water travels thousands of miles, it remains strong enough to moderate the Northern European climate. The image above was derived from the infrared measurements of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on a nearly cloud-free day over the east coast of the United States. The coldest waters are shown as purple, with blue, green, yellow, and red representing progressively warmer water. Temperatures range from about 7 to 22 degrees Celsius. The core of the Gulf Stream is very apparent as the warmest water, dark red. It departs from the coast at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The cool, shelf water from the north entrains the warmer outflows from the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. The north wall of the Gulf Stream reveals very complex structure associated with frontal instabilities that lead to exchanges between the Gulf Stream and inshore waters. Several clockwise-rotating warm core eddies are evident north of the core of the Gulf Stream, which enhance the exchange of heat and water between the coastal and deep ocean. Cold core eddies, which rotate counter clockwise, are seen south of the Gulf Stream. The one closest to Cape Hatteras is entraining very warm Gulf Stream waters on its northwest circumference. Near the coast, shallower waters have warmed due to solar heating, while the deeper waters offshore are markedly cooler (dark blue). MODIS made this observation on May 8, 2000, at 11:45 a.m. EDT. For more information, see the MODIS-Ocean web page. The sea surface temperature image was created at the University of Miami using the 11- and 12-micron bands, by Bob Evans, Peter Minnett, and co-workers.

2002-01-01

247

Using a Community Based Project to Link Teaching and Research: The Bourne Stream Partnership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper demonstrates that integrating research into the curriculum can help to enhance the overall student learning experience. The Bourne Stream Partnership is a local community-based project which has provided environmental & geographical science students with the opportunity to work on live projects within a variety of contexts including…

Shah, Anita; Treby, Emma

2006-01-01

248

Situation-Awareness and Sensor Stream Mining for Sustainable Human Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criminal activities cause a huge amount of loss both financially and in terms of human lives. Because of these acts, business and social sectors are struggling. This paper illustrates the development of an online sensor stream mining system that is able to analyze the situational behavior of all of the persons in specific areas and in turn propose real-time alert

Zahoor ur Rehman; Muhammad Shahbaz; Muhammad Shaheen; Aziz Guergachi

2009-01-01

249

A Semi-Markovian Individual Model of Users for P2P Video Streaming Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

P2P-based live video streaming has become one of the major applications on the Internet. Due to the importance of the user behavior in these systems, intensive measurement studies have been performed over them in order to provide global models. However, in real networks the individual user behavior does not necessarily follow the global or average behavior. As the measurement studies

Gregory Bonnet; Ihsan Ullah; Guillaume Doyen; Lionel Fillatre; Dominique Gaiti; Igor Nikiforov

2011-01-01

250

Strategies for managing the effects of urban development on streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urban development remains an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The U.S. population grew by 17 percent from 1982 to 1997, while urbanized land area grew by 47 percent, suggesting that urban land consumption far outpaced population growth (Fulton and others, 2001; Sierra Club, 2003; American Farmland Trust, 2009). Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas. Each American effectively occupies about 20 percent more developed land (for housing, schools, shopping, roads, and other related services) than 20 years ago (Markham and Steinzor, 2006). Passel and Cohn (2008) predict a dramatic 48 percent increase in the population of the United States from 2005 to 2050. The advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program investigation of the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems (EUSE) during 1999–2004 provides the most spatially comprehensive analysis of stream impacts of urban development that has been completed in the United States. A nationally consistent study design was used in nine metropolitan areas of the United States—Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; Boston, Massachusetts; Denver, Colorado; Dallas, Texas; and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. A summary report published as part of the EUSE study describes several of these impacts on urban streams (Coles and others, 2012).

Cappiella, Karen; Stack, William P.; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Lane, Cecilia; McMahon, Gerard

2012-01-01

251

Field Exercise: Stream Flow Dynamics and Sedimentation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will measure the profile of a stream, determine its current velocity at various locations, and examine the sediment on the stream bottom. They will examine the relationships between stream profile and flow velocity and between sediment grain-size and flow velocity. They will also produce a vertical profile of a stream and be able to map as well as define thalweg, point bar, and cut bank; measure flow velocity differences across a stream transect and equate the flow velocity with size of substrate sediment collected; and quantify discharge values for a stream.

252

Frequency response of ice streams  

PubMed Central

Changes at the grounding line of ice streams have consequences for inland ice dynamics and hence sea level. Despite substantial evidence documenting upstream propagation of frontal change, the mechanisms by which these changes are transmitted inland are not well understood. In this vein, the frequency response of an idealized ice stream to periodic forcing in the downstream strain rate is examined for basally and laterally resisted ice streams using a one-dimensional, linearized membrane stress approximation. This reveals two distinct behavioural branches, which we find to correspond to different mechanisms of upstream velocity and thickness propagation, depending on the forcing frequency. At low frequencies (centennial to millennial periods), slope and thickness covary hundreds of kilometres inland, and the shallow-ice approximation is sufficient to explain upstream propagation, which occurs through changes in grounding-line flow and geometry. At high frequencies (decadal to sub-decadal periods), penetration distances are tens of kilometres; while velocity adjusts rapidly to such forcing, thickness varies little and upstream propagation occurs through the direct transmission of membrane stresses. Propagation properties vary significantly between 29 Antarctic ice streams considered. A square-wave function in frontal stress is explored by summing frequency solutions, simulating some aspects of the dynamical response to sudden ice-shelf change.

Williams, C. Rosie; Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.; Arthern, Robert J.

2012-01-01

253

Oxygen Sag and Stream Purification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of water quality related to oxygen sag and stream purification, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) self-purification models; (2) oxygen demand; and (3) reaeration and oxygen transfer. A list of 60 references is also presented. (HM)

Neal, Larry; Herwig, Roy

1978-01-01

254

Purification of Hydrogen Gas Streams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the results of a six month feasibility study aimed at the development of high flux palladium-silver membranes for purification of hydrogen gas streams. Membranes were prepared by coating palladium-silver layers onto a variety of suppo...

J. G. Wijmans R. W. Baker J. Louie P. H. Pfromm

1986-01-01

255

National Stream Survey Database Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Stream Survey (NSS), conducted in the spring of 1985 and 1986, is one component of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Surface Water Survey. This effort is in support of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program. The ...

M. E. Mitch P. R. Kaufmann A. T. Herlihy W. S. Overton M. J. Sale

1990-01-01

256

Protecting stream flows in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite several existing legal doctrines to protect stream flows, the California Water Resources Control Board retains broad discretion to subordinate instream uses to offstream demands. New mechanisms are needed to prevent harmful diversions of the remaining waters, but political realities make adoption of the ideal system unlikely because continuing industrial and agricultural development requires that unappropriated water be available to

Lilly

1980-01-01

257

Fishway Construction and Stream Improvement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The utilization of Maine's water resources during the past two hundred years has been extremely detrimental to anadromous fish. There are 1,061 dams on Maine's freshwater streams and rivers, but only 105, or 10% of these structures have fishways. Many of ...

L. N. Flagg

1975-01-01

258

Video Streaming in Online Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of video in teaching and learning is a common practice in education today. As learning online becomes more of a common practice in education, streaming video and audio will play a bigger role in delivering course materials to online learners. This form of technology brings courses alive by allowing online learners to use their visual and…

Hartsell, Taralynn; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

2006-01-01

259

Streaming Feature Selection using IIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Streaming Feature Selection (SFS), new fea- tures are sequentially considered for addition to a predictive model. When the space of poten- tial features is large, SFS offers many advantages over methods in which all features are assumed to be known in advance. Features can be generated dynamically, focusing the search for new features on promising subspaces, and overfitting can

Lyle H. Ungar; Jing Zhou; Dean P. Foster; Bob A. Stine

2005-01-01

260

What Causes the Gulf Stream?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from NOVA visualizes how Earth's rotation and uneven heating from the Sun cause prevailing winds and influence ocean surface currents. An animation and infrared satellite image illustrate the shape and direction of the Gulf Stream System in the Atlantic Ocean.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

261

Metamers of the ventral stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human capacity to recognize complex visual patterns emerges in a sequence of brain areas known as the ventral stream, beginning with primary visual cortex (V1). We developed a population model for mid-ventral processing, in which nonlinear combinations of V1 responses are averaged in receptive fields that grow with eccentricity. To test the model, we generated novel forms of visual

Eero P Simoncelli; Jeremy Freeman

2011-01-01

262

Molten Rock Streaming into Water  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The molten rock streams through an opening in the melter into a large container of water below, where it instantly cools into glass. __________ The USGS has created man-made moon dirt, or regolith, to help NASA prepare for upcoming moon explorations. Four tons of the simulant is expected to be mad...

2009-05-26

263

Stream velocity Investigation using Inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a field investigation using science inquiry and problem solving, where small groups of students design their own experiment to determine stream velocity, collect and analyze their data, draw conclusions, and make further inferences based group discussion/collaboration.

264

Aeroacoustics of Three-Stream Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from acoustic measurements of noise radiated from a heated, three-stream, co-annular exhaust system operated at subsonic conditions are presented. The experiments were conducted for a range of core, bypass, and tertiary stream temperatures and pressures. The nozzle system had a fan-to-core area ratio of 2.92 and a tertiary-to-core area ratio of 0.96. The impact of introducing a third stream on the radiated noise for third-stream velocities below that of the bypass stream was to reduce high frequency noise levels at broadside and peak jet-noise angles. Mid-frequency noise radiation at aft observation angles was impacted by the conditions of the third stream. The core velocity had the greatest impact on peak noise levels and the bypass-to-core mass flow ratio had a slight impact on levels in the peak jet-noise direction. The third-stream jet conditions had no impact on peak noise levels. Introduction of a third jet stream in the presence of a simulated forward-flight stream limits the impact of the third stream on radiated noise. For equivalent ideal thrust conditions, two-stream and three-stream jets can produce similar acoustic spectra although high-frequency noise levels tend to be lower for the three-stream jet.

Henderson, Brenda S.

2012-01-01

265

Using Streaming Video in Delivery of an On-Line Astronomy Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The teaching of Introductory Astronomy using the Internet has been practiced at the College of St. Catherine to reach students not able to physically attend class on campus. A number of different delivery systems have been employed and refined over the years. Currently we provide a blend of streaming video (some real-time, some digitally recorded) with interactive dialog and questions between student and instructor after each modular presentation. Laboratory sessions are conducted with demonstrations of activity in the streaming video format and some actual live streaming video from the college's observatory. Exams and class evaluations are conducted on-line as well. Digital streamed presentations are archived so students may access them as necessary.

Flower, Terrence F.

2006-12-01

266

The GOES-R Rebroadcast (GRB) Data Stream Simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GOES Rebroadcast (GRB) signals in the GOES-R era will replace the current legacy GOES Variable (GVAR) signal and will have substantially different characteristics, including a change in data rate from a single 2.1 Mbps stream to two digital streams of 15.5 Mbps each. Five GRB Simulators were developed as portable systems that output a high-fidelity stream of Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) formatted GRB packet data equivalent to live GRB data. The data are used for on-site testing of user ingest and data handling systems known as field terminal sites. The GRB Simulator is a fully self-contained system which includes all software and hardware units needed for operation. The operator manages configurations to edit preferences, define individual test scenarios, and manage event logs and reports. Simulations are controlled by test scenarios, which are scripts that specify the test data and provide a series of actions for the GRB Simulator to perform when generating GRB output. Scenarios allow for the insertion of errors or modification of GRB packet headers for testing purposes. The GRB Simulator provides a built-in editor for managing scenarios. The GRB Simulator provides GRB data as either baseband (digital) or Intermediate Frequency (IF) output to the test system. GRB packet data are sent in the same two output streams used in the operational system: one for Left Hand Circular Polarization (LHCP) and one for Right Hand Circular Polarization (RHCP). Use of circular polarization in the operational system allows the transmitting antenna to multiplex the two digital streams into the same signal, thereby doubling the available bandwidth. The GRB Simulator is designed to be used at sites that receive the GRB downlink.

Dittberner, G. J.; Gibbons, K.; Czopkiewicz, E.; Miller, C.; Brown-Bergtold, B.; Haman, B.; Marley, S.

2013-12-01

267

Living Planet Report 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The second edition of the World Wildlife Fund's (WWF) Living Planet Report (last discussed in the October 9, 1998 Scout Report) has been placed online. The report attempts to quantify the speed at which nature is disappearing from Earth and trace human pressures on the natural environment. The first part of the report, the Living Planet Index (LPI), measures natural wealth and how it has changed between 1970 and 1995. According to the WWF, the LPI declined by 30 percent in this period, indicating that the world has lost "30 per cent of its natural wealth in the space of one generation." The second part of the Living Planet Report examines six causes of global environmental change related to human consumption of renewable and non-renewable resources.Users may view an executive summary and highlights of the report or download the full text in .pdf.

1999-01-01

268

Jet Stream and Horizontal Temperature Gradients  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet explores the relationship between wind speed, jet streams and temperature gradients. The text explains jet streams and polar front jets and their relationship to temperature gradients. Questions about pressure gradients and wind are also provided.

Ackerman, Steve; Whittaker, Tom

269

Stream Dynamics: An Overview for Land Managers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concepts of stream dynamics are demonstrated through discussion of processes and process indicators; theory is included only where helpful to explain concepts. Present knowledge allows only qualitative prediction of stream behavior. However, such predicti...

B. H. Heede

1980-01-01

270

Effects of Antimycin on Stream Insects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The toxicity of antimycin to 38 species of Wisconsin stream insects was evaluated in static, aerated bioassays utilizing antimycin exposures typical of stream treatments used to kill fish. Several species of Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera were ...

W. L. Hilsenhoff P. M. Kotila

1978-01-01

271

Stream Channelization: Conflict Between Ditchers, Conservationists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the argument between the advocates of stream straightening for flood control, drainage, and navigation, and those concerned with the maintenance of ecological communities and the aesthetic values of natural" streams. (AL)

Gillette, Robert

1972-01-01

272

Stream Tables and Watershed Geomorphology Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews copious stream tables and provides a watershed approach to stream table exercises. Results suggest that this approach to learning the concepts of fluvial geomorphology is effective. (Contains 39 references.) (DDR)

Lillquist, Karl D.; Kinner, Patricia W.

2002-01-01

273

Removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen sulfide is removed from a gas stream by contacting the gas stream with an aqueous alkanolamine solution in a high surface area rotor. The solution is subjected to an acceleration greater than that due to gravity. 16 claims.

Toms, D.J.

1983-10-03

274

Time of travel of selected Arkansas streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between 1971 and 1981, time-of-travel and dispersion measurements were made in 15 streams in Arkansas. Most of the streams studied were at or near base flow. Graphs are presented for predicting traveltime of solutes in segments of the streams studied. The relationship of time of passage and peak unit concentration to traveltime is presented for two of the streams. Examples of use and application of the data are given. (USGS)

Lamb, T. E.

1982-01-01

275

Riparian influences on stream fish assemblage structure in urbanizing streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the influence of land cover at multiple spatial extents on fish assemblage integrity, and the degree to which\\u000a riparian forests can mitigate the negative effects of catchment urbanization on stream fish assemblages. Riparian cover (urban,\\u000a forest, and agriculture) was determined within 30 m buffers at longitudinal distances of 200 m, 1 km, and the entire network\\u000a upstream of 59 non-nested

Allison H. Roy; Byron J. Freeman; Mary C. Freeman

2007-01-01

276

'Won't You Be My Neighbor?' Neighbor Selection Attacks in Mesh-based Peer-to-Peer Streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

P2P streaming has grown in popularity, allowing people in many places to benefit from live audio and television services. Mesh-based P2P streaming has emerged as the predominant architecture in real- world use because of its resilience to chum and node failures, scalability, and ease of maintenance. The proliferation of these applications on the public Internet raises questions about how they

Jeff Seibert; Davied Zae; Sonia Fahmy; Cristina Nita-Rotaru

2008-01-01

277

P2VoD: providing fault tolerant video-on-demand streaming in peer-to-peer environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a system for video-on-demand streaming in peer-to-peer environment. We start by realizing the major differences between two types of streaming: live and on-demand. These observations lead to a set of problems that need to be solved for a peer-to-peer video-on-demand system. To address these problems, we propose a solution, which includes detail algorithms for building and maintaining an

Tai T. Do; Kien A. Hua; Mounir A. Tantaoui

2004-01-01

278

The dynamics of the stream of behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivational psychology and ethology conceive of behavior as a continuous stream of activities, a conceptualization that is taken up formally in the present paper. Modeling the stream of behavior, unlike modeling an individual activity selected out of the stream, requires processes of data generation that govern the repeated overt appearances of activities through time. To this end the motivation theory

David Birch

2009-01-01

279

Polygon Rendering on a Stream Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a programmable stream architecture in polygon rendering provides a powerful mechanism to address the high performance needs of today's complex scenes as well as the need for flexibility and programmability in the polygon rendering pipeline. We describe how a polygon rendering pipeline maps into data streams and kernels that operate on streams, and how this mapping is

John D. Owens; William J. Dally; Ujval J. Kapasi; Scott Rixner; Peter Mattson; Ben Mowery

2000-01-01

280

Adaptive stream resource management using Kalman Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

To answer user queries efficiently, a stream management system must handle continuous, high-volume, possibly noisy, and time-varying data streams. One major research area in stream management seeks to allocate resources (such as network bandwidth and memory) to query plans, either to minimize resource usage under a precision requirement, or to maximize precision of results under resource constraints. To date, many

Ankur Jain; Edward Y. Chang; Yuan-Fang Wang

2004-01-01

281

Approximate Data Stream Joins in Distributed Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of applications producing continuous high-frequency data streams has brought forth a large body of research in the area of distributed stream processing. In presence of high volumes of data, efforts have primarily concentrated on providing approximate aggregate or top-k type results. Scalable solutions for providing answers to window join queries in distributed stream processing sys- tems have received

Vassil Kriakov; Alex Delis; George Kollios

2007-01-01

282

Effective variation management for pseudo periodical streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many database applications require the analysis and processing of data streams. In such systems, huge amounts of data arrive rapidly and their values change over time. The variations on streams typically imply some fundamental changes of the underlying objects and possess significant domain meanings. In some data streams, successive events seem to recur in a certain time interval, but the

Lv-an Tang; Bin Cui; Hongyan Li; Gaoshan Miao; Dongqing Yang; Xinbiao Zhou

2007-01-01

283

Adaptive load shedding for windowed stream joins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an adaptive load shedding approach for windowed stream joins. In contrast to the conventional approach of dropping tuples from the input streams, we explore the concept of selective processing for load shedding. We allow stream tuples to be stored in the windows and shed excessive CPU load by performing the join operations, not on the entire set of

Bu?gra Gedik; Kun-Lung Wu; Philip S. Yu; Ling Liu

2005-01-01

284

Stream weight tuning in dynamic Bayesian networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a family of algorithms for estimating stream weights for dynamic Bayesian networks with multi- ple observation streams. For the 2 stream case, we present a weight tuning algorithm optimal in the minimum classifica- tion error sense. We compare the algorithms to brute-force search where feasible, as well as to previously published al- gorithms and show

Arthur Kantor; A. Hasegawa-Johnson

2008-01-01

285

The Stream Table in Physical Geography Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a number of activities to be conducted with a stream table (large wooden box filled with sediment and designed for water to pass through) in class. Activities illustrate such fluvial processes as stream meandering, erosion, transportation, and deposition. Includes a diagram for constructing a stream table. (MJP)

Wikle, Thomas A.; Lightfoot, Dale R.

1997-01-01

286

Unique Challenges to (Federal) Enterprise Streaming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Enterprise streaming has different parameters than consumer Streaming. The government enterprise has some differences on top of that. I'd like to highlight some issues shared by the Federal government as a whole, with a closer look at streaming within NAS...

