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1

Stanford on iTunes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those who canâÂÂt make it to the balmy climes of Palo Alto, this latest initiative from Stanford will be most welcome. With this program, visitors can download audio recordings of lectures, poetry readings, and even Stanford football games directly to their computer. Of course, this is no substitute to attending this fine institution, but the wide range of audio content available at no charge is very impressive. This version of Stanford on iTunes is compatible with all computers running Windows XP or 2000 or Mac OS X 10.3.

2

iTunes 5.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many so-called "digital jukeboxes" make a number of promises in terms of their overall performance. iTunes 5.0 delivers on many of its promises with a number of fine new features. With this latest addition, users can control access with parental controls, find music faster with a new search bar, and download hundreds of radio shows as free podcasts. This version of iTunes is compatible with all operating systems running Windows 2000 or XP or Max OS X 10.2.8 or newer.

2005-01-01

3

Supporting Seamless Mobility for P2P Live Streaming  

PubMed Central

With advent of various mobile devices with powerful networking and computing capabilities, the users' demand to enjoy live video streaming services such as IPTV with mobile devices has been increasing rapidly. However, it is challenging to get over the degradation of service quality due to data loss caused by the handover. Although many handover schemes were proposed at protocol layers below the application layer, they inherently suffer from data loss while the network is being disconnected during the handover. We therefore propose an efficient application-layer handover scheme to support seamless mobility for P2P live streaming. By simulation experiments, we show that the P2P live streaming system with our proposed handover scheme can improve the playback continuity significantly compared to that without our scheme. PMID:24977171

Kim, Eunsam; Kim, Sangjin; Lee, Choonhwa

2014-01-01

4

Streams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part of the Gulf of Maine Aquarium, and focuses on stream environments in Maine. Topics include: Maine's Water Roots, which looks at the human history of Maine as it can be traced along its waterways; What is a Stream?; Life in the Mainstream, Living on the Edge; A Role for Everyone, and Bibliography. Concepts addressed include water quality, watersheds, the hydrologic cycle, aquatic stages, and stream ecology.

5

Supporting Large Scale eResearch Infrastructures with Adapted Live Streaming Capabilities  

E-print Network

Supporting Large Scale eResearch Infrastructures with Adapted Live Streaming Capabilities Syed - FRANCE , Email: laurent.lefevre@inria.fr Abstract Large scale e-Research environments face classical present a new approach to support the streaming of live flows between e-Researchers. We show

Huang, Zhiyi

6

A Live-Bucket for Use in Surveys of Small Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional equipment and methods used to hold fish during surveys of small streams are either cumbersome or cause injury and kill fish. We designed a live-bucket that is spillproof, inexpensive (US$20), easily assembled, keeps fish in good condition, and does not restrict a person's movements. The livebucket was used during electrofishing surveys on 120 stream reaches ranging in water surface

Daniel J. Isaak; Wayne A. Hubert

1997-01-01

7

The Pollution Attack in P2P Live Video Streaming: Measurement Results and Defenses  

E-print Network

The Pollution Attack in P2P Live Video Streaming: Measurement Results and Defenses Prithula Dhungel in the recent years. In this paper, we examine the stream pollution attack, for which the attacker mixes polluted chunks into the P2P distribu- tion, degrading the quality of the rendered media at the receivers

Saxena, Nitesh

8

Live and online: using co-streaming to reach users.  

PubMed

The increase in distance education students and the changing preferences for online instruction led the Health Sciences Library to seek creative approaches to traditional classroom instruction. Library instructors compared two different class formats: online-only classes and in-person classes with online sections. The second format, called "co-streaming," provided instruction in traditional classroom and virtual environments at the same time. A postclass survey was used to gather users' evaluations of the instruction and the format via which it was offered. This paper examines the user response to, and satisfaction with, the co-streaming classes. PMID:21534112

Handler, Lara

2011-01-01

9

Crane Cam: Live Streaming Video of Sandhill Crane Migration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A National Geographic feature, Crane Cam provides multimedia shows, a photo gallery, map, and viewings from a live remote camera at Audubon's Rowe Sanctuary. While the live broadcast has ended, visitors can still access the information about cranes and view highlights from the footage that was captured. Requires Real Player 10.5 plug-in.

10

An immersive surgery training system with live streaming capability.  

PubMed

Providing real-time, interactive immersive surgical training has been a key research area in telemedicine. Earlier approaches have mainly adopted videotaped training that can only show imagery from a fixed view point. Recent advances on commodity 3D imaging have enabled a new paradigm for immersive surgical training by acquiring nearly complete 3D reconstructions of actual surgical procedures. However, unlike 2D videotaping that can easily stream data in real-time, by far 3D imaging based solutions require pre-capturing and processing the data; surgical trainings using the data have to be conducted offline after the acquisition. In this paper, we present a new real-time immersive 3D surgical training system. Our solution builds upon the recent multi-Kinect based surgical training system [1] that can acquire and display high delity 3D surgical procedures using only a small number of Microsoft Kinect sensors. We build on top of the system a client-server model for real-time streaming. On the server front, we efficiently fuse multiple Kinect data acquired from different viewpoints and compress and then stream the data to the client. On the client front, we build an interactive space-time navigator to allow remote users (e.g., trainees) to witness the surgical procedure in real-time as if they were present in the room. PMID:24732560

Yang, Yang; Guo, Xinqing; Yu, Zhan; Steiner, Karl V; Barner, Kenneth E; Bauer, Thomas L; Yu, Jingyi

2014-01-01

11

Texas Tech on iTunes U Policy Guidelines DISCLAIMER AND ATTESTATION  

E-print Network

Texas Tech on iTunes U Policy Guidelines DISCLAIMER AND ATTESTATION: Statements and opinions reflected in the content within Texas Tech on iTunes U are those of the copyright owner (audio and/or video file,) and not necessarily those of Texas Tech University. All content submitted to Texas Tech on i

Rock, Chris

12

Stream merging for live continuous broadcast with time-shifting  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider live continuous broadcast (such as radio or TV) to which users can join with time-shifting. They can join the broadcast at time t and receive the broadcast of time t - w for some offset parameter w ges 0. The simplest implementation that supports such a feature allocates a dedicated channel for each arrival time t and offset

Amotz Bar-noy; Justin Goshi; Richard E. Ladner; Tammy Vandegrift

2005-01-01

13

Adaptive live multicast video streaming of SVC with UEP FEC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ideally, video streaming systems should provide the best quality video a user's device can handle without compromising on downloading speed. In this article, an improved video transmission system is presented which dynamically enhances the video quality based on a user's current network state and repairs errors from data lost in the video transmission. The system incorporates three main components: Scalable Video Coding (SVC) with three layers, multicast based on Receiver Layered Multicast (RLM) and an UnEqual Forward Error Correction (FEC) algorithm. The SVC provides an efficient method for providing different levels of video quality, stored as enhancement layers. In the presented system, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller was implemented to dynamically adjust the video quality, adding or subtracting quality layers as appropriate. In addition, an FEC algorithm was added to compensate for data lost in transmission. A two dimensional FEC was used. The FEC algorithm came from the Pro MPEG code of practice #3 release 2. Several bit errors scenarios were tested (step function, cosine wave) with different bandwidth size and error values were simulated. The suggested scheme which includes SVC video encoding with 3 layers over IP Multicast with Unequal FEC algorithm was investigated under different channel conditions, variable bandwidths and different bit error rates. The results indicate improvement of the video quality in terms of PSNR over previous transmission schemes.

Lev, Avram; Lasry, Amir; Loants, Maoz; Hadar, Ofer

2014-09-01

14

Climber: An Incentive-based Resilient Peer-to-Peer System for Live Streaming Services  

E-print Network

under high churning rate. The structure of Climber is a hybrid of a tree and a mesh, which self of its scalability, low cost, and tactical deployment. In P2P live streaming, all peers participate can be classified into two categories: tree-based and mesh-based approaches. The tree-based approach

15

An adaptive peer-to-peer live streaming system with incentives for resilience q  

E-print Network

An adaptive peer-to-peer live streaming system with incentives for resilience q Kunwoo Park Resilience Incentive Self-improvement Adaptation a b s t r a c t Recently, there have been a lot of research for resilience. Climber is based on the hybrid structure of a tree and a mesh, so as to achieve self

16

Who Wants To Live Here? Water Sampling At Our Local Pond and Stream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a field activity where students will perform various water quality tests to determine the types of organisms that live in a local pond and stream, and the characteristics that those aquatic environments seem to have that the organisms favor.

Van Kekerix, Susan

17

Using Text Mining to Uncover Students' Technology-Related Problems in Live Video Streaming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of their capacity to sift through large amounts of data, text mining and data mining are enabling higher education institutions to reveal valuable patterns in students' learning behaviours without having to resort to traditional survey methods. In an effort to uncover live video streaming (LVS) students' technology related-problems and to…

Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu

2011-01-01

18

Efficient Analysis of Live and Historical Streaming Data and its Application to Cybersecurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our experiences building a coherent framework for ef- ficient simultaneous querying of live and archived stream data. This work was motivated by the need to analyze the network traffic patterns of research labora- tories funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. We review the requirements of such a system and implement a prototype based on the TelegraphCQ

Frederick Reiss; Kurt Stockinger; Kesheng Wu; Arie Shoshani; Joseph M. Hellerstein

19

Scheduling Algorithm used in Live Media Streaming Based on Data-drive Overlay Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the playback quality of P2P media streaming system terminal nodes and enhances the overall performance, a data scheduling algorithm(LDSA) is proposed, it is able to dynamically adjust the pending request according to the node ability. The algorithm in satisfies the media streaming living in the time response foundation, had considered how to minimize the waiting time for the requests in the node and the rapid distribution in network of scarce data blocks. Through compares with the existing scheduling algorithm, the experimental results are proved that the MDSA algorithm have the prominent performance in diminishing the accumulated latency and enhancing the media broadcast quality

Na, Xu; Shuang, Sun

20

Efficient Analysis of Live and Historical Streaming Data and itsApplication to Cybersecurity  

SciTech Connect

Applications that query data streams in order to identifytrends, patterns, or anomalies can often benefit from comparing the livestream data with archived historical stream data. However, searching thishistorical data in real time has been considered so far to beprohibitively expensive. One of the main bottlenecks is the update costsof the indices over the archived data. In this paper, we address thisproblem by using our highly-efficient bitmap indexing technology (calledFastBit) and demonstrate that the index update operations aresufficiently efficient for this bottleneck to be removed. We describe ourprototype system based on the TelegraphCQ streaming query processor andthe FastBit bitmap index. We present a detailed performance evaluation ofour system using a complex query workload for analyzing real networktraffic data. The combined system uses TelegraphCQ to analyze streams oftraffic information and FastBit to correlate current behaviors withhistorical trends. We demonstrate that our system can simultaneouslyanalyze (1) live streams with high data rates and (2) a large repositoryof historical stream data.

Reiss, Frederick; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng; Shoshani, Arie; Hellerstein, Joseph M.

2007-04-06

21

AmbiStream: A Middleware for Multimedia Streaming on Heterogeneous Mobile Devices  

E-print Network

to smartphones. 3 www.npr.org/services/mobile 4 www.nasa.gov/connect/apps.html 5 itunes.apple.com/us/appAmbiStream: A Middleware for Multimedia Streaming on Heterogeneous Mobile Devices Emil Andriescu1 streaming, mobile, smartphone, middleware 1 Introduction The present generation of smartphones enables

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

22

Patterns of natural mortality in stream-living brown trout (Salmo trutta)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested the hypothesis that lifetime mortality patterns and their corresponding rates and causal factors differ among populations of stream-living salmonids. To this end, we examined the lifetime mortality patterns of several successive cohorts of two stream-living brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations in Spain and Denmark. In the southern population, we observed a consistent two-phase pattern, in which mortality was negligible during the first half of the lifetime and severe during the rest of the lifetime. In contrast, the northern population demonstrated a three-phase pattern with an earlier phase varying from negligible to severe, followed by a second stage of weak mortality, and lastly by a third life stage of severe mortality. Despite substantial differences in the mortality patterns between the two populations, the combined effect of recruitment (as a proxy of the density-dependent processes occurring during the lifetime) and mean body mass (as a proxy of growth experienced by individuals in a given cohort) explained c. 89% of the total lifetime mortality rates across cohorts and populations. A comparison with other published data on populations of stream-living brown trout within its native range highlighted lifetime mortality patterns of one, two, three and four phases, but also suggested that common patterns may occur in populations that experience similar individual growth and population density. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Lobon-Cervia, J.; Budy, P.; Mortensen, E.

2012-01-01

23

1558 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MULTIMEDIA, VOL. 14, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2012 Coordinate Live Streaming and Storage Sharing  

E-print Network

and Storage Sharing for Social Media Content Distribution Xu Cheng, Jiangchuan Liu, Senior Member, IEEE services have formed social media which has drastically changed the content distribution landscape. Today better scalability, robustness, and streaming quality. Index Terms--Live streaming, social media, storage

Liu, Jiangchuan (JC)

24

Gordon and Mike's ICT Podcast: iTunes, Origami and Mega Mergers: Updates and New News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gordon and Mike's ICT Podcast offers perspectives on the information and communication technologies (ICT) industries from Gordon Snyder and Mike Qaissaunee. In this podcast, Mike and Gordon review some technology updates from past shows and some new developments with iTunes, Origami, and mergers between ICT companies. The running time for this show is 31:44.This podcast is available for direct download in mp3 format from the Libsyn site, or click here to subscribe to the whole series in iTunes.

Qaissaunee, Michael

25

Occurrence of free-living amoebae in streams of the Mexico Basin.  

PubMed

Free-living amoebae (FLA) are protozoa that are widely distributed in nature. They are important in the cycling of nutrients in aquatic food chains, but their distribution in natural aquatic environments is not well known. We conducted a survey to determine the presence and distribution of FLA and their relation to some physicochemical parameters in streams of the Mexico Basin in Central Mexico. Thirty-two sites from 18 streams were sampled. Samples were centrifuged and cultured onto NNA-media to isolate amoebae. Identifications were based on morphology. The pathogenicity of Acanthamoeba isolates was tested. Oxygen saturation, temperature, pH, specific conductance, water flow, dissolved reactive phosphorus, nitrites, nitrates, ammonia, dissolved inorganic nitrogen and coliforms were determined. One hundred-and-twenty FLA representing 18 genera were identified. The most frequent genera were Vannella, Rosculus and Acanthamoeba. The frequency of potentially pathogenic FLA was low and only 3 Acanthamoeba isolates were invasive in mice. The highest species richness of FLA was found in streams located into agriculture activity areas and those close to small villages that discharge wastewater into them. Water temperatures were always below 17°C. Oxygen saturation and pH were within the limits for the growth of most FLA. The presence of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria was low; nevertheless, they include potentially pathogenic species and can act as vectors and reservoirs for microbial pathogens and can produce human infections. PMID:25014111

Bonilla-Lemus, Patricia; Caballero Villegas, Adán S; Carmona Jiménez, Javier; Lugo Vázquez, Alfonso

2014-11-01

26

Two Dimensional Array Based Overlay Network for Balancing Load of Peer-to-Peer Live Video Streaming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The live video data is streaming usually in a tree-based overlay network or in a mesh-based overlay network. In case of departure of a peer with additional upload bandwidth, the overlay network becomes very vulnerable to churn. In this paper, a two dimensional array-based overlay network is proposed for streaming the live video stream data. As there is always a peer or a live video streaming server to upload the live video stream data, so the overlay network is very stable and very robust to churn. Peers are placed according to their upload and download bandwidth, which enhances the balance of load and performance. The overlay network utilizes the additional upload bandwidth of peers to minimize chunk delivery delay and to maximize balance of load. The procedure, which is used for distributing the additional upload bandwidth of the peers, distributes the additional upload bandwidth to the heterogeneous strength peers in a fair treat distribution approach and to the homogeneous strength peers in a uniform distribution approach. The proposed overlay network has been simulated by Qualnet from Scalable Network Technologies and results are presented in this paper.

Faruq Ibn Ibrahimy, Abdullah; Rafiqul, Islam Md; Anwar, Farhat; Ibn Ibrahimy, Muhammad

2013-12-01

27

Is there a future for mesh-based live video streaming? Peer-to-peer live streaming systems allow a bandwidth-  

E-print Network

, a design with high link uti- lization can achieve high stream rates, supporting high- quality video. Until to construct and is highly resistant to churn. In addition, we identify several design optimiza- tions which

Massoulié, Laurent

28

An alliance based peering scheme for peer-to-peer live media streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) streaming has emerged as a scalable method for media distribution in recent years. While recent measurement studies have shown the effectiveness of P2P network in media streaming, there have been questions raised about the Quality of Service (QoS), reliability of streaming services and sub optimal uplink utilization in particular. We present a new model for P2P media streaming

Darshan Purandare; Ratan Guha

2007-01-01

29

BEAM: A Peer-to-Peer Framework for Live Media Streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) media streaming has emerged as a scalable method for content distribution in recent years. While recent measure- ment studies have shown the effectiveness of P2P network in media streaming, there have been questions raised about the Quality of Ser- vice (QoS), reliability of streaming services and sub optimal uplink utilization in particular. P2P streaming systems are inherently less

Darshan Purandare; Ratan Guha

30

An Alliance Based Peering Scheme for P2P Live Media Streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

While recent measurement studies have shown the ef- fectiveness of P2P network in media streaming, there have been questions raised about the Quality of Service (QoS), reliability of streaming services and sub optimal uplink utilization in partic- ular. P2P streaming systems are inherently less reliable because of churn, internet dynamics, node heterogeneity and randomness in the swarm. We present a

Darshan Purandare; Ratan K. Guha

2007-01-01

31

Exploring a QoS Driven Scheduling Approach for Peer-to-Peer Live Streaming Systems with Network Coding  

PubMed Central

Most large-scale peer-to-peer (P2P) live streaming systems use mesh to organize peers and leverage pull scheduling to transmit packets for providing robustness in dynamic environment. The pull scheduling brings large packet delay. Network coding makes the push scheduling feasible in mesh P2P live streaming and improves the efficiency. However, it may also introduce some extra delays and coding computational overhead. To improve the packet delay, streaming quality, and coding overhead, in this paper are as follows. we propose a QoS driven push scheduling approach. The main contributions of this paper are: (i) We introduce a new network coding method to increase the content diversity and reduce the complexity of scheduling; (ii) we formulate the push scheduling as an optimization problem and transform it to a min-cost flow problem for solving it in polynomial time; (iii) we propose a push scheduling algorithm to reduce the coding overhead and do extensive experiments to validate the effectiveness of our approach. Compared with previous approaches, the simulation results demonstrate that packet delay, continuity index, and coding ratio of our system can be significantly improved, especially in dynamic environments. PMID:25114968

Cui, Laizhong; Lu, Nan; Chen, Fu

2014-01-01

32

Local and Geographic Variability in the Distribution of Stream-Living Lahontan Cutthroat Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated local and geographic variability in the up- and downstream distribution limits of threatened Lahontan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki henshawi) in stream habitats of the eastern Lahontan basin in northern Nevada and southeastern Oregon. At a geographic scale, elevations of upstream distribution limits were significantly correlated with latitude and longitude, suggesting a potential influence of climatic gradients. Elevations of

J. B. Dunham; M. M. Peacock; B. E. Rieman; R. E. Schroeter; G. L. Vinyard

1999-01-01

33

Local and Geographic Variability in the Distribution of Stream-Living Lahontan Cutthroat Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated local and geographic variability in the up- and downstream distri- bution limits of threatened Lahontan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki henshawi) in stream habitats of the eastern Lahontan basin in northern Nevada and southeastern Oregon. At a geographic scale, elevations of upstream distribution limits were significantly correlated with latitude and longitude, suggesting a potential influence of climatic gradients. Elevations

J. B. Dunham; M. M. Peacock; B. E. Rieman; R. E. Schroeter; G. L. Vinyard

1999-01-01

34

MATIN: a random network coding based framework for high quality peer-to-peer live video streaming.  

PubMed

In recent years, Random Network Coding (RNC) has emerged as a promising solution for efficient Peer-to-Peer (P2P) video multicasting over the Internet. This probably refers to this fact that RNC noticeably increases the error resiliency and throughput of the network. However, high transmission overhead arising from sending large coefficients vector as header has been the most important challenge of the RNC. Moreover, due to employing the Gauss-Jordan elimination method, considerable computational complexity can be imposed on peers in decoding the encoded blocks and checking linear dependency among the coefficients vectors. In order to address these challenges, this study introduces MATIN which is a random network coding based framework for efficient P2P video streaming. The MATIN includes a novel coefficients matrix generation method so that there is no linear dependency in the generated coefficients matrix. Using the proposed framework, each peer encapsulates one instead of n coefficients entries into the generated encoded packet which results in very low transmission overhead. It is also possible to obtain the inverted coefficients matrix using a bit number of simple arithmetic operations. In this regard, peers sustain very low computational complexities. As a result, the MATIN permits random network coding to be more efficient in P2P video streaming systems. The results obtained from simulation using OMNET++ show that it substantially outperforms the RNC which uses the Gauss-Jordan elimination method by providing better video quality on peers in terms of the four important performance metrics including video distortion, dependency distortion, End-to-End delay and Initial Startup delay. PMID:23940530

Barekatain, Behrang; Khezrimotlagh, Dariush; Aizaini Maarof, Mohd; Ghaeini, Hamid Reza; Salleh, Shaharuddin; Quintana, Alfonso Ariza; Akbari, Behzad; Cabrera, Alicia Triviño

2013-01-01

35

MATIN: A Random Network Coding Based Framework for High Quality Peer-to-Peer Live Video Streaming  

PubMed Central

In recent years, Random Network Coding (RNC) has emerged as a promising solution for efficient Peer-to-Peer (P2P) video multicasting over the Internet. This probably refers to this fact that RNC noticeably increases the error resiliency and throughput of the network. However, high transmission overhead arising from sending large coefficients vector as header has been the most important challenge of the RNC. Moreover, due to employing the Gauss-Jordan elimination method, considerable computational complexity can be imposed on peers in decoding the encoded blocks and checking linear dependency among the coefficients vectors. In order to address these challenges, this study introduces MATIN which is a random network coding based framework for efficient P2P video streaming. The MATIN includes a novel coefficients matrix generation method so that there is no linear dependency in the generated coefficients matrix. Using the proposed framework, each peer encapsulates one instead of n coefficients entries into the generated encoded packet which results in very low transmission overhead. It is also possible to obtain the inverted coefficients matrix using a bit number of simple arithmetic operations. In this regard, peers sustain very low computational complexities. As a result, the MATIN permits random network coding to be more efficient in P2P video streaming systems. The results obtained from simulation using OMNET++ show that it substantially outperforms the RNC which uses the Gauss-Jordan elimination method by providing better video quality on peers in terms of the four important performance metrics including video distortion, dependency distortion, End-to-End delay and Initial Startup delay. PMID:23940530

Barekatain, Behrang; Khezrimotlagh, Dariush; Aizaini Maarof, Mohd; Ghaeini, Hamid Reza; Salleh, Shaharuddin; Quintana, Alfonso Ariza; Akbari, Behzad; Cabrera, Alicia Triviño

2013-01-01

36

Science Oxford Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first things visitors will see when visiting the Science Oxford Live website are a few shots from the Wildlife Photographer of the Year exhibit that will soon be at the brick and mortar location of Science Oxford Live. It's hard to decide which is cuter: the hippo, the monkey, or the giraffe's tail. Visitors will certainly want to check out the video podcasts available through iTunes, and even may even subscribe to the podcasts to receive the latest episodes. These webcasts, found under the Watch Us tab, are recordings of live events that took place at Science Oxford Live. They cover topics such as Parkinson's disease, the sleep versus wake balance, the science and history of chocolate, the curse of consciousness, and how "doctors and other health professionals sometimes do more harm than good to patients, despite acting with the best of intentions." The Discovery Zone is a place for kids which is best experienced in person, but online it still has valuable lessons to teach, and it's worth a look.

2012-02-10

37

Stream Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stream Study provides a method to determine the water quality of a stream based on the collection and identification of stream-bottom macroinvertebrates. The site includes a catalog of common stream macroinvertebrates and a glossary of terms used to study streams.

Glenn Bull

1999-03-01

38

Stream Morphometry, Stream Flow, Stream Competence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise combines field activities (i.e., topographic survey of a point bar; sediment sampling with a soil auger), laboratory analysis (i.e., particle size analysis of fluvial sediments), topographic map interpretation, and problem solving exercises. Key words: point bar, fluvial sediments, topographic surveying, particle size analysis, stream morphometry, stream discharge, stream flow competence

Aitken, Alec

39

Activities: Whatzzzzup-Stream?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this set of exercises, students will study rivers and waterways around them by using the Internet, maps, and their knowledge of local landscapes. The students will use an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website to investigate what is upstream and downstream of them. They will also look at graphs of flow in familiar river locations on a live United States Geological Survey website. Using small rocks and a washbasin, students will build a model that extends their understanding of streams in different geographic locations. A topographic map exercise will expose students to topographic maps and allow them to look for the origins of streams. Finally, a reading exercise will illustrate the issue of the importance of lower-order streams to downstream areas and students will be asked to implement their ideas to protect a stream on a dairy farm.

40

Stream Restoration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explores how Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest near Louisville, Kentucky has restored a channelized or straightened stream to its original meandering path, thereby improving the stream’s water quality and creating a better habitat for wildlife.

Ket

2011-01-11

41

Gulf Stream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In-depth website by researchers describes the Gulf Stream, its place in the North Atlantic Gyre, influence on weather and climate, and role of eddies and rings in distributing heat and salinity. A history, 16th to 20th centuries, describes scientists' developing understanding of the Gulf Stream and evolution of oceanographic instruments used to study it, with special details on satellite observations. Also covered: the importance of oceanography and the Gulf Stream to naval applications.

42

Stream Terraces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We spend the first of three lab periods walking up a bedload-dominated stream bed that is a tributary stream to the Mohawk River. We notice the obvious flights of terraces along the stream. I ask the student to count them and walk up on them and think about how they came to be. We then think about how we might survey them, and document their presence. The students have a good idea what we're up to as we have stadia rods and abney levels. Then we go through the routine of measuring terrace heights using the modern stream as a datum. I then divide students into 3 teams and assign each team a different reach of the creek. In total we cover about 1 km., and teams are responsible for measuring the height of stream terraces above the modern stream and measuring with a tape measure their distance upstream from our starting point. On the second week we repeat this exercise on another stream, and then I compile all students data into an Excel spread sheet and ask them to do some simple calculations and plot longitudinal profiles of the modern streams, with terrace remnants plotted above the modern. They do this for both sides of each stream. They also plot a cross section of the stream valley at one point of their choosing to illustrate whether the terraces are paired or unpaired. On the final week, we tour the eastern Mohawk valley looking at much larger terraces that were produced by incision of the Mohawk, and we go to an outcrop of varves deposited in Glacial Lake Albany that crop out at the base of one of the terraces. The students thus get a sense of the large changes in base level that must have affected all the tributary streams in the region. Has minimal/no quantitative component Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills

Rodbell, Donald

43

CONNECTICUT STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of named streams in Connecticut. It includes two Shapefiles with line and polygon features. Both Shapefiles should be used together. The polygon shapefile fills in open water streams such as the Connecticut River as well as Long Island Sound. T...

44

What Lives Here  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners explore an aquatic site such as a pond, lake, stream, river or seashore to find and investigate plants and animals that live in water. Learners use dip nets to scoop up as many different organisms as they can for observation. This is a great introduction to the life of aquatic systems.

Science, Lawrence H.

1980-01-01

45

STREAMING CACHE PLACEMENT PROBLEMS: COMPLEXITY ...  

E-print Network

Virtual private networks are often used to distribute live content, such as video or audio streams ... methods for performance evaluation. ...... Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises (WET. ICE'00) ... (C.A.S. Oliveira) School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Oklahoma State.

2004-12-08

46

Stream Consciousness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During this activity, students will learn how environmental engineers monitor water quality in resource use and design. They will employ environmental indicators to assess the water quality of a nearby stream. Students will make general observations of water quality as well as count the number of macroinvertabrates. They will then use the information they collected to create a scale to rate how good or bad the water quality of the stream. Finally, the class will compare their numbers and discuss and defend their results.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

47

Stream Floods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to explore the nature of floods and flood prediction. Prediction of flooding relies heavily upon statistical techniques based on historical records of stream behavior. This series of exercises first reviews basic concepts in flood prediction such as calculating the Recurrence Interval (RI), which is the average interval in years between occurrences of two discharges of equal magnitude; and the Weibull equation, which calculates the probability that a given discharge will be exceeded in any particular year. The student then accesses historical data on U.S. stream flow and performs these calculations independently.

Huff, Warren

2000-11-03

48

Jet Streams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module describes the general characteristics of upper-level jet streams (Polar Jet, Subtropical Jet, and Tropical Easterly Jet) and two major tropical low-level wind maxima (Somali Jet, African Easterly Jet). Included are discussions of their formation, maintenance, influence on synoptic weather, and role in the general circulation.

Comet

2012-11-13

49

ISS Live!  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

International Space Station Live! (ISSLive!) is a Web application that uses a proprietary commercial technology called Lightstreamer to push data across the Internet using the standard http port (port 80). ISSLive! uses the push technology to display real-time telemetry and mission timeline data from the space station in any common Web browser or Internet- enabled mobile device. ISSLive! is designed to fill a unique niche in the education and outreach areas by providing access to real-time space station data without a physical presence in the mission control center. The technology conforms to Internet standards, supports the throughput needed for real-time space station data, and is flexible enough to work on a large number of Internet-enabled devices. ISSLive! consists of two custom components: (1) a series of data adapters that resides server-side in the mission control center at Johnson Space Center, and (2) a set of public html that renders the data pushed from the data adapters. A third component, the Lightstreamer server, is commercially available from a third party and acts as an intermediary between custom components (1) and (2). Lightstreamer also provides proprietary software libraries that are required to use the custom components. At the time of this reporting, this is the first usage of Web-based, push streaming technology in the aerospace industry.

Price, Jennifer; Harris, Philip; Hochstetler, Bruce; Guerra, Mark; Mendez, Israel; Healy, Matthew; Khan, Ahmed

2013-01-01

50

Streams and Drainage Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page introduces streams and channels and describes the geometry and dynamics of stream channels, including cross sectional shape, discharge, long profiles, base level, laminar and turbulent flow, the load of the stream, and floods. The site explains channel patterns, including straight, meandering and braided channels; erosion by streams; stream deposits, including floodplains and levees, terraces, alluvial fans, and deltas; and drainage systems, including drainage basins and divides, stream order, drainage patterns and continental divides.

Nelson, Stephen

51

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

52

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... Chat Assisted Living Assisted living facilities offer a housing alternative for older adults who may need help ... part of a retirement community, nursing home, senior housing complex, or may stand-alone. Licensing requirements for ...