B. Walls

2006-01-01

287

Provisioning Content Distribution Networks for Streaming Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops simple cost models for provisioning content distribution networks that use the simple and highly scalable bandwidth skimming protocol for streaming. New insight is obtained into (1) how cost-effective proxy servers are in multicast streaming systems, (2) the most effective streaming protocol, and (3) the optimal proxy content, as a function of the system configuration and workload. A

Jussara M. Almeida; Derek L. Eager; Michael C. Ferris; Mary K. Vernon

2002-01-01

288

Streaming Media Congestion Control Using Bandwidth Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental challenge in streaming media over the Internet is to transfer the highest possible quality, adhere to the media play out time constraint, and efficiently and fairly share the available bandwidth with TCP, UDP, and other traffic types. This work introduces the Streaming Media Congestion Control protocol (SMCC), a new adaptive media streaming congestion management protocol in which the

Nadeem Aboobaker; David Chanady; Mario Gerla; M. Y. Sanadidi

2002-01-01

289

Network Characteristics of Video Streaming Traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video streaming represents a large fraction of Internet traffic. Surprisingly, little is known about the network characteristics of this traffic. In this paper, we study the network characteristics of the two most popular video streaming services, Netflix and YouTube. We show that the streaming strategies vary with the type of the application (Web browser or native mobile application), and the

Ashwin Rao; Yeon-Sup Lim; Chadi Barakat; Arnaud Legout; Don Towsley; Walid Dabbous

2011-01-01

290

Flexible time management in data stream systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous queries in a Data Stream Management System (DSMS) rely on time as a basis for windows on streams and for defining a consistent semantics for multiple streams and updatable relations. The system clock in a centralized DSMS provides a convenient and well-behaved notion of time, but often it is more appropriate for a DSMS application to define its own

Utkarsh Srivastava; Jennifer Widom

2004-01-01

291

Double ion streams in the solar wind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distinct interpenetrating ion streams have been identified in the solar wind for the first time. They are shown to be interplanetary in origin and to be associated with the filling in of regions of density rarefactions accompanying high-velocity streams. With few excep- tions, the ion stream with the lower-energy density flux has higher energy. Furthermore, nonradial magnetic field directions seem

W. C. Feldman; J. R. Asbridge; S. J. Bame; M. D. Montgomery

1973-01-01

292

A framework for clustering evolving data streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clustering problem is a dicult problem for the data stream domain. This is because the large volumes of data arriving in a stream renders most traditional algorithms too inef- cien t. In recent years, a few one-pass clus- tering algorithms have been developed for the data stream problem. Although such methods address the scalability issues of the clustering problem,

Charu C. Aggarwal; Jiawei Han; Jianyong Wang; Philip S. Yu

2003-01-01

293

Impacts of biological diversity on sediment transport in streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, an increasing number of studies have shown that biological structures (e.g. plant roots) have large impacts on sediment transport, and that physical models that do not incorporate these biological impacts can produce qualitatively incorrect predictions. But while it is now recognized that biological structures influence sediment transport, work to date has focused primarily on the impacts of individual, usually dominant, species. Here, we ask whether competitive interactions cause multi-species communities to have fundamentally different impacts on sediment mobility than single-species systems. We use a model system with caddisfly larvae, which are insects that live in the benthic habitat of streams where they construct silken catchnets across pore spaces between rocks to filter food particles. Because caddisflies can reach densities of 1,000s per m2 with each larva spinning hundreds of silken threads between rocks, studies have shown that caddisflies reduce the probability of bed movement during high discharge events. To test whether streams with multiple species of caddisfly are stabilized any differently than single-species streams, we manipulated the presence or absence of two common species (Ceratopsyche oslari, Arctopsyche californica) in substrate patches (0.15 m2) in experimental stream channels (50-m long x 1-m wide) with fully controlled hydrology at the Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory. This experiment was designed to extend the scale of previous laboratory mesocosm studies, which showed that critical shear stress is 31% higher in a multi-species flume mesocosm compared to a single-species mesocosm. Under these more realistic field conditions, we found that critical shear stress was, on average, 30% higher in streams with caddisflies vs. controls with no caddisflies. However, no differences were detected between treatments with 2 vs. 1 species. We hypothesize that the minimal effect of diversity on critical shear stress resulted because intense competitive interactions (fighting, biting, etc.) caused the caddisflies to drift downstream and distribute longitudinally instead of vertically within the sediments, as we had previously observed in the mesocosm study. Taken together with previous results, our findings show that species interactions in multi-species communities can generate synergies that have fundamentally unique impacts on sediment stability compared to just single species communities, but these impacts will be scale dependent and vary with ecosystem complexity. Field tests are the next step to improve our ability to accurately quantify the influence of stream insects on sediment transport conditions, and the results reported here will help refine experimental design for tests in natural streams.

Albertson, L. K.; Cardinale, B. J.; Sklar, L. S.

2012-12-01

294

Where Did All the Streams Go? Effects of Urbanization on Hydrologic Permanence of Headwater Streams  

EPA Science Inventory

Headwater streams represent a majority (up to 70%) of the stream length in the United States; however, these small streams are often piped or filled to accommodate residential, commercial, and industrial development. Legal protection of headwater streams under the Clean Water Ac...

295

Choice of Living Arrangements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The rights to choose where and with whom to live are widely endorsed but commonly denied to adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). The current study provides a contemporary benchmark on the degree of choice exercised by adult service users in the USA. Method: Data came from the National Core Indicators programme. Participants were…

Stancliffe, R. J.; Lakin, K. C.; Larson, S.; Engler, J.; Taub, S.; Fortune, J.

2011-01-01

296

Adults Living with OI  

MedlinePLUS

Adults Living with OI Write to us with your suggestions for what we should include on this page; your input will help guide ... Doctor Talking with your Orthopedist Vertebral Compression Fractures OI and Osteoporosis Can't find the information you' ...

297

Measuring Retirees' Living Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author evaluates the Consumer Price Index (CPI) used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to make cost-of-living adjustments to retirement benefits and considers the need for a separate retiree index. Stating that the CPI has underestimated inflation's impact on retirees, she recommends revised BLS retiree budgets. (MF)

Lamale, Helen H.

1978-01-01

298

Geriatric Live Interactive Teleconferencing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document includes a successful model for implementing educational teleconferencing, the Geriatric Live Interactive Teleconferencing program at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU). As a vehicle for continuing professional education, teleconferencing can transmit the latest information to large numbers of health professionals in a variety of…

Parham, Iris A.; Wood, Joan

1985-01-01

299

New Lives of Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work and lives of teachers have always been subject to external influence as those who are nearing the end of their careers will attest, but it is arguable that what is new over the last two decades is the pace, complexity, and intensity of change as governments have responded to the shrinking world of economic competitiveness and social…

Day, Christopher

2012-01-01

300

Active Living by Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Members of the public health community and those from the world of urban planning have teamed up to create the Active Living By Design program, and by extension, this fine website. With funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and an academic home at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Public Health, the program was created âÂÂto increase physical activity through community design, public policies and communications strategies.â On the siteâÂÂs homepage, visitors can browse through sections that include information on âÂÂActive Living EssentialsâÂÂ, âÂÂActive Living ProgramsâÂÂ, and âÂÂActive Living ResourcesâÂÂ. The âÂÂEssentialsâ section is a good place to start as visitors can learn about the organizationâÂÂs major fields, which include information on the links between physical activity, urban design, and health. Visitors who are looking to learn about the specific âÂÂon the groundâ programs will want to look over the âÂÂCommunity Partnershipsâ area, as it contains information on initiatives in Chicago, Nashville, Orlando, and Cleveland.

301

Families living with HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the historical emergence of the AIDS epidemic first among gay men in the developed world, HIV interventions have primarily focused on individuals rather than families. Typically not part of traditional family structures, HIV-positive gay men in Europe and the US lived primarily in societies providing essential infrastructure for survival needs that highly value individual justice and freedom. Interventions were

M. J. Rotheram-Borus; D. Flannery; E. Rice; P. Lester

2005-01-01

302

The Living Museum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson plan for a second-grade class project. Suggests that the students will learn to identify the word "famous," complete a timeline for a famous person, learn facts about the person, and express individual thoughts and feelings. Explains the steps involved in the presentation of a living museum where students portray famous people.…

Merrill, Mary

1992-01-01

303

Design for Living  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bringing a newborn home from the hospital can come with stress for any parent. Coming home with twins can be double the stress. This article shares the story of a couple faced with this situation 12 years ago with the birth of twins, one was born with complications. They lived in a Colonial until the twins were almost five years old, at which time…

Rosenblum, Todd

2011-01-01

304

Loneliness and Living Arrangements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults with ID/DD live in increasingly small community settings, where the risk of loneliness may be greater. We examined self-reported loneliness among 1,002 individuals with ID/DD from 5 states in relation to community residence size, personal characteristics, social contact, and social climate. One third reported being lonely sometimes and one…

Stancliffe, Roger J.; Lakin, K. Charlie; Doljanac, Robert; Byun, Soo-Yong; Taub, Sarah; Chiri, Giuseppina

2007-01-01

305

Framework for Living History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description of Project Preserve, a Colorado high school living history course which provides students with tools to find their roots and understand themselves and their futures, presents a history of the project; details the formation of goals, objectives, and philosophy; and notes the advantages to both students and community. (SB)

Hodges, L. R.

1980-01-01

306

Lives Together, Worlds Apart?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lives of multicultural Muslim couples is the focus of this paper. It is based on interviews with couples in which the husband is a Muslim of Middle Eastern descent with a wife of European-American or Asian-American descent. These women converted to Islam before or after marriage, or have remained Christian. The opportunities, strengths and challenges in such relationships are

Manijeh Daneshpour

2003-01-01

307

Living apart together  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, marriage has been the social institution for couples that have been together for a long period. Some decades ago a new social institution appeared in the Western world: non-marital cohabitation, although this was slower to be accepted in some countries than in others. Living Apart Together (LAT) relationships, are a new phenomenon which seems to have the potential of

Irene Levin; Jan Trost

1999-01-01

308

Living or Nonliving?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Categorizing organisms as living or nonliving things may seem to be intuitive by nature. Yet, it is regulated by scientific criteria. Students come to school with rules already in place. Their categorizing criteria have already been influenced by their personal experiences, also known as observations and inferences. They believe that all things…

Legaspi, Britt; Straits, William

2011-01-01

309

Dementia and Assisted Living  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article presents an overview of what is known about dementia services in assisted living settings and suggests areas for future research. Design and Methods: We undertook a search of Medline, the "Journals of Gerontology," and "The Gerontologist." We then organized publications dealing with the target subject into 10 topic areas and…

Hyde, Joan; Perez, Rosa; Forester, Brent

2007-01-01

310

Solar System Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website Solar System Live includes applets showing the positions of the planets. One can see all of the planets in the solar system or just the inner planets. Visitors are encouraged to compare the view of the inner planets with what can be seen in the night sky.

Walker, John

2011-05-27

311

Live, by Satellite.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Illinois used teleconferencing to ignite volunteers and leaders for a five-year capital campaign. The program was live with two-way audio communications from meeting sites back to the main studio. Suggestions for planning and organizing a teleconference are presented. (MLW)

Gobberdiel, Jim

1985-01-01

312

Living with Rh Incompatibility  

MedlinePLUS

... Twitter. Living With Rh Incompatibility If you have Rh-negative blood, injections of Rh immune globulin can reduce your ... baby or come in contact with Rh-positive blood. If you're Rh-negative, your risk of problems from Rh incompatibility is ...

313

Metamers of the ventral stream  

PubMed Central

The human capacity to recognize complex visual patterns emerges in a sequence of brain areas known as the ventral stream, beginning with primary visual cortex (V1). We develop a population model for mid-ventral processing, in which non-linear combinations of V1 responses are averaged within receptive fields that grow with eccentricity. To test the model, we generate novel forms of visual metamers — stimuli that differ physically, but look the same. We develop a behavioral protocol that uses metameric stimuli to estimate the receptive field sizes in which the model features are represented. Because receptive field sizes change along the ventral stream, the behavioral results can identify the visual area corresponding to the representation. Measurements in human observers implicate V2, providing a new functional account of this area. The model explains deficits of peripheral vision known as “crowding”, and provides a quantitative framework for assessing the capabilities of everyday vision.

Freeman, Jeremy; Simoncelli, Eero P.

2011-01-01

314

Streaming visualization for collaborative environments.  

SciTech Connect

Connecting expensive and scarce visual data analysis resources to end-users is a major challenge today. We describe a flexible mechanism for meeting this challenge based on commodity compression technologies for streaming video. The advantages of this approach include simplified application development, access to generic client components for viewing, and simplified incorporation of improved codecs as they become available. In this paper we report newly acquired experimental results for two different applications being developed to exploit this approach and test its merits. One is based on a new plugin for ParaView that adds video streaming cleanly and transparently to existing applications. The other is a custom volume rendering application with new remote capabilities. Using typical datasets under realistic conditions, we find the performance for both is satisfactory.

Hereld, M.; Olson, E.; Papka, M. E.; Uram, T. D. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Univ. of Chicago)

2008-01-01

315

Thermal loading of natural streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The impact of thermal loading on the temperature regime of natural streams is investigated by mathematical models, which describe both transport (convection-diffusion) and decay (surface dissipation) of waste heat over 1-hour or shorter time intervals. The models are derived from the principle of conservation of thermal energy for application to one- and two-dimensional spaces. The basic concept in these models is to separate water temperature into two parts, (1) excess temperature due to thermal loading and (2) natural (ambient) temperature. This separation allows excess temperature to be calculated from the models without incoming radiation data. Natural temperature may either be measured in prototypes or calculated from the model. If use is made of the model, however, incoming radiation is required as input data. Comparison of observed and calculated temperatures in seven natural streams shows that the models are capable of predicting transient temperature regimes satisfactorily in most cases. (Woodard-USGS)

Jackman, Alan P.; Yotsukura, Nobuhiro

1977-01-01

316

Meteor streams in the making  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The well-known associations of meteor streams with periodic comets and the probable cometary origin of the zodiacal dust cloud point to the importance, in the cometary debris, of particles with masses exceeding roughly 10 to the -6th gram. It is shown that these large particles dominate in the sunward-oriented anomalous tails of comets. Their study is essential for meaningful estimates of the mass of meteor streams and of the injection rate of the cometary debris that contributes to the zodiacal cloud. Favorable conditions for the detection of anomalous tails can be recognized in advance, as demonstrated by the successful predictions for comets Kohoutek (1973 XII) and Bradfield (1975p). To answer the question as to whether short-period comets can support the zodiacal cloud, a study of anomalous tails at future returns of these comets is considered indispensable.

Sekanina, Z.

1977-01-01

317

Two-stream whistler instability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The excitation of whistlers in a system of two identical interpenetrating electron streams moving in opposite directions with the relative velocity of the order of their thermal velocity is considered. The quasilinear relaxation of the stream distribution function is shown to cause the build-up of a plateau on the distribution function over longitudinal velocities of resonant electrons and the acceleration of adiabatic particles. These instabilities may develop in the earth's magnetosphere, where inverted loss cone electron distributions have been observed, and also in the counter-steaming electron flows in the gaps of electromagnetic traps and in colliding plasmas. The quasilinear theory is applied to the case when the number of resonant particles is of the same order of magnitude as the number of adiabatic particles, and the noise energy is of the order of the thermal energy of plasma.

Stepanov, K. N.; Egorenkov, V. D.

1982-01-01

318

Meander formation in supraglacial streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meandering streams on the surface of glaciers are similar in planform geometry to meanders in alluvial and bedrock rivers, despite fundamental differences in the mechanisms and timescales of incision. We develop depth-averaged conservation equations for flow in such supraglacial channels with erodible boundaries and solve the linear stability problem for harmonic perturbations to an initially straight channel. Meander formation in supraglacial streams is driven by channel curvature, which enhances heat production and heat transfer to the surrounding ice at bend apexes. This leads to enhanced melting and lateral channel migration, with near constant channel width maintained by the competition of lateral erosion and broadscale ablation of the glacier surface. We find that meandering occurs for a wide but finite range of hydraulic and thermal parameters in both subcritical and supercritical flows and that meanders usually propagate downstream. Predicted meander wavelengths are in general agreement with an empirical scaling between supraglacial channel width and meander wavelength derived from glacial environments worldwide.

Karlstrom, Leif; Gajjar, Parmesh; Manga, Michael

2013-09-01

319

Variation of Stream Stability With Stream Type and Livestock Bank Damage in Northern Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many natural and anthropogenic factors contribute to the stability or erodibility of stream channels. Although a stream rating procedure used by more than 60 percent of the U.S. National Forests provides an estimate of overall stability, it does not identify the cause of instability or indicate corrective management. To better sort natural from livestock influences, stream stability rating indicator variables were related to stream types and levels of ungulate bank damage in a large data base for streams in northern Nevada. Stability and the range in stability varied naturally with stream type. Ungulate bank damage had different effects on different stream types and on different parts of their cross-sections. Vegetation is more important for stability on certain stream types than on other types. Streams with noncohesive sand and gravel banks are most sensitive to livestock grazing. Range managers should consider the stream type when setting local standards, writing management objectives, or determining riparian grazing strategies.

Myers, Thomas J.; Swanson, Sherman

1992-08-01

320

Sampling, Splitting and Merging in Coinductive Stream Calculus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We study various operations for partitioning, projecting and merging streams of data. These operations are motivated by their use in dataflow programming and the stream processing languages. We use the framework of stream calculus and stream circuits for ...

J. Rutten M. Niqui

2009-01-01

321

Mapping Globular Cluster Tidal Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary scientific goal of this program is to detect and map the tidal streams emanating from halo globular clusters. We propose to obtain moderately deep V and I imaging of the regions within 2° of the centers of five globular clusters with R_sun < 50 kpc and with a high probability of having strong tidal tails. Given that these cold tidal streams are on essentially the same orbits as their parent clusters, they can be used to constrain both the formation and evolution of the Galactic halo as well as the present shape of the Galactic potential field. With follow-up spectroscopy to eliminate foreground contaminants, the stars in these tidal streams will be used to construct a high-priority target list for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Proper motion measurements of these stars with SIM will enable us to tightly constrain the detailed, three-dimensional structure of the Galactic potential field from the Solar Circle out to 50 kpc.

Grillmair, Carl J.; Dionatos, Odysseas; Bahcall, John; Cutri, Roc; Geisler, Douglas; Gieren, Wolfgang; Grebel, Eva; Johnston, Kathryn; Majewski, Steven; Patterson, Richard; Reid, Neill; Spergel, David; Tremaine, Scott

2005-08-01

322

Mapping Globular Cluster Tidal Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary scientific goal of this program is to detect and map the tidal streams emanating from halo globular clusters. We propose to obtain moderately deep V and I imaging of the regions within 2° of the centers of five globular clusters with R_sun < 50 kpc and with a high probability of having strong tidal tails. Given that these cold tidal streams are on essentially the same orbits as their parent clusters, they can be used to constrain both the formation and evolution of the Galactic halo as well as the present shape of the Galactic potential field. With follow-up spectroscopy to eliminate foreground contaminants, the stars in these tidal streams will be used to construct a high-priority target list for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Proper motion measurements of these stars with SIM will enable us to tightly constrain the detailed, three-dimensional structure of the Galactic potential field from the Solar Circle out to 50 kpc.

Grillmair, Carl J.; Johnson, Roberta; Dionatos, Odysseas; Geisler, Douglas; Gieren, Wolfgang; Grebel, Eva; Johnston, Kathryn; Majewski, Steven; Patterson, Richard; Reid, Neill; Spergel, David; Tremaine, Scott

2006-02-01

323

Mapping Globular Cluster Tidal Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary scientific goal of this program is to detect and map the tidal streams emanating from halo globular clusters. We propose to obtain moderately deep V and I imaging of the regions within 2° of the centers of five globular clusters with R_sun < 50 kpc and with a high probability of having strong tidal tails. Given that these cold tidal streams are on essentially the same orbits as their parent clusters, they can be used to constrain both the formation and evolution of the Galactic halo as well as the present shape of the Galactic potential field. With follow-up spectroscopy to eliminate foreground contaminants, the stars in these tidal streams will be used to construct a high-priority target list for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Proper motion measurements of these stars with SIM will enable us to tightly constrain the detailed, three-dimensional structure of the Galactic potential field from the Solar Circle out to 50 kpc.

Grillmair, Carl J.; Bahcall, John; Geisler, Douglas; Gieren, Wolfgang; Grebel, Eva; Irwin, Michael; Johnston, Kathryn; Majewski, Steven; Patterson, Richard; Reid, Neill; Spergel, David; Tremaine, Scott

2003-02-01

324

Southern Hemisphere meteor stream determinations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meteor orbits have been deduced from radio observations of meteor trails carried out at Adelaide, Australia, using a combined multistation CW and pulse radar system operating at 27 MHz. The orbits of 1667 meteors have been determined down to a limiting radio magnitude of +8. The data have been systematically searched for stream meteors, and the significance of minor associations has been appraised. Altogether, 40.4% of the orbits were found to be associated with at least one other orbit, and 29.8% with two or more. Numerous minor streams with high inclination and low eccentricity have been found at deep southern declinations from December to March, with little activity in this quarter during June and October. In addition to confirming several previously established cometary associations, a comprehensive search has indicated that 34 of the meteor associations may be related to 17 comets. Associations between several long-period comets and low-eccentricity high-inclination streams appear to be indisputable, and they confirm the origin of at least some of the 'toroidal group' meteors.

Gartrell, G.; Elford, W. G.

1975-01-01

325

Inexpensive purification of urea waste streams  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Urea is destroyed in aqueous waste streams containing various anions and cations plus urea by contacting the stream with a cation exchange resin, then reacting the resulting stream with nitric oxide, nitrous acid or a nitrite salt to convert the urea to nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water and treating the resulting stream with an anion exchange resin. A pure aqueous stream is obtained which does not adversely affect the environment and which may be recycled to a plant as fresh water resulting in large monetary savings in fresh water cost.

1980-02-12

326

Towards Flexible Exascale Stream Processing System Simulation  

SciTech Connect

Stream processing is an important emerging computational model for performing complex operations on and across multi-source, high-volume, unpredictable dataflows. We present Flow, a platform for parallel and distributed stream processing system simulation that provides a flexible modeling environment for analyzing stream processing applications. The Flow stream processing system simulator is a high-performance, scalable simulator that automatically parallelizes chunks of the model space and incurs near-zero synchronization overhead for acyclic stream application graphs. We show promising parallel and distributed event rates exceeding 149 million events per second on a cluster with 512 processor cores.

Li, Cheng-Hong [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; Nair, Ravi [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; Ohba, Noboyuki [IBM Research, Japan; Shvadron, Uzi [IBM Corporation, Haifa Research Center; Zaks, Ayal [IBM Corporation, Haifa Research Center; Schenfeld, Eugen [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center

2012-01-01

327

Modeling and Fitting Tidal Stellar Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I discuss several results on tidal streams from star clusters and satellite galaxies orbiting more massive host galaxies. First, I discuss qualitatively the deviation of the stream from the orbital path and the formation of substructure within the stream; both effects have several distinct regimes. Next, I present an method of fitting models of tidal streams to observations which is more accurate than simple orbital fits and less time-consuming than full N-body simulations. This method allows for a thorough exploration of parameter space. Finally, I present model fits and parameter constraints using a metal-poor tidal stream in M31.

Fardal, Mark A.; Huang, S.; Weinberg, M. D.; PAndAS; SPLASH

2014-01-01

328

Stream-Upland Connections and the Effects of Stream Discharge on Transient Storage Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stream-upland connections and the linkages between stream discharge and transient storage processes remain poorly understood. Previous studies of transient storage in streams have suggested that hyporheic exchange should dominate transient storage as discharge decreases because of reduced stream cross-sectional area relative to the cross-sectional area of the hyporheic zone. However, no direct relationships have been developed between stream discharge and

B. L. McGlynn; M. N. Gooseff; R. S. McGlynn

2003-01-01

329

The Living Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living Lakes Partnership, a nonprofit organization has a goal to "create and support a network within which local lake organizations can find critical kinds of assistance for promoting sustainable development in lake areas." Their award winning site highlights nearly twenty lakes around the world, describing their individual, watershed, and biological characteristics as well as the geologic and human history of the area. The Living With Lakes section discusses lake management and conservation issues dealing with agriculture and urban areas (such as pollution and habitat loss). Other links include a photo gallery, news and events section, discussion groups, and much more. Visitors will enjoy the rich content and visuals that make up this site and will find themselves exploring it for some time and learning along the way.

2002-01-01

330

Living in the Limelight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Napster may be dead, but Mark Gorton and his company are making sure the file-sharing revolution it sparked lives on through LimeWire. LimeWire is transforming the ripple of grass-roots computer networking that began with Napster a few years ago into a cultural and, inevitably, an economic tidal wave. This article briefly discusses the career of Mark Gorton and his involvement

D. Kushner

2002-01-01

331

KARMA\\/live  

Microsoft Academic Search

KARMA is a procedural instrument, driving a syn-esthetic audiovisual environment. The piece comes alive via 6 humanoid 3D figures, suspended in zero gravity. They are convulsing and drifting, seemingly with no means of escape, displaying a familiar yet ambiguous sense of human life, resulting in an indefinite dance of the almost living dead. Their movements evoke a synchronized, drone-like sound-scape,

Kurt Hentschlager

2007-01-01

332

Living Bay Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning resources about oysters and current issues in Chesapeake Bay. Students learn about oyster anatomy, ballast water, invasive species and more through online puzzles. Teachers can download 10 multidisciplinary lesson plans about oyster biology and fishery issues. Links to web resources on the Bay, oysters, plankton and biofilms. Also available: day programs with hands-on and shipboard activities for at-risk students and others at Living Classrooms Foundation facilities in Maryland and New Jersey.

333

Living in Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Living in Space Web site allows kids of all ages the opportunity to learn how astronauts cope with zero gravity conditions in space. Everything from eating, dressing, working, and having fun is explained through descriptions, photographs, movies, audio files, and more. Other interesting items are also available, such as the interactive daily timeline of an astronaut's activities and several other links to fun pages.

2002-01-01

334

Soil as Living Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-minute radio program, a soil scientist introduces listeners to reasons why soil is crucial to the planet. The scientist lists functions of soil that include nutrient cycling and water filtration, and he also uses living skin as an analogy for soil. The program, part of the Pulse of the Planet radio show, is available here in text and audio formats. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Planet, Pulse O.

2006-06-26

335

Bioluminescence: Living Light  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic lesson plan explores bioluminescent creatures and the underwater world in which they live. Using shoeboxes and black paint, students are directed to build a deep-sea model and inhabit it with fish made out of black construction paper. Students then use the model to describe how organisms use bioluminescence and learn about its use as camouflage. In addition to a detailed protocol, the lesson plan includes suggestions for assessments and links to additional information.

Xpeditions, National G.

336

LIVE from the NYPL  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The fantastic New York Public Library does it again with this most diverse and thoughtful site. The website shows their impressive offerings of upcoming live talks as well as providing their archived talks. Some of the upcoming guests that are featured are Ira Glass, Barbara Kingsolver, William Grimes, and Javier Marias. Fortunately, visitors who aren't in New York City won't miss out on these great programs, because the past LIVE shows can be accessed by clicking on the "Past Programs" link in the left hand menu. The archived shows are from Spring and Fall 2005-2009, and are available as audio, video, or both. The current programs become available to listen or watch a few weeks after the original program. Transcripts are also available for some events, and they can be found in the "Transcripts" link on the left hand menu. The intriguing series, first broadcast during the month of June 2009, titled "Muslim Voices: Arts and Ideas" is a good place to start. Visitors can enter Muslim Voices in the search box at the top left hand of the page to find all LIVE programs that were part of the celebration.

337

Living it up with a live programming language  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic language improves programmer productivity through flexible typing, a focus on high-level programming, and by streamlining the edit-compile-debug cycle. Live languages go beyond dynamic languages with more programmer-centric features. A live language supports live programming that provides programmers with responsive and continuous feedback about how their edits affect program execution. A live language is also based on declarative programming

Sean Mcdirmid

2007-01-01

338

Living it up with a live programming language  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic language promotes ease of use through flexible typing, a focus on high-level programming, and by streamlining the edit-compile-debug cycle. Live languages go beyond dynamic languages with more ease of use features. A live language supports live programming that provides programmers with responsive and continuous feedback about how their edits affect program execution. A live language is also based

Sean McDirmid

2007-01-01

339

Living lobar lung transplantation.  

PubMed

A constant awareness of the risk to the living donors must be maintained with any live-donor organ transplantation program, and comprehensive short- and long-term follow-up should be strongly encouraged to maintain the viability of these potentially life-saving programs. There has been no perioperative or long-term mortality following lobectomy for living lobar lung transplantation, and in the authors' series the perioperative risks associated with donor lobectomy are similar to those seen with standard lung resection. These risks might increase if the procedure were offered on an occasional basis and not within a well-established program. Further long-term outcome data, similar to data for live-donor renal and liver transplantation, are needed. Therefore, the authors still favor performing living lobar lung transplantation only for the patient with a clinically deteriorating condition. They believe that prospective donors should be informed of the morbidity associated with donor lobectomy and the potential for mortality, as well of potential recipient outcomes in regard to life expectancy and quality of life after transplantation. A major question regarding lobar lung transplantation that has been unanswered during the last decade has been defining when a potential recipient is too ill to justify placing two healthy donors at risk of donor lobectomy. Recipient age, gender, indication for primary transplant, prehospitalization status, preoperative steroid usage, relationship of donor to recipient, and the presence or absence of rejection episodes postoperatively do not seem to influence overall mortality. Patients receiving mechanical ventilation preoperatively and those undergoing retransplantation after either a previous cadaveric or lobar lung transplantation have significantly elevated odds ratios for postoperative death. The authors therefore recommend caution in these subgroups of patients. This experience is similar to the cadaveric experience in which intubated patients have higher I-year mortalities and patients undergoing retransplantation have decreased 3- and 5-year survival. A similar experience with a smaller number of lobar transplants has been reported by the Washington University group. Despite the high-risk patient population, this alternative procedure has been life saving in severely ill patients who would die or become unsuitable recipients before a cadaveric organ becomes available. Although cadaveric transplantation is preferable because of the risk to the donors, living lobar lung transplantation should continue to be used under properly selected circumstances. Although there have been no deaths in the donor cohort, a risk of death between 0.5% and 1% should be quoted pending further data. These encouraging results are important if this procedure is to be considered as an option at more pulmonary transplant centers in view of the institutional, regional, and intra- and international differences in the philosophical and ethical acceptance of the use of organs from live donors for transplantation. PMID:15585183

Bowdish, Michael E; Barr, Mark L

2004-12-01

340

Living with Type 1 Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Do This Living with type 1 diabetes is tough but with proper care can be a footnote ... the Association Get Balance® Rewards points for healthy choices. Living W/ Diabetes: Don’t Forget Sunscreen This ...

341

Live from the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For reasons of geography and geophysics, the poles of our planet, the Arctic and Antarctica, are places where climate change appears first: they are global canaries in the mine shaft. But while Antarctica (its penguins and ozone hole, for example) has been relatively well-documented in recent books, TV programs and journalism, the far North has received somewhat less attention. This project builds on and advances what has been done to date to share the people, places, and stories of the North with all Americans through multiple media, over several years. In a collaborative project between the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) and PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, Live from the Arctic will bring the Arctic environment to the public through a series of primetime broadcasts, live and taped programming, interactive virtual field trips, and webcasts. The five-year project will culminate during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year (IPY). Live from the Arctic will: A. Promote global understanding about the value and world -wide significance of the Arctic, B. Bring cutting-edge research to both non-formal and formal education communities, C. Provide opportunities for collaboration between arctic scientists, arctic communities, and the general public. Content will focus on the following four themes. 1. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts on Land (i.e. snow cover; permafrost; glaciers; hydrology; species composition, distribution, and abundance; subsistence harvesting) 2. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Sea (i.e. salinity, temperature, currents, nutrients, sea ice, marine ecosystems (including people, marine mammals and fisheries) 3. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Atmosphere (i.e. precipitation and evaporation; effects on humans and their communities) 4. Global Perspectives (i.e. effects on humans and communities, impacts to rest of the world) In The Earth is Faster Now, a recent collection of comments by members of indigenous arctic peoples, arctic residents speak in eloquent terms of the changes they see around them, manifested in new patterns of vegetation, the melting of permafrost and the absence of game species that used to be abundant. Meanwhile, new satellites and more sophisticated sensors on the ground and in the ice, add scientific testimony that seems to support and even extend native perceptions. Live from the Arctic will unify both perspectives, and use todays most powerful and effective communications media to connect young people and general audiences all across America to researchers and communities living and working in the Arctic. During IPY there will be a level of interest in the Polar regions unprecedented in a generation. Live from the Arctic offers unique resources to satisfy that curiosity, and encourage active participation and engagement in understanding some of Earths most significant peoples, places and rapidly changing conditions.

Warnick, W. K.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

2003-12-01

342

Live imaging of Arabidopsis development.  

PubMed

Live cell imaging is an essential methodology for studying the structure, dynamics, and functions of cells in a living plant under normal or stressed growth conditions. Arabidopsis thaliana is perfectly amenable to various live microscopy techniques. In this chapter, we provide guidelines to design live-imaging experiments. We discuss specifically the respective advantage of each microscopy technique, the choice of reporter, and the preparation of the sample. Detailed protocols for imaging of shoot and roots are provided. PMID:24057385

von Wangenheim, Daniel; Daum, Gabor; Lohmann, Jan U; Stelzer, Ernst K; Maizel, Alexis

2014-01-01

343

Valuing different human lives.  

PubMed

Do people think of the value of all human lives as equivalent irrespective of age? Affirmations of the equal value of all human lives are culturally prominent, yet much evidence points to the fact that the young are often prioritized over the old in life-and-death decision-making contexts. Studies 1-3 aimed to reconcile this tension by showing that although individuals are seen as more equal with respect to negative rights not to be harmed or killed (though not completely equal), they are seen as less equal with respect to positive rights to be aided or saved. Age exerts a large and systematic impact on decisions about who to save and about whose death is more tragic, suggesting that individuals are seen as possessing differing amounts of contingent value. These initial studies also yielded the novel finding that, although children are prioritized over adults, older children are often prioritized over younger children. Study 4 replicated this finding with a think-aloud methodology; the study showed that the preference for older children appears to be driven by their having had more invested in their lives, their better developed social relations, and their greater understanding of death. Studies 5a-5c demonstrated the independent causal effects of each of these variables on judgments of life's value. Finally, in Studies 6 and 7, mediation methods were used to show that older children's more meaningful social relations primarily explain the greater value of older than of younger children. These findings have implications for bioethics and medical policy. PMID:23647311

Goodwin, Geoffrey P; Landy, Justin F

2014-04-01

344

Transitive closure on the imagine stream processor  

SciTech Connect

The increasing gap between processor and memory speeds is a well-known problem in modern computer architecture. The Imagine system is designed to address the processor-memory gap through streaming technology. Stream processors are best-suited for computationally intensive applications characterized by high data parallelism and producer-consumer locality with minimal data dependencies. This work examines an efficient streaming implementation of the computationally intensive Transitive Closure (TC) algorithm on the Imagine platform. We develop a tiled TC algorithm specifically for the Imagine environment, which efficiently reuses streams to minimize expensive off-chip data transfers. The implementation requires complex stream programming since the memory hierarchy and cluster organization of the underlying architecture are exposed to the Imagine programmer. Results demonstrate that limited performance of TC is achieved primarily due to the complicated data-dependencies of the blocked algorithm. This work is an ongoing effort to identify classes of scientific problems well-suited for streaming processors.

Griem, Gorden; Oliker, Leonid

2003-11-11

345

Living with lightning  

SciTech Connect

As many as 100 lightning flashes occur around the world each second. Electric utilities know well the impact of lightning in terms of dollars, lost productivity, and lives. EPRI research, which began with a study of lightning`s natural characteristics, has resulted in tools utilities can use to better track and prepare for thunderstorms. Recently the institute completed a series of tests using small rockets to trigger and direct lightning strikes. Now EPRI-sponsored researchers are developing a laser-based technology they believe will be able to guide thunderbolts safely to the ground and ultimately even to discharge thunderclouds.

Lamarre, L.

1994-01-01

346

Microencapsulation Of Living Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In experimental technique, living cells and other biological materials encapsulated within submillimeter-diameter liquid-filled spheres. Sphere material biocompatible, tough, and compliant. Semipermeable, permitting relatively small molecules to move into and out of sphere core but preventing passage of large molecules. New technique promises to make such spherical capsules at high rates and in uniform, controllable sizes. Capsules injected into patient through ordinary hypodermic needle. Promising application for technique in treatment of diabetes. Also used to encapsulate pituitary cells and thyroid hormone adrenocortical cells for treatment of other hormonal disorders, to encapsulate other secreting cells for transplantation, and to package variety of pharmaceutical products and agricultural chemicals for controlled release.

Chang, Manchium; Kendall, James M.; Wang, Taylor G.

1989-01-01

347

Live Cams: Discovery Channel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With cameras operating in Alaska, Hudson Bay and other far-flung locales, the Discovery Channel's Live Cams page is a great resource for those who love nature in all of its manifestations. First-time visitors should check out the Alaska: The Last Frontier cams as they offer a rich look at this most fascinating state. The Shark Cam is a delight as well and features sharks in the National Aquarium, including black-tip sharks, zebra sharks, and more. The Penguin Cam is also quite fun and visitors can watch the behavior of rockhopper and African penguins at the Audubon Aquarium of the Americas.

348

Living olefin polymerization processes  

DOEpatents

Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

1999-03-30

349

Living olefin polymerization processes  

DOEpatents

Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

Schrock, Richard R. (Winchester, MA); Baumann, Robert (Cambridge, MA)

1999-01-01

350

Living Reviews in Relativity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living Reviews in Relativity is a free refereed electronic journal published by the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert-Einstein Institute). The journal currently contains four articles on quantum gravity, numerical cosmology, and Einstein's equations. Topics covered in future articles will include gravitational wave detection and astrophysics. Articles can be searched based on author, keyword, title, journal, year, and format. Users can choose to have the results output to the screen or as an email message. An email alerting service is available to notify readers of the publication of new articles.

2007-04-29

351

Living Reviews in Relativity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living Reviews in Relativity is a free refereed electronic journal published by the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert-Einstein Institute). The journal currently contains four articles on quantum gravity, numerical cosmology, and Einstein's equations. Topics covered in future articles will include gravitational wave detection and astrophysics. Articles can be searched based on author, keyword, title, journal, year, and format. Users can choose to have the results output to the screen or as an email message. An email alerting service is available to notify readers of the publication of new articles.

352

Communication in Assisted Living*  

PubMed Central

This study of communication in an Assisted Living Facility (ALF) focuses on staff’s interpretive frameworks and situational tactics for managing elderly residents. It is based on interviews with staff and residents in an ALF together with ethnographic fieldwork. As in other quasi-total institutions, staff members engage in control as well as care, monitoring residents for compliance with rules and directives. Residents, aware of the threat of being moved to a nursing home, also monitor their own behavior and cognition in comparison to other residents. Other communication issues include the infantilization of the elderly by staff, and the race, class, and ethnic prejudices of residents.

Williams, Kristine N.; Warren, Carol A.B.

2009-01-01

353

Communication in Assisted Living.  

PubMed

This study of communication in an Assisted Living Facility (ALF) focuses on staff's interpretive frameworks and situational tactics for managing elderly residents. It is based on interviews with staff and residents in an ALF together with ethnographic fieldwork. As in other quasi-total institutions, staff members engage in control as well as care, monitoring residents for compliance with rules and directives. Residents, aware of the threat of being moved to a nursing home, also monitor their own behavior and cognition in comparison to other residents. Other communication issues include the infantilization of the elderly by staff, and the race, class, and ethnic prejudices of residents. PMID:20107612

Williams, Kristine N; Warren, Carol A B

2009-01-01

354

Live Access Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Live Access Server (LAS) is a highly configurable Web server designed to provide flexible access to geo-referenced scientific data. LAS enables users to view data with on-the-fly graphics, request custom subsets of variables in a variety of file formats, and compare variables from distributed locations. LAS enables the data provider to unify access to multiple types of data in a single interface, create thematic data servers from distributed data sources (through the use of DODS/OPenDAP), offer derived products on the fly, and offer unique products (e.g. visualization styles specialized for the data).

Hankin, Steve

2002-09-09

355

Living State Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vanderbilt University's Living State Physics group combines physics and biomedical research in order to increase knowledge of biological systems and phenomena. After learning how physics can enhance the fields of medicine and biology, users can discover the group's greatest accomplishments for the past twenty years in topics such as Non Destructive Evaluation, Biomagnetics, and Cardiophysics. Researchers can learn the details of the group's Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). The expansive website features information and helpful figures about its many physics research projects in cardiac electrodynamics and gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Those interested can also find out about employment opportunities.

356

Combining Live Video and Audio Broadcasting, Synchronous Chat, and Asynchronous Open Forum Discussions in Distance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines the evolution of a unique distance education program that began as a hybrid--combining face-to-face instruction with asynchronous online teaching--and evolved to become an innovative combination of synchronous education using live streaming video, audio, and chat over the Internet, blended with asynchronous online discussions…

Teng, Tian-Lih; Taveras, Marypat

2004-01-01

357

Efficient Visualization of Document Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In machine learning and data mining, multidimensional scaling (MDS) and MDS-like methods are extensively used for dimensionality reduction and for gaining insights into overwhelming amounts of data through visualization. With the growth of the Web and activities of Web users, the amount of data not only grows exponentially but is also becoming available in the form of streams, where new data instances constantly flow into the system, requiring the algorithm to update the model in near-real time. This paper presents an algorithm for document stream visualization through a MDS-like distance-preserving projection onto a 2D canvas. The visualization algorithm is essentially a pipeline employing several methods from machine learning. Experimental verification shows that each stage of the pipeline is able to process a batch of documents in constant time. It is shown that in the experimental setting with a limited buffer capacity and a constant document batch size, it is possible to process roughly 2.5 documents per second which corresponds to approximately 25% of the entire blogosphere rate and should be sufficient for most real-life applications.

Gr?ar, Miha; Podpe?an, Vid; Jurši?, Matjaž; Lavra?, Nada

358

Measurement of Stream Discharge by Wading  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most years the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) makes over 50,000 stream discharge measurements. Over 75 percent of those measurements are made by wading streams and using the velocity-area method. This PowerPoint presentation describes how stream discharge should be measured when wading and using the velocity-area method. It is intended as a learning and reference tool for anyone responsible for making wading discharge measurements.

Nolan, K. Michael; Shields, Ronald R.