53

Living Terror  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living organisms move. They act. Their actions may be inimical to man's best interests. They inspire fear, dread, even terror. From time immemorial, humans have viewed with alarm, nay, with horror, the evil that lurks inside living consciousness.

Merlin X. Houdini

1977-01-01

54

Living Donation  

MedlinePLUS

... donors and transplant candidates Paired donation or paired exchange involves two pairs of living kidney donors and ... trans- plants are made possible. This type of exchange often involves multiple living kidney donor/transplant candidate ...

55

Lively Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintaining living things in a classroom requires knowledge and preparation. It also requires the proper equipment and space. There are two primary goals in the study of living things: first, we want our students to respect life, and second, we want them to appreciate its complexity in nature. Observing healthy living things in school accomplishes both goals. This chapter describes the appropriate precautions that should be taken into consideration when bringing living organisms into classrooms.

Texley, Juliana; Kwan, Terry

2002-01-01

56

Improving the Fault Resilience of Overlay Multicast for Media Streaming Guang Tan, Stephen A. Jarvis and Daniel P. Spooner  

E-print Network

Improving the Fault Resilience of Overlay Multicast for Media Streaming Guang Tan, Stephen A resilience of overlay-based live media streaming from two aspects: (1) how to construct a stable multicast techniques to enhance the fault resilience of live media streaming: the Reliability-Oriented Switching Tree

Jarvis, Stephen

57

Stanford Streaming Supercomputer  

E-print Network

Stanford Streaming Supercomputer Eric Darve Mechanical Engineering Department Stanford University DRAM Inter-cluster Crossbar Stream Ctrl #12;12/10/2002 Eric Darve - Stanford Streaming Supercomputer 2 language, support of legacy codes. #12;12/10/2002 Eric Darve - Stanford Streaming Supercomputer 3

Dally, William J.

58

Enhancing cooperative playback systems with efficient encrypted multimedia streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed platforms for live and on-demand media streaming delivery such as content distribution networks and media on-demand systems, are being diffused mainly due to the widespread availability of IP-based, bandwidth-capable digital networks. Provision of multimedia group services is usually supported by transmitting media streams to subscribers organized in a multicast group. Although multicast streaming saves bandwidth and improves scalability, it

Giancarlo Fortino; Wilma Russo; Eugenio Zimeo

2003-01-01

59

Sea Surface Temperature Trends of the Gulf Stream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use NASA satellite data to explore the seasonal changes in sea surface temperatures of the Gulf Stream. Students use NASA's Live Active Server (LAS) to generate data of sea surface temperatures in the Gulf Stream, which they then graph and analyze.

Rex Roettger

60

Ecology of Streams and Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides an introduction to the ecology of streams and mountains. It discusses how trees falling into a mountain stream can provide habitat by creating logjams, even going so far as to float to the sea during spring floods, where they provide cover for ocean fish. There is also a description of alpine ecosystems, those which exist above the tree line, and the animals that live or visit there, and a discussion of the idea of structure and function as it pertains to organisms as diverse as elephants and fungi. A section on soil ecology describes the relationship between mushrooms, the soil, and other organisms such as trees. A quiz and glossary are also provided.

61

Streaming mobile augmented reality on mobile phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous recognition and tracking of objects in live video cap- tured on a mobile device enables real-time user interaction. We demonstrate a streaming mobile augmented reality system with 1 second latency. User interest is automatically inferred from camera movements, so the user never has to press a button. Our system is used to identify and track book and CD covers

David M. Chen; Sam S. Tsai; Ramakrishna Vedantham; Radek Grzeszczuk; Bernd Girod

2009-01-01

62

Streaming mobile augmented reality on mobile phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous recognition and tracking of objects in live video captured on a mobile device enables real-time user interaction. We demonstrate a streaming mobile augmented reality system with 1 second latency. User interest is automatically inferred from camera movements, so the user never has to press a button. Our system is used to identify and track book and CD covers in

D. M. Chen; Sam S. Tsai; Ramakrishna Vedantham; Radek Grzeszczuk; Bernd Girod

2009-01-01

63

Family Living and Personal Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find links for various projects for Family Living and Personal Living classes. FAMILY LIVING Wayne County Clerk - Marriage License The Knot Martha Stewart Weddings *Travel Planning Sites* Northwest Airlines Amtrak Travelocity Spirit Air Orbitz PERSONAL LIVING (and Parenting): *Alcohol Research* Alcohol and Public Health - CDC MedlinePlus: Alcoholism NIAAA National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism *Birth Control* Health and Wellness Resource Center - - start at this site by typing Birth Control in the search bar on the right of the screen and select "full text articles" and consumer heatlh. It will list a range of birth ...

Ms. Schultz

2007-11-05

64

Design and Implementation of Streaming Video and Measurement Data Distribution System over the Internet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the implementation of a virtual laboratory on the Web server over the Internet has attracted a great deal of public attention. The proposed “Streaming System for Experiment of Single Pendulum" uses the CGI(Common Gateway Interface) and the streaming technology in order to control the laboratory equipments and broadcast the streaming live video through the Internet.

Furukawa, Tatsuya; Ohchi, Masashi; Kurakaki, Kenji

65

Orca Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The brainchild of orca biologist Dr. Paul Spong, this Nature Network Web site aims to "relay live sound and images of the orcas in the natural environment of Hanson Island," near Vancouver Island, Canada. Live sound and image feeds are available at 56K and 300K connections, and, by completing a simple registration, visitors will be alerted via email whenever orcas are near the cameras and mikes. Click on Highlights 2000 to see and hear past Web casts of orcas activity. This Web site links to others that relay live images and sounds from animals located around the world.

66

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... of residences participating in the research have lower fees and half have higher fees. The rental rate includes the base rent and service fees charged by the assisted living community. While 86. ...

67

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...

68

Merrimac: Supercomputing with Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Merrimac uses stream architecture and advanced interconnection networks to give an order of magnitude more performance per unit cost than cluster-based scientific computers built from the same technology. Organizing the computation into streams and exploiting the resulting locality using a register hierarchy enables a stream architecture to reduce the memory bandwidth required by representative applications by an order of magnitude

William J. Dally; Francois Labonte; Abhishek Das; Patrick Hanrahan; Jung-Ho Ahn; Jayanth Gummaraju; Mattan Erez; Nuwan Jayasena; Ian Buck; Timothy J. Knight; Ujval J. Kapasi

2003-01-01

69

Middle School Stream Investigation: observing stream erosion, calculating stream discharge, and determining stream chemistry and turbidity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This stream field investigation will allow students to look at stream erosional patterns, take measurements to determine discharge, and conduct a chemical and turbidity analysis of Garvin Brook in Stockton, MN. Based on this investigation students will create a presentation that includes a new testable question that may be carried out the following year along with a stream ecology study.

70

stream hydrology field lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab we take a brief field trip to Adena Brook, a first order tributary of the Olentangy River in central Ohio. We observe the stream, its setting, its bedrock, determine some stream velocity profiles, and measure some basic chemical and physical properties of the stream water.

Anne Carey

71

ConcepTest: Stream Convergence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The diagram depicts the confluence of two perennial streams (A and B) forming C. Which of the following statements regarding stream C must be true? a. Stream flow velocity is greater than in A or B. b. Stream ...

72

Stream Systems Technology Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stream Systems Technology Center is a national technical center of the US Forest Service, designed to improve knowledge of stream systems and processes and to provide training and technical support to National Forests. Although the "Download Area" is still under construction, users may currently access full issues (indexed by date or subject) of the agency's quarterly newsletter, Stream Notes. Articles cover diverse topics from fluvial processes (Geomorphology, River Morphology, Historical Changes in Mountain Streams, etc.) to future technologies (sediment technology, data loggers, stream data collection, etc.). Also of interest are the Conferences, Symposiums, and Other Information section and the Related Websites section.

73

Stream Table Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in groups around home-made stream tables. Each person in the group is assigned a role that is involved in maintaining the stream table (such as the hose-holder, the bucket-holder, the person who turns on and off the water, and the recorder). As a group, they turn on the water and observe what happens when water and sand interact on a slope. Once a stream has formed, they draw the stream, noting locations where erosion and deposition have occurred. Then, they take measurements of the stream channel and stream flow in order to calculate velocity, sinuosity, gradient, and discharge. This activity encourages students to work in groups, use math within a scientific context, and learn about how streams work in a hands-on manner.

Sara M. Rutzky

74

Living Proof Podcast Series  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This podcast series is part of the SUNY University at Buffalo's School of Social Work outreach efforts and is a rather fascinating and useful resource. The purpose of the series is "to engage practitioners and researchers in lifelong learning and to promote research to practice, practice to research." The conversations here include interviews with top-notch researchers, professors, and others. On this site, visitors can browse through past podcasts, which include conversations about topics like online bullying, community organizing, and developing an effective relationship with patients. Also, visitors can sign up to receive each new podcast when it is released via iTunes. Finally, users are encouraged to leave feedback on the episodes they find compelling.

2012-10-15

75

Leaf Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor fall activity, learners find out what living in or under a layer of leaves is like. Learners will discover that animals that live in leaf litter use different senses to find prey, avoid predators, and to navigate through the litter. Learners role play predator and prey—the "prey" hides in a large pile of leaves, and the "predator" tries to "strike" by reaching straight into the leaf pile to grab the "prey." Learners also consider what body adaptations help organisms that spend part of their life under the leaves.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1981-01-01

76

Gaia Live in School  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaia is the European Space Agency's (ESA) next major astronomy telescope mission that was launched December 19, 2013. Gaia will measure accurate distances to about one billion stars across our Milky Way, allowing us to better understand how our galaxy formed and evolved. Gaia will have a profound impact on our understand ing of the Universe and the nature of dark matter, and provide a deeper understanding of how planets form around stars in our local neighbourhood. Gaia scientists and science education advisors are organising a Gaia post-launch event to link approximately forty schools across Europe. The event will include a live stream connection to ESA Gaia Mission Control and local Gaia research students to act as “explainers” and give practical demonstrations in each school. This paper describes the challenges in conducting this Europe-wide event.

Walton, N. A.; Barnes, R.; Soubiran, C.; Vogt, S.

2014-07-01

77

Living fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major emerging fields of research of the beginning of this century concerns living fluids. By "living fluids", we mean two major categories of complex fluids: (i) fluids which are essential to life, like blood, and (ii) active fluids made of particles that are able to propel themselves in the suspending fluid by converting a form of their energy into mechanical motion. Studies on active fluids have known a considerable interest since the last decade. Blood might be viewed as an old topic, but the progresses in experimental techniques, analytical concepts and numerics, have contributed nowadays to a dramatic renewal of the interest in this field, with a great potential towards understanding physical and mechanical factors in cardiovascular diseases. These fields have considerably strengthened interdisciplinary research. The series of reviews of this dossier focus on the tremendous recent progress achieved in research on living fluids both from the experimental and theoretical points of views. These reviews present also the major open issues, making of this dossier a unique guide for future research in these fields. This project grew up thanks to the international summer school that we organized on the topic "living fluids" at the IES (Institut d'études scientifiques) of Cargèse (Corsica) in 2012.

Misbah, Chaouqi; Wagner, Christian

2013-06-01

78

Living Heritage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living Heritage is a website that celebrates New Zealand heritage through the help of the schools and students of New Zealand. The "About Living Heritage" link states that the website is "an online bilingual initiative that enables New Zealand schools to develop and publish an online resource, based on a heritage treasure in their community." Visitors can also read about the five or so groups these stories "Benefit", including New Zealand and the World, in the About Living Heritage link. The "Schools' Stories" link takes visitors to 26 schools' websites produced since 2008, and an archive of 79 schools' websites produced before 2008. By browsing through the stories, visitors can learn about Paddy, the much-loved wandering Airedale who lived on Island Bay in Wellington in the 1930s. The story of Mitiaro High School in the Cook Islands describes how they learned how to build a canoe called a paiere. Finally, a group of Year 1 and 2 students at Russley School write about their discovery that a tree near their school is protected by the city council.

79

Outdoor Living.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

Cotter, Kathy

80

Retiring Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these experiences…

Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

2009-01-01

81

Gas stream purifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas stream purifier has been developed that is capable of removing corrosive acid, base, solvent, organic, inorganic, and water vapors as well as particulates from an inert mixed gas stream using only solid scrubbing agents. This small, lightweight purifier has demonstrated the ability to remove contaminants from an inert gas stream with a greater than 99 percent removal efficiency. The Gas Stream Purifier has outstanding market and sales potential in manufacturing, laboratory and science industries, medical, automotive, or any commercial industry where pollution, contamination, or gas stream purification is a concern. The purifier was developed under NASA contract NAS9-18200 Schedule A for use in the international Space Station. A patent application for the Gas Stream Purifier is currently on file with the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

Adam, Steven J.

1994-01-01

82

The Stream Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based on material developed by the Save Our Streams program (Izaak Walton League of America), this educational resource on streams is provided by the University of Virginia at Charlotteville. The Stream Study homepage is an online guide for determining the water quality of streams, based on collecting and identifying stream-bottom macroinvertebrates (e.g., crayfish, mussels, and larvae of aquatic insects). The resource includes an illustrated identification key for "common stream-bottom macroinvertebrates;" a classification of macroinvertebrates based on sensitivity to "pollution;" practice samples (to test your recently acquired knowledge); a glossary of terms; sampling procedures and forms; and links to additional information. Although the classification scheme presented here (re. pollution sensitivity) raises skepticism among some scientists, the resource is still worthwhile. Educators could use this information to create lab exercises, raise interesting points of discussion, and guide users through hands-on field/ lab experiences.

83

Estuary Live!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classrooms and individuals can log on to participate in a real-time field trip to a National Estuary Research Reserve. Ask questions, view live video and still images, and learn about estuaries from experts. Topics range from geology to water quality, estuary plants and animals, and cultural heritage. Includes: references and lesson plans, classroom activities and teachers' guides. Archives of previous years are available, featuring sessions from East, West and Gulf Coast estuaries.

84

FUTURE ROADS NEAR STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into the stream, harming both water and habitat quality. This metric measured the length of roads within 30 meters of a...

85

ROADS NEAR STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into the stream, harming both water and habitat quality. This metric measured the length of roads within 30 meters of a...

86

Solar wind stream interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements aboard Imp 6, 7, and 8 reveal that approximately one third of all high-speed solar wind streams observed at 1 AU contain a sharp boundary (of thickness less than approx.4 x 10⁴ km) near their leading edge, called a stream interface, which separates plasma of distinctly different properties and origins. Identified as discontinuities across which the density drops abruptly,

J. T. Gosling; J. R. Asbridge; S. J. Bame; W. C. Feldman

1978-01-01

87

STREAM NETWORK TEMPERATURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Stream Network Temperature (SNTEMP) model is a mechanistic, one-dimensional heat transport formulation that predicts daily mean and maximum water temperature as a function of stream distance and environmental heat flux. Net heat flux is calculated as the sum of heat to or fr...

88

Groundwater and stream ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the light of findings in recent years about the extent and nature of the hyporheal zone, the rate of uptake of organic matter by stream beds, and the fact that groundwater contains dissolved organic matter, it is suggested that stream ecologists should learn much more than they now know about groundwater. It seems probable that it is an important

H. B. N. Hynes

1983-01-01

89

Calculation of Stream Discharge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a field based exercise that exposes students to streams as a major agent of erosion and to methods of quantifying stream discharge by collecting data in the field. Students also apply basic navigation skills by using hand-held GPS devices and plotting longitude and latitude of the field sites under investigation.

Rueger, Bruce

90

Talented Streams Implementation  

E-print Network

Talented Streams Implementation Bachelor's thesis, supplementary documentation at the Software the implementation of scoped talents, talent templates and talented streams. It makes it possible to work. i #12;Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Scoped Talents 1 2.1 Talent Templates

Nierstrasz, Oscar

91

Adopt a Stream.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This environmental education program is designed to increase awareness among junior high school students of stream ecosystems and those habitats which comprise the ecosystems adjacent to streams. The teaching content of the manual is presented in two major sections. The first section provides information and background material for the group…

Friends of Environmental Education Society of Alberta (Edmonton).

92

Citrus waste stream utilization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Waste streams, generated during fruit processing, consist of solid fruit residues in addition to liquid waste streams from washing operations which must be handled in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unsound fruit from packing houses are usually sent off to be processed for juice and the solid ...

93

Neutron streaming benchmark calculations  

SciTech Connect

Computational techniques used to analyze neutron streaming through cavities and ducts are described. The configurations are simplified geometries of streaming paths which can be found in nuclear fission and fusion reactors. The results obtained using available computational tools are compared to each other.

Lee, T.Y.; Cramer, S.N.

1989-08-01

94

Carbon and nitrogen stoichiometry and nitrogen cycling rates in streams.  

PubMed

Stoichiometric analyses can be used to investigate the linkages between N and C cycles and how these linkages influence biogeochemistry at many scales, from components of individual ecosystems up to the biosphere. N-specific NH4+ uptake rates were measured in eight streams using short-term 15N tracer additions, and C to N ratios (C:N) were determined from living and non-living organic matter collected from ten streams. These data were also compared to previously published data compiled from studies of lakes, ponds, wetlands, forests, and tundra. There was a significant negative relationship between C:N and N-specific uptake rate; C:N could account for 41% of the variance in N-specific uptake rate across all streams, and the relationship held in five of eight streams. Most of the variation in N-specific uptake rate was contributed by detrital and primary producer compartments with large values of C:N and small values for N-specific uptake rate. In streams, particulate materials are not as likely to move downstream as dissolved N, so if N is cycling in a particulate compartment, N retention is likely to be greater. Together, these data suggest that N retention may depend in part on C:N of living and non-living organic matter in streams. Factors that alter C:N of stream ecosystem compartments, such as removal of riparian vegetation or N fertilization, may influence the amount of retention attributed to these ecosystem compartments by causing shifts in stoichiometry. Our analysis suggests that C:N of ecosystem compartments can be used to link N-cycling models across streams. PMID:15179578

Dodds, Walter K; Martí, Eugenia; Tank, Jennifer L; Pontius, Jeffrey; Hamilton, Stephen K; Grimm, Nancy B; Bowden, William B; McDowell, William H; Peterson, Bruce J; Valett, H Maurice; Webster, Jackson R; Gregory, Stan

2004-08-01

95

Stream aquifer interactions: analytical solution to estimate stream depletions caused by stream stage fluctuations and pumping wells near streams  

E-print Network

, and stream depletion rates in Chapter III are solved using the potential method. Chapter II presents analytical solutions in the Laplace domain for general stream depletion rates caused by a pumping well and caused by stream stage fluctuations. For seasonal...

Intaraprasong, Trin

2009-05-15

96

Living Clocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about daily rhythms (on page 17 of the PDF), learners will explore circadian patterns in humans, animals and plants. They will observe that some behaviors and functions of living organisms vary predictably every 24 hours and many regular functions are governed by internal "clocks," which run independently but are cued or reset by the environment. Groups of learners can conduct one of four (or more) body clock investigations: body temperature, animal behavior, bean leaf, and alertness/heart rate. Materials required for each group will vary, depending on the investigation(s) being conducted. This lesson guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions and a handout.

Nancy P. Moreno

2009-01-01

97

UNM Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you can't make it to the University of New Mexico campus in Albuquerque, why not tune in to their events online? This is now possible, courtesy of the UNM Live website. The function of this site is to bring "educational resources to a wider audience", and their focus is quite catholic, with talks on student aid, podcasts on anthropology, and so on. Visitors can learn about the initiative via the "About UNM Live" section of the site, and for more general information, they can look over the "What is a podcast? How do I subscribe?" area. First-time visitors should start by listening to Professor Jerry Shea talk about the Swahili terms "Sasa" and "Zamani" for a good introduction to the site. The social networking media options are quite easy to use, and visitors can recommend various media clips and programs to friends and others. Also, visitors can use the "Categories" area to look for materials related to campus life, arts, business, education, and current affairs.

98

Uncommon Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Uncommon Lives series on the National Archives of Australia website takes an approach to Australian history that not only encompasses the well-known history-makers, but also lesser known people's role in shaping Australian history. One of the stated goals of the Uncommon Lives series is to show how amateur historians and researchers alike can use the archives to find biographical resources. There are five stories the visitor can discover by simply clicking on the image of the person or people next to the brief description of their story including, "Muslim Journeys", "Charles and Ruth Lane Poole", "Jessie Street", "Wolf Klaphake", and "Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda". By clicking on any choice, visitors will find each story divided into subsections. Explanatory text accompanies the thumbnails of each image and these can be expanded into a high quality image by clicking on them. Each of these stories provides a unique and compelling look into Australian history. For instance in Wolf Klaphake's story you can listen to or read the transcript of segments of the ABC radio play "A Doubtful Character" which is about Klaphake's life and in Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda's story, you can view the actual court records of his case, which was the first for an Aboriginal Australian in the High Court.

2007-01-01

99

American Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started as part of the American Culture studies program at Washington University, the American Lives Project is "a new resource for cultural inquiry that allows users to build connections and identify differences between materials." The project brings together oral histories, historical documents, artifacts, sound, and visual media into an online collection that serves as a model for others seeking to do such work. This particular project documents student activism at Washington University from 1964 to 1972. First-time visitors should look at the About area to learn about the design team, the goals of the project, and the technical aspects of this work. Moving on, visitors can click on the How to Use tab for information about examining the collection. Visitors will find protest banners, letters, handouts, photographs by student groups, and links to related media. Also, visitors can create their own curated collections via the My Objects area, which is a great way to highlight items of personal interest. [KMG

100

London Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"London Lives: Crime, Poverty and Social Policy in the Metropolis" is a project with the goal of "assessing the role of plebeians in the evolution of social practices in the modern metropolis." In other words, the website aims to make accessible the records of non-elite individuals in order to show how those users of particular social institutions charities, the penal system, and others shaped their development. Visitors can choose "Browse Documents" to see the types of documents available, such as "Parish Archives", "Criminal Records", and "Coroners' Records". The "City of London Coroners" records from the 1780s include an inquest into a suspicious death, with no less than a dozen interviews with people who knew the man who died, and one of whom attested to him being "a little touched in the head". The "Additional Datasets" link contains 16 other datasets, including one of boys recruited to serve at sea for the Marine Society.

101

Experimental Stream Section  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Researchers at the Columbia Environmental Research Center will use experimental streams with sand, gravel or cobble bottoms to help to determine the influence of the different substrates on hatch and initiation of dispersal of pallid sturgeon free-embryos....

102

Urban Stream Ecology  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban watersheds characteristically have high impervious surface cover, resulting in high surface runoff and low infiltration following storms. In response, urban streams experience ?flashy? stormflows, reduced baseflows, bank erosion, channel widening, and sedimentation. Urban ...

103

Stream Channel Morphology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This sites shows how measurements of channel morphology relate to stream discharge estimates. It also describes other factors to be considered when evaluating this subject such as: the human element, measurement techniques and possible applications of these methods.

Hooke, Janet

104

River and Stream Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... washing into lakes and streams comes from exposed earth. This exposed earth includes plowed fields, construction sites, and areas that ... using new methods to reduce the amount of earth they disturb. Bacteria Bacteria are also a big ...

105

Community capacity amongst people living with HIV\\/AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobilisation of people living with HIV\\/AIDS in the 1980s was tied to social identity and the public rendering of AIDS as a\\u000a gay disease. This activism has continued in large cities alongside new streams of mobilization addressing the needs of groups\\u000a such as women and Aboriginal peoples living with HIV. We draw on interviews conducted with six people living with

Sarah A. Lovell; Mark W. Rosenberg

2011-01-01

106

Live Your Life Well  

MedlinePLUS

... Living Well » Live Your Life Well Live Your Life Well The 10 Tools These proven tools can ... build a rewarding life. About the Live Your Life Well Campaign Mental Health America is the country's ...

107

Streams, Flows and Torrents  

Microsoft Academic Search

RTFM (RFCs 2720-2724) considers network traffic as being made up of bidirectional flows, which are arbitrary groupings of packets defined only by attributes of their end-points. This paper extends RTFM's view of traffic by adding two further concepts, streams and torrents. Streams are individual IP sessions (e.g. TCP or UDP) between ports on pairs of hosts, while a torrent refers

Nevil Brownlee; Margaret Murray

2001-01-01

108

The Magellanic Stream - New observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New H I observations of the Magellanic Stream have been made using the Parkes 64 m telescope. These observations highlight in detail its complicated structure and uncover new features of the Stream. The extreme velocity clouds (EVCs) are morphologically linked to the Stream indicating that these H I clouds are very truly part of the Stream. Also it is suggested that many of the high velocity clouds seen around the Stream are indeed part of the Magellanic Stream itself, and that the stream consists of many different velocity components in bulk motion.

Wayte, S. R.

109

Consider an Ice Stream.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty years ago, John Nye was one of the leaders who introduced the rigors of classical physics to glaciology. His elegant treatments frequently took advantage of the then recent discovery that ice could be approximated as a plastic material. With this viewpoint, Nye was able to explain the shape of ice sheets and glaciers, to predict the expected pattern of stress and velocity within a glacier, and to derive the advance and retreat of a glacier from the record of accumulation and ablation. These advances have given generations of glaciologists tools to interpret the excellent observational record of glacier behavior and variation. In the 1980s, glaciologist, weaned on these works of Nye and of other similarly adept colleagues, carried their lessons to West Antarctica to study ice streams, the vast conveyor belts of ice that discharged nearly as much Antarctic ice as the much larger East Antarctic ice sheet. Ice streams were a glaciological conundrum. Despite the gently sloping surface, these broad features roared along, moving fastest when the gravitational impetus was least. After two decades of research, ice streams still have not given up all their secrets, yet much is now known. Internal deformation is negligible. Basal friction is frequently nil leaving the shattered margins as the primary means to avoid rapid wastage of the ice sheet. Within the margins, the resistive force results from a delicate balance of heat and evolving ice fabrics. Nevertheless, the bed beneath an ice stream cannot be ignored. It is ultimately the state of the underlying marine sediment that determines whether the ice stream can slide at all. There too, the heat balance is critical with an influx of water required to keep the bed wet enough to let the streams glide along. Ice stream research has been the portal through which glaciologists have seen and identified the complexities of West Antarctic ice sheet dynamics. Remarkably, nearly all time scales seem important. Ice stream positions in past millennia conform to radically different flow patterns while on the scale of hours an ice stream's motion is halted completely, then released to move at surge-like speeds, in tempo with the tides. Explaining these complexities constantly reminds us that the rigorous physics applied to ice so effectively by Nye still work.

Bindschadler, R.

2002-12-01

110

Examining topography and stream discharge at Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry based geologic field lab students will be estimating and measuring stream flow. Students will also map out a full scale live topography map of a dry streambed to help them estimate flow discharge. Students will use their journals to record their hypothesis, lab report questions, graphed data and evidence to backs up their observations.

Todd Koenig Zimmerman High School ISD 728 Zimmerman, MN I will be using a modified concept of the contour mapping exercise we did at St. Thomas and the Hydrology flow lab we preformed at Coon Creek.

111

Observation of Protoplasmic Streaming by Laser-Light Scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented which demonstrate that the laser light scattered from the protoplasm of living algae cells is Doppler shifted by the streaming motion of the macromolecules and particles in the protoplasm. The laser-light-scattering spectra are used to determine the velocities and velocity distributions inside the cells.

R. V. Mustacich; B. R. Ware

1974-01-01

112

Improving the Fault Resilience of Overlay Multicast for Media Streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key technical challenge for overlay multicast is that the highly dynamic multicast members can make data delivery unreliable. In this paper, we address this issue in the context of live media streaming by exploring 1) how to construct a stable multicast tree that minimizes the negative impact of frequent member departures on an existing overlay and 2) how to

Guang Tan; Stephen A. Jarvis

2007-01-01

113

Open Source Initiative Powers Real-Time Data Streams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under an SBIR contract with Dryden Flight Research Center, Creare Inc. developed a data collection tool called the Ring Buffered Network Bus. The technology has now been released under an open source license and is hosted by the Open Source DataTurbine Initiative. DataTurbine allows anyone to stream live data from sensors, labs, cameras, ocean buoys, cell phones, and more.

2014-01-01

114

Impact of broiler slaughter scalding method on processing wastewater stream  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The impact of broiler scalding method on the resulting processing wastewater stream was evaluated. On 3 separate days, 5 to 7 wk old broilers were subjected to a 10 h feed withdrawal, cooped, transported, weighed (live weight), shackled, and then stunned (14.5 V DC, 500 Hz for 10 s) and bled (2 min)...

115

Paleo-ice stream types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During mapping of the Laurentide and Fennoscandian ice sheet beds we have observed and mapped a large number of paleo-ice streams, including apparently anomalous ice streams ocurring on high shear-stress bed materials, and with little or no topographic guidance. In addition, we have found evidence that in several places in the Canadian Arctic there developed a special category of small ephemeral ice streams during the deglaciation. They indicate flow patterns that are very different from older semi-stable ice streams in the respective areas. These observations of several types of "anomalous" ice streams lead us to think that scientific understanding of ice-stream behaviour has been hampered by an over-simplified terminology that presupposes that ice streams are one phenomenon, largely governed by one set of controls. Instead we hold the view that an understanding of ice-stream behaviour must start with a subdivision of the term "ice stream" into genetically distinct categories, with research focused at clarifying the controls for each category. A tentative classification scheme for paleo-ice streams should comprise at least five different types of ice streams, i/ Classical ice streams which occur on an excessively lubricated bed, i.e. preferably over fine-grained substrate with low permeability. Most of these ice streams terminated in lacustrine or marine water bodies. The numerous Baltic Ice Streams and the Cochrane surges into glacial lakes Agassis/Ojibway are examples of this type, ii/ Semi-stable ice streams which exist in locations where overall ice-sheet geometry favors the occurrence of long-lasting convergent flow, i.e. downstream of saddles in the ice-sheet surface. The Åre - Trondheim area in Scandinavia was likely a site for such an ice stream, iii/ Transient rigid-bed ice streams, which form without obvious topographical or substratum control when thawed spots start to develop under a largely cold-based ice sheet, which then finds itself with a steeper profile than the reduced bed traction can sustain. The unnamed Finnish ice streams that terminate in the Salpausselkä lobes are prime examples, and the Dubawnt ice stream in Keewatin may also be of this type, iiii/ Topographic ice streams, which are constrained by topography and fixed in space but variable in time. The Hudson Strait, Laurentian Channel, and Norwegian Channel ice streams are prime candidates for this type, and iiiii/ Re-equilibration ice streams, which probably develop as a response to rapid calving and breakup of ice in adjacent marine areas. Good examples are the east-trending ice stream on Prince of Wales Island, the small Cap Krusenstern ice stream and numerous ice streams on Baffin Island.

Kleman, J.; de Angelis, H.; Greenwood, S.

2010-12-01

116

Living Nanomachines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication and exchanges with the outside world, i.e., the ability of the cell to change shape, to move within a tissue, or to organise its own defence against attack by pathogens, injury, and so on. These nanomachines are made up of macromolecular assemblies with varying degrees of complexity, forged by evolution, within which work is done as a result of changes in interactions between proteins, or between proteins and nucleic acids, or between proteins and membrane components. All these cell components measure a few nanometers across, so the mechanical activity of these nanomachines all happens on the nanometric scale. The directional nature of the work carried out by biological nanomachines is associated with a dissipation of energy. As examples of protein assemblies, one could mention the proteasome, which is responsible for the degradation of proteins, and linear molecular motors such as actomyosin, responsible for muscle contraction, the dynein-microtubule system, responsible for flagellar motility, and the kinesin-microtubule system, responsible for transport of vesicles, which transform chemical energy into motion. Nucleic acid-protein assemblies include the ribosome, responsible for synthesising proteins, polymerases, helicases, elongation factors, and the machinery of DNA replication and repair; the mitotic spindle is an integrated system involving several of these activities which drive chromosome segregation. The machinery coupling membranes and proteins includes systems involved in the energy metabolism, such as the ATP synthase rotary motor, signalling cascades, endocytosis and phagocytosis complexes, and also dynamic membrane-cytoskeleton complexes which generate protrusion forces involved in cell adhesion and migration. The ideas of molecular recognition and controlled interfaces between biological components provide the underlying mechanisms for biological machinery and networks [1]. Many proteins illustrate this principle by their modular organisation into domains. The juxtaposition of catalytic domains of known function and domains of interaction with different partners leads to the emergence of new biological functions. It can also create threshold mechanisms, or biological switches, by triggering the activity of a given domain only when several partners interact with the regulatory domains. Many of these interaction domains are well understood. They exist inside different proteins, in particular, in cell signaling networks, and could potentially be used as building blocks in the construction of new proteins.

Carlier, M.-F.; Helfer, E.; Wade, R.; Haraux, F.

117

The Gulf Stream Voyage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gulf Stream Voyage is an online multidisciplinary project which utilizes both real time data and primary source materials to help guide students to discover the science and history of the Gulf Stream. Students will investigate this great ocean current, how it affects the Atlantic Ocean and some of mankind's experiences dealing with it. This voyage includes activities for marine science, earth science, chemistry, physics, biology, math, history and language arts. All may be easily used in today's technology enhanced classroom including access to real time ocean data, atmospheric data and historical primary source materials.

2000-01-01

118

Total Solar Eclipse: Live from Turkey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On March 29, 2006, a team from the Exploratorium filmed and broadcast live the total eclipse of the Sun as seen from Side, Turkey. The web site created around this event includes streaming video of the eclipse, a slide show from first contact through totality and fourth contact, and an image gallery with photos of the eclipse and the chosen site in Turkey, a Roman-era amphitheater. There is also information about how the location was chosen, a map showing the path of totality, how the eclipse was filmed and broadcast live by satellite, and the mechanics of a solar eclipse.

2006-02-23

119

STREAM WATER QUALITY MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

QUAL2K (or Q2K) is a river and stream water quality model that is intended to represent a modernized version of the QUAL2E (or Q2E) model (Brown and Barnwell 1987). Q2K is similar to Q2E in the following respects: One dimensional. The channel is well-mixed vertically a...

120

Calculating Stream Discharge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Streamflow, or discharge, is defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the volume of water flowing past a fixed point in a fixed unit of time. The discharge of a stream can be affected by many things, including topography and channel morphology. How

Van Faasen, Carl; Peaslee, Graham; Soukhome, Jennifer; Statema, William

2009-04-01

121

Practical Meteor Stream Forecasting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inspired by the recent Leonid meteor storms, researchers have made great strides in our ability to predict enhanced meteor activity. However, the necessary calibration of the meteor stream models with Earth-based ZHRs (Zenith Hourly Rates) has placed emphasis on the terran observer and meteor activity predictions are published in such a manner to reflect this emphasis. As a consequence, many predictions are often unusable by the satellite community, which has the most at stake and the greatest interest in meteor forecasting. This paper suggests that stream modelers need to pay more attention to the needs of this community and publish not just durations and times of maxima for Earth, but everything needed to characterize the meteor stream in and out of the plane of the ecliptic, which, at a minimum, consists of the location of maximum stream density (ZHR) and the functional form of the density decay with distance from this point. It is also suggested that some of the terminology associated with meteor showers may need to be more strictly defined in order to eliminate the perception of crying wolf by meteor scientists. An outburst is especially problematic, as it usually denotes an enhancement by a factor of 2 or more to researchers, but conveys the notion of a sky filled with meteors to satellite operators and the public. Experience has also taught that predicted ZHRs often lead to public disappointment, as these values vastly overestimate what is seen.

Cooke, William J.; Suggs, Robert M.

2003-01-01

122

Evaluating stream restoration projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

River and stream restoration projects are increasingly numerous but rarely subjected to systematic postproject evaluation. Without conducting such evaluation and widely disseminating the results, lessons will not be learned from successes and failures, and the field of river restoration cannot advance. Postproject evaluation must be incorporated into the initial design of each project, with the choice of evaluation technique based

G. Mathias Kondolf; Elisabeth R. Micheli

1995-01-01

123

WESTERN MARYLAND STREAM SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY WAS TO ASSESS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STREAM SENSITIVITY TO ACIDIFICATION, FISH DISTRIBUTION, AND ABUNDANCE. WATER QUALITY AND FISH SAMPLING WERE CONDUCTED AT 72 STATIONS WITHING THE APPALACHIAN PLATEAU OF WESTERN MARYLAND IN 1989. THE FISHERIES DATA...

124

James River Stream Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the USGS measures peak stream flow data for the James River near Richmond, Virginia. The page provides the data in several different formats, including a graph, a table, a WATSTORE formatted file, or a tab-separated file.

Usgs

125

Stream Profile Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use elevation and distance data to construct graphic profiles and determine the average gradients for three streams. A series of discussion questions addresses concepts of deposition, erosion, and nickpoints, and gives students practice compiling evidence to provide scientific explanations. Graphs can be constructed by hand on paper or generated using graphing software.

Miller, Zach

126

ASSESSING HEADWATER STREAMS: LINKING LANDSCAPES TO STREAM NETWORKS  

EPA Science Inventory

Headwater streams represent a significant land-water boundary and drain 70-80% of the landscape. Headwater streams are vital components to drainage systems and are directly linked to our downstream rivers and lakes. However, alteration and loss of headwater streams have occurre...

127

lone star healthy streams program The Lone Star Healthy Streams  

E-print Network

lone star healthy streams program The Lone Star Healthy Streams (LSHS) Program provides rural of a Synergistic, Comprehensive Statewide Lone Star Healthy Streams Program. LSHS is incorporating educational) to reduce bacteria runoff. Educational programs are an important part of this strategy. #12;lone star

128

Assisted Living Community Profile  

MedlinePLUS

... of all residents live in small communities. 2 Fee Structures - The costs for assisted living residences vary ... inclusive rate model, and 17 percent use a fee-for-service model. 1 Services - Assisted living residences ...

129

A Simulated Stream Ecology Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simulated field experience to study stream ecology in the classroom. Secondary students determine the composition of the stream community, describe the distribution of the benthic invertebrates, and design a food web. (Author/MA)

Zampella, Robert A.

1979-01-01

130

Thermal Regimes of Northeast Streams  

E-print Network

, Massachusetts Division of Fish and Wildlife, Ralph Abele, USEPA Region I, M. Carpenter, NHFG, D. Neils, NHDES of High-Quality Coldwater Streams in New England (USEPA) Task 1: Develop a stream temperature database Regime Urbanization Drivers #12;185 Stream Temperature Sampling Sites 2005-2009 Overview Database

131

Modeling skew in data streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data stream applications have made use of statistical summaries to reason about the data using nonparametric tools such as histograms, heavy hitters, and join sizes. However, relatively little attention has been paid to modeling stream data parametrically, despite the potential this approach has for mining the data. The challenges to do model fitting at streaming speeds are bothtechnical-how to continually

Flip Korn; S. Muthukrishnan; Yihua Wu

2006-01-01

132

Denitrification of a gas stream  

SciTech Connect

Nitric oxide and other oxides of nitrogen is removed from a gas stream by contacting the gas stream with chlorine in the presence of water in the liquid phase and scrubbing the gas stream with an aqueous mixture of a hydrochloride and a hypochlorite.

Tamony, A.E.; Youngson, C.R.

1981-10-13

133

ConcepTest: Perennial Stream Confluence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The diagram depicts the confluence of two perennial streams (A and B) forming C. Which of the following statements regarding stream C must be true? a. Stream flow velocity is greater than in A or B. b. Stream ...

134

A direct approach for quantifying stream shading  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Excessive stream water temperature causes thermal stress in fish and invertebrates, decreases dissolved oxygen, and encourages bacterial and algal growth. Solar radiation affects stream temperature. Shade cast by riparian vegetation reduces thermal inputs to stream water. Stream shading standards...

135

Biotech Outsourcing Strategies cmc—Biologics stream  

PubMed Central

Now in its third year, the Biotech Outsourcing Strategies (BOS) meeting organized by Bio2Business took place at the Søhuset Conference Centre in Hørsholm, Copenhagen. The focus of this year's event was the demanding and challenging area of chemistry, manufacturing and controls (CMC), and the meeting provided ample opportunity for lively discussion of the key issues surrounding this area. New for the 2010 conference, a biologics-focused lecture stream ran in parallel to the established small molecule stream. Both streams boasted a distinguished panel of keynote speakers who discussed all aspects of CMC from early stage scale-up through late stage clinical development. In addition to the keynote speakers, selected contract research organizations (CROs) gave short presentations on the solutions that they could provide to some of the challenges facing CMC. The meeting attracted more than 150 delegates from leading drug development companies and CRO service providers, and greatly facilitated the forging of new working relationships through pre-arranged one-to-one meetings. Moreover, exhibitions from event sponsors and considerable scheduled networking time over lunch and evening receptions further enhanced the highly productive and interactive nature of the meeting. PMID:20716956

2010-01-01

136

The Gulf Stream Voyage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online multidisciplinary project is part of the Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE) program, which has developed internet activities for the elementary, middle, and high school level student. It utilizes both real time data and primary source materials to help guide students to discover the science and history of the Gulf Stream. Students investigate the driving forces behind this great ocean current, how it affects the Atlantic Ocean, and some of mankinds experiences in dealing with it. This project can be used as a complete tutorial on the Gulf Stream, however, the activities are presented in a manner that allows each to be used individually to supplement traditional classroom lessons. The project provides instructions, activities, worksheets, data links, reference materials, on-line help, back-up information, and a teacher area for help and ideas.

2007-12-12

137

DDT in forest streams.  

PubMed

Water was sampled from a tributary of the Miramichi River of New Brunswick before, during, and up to two years after the final operational application of DDT to this area of forest. Gas chromatographic analysis of petroleum ether extracts of the water showed that only during and for a few hours after actual spray application did the DDT concentration in the stream exceed a steady background level of 0.5 ppb. pp 'DDT (<17 ppb.), and this DDT flush occurred mainly as a surface film associated with the formulating oil. Bottom sediments, extracted with hexane-acetone (2/1) for chromatographic analysis, showed a downstream dilution gradient of DDT residue from tributary to estuary, and these averaged only 12.5 per cent of the DDT concentration found in the soils of surrounding forests. Much of the pp' DDT applied in the original technical spray was decomposed to DDE and DDD in the bottom sediments of forest streams. PMID:23989410

Yule, W N; Tomlin, A D

1970-11-01

138

Meteor Stream Membership Criteria  

E-print Network

Criteria for the membership of individual meteors in meteor streams are discussed from the point of view of their mathematical and also physical properties. Discussion is also devoted to the motivation. It is shown that standardly used criteria (mainly D-criterion of Southworth and Hawkins, 1963) have unusual mathematical properties in the sense of a term ``distance'', between points in a phase space, and, physical motivation and realization for the purpose of obtaining their final form is not natural and correct, and, moreover, they lead also to at least surprising astrophysical results. General properties of possible criteria are discussed. A new criterion for the membership in meteor streams is suggested. It is based on probability theory. Finally, a problem of meteor orbit determination for known parent body is discussed.

Jozef Klacka

2000-05-25

139

Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

2013-01-01

140

Evaluating stream restoration projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

River and stream restoration projects are increasingly numerous but rarely subjected to systematic postproject evaluation.\\u000a Without conducting such evaluation and widely disseminating the results, lessons will not be learned from successes and failures,\\u000a and the field of river restoration cannot advance. Postproject evaluation must be incorporated into the initial design of\\u000a each project, with the choice of evaluation technique based

G. Mathias Kondolf; Elisabeth R. Micheli

1995-01-01

141

Querying XML streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient querying of XML streams will be one of the fundamental features of next-generation information sys- tems. In this paper we propose the TurboXPath path proces- sor, which accepts a language equivalent to a subset of the for-let-where constructs of XQuery over a single document. TurboXPath can be extended to provide full XQuery support or used to augment federated database

Vanja Josifovski; Marcus Fontoura; Attila Barta

2005-01-01

142

Orbit of the Ophiuchus Stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ophiuchus Stream is the most recently discovered stellar stream in the Milky Way (Bernard et al. 2014). Due to its location (?5 kpc from the Galactic center) and its puzzling morphology (a thin and short stream, and yet with no visible progenitor), this stream may represent an important piece in our efforts to understand the Galactic potential and the dynamical evolution of accreted structures. In this talk, I will present a followup study of the stream during which we obtained high-quality spectroscopic data on 14 stream member stars using Keck and MMT telescopes. I will show how these newly acquired spectroscopic and existing photometric data enabled us to constrain i) the distance and line-of-sight extent of the stream, ii) the full 3D kinematics of the stream, iii) the chemical properties of the stream and the nature of its progenitor, and iv) the orbit of the stream. I will finish by discussing future prospects in this field in light of the upcoming public release of Pan-STARRS1, Palomar Transient Factory, and GAIA data.

Sesar, Branimir; Bernard, Edouard J.; Bovy, Jo; Cohen, Judith G.; Caldwell, Nelson; Ness, Melissa; Johnson, Christian I.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Martin, Nicolas; Rix, Hans-Walter; Ford Schlafly, Eddie; Pan-Starrs1 Collaboration

2015-01-01

143

Lone Star Healthy Streams: Keeping Texas streams clean  

E-print Network

Winter 2013 tx H2O 25 Story by Kathryn S. Boutwell ] The Lone Star Healthy Streams program recommends moving livestock from one area to another over time to prevent fecal material from accumulating in creek pastures. Photo from Crestock... Corporation. LONE STAR HEALTHY STREAMS Keeping Texas streams clean Think contaminated water only occurs in developing countries? Even in the United States, high levels of bacteria in some water bodies make them potentially unsuitable for recreation...

Boutwell, Kathryn S.

2013-01-01

144

Streams of Coal or Streams of Death? A Toxicology Case Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mary Beth was raised in Western Pennsylvania, an area where thousands of abandoned coal mines have led to extensive contamination of streams and associated ground waters. Aquatic life has clearly suffered, but the health effects on people living along the waterways have not been so clear. In working through this interrupted case study, students consider the biological consequences for Mary Beth’s family by analyzing selected research articles. Originally developed for an upper level toxicology course, it would also be appropriate for a cancer biology course and could easily be adapted for a course in science and society or environmental studies.

Niedziela, Linda

2007-01-01

145

Analysis of real-time multiple source video streaming via wireless 5.8 GHz for intelligent traffic management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the performance of live compressed motion image transmission in coherence with the development of the multiple video streaming and compression (Multiple-VSCS) software, as applied for the intelligent traffic management system. Motion Images of multiple sources are captured, jointly compressed and streamed real time via utilization of the 5.8 GHz OFDM outdoor wireless LAN network. Experiments were performed

V. M. Baskaran; S. K. Tiong; M. Z. Jamaludin

2005-01-01

146

Analysis of Real-Time Multiple Source Video Streaming via Wireless 5.8 GHz for Intelligent Traffic Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the performance of live compressed motion image transmission in coherence with the development of the multiple video streaming and compression (multiple-VSCS) software, as applied for the intelligent traffic management system. Motion images of multiple sources are captured, jointly compressed and streamed real time via utilization of the 5.8 GHz OFDM outdoor wireless LAN network. Experiments were performed

V. M. Baskaran; S. K. Tiong; M. Z. Jamaludin

2005-01-01

147

MSRI: Streaming Video Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI) maintains an impressive archive of streaming video lectures and presentations. This site contains archives of the videos from various workshops and special topics held before 2004. From the Fall of 2002, of particular interest is the "Introductory Workshop in Quantum Computation." It consists of fifteen lectures, each with complete textual slides provided in addition to the roughly hour-long presentations. Quantum computation is a science that is still in its infancy, and the theories discussed by the lecturers are significant. There are also videos about commutative algebra, random matrix theory, and semidefinite programming.

2002-01-01

148

Squeeze the Stream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity related to flight, learners build a tiny stream channel to investigate how fluids (air and water) change speed as they flow between and around objects. It includes an explanation "What's Going on? The Simple Explanation..." for an introductory explanation. See related resource "What's Going on? The Advanced Explanation..." for an explanation of what is happening to the water and pressure during this experiment as well as how it relates to airplanes and flight. This resource is related to other resources in the SMILE Pathway: Look Mom, No Wings! and Bernoulli Brain Teasers.

2013-07-30

149

8.F Video Streaming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: You work for a video streaming company that has two monthly plans to choose from: Plan 1: A flat rate of \\$7 per month plus \\$2.50 per video viewed Pla...

150

Test Your Stream Erosion IQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test Your Stream Erosion IQ is an online activity for students to examine topographical maps of stream erosion, and identify the type of landforms that would be created by the stream channels shown on the maps. From the elevation contour lines, students decide if the dome, mountain peak, U-shaped canyon, irregular, or V-shaped canyon landforms are represented. There are also photographs to illustrate the landforms.

151

Sea Surface Temperature Trends of the Gulf Stream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the most studied and important ocean currents of the world lies along the eastern coast of the United States and is called the Gulf Stream. It derives its name from its source region of warm water in the Gulf of Mexico. For the past two decades, scientists have been collecting sea surface temperature (SST) data from satellites, buoys and ships in the Gulf Stream and Atlantic Basin. In this three-part lesson, students will explore the Live Access Server (LAS) and produce plots of sea surface temperature. They then prepare a time series of data for particular location(s) on the Gulf Stream and use Excel to produce and analyze graphs of sea surface temperature. The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links, sample graphs, follow-up questions, extensions, and teacher notes.

2006-10-31

152

Stream salamanders as indicators of stream quality in Maryland, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological indicators are critical to the protection of small, headwater streams and the ecological values they provide. Maryland and other state monitoring programs have determined that fish indicators are ineffective in small streams, where stream salamanders may replace fish as top predators. Because of their life history, physiology, abundance, and ubiquity, stream salamanders are likely representative of biological integrity in these streams. The goal of this study was to determine whether stream salamanders are effective indicators of ecological conditions across biogeographic regions and gradients of human disturbance. During the summers of 2001 and 2002, we intensively surveyed for stream salamanders at 76 stream sites located west of the Maryland Coastal Plain, sites also monitored by the Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS) and City of Gaithersburg. We found 1,584 stream salamanders, including all eight species known in Maryland, using two 15 ? 2 m transects and two 4 m2 quadrats that spanned both stream bank and channel. We performed removal sampling on transects to estimate salamander species detection probabilities, which ranged from 0.67-0.85. Stepwise regressions identified 15 of 52 non-salamander variables, representing water quality, physical habitat, land use, and biological conditions, which best predicted salamander metrics. Indicator development involved (1) identifying reference (non-degraded) and degraded sites (using percent forest, shading, riparian buffer width, aesthetic rating, and benthic macroinvertebrate and fish indices of biotic integrity); (2) testing 12 candidate salamander metrics (representing species richness and composition, abundance, species tolerance, and reproductive function) for their ability to distinguish reference from degraded sites; and (3) combining metrics into an index that effectively discriminated sites according to known stream conditions. Final indices for Highlands, Piedmont, and Non-Coastal Plain regions comprised four metrics: number of species, number of salamanders, number of intolerant salamanders, and number of adult salamanders, producing classification efficiencies between 87% and 90%. Partial validation of these indices was obtained when a test of the number of salamanders metric produced an 82% correct classification of 618 MBSS sites surveyed in 1995-97. This study supports the use of stream salamander monitoring and a composite stream salamander index of biotic integrity (SS-IBI) to determine stream quality in Maryland.

Southerland, M.T.; Jung, R.E.; Baxter, D.P.; Chellman, I.C.; Mercurio, G.; Volstad, J.H.

2004-01-01

153

The Magellanic Stream Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is still a controversy on the mass of the Galaxy in the deep halo, some still advocates a conservative view where the rotation velocity ultimately decays as in accord with the Keplerian law at the distance of 50 kpc, while others become to consider that the rotation curve of the Milky Way, essentially, stays flat or is still increasing at the distance of the Magellanic Clouds and the Magellanic Stream. On the Basis of the accurate observed data of the spacial location of the LMC, SMC and the Magellanic Stream and their radial velocity distribution, it is clarified that the halo of the Galaxy has a huge dark matter, resulting in a flat rotation curve with the terminal velocity of the order of 250 km/s. It is shown that the tidal interaction of the LMC and the SMC has produced a number of charcteristics, a series of burst of star formation, kinematic peculiarities within the both Clouds, collision-induced imprints, etc. All have, observationally, been revealed and interpreted as a result of at leased two colse encounters of the LMC and the SMC, which can occur only in the deep gravitational potential of dark matter as shown by a tidal simulation of Murai and Fujimoto(1980).

Murai, T.

154

Scaling in stream communities.  

PubMed Central

Scaling relationships between population density (N) and body size (W), and of their underlying size distributions, can contribute to an understanding of how species use resources as a function of size. In an attempt to resolve the controversy over the form of scaling relationships, an extensive dataset, comprising 602 invertebrate species, was obtained from two geographically separate stream communities (Seebach in Austria and Mynach in Wales). We analysed the temporal consistency of the N-W relationship, which was subjected to ordinary least squares (OLS), bisector (OLS(BIS)) and quantile regressions, and species-size spectra with seasonally collated data. Slopes of seasonal OLS(BIS) regressions did not depart from -1 in either community, indicating a seasonally convergent scaling relationship, which is not energetically constrained. Species-size spectra may scale with habitat complexity, providing an alternative explanation for the observed body-size scaling. In contrast to the right-skewed species-size frequency distributions of single-species assemblages, the size spectra of these benthic communities exhibited 'central tendencies', reflecting their phyletic constitution. The shape of species body-mass spectra differed between the two communities, with a bimodal and seasonally convergent pattern in the Seebach community and a seasonally shifting unimodality in the Mynach community. The body-size spectra of large, mostly insect, species (greater than or equal to 1 mm) scaled to seasonal variations in habitat complexity (i.e. fractal D), suggesting that habitat structure constrains the community organization of stream benthos. PMID:12573074

Schmid, Peter E; Tokeshi, Mutsunori; Schmid-Araya, Jenny M

2002-01-01

155

Living with Tuberculosis  

MedlinePLUS

... raquo More Top Stories State of Tobacco Control - Michigan is Failing to Save Lives January 21, 2015 ... January 21, 2015 State of Tobacco Control - Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio & Tennessee Fail to Save Lives January 21, ...

156

Living with Sarcoidosis  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis has no cure, but you can take ... Content: Next >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 10/15/2014 June 14, 2013 Sarcoidosis Clinical ...

157

ASSESSING STREAM BED STABILITY AND EXCESS SEDIMENTATION IN MOUNTAIN STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Land use and resource exploitation in headwaters catchments?such as logging, mining, and road building?often increase sediment supply to streams, potentially causing excess sedimentation. Decreases in mean substrate size and increases in fine stream bed sediments can lead to inc...

158

Analyzing indicators of stream health for Minnesota streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent research has emphasized the importance of using physical, chemical, and biological indicators of stream health for diagnosing impaired watersheds and their receiving water bodies. A multidisciplinary team at the University of Minnesota is carrying out research to develop a stream classification system for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) assessment. Funding for this research is provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. One objective of the research study involves investigating the relationships between indicators of stream health and localized stream characteristics. Measured data from Minnesota streams collected by various government and non-government agencies and research institutions have been obtained for the research study. Innovative Geographic Information Systems tools developed by the Environmental Science Research Institute and the University of Texas are being utilized to combine and organize the data. Simple linear relationships between index of biological integrity (IBI) and channel slope, two-year stream flow, and drainage area are presented for the Redwood River and the Snake River Basins. Results suggest that more rigorous techniques are needed to successfully capture trends in IBI scores. Additional analyses will be done using multiple regression, principal component analysis, and clustering techniques. Uncovering key independent variables and understanding how they fit together to influence stream health are critical in the development of a stream classification for TMDL assessment.

Singh, U.; Kocian, M.; Wilson, B.; Bolton, A.; Nieber, J.; Vondracek, B.; Perry, J.; Magner, J.

2005-01-01

159

Pacific Northwest Stream Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oregon State University Libraries has created this wonderful collection of 1,000 different images taken between 1934 and 1945 that document 390 streams in the Columbia River Basin. The photographs were taken by U.S. Bureau of Fisheries researchers who were interested in the spawning and rearing habitats for spring Chinook salmon. Visitors can use the clickable map on the homepage to move around through the images, which cover areas like the Puget Sound, the Clearwater region of Idaho, and the Willamette River Valley in Oregon. Each of these separate maps has a finer level of detail, and visitors can even click on various tributaries to look for detailed images. Visitors can use the keyword search, or the geographic search, which allows them to scroll around via major river basins. The site also contains technical reports on the salmon's spawning patterns created as part of this long-term project.

2005-01-01

160

SEA LAMPREY SPAWNING: MICHIGAN STREAMS  

E-print Network

SEA LAMPREY SPAWNING: MICHIGAN STREAMS OF LAKE SUPERIOR Marine Bioiogical Laboratory MAY 2 3 1952 Service, Albert M. Day, Director SEA LAMPREY SPAWNING s MICHIGAN STREAMS OF LAKE SUPERIOR by Howard A decades since the capture of the first specimen in Lake Erie in 1921, the sea lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus

161

Temperature of the Gulf Stream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site Presents a MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) image of the Gulf Stream. The image is color-coded to show the variation in temperature of the ocean water. A brief description of the Gulf Stream, its direction and speed, and a link to other related imagery are included.

162

The chalk-stream environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chalk is a very pure and porous form of limestone. Water percolates down through the rock to form aquifers which overflow as springs forming chalk streams which receive little surface runoff. Passage through the rock is relatively slow and smooths out irregularities in rainfall and stabilises the water temperature. As a result the streams tend to have a regular annual

A. D. Berrie

1992-01-01

163

Continuous queries over data streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many recent applications, data may take the form of continuous data streams, rather than finite stored data sets. Several aspects of data management need to be reconsidered in the presence of data streams, offering a new research direction for the database community. In this paper we focus primarily on the problem of query processing, specifically on how to define

Shivnath Babu; Jennifer Widom

2001-01-01

164

Assemblages in Southern Appalachian Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation of riparian zones is known to influence the numbers and kinds of organisms that inhabit adjoining streatns, but little quantitative information is available on how much deforestation must occur before the biota isaffected. We sampled fishes and stream habitats in 12 stream segments downstream from deforested but vegetated riparian patches 0-5.3 km long, all downslope from watersheds with at

E. B. DALE JONES; GENE S. HELFMAN; JOSHUA O. HARPER

165

Metamorphisms: Streaming Representation-Changers  

E-print Network

Metamorphisms: Streaming Representation-Changers Jeremy Gibbons Computing Laboratory, University; typically, it will convert from one data representation to another. In general, metamorphisms are less inter before all of the work of the fold is complete. This permits streaming metamorphisms, and among other

Gibbons, Jeremy

166

Feeding ecology of stream invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of various aspects of invertebrate-microbial interactions is presented. Food resources of stream invertebrates are distinguished by particle size (detritus), the presence of chlorophyll (periphyton), and high protein content (macrophytes). Invertebrate functional feeding groups such as shredders, collectors, scrapers, piercers, and predators are discussed. The interactions between temperature and quantity and quality of stream macroinvertebrate food resouces are described.

K. W. Cummins; M. J. Klug

1979-01-01

167

Aesthetic Considerations for Stream Restoration  

EPA Science Inventory

Aesthetics are an integral component of the social and economic benefits of stream restoration and should be considered in restoration projects for sustainable management. According to Bernhardt et al. (2005), aesthetics is one of the frequently listed goals for stream restoratio...

168

Industrial-Strength Streaming Video.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Corporate training, financial services, entertainment, and education are among the top applications for streaming video servers, which send video to the desktop without downloading the whole file to the hard disk, saving time and eliminating copyrights questions. Examines streaming video technology, lists ten tips for better net video, and ranks…

Avgerakis, George; Waring, Becky

1997-01-01

169

[Application and effectiveness of soil bioengineering in ecological restoration of stream bank].  

PubMed

Soil bioengineering is a kind of engineering by using living plant materials to construct the structures with some engineering and ecological functions, which can provide an effective means for the slope stabilization and site restoration of stream banks. In this paper, the principles of soil bioengineering, basic planting methods, live stakes, live fascines, brush layering, and integrated technologies were discussed in brief, and the first demo project of soil engineering in ecological restoration of stream bank in our country was introduced. After 10-month project implementation, significant effectiveness was obtained on slope stability, habitat improvement, and ecological restoration of stream banks. It was concluded that the approach could be widely applied in ecological restoration of all kinds of slopes in China. PMID:17147185

Li, Xiaoping; Zhang, Liquan

2006-09-01

170

Estimating flood hydrographs and volumes for Alabama streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydraulic design of highway drainage structures involves an evaluation of the effect of the proposed highway structures on lives, property, and stream stability. Flood hydrographs and associated flood volumes are useful tools in evaluating these effects. For design purposes, the Alabama Highway Department needs information on flood hydrographs and volumes associated with flood peaks of specific recurrence intervals (design floods) at proposed or existing bridge crossings. This report will provide the engineer with a method to estimate flood hydrographs, volumes, and lagtimes for rural and urban streams in Alabama with drainage areas less than 500 sq mi. Existing computer programs and methods to estimate flood hydrographs and volumes for ungaged streams have been developed in Georgia. These computer programs and methods were applied to streams in Alabama. The report gives detailed instructions on how to estimate flood hydrographs for ungaged rural or urban streams in Alabama with drainage areas less than 500 sq mi, without significant in-channel storage or regulations. (USGS)

Olin, D.A.; Atkins, J.B.