2000-01-01

359

Streaming for large scale NLP: Language Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore a streaming al- gorithm paradigm to handle large amounts of data for NLP problems. We present an efficient low-memory method for construct- ing high-order approximate n-gram frequency counts. The method is based on a determinis- tic streaming algorithm which efficiently com- putes approximate frequency counts over a stream of data while employing a small mem-

Amit Goyal; Hal Daumé III; Suresh Venkatasubramanian

2009-01-01

360

Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and fifteen federal agencies have collaborated to create this "common reference for people who are involved in planning, designing, and implementing stream corridor restorations." Preceding the release of the printed version (October 1998), this online version includes full text, color graphics, a slide show on stream corridors, three case studies from streams in New Mexico and Washington, and a collection of useful links to related sites in education, research techniques, and river management.

361

Restoration of Streams in the Agricultural Landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The advent of easily-accessible tile-drainage and the intensification of agricultural practices have brought widespread decoupling\\u000a of streams and their riparian floodplains in agricultural streams over the last 150 years. Channelised and deeply incised\\u000a in the landscape, these streams are more than often reduced to simple drainage ditches – when not simply running in underground\\u000a pipes. This paper describes a modular

Lena B.-M. Vought; Jean O. Lacoursière

362

CAMS: OLAPing Multidimensional Data Streams Efficiently  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of data stream research, taming the multidimensionality of real-life data streams in order to efficiently support OLAP analysis/mining tasks is a critical challenge. Inspired by this fundamental motivation, in this paper we introduce CAMS (C ube-based A cquisition model for M ultidimensional S treams), a model for efficiently OLAPing multidimensional data streams. CAMS combines a set of data stream processing methodologies, namely (i) the OLAP dimension flattening process, which allows us to obtain dimensionality reduction of multidimensional data streams, and (ii) the OLAP stream aggregation scheme, which aggregates data stream readings according to an OLAP-hierarchy-based membership approach. We complete our analytical contribution by means of experimental assessment and analysis of both the efficiency and the scalability of OLAPing capabilities of CAMS on synthetic multidimensional data streams. Both analytical and experimental results clearly connote CAMS as an enabling component for next-generation Data Stream Management Systems.

Cuzzocrea, Alfredo

363

Streaming Instability in Growing Cell Populations  

PubMed Central

Flows of cells growing as a quasimonolayer in a confined space can exhibit streaming, with narrow streams of fast-moving cells flowing around clusters of slowly moving cells. We observed and analyzed this phenomenon experimentally for E. coli bacteria proliferating in a microfluidic cell trap using time-lapse microscopy. We also performed continuum modeling and discrete-element simulations to elucidate the mechanism behind the streaming instability. Our analysis demonstrates that streaming can be explained by the interplay between the slow adaptation of a cell to its local microenvironment and its mobility due to changes of cell-substrate contact forces.

Mather, William; Mondragon-Palomino, Octavio; Danino, Tal; Hasty, Jeff; Tsimring, Lev S.

2010-01-01

364

The Gulf Stream and Density of Fluids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A few kilometers from the shores of Palm Beach County, Florida, the Gulf Stream current--a remarkable "river" within an ocean--makes its closest approach to land. To help Integrated Science students understand why and how the Gulf Stream flows, they study how Florida's Gulf Stream current could be responsible for the wreck of the Titanic using the 5E constructivist instructional model--Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate--to analyze a single problem: Why wasn't the iceberg that sank the Titanic either dissolved or deflected eastward by the Gulf Stream before the collision?

Landstrom, Erich

2006-09-01

365

Beyond rate of living.  

PubMed

The validity of the rate of living theory of aging in mammals has been seriously questioned over the last two decades because it does not account for the life span of many mammalian species. However, though this concept is an oversimplification and inapplicable in general, this does not mean that aging is unrelated to cellular metabolic processes. In general agreement with previous discussions, it can be stated that the rate of aging is proportional to the difference between the rate of cellular entropy production (which is by necessity roughly proportional to the rate of cellular biochemical processes and thus specific metabolic rate) and the cellular "counterentropic' mechanisms (such as cellular repair, antioxidant protection, etc.). These counterentropic mechanisms may have evolved to a different degree in some mammals. This could be effected indirectly by natural selection of certain traits, particularly those expressed in differences in the rates of embryonic and postnatal development. These rates, relatively to basal metabolic rate, determine a species' rate of becoming, which is proposed to be a predictor of mammalian life span. Data from 22 species, from shrew to elephant, with representatives from the main mammalian orders (including many exceptions to the rate of living concept), agree with this hypothesis. A mechanism underlying such natural selection, proposed elsewhere, is based on differential selection pressures among orders for which the different life-styles (particularly with respect to the birth of young) are responsible. PMID:7274681

Economos, A C

1981-01-01

366

Geospatial Image Stream Processing: Models, techniques, and applications in remote sensing change detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of changes in environmental phenomena using remotely sensed data is a major requirement in the Earth sciences, especially in natural disaster related scenarios where real-time detection plays a crucial role in the saving of human lives and the preservation of natural resources. Although various approaches formulated to model multidimensional data can in principle be applied to the inherent complexity of remotely sensed geospatial data, there are still challenging peculiarities that demand a precise characterization in the context of change detection, particularly in scenarios of fast changes. In the same vein, geospatial image streams do not fit appropriately in the standard Data Stream Management System (DSMS) approach because these systems mainly deal with tuple-based streams. Recognizing the necessity for a systematic effort to address the above issues, the work presented in this thesis is a concrete step toward the foundation and construction of an integrated Geospatial Image Stream Processing framework, GISP. First, we present a data and metadata model for remotely sensed image streams. We introduce a precise characterization of images and image streams in the context of remotely sensed geospatial data. On this foundation, we define spatially-aware temporal operators with a consistent semantics for change analysis tasks. We address the change detection problem in settings where multiple image stream sources are available, and thus we introduce an architectural design for the processing of geospatial image streams from multiple sources. With the aim of targeting collaborative scientific environments, we construct a realization of our architecture based on Kepler, a robust and widely used scientific workflow management system, as the underlying computational support; and open data and Web interface standards, as a means to facilitate the interoperability of GISP instances with other processing infrastructures and client applications. We demonstrate our GISP framework with representative remote sensing applications including land cover detection, wildfire detection, and near real-time validation of surface temperature measurements integrating ground- and satellite-based data.

Rueda-Velasquez, Carlos Alberto

367

Interaction between stream temperature, streamflow, and groundwater exchanges in alpine streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four alpine streams were monitored to continuously collect stream temperature and streamflow for periods ranging from a week to a year. In a small stream in the Colorado Rockies, diurnal variations in both stream temperature and streamflow were significantly greater in losing reaches than in gaining reaches, with minimum streamflow losses occurring early in the day and maximum losses occurring early in the evening. Using measured stream temperature changes, diurnal streambed infiltration rates were predicted to increase as much as 35% during the day (based on a heat and water transport groundwater model), while the measured increase in streamflow loss was 40%. For two large streams in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, annual stream temperature variations ranged from 0??to 25??C. In summer months, diurnal stream temperature variations were 30-40% of annual stream temperature variations, owing to reduced streamflows and increased atmospheric heating. Previous reports document that one Sierra stream site generally gains groundwater during low flows, while the second Sierra stream site may lose water during low flows. For August the diurnal streamflow variation was 11% at the gaining stream site and 30% at the losing stream site. On the basis of measured diurnal stream temperature variations, streambed infiltration rates were predicted to vary diurnally as much as 20% at the losing stream site. Analysis of results suggests that evapotranspiration losses determined diurnal streamflow variations in the gaining reaches, while in the losing reaches, evapotranspiration losses were compounded by diurnal variations in streambed infiltration. Diurnal variations in stream temperature were reduced in the gaining reaches as a result of discharging groundwater of relatively constant temperature. For the Sierra sites, comparison of results with those from a small tributary demonstrated that stream temperature patterns were useful in delineating discharges of bank storage following dam releases. Direct coupling may have occurred between streamflow and stream temperature for losing stream reaches, such that reduced streamflows facilitated increased afternoon stream temperatures and increased afternoon stream temperatures induced increased streambed losses, leading to even greater increases in both stream temperature and streamflow losses.

Constantz, J.

1998-01-01

368

Stream-weight optimization by LDA and adaboost for multi-stream speaker verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an automatic stream-weight optimization method for noise-robust speaker verification using multi-stream HMMs integrating spectral and prosodic information. The pa- per first shows the effectiveness of the multi-stream technique in our speaker verification framework. Next, a stream-weight adaptation method combining the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and Adaboost techniques is proposed. Experiments were conducted using four-connected-digit utterances of Japanese

Taichi Asami; Koji Iwano; Sadaoki Furui

2005-01-01

369

Modeling ice streams: Derived quantities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The model addressed is a finite-element, map-plane, time-dependent, column-averaged continuity equation solver. The key to the fitting process involves the balance between ice motion dominated by flow in internal layers, and ice motion dominated by sliding at the bed. The fitting process involves an iterative process carried out in the time domain. Beginning with the portion of the ice sheet being modeled identical to the present ice sheet with uniform flow, sliding, and fraction specified at nominal values, the model monitors each nodal point surface elevation. As the calculated surface elevation deviates from the present surface, a correction proportional to the difference is applied to selected parameter sets. This correction is in a sense that would tend to improve the fit at the particular nodal point. A calculated surface elevation that was higher than the present surface would result in an increased fraction, which would tend to lower the calculated surface (if the flow or sliding constant were being used as the fitting parameter, they would be lowered to improve the fit). This process is allowed to proceed as long as is necessary for the situation to stabilize. Typically, this takes tens of thousands of model years, but the rate is dependent on other external forcings such as the accumulation rate. The primary result is that while a typical sample of ice streams from around Antarctica can be fitted quite reasonably using only the fraction of the velocity due to sliding, a different mechanism seems to be in play along the Siple Coast, where reduced sliding constants are required to attain a reasonable fit. Flow is more strongly channelized in this region, and velocities are, in general, higher than are observed in other regions. It is unlikely that the mechanism that controls the ice movement along the Siple Coast is exactly similar to the mechanisms in the other ice streams. The concept of deformable sediments and their contribution to the fast flow along the Siple Coast may have limited applicability to other Antarctic ice streams.

Fastook, James

1993-01-01

370

MY NASA DATA: Sea Surface Temperature Trends of the Gulf Stream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students investigate and analyze the connection between sea surface temperatures and the flow pattern of the Gulf Stream current. Students will generate an Excel file of sea surface temperatures for the Gulf Stream region from data stored on the Live Access Server. In addition, students will also access and plot seasonal water temperature changes from different time periods. This will allow for a comparison of maximum and minimum temperature fluctuations as well as seasonal variations for locations throughout the Gulf Stream. Students will also explore the Gulf Streamâs affects on weather and offshore industries. This lesson uses student- and citizen science-friendly microsets of authentic NASA Earth system science data from the MY NASA DATA project. It also includes related links, extension, an online glossary, and a list of related AP Environmental Science topics.

371

Toward living radical polymerization.  

PubMed

Radical polymerization is one of the most widely used processes for the commercial production of high-molecular-weight polymers. The main factors responsible for the preeminent position of radical polymerization are the ability to polymerize a wide array of monomers, tolerance of unprotected functionality in monomer and solvent, and compatibility with a variety of reaction conditions. Radical polymerization is simple to implement and inexpensive in relation to competitive technologies. However, conventional radical polymerization severely limits the degree of control that researchers can assert over molecular-weight distribution, copolymer composition, and macromolecular architecture. This Account focuses on nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP) and polymerization with reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT), two of the more successful approaches for controlling radical polymerization. These processes illustrate two distinct mechanisms for conferring living characteristics on radical polymerization: reversible deactivation (in NMP) and reversible or degenerate chain transfer (in RAFT). We devised NMP in the early 1980s and have exploited this method extensively for the synthesis of styrenic and acrylic polymers. The technique has undergone significant evolution since that time. New nitroxides have led to faster polymerization rates at lower temperatures. However, NMP is only applicable to a restricted range of monomers. RAFT was also developed at CSIRO and has proven both more robust and more versatile. It is applicable to the majority of monomers subject to radical polymerization, but the success of the polymerization depends upon the selection of the RAFT agent for the monomers and reaction conditions. We and other groups have proposed guidelines for selection, and the polymerization of most monomers can be well-controlled to provide minimal retardation and a high fraction of living chains by using one of just two RAFT agents. For example, a tertiary cyanoalkyl trithiocarbonate is suited to (meth)acrylate, (meth)acrylamide, and styrenic monomers, while a cyanomethyl xanthate or dithiocarbamate works with vinyl monomers, such as vinyl acetate or N-vinylpyrrolidone. With the appropriate choice of reagents and polymerization conditions, these reactions possess most of the attributes of living polymerization. We have used these methods in the synthesis of well-defined homo-, gradient, diblock, triblock, and star polymers and more complex architectures, including microgels and polymer brushes. Applications of these polymers include novel surfactants, dispersants, coatings and adhesives, biomaterials, membranes, drug-delivery media, electroactive materials, and other nanomaterials. PMID:18700787

Moad, Graeme; Rizzardo, Ezio; Thang, San H

2008-09-01

372

Live From the Poles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International Polar Year presents an extraordinary opportunity to educate students and the public about science at the icy ends of the Earth. The goal of our proposal is to apply collaborative multimedia approaches to bring the story of four polar research expeditions to the general public and the classroom. The four expeditions (measurement of ice sheet dynamics in Greenland, a study of the McMurdo ecosystem over austral winter, installation of a buoy array in the Beaufort Gyre, and exploration of the Gakkel Ridge) were chosen based on their broad range of disciplines and relevance to the three primary IPY research emphasis areas defined by NSF. A science writer and a professional photographer will join each expedition and file dispatches for a daily Webcast. The posting will feature science updates, logistical challenges, team member profiles, and life at sea (or on the ice). The writer will also coordinate real-time phone patches from PIs in the field to audiences at the Museum of Science, Boston, the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, The Field Museum, Chicago, the Houston Museum of Natural Science, the Birch Aquarium, San Diego, the Pacific Science Center, Seattle, National Public Radio "Talk of the Nation: Science Friday," CBS News, and to student "reporters" writing for Scholastic Online. At the museums, the "Live from the Ice" interactive phone calls will be preceded by a background presentation by a scientist, who will also moderate the live discussion between the public and researchers in the field. A 20-30 minute satellite phone call will allow the public to ask the researchers questions about their research while it's happening. In addition to building and promoting an online experience, a museum exhibit featuring models of Arctic instruments and informative kiosks will be developed at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Exhibit Center. Each of our partner museums will also provide a "leave-behind" component to continue to educate visitors before and after the live talks. This project will bring the remote Polar Regions and the scientists that are studying them to audiences across the United States.

Linder, C. A.; Kent, J.; Lippsett, L.

2006-12-01

373

Streaming in Flemish secondary schools: exploring teachers’ perceptions of and adaptations to students in different streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rich body of research on streaming or tracking conducted mainly in the USA and UK suggests that teachers have lower expectations of students in lower education streams and adapt their curriculum and pedagogy in line with such expectations. Recent large?scale quantitative research conducted in Flanders (Belgium) shows that teachers teaching in lower status technical\\/vocational streams share a lower ‘study

Peter A. J. Stevens; Hans Vermeersch

2010-01-01

374

Effects of stream restoration and wastewater treatment plant effluent on fish communities in urban streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Fish community characteristics, resource availability and resource use were assessed in three headwater urban streams in Piedmont North Carolina, U.S.A. Three site types were examined on each stream; two urban (restored and unrestored) and a forested site downstream of urbanisation, which was impacted by effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Stream basal resources, aquatic macroinvertebrates, terrestrial macroin-

ROBERT M. NORTHINGTON; ANNE E. HERSHEY

2006-01-01

375

STREAM CHEMISTRY IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES: II. CURRENT SOURCES OF ACIDITY AND LOW ANC STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined anion composition in National Stream Survey (NSS) data in order to evaluate the most probable sources of current acidity in acidic and low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) streams in the eastern U.S. cidic streams that had almost no organic influence and sulfate conce...

376

ACID-BASE STATUS OF PENNSYLVANIA STREAMS: RESULTS FROM THE NATIONAL STREAM SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Stream Survey (NSS) conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency in the spring of 1986 sampled 82 stream reaches within the state of Pennsylvania, representing a target population of 9900 stream reaches that are potentially sensitive to acidification. After exclu...

377

Variations in stream water uptake by Eucalyptus camaldulensis with differing access to stream water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stable isotopes 2H and 18O were used to determine the water sources of Eucalyptus camaldulensis at three sites with varying exposure to stream water, all underlain by moderately saline groundwater. Water uptake patterns were a function of the long-term availability of surface water. Trees with permanent access to a stream used some stream water at all times. However, water

Peter J. Thorburn; Glen R. Walker

1994-01-01

378

STAR STREAM FOLDING BY DARK GALACTIC SUBHALOS  

SciTech Connect

Star streams in galactic halos are long, thin, unbound structures that will be disturbed by the thousands of dark matter subhalos that are predicted to be orbiting within the main halo. A subhalo generally induces a localized wave in the stream which often evolves into a 'z-fold' as an initially trailing innermost part rotates faster than an initially leading outermost part. The folding, which becomes increasingly complex with time, leads to an apparent velocity dispersion increase and thickening of the stream. We measure the equivalent velocity dispersion around the local mean in the simulations, finding that it rises to about 10 km s{sup -1} after 5 Gyr and 20 km s{sup -1} after 13 Gyr. The currently available measurements of the velocity dispersion of halo star streams range from as small as 2 km s{sup -1} to slightly over 20 km s{sup -1}. The streams with velocity dispersions of 15-20 km s{sup -1} are compatible with what subhalo heating would produce. A dynamical understanding of the low velocity dispersion streams depends on the time since the progenitor's tidal disruption into a thin stream. If the streams are nearly as old as their stars then subhalos cannot be present with the predicted numbers and masses. However, the dynamical age of the streams can be significantly less than the stars. If the three lowest velocity streams are assigned ages of 3 Gyr, they are in conflict with the subhalo heating. The main conclusion is that star stream heating is a powerful and simple test for subhalo structure.

Carlberg, R. G., E-mail: carlberg@astro.utoronto.c [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

2009-11-10

379

An initial SPARROW model of land use and in-stream controls on total organic carbon in streams of the conterminous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Watersheds play many important roles in the carbon cycle: (1) they are a site for both terrestrial and aquatic carbon dioxide (CO2) removal through photosynthesis; (2) they transport living and decomposing organic carbon in streams and groundwater; and (3) they store organic carbon for widely varying lengths of time as a function of many biogeochemical factors. Using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model, along with long-term monitoring data on total organic carbon (TOC), this research quantitatively estimates the sources, transport, and fate of the long-term mean annual load of TOC in streams of the conterminous United States. The model simulations use surrogate measures of the major terrestrial and aquatic sources of organic carbon to estimate the long-term mean annual load of TOC in streams. The estimated carbon sources in the model are associated with four land uses (urban, cultivated, forest, and wetlands) and autochthonous fixation of carbon (stream photosynthesis). Stream photosynthesis is determined by reach-level application of an empirical model of stream chlorophyll based on total phosphorus concentration, and a mechanistic model of photosynthetic rate based on chlorophyll, average daily solar irradiance, water column light attenuation, and reach dimensions. It was found that the estimate of in-stream photosynthesis is a major contributor to the mean annual TOC load per unit of drainage area (that is, yield) in large streams, with a median share of about 60 percent of the total mean annual carbon load in streams with mean flows above 500 cubic feet per second. The interquartile range of the model predictions of TOC from in-stream photosynthesis is from 0.1 to 0.4 grams (g) carbon (C) per square meter (m-2) per day (day-1) for the approximately 62,000 stream reaches in the continental United States, which compares favorably with the reported literature range for net carbon fixation by phytoplankton in lakes and streams. The largest contributors per unit of drainage area to the mean annual stream TOC load among the terrestrial sources are, in descending order: wetlands, urban lands, mixed forests, agricultural lands, evergreen forests, and deciduous forests . It was found that the SPARROW model estimates of TOC contributions to streams associated with these land uses are also consistent with literature estimates. SPARROW model calibration results are used to simulate the delivery of TOC loads to the coastal areas of seven major regional drainages. It was found that stream photosynthesis is the largest source of the TOC yields ( about 50 percent) delivered to the coastal waters in two of the seven regional drainages (the Pacific Northwest and Mississippi-Atchafalaya-Red River basins ), whereas terrestrial sources are dominant (greater than 60 percent) in all other regions (North Atlantic, South Atlantic-Gulf, California, Texas-Gulf, and Great Lakes).

Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Alexander, Richard B.; Smith, Richard A.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Shwarz, Grogory E.; Chung, Susie

2010-01-01

380

Comet disintegration and meteor streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibilities for disintegration of a cometary nucleus by collision with meteoroid streams, pre- dicted by one of authors (Guliyev, 2010) are considered in three zones of the Solar System. A list of disintegrating comets consisting of 118 cases has been made by the authors. The list contains data about observed cases of comet splitting, comet twins, and data about disappeared comets. Testing the comet parameters by applying the methods of mathematical statistics confirms the hypothesis underlying this article. The frequency of passing through the three zones where there might be a collapse of a proto-comet is rather high for the proto-comets of the Sun-grazer group. The results of the statistical analysis of comet outbursts yields additional arguments in favor of our hypothesis.