1988-01-01

171

Dynamical modelling of meteoroid streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate simulations of meteoroid streams permit the prediction of stream interaction with Earth, and provide a measure of risk to Earth satellites and interplanetary spacecraft. Current cometary ejecta and meteoroid stream models have been somewhat successful in predicting some stream observations, but have required significant assumptions and simplifications. Extending on the approach of Vaubaillon et al. 2005, we model dust ejection from the cometary nucleus, and generate sample particles representing bins of distinct dynamical evolution-regulating characteristics (size, density, direction, albedo). Ephemerides of the sample particles are integrated and recorded for later assignment of weights based on model parameter changes. To assist in model analysis we are developing interactive software to permit the "turning of knobs" of model parameters, allowing for near-real-time 3D visualization of resulting stream structure. Using the tool, we will revisit prior assumptions made, and will observe the impact of introducing non-uniform and time-variant cometary surface attributes and processes.

Clark, D. L.; Wiegert, P. A.

2014-07-01

172

Dynamical Modeling of Tidal Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present a new framework for modeling the dynamics of tidal streams. The framework consists of simple models for the initial action-angle distribution of tidal debris, which can be straightforwardly evolved forward in time. Taking advantage of the essentially one-dimensional nature of tidal streams, the transformation to position-velocity coordinates can be linearized and interpolated near a small number of points along the stream, thus allowing for efficient computations of a stream's properties in observable quantities. I illustrate how to calculate the stream's average location (its "track") in different coordinate systems, how to quickly estimate the dispersion around its track, and how to draw mock stream data. As a generative model, this framework allows one to compute the full probability distribution function and marginalize over or condition it on certain phase-space dimensions as well as convolve it with observational uncertainties. This will be instrumental in proper data analysis of stream data. In addition to providing a computationally efficient practical tool for modeling the dynamics of tidal streams, the action-angle nature of the framework helps elucidate how the observed width of the stream relates to the velocity dispersion or mass of the progenitor, and how the progenitors of "orphan" streams could be located. The practical usefulness of the proposed framework crucially depends on the ability to calculate action-angle variables for any orbit in any gravitational potential. A novel method for calculating actions, frequencies, and angles in any static potential using a single orbit integration is described in the Appendix.

Bovy, Jo

2014-11-01

173

ConcepTest: Stream Profile #2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The diagram below depicts the profile of a stream from its headwaters to its mouth. Which combination of variables is most likely controlling the stream velocity along the profile? a. Gradient and stream load b. ...

174

Role of monitoring in stream restoration  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydrology and dissolved organic carbon availability dictate nitrate dynamics in urban streams. So to improve N uptake, restore streams to: ? Slow down stream flow ? Add organic carbon ? Reconnect floodplain hydrology and riparian zones ...

175

The Lives of Microorganisms: A Micronaturalist's Notebook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Micronaturalist's Notebook is a series of photo essays from BioMEDIA Associates offering a quick but fascinating look at "the teaming worlds of life in ponds, streams, tidepools, moss beds, the soil, and virtually everywhere else in the world." The website contains amazing photographs by BioMEDIA's biologist/filmmaker Bruce Russell, along with interesting and informative descriptions. The November 2003 feature, Bacteria: Ya Can't Live Without 'Um! highlights bacterial decomposition, cyanobacteria, and the bacterial origin of cellular organelles.

176

Streaming data between Web Services: Comparison of streaming protocols over a stream-enabled Web Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to stream data between web-services could be an alternative way of data transfer in grid environments, for a number of applications. This work intents to investigate various protocols as to their suitability for streaming, taking into consideration issues such as security, reliability and speed over different Grid configurations. To perform these comparisons we have implemented a Server\\/Client library

Spyridon Koulouzis; Evangelos Angelou; Adam Belloum

177

StreamAuction Providing Auction Service Through  

E-print Network

through StreamSpin 3 #12;StructureStreamAuction Server new · New auction at StreamAuction · StreamSpin users receive new auction info bid update 4 StreamSpin Server new new · Users send their bids directly · GUI ­ New user­ New user ­ New auction ­ List auctions ­ Bidding page · pushed through StreamSpin 5

Kaiserslautern, Universität

178

Cytoplasmic streaming affects gravity-induced amyloplast sedimentation in maize coleoptiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Living maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptile cells were observed using a horizontal microscope to determine the interaction between cytoplasmic streaming and gravity-induced amyloplast sedimentation. Sedimentation is heavily influenced by streaming which may (1) hasten or slow the velocity of amyloplast movement and (2) displace the plastid laterally or even upwards before or after sedimentation. Amyloplasts may move through transvacuolar strands or through the peripheral cytoplasm which may be divided into fine cytoplasmic strands of much smaller diameter than the plastids. The results indicate that streaming may contribute to the dynamics of graviperception by influencing amyloplast movement.

Sack, F. D.; Leopold, A. C.

1985-01-01

179

Optimal placement of off-stream water sources for ephemeral stream recovery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Uneven and/or inefficient livestock distribution is often a product of an inadequate number and distribution of watering points. Placement of off-stream water practices (OSWP) in pastures is a key consideration in rangeland management plans and is critical to achieving riparian recovery by improving grazing evenness, while improving livestock performance. Effective OSWP placement also minimizes the impacts of livestock use radiating from OSWP, known as the “piosphere.” The objective of this study was to provide land managers with recommendations for the optimum placement of OSWP. Specifically, we aimed to provide minimum offset distances of OSWP to streams and assess the effective range of OSWP using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values, an indicator of live standing crop. NDVI values were determined from a time-series of Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) 20-m images of western South Dakota mixed-grass prairie. The NDVI values in ephemeral stream channels (in-channel) and uplands were extracted from pre- and post-OSWP images taken in 1989 and 2010, respectively. NDVI values were normalized to a reference imagine and subsequently by ecological site to produce nNDVI. Our results demonstrate a significant (P?2?=?0.49, P?=?0.05) and increased with average distance to OSWP in a pasture (R2?=?0.43, P?=?0.07). Piospheric reduction in nNDVI was observed within 200 m of OSWP, occasionally overlapping in-channel areas. The findings of this study suggest placement of OSWP 200 to 1?250 m from streams to achieve optimal results. These results can be used to increase grazing efficiency by effectively placing OSWP and insure that piospheres do not overlap ecologically important in-channel areas.

Rigge, Matthew B.; Smart, Alexander; Wylie, Bruce

2013-01-01

180

Wittgenstein on Field and Stream  

E-print Network

to "see" what happened in the stream (i.e., when we take a slice of or freeze the stream) are we able to get a "picture"—hopefully one with blurred edges—of the stream at that point: "It is only if someone can do, has learnt, is master of, such...-and-such, that it makes sense to say he has had this experience. . . . We talk, we utter words, and only later get a picture of their life" (PI_, p. 209). The picture metaphor is necessary to the descrip­ tion of understanding and meaning; otherwise, the 192 objects...

Daniel, Stephen H.

181

Mixing of Supersonic Streams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ambient air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane. The modeling basis was centered on using convective Mach Number as the similarity parameter to establish correlation between subscale, cold flow tests and full scale, hot firing modes. This parameter has been used successfully to correlate supersonic shear layer growth rates. The experiment design includes hot (600 R) air as the rocket exhaust simulant and hot (760 R) carbon dioxide as the turbine exhaust gas simulant. The combination of gases and their elevated temperatures was required to achieve a convective Mach Number which matched the fall scale item design conditions. The carbon dioxide is seeded with Acetone to permit tracing of the mixing processes through Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) techniques. The experiment and its design will be discussed in detail. Both the rocket and turbine exhaust duct nozzles are of unique (square and rectangular) shape and the turbine exhaust e)dt intersects the rocket nozzle wall upstream of the exit. Cold flow testing with the individual nozzles has been conducted to ascertain their behavior in comparison to conventional flow theory. These data are presented.

Hawk, Clark W.; Landrum, D. Brian; Spetman, David

1997-01-01

182

Living Things and Where They Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on living things and their habitats includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

183

Diverse sampling of streaming data  

E-print Network

This thesis addresses the problem of diverse sampling as a dispersion problem and proposes solutions that are optimized for large streaming data. Finding the optimal solution to the dispersion problem is NP-hard. Therefore, ...

Turmukhametova, Aizana

2013-01-01

184

What Causes the Gulf Stream?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even with the waves lapping at their feet, few people consider ocean currents and their importance to global climate. Although the Gulf Stream cannot be seen flowing by off North America's East Coast, in Western Europe, the current's warming effect is undeniable. This video segment, adapted from a NOVA television broadcast, uses satellite imagery to illustrate the Gulf Stream's path and animations to explain how atmospheric phenomena cause it to move. The segment is one minute fifty-one seconds in length.

185

Ion streams in the magnetotail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion mass spectrometer observations of low-temperature streaming plasmas in the earth's magnetotail are reported. Measurements in the energy per charge range 0< or =E\\/q< or =17 keV\\/e were made at geocentric radial distances <23 R\\/sub E\\/ from the ISEE 1 spacecraft. Ion streams of solar wind origin in the magnetotail boundary layer and of ionospheric origin in the tail lobes

R. D. Sharp; D. L. Carr; W.K. Peterson; E. G. Shelley

1981-01-01

186

Mixing of Supersonic Streams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during low speed flight. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane during simulated low speed flight conditions. Cold flow testing of a 1/6 scale Strutjet model is underway and nearing completion. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic methods are being employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air simulating low speed, air augmented operation of the RBCC. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust duct to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point of their intersection is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter. Qualitative results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the model to a distance of about 10 rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream. These data show the mixing to be confined in the vertical plane for all cases, The lateral expansion is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and suggests that mixing with the ingested flow would be likely beginning at a distance of 7 nozzle exit diameters downstream of the nozzle exit plane.

Hawk, C. W.; Landrum, D. B.; Muller, S.; Turner, M.; Parkinson, D.

1998-01-01

187

Mixing of Supersonic Streams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during low speed flight. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane during simulated low speed flight conditions. Cold flow testing of a 1/6 scale Strutjet model is underway and nearing completion. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic methods are being employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air simulating low speed, air augmented operation of the RBCC. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust duct to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point of their intersection is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter. Qualitative results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the model to a distance of about 19 equivalent rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream. These data show the mixing to be confined in the vertical plane for all cases, The lateral expansion is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and suggests that mixing with the ingested flow would be likely beginning at a distance of 7 nozzle exit diameters downstream of the nozzle exit plane.

Hawk, C. W.; Landrum, D. B.; Muller, S.; Turner, M.; Parkinson, D.

1998-01-01

188

Animal Ecosystem Engineers in Streams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from BioScience is about animal ecosystem engineers in streams. An impressive array of animals function as ecosystem engineers in streams through a variety of activities, ranging from nest digging by anadromous salmon to benthic foraging by South American fishes, from the burrowing of aquatic insects to the trampling of hippos. These ecosystem engineers have local impacts on benthic habitat and also strongly affect downstream fluxes of nutrients and other resources. The impacts of ecosystem engineers are most likely some function of their behavior, size, and population density, modulated by the abiotic conditions of the stream. In streams, subsidies often control the body size and density of ecosystem engineers, while hydrologic energy controls their distribution, density, and life-history attributes, the habitats they create, and the resources and organisms they affect. Because ecosystem engineers can profoundly affect stream ecosystems, and because they themselves can be significantly affected positively or negatively by human activities, understanding ecosystem engineering in streams is increasingly important for the management of these ecosystems.

JONATHAN W. MOORE (;)

2006-03-01

189

Intestinal transplantation: living related  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of live donors in intestinal transplantation could potentially both reduce the severity of rejection responses against this highly immunogenic organ by better tissue matching and also reduce cold ischaemia times. These two advantages over cadaveric grafts could preserve mucosal integrity and reduce the risk of systemic sepsis from bacterial translocation. The disadvantages of live donation are the inherent

Stephen G Pollard

190

Molecules in Living Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explains the difference between molecules in living systems and inanimate objects. In living systems, atoms and molecules are organized to a much greater degree and provide the structure of the organism. Lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids are also discussed.

2012-06-19

191

VIDEO STREAMING OVER WIRELESS LAN WITH  

E-print Network

VIDEO STREAMING OVER WIRELESS LAN WITH NETWORK CODING M. Al-Hami, A. Khreishah, and J. Wu Computer Network Coding Background Priority-Based Network Coding Layered video streaming Simulation results twist on the classic unequal error protection Symbol-Level NC Video Streaming NC #12;Video Streaming

Wu, Jie

192

MPEG4 Video Streaming over UMTS Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimedia streaming services over the Internet are be- coming more and more popular nowadays, with hundreds of new subscribers registered daily. Movies, news, education and training, radio, video conferences, personal streaming such as webcams or security surveillance are only a small part of video streaming applications. Streaming systems provide additional challenges in contrast to classical packed based transmission scenarios such

Hrvoje Jenka; Thomas Stockhammer; Marc Findeli

2003-01-01

193

Unique Challenges to (Federal) Enterprise Streaming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Enterprise streaming has different parameters than consumer Streaming. The government enterprise has some differences on top of that. I'd like to highlight some issues shared by the Federal government as a whole, with a closer look at streaming within NASA. Then we'll look at NASA's strategy for streaming.

Walls, Bryan

2006-01-01

194

Jet stream related observations by MST radars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the jet stream and its observation by MST radar is presented. The climatology and synoptic and mesoscale structure of jet streams is briefly reviewed. MST radar observations of jet stream winds, and associated waves and turbulence are then considered. The possibility of using a network of ST radars to track jet stream winds in near real time is explored.

Gage, K. S.

1983-01-01

195

Characteristics of Living Things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Welcome to an internet program that is all about life. Just what is life? This seems like a strange question. We all know what is meant by the word \\"life\\". But how do we define it? Are all living things alike? In this internet program, you will watch several short movies and some slides. After you see each movie and slide, you will write something about the movie and slide. Our learning goal is to make a list of the traits that all living things have in common. Get out a pencil and a piece of paper. We are off on a great adventure to learn about living things! This first movie is called, \\"Is It Alive?\\" It will help you begin thinking about living things and what they all have in common. Write on your paper: \\"Living Things\\". As you watch this movie, write the names of the things that you think are alive. Copy the ...

Richard S. Melenson

2005-11-21

196

Living things and non-living things interact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living things and non-living things interact on a daily basis. The man is a human, a living thing. The corn crop and grass are also living things. The soil that the grass and corn crops are rooted in is a non-living thing.

Ken Hammond (USDA-ARS;)

2006-05-23

197

National Science Digital Library: iTunes U  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is very well-regarded among educators and other professionals, and not surprisingly, has a great presence on iTunesU. On the site, visitors can download a wide range of audio, video, and other multimedia resources on a range of subjects like electrical engineering, biology, and anatomy. The What's New area is a good place to start, as it includes short films for young people, including "A Dolphin's Return" and "Against the Current." The thematic areas on the site include Physical Science and Technology, Life Science, and Earth and Environmental Science. Also, visitors can look over the Top Downloads area or browse by contributing partner organization. [KMG

198

Engineering living functional materials.  

PubMed

Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered 'living functional materials' and 'living materials synthesis platforms' that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater. 13, 515-523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis-materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner. PMID:25592034

Chen, Allen Y; Zhong, Chao; Lu, Timothy K

2015-01-16

199

Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells: the role of wall slip  

PubMed Central

We present a computer simulation study, via lattice Boltzmann simulations, of a microscopic model for cytoplasmic streaming in algal cells such as those of Chara corallina. We modelled myosin motors tracking along actin lanes as spheres undergoing directed motion along fixed lines. The sphere dimension takes into account the fact that motors drag vesicles or other organelles, and, unlike previous work, we model the boundary close to which the motors move as walls with a finite slip layer. By using realistic parameter values for actin lane and myosin density, as well as for endoplasmic and vacuole viscosity and the slip layer close to the wall, we find that this simplified view, which does not rely on any coupling between motors, cytoplasm and vacuole other than that provided by viscous Stokes flow, is enough to account for the observed magnitude of streaming velocities in intracellular fluid in living plant cells. PMID:22337633

Wolff, K.; Marenduzzo, D.; Cates, M. E.

2012-01-01

200

Situation-Awareness and Sensor Stream Mining for Sustainable Human Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criminal activities cause a huge amount of loss both financially and in terms of human lives. Because of these acts, business and social sectors are struggling. This paper illustrates the development of an online sensor stream mining system that is able to analyze the situational behavior of all of the persons in specific areas and in turn propose real-time alert

Zahoor ur Rehman; Muhammad Shahbaz; Muhammad Shaheen; Aziz Guergachi

2009-01-01

201

Share your view: Wireless multi-hop video streaming using Android phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rising penetration of smartphones in the consumer market, mobile multimedia content is becoming the dominant form of information that people produce and consume on a daily basis. In this paper we present a wireless multi-hop video streaming application for mobile phones with the Android operating system. This application allows to share live information captured by mobile phone sensors

Peizhao Hu; Nick Symons; Jadwiga Indulska; Marius Portmann

2012-01-01

202

The role of red alder in riparian forest structure along headwater streams in southeastern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We assessed the influence of red alder on tree species composition, stand density, tree size distribution, tree mortality, and potential for producing large conifers, in 38-42 yr old riparian forests along 13 headwater streams in the Maybeso and Harris watersheds on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. Red alder ranged from 0 to 53% of the total live basal area of the stands. Tree density, basal area of live and dead trees, and mean diameter of live conifers were not significantly related to the percent of alder as a proportion of total stand live basal area within these riparian forests. The mean diameter of the 100 largest conifers per hectare (the largest trees) was similar among different sites and appeared unrelated to the amount of alder in the stands. The mean diameter of dead conifers increased slightly with increasing proportion of red alder. Most dead trees were small and died standing. Red alder was much more concentrated immediately along stream margins (within 0-1 m distance from the stream bank vs. > 1 m). The presence of red alder did not inhibit the production of large-diameter conifers, and both alder and conifers provided small woody debris for fishless headwater streams in southeastern Alaska. Red alder is an important structural component of young-growth riparian stands.

Orlikowska, E.H.; Deal, R.L.; Hennon, P.E.; Wipfli, M.S.

2004-01-01

203

Living with Polycythemia Vera  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. Living With Polycythemia Vera Polycythemia vera (PV) develops very slowly. It may not cause signs or symptoms for years. If you have PV, the sooner it's diagnosed, the sooner your doctor ...

204

Living with Fanconi Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Fanconi Anemia Improvements in blood and marrow stem cell transplants ... Rate This Content: Next >> November 1, 2011 Fanconi Anemia Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

205

Living with Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Anemia Often, you can treat and control anemia. If ... by an inherited or chronic disease or trauma. Anemia and Children/Teens Infants and young children have ...

206

Living with Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... the United States suffer some form of disordered communication. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication ...

207

Living with Hemochromatosis  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Hemochromatosis The outlook for people who have hemochromatosis largely ... do to help you. Screening Family Members for Hemochromatosis Parents, grandparents, brothers and sisters, and children (blood ...

208

Tips for Healthy Living  

MedlinePLUS

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hemochromatosis (Iron Storage Disease) National Center Homepage Share Compartir Tips for Healthy Living If you have hemochromatosis, there is much you can do to make ...

209

Healthy Living after Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

Healthy Living After Stroke Nutrition Good nutrition is one way to reduce your risk of having another stroke. Find tips for shopping, how ... you reduce your risk of stroke. Subscribe to Stroke Connection Get quarterly digital issues plus our monthly ...

210

Living with Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Failure Currently, heart failure has no cure. You'll ... avoid harmful side effects. Take Steps To Prevent Heart Failure From Getting Worse Certain actions can worsen your ...

211

Living with Atherosclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Atherosclerosis Improved treatments have reduced the number of deaths ... Rate This Content: Next >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 10/14/2014 August 4, 2014 Atherosclerosis Clinical ...

212

Fluorescence Live Cell Imaging  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence microscopy of live cells has become an integral part of modern cell biology. Fluorescent protein tags, live cell dyes, and other methods to fluorescently label proteins of interest provide a range of tools to investigate virtually any cellular process under the microscope. The two main experimental challenges in collecting meaningful live cell microscopy data are to minimize photodamage while retaining a useful signal-to-noise ratio, and to provide a suitable environment for cells or tissues to replicate physiological cell dynamics. This chapter aims to give a general overview on microscope design choices critical for fluorescence live cell imaging that apply to most fluorescence microscopy modalities, and on environmental control with a focus on mammalian tissue culture cells. In addition, we provide guidance on how to design and evaluate fluorescent protein constructs by spinning disk confocal microscopy. PMID:24974023

Ettinger, Andreas

2014-01-01

213

Feel Younger, Live Longer?  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Transcript Feeling younger may actually help you live longer, according to a new study. Nearly 6,500 people -- 52 years and older -- were asked how old they felt. About 70 percent of the adults ...

214

The Living Cosmos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. The unfinished revolution; 2. Life's origins; 3. Extreme life; 4. Shaping evolution; 5. Living in the Solar System; 6. Distant worlds; 7. Are we alone?; Notes; Glossary; Reading list; Media resources; Illustration credits; Index.

Impey, Chris

2011-06-01

215

A Robust Streaming Media System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presently, application layer multicast protocols (ALM) are proposed as substitute for IP multicast and have made extraordinary achievements. Integrated with Multi-data-stream mode such as Multiple Description Coding (MDC), ALM becomes more scalable and robust in high-dynamic Internet environment compared with single data stream. Although MDC can provide a flexible data transmission style, the synchronization of different descriptions encoded from one video source is proved to be difficult due to different delay on diverse transmission paths. In this paper, an ALM system called HMDC is proposed to improve accepted video quality of streaming media, hosts can join the separate overlay trees in different layers simultaneously, then the maximum synchronized descriptions of the same layer are worked out to acquire the best video quality. Simulations implemented on Internet-like topology indicate that HMDC achieves better video quality, lower link stress, higher robustness and comparable latency compared with traditional ALM protocols.

Youwei, Zhang

216

Dynamic visualization of data streams  

DOEpatents

One embodiment of the present invention includes a data communication subsystem to receive a data stream, and a data processing subsystem responsive to the data communication subsystem to generate a visualization output based on a group of data vectors corresponding to a first portion of the data stream. The processing subsystem is further responsive to a change in rate of receipt of the data to modify the visualization output with one or more other data vectors corresponding to a second portion of the data stream as a function of eigenspace defined with the group of data vectors. The system further includes a display device responsive to the visualization output to provide a corresponding visualization.

Wong, Pak Chung (Richalnd, WA); Foote, Harlan P. (Richland, WA); Adams, Daniel R. (Kennewick, WA); Cowley, Wendy E. (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA)

2009-07-07

217

Venus-intercepting meteoroid streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is motivated by the possibility of determining the large-body meteoroid flux at the orbit of Venus. Towards this end, we attempt to estimate the times at which enhanced meteoric activity might be observed in the planet's atmosphere. While a number of meteoroid streams are identified as satisfying common Earth and Venus intercept conditions, it is not clear from the Earth-observed data if these streams contain large-body meteoroids. A subset of the Taurid Complex objects may produce fireball-rich meteor showers on Venus. A total of 11 short-period, periodic comets and 46 near-Earth asteroids approach the orbit of Venus to within 0.1 au, and these objects may have associated meteoroid streams. Comets 27P/Crommelin and 7P/Pons-Winnecke are identified as candidate parents to possible periodic meteor showers at the orbit of Venus.

Beech, Martin

1998-02-01

218

Kernel support for live digital audio and video  

Microsoft Academic Search

: We have developed a real-time operating system kernel which hasbeen used to support the transmission and reception of streams of live digitalaudio and video in real-time as part of a workstation-based conferencingapplication. An experimental environment consisting of a number ofworkstations interconnected with a 16 Mbit token ring has been created andused to evaluate quantitatively the performance of the kernel

Kevin Jeffay; Donald L. Stone; F. Donelson Smith

1992-01-01

219

Kernel Support for Live Digital Audio and Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a real-time operating system kernel which has been used to support the transmission and reception of streams of live digital audio and video in real-time as part of a workstation-based conferencing application. An experimental environment consisting of a number of workstations interconnected with a 16 Mbit token ring has been created and used to evaluate quantitatively the

Kevin Jeffay; Donald L. Stone; F. Donelson Smith

1991-01-01

220

Stream Dynamics and the Urban Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This field activity focuses on stream dynamics and urban development. The field site is a local, wadeable urban stream and the activity, including transportation, can be completed during a 3-hour lab session. At the field site, a sketch of the stream reach is drafted by each student. This sketch includes a visual representation of the stream channel and banks as well as written observations, such as the amount of riparian vegetation, evidence of erosion and type of stream sediment. In small groups, students then determine stream velocity and cross-sectional area at the site, and calculate stream discharge (Q= velocity x cross-sectional area). In the field, there is discussion of the causes of changes in stream discharge (change in input/output), the relationship between the factors in the stream discharge equation (channel dimensions, velocity) and the effects of urban development on streams. After the field trip, given a topographic map of the area, students delineate the stream's watershed boundary. Students analyze the satellite image of the watershed to determine land use patterns. Students use online USGS data to draft a storm hydrograph and determine lag time for this stream after a rain event (video and photos of this stream at normal and flood stage are posted on the class website). The students also compare data from a stream in a nearby national forest during a similar storm event, noting differences in the storm hydrograph and lag time.

Hall, Anne

221

Temperature of the Gulf Stream  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gulf Stream is one of the strong ocean currents that carries warm water from the sunny tropics to higher latitudes. The current stretches from the Gulf of Mexico up the East Coast of the United States, departs from North America south of the Chesapeake Bay, and heads across the Atlantic to the British Isles. The water within the Gulf Stream moves at the stately pace of 4 miles per hour. Even though the current cools as the water travels thousands of miles, it remains strong enough to moderate the Northern European climate. The image above was derived from the infrared measurements of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on a nearly cloud-free day over the east coast of the United States. The coldest waters are shown as purple, with blue, green, yellow, and red representing progressively warmer water. Temperatures range from about 7 to 22 degrees Celsius. The core of the Gulf Stream is very apparent as the warmest water, dark red. It departs from the coast at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The cool, shelf water from the north entrains the warmer outflows from the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. The north wall of the Gulf Stream reveals very complex structure associated with frontal instabilities that lead to exchanges between the Gulf Stream and inshore waters. Several clockwise-rotating warm core eddies are evident north of the core of the Gulf Stream, which enhance the exchange of heat and water between the coastal and deep ocean. Cold core eddies, which rotate counter clockwise, are seen south of the Gulf Stream. The one closest to Cape Hatteras is entraining very warm Gulf Stream waters on its northwest circumference. Near the coast, shallower waters have warmed due to solar heating, while the deeper waters offshore are markedly cooler (dark blue). MODIS made this observation on May 8, 2000, at 11:45 a.m. EDT. For more information, see the MODIS-Ocean web page. The sea surface temperature image was created at the University of Miami using the 11- and 12-micron bands, by Bob Evans, Peter Minnett, and co-workers.

2002-01-01

222

Field Exercise: Stream Flow Dynamics and Sedimentation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will measure the profile of a stream, determine its current velocity at various locations, and examine the sediment on the stream bottom. They will examine the relationships between stream profile and flow velocity and between sediment grain-size and flow velocity. They will also produce a vertical profile of a stream and be able to map as well as define thalweg, point bar, and cut bank; measure flow velocity differences across a stream transect and equate the flow velocity with size of substrate sediment collected; and quantify discharge values for a stream.

223

The GOES-R Rebroadcast (GRB) Data Stream Simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GOES Rebroadcast (GRB) signals in the GOES-R era will replace the current legacy GOES Variable (GVAR) signal and will have substantially different characteristics, including a change in data rate from a single 2.1 Mbps stream to two digital streams of 15.5 Mbps each. Five GRB Simulators were developed as portable systems that output a high-fidelity stream of Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) formatted GRB packet data equivalent to live GRB data. The data are used for on-site testing of user ingest and data handling systems known as field terminal sites. The GRB Simulator is a fully self-contained system which includes all software and hardware units needed for operation. The operator manages configurations to edit preferences, define individual test scenarios, and manage event logs and reports. Simulations are controlled by test scenarios, which are scripts that specify the test data and provide a series of actions for the GRB Simulator to perform when generating GRB output. Scenarios allow for the insertion of errors or modification of GRB packet headers for testing purposes. The GRB Simulator provides a built-in editor for managing scenarios. The GRB Simulator provides GRB data as either baseband (digital) or Intermediate Frequency (IF) output to the test system. GRB packet data are sent in the same two output streams used in the operational system: one for Left Hand Circular Polarization (LHCP) and one for Right Hand Circular Polarization (RHCP). Use of circular polarization in the operational system allows the transmitting antenna to multiplex the two digital streams into the same signal, thereby doubling the available bandwidth. The GRB Simulator is designed to be used at sites that receive the GRB downlink.

Dittberner, G. J.; Gibbons, K.; Czopkiewicz, E.; Miller, C.; Brown-Bergtold, B.; Haman, B.; Marley, S.

2013-12-01

224

Streams of Consciousness Alumit Ishai  

E-print Network

Streams of Consciousness Alumit Ishai When investigating the neural correlates of conscious- ness, neuroscientists distinguish between ``conscious state'' (being awake as opposed to asleep or in a coma), which is regulated by brainstem and thalamic nuclei, and ``conscious representation'' (awareness of specific phe

Gordon, Geoffrey J.

225

Scalable streaming for heterogeneous clients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodic broadcast protocols enable the efficient streaming of highly popular media files to large numbers of concurrent clients. Most previous periodic broadcast protocols, how- ever, assume that all clients can receive at the same rate, and also assume that available bandwidth is not time-varying. In this paper, we first develop a new periodic broadcast proto- col, Optimized Heterogeneous Periodic Broadcast

Liqi Shi; Phillipa Sessini; Anirban Mahanti; Zongpeng Li; Derek L. Eager

2006-01-01

226

Stream velocity Investigation using Inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a field investigation using science inquiry and problem solving, where small groups of students design their own experiment to determine stream velocity, collect and analyze their data, draw conclusions, and make further inferences based group discussion/collaboration.

227

POPULATION DECLINE IN STREAM FISH  

EPA Science Inventory

Over half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands have fish communities that are in fair or poor condition, and the EPA concluded that physical habitat alteration represents the greatest potential stressor across this region. A quantitative method for relating habitat quali...

228

Molten Rock Streaming into Water  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The molten rock streams through an opening in the melter into a large container of water below, where it instantly cools into glass. __________ The USGS has created man-made moon dirt, or regolith, to help NASA prepare for upcoming moon explorations. Four tons of the simulant is expected to be mad...