Guliyev, Ayyub S.; Poladova, Ulviyya J.

2013-01-01

381

Gold found in Idaho streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine-grained gold has been found in stream sediments in parts of central Idaho, indicating that minable, higher-grade deposits of gold may be present in the near-surface rocks in the area, according to three U.S. Geological Survey scientists.As part of a continuing USGS program to assess mineral resources in Idaho, the gold was found in sediments of several creeks south of Salmon in Lemhi County. George A. Desborough, a USGS geologist in Denver, Colo., and principal investigator on the project, said the sediment samples taken from Allison Lake, Mulky and Poison creeks were subjected to a laboratory tabletop mechanical panning technique that detected gold particles of a size too fine to be recognized by conventional hand panning.

382

Live Long and Prosper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Consider the changes. Yesterday's one-room schoolhouse had one teacher responsible for every subject, every grade, and maintenance of the classroom and schoolhouse. Today's self-contained classroom has one teacher responsible for a diverse group of students with wide-ranging abilities and needs; integrated learning of subjects from the basics to social and behavioral issues; and a roomful of widgets--high-tech, low-tech, and all that's in between. Everything has changed, yet everything remains the same. You, the teacher, remain responsible for everyone and for everything that goes on in your classroom. This chapter offers some closing insights and suggestions to help you "live long and prosper" in the science classroom.

Texley, Juliana; Kwan, Terry

2002-01-01

383

Freezing of living cells  

SciTech Connect

It can be calculated that a living cell will survive more than 5000 years at -196/sup 0/C. This ability to essentially stop biological time has important implications in medicine and agriculture, and in biological research. In medicine the chief implications are in the banking of transplantable tissues and organs and in in vitro fertilization. In agriculture the applications stem in part from the role of frozen embryos in amplifying the number of calves produced by high quanlity cows. The problem is how can cells survive both the cooling to such very low temperatures and the return to normal temperatures. The answers involve fundamental characteristics of cells such as the permeability of their surface membranes to water and solutes. These characteristics determine whether or not cells undergo lethal internal ice formation and other response during freezing and thawing. 27 refs., 12 figs.

Mazur, P.

1985-01-01

384

mTreebone: A Collaborative Tree-Mesh Overlay Network for Multicast Video Streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, application-layer overlay networks have been suggested as a promising solution for live video streaming over the Internet. To organize a multicast overlay, a natural structure is a tree, which, however, is known vulnerable to end-hosts dynamics. Data-driven approaches address this problem by employing a mesh structure, which enables data exchanges among multiple neighbors, and thus, greatly improves the overlay

Feng Wang; Yongqiang Xiong; Jiangchuan Liu

2010-01-01

385

Approximate Frequency Counts over Data Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present algorithms for computing frequency counts exceeding a user-specified threshold over data streams. Our algorithms are simple and have provably small memory footprints. Although the output is approximate, the error is guaranteed not to exceed a user-specified parameter. Our algo- rithms can easily be deployed for streams of single- ton items like those found in IP network monitor- ing.

Gurmeet Singh Manku; Rajeev Motwani

2002-01-01

386

Neotropical Amphibian Declines Affect Stream Ecosystem Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global declines of amphibians are well documented, yet effects of these dramatic losses on ecosystem structure and function are poorly understood. As part of a larger collaborative project, we compared two upland Panamanian streams. Both streams are biologically and geologically similar; however, one stream (Fortuna) has recently experienced almost complete extirpation of stream-dwelling frogs, while the other (Cope) still has intact populations. We experimentally excluded tadpoles from localized areas in each stream. We then compared chlorophyll a, algal community composition, ash-free dry mass (AFDM), inorganic matter, and insect assemblages in control and exclusion areas. Additionally, we sampled the natural substrate of both streams monthly for chlorophyll a, algal community composition, AFDM, and inorganic matter. At Cope, chlorophyll a, AFDM, and inorganic matter were greater in areas where tadpoles were excluded than in their presence. Numbers of dominant algal species (e.g., Nupela praecipua and Eunotia siolii) were greater in the exclusion versus control treatments. Monthly sampling of natural substrate indicated higher chlorophyll a and AFDM at Cope compared to Fortuna. Our data suggest that stream-dwelling anuran larvae have significant impacts on algal communities. These results also have implications for predicting the relevance of short-term experimental manipulations to long-term, whole-stream processes.

Connelly, S.; Pringle, C. M.; Bixby, R. J.; Whiles, M. R.; Lips, K. R.; Brenes, R.; Colon-Gaud, J. C.; Kilham, S.; Hunte-Brown, M.

2005-05-01

387

The Comet-Meteor Stream Complex.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The genetic realationship between comets and meteor streams is discussed. It is shown that this relationship may well be a reciprocal one. The formation and dispersion processes in meteor streams are considered, as well as the question of the accretion an...

D. A. Mendis

1972-01-01

388

COHO SALMON DEPENDENCE ON INTERMITTENT STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

In February 2006, the US Supreme Court heard cases that may affect whether intermittent streams are jurisdictional waters under the Clean Water Act. In June 2006, however, the cases were remanded to the circuit court, leaving the status of intermittent streams uncertain once agai...

389

Incremental Local Outlier Detection for Data Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outlier detection has recently become an important problem in many industrial and financial applications. This problem is further complicated by the fact that in many cases, outliers have to be detected from data streams that arrive at an enormous pace. In this paper, an incremental LOF (Local Outlier Factor) algorithm, appropriate for detecting outliers in data streams, is proposed. The

Dragoljub Pokrajac; Aleksandar Lazarevic; Longin Jan Latecki

2007-01-01

390

NATIONAL STREAM QUALITY ACCOUNTING NETWORK DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of the U.S. Geological Surveys National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) program are to (1) account for the quantity and quality of water moving within and from the United States, (2) depict area water-quality variability, and (3) detect changes in stream...

391

Compartmental model of nitrate retention in streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compartmental modeling approach is presented to route nitrate retention along a cascade of stream reach sections. A process transfer function is used for transient storage equations with first-order reaction terms to represent nitrate uptake in the free stream and denitrification in the storage regions. In the context of a short-term nitrate injection we define nitrate assimilative capacity as 1

B. R. Faulkner; M. E. Campana

2007-01-01

392

Clustering Data Streams: Theory and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data stream model has recently attracted attention for its applicability to numerous types of data, including telephone records, web documents and clickstreams. For analysis of such data, the ability to process the data in a single pass, or a small number of passes, while using little memory, is crucial. We describe such a streaming algorithm that effectively clusters large

Sudipto Guha; Adam Meyerson; Nina Mishra; Rajeev Motwani; Liadan O'callaghan

2003-01-01

393

Urban infrastructure and longitudinal stream profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban streams usually are highly engineered or modified by human activity and are conventionally thought of as being geometrically, and thus hydraulically, simple. The work presented here, a contribution to NSF CNH Project 0709659, is designed to capture the influence of urban infrastructure on the character of longitudinal profiles and flow hydraulics along streams in the Baltimore metropolitan area. Detailed

G. A. Lindner; A. J. Miller

2009-01-01

394

Bursty and hierarchical structure in streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental problem in text data mining is to extract meaningful structure from document streams that arrive continuously over time. E-mail and news articles are two natural examples of such streams, each characterized by topics that appear, grow in intensity for a period of time, and then fade away. The published literature in a particular research field can be seen

Jon M. Kleinberg

2002-01-01

395

Path diversity for enhanced media streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media streaming over best effort packet networks such as the Internet is quite challenging because of the dynamic and unpredictable available bandwidth, loss rate, and delay. Recently, streaming over multiple paths to provide path diversity has emerged as an approach to help overcome these problems. This article provides an overview of the benefits and use of path diversity for media

John G. Apostolopoulos; Mitchell D. Trott

2004-01-01

396

Securing the Borealis Data Stream Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

As data stream management systems (DSMSs) become more and more popular, there is an increasing need to protect such systems from adversaries. In this paper we present an approach to secure DSMSs. We propose a general se- curity framework and an access control model to secure DSMSs. We implement our framework into an existing data stream management system and show

Wolfgang Lindner; Jörg Meier

2006-01-01

397

Window Update Patterns in Stream Operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous queries applied over nonterminating data streams usually specify windows in order to obtain an evolving {yet restricted{ set of tuples and thus provide timely results. Among other typical variants, sliding windows are mostly employed in stream processing engines and several advanced techniques have been suggested for their incremental evaluation. In this paper, we set out to study the existence

Kostas Patroumpas; Timos K. Sellis

2009-01-01

398

SCTP multistreaming: preferential treatment among streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

FCS networks are presented with a new transport layer mechanism that, for transmitting multimedia, is markedly superior to transmission over UDP or TCP. SCTP's multistrearning provides an aggregation mechanism for transferring different objects belonging to the same logical application session; however, sharing the congestion state among the streams precludes efficient stream prioritization. We design an SCTP mechanism to provide the

Sunil Samtani; Janardhan R. Iyengar

2003-01-01

399

COMPARTMENTAL MODEL OF NITRATE RETENTION IN STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A compartmental modeling approach is presented to route nitrate retention along a cascade of stream reach sections. A process transfer function is used for transient storage equations with first order reaction terms to represent nitrate uptake in the free stream, and denitrifica...

400

Processing complex aggregate queries over data streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed an increasing interest in designing algorithms for querying and analyzing streaming data (i.e., data that is seen only once in a fixed order) with only limited memory. Providing (perhaps approximate) answers to queries over such continuous data streams is a crucial requirement for many application environments; examples include large telecom and IP network installations where performance

Alin Dobra; Minos N. Garofalakis; Johannes Gehrke; Rajeev Rastogi

2002-01-01

401

Audio stream analysis for environmental sound classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present in this paper a framework for audio concept identification based on audio stream analysis and binary classifiers encapsulation. The system consists of three stages. The first stage is called the pre-processing level audio, where audio stream is segmented and silence segments are detected. In the second stage, speech, music and environmental sounds are automatically divided and further classified.

Issam Feki; Anis Ben Ammar; Adel M. Alimi

2011-01-01

402

The Gulf Stream and Density of Fluids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A few kilometers from the shores of Palm Beach County, Florida, is the Gulf Stream current--a remarkable "river" within an ocean. The current's journey across the Atlantic Ocean connects southeast Florida and southwest Great Britain as it streams steadily north at speeds of 97 km a day; moving 100 times as much water as all the rivers on Earth.…

Landstrom, Erich

2006-01-01

403

THE PAL 5 STAR STREAM GAPS  

SciTech Connect

Pal 5 is a low-mass, low-velocity-dispersion, globular cluster with spectacular tidal tails. We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 data to extend the density measurements of the trailing star stream to 23 deg distance from the cluster, at which point the stream runs off the edge of the available sky coverage. The size and the number of gaps in the stream are measured using a filter which approximates the structure of the gaps found in stream simulations. We find 5 gaps that are at least 99% confidence detections with about a dozen gaps at 90% confidence. The statistical significance of a gap is estimated using bootstrap resampling of the control regions on either side of the stream. The density minimum closest to the cluster is likely the result of the epicyclic orbits of the tidal outflow and has been discounted. To create the number of 99% confidence gaps per unit length at the mean age of the stream requires a halo population of nearly a thousand dark matter sub-halos with peak circular velocities above 1 km s{sup -1} within 30 kpc of the galactic center. These numbers are a factor of about three below cold stream simulation at this sub-halo mass or velocity but, given the uncertainties in both measurement and more realistic warm stream modeling, are in substantial agreement with the LCDM prediction.

Carlberg, R. G.; Hetherington, Nathan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Grillmair, C. J., E-mail: carlberg@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: hetherington@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: carl@ipac.caltech.edu [Spitzer Science Center, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2012-11-20

404

7Q10 flows for SRS streams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Environmental Transport Group of the Environmental Technology Section was requested to predict the seven-day ten-year low flow (7Q10 flow) for the SRS streams based on historical stream flow records. Most of the historical flow records for the SRS str...

K. F. Chen

1996-01-01

405

The Pal 5 Star Stream Gaps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pal 5 is a low-mass, low-velocity-dispersion, globular cluster with spectacular tidal tails. We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 data to extend the density measurements of the trailing star stream to 23 deg distance from the cluster, at which point the stream runs off the edge of the available sky coverage. The size and the number of gaps in the stream are measured using a filter which approximates the structure of the gaps found in stream simulations. We find 5 gaps that are at least 99% confidence detections with about a dozen gaps at 90% confidence. The statistical significance of a gap is estimated using bootstrap resampling of the control regions on either side of the stream. The density minimum closest to the cluster is likely the result of the epicyclic orbits of the tidal outflow and has been discounted. To create the number of 99% confidence gaps per unit length at the mean age of the stream requires a halo population of nearly a thousand dark matter sub-halos with peak circular velocities above 1 km s-1 within 30 kpc of the galactic center. These numbers are a factor of about three below cold stream simulation at this sub-halo mass or velocity but, given the uncertainties in both measurement and more realistic warm stream modeling, are in substantial agreement with the LCDM prediction.

Carlberg, R. G.; Grillmair, C. J.; Hetherington, Nathan

2012-11-01

406

Sulfur removal from a gas stream  

SciTech Connect

There is disclosed a process for removing sulfur compounds from a gas stream. The process involves passing the gas stream containing the sulfur compounds through a mass of porous material that has deposited upon it a metal oxide, the improvement comprises the continuous or intermittent addition of an oxidizing agent and an amine.

Frech, K.J.; Tazuma, J.J.

1984-03-06

407

Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of urbanization on 21 stream ecosystems were studied in the Atlanta area in 1-3 sq mile watersheds varying from 3-100% green space, from 0-98% residential-commercial, and with house densities from 0-941 sq miles. The primary index of stream qu...

A. C. Benke G. E. Willeke F. K. Parrish D. L. Stites

1981-01-01

408

Globular Cluster Tidal Streams: An Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globular cluster tidal streams are of interest for what they can tell us of the dynamical evolution of the clusters and of our Galaxy. Recent studies have used photometric and statistical subtraction methods to attempt to separate potential streams from the field stars that contaminate the samples. We chose instead as our primary method to use photometry to select blue

William L. Powell; A. Lauchner; R. Wilhelm; A. McWilliam

2006-01-01

409

MPEG video streaming with VCR-functionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the proliferation of online multimedia content, the popularity of multimedia streaming technology, and the establishment of MPEG video coding standards, it is important to investigate how to efficiently implement an MPEG video streaming system. Digital video cassette recording (VCR) func- tionality (such as random access, fast forward, fast reverse, etc.) enables quick and user-friendly browsing of multimedia content, and

Chia-wen Lin; Jian Zhou; Jeongnam Youn; Ming-ting Sun

2001-01-01

410

Buffer Management for Wireless Media Streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study playout buffer management at the receiver for supporting multimedia streaming services over unreliable wireless links. On one hand, memory is a precious resource on portable wireless devices and must be used judiciously. On the other hand, allocating a big playout buffer to a media streaming application reduces the probability of a playout in- terruption\\/freeze due to buffer underflow,

Aditya Dua; Nicholas Bambos

2007-01-01

411

Adaptive playout for low latency video streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network variations in video streaming require to prebuffer suffi- cient data at the client prior to playout. This receiver buffer pre- vents the display process from starvation in case of network con- gestion. Prebuffering, however, is also responsible for the major part of the delay between requesting a media stream and playing it at the receiver. In this paper we

Bernd Girod; Niko Färber; Eckehard G. Steinbach

2001-01-01

412

Improving the interleaved signature instruction stream technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control flow monitoring using a watchdog processor is a well-known technique to increase the dependability of a microprocessor system. Most approaches embed reference signatures for the watchdog processor into the processor instruction stream creating noticeable memory and performance overheads. A novel embedding signatures technique called interleaved signatures instruction stream has been recently presented. Targeted to processors included into field-programmable devices,

F. Rodriguez; Jost C. Campelo; Juan J. Serrano

2003-01-01

413

Giving Rise to the Jet Stream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 15-panel interactive from NOVA Online describes some of the factors (e.g., Earth's rotation and the sun's uneven heating of Earth's surface) contributing to the formation of the high-speed eastward flows of the jet streams, found near the top of the troposphere. These jet streams play a major role in guiding weather systems.

Nova, Wgbh; Domain, Teachers'

414

Smart Cooling Technology Utilizing Acoustic Streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic streaming induced by longitudinal vibration at 30 kHz is visualized with particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). To gauge an increase in the velocity of air flow due to acoustic streaming, the velocity of air flow in a gap between the heat source and ultrasonic vibrator is measured using PIV. The ultrasonic wave propagating into air in the gap creates steady-state

Dong-Ryul Lee; Byoung-Gook Loh

2007-01-01

415

INDICATORS OF HYDROLOGIC PERMANENCE IN HEADWATER STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Headwater intermittent streams lie at the aquatic-terrestrial interface and represent much of our nation's stream miles. Recent court cases concerning the definition of jurisdictional waters under the Clean Water Act have illuminated a need to better understand the characteristi...

416

Energy-Aware Wireless Video Streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a dynamic energy management policy for a wireless video streaming system, consisting of battery-powered client and server. The paper starts from the observation that the video quality in wireless streaming is a function of three factors: encoding aptitude of the server, decoding aptitude of the client, and the wireless channel. Based on this observation, the energy consumption

Ali Iranli; Kihwan Choi; Massoud Pedram

2003-01-01

417

Describing story evolution from dynamic information streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of streaming information, such as news syndicates, publish information continuously. Information portals and news aggregators list the latest information from around the world enabling information consumers to easily identify events in the past 24 hours. The volume and velocity of these streams causes information from prior days to quickly vanish despite its utility in providing an informative context for

Stuart J. Rose; Scott Butner; Wendy E. Cowley; Michelle L. Gregory; Julia Walker

2009-01-01

418

Geomorphic applications of stream-gage information  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the United States, several thousand stream gages provide what typically is the only source of continuous, long-term streamflow and channel-geometry information for the locations being monitored. In this paper, the geomorphic content of stream-gage information, previous and potential applications of stream-gage information in fluvial geomorphic research and various possible limitations are described. Documented applications include studies of hydraulic geometry, channel bankfull characteristics, sediment transport and channel geomorphic response to various types of disturbance. Potential applications include studies to determine the geomorphic effectiveness of large floods and in-stream habitat change in response to disturbance. For certain applications, various spatial, temporal and data limitations may render the stream-gage information of limited use; however, such information often is of considerable value to enable or enhance geomorphic investigations.

Juracek, K. E.; Fitzpatrick, F. A.

2009-01-01

419

Describing Story Evolution from Dynamic Information Streams  

SciTech Connect

Sources of streaming information, such as news syndicates, publish information continuously. Information portals and news aggregators list the latest information from around the world enabling information consumers to easily identify events in the past 24 hours. The volume and velocity of these streams causes information from prior days’ to quickly vanish despite its utility in providing an informative context for interpreting new information. Few capabilities exist to support an individual attempting to identify or understand trends and changes from streaming information over time. The burden of retaining prior information and integrating with the new is left to the skills, determination, and discipline of each individual. In this paper we present a visual analytics system for linking essential content from information streams over time into dynamic stories that develop and change over multiple days. We describe particular challenges to the analysis of streaming information and explore visual representations for showing story change and evolution over time.

Rose, Stuart J.; Butner, R. Scott; Cowley, Wendy E.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Walker, Julia

2009-10-12

420

The composition of corotating energetic particle streams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relative abundances of 1.5 to 23 MeV/nucleon ions in corotating nucleon streams were compared with ion abundances in particle events associated with solar flares and with solar and solar wind abundances. He/O and C/O ratios were found to be a factor of the order two to three times greater in corotating streams than in flare associated events. The distribution of H/He ratios in corotating streams was found to be much narrower and of lower average value than in flare associated events. H/He in corotating energetic particle streams compared favorably both in lack of variability and numerical value to H/He in high speed solar wind plasma streams. This comparison suggested that the source population for the corotating energetic particles was the solar wind.

Mcguire, R. E.; Von Renvinge, T. T.; Mcdonald, F. B.

1978-01-01

421

Unionville, Pennsylvania School's Stream Restoration Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past three years, students and Earth Club members of C.F. Patton Middle School and Unionville High School have been involved in a stream restoration and monitoring project along a tributary to the East Branch of the Red Clay Creek in Pennsylvania. The Red Clay is within the larger Christina River Basin watershed which drains to Delaware Bay. Total funding of \\$962.00 was awarded by the Unionville-Chadds Ford Education Foundation to purchase both stream monitoring equipment and native plant species for stream restoration. Nine science teachers in the school district received certification in stream monitoring by the Pennsylvania State Parks Division. Certification enables the science faculty and their students to enter monitoring data in a statewide stream database. The stream data includes: temperature, levels of dissolved oxygen and nutrients, pH, alkalinity, conductivity, and a complete biosurvey of invertebrates. In addition to ongoing monitoring, the Earth Club sponsored a name-the-stream contest. Quartz Creek was chosen for this previously unnamed tributary. Its' name was approved by the East Marlborough Township Supervisor in May, 2004 and was then submitted to the USGS' Board on Geographic Names. The Earth Club has also sponsored a stream restoration contest. Students in the middle school were encouraged to design a habitat along the stream banks that would keep sediment in-place, while encouraging wildlife. The stream was originally crowded with invasive multi-flora rose but this was removed with the help of parents and students over a two year period. The winning student poster was outstanding and native species were purchased and planted following the poster's design. The planting took place in May, 2004 with over 40 persons involved including 25 middle school and 8 high school students, teachers from the schools, administrators and employees of the Brandywine Conservancy, and Red Clay Valley and Brandywine Valley Associations, and graduate students from the University of Delaware.

Madsen, S. M.

2004-12-01

422

Experimental investigation of acoustic streaming in a cylindrical wave guide up to high streaming Reynolds numbers.  

PubMed

Measurements of streaming velocity are performed by means of Laser Doppler Velocimetry and Particle Image Velociimetry in an experimental apparatus consisting of a cylindrical waveguide having one loudspeaker at each end for high intensity sound levels. The case of high nonlinear Reynolds number ReNL is particularly investigated. The variation of axial streaming velocity with respect to the axial and to the transverse coordinates are compared to available Rayleigh streaming theory. As expected, the measured streaming velocity agrees well with the Rayleigh streaming theory for small ReNL but deviates significantly from such predictions for high ReNL. When the nonlinear Reynolds number is increased, the outer centerline axial streaming velocity gets distorted towards the acoustic velocity nodes until counter-rotating additional vortices are generated near the acoustic velocity antinodes. This kind of behavior is followed by outer streaming cells only and measurements in the near wall region show that inner streaming vortices are less affected by this substantial evolution of fast streaming pattern. Measurements of the transient evolution of streaming velocity provide an additional insight into the evolution of fast streaming. PMID:24437742

Reyt, Ida; Bailliet, Hélène; Valière, Jean-Christophe

2014-01-01

423

The Living Soil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Soil is home to vast numbers of organisms, and even small sections of earth teem with a diverse array of life. This Topic in Depth takes a closer look at the world beneath our feet through the lens of soil biologists and ecologists. The first website (1) provides information about the activities of a Natural Environment Research Council-supported research program "on the biological diversity of soil biota and the functional roles played by soil organisms in key ecological processes." The second site (2) contains information about several research projects of the Ecology of Soil Organisms Theme Group at Wageningen University and Research Centre. The Theme Group studies "soil organisms at the population, community, and ecosystem level, to ultimately increase understanding of the role of soil organisms." The third site (3) contains a list of publications spanning the past fifteen years from members of the Soil Ecology Group at the University of Jyv'skyl". The site also provides basic information about group members, and concise descriptions of current research projects. From the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the fourth website (4) contains an online version of the _Soil Biology Primer_, "an introduction to the living component of soil and how it contributes to agricultural productivity, and air and water quality. The Primer includes units describing the soil food web and its relationship to soil health, and units about bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, arthropods, and earthworms." The online version of the Primer contains the entire text of the original published version, but is missing some useful soil organism images. The fifth site (5) links to sixteen movies relating to different aspects of soil biology such as nematodes, mites, springtails, and protozoa. The movies were all produced by Dr. Thomas E. Loynachan, a Professor of Agronomy and Microbiology at Iowa State University. Finally, Soils Are Alive (6) was developed by Professor Lyn Abbot of the University of Western Australia and Jen Slater, a qualified secondary school science teacher. This website contains informative, concise sections addressing Soil Biology, Biological Processes, Living Components, and Ecosystem Management.

424

Evaluating the reliability of the stream tracer approach to characterize stream-subsurface water exchange  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stream water was locally recharged into shallow groundwater flow paths that returned to the stream (hyporheic exchange) in St. Kevin Gulch, a Rocky Mountain stream in Colorado contaminated by acid mine drainage. Two approaches were used to characterize hyporheic exchange: sub- reach-scale measurement of hydraulic heads and hydraulic conductivity to compute streambed fluxes (hydrometric approach) and reachscale modeling of in- stream solute tracer injections to determine characteristic length and timescales of exchange with storage zones (stream tracer approach). Subsurface data were the standard of comparison used to evaluate the reliability of the stream tracer approach to characterize hyporheic exchange. The reach-averaged hyporheic exchange flux (1.5 mL s-1 m-1), determined by hydrometric methods, was largest when stream base flow was low (10 L s-1); hyporheic exchange persisted when base flow was 10- fold higher, decreasing by approximately 30%. Reliability of the stream tracer approach to detect hyporheic exchange was assessed using first- order uncertainty analysis that considered model parameter sensitivity. The stream tracer approach did not reliably characterize hyporheic exchange at high base flow: the model was apparently more sensitive to exchange with surface water storage zones than with the hyporheic zone. At low base flow the stream tracer approach reliably characterized exchange between the stream and gravel streambed (timescale of hours) but was relatively insensitive to slower exchange with deeper alluvium (timescale of tens of hours) that was detected by subsurface measurements. The stream tracer approach was therefore not equally sensitive to all timescales of hyporheic exchange. We conclude that while the stream tracer approach is an efficient means to characterize surface-subsurface exchange, future studies will need to more routinely consider decreasing sensitivities of tracer methods at higher base flow and a potential bias toward characterizing only a fast component of hyporheic exchange. Stream tracer models with multiple rate constants to consider both fast exchange with streambed gravel and slower exchange with deeper alluvium appear to be warranted.

Harvey, J. W.; Wagner, B. J.; Bencala, K. E.

1996-01-01

425

Living With Floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk management in the lower Rhine River basin (downstream from Cologne) relies on flood control by dikes for many centuries. This has resulted in an ever in- creasing sense of safety and, subsequently, in increased investments in the protected areas. In the long term, however, this causes an increase in vulnerability to flood- ing and a recurrent call to further control the floods, with many negative impacts on natural and cultural landscape values, and eventually also on society at large. The ob- jective of the project was to design and evaluate alternative flood risk management strategies which are applicable for the long-term (50-100 years) and better take into account the uncertainties that are inherent to lowland rivers. Two different strategies were elaborated, based on the principle of resilience and living with floods: compart- mentalisation for detentionS and Sgreen rivers for dischargeS. It was found that these ´ alternative strategies have many advantages from a sustainability point of view, but are difficult to implement. They require huge investments and have enormous impact on local and regional scales, whereas the advantages are obvious primarily from a long-term point-of-view and in a larger spatial-scale frame.

van Buuren, M.; Vis, M.; Klijn, F.

426

Lives Worth Living: Religious Education and Social Movements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When people of faith participate in movements for social change, how are their religious and moral identities formed, challenged, and transformed? Although they have explicit and tangible goals as they participate in advocacy, protest, and boycotts, religious social activists also, James Jasper argues, craft "lives worth living" (1997).…

Ayres, Jennifer R.

2013-01-01

427

Anthropogenic influences on hydrology and biota on the Glinš?ica stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the size of the urban population was increasing, stream corridors have become more and more physically changed to ensure flood safety and to increase urban surfaces. For this purpose dams, accumulations, banks and other objects on the stream corridors have been built. Besides, riparian vegetation has been removed; river corridors have been straightened and often made of concrete. In comparison with natural streams, physically changed river corridors have different values of physical, chemical and biotic parameters, which influence self-purification capacity of the streams. We were investigating in which way these parameters were modified due to human influenced changes to river streams on five sampling sites on the Glinš?ica stream. For comparison we took another sampling site on its tributary Pržanec. First sampling site is located in almost unregulated reach, whereas the other four in regulated reach. Last two sampling sites are located in the reach with concrete channel. Depth of the river, water flow and velocity, composition of organic and inorganic substratum, temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, nitrates and phosphates were studied and also samples of periphyton and macroinvertebrates were taken in all four seasons from spring 2005 till winter 2006. We have found out that downstream water quality decreases with increase of human-caused changes on the stream corridor. Water quality decreases mostly for the insufficiency of shading, which leads to increased water temperature, increased saturation with oxygen and increased pH on sunny summer days. Straightened and concrete river channels cause decreased depth of the river, increased water flow and increased velocity. The main problem for water organisms regarding changing and straightening river channels is that substrate, velocities and depth become homogeneous. This means that there are no different habitats, suitable for different species and that there is no shelter to hide from high velocities, high temperatures and predators. Conditions on the whole corridor are the same and suitable for only few species, so the biodiversity in human-changed river corridors usually declines. All these physical and chemical changes caused by anthropogenic alteration of stream corridors have also different influence on different species of organisms. In ecological part of this study, which was made on Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, macroinvertebrates and periphyton in the Glinš?ica stream were studied. The investigation shows that influence of anthropogenic alteration is much bigger for macroinvertebrates community as for periphyton community. Changes of macroinvertebrates community were bigger from site to site in comparison with the same site in different seasons. Periphyton community shows different result: changes in community were bigger at the same location in different seasons as from site to site. Biodiversity of macroinvertebrates decreases on the sites with concrete channel, but the biggest value of biodiversity is reached almost by all measurements on physically changed site just before the concrete channel starts. Study of periphyton gives results that are even more surprising: the biggest values of biodiversity of diatoms community at spring and summer measurements were on the sites with the concrete channel. This investigation shows that anthropogenic changes on the stream corridor are not necessary negative for all species living in a stream, but if we want to ensure a good water quality, we have to ensure good living conditions for all the water organisms and the organisms living in surroundings of s stream.

Koprivšek, M.

2009-04-01

428

Live imaging of GFP-labeled proteins in Drosophila oocytes.  

PubMed

The Drosophila oocyte has been established as a versatile system for investigating fundamental questions such as cytoskeletal function, cell organization, and organelle structure and function. The availability of various GFP-tagged proteins means that many cellular processes can be monitored in living cells over the course of minutes or hours, and using this technique, processes such as RNP transport, epithelial morphogenesis, and tissue remodeling have been described in great detail in Drosophila oocytes. The ability to perform video imaging combined with a rich repertoire of mutants allows an enormous variety of genes and processes to be examined in incredible detail. One such example is the process of ooplasmic streaming, which initiates at mid-oogenesis. This vigorous movement of cytoplasmic vesicles is microtubule and kinesin-dependent and provides a useful system for investigating cytoskeleton function at these stages. Here I present a protocol for time lapse imaging of living oocytes using virtually any confocal microscopy setup. PMID:23567977

Pokrywka, Nancy Jo

2013-01-01

429

Water discharged from the gulf stream north of Cape Hatteras. (Reannouncement with new availability information)  

SciTech Connect

Satellite radiometer-derived sea surface temperature images together with moored instrument and hydrographic survey data indicate that water ejected from the Gulf Stream often occupies the upper 200 m of the water column over the continental slope between Cape Hatteras and Hudson Canyon. At times this water resembles the energetic Gulf Stream frontal eddies commonly seen to the south of Cape Hatteras. However, many of the observed parcels of this water differ markedly from frontal eddies and Gulf Stream warm-core rings and so appear to form a class of discharged Gulf Stream water distinct from any previously reported. These parcels generally cover a broad area (compared with frontal eddies), contain relatively weak currents (generally < 40 cm/s at 100 m), and are remarkably long-lived (sometimes distinguishable for more than 2 months). Sanity anomaly distributions indicate that despite their persistence, these water masses contain intrusions of and mix with surrounding lower-salinity water, particularly in the upper So m. Continuity of various tracers along surfaces reveals that the discharged Gulf Stream water observed near the sea surface originated within the nutrient-bearing stratum of the Gulf Stream, having upwelled hundreds of meters along density surfaces. As a result, it tends to enhance nutrient concentrations over the continental slope, to a significant extent at 100 m depth but only marginally at 50 m depth. By contrast, this water does not carry unusually large kinetic energy densities into the slope region, but apparently gives up a good deal of kinetic energy, on the order of 10,000 sq cm/sec sq. per unit mass, while leaving the Gulf Stream.

Churchill, J.H.; Cornillon, P.C.

1991-12-31

430

Biological Conditions in Streams of Johnson County, Kansas, and Nearby Missouri, 2003 and 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Johnson County is one of the fastest growing and most populated counties in Kansas. Urban development affects streams by altering stream hydrology, geomorphology, water chemistry, and habitat, which then can lead to adverse effects on fish and macroinvertebrate communities. In addition, increasing sources of contaminants in urbanizing streams results in public-health concerns associated with exposure to and consumption of contaminated water. Biological assessments, or surveys of organisms living in aquatic environments, are crucial components of water-quality programs because they provide an indication of how well water bodies support aquatic life. This fact sheet describes current biological conditions of Johnson County streams and characterizes stream biology relative to urban development. Biological conditions were evaluated by collecting macroinvertebrate samples from 15 stream sites in Johnson County, Kansas, in 2003 and 2004 (fig. 1). Data from seven additional sites, collected as part of a separate study with similar objectives in Kansas and Missouri (Wilkison and others, 2005), were evaluated to provide a more comprehensive assessment of watersheds that cross State boundaries. Land-use and water- and streambed-sediment-quality data also were used to evaluate factors that may affect macroinvertebrate communities. Metrics are indices used to measure, or evaluate, macroinvertebrate response to various factors such as human disturbance. Multimetric scores, which integrated 10 different metrics that measure various aspects of macroinvertebrate communities, including organism diversity, composition, tolerance, and feeding characteristics, were used to evaluate and compare biological health of Johnson County streams. This information is useful to city and county officials for defining current biological conditions, evaluating conditions relative to State biological criteria, evaluating effects of urbanization, developing effective water-quality management plans, and documenting changes in biological conditions and water quality.

Poulton, Barry C.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Lee, Casey J.

2007-01-01

431

Seasonal variation of some heavy metal pollution with environmental and microbiological parameters in sub-basin of Kocabas Stream (Biga, Canakkale, Turkey) by ICP-AES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste water pollution in industrial areas is one of the most important environmental problems. Heavy metal pollution, especially\\u000a chromium species in waste water sources from tannery affects our lives. Kocabas Stream is located in south-west Marmara region\\u000a and Biga town is positioned in the sub basin on the stream. This water source functions as the water for irrigation in agriculture,

Özlem Tongu? Yayinta?; Selahattin Yilmaz; Muhammet Türko?lu; Fatma Arik ?olako?lu; Fikret ?akir

2007-01-01

432

Fast algorithm for automatically computing Strahler stream order  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An efficient algorithm was developed to determine Strahler stream order for segments of stream networks represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The algorithm correctly assigns Strahler stream order in topologically complex situations such as braided streams and multiple drainage outlets. Execution time varies nearly linearly with the number of stream segments in the network. This technique is expected to be particularly useful for studying the topology of dense stream networks derived from digital elevation model data.

Lanfear, Kenneth, J.

1990-01-01

433

Limitations and Implications of Stream Classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stream classifications that are based on channel form, such as the Rosgen Level II classification, are useful tools for the physical description and grouping of streams and for providing a means of communication for stream studies involving scientists and (or) managers with different backgrounds. The Level II classification also is used as a tool to assess stream stability, infer geomorphic processes, predict future geomorphic response, and guide stream restoration or rehabilitation activities. The use of the Level II classification for these additional purposes is evaluated in this paper. Several examples are described to illustrate the limitations and management implications of the Level II classification. Limitations include: (1) time dependence, (2) uncertain applicability across physical environments, (3) difficulty in identification of a true equilibrium condition, (4) potential for incorrect determination of bankfull elevation, and (5) uncertain process significance of classification criteria. Implications of using stream classifications based on channel form, such as Rosgen's, include: (1) acceptance of the limitations, (2) acceptance of the risk of classifying streams incorrectly, and (3) classification results may be used inappropriately. It is concluded that use of the Level II classification for purposes beyond description and communication is not appropriate. Research needs are identified that, if addressed, may help improve the usefulness of the Level II classification.

Juracek, Kyle E.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

2003-06-01

434

Acoustic streaming of a sharp edge.  

PubMed

Anomalous acoustic streaming is observed emanating from sharp edges of solid bodies that are vibrating in fluids. The streaming velocities can be orders of magnitude higher than expected from the Rayleigh streaming at similar amplitudes of vibration. Acoustic velocity of fluid relative to a solid body diverges at a sharp edge, giving rise to a localized time-independent body force acting on the fluid. This force results in a formation of a localized jet. Two-dimensional numerical simulations are performed to predict acoustic streaming for low amplitude vibration using two methods: (1) Steady-state solution utilizing perturbation theory and (2) direct transient solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Both analyses agree with each other and correctly predict the streaming of a sharp-edged vibrating blade measured experimentally. The origin of the streaming can be attributed to the centrifugal force of the acoustic fluid flow around a sharp edge. The dependence of this acoustic streaming on frequency and velocity is examined using dimensional analysis. The dependence law is devised and confirmed by numerical simulations. PMID:24993192

Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Zhou, Jianbo; Yalamanchili, Satish

2014-07-01

435

Charting the trajectory of the ATLAS stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stellar streams provide dramatic confirmation that large systems accrete smaller systems, in the context of a hierarchical merging cosmology, and therefore contain important clues about the formation mechanism of the Galactic halo. By studying the detailed properties of streams we can determine how stars are stripped from their hosts due to the Galactic tidal field and how the formation of the Galactic halo may have proceeded. Here we propose to trace the full visible extent of the recently discovered ATLAS stream using deep, wide-field photometry, to determine its path across the sky in 3 dimensions. By utilising the very wide-field capabilities of DECam, we will determine the deep, MW decontaminated CMD in a 30 degree long portion of the stream, allowing us to determine the distance, density profile and stellar population makeup of the stream. The position and density on the sky of kinematically cold structures like the ATLAS stream provides powerful, unbiased constraints on the distribution of dark matter in the Galaxy. Furthermore, deep photometry of the stellar content of the stream will tell us what type of system was the likely progenitor: globular cluster, ultra-faint dwarf or dSph galaxy.

de Boer, Thomas; Belokurov, Vasily; Koposov, Sergey; Irwin, Mike; Erkal, Denis

2014-08-01

436

Limitations and implications of stream classification  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stream classifications that are based on channel form, such as the Rosgen Level II classification, are useful tools for the physical description and grouping of streams and for providing a means of communication for stream studies involving scientists and (or) managers with different backgrounds. The Level II classification also is used as a tool to assess stream stability, infer geomorphic processes, predict future geomorphic response, and guide stream restoration or rehabilitation activities. The use of the Level II classification for these additional purposes is evaluated in this paper. Several examples are described to illustrate the limitations and management implications of the Level II classification. Limitations include: (1) time dependence, (2) uncertain applicability across physical environments, (3) difficulty in identification of a true equilibrium condition, (4) potential for incorrect determination of bankfull elevation, and (5) uncertain process significance of classification criteria. Implications of using stream classifications based on channel form, such as Rosgen's, include: (1) acceptance of the limitations, (2) acceptance of the risk of classifying streams incorrectly, and (3) classification results may be used inappropriately. It is concluded that use of the Level II classification for purposes beyond description and communication is not appropriate. Research needs are identified that, if addressed, may help improve the usefulness of the Level II classification.

Juracek, K. E.; Fitzpatrick, F. A.

2003-01-01

437

Ecological health in the Nation's streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aquatic biological communities, which are collections of organisms, are a direct measure of stream health because they indicate the ability of a stream to support life. This fact sheet highlights selected findings of a national assessment of stream health by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The assessment was unique in that it integrated the condition of three biological communities—algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish—as well as measures of streamflow modification, pesticides, nutrients, and other factors. At least one biological community was altered at 83 percent of assessed streams, and the occurrence of altered communities was highest in urban streams. Streamflows were modified at 86 percent of assessed streams, and increasing severity of streamflow modification was associated with increased occurrence of altered biological communities. Agricultural and urban land use in watersheds may contribute pesticides and nutrients to stream waters, and increasing concentrations of these chemicals were associated with increased occurrence of altered biological communities.

Carlisle, Daren M.; Woodside, Michael D.

2013-01-01

438

Energy dissipation and clustering in granular streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of weak cohesive forces between macroscopic grains can lead to the break up of a free falling granular stream, similar to the surface-tension-driven break up of a liquid streamfootnotetext Royer, J. R. et al. Nature 459 1110 - 1113 (2009).. This sensitivity to minute forces suggests that these free falling streams could serve as a tool to probe the interactions between grains. In order to investigate the connection between the stream dynamics and the grain-grain interactions, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of a granular stream freely falling out of a hopper varying the cohesion and inelasticity of the grains. We find that in the absence of cohesive forces the stream breaks apart into isolated grains, in contrast to the clustering observed in simulations of inelastic granular gases. For sufficiently high cohesive forces we reproduce the break up of stream into droplets, while with lower cohesive forces the stream breaks up into smaller clusters consisting of only a few grains. Measuring the change in contact number and decay of velocity fluctuations with depth, we characterize the different regions of the force-inelasticity phase space.