2009-05-26

229

Watershed Analysis of Stream Morphology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this activity is to provide students an opportunity to analyze the stream pattern and morphometric relationships of a particular watershed. Students will use topographic map analysis and data collection, along with analysis of data using Excel to characterize their watershed. Designed for a geomorphology course

Dolliver, Holly

230

FROM MATHEMATICS FOR LIVING TO LIVING FOR MATHEMATICS  

E-print Network

FROM MATHEMATICS FOR LIVING TO LIVING FOR MATHEMATICS George Malaty, University of Joensuu, Finland "Life is good for only two things, discovering mathematics and teaching mathematics". Siméon Poisson (1781-1840) Mathematics for living and living for mathematics are related to the goals of mathematics

Spagnolo, Filippo

231

Dynamical Modelling of Meteoroid Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate simulations of meteoroid streams permit the prediction of stream interaction with Earth, and provide a measure of risk to Earth satellites and interplanetary spacecraft. Current cometary ejecta and meteoroid stream models have been somewhat successful in predicting some stream observations, but have required questionable assumptions and significant simplifications. Extending on the approach of Vaubaillon et al. (2005)1, we model dust ejection from the cometary nucleus, and generate sample particles representing bins of distinct dynamical evolution-regulating characteristics (size, density, direction, albedo). Ephemerides of the sample particles are integrated and recorded for later assignment of frequency based on model parameter changes. To assist in model analysis we are developing interactive software to permit the “turning of knobs” of model parameters, allowing for near-real-time 3D visualization of resulting stream structure. With this tool, we will revisit prior assumptions made, and will observe the impact of introducing non-uniform cometary surface attributes and temporal activity. The software uses a single model definition and implementation throughout model verification, sample particle bin generation and integration, and analysis. It supports the adjustment with feedback of both independent and independent model values, with the intent of providing an interface supporting multivariate analysis. Propagations of measurement uncertainties and model parameter precisions are tracked rigorously throughout. We maintain a separation of the model itself from the abstract concepts of model definition, parameter manipulation, and real-time analysis and visualization. Therefore we are able to quickly adapt to fundamental model changes. It is hoped the tool will also be of use in other solar system dynamics problems. 1 Vaubaillon, J.; Colas, F.; Jorda, L. (2005) A new method to predict meteor showers. I. Description of the model. Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 439, Issue 2, August IV 2005, pp.751-760.

Clark, David; Wiegert, P. A.

2012-10-01

232

Language and compiler support for stream programs  

E-print Network

Stream programs represent an important class of high-performance computations. Defined by their regular processing of sequences of data, stream programs appear most commonly in the context of audio, video, and digital ...

Thies, William Frederick, 1978-

2009-01-01

233

Cache-conscious scheduling of streaming applications  

E-print Network

This paper considers the problem of scheduling streaming applications on uniprocessors in order to minimize the number of cache-misses. Streaming applications are represented as a directed graph (or multigraph), where nodes ...

Agrawal, Kunal

234

ConcepTest: Stream Discharge Gauges #2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Four stream gauging station locations are shown on the adjacent map (A, B, C, D). Assume the bedrock and topography is similar for each stream system. Predict which station is most likely to record the least ...

235

ConcepTest: Stream Discharge Gauges #1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Four stream gauging station locations are shown on the adjacent map (A, B, C, D). Assume the bedrock and topography is similar for each stream system. Predict which station will record the greatest discharge? a. A ...

236

COMMUNITY PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION IN EXPERIMENTAL STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Changes in relative contribution to total stream photosynthetic and respiratory rates by various community components of an open channel stream were estimated. Rates of photosynthetic production of plankton, benthos and macrophytes (with associated epiphytes) were followed throug...

237

Stream Tables and Watershed Geomorphology Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews copious stream tables and provides a watershed approach to stream table exercises. Results suggest that this approach to learning the concepts of fluvial geomorphology is effective. (Contains 39 references.) (DDR)

Lillquist, Karl D.; Kinner, Patricia W.

2002-01-01

238

Living-Cell Microarrays  

PubMed Central

Living cells are remarkably complex. To unravel this complexity, living-cell assays have been developed that allow delivery of experimental stimuli and measurement of the resulting cellular responses. High-throughput adaptations of these assays, known as living-cell microarrays, which are based on microtiter plates, high-density spotting, microfabrication, and microfluidics technologies, are being developed for two general applications: (a) to screen large-scale chemical and genomic libraries and (b) to systematically investigate the local cellular microenvironment. These emerging experimental platforms offer exciting opportunities to rapidly identify genetic determinants of disease, to discover modulators of cellular function, and to probe the complex and dynamic relationships between cells and their local environment. PMID:19413510

Yarmush, Martin L.; King, Kevin R.

2011-01-01

239

Living in Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weblogs on just about every topic imaginable (including a few which no one would have imagined) are now available. And, after some time spent living in the shadows of traditional formats such as television and mainstream periodicals, they have garnered the attention of major media programs. One of the more interesting weblog sites out there is Living in Europe, which consists of a cooperative of bloggers and writers who contribute essays, photographs, personal diaries, and news items from Europe. The perspectives section of the site offers some commentaries on the expansion of the European Union and a diary of a foreigner living in Turkey. The photos section features contributions from various parts of Europe, including some musings and photos from Catalonia and Bristol. Visitors who develop a penchant for the site may sign up to help with the administration of the site, or just offer their own commentaries on life in Europe.

240

Impacts of biological diversity on sediment transport in streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, an increasing number of studies have shown that biological structures (e.g. plant roots) have large impacts on sediment transport, and that physical models that do not incorporate these biological impacts can produce qualitatively incorrect predictions. But while it is now recognized that biological structures influence sediment transport, work to date has focused primarily on the impacts of individual, usually dominant, species. Here, we ask whether competitive interactions cause multi-species communities to have fundamentally different impacts on sediment mobility than single-species systems. We use a model system with caddisfly larvae, which are insects that live in the benthic habitat of streams where they construct silken catchnets across pore spaces between rocks to filter food particles. Because caddisflies can reach densities of 1,000s per m2 with each larva spinning hundreds of silken threads between rocks, studies have shown that caddisflies reduce the probability of bed movement during high discharge events. To test whether streams with multiple species of caddisfly are stabilized any differently than single-species streams, we manipulated the presence or absence of two common species (Ceratopsyche oslari, Arctopsyche californica) in substrate patches (0.15 m2) in experimental stream channels (50-m long x 1-m wide) with fully controlled hydrology at the Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory. This experiment was designed to extend the scale of previous laboratory mesocosm studies, which showed that critical shear stress is 31% higher in a multi-species flume mesocosm compared to a single-species mesocosm. Under these more realistic field conditions, we found that critical shear stress was, on average, 30% higher in streams with caddisflies vs. controls with no caddisflies. However, no differences were detected between treatments with 2 vs. 1 species. We hypothesize that the minimal effect of diversity on critical shear stress resulted because intense competitive interactions (fighting, biting, etc.) caused the caddisflies to drift downstream and distribute longitudinally instead of vertically within the sediments, as we had previously observed in the mesocosm study. Taken together with previous results, our findings show that species interactions in multi-species communities can generate synergies that have fundamentally unique impacts on sediment stability compared to just single species communities, but these impacts will be scale dependent and vary with ecosystem complexity. Field tests are the next step to improve our ability to accurately quantify the influence of stream insects on sediment transport conditions, and the results reported here will help refine experimental design for tests in natural streams.

Albertson, L. K.; Cardinale, B. J.; Sklar, L. S.

2012-12-01

241

Time of travel of selected Arkansas streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between 1971 and 1981, time-of-travel and dispersion measurements were made in 15 streams in Arkansas. Most of the streams studied were at or near base flow. Graphs are presented for predicting traveltime of solutes in segments of the streams studied. The relationship of time of passage and peak unit concentration to traveltime is presented for two of the streams. Examples of use and application of the data are given. (USGS)

Lamb, T.E.

1982-01-01

242

Calit2: Live Webcasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology (Calit2) conducts research on the scientific and technological components needed to "extend the reach of the Internet throughout the physical world." (See also report on Mathematics, Engineering and Technology, March 15, 2002) This section of the Institute website features live webcasts and video footage of guest speakers who visited the Institute. Topics range from robot design to Internet plagues, and from Telematics to the Internet marketplace. Upcoming live webcasts for May 2005 will address Non-Magnetic Data Storage Principles, Potential and Problems; Quantum Codes: Constructions and Parameters; and Biotechnology Entrepreneurship.

243

Flow effects on benthic stream invertebrates and ecological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow is the main abiotic factor in the streams. Flow affects the organisms in many direct and indirect ways. The organisms are directly affected by various hydrodynamic forces and mass transfer processes like drag forces, drift, shear stress, food and gases supply and washing metabolites away. Indirect effects on the organisms are determining and distribution of the particle size and structure of the substrate and determining the morphology of riverbeds. Flow does not affect only on individual organism, but also on many ecological effects. To expose just the most important: dispersal of the organisms, habitat use, resource acquisition, competition and predator-prey interactions. Stream invertebrates are adapted to the various flow conditions in many kinds of way. Some of them are avoiding the high flow with living in a hyporeic zone, while the others are adapted to flow with physical adaptations (the way of feeding, respiration, osmoregulation and resistance to draught), morphological adaptations (dorsoventrally flattened shape of organism, streamlined shape of organism, heterogeneous suckers, silk, claws, swimming hair, bristles and ballast gravel) or with behaviour. As the flow characteristics in a particular stream vary over a broad range of space and time scales, it is necessary to measure accurately the velocity in places where the organisms are present to determine the actual impact of flow on aquatic organisms. By measuring the mean flow at individual vertical in a single cross-section, we cannot get any information about the velocity situation close to the bottom of the riverbed where the stream invertebrates are living. Just measuring the velocity near the bottom is a major problem, as technologies for measuring the velocity and flow of natural watercourses is not adapted to measure so close to the bottom. New researches in the last two decades has shown that the thickness of laminar border layer of stones in the stream is only a few 100 micrometers, what is not enough to make a shelter for stream invertebrates. It serves as a shelter only for microorganisms, but the stream invertebrates have to avoid the swift flow or adapt to flow with adaptations described above. To understand what conditions are subject to aquatic organisms and how to adapt, it is essential. Both, knowledge of fluid dynamics in natural watercourses and ecology are needed to understand to what conditions the stream invertebrates are exposed and how they cope with them. Some investigations of near bed flow will be performed on the Glinšica stream. The acoustic Doppler velocimeter SonTek will be adapted to measure so close to the bed as possible. It is expected we should be able to measure the velocities just 0,5 cm above the bed surface. We intend to measure the velocities on a natural and on a regulated reach and then compare the results.

Koprivsek, Maja; Brilly, Mitja

2010-05-01

244

Sulfur hexafluoride gas tracer studies in streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas tracers are useful investigative tools in the study of reaeration and the fate of volatile organic contaminants in many natural streams. They enable the direct measurement of a variety of stream parameters, including the gas exchange rates between the stream and the atmosphere, as well as the spreading rate for dissolved pollutants downstream of a discharge point or spill

David E. Hibbs; J. S. Gulliver; K. L. Parkhill

1998-01-01

245

Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans

2003-11-21

246

Interactive video streaming with proxy servers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study caching strategies for proxies that cache VBR-encoded continuous media objects for highly interactive streaming applications. First, we develop a model for streaming VBR-encoded continuous media objects. This model forms the basis for a stream admission control criterion and our study of caching strategies. We find that unlike conventional web caches, proxy caches for continuous media objects need to

Martin Reisslein; Felix Hartanto; Keith W. Ross

2002-01-01

247

Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

2013-01-01

248

Stream detritus dynamics: Regulation by invertebrate consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insecticide treatment of a small, Appalachian forest stream caused massive downstream insect drift and reduced aquatic insect densities to <10% of an adjacent untreated reference stream. Reduction in breakdown rates of leaf detritus was accompanied by differences in quantity and composition of benthic organic matter between the two streams. Following treatment, transport of particulate organic matter was significantly lower in

J. Bruce Wallace; Jackson R. Webster; Thomas F. Cuffney

1982-01-01

249

The Stream Table in Physical Geography Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a number of activities to be conducted with a stream table (large wooden box filled with sediment and designed for water to pass through) in class. Activities illustrate such fluvial processes as stream meandering, erosion, transportation, and deposition. Includes a diagram for constructing a stream table. (MJP)

Wikle, Thomas A.; Lightfoot, Dale R.

1997-01-01

250

Effect of Stream Impoundment in Tennessee on the Fish Populations of Tributary Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a statewide survey of warm water streams in Tennessee were used to determine the extent to which gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), carp (Cyprinus carpio), smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), and drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) inhabit smallmouth bass-rock bass streams. Reproduction of those species in tributary streams was minor or absent. By comparing samples from streams that were accessible from an

C. E. Ruhr

1957-01-01

251

Academic Self-Concepts in Ability Streams: Considering Domain Specificity and Same-Stream Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the relations between academic achievement and self-concepts in a sample of 1,067 seventh-grade students from 3 core ability streams in Singapore secondary education. Although between-stream differences in achievement were large, between-stream differences in academic self-concepts were negligible. Within each stream, levels of…

Liem, Gregory Arief D.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Yeung, Alexander S.

2015-01-01

252

Submission to ECRYPT call for stream ciphers: the self-synchronizing stream cipher Mosquito  

E-print Network

Submission to ECRYPT call for stream ciphers: the self-synchronizing stream cipher Mosquito Joan-oriented self-synchronizing stream cipher Mosquito and the underlying cipher architecture and provide hardware Mosquito. Self- synchronizing stream encryption can be performed by using a block cipher in CFB mode

Bernstein, Daniel

253

A hybrid static/dynamic approach to scheduling stream programs  

E-print Network

Streaming languages such as Streamlt are often utilized to write stream programs that execute on multicore processors. Stream programs consist of actors that operate on streams of data. To execute on multiple cores, actors ...

Tan, Ceryen (Ceryen C.)

2009-01-01

254

Solar System Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website Solar System Live includes applets showing the positions of the planets. One can see all of the planets in the solar system or just the inner planets. Visitors are encouraged to compare the view of the inner planets with what can be seen in the night sky.

Walker, John

2011-05-27

255

Living Through A Drought  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will practice map-reading skills by using a drought map of Afghanistan from the 'Afghanistan: Land in Crisis' site. Students will learn how to recognize drought, where drought can occur, and how drought affects the people who live in those places.

256

Active Living by Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Members of the public health community and those from the world of urban planning have teamed up to create the Active Living By Design program, and by extension, this fine website. With funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and an academic home at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Public Health, the program was created â??to increase physical activity through community design, public policies and communications strategies.â? On the siteâ??s homepage, visitors can browse through sections that include information on â??Active Living Essentialsâ?, â??Active Living Programsâ?, and â??Active Living Resourcesâ?. The â??Essentialsâ? section is a good place to start as visitors can learn about the organizationâ??s major fields, which include information on the links between physical activity, urban design, and health. Visitors who are looking to learn about the specific â??on the groundâ? programs will want to look over the â??Community Partnershipsâ? area, as it contains information on initiatives in Chicago, Nashville, Orlando, and Cleveland.

257

Living with Cystic Fibrosis  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Cystic Fibrosis If you or your child has cystic fibrosis (CF), you should learn as much as you ... information about CF Care Centers, go to the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation's Care Center Network Web page. It's standard ...

258

From liveness to promptness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Liveness temporal properties state that something “good” eventually happens, e.g., every request is eventually granted. In Linear Temporal Logic (LTL), there is no a priori bound on the “wait time” for an eventuality to be fulfilled. Th at is, F? asserts that ? holds eventually, but there is no bound on the time when ? will hold. This is

Orna Kupferman; Nir Piterman; Moshe Y. Vardi

2009-01-01

259

Design for Living  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bringing a newborn home from the hospital can come with stress for any parent. Coming home with twins can be double the stress. This article shares the story of a couple faced with this situation 12 years ago with the birth of twins, one was born with complications. They lived in a Colonial until the twins were almost five years old, at which time…

Rosenblum, Todd

2011-01-01

260

Learning from Live Theater  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culturally enriching field trips matter. They produce significant benefits for students on a variety of educational outcomes that schools and communities care about. This experiment on the effects of field trips to see live theater demonstrates that seeing plays is an effective way to teach academic content; increases student tolerance by…

Greene, Jay P.; Hitt, Collin; Kraybill, Anne; Bogulski, Cari A.

2015-01-01

261

Living with Parkinson's  

MedlinePLUS

Living with Parkinson’s “Parkinson’s is a part of my life, but it is not life itself.” --David, 56, three years after diagnosis While your journey with Parkinson’s is different from anyone else's, from age of ...

262

The Living Periodic Table  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

2005-01-01

263

Adults Living with OI  

MedlinePLUS

Adults Living with OI Write to us with your suggestions for what we should include on this page; your input will help guide ... Doctor Talking with your Orthopedist Vertebral Compression Fractures OI and Osteoporosis Can't find the information you' ...

264

The Living History Farm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1881, one Diedrich Wessels left Germany and came to America in order to seek a better life. Not an uncommon story for many immigrants from Europe at that most propitious moment, but his legacy certainly lives on in an interesting fashion. Upon his death, it was revealed that Wessels left a condition in his will that â??a certain amount of land and capital should be set aside to establish the Wessels Living History Farm.â? His will was done, and today, this farm still stands in York, Nebraska as a testament to his life and to the importance of family farms. There are a couple of great features right off the bat on the siteâ??s homepage, which contains a reading by Poet Laureate Ted Kooser and a film that documents a modern corn harvest. This is just the beginning, however, as the site also contains sections that also offer insights into the lives of farmers in the 1920s, 1930s, and 1930s. Each of these areas contains brief topical essays on elements of farming such as plowing and fertilizing, coupled with interviews with farmers about some of the technological changes that were underway in each decade. For those who would like a first-hand view of the farm, this is also covered on the site by a series of live web cams that look onto various parts of the grounds.

265

Living Systems Energy Module  

SciTech Connect

The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

NONE

1995-09-26

266

Living Landscape Australian Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides access to the 10 episodes of "The Living Landscape â an Australian Ecosystems Series" produced by Gulliver Media and Education Queensland. This series previously aired on ABC TV in the "For Schools" slot. The episodes run between 15 minutes and 22 minutes each. Still images from the series are also available for download.

267

Geriatric Live Interactive Teleconferencing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document includes a successful model for implementing educational teleconferencing, the Geriatric Live Interactive Teleconferencing program at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU). As a vehicle for continuing professional education, teleconferencing can transmit the latest information to large numbers of health professionals in a variety of…

Parham, Iris A.; Wood, Joan

1985-01-01

268

New Lives of Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work and lives of teachers have always been subject to external influence as those who are nearing the end of their careers will attest, but it is arguable that what is new over the last two decades is the pace, complexity, and intensity of change as governments have responded to the shrinking world of economic competitiveness and social…

Day, Christopher

2012-01-01

269

How College Shapes Lives  

E-print Network

of a Liberal Arts Education ­ Howard Gardner 64 Higher Education and the Opportunity Gap ­ Isabel Sawhill 68How College Shapes Lives: Understanding the Issues Trends in Higher Education Series Sandy Baum Charles Kurose Jennifer Ma October 2013 #12;Part 1: Individual and Societal Benefits2 HOW COLLEGE SHAPES

Rohs, Remo

270

You Live, You Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Learning Lives project, a four-year study into the learning biographies and trajectories of adults, was conducted by a team of researchers from the universities of Stirling, Exeter, Brighton and Leeds as part of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP) of the Economic and Social Research Council, and has just been completed. Whereas…

Biesta, Gert

2008-01-01

271

Transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste based on double-strata concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

A considerable attention is directed toward the reduction in the long-term potential hazard by partitioning and transmutation (P-T): separating long-lived nuclides from the waste stream and converting them into either shorter-lived or non-radioactive ones. The effects of higher Pu and minor actinide (MA) compositions on the transmutation rates have been studied for a typical mixed oxide (MOX)-fuel fast breeder reactor

H. Takano; K. Nishihara; K. Tsujimoto; T. Sasa; H. Oigawa; T. Takizuka

2000-01-01

272

A Web-based Management System for H.264 Live Video Broadcasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a Web-based management system for H.264 live video broadcasting. The system consists of three functional parts, namely, the H.264 streaming control, the program management and the media management. It is created to remotely control and operate a P2P live video broadcasting overlay network using H.264 as the video compression codec. An extended MVC model with a newly

Yin Zhou; Xiaoyu Hua; Hui Xiao

2007-01-01

273

Small mammal populations in a restored stream corridor  

SciTech Connect

An opportunity to study the response of a small mammal community to restoration of a riparian wetland was provided by the Pen Branch project at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Live trapping of small mammals was conducted on six transects at Pen Branch in 1996 and 1998 and at three transects at Meyer's Branch, an unimpacted stream at SRS, in 1997 and 1998. Distributions of rates of capture of the four most common species were both spatially and temporally uneven. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance found no significant differences in the relationship of capture rates between species and between treatment and both the within-stream control and Meyers Branch. Habitat use and movement within stream corridors appears to be dependent primarily on species, with age and sex perhaps contributing to preference and distance moved. The lack of differences in capture rates related to transect or treatment may be due to the close proximity of sample transects relative to the movement potential of the species sampled.

Wike, L.D.

2000-03-13

274

Assessing Stream Bed Stability and Excess Sedimentation in Mountain Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use and resource exploitation in headwaters catchments, such as logging, mining, and road building, often increase sediment supply to streams, potentially causing excess sedimentation. Decreases in mean substrate size and increases in fine stream bed sediments can lead to increased frequency of bed scour, while accumulation of fine sediments in the interstices of coarse bed particles can adversely impact salmon spawning habitat and reduce habitat availability for benthic organisms. We are testing an index of relative bed stability (RBS), based on reach-scale synoptic stream surveys, that is calculated as the ratio of the observed geometric mean particle diameter to the estimated critical diameter at bankfull flow after adjusting for shear stress losses due to channel morphology and large woody debris (LWD). We hypothesize that in watersheds not altered by human disturbances, transport capacity should be in rough equilibrium with sediment supply and RBS should be close to unity. In streams where human activity has substantially augmented sediment supply, we expect that textural fining may occur, leading to lower RBS values. However, downstream trends of decreasing slope and particle size and increasing sediment supply might lead to systematic downstream trends in RBS, and variations in local channel characteristics could cause variability in calculated RBS values. To test whether RBS is useful as an indicator of textural fining in response to anthropogenic disturbance, we sampled streams in watersheds spanning a wide range of disturbance intensity (high, medium and low) in two sub-regions of contrasting lithology in the northern Coast Range of Oregon and in the mid-Atlantic U.S. In each watershed we sampled 3 closely-spaced main stem reaches (30-50 km2 drainage area) and 3 reaches in one or more smaller tributaries (5-10 km2) to assess local variability and within-basin longitudinal trends in RBS relative to variation between watersheds with different land use intensity. Preliminary results show the predicted association between land use and RBS in watersheds underlain by erodible rocks, but not in those underlain by resistant rocks. RBS did not show any downstream trends in our sample.

Faustini, J. M.; Kaufmann, P. R.

2002-12-01

275

Lateral inflows, stream-groundwater exchange, and network geometry influence stream water composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

role of stream networks and their hydrologic interaction with hillslopes and shallow groundwater in modifying and transporting watershed signals is an area of active research. One of the primary ways that stream networks can modify watershed signals is through spatially variable stream gains and losses, described herein as hydrologic turnover. We measured hydrologic gain and loss at the reach scale using tracer experiments throughout the Bull Trout watershed in the Sawtooth Mountains of Idaho. We extended the results of reach scale experiments to the stream network using empirical relationships between (1) watershed area and stream discharge and (2) stream discharge and percent stream water loss to the groundwater system. We thus incorporate linkages between (1) hillslopes and stream networks via lateral inflows and (2) stream networks and shallow groundwater via hydrologic exchange. We implemented these relationships within a concise analytical framework to simulate hydrologic turnover across stream networks and estimate the variable influence exerted by upstream reaches and streamflow source locations on stream water composition across stream networks. Application to six natural Sawtooth watersheds and seven synthetic watersheds with varying topographic structure and stream network geometry indicated that contributions to discharge from any upstream source depend on the magnitude of the initial input, but also on the distribution of hydrologic turnover occurring along the stream network. The evolution of stream water source compositions along stream networks was unique in each watershed due to the combination of watershed structure and stream network geometry. Our results suggest that a distributed representation of hydrologic turnover at the stream network scale can improve understanding of how the stream network can modify source water compositions along the stream.

Mallard, John; McGlynn, Brian; Covino, Tim

2014-06-01

276

Tidal streams in triaxial systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal streams form from the steady disruption of stellar systems orbiting within the gravitational field of some parent galaxy. Many streams and debris structures have been discovered in the halo of the Milky Way and have been used to model the potential of the Galaxy. However, few of these models have yet explored the properties of tidal debris in triaxial potentials. The existence of a variety of orbits, resonances, and chaotic regions in such potentials suggest that the morphologies and dispersal timescales of debris could differ significantly from the simpler spherical and oblate cases. In this work we use a series of N-body simulations of stellar systems over a range of masses of disruption in triaxial potentials to understand the influence of the nature and types of orbits on debris morphologies. Our results suggest that the mere existence of the multitude of thin streams already known to orbit the Milky Way provides significant constraints on the classes of triaxial potentials that provide a good representation for its dark matter halo.

Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Pearson, Sarah; Kupper, Andreas Hans Wilhelm

2015-01-01

277

Streaming video for distributed simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed simulation environments are increasingly using video to stimulate operational systems and their prototypical equivalents. Traditionally, this video has been synthesized and delivered by an analog means to consuming software applications. Scene generators typically render to commodity video cards, generate out of band metadata, and convert their outputs to formats compatible with the stimulated systems. However, the approach becomes hardware intensive as environment scale and distribution requirements grow. Streaming video technologies can be applied to uncouple video sources from their consumers, thereby enabling video channel quantities beyond rendering hardware outputs. Moreover, metadata describing the video content can be multiplexed, thereby ensuring temporal registration between video and its attribution. As an application of this approach, the Night Vision Image Generator (NVIG) has been extended and integrated with distribution architectures to deliver streaming video in virtual simulation environments. Video capture hardware emulation and application frame buffer reads are considered for capturing rendered scenes. Video source to encoder bindings and content multiplexing are realized by combining third party video codec, container, and transport implementations with original metadata encoders. Readily available commercial and open source solutions are utilized for content distribution and demultiplexing to a variety of formats and clients. Connected and connectionless distribution approaches are discussed with respect to latency and reliability. Client side scalability, latency, and initialization issues are addressed. Finally, the solution is applied to tactical systems stimulus and training, showing the evolvement from the analog to the streamed video approach.

Webster, Steven G.; Paul, Douglas J.

2010-04-01

278

Ranking a stream of news  

E-print Network

According to a recent survey made by Nielsen NetRatings, searching on news articles is one of the most important activity online. Indeed, Google, Yahoo, MSN and many others have proposed commercial search engines for indexing news feeds. Despite this commercial interest, no academic research has focused on ranking a stream of news articles and a set of news sources. In this paper, we introduce this problem by proposing a ranking framework which models: (1) the process of generation of a stream of news articles, (2) the news articles clustering by topics, and (3) the evolution of news story over the time. The ranking algorithm proposed ranks news information, finding the most authoritative news sources and identifying the most interesting events in the different categories to which news article belongs. All these ranking measures take in account the time and can be obtained without a predefined sliding window of observation over the stream. The complexity of our algorithm is linear in the number of pieces of news still under consideration at the time of a new posting. This allow a continuous on-line process of ranking. Our ranking framework is validated on a collection of more than 300,000 pieces of news, produced in two months by more then 2000 news sources belonging to 13 different categories (World, U.S, Europe, Sports, Business, etc). This collection is extracted from the index of comeTo-MyHead, an academic news search engine available online. 1.

Gianna M. Del Corso; Antonio Gullí; Francesco Romani

2005-01-01

279

Nongravitational forces and meteoroid streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The action of the solar electromagnetic radiation on the moving interplanetary dust particles in its more complete form than the special case known as the Poynting-Robertson effect (P-R effect) is theoretically discussed in application to meteoroid stream of comet Encke. Normal and transverse components of the perturbing nongravitational force are used due to the action of the solar electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the normal component of the force is negligible. However, the transverse component is very important: it can probably completely explain all the observed meteoroid streams situated along the orbit of comet Encke (and, possibly, some asteroids) as the product of the comet Encke alone. Much shorter time is required for producing such a meteoroid stream than is a general conception. If the idea about the significance of the transverse component of the nongravitational force (may be, not produced by electromagnetic radiation) is correct, it may have important consequences for our understanding of aging of comets, global evolution of the cometary (and, partially, asteroidal) system, and, of course, for a long-term evolution of small interplanetary particles.

Klacka, Jozef

1994-05-01

280

Interplanetary stream magnetism - Kinematic effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The particle density and the magnetic-field intensity and direction are calculated for volume elements of the solar wind as a function of the initial magnetic-field direction and the initial speed gradient. It is assumed that the velocity is constant and radial. These assumptions are approximately valid between about 0.1 and 1.0 AU for many streams. Time profiles of the particle density, field intensity, and velocity are calculated for corotating streams, neglecting effects of pressure gradients. The compression and rarefaction of the magnetic field depend sensitively on the initial field direction. By averaging over a typical stream, it is found that the average radial field intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the heliocentric distance, whereas the average intensity in the direction of the planets' motion does not vary in a simple way, consistent with deep space observations. Changes of field direction may be very large, depending on the initial angle; but when the initial angle at 0.1 AU is such that the base of the field line corotates with the sun, the spiral angle is the preferred direction at 1 AU. The theory is also applicable to nonstationary flows.

Burlaga, L. F.; Barouch, E.

1976-01-01

281

Towards quantifying fuzzy stream power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deterministic flow direction algorithms such as the D8 have wide application in numerical models of landscape evolution. These simple algorithms play a central role in quantifying drainage basin area, and hence approximating—via empirically derived relationships from regional flood frequency and hydraulic geometry—stream power or fluvial erosion potential. Here we explore how alternative algorithms that employ a probabilistic choice of flow direction affect quantitative estimates of stream power. We test a probabilistic multi-flow direction algorithm within the MATLAB TopoToolbox in model and real landscapes of low topographic relief and minute gradients, where potentially fuzzy drainage divides are dictated by, among others, alluvial fan dynamics, playa infill, and groundwater fluxes and seepage. We employ a simplistic numerical landscape evolution model that simulates fluvial incision and hillslope diffusion and explicitly models the existence and capture of endorheic basins that prevail in (semi-)arid, low-relief landscapes. We discuss how using this probabilistic multi-flow direction algorithm helps represent and quantify uncertainty about spatio-temporal drainage divide locations and how this bears on quantitative estimates of downstream stream power and fluvial erosion potential as well as their temporal dynamics.

Schwanghart, W.; Korup, O.

2012-04-01

282

The Dynamics of Meteoroid streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteors are streaks of light seen in the upper atmosphere when particles from the inter-planetary dust complex collide with the Earth. Meteor showers originate from the impact of a coherent stream of such dust particles, generally assumed to have been recently ejected from a parent comet. The parent comets of these dust particles, or meteoroids, fortunately, for us tend not to collide with the Earth. Hence there has been orbital changes from one to the other so as to cause a relative movement of the nodes of the meteor orbits and that of the comet, implying changes in the energy and/or angular momentum. In this review, we will discuss these changes and their causes and through this place limits on the ejection process. Other forces also come into play in the longer term, for example perturbations from the planets, and the effects of radiation pressure and Poynting-Robertson drag. The effect of these will also be discussed with a view to understanding both the observed evolution in some meteor streams. Finally we will consider the final fate of meteor streams as contributors to the interplanetary dust complex.

Williams, I. P.

283

The Living Edens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is the homepage of the Public Broadcasting System's (PBS) The Living Edens. This natural history series introduces viewers to isolated, undisturbed corners of the world. The Living Edens companion Web sites hold many resources for teachers. Each program has a listing of resources that enhance the content that was provided in the program. Classroom activities and guides are provided for each area. Teachers from around the country collaborated to create fun and interesting guides for all teachers. Regions covered include: Anamalai in India, Bhutan, Borneo, Canyonlands in Utah, Costa Rica, Denali in Alaska, Etosha Pan in Namibia, Glacier Bay in Alaska, Kakadu in Northern Territory, Australia, Kamchatka in northeastern Russia, Madagascar, Manu in Peru, Namib in southwestern Africa, Ngorongoro in Tanzania, Palau in Micronesia, Patagonia in Argentina, South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean, Tasmania in Australia, and Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana.

284

The Living Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living Lakes Partnership, a nonprofit organization has a goal to "create and support a network within which local lake organizations can find critical kinds of assistance for promoting sustainable development in lake areas." Their award winning site highlights nearly twenty lakes around the world, describing their individual, watershed, and biological characteristics as well as the geologic and human history of the area. The Living With Lakes section discusses lake management and conservation issues dealing with agriculture and urban areas (such as pollution and habitat loss). Other links include a photo gallery, news and events section, discussion groups, and much more. Visitors will enjoy the rich content and visuals that make up this site and will find themselves exploring it for some time and learning along the way.

285

Living in Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Living in Space Web site allows kids of all ages the opportunity to learn how astronauts cope with zero gravity conditions in space. Everything from eating, dressing, working, and having fun is explained through descriptions, photographs, movies, audio files, and more. Other interesting items are also available, such as the interactive daily timeline of an astronaut's activities and several other links to fun pages.

2002-01-01

286

Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The development of the live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), based on the cold-adapted (ca), attenuated ca A\\/Ann Arbor\\/6\\/60 and ca B\\/Ann Arbor\\/1\\/66 backbones, has spanned several decades. The vaccine contains three vaccine strains, two attenuated influenza\\u000a A strains and one attenuated influenza B strain; these vaccine strains are genetic reassortants, each harboring two gene segments\\u000a from the currently circulating wild

Harry Greenberg; George Kemble

287

Soil as Living Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-minute radio program, a soil scientist introduces listeners to reasons why soil is crucial to the planet. The scientist lists functions of soil that include nutrient cycling and water filtration, and he also uses living skin as an analogy for soil. The program, part of the Pulse of the Planet radio show, is available here in text and audio formats. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Pulse of the Planet

2006-06-26

288

Living Bay Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning resources about oysters and current issues in Chesapeake Bay. Students learn about oyster anatomy, ballast water, invasive species and more through online puzzles. Teachers can download 10 multidisciplinary lesson plans about oyster biology and fishery issues. Links to web resources on the Bay, oysters, plankton and biofilms. Also available: day programs with hands-on and shipboard activities for at-risk students and others at Living Classrooms Foundation facilities in Maryland and New Jersey.

289

Glow: Living Lights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 48-page Teacher's Guide accompanies the "Glow: Living Lights" exhibit at the San Diego Natural History Museum. In PDF format, the guide contains 12 lesson plans that explore the chemical compounds and adaptations of bioluminescence, symbiosis, fireflies and other "glowing" terrestrial animals, dinoflagellates, ocean submersibles, blue vs. bright red light, the organization of life, defense, mating, and predator/prey mechanisms of bioluminescent organisms, human applications, and potential research and careers in science.

2009-07-28

290

KARMA\\/live  

Microsoft Academic Search

KARMA is a procedural instrument, driving a syn-esthetic audiovisual environment. The piece comes alive via 6 humanoid 3D figures, suspended in zero gravity. They are convulsing and drifting, seemingly with no means of escape, displaying a familiar yet ambiguous sense of human life, resulting in an indefinite dance of the almost living dead. Their movements evoke a synchronized, drone-like sound-scape,

Kurt Hentschlager

2007-01-01

291

Living and Fossil Macrocyprididae  

E-print Network

behave in one way and sometimes in the other. You cannot lay down general rules of what is important in classification and what is not. Peter C. Sylvester-Bradley, 1969, p. 245 LIVING AND FOSSIL MACROCYPRIDIDAE (OSTRACODA) Rosalie F. Maddocks Department... are redescribed from type and additional specimens, 54 new species are named, and 48 additional species are described in open nomenclature. Appendage and genital characters are described for 73 of these species. A review of more than 100 additional species...

Maddocks, R. F.

1990-02-27

292

Bioluminescence: Living Light  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic lesson plan explores bioluminescent creatures and the underwater world in which they live. Using shoeboxes and black paint, students are directed to build a deep-sea model and inhabit it with fish made out of black construction paper. Students then use the model to describe how organisms use bioluminescence and learn about its use as camouflage. In addition to a detailed protocol, the lesson plan includes suggestions for assessments and links to additional information.

Xpeditions, National G.

293

LIVE from the NYPL  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The fantastic New York Public Library does it again with this most diverse and thoughtful site. The website shows their impressive offerings of upcoming live talks as well as providing their archived talks. Some of the upcoming guests that are featured are Ira Glass, Barbara Kingsolver, William Grimes, and Javier Marias. Fortunately, visitors who aren't in New York City won't miss out on these great programs, because the past LIVE shows can be accessed by clicking on the "Past Programs" link in the left hand menu. The archived shows are from Spring and Fall 2005-2009, and are available as audio, video, or both. The current programs become available to listen or watch a few weeks after the original program. Transcripts are also available for some events, and they can be found in the "Transcripts" link on the left hand menu. The intriguing series, first broadcast during the month of June 2009, titled "Muslim Voices: Arts and Ideas" is a good place to start. Visitors can enter Muslim Voices in the search box at the top left hand of the page to find all LIVE programs that were part of the celebration.

294

Families and Assisted Living*  

PubMed Central

Purpose Despite growing research on assisted living (AL) as a residential care option for older adults, the social ramifications of residents' transitions to assisted living is relatively unexplored. This article examines family involvement in AL, including family structures of residents, types of involvement from family members living outside the AL, and outcomes for these family members. Design and Methods We reviewed current literature utilizing the MEDLINE, PSYCINFO, and CINAHL databases to identify AL studies that examined issues pertaining to families or informal care. Following the screening of abstracts, 180 reports were retrieved for further review, and 62 studies were selected for inclusion. Results Families visit residents frequently and provide a wide range of instrumental assistance but provide only minimal personal care. Studies of family outcomes indicated relatively high satisfaction, but potential care burden as well. Implications How family care and involvement occurs in AL in relation to formal care provision and whether various types of formal-informal care integration influence family outcomes remains unclear. We suggest a research agenda that attempts to tease out causal relationships for family involvement, differentiate family roles, and implement longitudinal analyses for a range of family outcomes. PMID:18162571

Gaugler, Joseph E.; Kane, Robert L.

2008-01-01

295

Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory' for research on green living  

E-print Network

Winter 2011 tx H2O 7 Story by Courtney Smith ] The Urban Living Laboratory will include multifamily apartments. With many new innovative and green technol- ogies emerging in the #25;#23;st century, how do manufac- turers really know...?s largest ?living laboratory,? will feature #28;ve Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, or LEED-certi#28;ed building types including multifamily housing, o#12;ce Developing solutions for sustainable living? the Urban Living Laboratory...

Smith, Courtney

2011-01-01

296

Developing solutions for sustainable living- the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory' for research on green living  

E-print Network

Winter 2011 tx H2O 7 Story by Courtney Smith ] The Urban Living Laboratory will include multifamily apartments. With many new innovative and green technol- ogies emerging in the #25;#23;st century, how do manufac- turers really know...?s largest ?living laboratory,? will feature #28;ve Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, or LEED-certi#28;ed building types including multifamily housing, o#12;ce Developing solutions for sustainable living? the Urban Living Laboratory...

Smith, Courtney

2011-01-01

297

Geospatial Image Stream Processing: Models, techniques, and applications in remote sensing change detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of changes in environmental phenomena using remotely sensed data is a major requirement in the Earth sciences, especially in natural disaster related scenarios where real-time detection plays a crucial role in the saving of human lives and the preservation of natural resources. Although various approaches formulated to model multidimensional data can in principle be applied to the inherent complexity of remotely sensed geospatial data, there are still challenging peculiarities that demand a precise characterization in the context of change detection, particularly in scenarios of fast changes. In the same vein, geospatial image streams do not fit appropriately in the standard Data Stream Management System (DSMS) approach because these systems mainly deal with tuple-based streams. Recognizing the necessity for a systematic effort to address the above issues, the work presented in this thesis is a concrete step toward the foundation and construction of an integrated Geospatial Image Stream Processing framework, GISP. First, we present a data and metadata model for remotely sensed image streams. We introduce a precise characterization of images and image streams in the context of remotely sensed geospatial data. On this foundation, we define spatially-aware temporal operators with a consistent semantics for change analysis tasks. We address the change detection problem in settings where multiple image stream sources are available, and thus we introduce an architectural design for the processing of geospatial image streams from multiple sources. With the aim of targeting collaborative scientific environments, we construct a realization of our architecture based on Kepler, a robust and widely used scientific workflow management system, as the underlying computational support; and open data and Web interface standards, as a means to facilitate the interoperability of GISP instances with other processing infrastructures and client applications. We demonstrate our GISP framework with representative remote sensing applications including land cover detection, wildfire detection, and near real-time validation of surface temperature measurements integrating ground- and satellite-based data.

Rueda-Velasquez, Carlos Alberto

298

Sentiment Knowledge Discovery in Twitter Streaming Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-blogs are a challenging new source of information for data mining techniques. Twitter is a micro-blogging service built to discover what is happening at any moment in time, anywhere in the world. Twitter messages are short, and generated constantly, and well suited for knowledge discovery using data stream mining. We briefly discuss the challenges that Twitter data streams pose, focusing on classification problems, and then consider these streams for opinion mining and sentiment analysis. To deal with streaming unbalanced classes, we propose a sliding window Kappa statistic for evaluation in time-changing data streams. Using this statistic we perform a study on Twitter data using learning algorithms for data streams.

Bifet, Albert; Frank, Eibe

299

Transitive closure on the imagine stream processor  

SciTech Connect

The increasing gap between processor and memory speeds is a well-known problem in modern computer architecture. The Imagine system is designed to address the processor-memory gap through streaming technology. Stream processors are best-suited for computationally intensive applications characterized by high data parallelism and producer-consumer locality with minimal data dependencies. This work examines an efficient streaming implementation of the computationally intensive Transitive Closure (TC) algorithm on the Imagine platform. We develop a tiled TC algorithm specifically for the Imagine environment, which efficiently reuses streams to minimize expensive off-chip data transfers. The implementation requires complex stream programming since the memory hierarchy and cluster organization of the underlying architecture are exposed to the Imagine programmer. Results demonstrate that limited performance of TC is achieved primarily due to the complicated data-dependencies of the blocked algorithm. This work is an ongoing effort to identify classes of scientific problems well-suited for streaming processors.

Griem, Gorden; Oliker, Leonid

2003-11-11

300

Live from the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For reasons of geography and geophysics, the poles of our planet, the Arctic and Antarctica, are places where climate change appears first: they are global canaries in the mine shaft. But while Antarctica (its penguins and ozone hole, for example) has been relatively well-documented in recent books, TV programs and journalism, the far North has received somewhat less attention. This project builds on and advances what has been done to date to share the people, places, and stories of the North with all Americans through multiple media, over several years. In a collaborative project between the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) and PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, Live from the Arctic will bring the Arctic environment to the public through a series of primetime broadcasts, live and taped programming, interactive virtual field trips, and webcasts. The five-year project will culminate during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year (IPY). Live from the Arctic will: A. Promote global understanding about the value and world -wide significance of the Arctic, B. Bring cutting-edge research to both non-formal and formal education communities, C. Provide opportunities for collaboration between arctic scientists, arctic communities, and the general public. Content will focus on the following four themes. 1. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts on Land (i.e. snow cover; permafrost; glaciers; hydrology; species composition, distribution, and abundance; subsistence harvesting) 2. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Sea (i.e. salinity, temperature, currents, nutrients, sea ice, marine ecosystems (including people, marine mammals and fisheries) 3. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Atmosphere (i.e. precipitation and evaporation; effects on humans and their communities) 4. Global Perspectives (i.e. effects on humans and communities, impacts to rest of the world) In The Earth is Faster Now, a recent collection of comments by members of indigenous arctic peoples, arctic residents speak in eloquent terms of the changes they see around them, manifested in new patterns of vegetation, the melting of permafrost and the absence of game species that used to be abundant. Meanwhile, new satellites and more sophisticated sensors on the ground and in the ice, add scientific testimony that seems to support and even extend native perceptions. Live from the Arctic will unify both perspectives, and use todays most powerful and effective communications media to connect young people and general audiences all across America to researchers and communities living and working in the Arctic. During IPY there will be a level of interest in the Polar regions unprecedented in a generation. Live from the Arctic offers unique resources to satisfy that curiosity, and encourage active participation and engagement in understanding some of Earths most significant peoples, places and rapidly changing conditions.

Haines-Stiles, G.; Warnick, W. K.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

2003-12-01

301

Microencapsulation Of Living Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In experimental technique, living cells and other biological materials encapsulated within submillimeter-diameter liquid-filled spheres. Sphere material biocompatible, tough, and compliant. Semipermeable, permitting relatively small molecules to move into and out of sphere core but preventing passage of large molecules. New technique promises to make such spherical capsules at high rates and in uniform, controllable sizes. Capsules injected into patient through ordinary hypodermic needle. Promising application for technique in treatment of diabetes. Also used to encapsulate pituitary cells and thyroid hormone adrenocortical cells for treatment of other hormonal disorders, to encapsulate other secreting cells for transplantation, and to package variety of pharmaceutical products and agricultural chemicals for controlled release.

Chang, Manchium; Kendall, James M.; Wang, Taylor G.

1989-01-01

302

Communication in Assisted Living*  

PubMed Central

This study of communication in an Assisted Living Facility (ALF) focuses on staff’s interpretive frameworks and situational tactics for managing elderly residents. It is based on interviews with staff and residents in an ALF together with ethnographic fieldwork. As in other quasi-total institutions, staff members engage in control as well as care, monitoring residents for compliance with rules and directives. Residents, aware of the threat of being moved to a nursing home, also monitor their own behavior and cognition in comparison to other residents. Other communication issues include the infantilization of the elderly by staff, and the race, class, and ethnic prejudices of residents. PMID:20107612

Williams, Kristine N.; Warren, Carol A.B.

2009-01-01

303

Living with lightning  

SciTech Connect

As many as 100 lightning flashes occur around the world each second. Electric utilities know well the impact of lightning in terms of dollars, lost productivity, and lives. EPRI research, which began with a study of lightning`s natural characteristics, has resulted in tools utilities can use to better track and prepare for thunderstorms. Recently the institute completed a series of tests using small rockets to trigger and direct lightning strikes. Now EPRI-sponsored researchers are developing a laser-based technology they believe will be able to guide thunderbolts safely to the ground and ultimately even to discharge thunderclouds.

Lamarre, L.

1994-01-01

304

Living State Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vanderbilt University's Living State Physics group combines physics and biomedical research in order to increase knowledge of biological systems and phenomena. After learning how physics can enhance the fields of medicine and biology, users can discover the group's greatest accomplishments for the past twenty years in topics such as Non Destructive Evaluation, Biomagnetics, and Cardiophysics. Researchers can learn the details of the group's Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). The expansive website features information and helpful figures about its many physics research projects in cardiac electrodynamics and gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Those interested can also find out about employment opportunities.

305

Living olefin polymerization processes  

DOEpatents

Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

Schrock, Richard R. (Winchester, MA); Baumann, Robert (Cambridge, MA)

1999-01-01

306

Living olefin polymerization processes  

DOEpatents

Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

1999-03-30

307

Live Access Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Live Access Server (LAS) is a highly configurable Web server designed to provide flexible access to geo-referenced scientific data. LAS enables users to view data with on-the-fly graphics, request custom subsets of variables in a variety of file formats, and compare variables from distributed locations. LAS enables the data provider to unify access to multiple types of data in a single interface, create thematic data servers from distributed data sources (through the use of DODS/OPenDAP), offer derived products on the fly, and offer unique products (e.g. visualization styles specialized for the data).

Hankin, Steve

2002-09-09

308

Skulls : living tissue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site discusses how bones are living tissue and therefore can grow and repair themselves. It mentions how skulls can reveal how healthy the animal was when it was alive or what may have caused its death. By focusing on a sea lion, the site explains how skull bones are different for males and females and how its age can be determined from its teeth. A unique feature allows visitors to rotate images of skulls 360 degrees, so they can view them from all angles. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Sciences, California A.

2005-01-01

309

Periodic Table Live!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Periodic Table Live!, produced by the Division of Chemical Education at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, allows users "to explore a broad range of information about the elements, their reactions, their properties, their structures and their histories." After selecting an element from the periodic table, users can access a myriad of information divided into three sections: Description, Physical, and Atomic. Students can view short videos of many of the elements' reactions with air, water, acids, and bases. The website is equipped with a helpful glossary and images of the elements, scientists, and other related items.

310

"Living versus Dead":  

PubMed Central

Summary The Semple antirabies vaccine was developed by David Semple in India in 1911. Semple introduced a peculiarly British approach within the Pasteurian tradition by using carbolized dead virus. This article studies this unique phase of vaccine research between 1910 and 1935 to show that in the debates and laboratory experiments around the potency and safety of vaccines, categories like "living" and "dead" were often used as ideological and moral denominations. These abstract and ideological debates were crucial in defining the final configuration of the Semple vaccine, the most popular antirabies vaccine used globally, and also in shaping international vaccination policies. PMID:21037397

Chakrabarti, Pratik

2010-01-01

311

Live Cams: Discovery Channel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With cameras operating in Alaska, Hudson Bay and other far-flung locales, the Discovery Channel's Live Cams page is a great resource for those who love nature in all of its manifestations. First-time visitors should check out the Alaska: The Last Frontier cams as they offer a rich look at this most fascinating state. The Shark Cam is a delight as well and features sharks in the National Aquarium, including black-tip sharks, zebra sharks, and more. The Penguin Cam is also quite fun and visitors can watch the behavior of rockhopper and African penguins at the Audubon Aquarium of the Americas.

312

Living Reviews in Relativity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living Reviews in Relativity is a free refereed electronic journal published by the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert-Einstein Institute). The journal currently contains four articles on quantum gravity, numerical cosmology, and Einstein's equations. Topics covered in future articles will include gravitational wave detection and astrophysics. Articles can be searched based on author, keyword, title, journal, year, and format. Users can choose to have the results output to the screen or as an email message. An email alerting service is available to notify readers of the publication of new articles.

313

Syntax-directed Transformations of XML Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the TransformX framework for syntax-directed transformations of XML streams. In this framework, we define stream transforma- tions as a special form of attributed extended regu- lar tree grammars where all attributes can be eval- uated in a single pass over the input, a necessity in stream processing. In the tradition of tools such as Yacc, the TransformX parser

Stefanie Scherzinger; Alfons Kemper

314

Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and fifteen federal agencies have collaborated to create this "common reference for people who are involved in planning, designing, and implementing stream corridor restorations." Preceding the release of the printed version (October 1998), this online version includes full text, color graphics, a slide show on stream corridors, three case studies from streams in New Mexico and Washington, and a collection of useful links to related sites in education, research techniques, and river management.

315

Fast Approximate Wavelet Tracking on Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen growing interest in effective algorithms for summarizing and querying massive, high-speed data streams. Randomized sketch synopses provide accurate approximations for general-purpose summaries of the streaming data distribution (e.g., wavelets). The focus of existing work has typi- cally been on minimizing space requirementsof the maintained synopsis — how- ever, to effectively support high-speed data-stream analysis, a crucial

Graham Cormode; Minos N. Garofalakis; Dimitris Sacharidis

2006-01-01

316

MY NASA DATA: Sea Surface Temperature Trends of the Gulf Stream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this three-part lesson, students explore the Live Access Server (LAS) and produce plots of sea surface temperature. They then prepare a time series of data for particular location(s) on the Gulf Stream and use Excel to produce and analyze graphs of sea surface temperature. One of the most studied and important ocean currents of the world lies along the eastern coast of the United States and is called the Gulf Stream. It derives its name from its source region of warm water in the Gulf of Mexico. For the past two decades, scientists have been collecting sea surface temperature (SST) data from satellites, buoys and ships in the Gulf Stream and Atlantic Basin. The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links, sample graphs, follow-up questions, extensions, and teacher notes.

2007-01-01

317

CAMS: OLAPing Multidimensional Data Streams Efficiently  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of data stream research, taming the multidimensionality of real-life data streams in order to efficiently support OLAP analysis/mining tasks is a critical challenge. Inspired by this fundamental motivation, in this paper we introduce CAMS (C ube-based A cquisition model for M ultidimensional S treams), a model for efficiently OLAPing multidimensional data streams. CAMS combines a set of data stream processing methodologies, namely (i) the OLAP dimension flattening process, which allows us to obtain dimensionality reduction of multidimensional data streams, and (ii) the OLAP stream aggregation scheme, which aggregates data stream readings according to an OLAP-hierarchy-based membership approach. We complete our analytical contribution by means of experimental assessment and analysis of both the efficiency and the scalability of OLAPing capabilities of CAMS on synthetic multidimensional data streams. Both analytical and experimental results clearly connote CAMS as an enabling component for next-generation Data Stream Management Systems.

Cuzzocrea, Alfredo

318

Age of the Geminid Meteor Stream (Review)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical review of the methods for determining the age of a meteoroid stream, as applied to the Geminid stream, is presented. Most likely, the age of Geminids does not exceed a few thousand years. To correctly take into account the solar wind drag, equations for secular variations in the meteoroid orbital semimajor axes and eccentricities were obtained. These equations are similar to those derived for Poynting-Robertson drag (Wyatt and Whipple, 1950; Burns et al., 1979). A mathematical model of the Geminids for a stream age of 10 000 years was developed. Polynomial coefficients for calculation of the meteoroid stream orbits over a time span of 10 000 years are given.

Ryabova, G. O.

319

The Gulf Stream and Density of Fluids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A few kilometers from the shores of Palm Beach County, Florida, the Gulf Stream current--a remarkable "river" within an ocean--makes its closest approach to land. To help Integrated Science students understand why and how the Gulf Stream flows, they study how Florida's Gulf Stream current could be responsible for the wreck of the Titanic using the 5E constructivist instructional model--Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate--to analyze a single problem: Why wasn't the iceberg that sank the Titanic either dissolved or deflected eastward by the Gulf Stream before the collision?

Landstrom, Erich

2006-09-01

320

Streaming Instability in Growing Cell Populations  

PubMed Central

Flows of cells growing as a quasimonolayer in a confined space can exhibit streaming, with narrow streams of fast-moving cells flowing around clusters of slowly moving cells. We observed and analyzed this phenomenon experimentally for E. coli bacteria proliferating in a microfluidic cell trap using time-lapse microscopy. We also performed continuum modeling and discrete-element simulations to elucidate the mechanism behind the streaming instability. Our analysis demonstrates that streaming can be explained by the interplay between the slow adaptation of a cell to its local microenvironment and its mobility due to changes of cell-substrate contact forces. PMID:20867071

Mather, William; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Danino, Tal; Hasty, Jeff; Tsimring, Lev S.

2010-01-01

321

Efficient Visualization of Document Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In machine learning and data mining, multidimensional scaling (MDS) and MDS-like methods are extensively used for dimensionality reduction and for gaining insights into overwhelming amounts of data through visualization. With the growth of the Web and activities of Web users, the amount of data not only grows exponentially but is also becoming available in the form of streams, where new data instances constantly flow into the system, requiring the algorithm to update the model in near-real time. This paper presents an algorithm for document stream visualization through a MDS-like distance-preserving projection onto a 2D canvas. The visualization algorithm is essentially a pipeline employing several methods from machine learning. Experimental verification shows that each stage of the pipeline is able to process a batch of documents in constant time. It is shown that in the experimental setting with a limited buffer capacity and a constant document batch size, it is possible to process roughly 2.5 documents per second which corresponds to approximately 25% of the entire blogosphere rate and should be sufficient for most real-life applications.

Gr?ar, Miha; Podpe?an, Vid; Jurši?, Matjaž; Lavra?, Nada

322

Towards the Stream Analysis Model in Grid-based Zero-Latency Data Stream Warehouse  

E-print Network

for an organization (e.g., telecom fraud detection, stock market monitoring, etc.) #12;Data Warehouse (DWH. In daily life, sources of data streams such as Internet transactions, click streams, updates of stock

323

An initial SPARROW model of land use and in-stream controls on total organic carbon in streams of the conterminous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Watersheds play many important roles in the carbon cycle: (1) they are a site for both terrestrial and aquatic carbon dioxide (CO2) removal through photosynthesis; (2) they transport living and decomposing organic carbon in streams and groundwater; and (3) they store organic carbon for widely varying lengths of time as a function of many biogeochemical factors. Using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model, along with long-term monitoring data on total organic carbon (TOC), this research quantitatively estimates the sources, transport, and fate of the long-term mean annual load of TOC in streams of the conterminous United States. The model simulations use surrogate measures of the major terrestrial and aquatic sources of organic carbon to estimate the long-term mean annual load of TOC in streams. The estimated carbon sources in the model are associated with four land uses (urban, cultivated, forest, and wetlands) and autochthonous fixation of carbon (stream photosynthesis). Stream photosynthesis is determined by reach-level application of an empirical model of stream chlorophyll based on total phosphorus concentration, and a mechanistic model of photosynthetic rate based on chlorophyll, average daily solar irradiance, water column light attenuation, and reach dimensions. It was found that the estimate of in-stream photosynthesis is a major contributor to the mean annual TOC load per unit of drainage area (that is, yield) in large streams, with a median share of about 60 percent of the total mean annual carbon load in streams with mean flows above 500 cubic feet per second. The interquartile range of the model predictions of TOC from in-stream photosynthesis is from 0.1 to 0.4 grams (g) carbon (C) per square meter (m-2) per day (day-1) for the approximately 62,000 stream reaches in the continental United States, which compares favorably with the reported literature range for net carbon fixation by phytoplankton in lakes and streams. The largest contributors per unit of drainage area to the mean annual stream TOC load among the terrestrial sources are, in descending order: wetlands, urban lands, mixed forests, agricultural lands, evergreen forests, and deciduous forests . It was found that the SPARROW model estimates of TOC contributions to streams associated with these land uses are also consistent with literature estimates. SPARROW model calibration results are used to simulate the delivery of TOC loads to the coastal areas of seven major regional drainages. It was found that stream photosynthesis is the largest source of the TOC yields ( about 50 percent) delivered to the coastal waters in two of the seven regional drainages (the Pacific Northwest and Mississippi-Atchafalaya-Red River basins ), whereas terrestrial sources are dominant (greater than 60 percent) in all other regions (North Atlantic, South Atlantic-Gulf, California, Texas-Gulf, and Great Lakes).

Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Alexander, Richard B.; Smith, Richard A.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Shwarz, Grogory E.; Chung, Susie

2010-01-01

324

Interaction between stream temperature, streamflow, and groundwater exchanges in alpine streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four alpine streams were monitored to continuously collect stream temperature and streamflow for periods ranging from a week to a year. In a small stream in the Colorado Rockies, diurnal variations in both stream temperature and streamflow were significantly greater in losing reaches than in gaining reaches, with minimum streamflow losses occurring early in the day and maximum losses occurring early in the evening. Using measured stream temperature changes, diurnal streambed infiltration rates were predicted to increase as much as 35% during the day (based on a heat and water transport groundwater model), while the measured increase in streamflow loss was 40%. For two large streams in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, annual stream temperature variations ranged from 0??to 25??C. In summer months, diurnal stream temperature variations were 30-40% of annual stream temperature variations, owing to reduced streamflows and increased atmospheric heating. Previous reports document that one Sierra stream site generally gains groundwater during low flows, while the second Sierra stream site may lose water during low flows. For August the diurnal streamflow variation was 11% at the gaining stream site and 30% at the losing stream site. On the basis of measured diurnal stream temperature variations, streambed infiltration rates were predicted to vary diurnally as much as 20% at the losing stream site. Analysis of results suggests that evapotranspiration losses determined diurnal streamflow variations in the gaining reaches, while in the losing reaches, evapotranspiration losses were compounded by diurnal variations in streambed infiltration. Diurnal variations in stream temperature were reduced in the gaining reaches as a result of discharging groundwater of relatively constant temperature. For the Sierra sites, comparison of results with those from a small tributary demonstrated that stream temperature patterns were useful in delineating discharges of bank storage following dam releases. Direct coupling may have occurred between streamflow and stream temperature for losing stream reaches, such that reduced streamflows facilitated increased afternoon stream temperatures and increased afternoon stream temperatures induced increased streambed losses, leading to even greater increases in both stream temperature and streamflow losses.

Constantz, J.