Waitukaitis, Scott; Royer, John; Gruetjen, Helge; Jaeger, Heinrich

2009-11-01

439

Organic Carbon Cycling in a Swamp-Stream Ecosystem and Export by Streams in Eastern North Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Organic carbon concentrations were monitored in 7 small N.C. streams, 4 of which had been channelized. Seasonal patterns of organic carbon concentrations were different between channelized streams and natural swamp-streams; however, there was overlap in w...

P. J. Mulholland

1979-01-01

440

Web-Streamed Didactic Instruction on Substance Use Disorders Compares Favorably with Live-Lecture Format  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Education about substance use disorders in medical schools and, subsequently, physicians' identification of and intervention in these diagnoses lag behind that of most other disabling disorders. To reduce barriers and improve access to education about this major public health concern, medical schools are increasingly adopting web-based…

Maher, Karam-Hage; Brower, Kirk J.; Mullan, Patricia B.; Gay, Tamara; Gruppen, Larry D.

2013-01-01

441

The Impact of Imposing a Water Quality Standard on a Live Stream.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation is presented of the influence of water quality standards on the planning and development of a river basin and on the treatment requirements for wastewater discharges. The Big Sioux River in eastern South Dakota was selected for a case study ...

J. N. Dornbush J. R. Andersen J. Herreid D. J. Naughton K. L. Rakness

1971-01-01

442

Adaptive HRD parameter selection for fixed delay live wireless video streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a windowed rate adaptation scheme for transmitting delay-constrained video over a wireless channel. We consider an H.264 encoder with HRD-compliant rate control and a generic 802.11-like radio. The scheme assumes only loose coupling between system components which improves implementation feasibility at the cost of some performance. To demonstrate the validity of our scheme, we perform

Robert Stapenhurst; Dimitris Agrafiotis; Jon Pledge

2010-01-01

443

The living publication  

SciTech Connect

Within the ICSTI Insights Series we offer three articles on the 'living publication' that is already available to practitioners in the important field of crystal structure determination and analysis. While the specific examples are drawn from this particular field, we invite readers to draw parallels in their own fields of interest. The first article describes the present state of the crystallographic living publication, already recognized by an ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers) Award for Publishing Innovation in 2006. The second article describes the potential impact on the record of science as greater post-publication analysis becomes more common within currently accepted data deposition practices, using processed diffraction data as the starting point. The third article outlines a vision for the further improvement of crystallographic structure reports within potentially achievable enhanced data deposition practices, based upon raw (unprocessed) diffraction data. The IUCr in its Commissions and Journals has for many years emphasized the importance of publications being accompanied by data and the interpretation of the data in terms of atomic models. This has been followed as policy by numerous other journals in the field and its cognate disciplines. This practice has been well served by databases and archiving institutions such as the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), and the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD). Normally the models that are archived are interpretations of the data, consisting of atomic coordinates with their displacement parameters, along with processed diffraction data from X-ray, neutron or electron diffraction studies. In our current online age, a reader can not only consult the printed word, but can display and explore the results with molecular graphics software of exceptional quality. Furthermore, the routine availability of processed diffraction data allows readers to perform direct calculations of the electron density (using X-rays and electrons as probes) or the nuclear density (using neutrons as probe) on which the molecular models are directly based. This current community practice is described in our first article. There are various ways that these data and tools can be used to further analyze the molecules that have been crystallized. Notably, once a set of results is announced via the publication, the research community can start to interact directly with the data and models. This gives the community the opportunity not only to read about the structure, but to examine it in detail, and even generate subsequent improved models. These improved models could, in principle, be archived along with the original interpretation of the data and can represent a continuously improving set of interpretations of a set of diffraction data. The models could improve both by correction of errors in the original interpretation and by the use of new representations of molecules in crystal structures that more accurately represent the contents of a crystal. These possible developments are described in our second article. A current, significant, thrust for the IUCr is whether it would be advantageous for the crystallographic community to require, rather than only encourage, the archiving of the raw (unprocessed) diffraction data images measured from a crystal, a fibre or a solution. This issue is being evaluated in detail by an IUCr Working Group (see http://forums.iucr.org). Such archived raw data would be linked to and from any associated publications. The archiving of raw diffraction data could allow as yet undeveloped processing methods to have access to the originally measured data. The debate within the community about this much larger proposed archiving effort revolves around the issue of 'cost versus benefit'. Costs can be minimized by preserving the raw data in local repositories, either at centralized synchrotron and neutron research institutes, or at research universities. Archiving raw data is also perceived as bein

Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-04

444

Woody Debris: Linking Stream Morphology and Aquatic Biota in Southeastern Coastal Plain Streams, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-stream habitat including woody debris is widely recognized as an important aspect of aquatic health. Relationships between woody debris and the distribution and life history of aquatic species are increasingly documented in the literature. In southeastern coastal plain streams, woody debris may have a greater influence on stream form and function than in other regions due to highly mobile shifting sand substrates. In an effort to document baseline stream conditions, natural variability within biological communities, and to also link chemical, physical and biological parameters within the Gulf Coastal Plain physiographic region, aquatic surveys have been conducted on Eglin Air Force Base, Florida over the past four years. We developed quantitative indicators of habitat health and protocols for measuring habitat condition at various geographic scales. Physical variables included stream channel characteristics, habitat connectivity, riparian cover and in-stream habitat including woody debris. Biological data (fishes and aquatic insects) were compared with in-stream habitat data for 56 sites. Significant relationships between species and in-stream habitat presence/absence and abundance were detected. Associations between woody debris and bed morphology were also significant. These preliminary data suggest that woody debris is an important factor shaping biological communities and stream geomorphic features in sand-bottom coastal plain streams.

Thom, T. A.; Herod, J. J.

2005-05-01

445

Methods of separating particulate residue streams  

DOEpatents

A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Christopher T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-04-05

446

Herbicides in streams. Midwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Results from a 2-year study of 149 streams geographically distributed across the corn-producing region of 10 midwestern States show that detectable concentrations of herbicides persist year round in most streams. Some herbicides exceeded proposed maximum contaminant levels for drinking water for periods of several weeks to several months following application. Atrazine was the most frequently detected and most persistent herbicide measured, followed by desethylatrazine and metolachlor. The seasonal distribution of atrazine indicates that aquifers contributing base flow to many of the streams are contaminated with herbicides.

Goolsby, Donald, A.; Thurman, E. Michael; Kolpin, Dana, W.

1991-01-01

447

Benchmarking real-time HEVC streaming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Work towards the standardisation of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), the next generation video coding scheme, is currently gaining pace. HEVC offers the prospect of a 50% improvement in compression over the current H.264 Advanced Video Coding standard (H.264/AVC). Thus far, work on HEVC has concentrated on improvements to the coding efficiency and has not yet addressed transmission in networks other than to mandate byte stream compliance with Annex B of H.264/AVC. For practical networked HEVC applications a number of essential building blocks have yet to be defined. In this work, we design and prototype a real-time HEVC streaming system and empirically evaluate its performance, in particular we consider the robustness of the current Test Model under Consideration (TMuC HM4.0) for HEVC to packet loss caused by a reduction in available bandwidth both in terms of decoder resilience and degradation in perceptual video quality. A NAL unit packetisation and streaming framework for HEVC encoded video streams is designed, implemented and empirically tested in a number of streaming environments including wired, wireless, single path and multiple path network scenarios. As a first step the HEVC decoder's error resilience is tested under a comprehensive set of packet loss conditions and a simple error concealment method for HEVC is implemented. Similarly to H.264 encoded streams, the size and distribution of NAL units within an HEVC stream and the nature of the NAL unit dependencies influences the packetisation and streaming strategies which may be employed for such streams. The relationships between HEVC encoding mode and the quality of the received video are shown under a wide range of bandwidth constraints. HEVC streaming is evaluated in both single and multipath network configuration scenarios. Through the use of extensive experimentation, we establish a comprehensive set of benchmarks for HEVC streaming in loss prone network environments. We show the visual quality reduction in terms of PSNR which results from a reduction in available bandwidth. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such a fully functional streaming system for HEVC, together with the benchmark evaluation results, has been reported. This study will open up more timely research opportunities in this cutting edge area.

Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

2012-05-01

448

Current Velocities of the Gulf Stream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents near-realtime monitoring of the current system of the Gulf Stream with ERS-2 fast delivery altimeter data from four satellites--Envisat, Jason-1, TOPEX/Poseidon, and GFO--and DUT operational orbits. Four constantly updated maps are presented,showing current velocities of the Gulf Stream in the vicinity of the East Coast of North America one week before date of viewing, two weeks before, three weeks before, and four weeks before. Animations of the Gulf Stream velocities are also available from the site, as well as an archive of previous maps.

449

Hydrofining process for hydrocarbon containing feed streams  

SciTech Connect

A process for hydrofining a hydrocarbon-containing feed stream is described comprising the steps of: introducing an additive comprising a metal naphthenate selected from the group consisting of cobalt naphthenate and iron naphthenate into the hydrocarbon-containing feed stream; and contacting the hydrocarbon-containing feed stream containing the additive under suitable hydrofining conditions with hydrogen and a catalyst composition consisting essentially of a support selected from the group consisting of alumina, silica and silica-alumina and a promoter consisting essentially of at least one metal selected from Group VIB, Group VIIB and Group VIII of the Periodic Table.

Aldag, A.W. Jr.; Parrott, S.L.; Kukes, S.G.

1988-02-09

450

Hydrovisbreaking process for hydrocarbon containing feed streams  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for hydrovisbreaking a hydrocarbon-containing feed stream comprising the steps of: introducing a decomposable molybdenum additive selected from the group consisting of a mixture of molybdenum dithiophosphate and a molybdenum carboxylate and a mixture of a molybdenum dithiocarbamate and a molybdenum carboxylate into the hydrocarbon-containing feed stream; and contacting the hydrocarbon-containing feed stream containing the decomposable molybdenum additive under hydrovisbreaking conditions with hydrogen, wherein the contacting is carried out in the absence of a solid support for the decomposable molybdenum additive.

Howell, J.A.; Kukes, S.G.

1986-08-26

451

Community Living Skills Guide: Sexuality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Sexuality. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized persons to…

Breen, Kathy

452

Audio watermarking for live performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Audio watermarking has been used mainly for digitally stored content. Using real-time watermark embedding, its coverage can be extended to live broadcasts and live performances. In general, a conventional embedding algorithm receives a host signal (HS) and outputs the summation of the HS and a watermark signal (WS). However, when applied to real-time embedding, there are two problems: (1) delay

Ryuki Tachibana

2003-01-01

453

Framework for Healthful Living Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Healthful Living Education program promotes behaviors that contribute to a healthful lifestyle and improved quality of life for all students. The Framework for Healthy Living Education supports and reinforces the goals and objectives of its three major components: health education, physical education, and alcohol and other drugs. When the…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

454

Community Living Skills: Nutrition I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Nutrition I. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized persons to…

Kreps, Alice Roelofs; Dreith, Rita Vallero

455

Aquatic insect diversity in a tropical Vietnamese stream in comparison with that in a temperate Korean stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative investigation on aquatic insect diversity was conducted in a tropical stream in Southeast Asia (the Dak Pri\\u000a stream in southern Vietnam; stream orders II–V, two sites per stream order) with a reference temperate stream in Northeast\\u000a Asia (the Gapyeong stream in central Korea) in March 2001 and April 2000, respectively. The numbers of aquatic insect taxa\\u000a in Dak

Duc Huy Hoang; Yeon Jae Bae

2006-01-01

456

Effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas across the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urban development is an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The urban footprint on the American landscape has expanded during a century and a half of almost continuous development. Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas, and the advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic species. Every stream is connected downstream to larger water bodies, including rivers, reservoirs, and ultimately coastal waters. Inputs of chemical contaminants or sediments at any point along the stream can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism. In response to general concerns about the degradation of urban streams, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a national-scale, scientific investigation of the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems. Nine metropolitan study areas of the United States were selected—Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; Boston, Massachusetts; Denver, Colorado; Dallas, Texas; and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The studies were conducted in Salt Lake City, Birmingham, and Boston in 1999–2000; in Atlanta, Raleigh, and Denver in 2002–2003; and in Portland, Dallas, and Milwaukee in 2003–2004. The comprehensive investigation of all nine studies focused on three broad questions of interest to decision makers: 1. What are the primary effects of urban development on stream ecosystems? 2. How do the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems vary regionally across the country? 3. Which urban-related stressors are most closely linked to biological community degradation, and how can multiple stressors be managed to protect stream health as a watershed becomes increasingly urbanized?

Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Bell, Amanda H.; Brown, Larry R.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Woodside, Michael D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Bryant, Wade L.; Cappiella, Karen; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Stack, William P.

2012-01-01

457

An Audio Architecture Integrating Sound and Live Voice for Virtual Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose behind this thesis was to design and implement audio system architecture, both in hardware and in software, for use in virtual environments The hardware and software design requirements were aimed at implementing acoustical models, such as reverberation and occlusion, and live audio streaming to any simulation employing this architecture, Several free or open-source sound APIs were evaluated, and DirectSound3DTM was selected as the core component of the audio architecture, Creative Technology Ltd, Environmental Audio Extensions (EAXTM 3,0) were integrated into the architecture to provide environmental effects such as reverberation, occlusion, obstruction, and exclusion, Voice over IP (VoIP) technology was evaluated to provide live, streaming voice to any virtual environment DirectVoice was selected as the voice component of the VoIP architecture due to its integration with DirectSound3DTM, However, extremely high latency considerations with DirectVoice, and any other VoIP application or software, required further research into alternative live voice architectures for inclusion in virtual environments Ausim3D's GoldServe Audio System was evaluated and integrated into the hardware component of the audio architecture to provide an extremely low-latency, live, streaming voice capability.

Krebs, Eric M.

2002-09-01

458

Stream-Network navigation in the U.S. geological survey streamStats web application  

USGS Publications Warehouse

StreamStats is a U.S. Geological Survey Webbased geographic information systems application developed as a tool for water-resources planning and management, engineering design, and other applications. The primary functionality of StreamStats allows users to obtain drainage-basin boundaries, basin characteristics, and streamflow statistics for gaged and ungaged sites. Recently, tools that allow stream-network navigation were added to StreamStats. These tools allow users to select any point along a stream and locate activities upstream and downstream from the selected point, such as streamgaging stations, dams, and point-source discharges, and obtain information about such activities. Users also can obtain stream-reach addresses and estimates of streamflow statistics for the selected points.

Ries, K. G.; Steeves, P. A.; Guthrie, J. D.; Rea, A. H.; Stewart, D. W.

2009-01-01

459

On the fractal dimension of stream networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geometric pattern of the stream network of a drainage basin can be viewed as a "fractal" with a fractional dimension (Mandelbrot, 1982). For an ordered drainage system, the authors first proposed to derive the fractal dimension from Horton's laws of stream number and stream lengths (La Barbera and Rosso, 1987). This results in a simple function of bifurcation and stream length ratios of the drainage system, the analytical derivation of which is presented. Accordingly, the fractal dimension could generally vary from 1 to 2, the latter value descending from the modal values of Horton's order ratios for topological randomness. However, the analysis of a large sample of field data shows the typical fractal dimension of river networks to lie between 1.5 and 2, with an average of 1.6÷1.7. Fractality can be used to investigate the scaling properties of the attributes and parameters describing drainage basin form and process.

La Barbera, Paolo; Rosso, Renzo

1989-04-01

460

Structure of the Halley Comet Meteor Stream.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To study the Orionid and Eta-Aquarid meteor stream development, the motion of 500 test particles released from the comet with ejection velocities calculated according to Whipple was integrated over long periods assuming Jupiter to be the only gravitationa...

J. Jones B. A. Mcintosh

1986-01-01

461

The comet-meteor stream complex.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The genetic relationship between short-period comets and meteor streams is investigated. It is shown that mechanisms exist for the radial and the longitudinal focussing of particles in meteor streams with characteristic time scales of agglomeration significantly smaller than those of any of the known dispersive processes. Consequently, it is claimed that meteor streams may not merely form a sink for short-period comets but may also form a source. A likely origin for the volatiles observed in such comets is suggested. It is finally stressed that this reciprocity in the genetic relationship between short-period comets and meteor streams should form an important consideration in any attempt at accounting for the observed population of short-period comets.

Mendis, D. A.

1973-01-01

462

Biological Extraction and Accumulations in Streams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective of the study was an investigation of the phenomena of biological extraction and accumulation in streams in terms of its influence on river self-purification, particularly as it related to oxygen balance.

C. J. Velz J. J. Gannon

1968-01-01

463

Mining Concept-Drifting Data Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge discovery from infinite data streams is an important and difficult task. We are facing two challenges, the overwhelming volume and the concept drifts of the streaming data. In this chapter, we introduce a general framework for mining concept-drifting data streams using weighted ensemble classifiers. We train an ensemble of classification models, such as C4.5, RIPPER, naive Bayesian, etc., from sequential chunks of the data stream. The classifiers in the ensemble are judiciously weighted based on their expected classification accuracy on the test data under the time-evolving environment. Thus, the ensemble approach improves both the efficiency in learning the model and the accuracy in performing classification. Our empirical study shows that the proposed methods have substantial advantage over single-classifier approaches in prediction accuracy, and the ensemble framework is effective for a variety of classification models.

Wang, Haixun; Yu, Philip S.; Han, Jiawei

464

Low-flow characteristics of Alabama streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new procedure for estimating the 7-day, 2-year and the 7-day, 10-year low flow of ungaged Alabama streams is based on geology, drainage area, and mean annual precipitation. One equation for each of the two low-flow frequencies applies statewide to all natural flow streams; the equations do not apply to streams where flow is significantly altered by activities of man. The standard error of estimate of each equation based on map values is 40 percent for 7-day, 2-year low flow and 44 percent for 7-day, 10-year low flow. The rate of streamflow recession is used to account for the effects of geology on low flow. Streamflow recession rate depends primarily on transmissivity and storage characteristics of the aquifers, and average distance from stream channels to divides. Relations of low-flow discharge to geology, drainage area, and mean annual precipitation were analyzed by multiple regression techniques.

Bingham, Roy H.

1982-01-01

465

Deterministic bit-stream digital neurons.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present the design of a deterministic bit-stream neuron, which makes use of the memory rich architecture of fine-grained field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). It is shown that deterministic bit streams provide the same accuracy as much longer stochastic bit streams. As these bit streams are processed serially, this allows neurons to be implemented that are much faster than those that utilize stochastic logic. Furthermore, due to the memory rich architecture of fine-grained FPGAs, these neurons still require only a small amount of logic to implement. The design presented here has been implemented on a Virtex FPGA, which allows a very regular layout facilitating efficient usage of space. This allows for the construction of neural networks large enough to solve complex tasks at a speed comparable to that provided by commercially available neural-network hardware. PMID:18244546

Braendler, D; Hendtlass, T; O'Donoghue, P

2002-01-01

466

Water Stream "Loop-the-Loop"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the design of a modified loop-the-loop apparatus in which a water stream is used to illustrate centripetal forces and phenomena of high-velocity hydrodynamics. Included are some procedures of carrying out lecture demonstrations. (CC)

Jefimenko, Oleg

1974-01-01

467

Gulf Stream System Landward Surface Edge Statistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper represents a statistical evaluation of the mean position, standard deviation, and maximum northward and southward positions of the Gulf Stream System landward surface edge. The surface edge is determined for each 0.5 degrees longitudinal transe...

S. J. Auer

1983-01-01

468

Turbulent Heating of Plasmas by Streaming Instabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the past year of work on this contract, substantial progress has been made toward the research goal of understanding the development and nature of turbulence generated from a source of free streaming energy within a collisionless plasma. The author...

H. V. Wong J. R. Thompson W. E. Drummond

1973-01-01

469

Turbulent Heating of Plasmas by Streaming Instabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the progress which has been made tward the research goal of understanding the development and nature of turbulence generated from a source of free streaming energy within a collisionless plasma. The initial evolution of microturbulenc...

H. V. Wong J. R. Thompson M. L. Sloan W. E. Drummond

1972-01-01

470

A dynamically reconfigurable data stream processing system  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a component-based framework for data stream processing that allows for configuration, tailoring, and runtime system reconfiguration. The system's architecture is based on a pipes and filters pattern, where data is passed through routes between components. A network of pipes and filters can be dynamically reconfigured in response to a preplanned sequence of processing steps, operator intervention, or a change in one or more data streams. This framework provides several mechanisms supporting dynamic reconfiguration and can be used to build static data stream processing applications such as monitoring or data acquisition systems, as well as self-adjusting systems that can adapt their processing algorithm, presentation layer, or data persistency layer in response to changes in input data streams.

Nogiec, J.M.; Trombly-Freytag, K.; /Fermilab

2004-11-01

471

A kinetic cross-field streaming instability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a high-beta plasma the so-called modified-two-stream instability, which results from strongly magnetized electrons drifting relative to unmagnetized ions across a homogeneous magnetic field, is misnamed because the mode is highly kinetic, particularly when the relative streaming velocity exceeds the Alfven speed of the plasma. This kinetic cross-field streaming instability is investigated in detail, examining the effect of the electromagnetic terms and the stability boundaries in both low- and high-beta plasmas. An approximate dispersion relation showing the relation of this mode to the whistler is derived and solutions of it are compared with those obtained from the exact dispersion relation. The kinetic mode, unlike the usual modified-two-stream instability, is not stabilized by electromagnetic effects when the relative electron-ion drift speed exceeds the Alfven speed.