1998-01-01

325

The worm that lived  

PubMed Central

Organisms age because of the “selection shadow”—the decline of the force of natural selection with age. Seemingly straightforward corollary of this theory is the Medawar-Williams prediction, which maintains that increased extrinsic (non-aging) mortality will result in the evolution of accelerated aging and decreased longevity. Despite its centrality to modern thinking about the ultimate causes of aging, this prediction ignores the fact that mortality is often a non-random process depending on individual condition. Increased condition-dependent mortality inescapably results in increased selection for resistance against the agent of mortality. Provided that resistance to various stressors is commonly associated with increased longevity, the evolutionary outcome is no longer certain. We recently documented this experimentally by showing that populations of Caenorhabditis remanei evolved to live shorter under high extrinsic mortality, but only when mortality was applied haphazardly. On the contrary, when extrinsic mortality was caused by heat-shock, populations experiencing the same rate of increased mortality evolved greater longevities, notwithstanding increased “selection shadow.” Intriguingly, stress-resistant and long-lived worms were also more fecund. We discuss these results in the light of recent theoretical developments, such as condition-environment interactions and hyperfunction theory of aging. PMID:24778930

Chen, Hwei-yen; Maklakov, Alexei A

2013-01-01

326

Drawdown and stream depletion produced by pumping in the vicinity of a partially penetrating stream  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Commonly used analytical approaches for estimation of pumping-induced drawdown and stream depletion are based on a series of idealistic assumptions about the stream-aquifer system. A new solution has been developed for estimation of drawdown and stream depletion under conditions that are more representative of those in natural systems (finite width stream of shallow penetration adjoining an aquifer of limited lateral extent). This solution shows that the conventional assumption of a fully penetrating stream will lead to a significant overestimation of stream depletion (> 100 %) in many practical applications. The degree of overestimation will depend on the value of the stream leakance parameter and the distance from the pumping well to the stream. Although leakance will increase with stream width, a very wide stream will not necessarily be well represented by a model of a fully penetrating stream. The impact of lateral boundaries depends upon the distance from the pumping well to the stream and the stream leakance parameter. In most cases, aquifer width must be on the order of hundreds of stream widths before the assumption of a laterally infinite aquifer is appropriate for stream-depletion calculations. An important assumption underlying this solution is that stream-channel penetration is negligible relative to aquifer thickness. However, an approximate extension to the case of nonnegligible penetration provides reasonable results for the range of relative penetrations found in most natural systems (up to 85%). Since this solution allows consideration of a much wider range of conditions than existing analytical approaches, it could prove to be a valuable new tool for water management design and water rights adjudication purposes.

Butler, J.J., Jr.; Zlotnik, V.A.; Tsou, M.-S.

2001-01-01

327

Organs of Adhesion in Some Mountain-stream Teleosts of India: Structure-Function Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sub-Himalayan streams and rivers of India are known to be inhabited by a number of teleost fishes specialized for living\\u000a in rapids (Day, 1958; Jayaram, 1981). Ecologically, these are perennial shallow-water bodies, characterized by having low\\u000a water temperature, high turbulent current and sandy-rocky substratum (Das and Nag, 2004). In order to thrive against the adverse\\u000a habitat situations, many species

Debasish Das; Tapas C. Nag

328

Reversing the Lecture\\/Homework Paradigm Using eTEACH® Web-based Streaming Video Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new online streaming video and multi-media application called eTEACH (http:\\/\\/eTEACH.engr.wisc.edu) was used to reform a large, lecture -based computer science course for engineering majors. In-class lectures were replaced with videotaped lectures and other materials that students viewed on the Internet on their own schedu le, making it possible to use the live class periods for small, team problem-solving sessions

Julie Foertsch; Gregory Moses; John Strikwerda; Mike Litzkow

329

Condensative Stream Query Language for Data Streams Lisha Ma1 Werner Nutt2 Hamish Taylor1  

E-print Network

Condensative Stream Query Language for Data Streams Lisha Ma1 Werner Nutt2 Hamish Taylor1 1 School the answer to a similar non-aggregate query making query processing condensative. Cur- rent proposals for declarative query languages over data streams do not support such condensative pro- cessing. Nor is it yet

Taylor, Hamish

330

Influence of Stream Discharge on Reproductive Success of a Prairie Stream Fish Assemblage  

E-print Network

clutches of eggs may be adaptive. Fishes with the capacity to spawn multiple times throughout a protractedInfluence of Stream Discharge on Reproductive Success of a Prairie Stream Fish Assemblage BART W and reproductive success for five members of a prairie stream fish assemblage. Based on information obtained from

Wilde, Gene

331

Comparing Stream Geomorphology and Channel Habitat along a Stream Restoration Gradient Sam Stewart  

E-print Network

this is due to cranberry farms homogenizing the coastal streams into unbearable habitat for once prominent the cranberry industry has degraded many streams. The cranberry farms destroy the stream habitat because they cut down all of the surrounding vegetation to make way for cranberry plants. The farms also straighten

Vallino, Joseph J.

332

ACID-BASE STATUS OF PENNSYLVANIA STREAMS: RESULTS FROM THE NATIONAL STREAM SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Stream Survey (NSS) conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency in the spring of 1986 sampled 82 stream reaches within the state of Pennsylvania, representing a target population of 9900 stream reaches that are potentially sensitive to acidification. After exclu...

333

Effects of stream restoration and wastewater treatment plant effluent on fish communities in urban streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Fish community characteristics, resource availability and resource use were assessed in three headwater urban streams in Piedmont North Carolina, U.S.A. Three site types were examined on each stream; two urban (restored and unrestored) and a forested site downstream of urbanisation, which was impacted by effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Stream basal resources, aquatic macroinvertebrates, terrestrial macroin-

ROBERT M. NORTHINGTON; ANNE E. HERSHEY

2006-01-01

334

Effects of logging on stream environments and faunas in Nelson  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of various logging practices on stream environments and faunas were studied at the Golden Downs State Forest in Nelson. Comparisons were made between the features of a control stream with an unmodified forest catchment and three streams whose catchments had been affected by different logging practices. Measurements were made of stream flow, water temperature, stream bed sedimentation, suspended

E. Graynoth

1979-01-01

335

Physical Stream Habitat Dynamics in Lower Bear Creek, Northern Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated the roles of geomorphic and hydrologic dynamics in determining physical stream habitat in Bear Creek, a stream with a 239 km2 drainage basin in the Ozark Plateaus (Ozarks) in northern Arkansas. During a relatively wet 12-month monitoring period, the geomorphology of Bear Creek was altered by a series of floods, including at least four floods with peak discharges exceeding a 1-year recurrence interval and another flood with an estimated 2- to 4-year recurrence interval. These floods resulted in a net erosion of sediment from the study reach at Crane Bottom at rates far in excess of other sites previously studied in the Ozarks. The riffle-pool framework of the study reach at Crane Bottom was not substantially altered by these floods, but volumes of habitat in riffles and pools changed. The 2- to 4-year flood scoured gravel from pools and deposited it in riffles, increasing the diversity of available stream habitat. In contract, the smaller floods eroded gravel from the riffles and deposited it in pools, possibly flushing fine sediment from the substrate but also decreasing habitat diversity. Channel geometry measured at the beginning of the study was use to develop a two-dimensional, finite-element hydraulic model at assess how habitat varies with hydrologic dynamics. Distributions of depth and velocity simulated over the range of discharges observed during the study (0.1 to 556 cubic meters per second, cms) were classified into habitat units based on limiting depths and Froude number criteria. The results indicate that the areas of habitats are especially sensitive to change to low to medium flows. Races (areas of swift, relatively deep water downstream from riffles) disappear completely at the lowest flows, and riffles (areas of swift, relatively shallow water) contract substantially in area. Pools also contract in area during low flow, but deep scours associated with bedrock outcrops sustain some pool area even at the lowest modeled flows. Modeled boundary shear stresses were used to evaluate which flows are responsible for the most mobilization of the bed, and therefore, habitat maintenance. Evaluation of the magnitude and frequency of bed-sediment entrainment shows that most of the habitat maintenance results from flows that occur on average about 4 to 7 days a year. Our analysis documents the geomorphic and hydrologic dynamics that form and maintain habitats in a warmwater stream in the Ozarks. The range of flows that occurs on this stream can be partitioned into those that sustain habitat by providing the combinations of depth and velocity that stream organisms live with most of the time, and those flows that surpass sediment entrainment thresholds, alter stream geomorphology, and therefore maintain habitat. The quantitative relations show sensitivity of habitats to flow variation, but do not address how flow may vary in the future, or the extent to which stream geomorphology may be affected by variations in sediment supply.

Reuter, Joanna M.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.

2003-01-01

336

Modeling ice streams: Derived quantities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The model addressed is a finite-element, map-plane, time-dependent, column-averaged continuity equation solver. The key to the fitting process involves the balance between ice motion dominated by flow in internal layers, and ice motion dominated by sliding at the bed. The fitting process involves an iterative process carried out in the time domain. Beginning with the portion of the ice sheet being modeled identical to the present ice sheet with uniform flow, sliding, and fraction specified at nominal values, the model monitors each nodal point surface elevation. As the calculated surface elevation deviates from the present surface, a correction proportional to the difference is applied to selected parameter sets. This correction is in a sense that would tend to improve the fit at the particular nodal point. A calculated surface elevation that was higher than the present surface would result in an increased fraction, which would tend to lower the calculated surface (if the flow or sliding constant were being used as the fitting parameter, they would be lowered to improve the fit). This process is allowed to proceed as long as is necessary for the situation to stabilize. Typically, this takes tens of thousands of model years, but the rate is dependent on other external forcings such as the accumulation rate. The primary result is that while a typical sample of ice streams from around Antarctica can be fitted quite reasonably using only the fraction of the velocity due to sliding, a different mechanism seems to be in play along the Siple Coast, where reduced sliding constants are required to attain a reasonable fit. Flow is more strongly channelized in this region, and velocities are, in general, higher than are observed in other regions. It is unlikely that the mechanism that controls the ice movement along the Siple Coast is exactly similar to the mechanisms in the other ice streams. The concept of deformable sediments and their contribution to the fast flow along the Siple Coast may have limited applicability to other Antarctic ice streams.

Fastook, James

1993-01-01

337

Satellite imagery of the onset of streaming flow of ice streams C and D, West Antarctica  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five overlapping Landsat multispectral scanner satellite images of the interior of the West Antarctic ice sheet were enhanced with principal component analysis, high-pass filtering, and linear contrast stretching and merged into a mosaic by aligning surface features in the overlap areas. The mosaic was registered to geodetic coordinates, to an accuracy of about 1 km, using the five scene centers as control points. The onset of streaming flow of two tributaries of ice stream C and one tributary of ice stream D is visible in the mosaic. The onset appears to occur within a relatively short distance, less than the width of the ice stream, typically at a subglacial topographic feature such as a step or ridge. The ice streams extend farther up into the interior than previously mapped. Ice stream D starts about 150 km from the ice divide, at an altitude of about 1500 m, approximately halfway up the convex-upward dome shape of the interior ice sheet. Ice stream D is relatively much longer than ice stream C, possibly because ice stream D is currently active whereas ice stream C is currently inactive. The grounded portion of the West Antarctic ice sheet is perhaps best conceptualized as an ice sheet in which ice streams are embedded over most of its area, with slow moving ice converging into fast moving ice streams in a widely distributed pattern, much like that of streams and rivers in a hydrologic basin. A relic margin appears to parallel most of the south margin of the tributary of ice stream D, separated from the active shear margin by about 10 km or less for a distance of over 200 km. This means there is now evidence for recent changes having occurred in three of the five major ice streams which drain most of West Antarctica (B, C, and D), two of which (B and D) are currently active.

Hodge, S.M.; Doppelhammer, S.K.

1996-01-01

338

BBC: Democracy Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you take a look at this website during legislative hours in Britain, you will see a bustling set of eight small screens with activity in the Northern Ireland Assembly, the Scottish Parliament, the House of Commons, and so on. This is the BBC's "Democracy Live" website and it features gavel-to-gavel coverage of these proceedings. Visitors can use the "Featured business" link to watch some of the most current coverage, or take a look through the "Watch again" features to look over materials titled "School spending 'will increase'" and "PM confirms defence spending cuts". Further along, the site also contains a listing of all previous hearings, links to topical blogs, some historic moments in Parliament's history, and the ability to follow a representative's appearances on the BBC.

339

Live Long and Prosper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Consider the changes. Yesterday's one-room schoolhouse had one teacher responsible for every subject, every grade, and maintenance of the classroom and schoolhouse. Today's self-contained classroom has one teacher responsible for a diverse group of students with wide-ranging abilities and needs; integrated learning of subjects from the basics to social and behavioral issues; and a roomful of widgets--high-tech, low-tech, and all that's in between. Everything has changed, yet everything remains the same. You, the teacher, remain responsible for everyone and for everything that goes on in your classroom. This chapter offers some closing insights and suggestions to help you "live long and prosper" in the science classroom.

Texley, Juliana; Kwan, Terry

2002-01-01

340

Live! From 2-Alpha  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is one of several in which students are required to access and analyze actual data from NASA missions, including video "interviews" with real NASA scientists, to solve a mystery. In this mystery, students learn about the force of gravity and how scientists analyze data by studying the properties of different objects in space. Live! From 2-Alpha can be used to support instruction about forces and motion, origin and evolution of the universe, and the interaction of energy and matter. This activity is one of several in "Space Mysteries," a series of inquiry-driven, interactive Web explorations. Each Mystery in "Space Mysteries" is designed to teach at least one physical science concept (e.g. interactions of energy and matter, structures and properties of matter, energy, motion, or forces), and is accompanied by materials to be used by classroom teachers.

341

Freezing of living cells  

SciTech Connect

It can be calculated that a living cell will survive more than 5000 years at -196/sup 0/C. This ability to essentially stop biological time has important implications in medicine and agriculture, and in biological research. In medicine the chief implications are in the banking of transplantable tissues and organs and in in vitro fertilization. In agriculture the applications stem in part from the role of frozen embryos in amplifying the number of calves produced by high quanlity cows. The problem is how can cells survive both the cooling to such very low temperatures and the return to normal temperatures. The answers involve fundamental characteristics of cells such as the permeability of their surface membranes to water and solutes. These characteristics determine whether or not cells undergo lethal internal ice formation and other response during freezing and thawing. 27 refs., 12 figs.

Mazur, P.

1985-01-01

342

Living without Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Open University is well-known for its decades-long commitment to distance learning, and is always adding new courses to its website. One of the recent additions is "Living without Oil." The course materials include a brief introduction, a statement of intended learning outcomes, summaries of each subtopic, quizzes, and an FAQ area. The materials here are divided into nine areas, including Oil as a source of modern materials, Future sources of oil, and Oil and anthropogenic global warming. Along the way, visitors will learn about possible energy sources that might complement the use of oil in the future, along with some of the basic scientific terminology associated with this field of scientific inquiry. Visitors may wish to create their own free Open University account to access additional materials and provide feedback.

2012-06-01

343

Live attenuated influenza vaccine.  

PubMed

Cold-adapted Ann Arbor based live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has been available in the USA since 2003. The vaccine is efficacious against influenza infection. Features of LAIV include: easy administration suitable for mass immunization, cross-reactivity to drifted strains for broader coverage, and establishment of herd immunity for control of influenza spread. Annual seasonal LAIV now contains four strains against influenza A H1N1, H3N2, influenza B-Victoria, and B-Yamagata lineages that are co-circulating in humans. LAIV played a significant role in protecting the public from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and has been evaluated for pandemic preparedness. Pandemic vaccines including influenza H2, H5, H6, H7, and H9 subtypes have been produced and evaluated in preclinical and small-scale phase I clinical studies. This review summarizes the current status and perspectives of seasonal and pandemic LAIV. PMID:25059893

Jin, Hong; Subbarao, Kanta

2015-01-01

344

Stream Control Transmission Protocol Steganography  

E-print Network

Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a new transport layer protocol that is due to replace TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) protocols in future IP networks. Currently, it is implemented in such operating systems like BSD, Linux, HP-UX or Sun Solaris. It is also supported in Cisco network devices operating system (Cisco IOS) and may be used in Windows. This paper describes potential steganographic methods that may be applied to SCTP and may pose a threat to network security. Proposed methods utilize new, characteristic SCTP features like multi-homing and multistreaming. Identified new threats and suggested countermeasures may be used as a supplement to RFC 5062, which describes security attacks in SCTP protocol and can induce further standard modifications.

Fraczek, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

2010-01-01

345

Incremental learning from stream data.  

PubMed

Recent years have witnessed an incredibly increasing interest in the topic of incremental learning. Unlike conventional machine learning situations, data flow targeted by incremental learning becomes available continuously over time. Accordingly, it is desirable to be able to abandon the traditional assumption of the availability of representative training data during the training period to develop decision boundaries. Under scenarios of continuous data flow, the challenge is how to transform the vast amount of stream raw data into information and knowledge representation, and accumulate experience over time to support future decision-making process. In this paper, we propose a general adaptive incremental learning framework named ADAIN that is capable of learning from continuous raw data, accumulating experience over time, and using such knowledge to improve future learning and prediction performance. Detailed system level architecture and design strategies are presented in this paper. Simulation results over several real-world data sets are used to validate the effectiveness of this method. PMID:22057060

He, Haibo; Chen, Sheng; Li, Kang; Xu, Xin

2011-12-01

346

Coldwater fish in wadeable streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Standardizing sampling methods for fish populations across large regions is important for consistent measurement of large-scale effects of climate or geography. In addition, pooling samples creates larger sample sizes and can facilitate data sharing among scientists and land managers. Sampling freshwater fish has largely not been standardized due to the diversity of fish and habitats. USGS aquatic ecologist Jason Dunham and co-authors contributed a chapter about sampling coldwater fish in wadeable streams to a new book that details common methods, protocols, and guidelines for sampling fish across North America. Topics include three common sampling methods: electrofishing, snorkeling, and nest counts. Each method provides complementary information about different species and life stages. The information will be useful for initiating new or fine-tuning ongoing sampling programs.

Dunham, Jason B.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Thurow, Russell F.; Dolloff, C. Andrew; Howell, Philip J.

2009-01-01

347

COMPARTMENTAL MODEL OF NITRATE RETENTION IN STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A compartmental modeling approach is presented to route nitrate retention along a cascade of stream reach sections. A process transfer function is used for transient storage equations with first order reaction terms to represent nitrate uptake in the free stream, and denitrifica...

348

The RAKAPOSHI Stream Cipher Carlos Cid1  

E-print Network

;2 Carlos Cid, Shinsaku Kiyomoto, and Jun Kurihara Despite the end of the eSTREAM project, the research areaThe RAKAPOSHI Stream Cipher Carlos Cid1 , Shinsaku Kiyomoto2 , and Jun Kurihara2 1 Information Security Group, Royal Holloway, University of London Egham, United Kingdom carlos.cid@rhul.ac.uk 2 KDDI R

349

Linking ecological theory with stream restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Faced with widespread degradation of riverine ecosystems, stream restoration has greatly increased. Such restoration is rarely planned and executed with inputs from ecological theory. In this paper, we seek to identify principles from ecological theory that have been, or could be, used to guide stream restoration. 2. In attempts to re-establish populations, knowledge of the species' life history,

P. S. L AKE; N. B OND; P. R EICH

2007-01-01

350

Streaming data driven applets and pages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streaming data driven applets and pages are what drives today's internet. It is because of this that ways need to be made to create interfaces between today's technologies. Using formats such as Macromedia's SWF (shockwave) files, for its strength in streaming multimedia and animation, the PHP Group's PHP (Personal Home Page) files, for their easy access to databases, and either

Jason W. Nadal; Adrian Ionescu

2002-01-01

351

Gaps in the GD-1 Star Stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GD-1 is a long, thin, Milky Way star stream that has readily visible density variations along its length. We quantify the locations, sizes, and statistical significance of the density structure, i.e., gaps, using a set of scaled filters. The shapes of the filters are based on the gaps that develop in simulations of dark matter sub-halos crossing a star stream. The high Galactic latitude 8.4 kpc long segment of GD-1 that we examine has 8 ± 3 gaps of 99% significance or greater, with the error estimated on the basis of tests of the gap-filtering technique. The cumulative distribution of gaps more than three times the width of the stream is in good agreement with predictions for dark matter sub-halo encounters with cold star streams. The number of gaps narrower than three times the width of the GD-1 stream falls well below the cold stream prediction which is taken into account for the gap creation rate integrated over all sizes. Simple warm stream simulations scaled to GD-1 show that the falloff in gaps is expected for sub-halos below a mass of 106 M ?. The GD-1 gaps requires 100 sub-halos >106 M ? within 30 kpc, the apocenter of GD-1 orbit. These results are consistent with LCDM sub-halo predictions but further improvements in stream signal-to-noise and gap modeling will be welcome.

Carlberg, R. G.; Grillmair, C. J.

2013-05-01

352

Neotropical Amphibian Declines Affect Stream Ecosystem Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global declines of amphibians are well documented, yet effects of these dramatic losses on ecosystem structure and function are poorly understood. As part of a larger collaborative project, we compared two upland Panamanian streams. Both streams are biologically and geologically similar; however, one stream (Fortuna) has recently experienced almost complete extirpation of stream-dwelling frogs, while the other (Cope) still has intact populations. We experimentally excluded tadpoles from localized areas in each stream. We then compared chlorophyll a, algal community composition, ash-free dry mass (AFDM), inorganic matter, and insect assemblages in control and exclusion areas. Additionally, we sampled the natural substrate of both streams monthly for chlorophyll a, algal community composition, AFDM, and inorganic matter. At Cope, chlorophyll a, AFDM, and inorganic matter were greater in areas where tadpoles were excluded than in their presence. Numbers of dominant algal species (e.g., Nupela praecipua and Eunotia siolii) were greater in the exclusion versus control treatments. Monthly sampling of natural substrate indicated higher chlorophyll a and AFDM at Cope compared to Fortuna. Our data suggest that stream-dwelling anuran larvae have significant impacts on algal communities. These results also have implications for predicting the relevance of short-term experimental manipulations to long-term, whole-stream processes.

Connelly, S.; Pringle, C. M.; Bixby, R. J.; Whiles, M. R.; Lips, K. R.; Brenes, R.; Colon-Gaud, J. C.; Kilham, S.; Hunte-Brown, M.

2005-05-01

353

Stream quality among active and restoring  

E-print Network

Stream quality among active and restoring river-based cranberry bogs Project By: Holly Engel Semester in Environmental Science 12/17/2010 #12;Holly Engel 2 ABSTRACT Some cranberry bogs on Cape Cod, MA to the health of streams in active cranberry bogs and regions that have never been farmed for cranberries. My

Vallino, Joseph J.

354

IMPINGEMENT STREAM DRYERS FOR PARTICLES AND PASTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the available experimental and analytical studies on a relatively novel flash drying configuration involving use of jets impinging against each other. The impingement zone provides ideal conditions for highly enhanced heat and mass transfer from particles or droplets to the gas stream. Repeated particle penetration into the opposite jet stream allows longer residence times in the

T. Kundra; Arun S. Mujumdar

1989-01-01

355

Nutrient spiraling in streams and river networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 3 decades, nutrient spiraling has become a unifying paradigm for stream biogeochemical research. This paper presents (1) a quantitative synthesis of the nutrient spiraling literature and (2) application of these data to elucidate trends in nutrient spiraling within stream networks. Results are based on 404 individual experiments on ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and phosphate (PO4) from 52

Scott H. Ensign; Martin W. Doyle

2006-01-01

356

INDICATORS OF HYDROLOGIC PERMANENCE IN HEADWATER STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Headwater intermittent streams lie at the aquatic-terrestrial interface and represent much of our nation's stream miles. Recent court cases concerning the definition of jurisdictional waters under the Clean Water Act have illuminated a need to better understand the characteristi...

357

Giving Rise to the Jet Stream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 15-panel interactive from NOVA Online describes some of the factors (e.g., Earth's rotation and the sun's uneven heating of Earth's surface) contributing to the formation of the high-speed eastward flows of the jet streams, found near the top of the troposphere. These jet streams play a major role in guiding weather systems.

WGBH NOVA

358

Effects of Context on Auditory Stream Segregation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the effect of preceding context on auditory stream segregation. Low tones (A), high tones (B), and silences (-) were presented in an ABA-pattern. Participants indicated whether they perceived 1 or 2 streams of tones. The A tone frequency was fixed, and the B tone was the same as the A tone or had 1 of 3 higher frequencies.…

Snyder, Joel S.; Carter, Olivia L.; Lee, Suh-Kyung; Hannon, Erin E.; Alain, Claude

2008-01-01

359

An Orphan in the "Field of Streams"  

E-print Network

We use Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 photometry and spectroscopy to study a tidal stream that extends over 50 degrees in the North Galactic Cap. From the analysis of the path of the stream and the colors and magnitudes of its stars, the stream is about 20 kpc away at its nearest detection (the celestial equator). We detect a distance gradient -- the stream is farther away from us at higher declination. The contents of the stream are made up from a predominantly old and metal-poor population that is similar to the globular clusters M13 and M92. The integrated absolute magnitude of the stream stars is estimated to be M_r = -7.5. There istentative evidence for a velocity signature, with the stream moving at -40 km/s at low declinations and +100 km/s at high declinations. The stream lies on the same great circle as Complex A, a roughly linear association of HI high velocity clouds stretching over 30 degrees on the sky, and as Ursa Major II, a recently discovered dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Lying close to the same great circle are a number of anomalous, young and metal-poor globular clusters, including Palomar 1 and Ruprecht 106.

V. Belokurov; N. W. Evans; M. J. Irwin; D. Lynden-Bell; B. Yanny; S. Vidrih; G. Gilmore; G. Seabroke; D. B. Zucker; M. I. Wilkinson; P. C. Hewett; D. M. Bramich; M. Fellhauer; H. J. Newberg; R. F. G. Wyse; T. C. Beers; E. F. Bell; J. C. Barentine; J. Brinkmann; N. Cole; K. Pan; D. G. York

2006-05-29

360

COHO SALMON DEPENDENCE ON INTERMITTENT STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

In February 2006, the US Supreme Court heard cases that may affect whether intermittent streams are jurisdictional waters under the Clean Water Act. In June 2006, however, the cases were remanded to the circuit court, leaving the status of intermittent streams uncertain once agai...

361

Talented Streams Objects composed from Features  

E-print Network

Talented Streams Objects composed from Features Bachelor's thesis at the Software Composition Group is modeled as a talent and can be composed with any other feature. We introduce scoped talents which allow, nor to a significant amount of code duplication. The resulting framework is called Talented Streams

Nierstrasz, Oscar

362

Bachelor of Computer Science Robotics Stream  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Computer Science Robotics Stream School of Computer Science April 14, 2011 1 Objectives The primary objective of the Robotics stream for the Bachelor of Computer Science Honours degree is recruiting they find interesting. Robotics is a well-established area both in Computer Science and in En- gineering

363

MECHANICS OF STREAM-BORNE WOODY DEBRIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Large woody debris is increasingly regarded as an integral component of stream stabilization and restoration programs. Unravelling the dynamics of complex interaction of multiple logs among themselves and with the stream environs must start with a correct specification of all the forces acting on i...

364

Smart Cooling Technology Utilizing Acoustic Streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic streaming induced by longitudinal vibration at 30 kHz is visualized with particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). To gauge an increase in the velocity of air flow due to acoustic streaming, the velocity of air flow in a gap between the heat source and ultrasonic vibrator is measured using PIV. The ultrasonic wave propagating into air in the gap creates steady-state

Dong-Ryul Lee; Byoung-Gook Loh

2007-01-01

365

Incomplete mixing in a small, urban stream.  

PubMed

Conservative solute tracer experiments were conducted in Indian Creek, a small urban stream located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Estimated flow rates were between 46 Ls(-1) and 81 Ls(-1), average stream width was 5.5m and average stream depth was 0.2m. Given these dimensions, most researchers would think it reasonable to assume that the stream is completely mixed vertically and horizontally. However, we found that the stream was not vertically completely mixed in a 1.0m deep, 30 m long pool. The limited mixing was demonstrated by the vertical stratification of a tracer cloud which was completely mixed both laterally and vertically across the stream prior to entering the pool. We suggest that the cause of limited mixing is due to a balance between groundwater inflow and transverse dispersion at the cross-section. We show that the unsupported assumption of complete mixing may result in a wide range, and thus increased uncertainty, of the values of stream flow and longitudinal dispersion coefficient estimated from these data. We conclude that the assumption of complete mixing and one-dimensional modeling must be checked against actual field conditions, even in small streams. PMID:16616410

Ryan, Robert J; Boufadel, Michel C

2006-10-01

366

EFFECTS OF ACIDIFICATION ON STREAM ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the paper is to summarize known effects of acid precipitation on stream ecosystems, with emphasis on the Great Lakes region. Unfortunately, very little research has been conducted on streams in much of the Great Lakes region. Thus, data will be utilized from other ...

367

Bursty and hierarchical structure in streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental problem in text data mining is to extract meaningful structure from document streams that arrive continuously over time. E-mail and news articles are two natural examples of such streams, each characterized by topics that appear, grow in intensity for a period of time, and then fade away. The published literature in a particular research field can be seen

Jon M. Kleinberg

2002-01-01

368

Mining Sequential Patterns from Temporal Streaming Data  

E-print Network

Mining Sequential Patterns from Temporal Streaming Data A. Marascu and F. Masseglia INRIA Sophia.Marascu,Florent.Masseglia}@sophia.inria.fr Abstract. In recent years, emerging applications introduced new con- straints for data mining methods of our knowledge, no method has been proposed for mining sequential patterns in data streams. We argue

Malerba, Donato

369

Data stream management and mining Georges HEBRAIL  

E-print Network

Data stream management and mining Georges HEBRAIL TELECOM ParisTech, CNRS LTCI Paris, France Abstract. This paper provides an introduction to the field of data stream management and mining. The increase of data production in operational information systems prevents from monitoring these systems

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

370

Particle Pathways in the Gulf Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment is under way to study the kinematics, dynamics, and path evolution of the Gulf Stream front between Cape Hatteras and 60°W. The Rafos float, which can track the true motion of water parcels along density surfaces which slope steeply across the Gulf Stream, has recently been developed for this study. These instruments are launched in the center of

T. Rossby; A. S. Bower; P.-T. Shaw

1985-01-01

371

NATIONAL STREAM QUALITY ACCOUNTING NETWORK DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of the U.S. Geological Surveys National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) program are to (1) account for the quantity and quality of water moving within and from the United States, (2) depict area water-quality variability, and (3) detect changes in stream...

372

A Search for Compositional Differences in Slow Solar Wind at the Leading and Trailing Edges of Stream Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elemental and ionic composition of the slow (~400 km/s) solar wind (SW) differs from that of the fast (>600 km/s) SW streams. In particular, the first ionization potential (FIP) effect and the O7/O6 ratios are higher in the slow SW than in the fast SW. While this fundamental difference between fast and slow SW has long been appreciated, there has been no reason to expect or effort to search for systematic variations within given fast or slow SW streams. If present, however, such systematic variations could be diagnostic of the solar processes at the sources of the SW. We suggest two reasons to expect compositional differences between leading and trailing edges of slow SW streams. After selecting two long-lived fast SW streams from 2005 and 2006 and determining their slow-fast (SF) and fast-slow (FS) stream interfaces (SIs), ACE SWICS (version 3) compositional data were obtained for the 1-day periods of the preceding SF and following FS slow SW streams. The statistics were limited, but no compositional differences between the preceding and following slow SW regions were found for either stream sequence.