Wu, C. S.; Winske, D.; Papadopoulos, K.; Zhou, Y. M.; Tsai, S. T.; Guo, S. C.

1983-01-01

472

Counting Distinct Elements in a Data Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present three algorithms to count the number of distinct elements in a data stream to within a factor of 1 ± ?. Our algorithms improve upon known algorithms for this problem, and offer a spectrum of time\\/space tradeoffs.

Ziv Bar-yossef; T. S. Jayram; Ravi Kumar; D. Sivakumar; Luca Trevisan

2002-01-01

473

Data Streams: An Overview and Scientific Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, advances in hardware technology have facilitated the ability to collect data continuously. Simple transactions of everyday life such as using a credit card, a phone, or browsing the web lead to automated data storage. Similarly, advances in information technology have lead to large flows of data across IP networks. In many cases, these large volumes of data can be mined for interesting and relevant information in a wide variety of applications. When the volume of the underlying data is very large, it leads to a number of computational and mining challenges: With increasing volume of the data, it is no longer possible to process the data efficiently by using multiple passes. Rather, one can process a data item at most once. This leads to constraints on the implementation of the underlying algorithms. Therefore, stream mining algorithms typically need to be designed so that the algorithms work with one pass of the data. In most cases, there is an inherent temporal component to the stream mining process. This is because the data may evolve over time. This behavior of data streams is referred to as temporal locality. Therefore, a straightforward adaptation of one-pass mining algorithms may not be an effective solution to the task. Stream mining algorithms need to be carefully designed with a clear focus on the evolution of the underlying data. Another important characteristic of data streams is that they are often mined in a distributed fashion. Furthermore, the individual processors may have limited processing and memory. Examples of such cases include sensor networks, in which it may be desirable to perform in-network processing of data stream with limited processing and memory [1, 2]. This chapter will provide an overview of the key challenges in stream mining algorithms which arise from the unique setup in which these problems are encountered. This chapter is organized as follows. In the next section, we will discuss the generic challenges that stream mining poses to a variety of data management and data mining problems. The next section also deals with several issues which arise in the context of data stream management. In Sect. 3, we discuss several mining algorithms on the data stream model. Section 4 discusses various scientific applications of data streams. Section 5 discusses the research directions and conclusions.

Aggarwal, Charu C.

474

Polymictic pool behavior in Sierra Nevada Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pools in streams and meadows in the mid to high Sierra Nevada (1800-2300 m) in low flow scenarios were observed to exhibit polymictic behavior during summer months. Although daily thermal stratification has been observed in pools of various sizes and in multiple locations, the degree and timing of stratification is highly variable and not well understood. Previous studies have shown that thermally stratified stream pools can provide cold water refugia for thermally sensitive species, specifically salmonid fish. Diel temperature patterns demonstrating daily thermal stratification and nightly mixing of small (1-4 m diameter and 1-2 m deep) pools in the Long Meadow complex (Sequoia National Park, CA) were observed during the deployment of a distributed temperature sensor (DTS) in 2008. Similar behavior was also noted in stream pools along Chilnualna Creek, a tributary of the South Fork of the Merced River, Yosemite National Park, CA. To further investigate this polymictic behavior, we developed a two-dimensional model of water temperature and flow using Fluent, a computational fluid dynamics solver. The model successfully simulated thermal patterns similar to those observed and indicated that groundwater inflow has a significant influence on pool stratification, consistent with observed low temperatures and raised Radon-222 activity in highly localized areas in the pool bottoms. Similar polymictic behavior was observed in larger (4-10 m diameter and 1.5-2 m deep) stream pools on Chilnualna Creek in the late summer under baseflow conditions. The significant factors that determine stratification or mixing conditions are stream flow velocity, groundwater influence, and density variations due to radiative heating. We use the Richardson number, which was originally developed for assessing thermal stratification in lakes and reservoirs, to develop a one-dimensional tool for prediction of stream pool stratification at multiple scales. This application allows us to assess the stream velocity versus the density discrepancy dictated by the thermal gradient of a given stream pool. Using approximations of stream velocity, stream and groundwater temperatures, we can predict the potential for a stream pool to provide a refuge of cold water.

Lucas, R. G.; Conklin, M. H.; Tyler, S. W.; Suarez, F. I.; Moran, J. E.; Esser, B. K.

2010-12-01

475

Thermal control of ice-stream margins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal balance at the base of an ice sheet near an ice-stream margin was investigated theoretically. Specifically, conditions such that the base of the ice sheet would be frozen in the absence of heat generated by the ice motion were investigated. The base of the ice stream is maintained at melting as a result of high dissipation of heat at the base associated with its fast motion over the bed. Heat dissipation in the inter-ice-stream ridge ice is presumed to be too small to maintain melting conditions on the bed there. Two opposing effects can be identified near the shear margin separating the fast and slow motions. Because the velocity of an ice stream falls off toward its margin, there is a near margin heat deficit zone where the heat generated at the bed is not, by itself, sufficient to maintain melting conditions. Without some counteracting process, the base could freeze inward toward the ice stream and cause it to narrow. The marginal shearing generates heat within the ice above the bed. This heat produces a thermal shielding effect that tends to warm the bed on both sides of the boundary between the fast and slow motion. This shielding effect, if strong enough, could produce a thawed zone beyond the fast/slow boundary. If melting at the bed by itself allows fast motion, then the ice stream would be free to widen. A coupled mass and heat flow model is being developed to examine these competing processes. Preliminary calculations using available information for boundary conditions appropriate for Ice Stream B predict that the shielding effect is most important. This tentative result suggests that thermal conditions are such that the ice stream could widen unstably. Other constraints would be required to stabilize the width. Possible factors could be bed morphology beneath ridges that does not allow fast motion even in thawed conditions, or inward advection of cold ice from the ridges across the margin and into the ice stream, which suppresses the shielding effect. The unknown geothermal heat flow beneath ice streams and inter ice-stream ridges is a major uncertainty in doing these calculations.

Raymond, Charles F.

1993-01-01

476

Effective discharge recurrence intervals of Illinois streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective discharge values are routinely used to characterize the geomorphic impact/work that different flows have on streams and watersheds. Effective discharge values are also routinely employed in stream restoration design. Reliable flow frequency and sediment-rating curves are needed to compute effective discharge values, but are not available for many streams. In lieu of regional effective discharge data, researchers/engineers often assume that a stream's effective discharge is the same as the 1.5-year flow event for that stream. However, research shows that this is not always true. Hence, demand exists for developing regional effective discharge values that can be applied at ungaged stream locations. A regional study of effective discharge values within Illinois is performed. Eighty-eight monitoring sites were identified as locations where effective discharge values could potentially be computed. Twenty of these sites were determined to have sufficient data to compute effective discharge values. For these stations, effective discharge values were computed using two different sediment-discharge relationships (a power curve and an alternative "mean approach"). The mean approach estimates effective discharge values that are, on average, 1.9 times larger than those estimated using the power curve. The sediment load carried by flows less than or equal to the effective discharge value are, on average, 2.7 times larger when the mean approach is used. Both the power curve and mean approaches typically yield effective discharge values greater than the stream's mean flow and less than its 1.1-year (annual maximum series) flow event. Some of the computed effective discharge values are less than the stream's mean flow. Computing effective discharge values remains a subjective process with large uncertainties involved. Class interval size, sediment-rating curve fitting techniques, and available sediment data influence effective discharge results. A paucity of monitoring data for Illinois streams draining <518 km 2 (where many geomorphic analyses and stream restoration projects take place) hinders the regional applicability of effective discharge results. The uncertainties associated with effective discharge values and the inability to validate effective discharge values as a stream's dominant discharge makes channel design using effective and dominant discharge theory problematic. Suggestions for improving regional effective discharge studies and effective discharge estimates are provided.

Crowder, David W.; Knapp, H. Vernon

2005-01-01

477

Recovery of three arctic stream reaches from experimental nutrient enrichment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Nutrient enrichment and resulting eutrophication is a widespread anthropogenic influence on freshwater ecosystems, but recovery from nutrient enrichment is poorly understood, especially in stream environments. We examined multi-year patterns in community recovery from experimental low-concentration nutrient enrichment (N + P or P only) in three reaches of two Arctic tundra streams (Kuparuk River and Oksrukuyik Creek) on the North Slope of Alaska (U.S.A.). 2. Rates of recovery varied among community components and depended on duration of enrichment (2-13 consecutive growing seasons). Biomass of epilithic algae returned to reference levels rapidly (within 2 years), regardless of nutrients added or enrichment duration. Aquatic bryophyte cover, which increased greatly in the Kuparuk River only after long-term enrichment (8 years), took 8 years of recovery to approach reference levels, after storms had scoured most remnant moss in the recovering reach. 3. Multi-year persistence of bryophytes in the Kuparuk River appeared to prevent recovery of insect populations that had either been positively (e.g. the mayfly Ephemerella, most chironomid midge taxa) or negatively (e.g. the tube-building chironomid Orthocladius rivulorum) affected by this shift in dominant primary producer. These lags in recovery (of >3 years) were probably driven by the persistent effect of bryophytes on physical benthic habitat. 4. Summer growth rates of Arctic grayling (both adults and young-of-year) in Oksrukuyik Creek (fertilised for 6 years with no bryophyte colonisation), which were consistently increased by nutrient addition, returned to reference rates within 1-2 years. 5. Rates of recovery of these virtually pristine Arctic stream ecosystems from low-level nutrient enrichment appeared to be controlled largely by duration of enrichment, mediated through physical habitat shifts caused by eventual bryophyte colonisation, and subsequent physical disturbance that removed bryophytes. Nutrient enrichment of oligotrophic Arctic stream ecosystems caused by climate change or local anthropogenic activity may have dramatic and persistent consequences if it results in the colonisation of long-lived primary producers that alter physical habitat. ?? 2007 The Authors.

Benstead, J. P.; Green, A. C.; Deegan, L. A.; Peterson, B. J.; Slavik, K.; Bowden, W. B.; Hershey, A. E.

2007-01-01

478

Living With the Great Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site was developed to assist students and educators with learning about the Great Lakes. The links provide materials on basic earth science concepts, a set of lesson plans on the lakes, and other Great Lakes topics. Concepts covered include Langmuir circulation, longshore current and beach drift, sediments, stream flow, seasonal stratification and water quality.

479

Operator Scheduling in a Data Stream Manager  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many stream-based applications have sophisticated data processing requirements and real-time performance expectations that need to be met under high-volume, time-varying data streams. In order to address these challenges, we propose novel operator scheduling approaches that specify (1) which operators to schedule (2) in which order to schedule the operators, and (3) how many tuples to process at each execution step.

Donald Carney; Ugur Çetintemel; Alex Rasin; Mitch Cherniack; Michael Stonebraker

2003-01-01

480

Temperature-dependent streaming potentials: 2. Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streaming potentials and zeta potentials were measured at equilibrium conditions, while at elevated temperatures of 23°-200°C and pressures of 20 MPa, on intact rock samples of Fontainebleau Sandstone, Berea Sandstone, and Westerly Granite using the oscillatory data collection method. The streaming potential coupling coefficient for Fontainebleau Sandstone decreased in magnitude from 195 nV\\/Pa at 23°C to 33 nV\\/Pa at 160°C

Philip M. Reppert; Frank Dale Morgan

2003-01-01

481

Temperature-dependent streaming potentials: 2. Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streaming potentials and zeta potentials were measured at equilibrium conditions, while at elevated temperatures of 23°–200°C and pressures of 20 MPa, on intact rock samples of Fontainebleau Sandstone, Berea Sandstone, and Westerly Granite using the oscillatory data collection method. The streaming potential coupling coefficient for Fontainebleau Sandstone decreased in magnitude from 195 nV\\/Pa at 23°C to 33 nV\\/Pa at 160°C

Philip M. Reppert; Frank Dale Morgan

2003-01-01

482

Exploring the VLSI Scalability of Stream Processors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stream processors are high-performance programmable processors optimized to run media applications. Recent work has shown these processors to be more area- and energy-efficient than conventional programmable architec- tures. This paper explores the scalability of stream archi- tectures to future VLSI technologies where over a thousand floating-point units on a single chip will be feasible. Two techniques for increasing the number

Brucek Khailany; William J. Dally; Scott Rixner; Ujval J. Kapasi; John D. Owens; Brian Towles

2003-01-01

483

Magnetic Polarity Streams and Subsurface Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important feature of the solar cycle is the transport of unbalanced magnetic flux from active regions towards the poles, which eventually results in polarity reversal. This transport takes the form of distinct “polarity streams” that are visible in the magnetic butterfly diagram. We compare the poleward migration rate estimated from such streams to that derived from the subsurface meridional flows measured in helioseismic data from the GONG network since 2001, and find that the results are in reasonable agreement.

Howe, R.; Baker, D.; Harra, L.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Komm, R.; Hill, F.; González Hernández, I.

2013-12-01

484

Specifying Access Control Policies on Data Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many data stream processing systems are increasingly being used to support applications that handle sensitive information,\\u000a such as credit card numbers and locations of soldiers in battleground [1,2,3,6]. These data have to be protected from unauthorized\\u000a accesses. However, existing access control models and mechanisms cannot be adequately adopted on data streams. In this paper,\\u000a we propose a novel access control

Barbara Carminati; Elena Ferrari; Kian-lee Tan

2007-01-01

485

Stream sediment sampling and analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives were to sample and analyze sediments from upstream and downstream locations (relative to the Goodyear Atomic plant site) of three streams for selected pollutants. The three streams sampled were the Scioto River, Big Beaver Creek, and Big Run Creek. Sediment samples were analyzed for EPA's 129 priority pollutants (Clean Water Act) as well as isotopic uranium (/sup 234/U, /sup 235/U, and /sup 238/U) and technetium-99.

Means, J.L.; Voris, P.V.; Headington, G.L.

1986-04-01

486

Peer to peer streaming media delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whatever definitions have been put upon it, peer-to-peer is an effective rallying cry for a new way of doing things. Streaming media delivery is particularly susceptible to a peer-to-peer architectural approach. Peer-to-peer systems have been shown to reduce the bandwidth cost and increase the scalability of on-demand and streaming content on the Internet. Similar techniques can be used to create

Damien Stolarz

2001-01-01

487

Effects of clay discharges on streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Placer gold-mining on the West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand provided a field test-bed for investigating the impacts of fine inorganic suspensoids (clays) on streams not subjected to other abuses. The suspensions of clays (40% between 0.55 and 1 µm in diameter) seeping into the streams from gold mines were colloidally stable. The clay particles attenuated light

Robert J. Davies-Colley; Christopher W. Hickey; John M. Quinn; Paddy A. Ryan

1992-01-01

488

Fast Hashing and Stream Encryption with PANAMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a cryptographic module that can be used both as a cryptographic hash function and as a stream cipher. High performance is achieved through a combination of low work-factor and a high degree of parallelism. Throughputs of 5.1bits\\/cycle for the hashing mode and 4.7bits\\/cycle for the stream cipher mode are demonstrated on a com- mercially available VLIW micro-processor.

Joan Daemen; Craig S. K. Clapp

1998-01-01

489

Updates to the MSFC Meteoroid Stream Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Meteoroid Stream Model simulates particle ejection and subsequent evolution from comets in order to provide meteor shower forecasts to spacecraft operators for hazard mitigation and planning purposes. The model, previously detailed, has recently been updated; the changes include the implementation of the RADAU integrator, an improved planetary treatment, and the inclusion of general relativistic effects in the force function. The results of these updates are investigated with respect to various meteoroid streams and the outcome presented.

Moser, D. E.; Cooke, W. J.

2007-01-01

490

Statistical Characteristics and Multiplexing of MPEG Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of the statistical characteristicsand multiplexing of Variable-Bit-Rate (VBR)MPEG-coded video streams. Our results are based on23 minutes of video obtained from the entertainmentmovie, The Wizard of Oz. The experimental setupwhich was used to capture, digitize, and compress thevideo stream is described. Although the study is conductedat the frame level (as opposed to the slice level),it is

Marwan Krunzt; Ron Sass; Herman D. Hughes

1995-01-01

491

The scattered debris of the Magellanic Stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We recently discovered 150 high-velocity clouds (HVCs) in HIPASS which are likely to be condensations in a previously unknown extended network of neutral and ionised gas filaments connected to the Magellanic Stream. Here we propose to map six of these clouds in HI with the ATCA. This will allow us to constrain their physical parameters and distances to provide evidence for an association of the HVC filaments with the Magellanic Stream.

Westmeier, Tobias; Koribalski, Baerbel

2008-10-01

492

The Magellanic Stream and the Dual Proposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently Nidever, Majewski, and Burton have used the Leiden-Argentine-Bonn all-sky HI survey to make a thorough study of the Magellanic Stream. In distinction to previous work, they now find that all of the stream and much of the leading arm originates in an Overdensity Region that includes the very luminous emission nebula 30 Doradus. Outstanding remaining questions: 1)Why doesn't the

David F. Bartlett

2008-01-01

493

A Stream-Weight and Threshold Estimation Method Using Adaboost for MultiStream Speaker Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an automatic stream-weight and threshold estimation method for noise-robust speaker verification using multi-stream HMMs integrating segmental and prosodic information. The proposed method simultaneously optimizes stream-weights and a decision threshold by combining the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and Adaboost techniques. Experiments were conducted using Japanese connected digit speech contaminated by white noise with various SNRs. In this experiment,

Taichi Asami; Koji Iwano; Sadaoki Furui

2006-01-01

494

Gulf Stream Ring Coalescence with the Gulf Stream off Cape Hatteras.  

PubMed

A cyclonic ring, which had separated from the Gulf Stream 7 months earlier and traveled 500 kilometers westward, collided with the stream in September 1977. Within 3 days the ring and stream joined to form a sharp S-shaped meander. Shipboard expendable temperature probes and four bottom-moored inverted echo sounders were used to obtain synoptic descriptions of the rejoining process. PMID:17798795

Watts, D R; Olson, D B

1978-12-01

495

Cross-stream observation dependencies for multi-stream speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends prior work in multi-stream modeling by in- troducing cross-stream observation dependencies and a new dis- criminative criterion for selecting such dependencies. Exper- imental results combining short-term PLP features with long- term TRAP features show gains associated with a multi-stream model with partial state asynchrony over a baseline HMM. Frame-based analyses show significant discriminant informa- tion in the

Özgür Çetin; Mari Ostendorf

2003-01-01

496

The relative influence of nutrients and habitat on stream metabolism in agricultural streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stream metabolism was measured in 33 streams across a gradient of nutrient concentrations in four agricultural areas of the\\u000a USA to determine the relative influence of nutrient concentrations and habitat on primary production (GPP) and respiration\\u000a (CR-24). In conjunction with the stream metabolism estimates, water quality and algal biomass samples were collected, as was\\u000a an assessment of habitat in the

Jill D. Frankforter; Holly S. Weyers; Jerad D. Bales; Patrick W. Moran; Daniel L. Calhoun

2010-01-01

497

A hierarchical framework for stream habitat classification: Viewing streams in a watershed context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification of streams and stream habitats is useful for research involving establishment of monitoring stations, determination of local impacts of land-use practices, generalization from site-specific data, and assessment of basin-wide, cumulative impacts of human activities on streams and their biota. This article presents a frame-work for a hierarchical classification system, entailing an organized view of spatial and temporal variation among

Christopher A. Frissell; William J. Liss; Charles E. Warren; Michael D. Hurley

1986-01-01

498

Statistical model of meteor streams. IV - A study of radio streams from the synoptic year  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives a detailed description of a search procedure for radio meteor streams and reports the detection of 275 streams in a synoptic-year sample of 19,698 radio meteors observed by the radar system of the Radio Meteor Project at Havana, Illinois. The orbital elements and related parameters of the detected streams are presented, the two parameters of the D-distribution

Z. Sekanina

1976-01-01

499

StreamMiner: A Classifier Ensemble-based Engine to Mine Concept-drifting Data Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate StreamMiner, a random decision-tree ensemble based engine to mine data streams. A fundamental challenge in data stream mining applications (e.g., credit card transaction authorization, security buy- sell transaction, and phone call records, etc) is concept-drift or the discrepancy between the previously learned model and the true model in the new data. The basic problem is the abil- ity

Wei Fan

2004-01-01

500

Influences of wildfire and channel reorganization on spatial and temporal variation in stream temperature and the distribution of fish and amphibians  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfire can influence a variety of stream ecosystem properties. We studied stream temperatures in relation to wildfire in small streams in the Boise River Basin, located in central Idaho, USA. To examine the spatio-temporal aspects of temperature in relation to wildfire, we employed three approaches: a pre-post fire comparison of temperatures be