Kahler, Stephen

2010-03-01

373

Prediction of mountain stream morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a large and diverse data set from mountain streams around the world to explore relationships between reach-scale channel morphology and control variables. The data set includes 177 step-pool reaches, 44 plane-bed reaches, and 114 pool-riffle reaches from the western United States, Panama, and New Zealand. We performed several iterations of stepwise discriminant analysis on these data. A three-variable discriminant function using slope (S), D84, and channel width (w) produced an error rate of 24% for the entire data set. Seventy percent of plane-bed reaches were correctly classified (16% incorrectly classified as pool-riffle and 14% incorrectly classified as step-pool). Sixty-seven percent of pool-riffle channels were correctly classified (31% incorrectly classified as plane-bed and 2% as step-pool). Eighty-nine percent of step-pool reaches were correctly classified (9% incorrectly classified as plane-bed and 2% as pool-riffle). The partial R2 values and F tests indicate that S is by far the most significant single explanatory variable. Comparison of the eight discriminant functions developed using different data sets indicates that no single variable is present in all functions, suggesting that the discriminant functions are sensitive to the specific stream reaches being analyzed. However, the three-variable discriminant function developed from the entire data set correctly classified 69% of the 159 channels included in an independent validation data set. The ability to accurately classify channel type in other regions using the three-variable discriminant function developed from the entire data set has important implications for water resources management, such as facilitating prediction of channel morphology using regional S-w-D84 relations calibrated with minimal field work.

Wohl, Ellen; Merritt, David

2005-08-01

374

Riparian and in-stream controls on nutrient concentrations along a headwater forested stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Headwater streams have a strong capacity to transform and retain nutrients, and thus, a longitudinal decrease in stream nutrient concentrations would be expected from in-stream nutrient removal alone. Yet, a number of other factors within the catchment, including biogeochemical processing within the riparian zone and export to streams, can contribute to stream nutrient concentration, which may overcome the effect of in-stream biogeochemical processing. To explore this idea, we analyzed the longitudinal patterns of stream and riparian groundwater concentrations for chloride (Cl-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), and phosphate (PO43-) along a 3.7 km reach at an annual scale. The reach showed a gradual increase in stream and riparian width, riparian tree basal area, and abundance of riparian N2-fixing tree species. Concentrations of Cl- indicated a~strong hydrological connection at the riparian-stream edge. However, stream and riparian groundwater nutrient concentrations showed a moderate to null correlation, suggesting high biogeochemical processing at the riparian-stream edge and within the stream. A mass balance approach along the reach indicated that, on average, in-stream net nutrient uptake prevailed over release for NH4+ and PO43-, but not for NO3-. On an annual basis, in-stream processes contributed to change stream input fluxes by 11%, 26%, and 29% for NO3-, NH4+, and PO43-, respectively. Yet, longitudinal trends in concentration were not consistent with the prevailing in-stream biogeochem ical processes. During the riparian dormant period, stream concentration decreased along the reach for NO3-, but increased for NH4+ and PO43-. During the riparian vegetative period, NO3- and PO43- increased along the reach while NH4+ showed no clear pattern. These longitudinal trends were partially related to riparian forest features and groundwater inputs, especially for NO3- and PO43-. Our study suggests that even though in-stream biogeochemical processing was substantial, the riparian zone can modulate the longitudinal variation in stream nutrient chemistry in this headwater stream.

Bernal, S.; Lupon, A.; Ribot, M.; Sabater, F.; Martí, E.

2014-07-01

375

REGIONAL METHODS INITIATIVE: DEVELOPMENT OF BIOLOGICAL INDICATORS, METHODS AND ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES IN FIRST ORDER AND INTERMITTENT STREAMS: HEADWATER INTERMITTENT STREAMS STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Headwater streams represent the majority of streams and stream miles within many stream networks. Because headwater streams represent the interface between surrounding land use and downstream waterbodies, there has been a growing interest in monitoring the condition of headwater...

376

Predicting Influences of Urban Development on Thermal Habitat in a Warm Water Stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Watershed and aquatic ecosystem management requires methods to predict and understand thermal impacts on stream habitat from urbanization. This study evaluates thermal effects of projected urbanization using a modeling framework and considers the biological implications to the fish community. The Stream Network Temperature Model (SNTEMP) was used in combination with the Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) to assess changes in stream thermal habitat under altered streamflow, shade, and channel width associated with low, medium, and high density urban developments in the Back Creek watershed (Roanoke County, Virginia). Flow alteration by the high density development scenario alone caused minimal heating of mean daily summer base flow (mean +0.1°C). However, when flow changes were modeled concurrently with reduced shade and increased channel width, mean daily temperature increased 1°C. Maximum daily temperatures exceeding the state standard (31°C) increased from 1.1 to 7.6 percent of the time using summer 2000 climatic conditions. Model results suggest that additional urban development will alter stream temperature, potentially limiting thermal habitat and shifting the fish community structure from intolerant to tolerant fish species in Back Creek. More research is needed on the sublethal or chronic effects of increased stream temperature regimes on fish, particularly for those species already living in habitats near their upper limits.

Krause, Colin W.; Lockard, Brendan; Newcomb, Tammy J.; Kibler, David; Lohani, Vinod; Orth, Donald J.

2004-12-01

377

Impact of Invasive Fish on Nitrogen Transport to Adjacent Stream Habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consumers can alter in-situ ecosystem processes, but less is known about their impacts on adjacent habitats. Animals may influence ecosystem dynamics in adjacent areas, especially if energy is exchanged between systems. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were introduced to Yellowstone Lake and are reducing the native Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri) through predation. Both trout live in Yellowstone Lake, but only cutthroat spawn in and transport nutrients to streams. To estimate the indirect impact of lake trout on nutrient cycling in adjacent streams, we estimated how much nitrogen cutthroat transport. Spawners supplied 100 mg NH4-N m-2d-1 prior to lake trout when 50,000 cutthroat spawned, but only 1.8 mg NH4-N m-2d-1 to tributary streams in 2004 when 1,400 fish spawned. In contrast, cutthroat excreted 5.9 mg NH4-N m-2d-1 in Yellowstone Lake prior to lake trout and only 1.9 mg NH4-N m-2d-1 currently. Given a 90 day spawning period, tributary streams are more impacted (8,838 mg NH4-N m-2yr-1) than Yellowstone Lake (1,460 mg NH4-N m-2yr-1). Consumers can have large impacts not only in their primary habitat, but also in neighboring areas. Less transported nitrogen could reduce stream primary and secondary production, and cutthroat recruitment through time.

Tronstad, L.; Hall, R.; Koel, T.

2005-05-01

378

Geomorphic applications of stream-gage information  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the United States, several thousand stream gages provide what typically is the only source of continuous, long-term streamflow and channel-geometry information for the locations being monitored. In this paper, the geomorphic content of stream-gage information, previous and potential applications of stream-gage information in fluvial geomorphic research and various possible limitations are described. Documented applications include studies of hydraulic geometry, channel bankfull characteristics, sediment transport and channel geomorphic response to various types of disturbance. Potential applications include studies to determine the geomorphic effectiveness of large floods and in-stream habitat change in response to disturbance. For certain applications, various spatial, temporal and data limitations may render the stream-gage information of limited use; however, such information often is of considerable value to enable or enhance geomorphic investigations.

Juracek, K.E.; Fitzpatrick, F.A.

2009-01-01

379

Tidal Stream Models From Simple to Complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many tidal streams have been found recently in the Milky Way halo and in more distant galaxies. These have spurred the development of several algorithms for fitting them and extracting the maximum information about their host potential. Here I discuss a code package intended to allow progression from the simplest, cheapest method (orbit fitting) to the most accurate and expensive (N-body simulations) in a relatively seamless way. A particle-spray technique fills the gap between these methods. To get the right spread of the stream particles and reproduce the significant substructure visible in the youngest streams, care must be taken to choose the right initial conditions for the particles and to account for the evolving mass of the satellite. I present results for some example applications to streams in the Milky Way. I also present an example of a satellite on a chaotic orbit, which has a dramatic effect on the resulting tidal stream.

Fardal, Mark A.

2015-01-01

380

Comet Machholz and the Quadrantid meteor stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until quite recently, the Quadrantid meteor stream was considered to be an 'orphan'. Because of the difficulty in accounting for the large difference in the longitudes of the ascending nodes, McIntosh (1990) suggested that Comet Machholz and the stream have a sibling rather than a parent-child relationship. Gonczi et al. (1992) proposed that gravitational perturbations by Jupiter may be amplified sufficiently by the 2:1 resonance of the stream with Jupiter to explain the difference in the longitudes of ascending nodes if the stream was born when the comet's perihelion distance was last at its minimum about 4000 yr ago. In this paper, we show by computer simulations that, if the comet was captured at its last close approach with Jupiter about 2200 yr ago, there has been sufficient time for the resulting stream to produce most of the features of the presently observed Quadrantid/Arietid/Southern Delta-Aquarid complex.

Jones, J.; Jones, W.

1993-04-01

381

âÂÂLivewoodâÂÂ: Geomorphic and Ecological Functions of Living Trees in River Channels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the geomorphic and ecological importance of large wood in streams and rivers is well recognized, most studies consider only dead wood in channels. However, we have observed that living parts of trees are often found within active channels and that this livewood shares functions with both instream dead wood and live riparian trees, while also providing some functions unique to living woody material within a channel. We describe the mechanisms that produce livewood and illustrate its characteristics and influences on riparian and stream ecosystems with examples from Europe, North America, and New Zealand. We hypothesize that, compared with dead wood in channels, livewood (a) persists longer because of greater stability and greater resistance to decay, and (b) imparts greater structural complexity (with associated hydraulic roughness and retentiveness). The phenomenon of livewood implies that a broader range of tree species and sizes, than previously considered, may contribute functionally important wood to channels. We encourage the study of livewood in a range of forest-stream ecosystems to test our hypotheses and further our understanding of how forests interact with rivers and streams.

Jeffrey Opperman, J. (University of California - Davis;)

2008-12-01

382

Lagrangian Coherent Structures from Video Streams of Jupiter  

E-print Network

Jupiter's fast rotation - one rotation over 10 hours - creates strong jet streams, smearing its clouds into linear bands of dark and light zonal belts that circle the planet on lines of almost constant latitude. Such a high degree of axisymmetry is absent in our own atmosphere. Moreover, Jupiter has the largest and longest-living known atmospheric vortex, the Great Red Spot (GRS). Such vortices abound in nature, but GRS's size, long-term persistence, and temporal longitudinal oscillations make it unique. Here, we uncover, for the first time, unsteady material structures that form the cores of zonal jets and the boundary of the GRS in Jupiter's atmosphere. We perform our analysis on a velocity field extracted from a video footage acquired by the NASA Cassini spacecraft.

Alireza Hadjighasem; George Haller

2014-07-15

383

Estimating Economic Value of Stream Restoration for Urban Watershed Using Choice Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the Yangjaecheon and the Cheonggyecheon project by Seoul city is recognized as starting point of stream restoration project in Korea, many streams having a straight corridor and covered by concrete in an urban watershed have been projected to restore its natural appearance. In some of local autonomous entities the objective of the stream restoration project only deals with improvements in a function of environment which is recreation and amenity for a citizen. Therefore, this study uses the choice experiments based on a citizen’s preference to estimate economic benefits from stream restoration in an urban watershed. The study area is the downstream section (4.5 km from outlet) of the Mokgamcheon, which had been implementing the restoration project. To apply the choice experiments, 5 attributes are chosen as status-quo of the study area. In an attribute of flood control, Potential Flood Damage (PFD) is estimated. A result of comparison between a maintenance flow and a flow duration curve using PCSWMM model is used to achieve an attribute of water utilization. In an attribute of environment, Assessment of Stream Naturalness considering Physical, Biological, Chemical factors (ASNPBC) is applied to get physical stream appearance, and biological, chemical water quality and Use Index of Stream space for Citizen (UISC) is used to survey how facilities for rest, exercise, amenity and view are distributed in the stream space. The results of an assessment for all attributes are estimated to be the 3rd grade. All the attributes introduced above have 4 level grading systems. The attribute described willingness to pay has 3 levels estimated through a survey from a specialist group. An orthogonal plan is used to avoid collinearity between levels of attributes, and a preliminary survey, which is questioned to students and citizens living in the study area is built to modify survey errors and obtain reasonable results. The population of the main survey is citizens living within 800 m radius of the Mokgamcheon, and the sample size of it is 165 of citizens chosen by simple random samples. Through a main survey, 173 of valid responses were obtained among 223 of all responses. Two of multinomial logit model were constructed to explain preference of respondent, model I: except socio-economic characteristic of respondent, model II: considering socio-economic characteristic of respondent. As a result of model estimation, it was proven that model II is more efficient than model I to explain utility coefficients. If the condition of the Mokgamcheon will be the 1st and the 2nd grade over all attributes, the benefit for citizens living in the study area was estimated to be 12.5 billion won and 9.3 billion won per a year. ASNPBC suggested by this study will be applied to establish a concrete and a feasible objective in the stream restoration, and the economic value of each attributes about stream will be a base datum to apply cost-benefit analysis. The tool of the decision making for a public works can be used to lead citizens to be interested of the project of the stream restoration or the close to nature stream because the choice experiments is based on their preferences.

Oh, J.; Lee, K. S.; Yoo, J.; Kong, K.; Seoul National University; Chungbuk National University

2010-12-01

384

Experimental investigation of acoustic streaming in a cylindrical wave guide up to high streaming Reynolds numbers.  

PubMed

Measurements of streaming velocity are performed by means of Laser Doppler Velocimetry and Particle Image Velociimetry in an experimental apparatus consisting of a cylindrical waveguide having one loudspeaker at each end for high intensity sound levels. The case of high nonlinear Reynolds number ReNL is particularly investigated. The variation of axial streaming velocity with respect to the axial and to the transverse coordinates are compared to available Rayleigh streaming theory. As expected, the measured streaming velocity agrees well with the Rayleigh streaming theory for small ReNL but deviates significantly from such predictions for high ReNL. When the nonlinear Reynolds number is increased, the outer centerline axial streaming velocity gets distorted towards the acoustic velocity nodes until counter-rotating additional vortices are generated near the acoustic velocity antinodes. This kind of behavior is followed by outer streaming cells only and measurements in the near wall region show that inner streaming vortices are less affected by this substantial evolution of fast streaming pattern. Measurements of the transient evolution of streaming velocity provide an additional insight into the evolution of fast streaming. PMID:24437742

Reyt, Ida; Bailliet, Hélène; Valière, Jean-Christophe

2014-01-01

385

Biological Conditions in Streams of Johnson County, Kansas, and Nearby Missouri, 2003 and 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Johnson County is one of the fastest growing and most populated counties in Kansas. Urban development affects streams by altering stream hydrology, geomorphology, water chemistry, and habitat, which then can lead to adverse effects on fish and macroinvertebrate communities. In addition, increasing sources of contaminants in urbanizing streams results in public-health concerns associated with exposure to and consumption of contaminated water. Biological assessments, or surveys of organisms living in aquatic environments, are crucial components of water-quality programs because they provide an indication of how well water bodies support aquatic life. This fact sheet describes current biological conditions of Johnson County streams and characterizes stream biology relative to urban development. Biological conditions were evaluated by collecting macroinvertebrate samples from 15 stream sites in Johnson County, Kansas, in 2003 and 2004 (fig. 1). Data from seven additional sites, collected as part of a separate study with similar objectives in Kansas and Missouri (Wilkison and others, 2005), were evaluated to provide a more comprehensive assessment of watersheds that cross State boundaries. Land-use and water- and streambed-sediment-quality data also were used to evaluate factors that may affect macroinvertebrate communities. Metrics are indices used to measure, or evaluate, macroinvertebrate response to various factors such as human disturbance. Multimetric scores, which integrated 10 different metrics that measure various aspects of macroinvertebrate communities, including organism diversity, composition, tolerance, and feeding characteristics, were used to evaluate and compare biological health of Johnson County streams. This information is useful to city and county officials for defining current biological conditions, evaluating conditions relative to State biological criteria, evaluating effects of urbanization, developing effective water-quality management plans, and documenting changes in biological conditions and water quality.

Poulton, Barry C.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Lee, Casey J.

2007-01-01

386

Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland streams.  

PubMed

Stream and river carbon dioxide emissions are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Methane emissions from streams could also contribute to regional or global greenhouse gas cycling, but there are relatively few data regarding stream and river methane emissions. Furthermore, the available data do not typically include the ebullitive (bubble-mediated) pathway, instead focusing on emission of dissolved methane by diffusion or convection. Here, we show the importance of ebullitive methane emissions from small streams in the regional greenhouse gas balance of a lake and wetland-dominated landscape in temperate North America and identify the origin of the methane emitted from these well-oxygenated streams. Stream methane flux densities from this landscape tended to exceed those of nearby wetland diffusive fluxes as well as average global wetland ebullitive fluxes. Total stream ebullitive methane flux at the regional scale (103 Mg C yr(-1) ; over 6400 km(2) ) was of the same magnitude as diffusive methane flux previously documented at the same scale. Organic-rich stream sediments had the highest rates of bubble release and higher enrichment of methane in bubbles, but glacial sand sediments also exhibited high bubble emissions relative to other studied environments. Our results from a database of groundwater chemistry support the hypothesis that methane in bubbles is produced in anoxic near-stream sediment porewaters, and not in deeper, oxygenated groundwaters. Methane interacts with other key elemental cycles such as nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, which has implications for ecosystem changes such as drought and increased nutrient loading. Our results support the contention that streams, particularly those draining wetland landscapes of the northern hemisphere, are an important component of the global methane cycle. PMID:24756991

Crawford, John T; Stanley, Emily H; Spawn, Seth A; Finlay, Jacques C; Loken, Luke C; Striegl, Robert G

2014-11-01

387

Unionville, Pennsylvania School's Stream Restoration Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past three years, students and Earth Club members of C.F. Patton Middle School and Unionville High School have been involved in a stream restoration and monitoring project along a tributary to the East Branch of the Red Clay Creek in Pennsylvania. The Red Clay is within the larger Christina River Basin watershed which drains to Delaware Bay. Total funding of \\$962.00 was awarded by the Unionville-Chadds Ford Education Foundation to purchase both stream monitoring equipment and native plant species for stream restoration. Nine science teachers in the school district received certification in stream monitoring by the Pennsylvania State Parks Division. Certification enables the science faculty and their students to enter monitoring data in a statewide stream database. The stream data includes: temperature, levels of dissolved oxygen and nutrients, pH, alkalinity, conductivity, and a complete biosurvey of invertebrates. In addition to ongoing monitoring, the Earth Club sponsored a name-the-stream contest. Quartz Creek was chosen for this previously unnamed tributary. Its' name was approved by the East Marlborough Township Supervisor in May, 2004 and was then submitted to the USGS' Board on Geographic Names. The Earth Club has also sponsored a stream restoration contest. Students in the middle school were encouraged to design a habitat along the stream banks that would keep sediment in-place, while encouraging wildlife. The stream was originally crowded with invasive multi-flora rose but this was removed with the help of parents and students over a two year period. The winning student poster was outstanding and native species were purchased and planted following the poster's design. The planting took place in May, 2004 with over 40 persons involved including 25 middle school and 8 high school students, teachers from the schools, administrators and employees of the Brandywine Conservancy, and Red Clay Valley and Brandywine Valley Associations, and graduate students from the University of Delaware.

Madsen, S. M.

2004-12-01

388

40 CFR 434.61 - Commingling of waste streams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Commingling of waste streams. 434.61 Section 434.61 Protection of...Miscellaneous Provisions § 434.61 Commingling of waste streams. Where waste streams from any facility covered by this part are...

2010-07-01

389

Brief Announcement: Cache-Oblivious Scheduling of Streaming Applications  

E-print Network

-source projects like GNU Radio [7], and commercial products including Simulink R [11] and LabVIEW [10]. Streaming include academic projects like StreamIt [14] and StreamC/KernelC [8], community- based open

Agrawal, Kunal

390

Evaluating the reliability of the stream tracer approach to characterize stream-subsurface water exchange  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stream water was locally recharged into shallow groundwater flow paths that returned to the stream (hyporheic exchange) in St. Kevin Gulch, a Rocky Mountain stream in Colorado contaminated by acid mine drainage. Two approaches were used to characterize hyporheic exchange: sub- reach-scale measurement of hydraulic heads and hydraulic conductivity to compute streambed fluxes (hydrometric approach) and reachscale modeling of in- stream solute tracer injections to determine characteristic length and timescales of exchange with storage zones (stream tracer approach). Subsurface data were the standard of comparison used to evaluate the reliability of the stream tracer approach to characterize hyporheic exchange. The reach-averaged hyporheic exchange flux (1.5 mL s-1 m-1), determined by hydrometric methods, was largest when stream base flow was low (10 L s-1); hyporheic exchange persisted when base flow was 10- fold higher, decreasing by approximately 30%. Reliability of the stream tracer approach to detect hyporheic exchange was assessed using first- order uncertainty analysis that considered model parameter sensitivity. The stream tracer approach did not reliably characterize hyporheic exchange at high base flow: the model was apparently more sensitive to exchange with surface water storage zones than with the hyporheic zone. At low base flow the stream tracer approach reliably characterized exchange between the stream and gravel streambed (timescale of hours) but was relatively insensitive to slower exchange with deeper alluvium (timescale of tens of hours) that was detected by subsurface measurements. The stream tracer approach was therefore not equally sensitive to all timescales of hyporheic exchange. We conclude that while the stream tracer approach is an efficient means to characterize surface-subsurface exchange, future studies will need to more routinely consider decreasing sensitivities of tracer methods at higher base flow and a potential bias toward characterizing only a fast component of hyporheic exchange. Stream tracer models with multiple rate constants to consider both fast exchange with streambed gravel and slower exchange with deeper alluvium appear to be warranted.

Harvey, J.W.; Wagner, B.J.; Bencala, K.E.

1996-01-01

391

The Living Soil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Soil is home to vast numbers of organisms, and even small sections of earth teem with a diverse array of life. This Topic in Depth takes a closer look at the world beneath our feet through the lens of soil biologists and ecologists. The first website (1) provides information about the activities of a Natural Environment Research Council-supported research program "on the biological diversity of soil biota and the functional roles played by soil organisms in key ecological processes." The second site (2) contains information about several research projects of the Ecology of Soil Organisms Theme Group at Wageningen University and Research Centre. The Theme Group studies "soil organisms at the population, community, and ecosystem level, to ultimately increase understanding of the role of soil organisms." The third site (3) contains a list of publications spanning the past fifteen years from members of the Soil Ecology Group at the University of Jyv'skyl". The site also provides basic information about group members, and concise descriptions of current research projects. From the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the fourth website (4) contains an online version of the _Soil Biology Primer_, "an introduction to the living component of soil and how it contributes to agricultural productivity, and air and water quality. The Primer includes units describing the soil food web and its relationship to soil health, and units about bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, arthropods, and earthworms." The online version of the Primer contains the entire text of the original published version, but is missing some useful soil organism images. The fifth site (5) links to sixteen movies relating to different aspects of soil biology such as nematodes, mites, springtails, and protozoa. The movies were all produced by Dr. Thomas E. Loynachan, a Professor of Agronomy and Microbiology at Iowa State University. Finally, Soils Are Alive (6) was developed by Professor Lyn Abbot of the University of Western Australia and Jen Slater, a qualified secondary school science teacher. This website contains informative, concise sections addressing Soil Biology, Biological Processes, Living Components, and Ecosystem Management.

392

Family planning saves lives.  

PubMed

Family planning (FP) saves lives through planned management of pregnancy. Healthy mothers produce healthy infants. Maternal mortality in developing countries was estimated in 1990 at 500,000 and infant and child mortality at 14 million. Empirical evidence shows that spacing births 2 years apart reduces the risk of infant mortality. FP also gives women the option of avoiding unwanted pregnancy, dangerous illegal abortions, and unhealthy childbearing conditions. The issues of infant and child survival maternal survival, the interaction between maternal and child health (MCH), program costs, and suggested actions are each discussed separately. Child deaths are mainly attributed to respiratory and diarrheal diseases, which are complicated by malnutrition: 23,000 child deaths/day in developing countries. Prevention is possible through breast feeding, immunization, adequate nutrition and hygiene, oral rehydration therapy, and birth spacing. Birth spacing is possible through prolonged breast feeding and/or use of oral contraceptives, injectables and implants, the IUD, condoms, and sterilization. The primary causes of maternal mortality are induced abortion (19%), toxemia (17%), hemorrhage (28%), infection (11%), obstructed labor (11%), and other 15%). The risks are related to a woman's health status and prior pregnancies and the quality and availability of prenatal and delivery care. The relationship between repeated childbearing and breast feeding and women's nutritional status is still being researched. Mortality in developing countries is due to more pregnancies and less access to medical care; advances in technology permit women to plan healthy reproductive lives. The Safe Motherhood Initiative is at work to remedy this situation. Childbearing is safer when women are aged 18-35 years, have fewer than 5 births, space births every 3 years, and do not have existing health problems. FP is cost-effective. The World Bank estimates that an increase in funding to US$10.50/capita would reduce maternal mortality by 50% and reduce infant mortality. Effective programs are characterized by 1) integrated MCH and FP programs, 2) expanded, quality services, 3) community-based distribution, 4) availability from all sectors, public and private, 5) IEC, 6) cultural sensitivity, 7) promotion of full breast feeding, and 8) AIDS education, information, and testing. PMID:12317826

1992-12-01

393

Ecoregions and stream morphology in eastern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Broad-scale variables (i.e., geology, topography, climate, land use, vegetation, and soils) influence channel morphology. How and to what extent the longitudinal pattern of channel morphology is influenced by broad-scale variables is important to fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In the last couple of decades, there has been an increase in the amount of interdisciplinary research between fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In a historical context, fluvial geomorphologists are more apt to use physiographic regions to distinguish broad-scale variables, while stream ecologists are more apt to use the concept of an ecosystem to address the broad-scale variables that influence stream habitat. For this reason, we designed a study using ecoregions, which uses physical and biological variables to understand how landscapes influence channel processes. Ecoregions are delineated by similarities in geology, climate, soils, land use, and potential natural vegetation. In the fluvial system, stream form and function are dictated by processes observed throughout the fluvial hierarchy. Recognizing that stream form and function should differ by ecoregion, a study was designed to evaluate how the characteristics of stream channels differed longitudinally among three ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma, USA: Boston Mountains, Ozark Highlands, and Ouachita Mountains. Channel morphology of 149 stream reaches was surveyed in 1st- through 4th-order streams, and effects of drainage area and ecoregion on channel morphology was evaluated using multiple regressions. Differences existed (?????0.05) among ecoregions for particle size, bankfull width, and width/depth ratio. No differences existed among ecoregions for gradient or sinuosity. Particle size was smallest in the Ozark Highlands and largest in the Ouachita Mountains. Bankfull width was larger in the Ozark Highlands than in the Boston Mountains and Ouachita Mountains in larger streams. Width/depth ratios of the Boston Mountains and Ozark Highlands were not statistically different. Significant differences existed, however, between the Boston Mountains and Ozark Highlands when compared individually to the Ouachita Mountains. We found that ecoregions afforded a good spatial structure that can help in understanding longitudinal trends in stream reach morphology surveyed at the reach scale. The hierarchy of the fluvial system begins within a broad, relatively homogenous setting that imparts control on processes that affect stream function. Ecoregions provide an adequate regional division to begin a large-scale geomorphic study of processes in stream channels. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Splinter, D.K.; Dauwalter, D.C.; Marston, R.A.; Fisher, W.L.

2010-01-01

394

Stream Temperature Estimation From Thermal Infrared Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stream temperature is an important water quality indicator in the Pacific Northwest where endangered fish populations are sensitive to elevated water temperature. Cold water refugia are essential for the survival of threatened salmon when events such as the removal of riparian vegetation result in elevated stream temperatures. Regional assessment of stream temperatures is limited by sparse sampling of temperatures in both space and time. If critical watersheds are to be properly managed it is necessary to have spatially extensive temperature measurements of known accuracy. Remotely sensed thermal infrared (TIR) imagery can be used to derive spatially distributed estimates of the skin temperature (top 100 nm) of streams. TIR imagery has long been used to estimate skin temperatures of the ocean, where split-window techniques have been used to compensate for atmospheric affects. Streams are a more complex environment because 1) most are unresolved in typical TIR images, and 2) the near-bank environment of stream corridors may consist of tall trees or hot rocks and soils that irradiate the stream surface. As well as compensating for atmospheric effects, key problems to solve in estimating stream temperatures include both subpixel unmixing and multiple scattering. Additionally, fine resolution characteristics of the stream surface such as evaporative cooling due to wind, and water surface roughness, will effect measurements of radiant skin temperatures with TIR devices. We apply these corrections across the Green River and Yakima River watersheds in Washington State to assess the accuracy of remotely sensed stream surface temperature estimates made using fine resolution TIR imagery from a ground-based sensor (FLIR), medium resolution data from the airborne MASTER sensor, and coarse-resolution data from the Terra-ASTER satellite. We use linear spectral mixture analysis to isolate the fraction of land-leaving radiance originating from unresolved streams. To compensate the data for atmospheric effects we combine radiosonde profiles with a physically based radiative transfer model (MODTRAN) and an in-scene relative correction adapted from the ISAC algorithm. Laboratory values for water emissivities are used as a baseline estimate of stream emissivities. Emitted radiance reflected by trees in the stream near-bank environment is estimated from the height and canopy temperature, using a radiosity model.

Handcock, R. N.; Kay, J. E.; Gillespie, A.; Naveh, N.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Burges, S. J.; Booth, D. B.

2001-12-01

395

Ecoregions and stream morphology in eastern Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broad-scale variables (i.e., geology, topography, climate, land use, vegetation, and soils) influence channel morphology. How and to what extent the longitudinal pattern of channel morphology is influenced by broad-scale variables is important to fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In the last couple of decades, there has been an increase in the amount of interdisciplinary research between fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In a historical context, fluvial geomorphologists are more apt to use physiographic regions to distinguish broad-scale variables, while stream ecologists are more apt to use the concept of an ecosystem to address the broad-scale variables that influence stream habitat. For this reason, we designed a study using ecoregions, which uses physical and biological variables to understand how landscapes influence channel processes. Ecoregions are delineated by similarities in geology, climate, soils, land use, and potential natural vegetation. In the fluvial system, stream form and function are dictated by processes observed throughout the fluvial hierarchy. Recognizing that stream form and function should differ by ecoregion, a study was designed to evaluate how the characteristics of stream channels differed longitudinally among three ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma, USA: Boston Mountains, Ozark Highlands, and Ouachita Mountains. Channel morphology of 149 stream reaches was surveyed in 1st- through 4th-order streams, and effects of drainage area and ecoregion on channel morphology was evaluated using multiple regressions. Differences existed (? ? 0.05) among ecoregions for particle size, bankfull width, and width/depth ratio. No differences existed among ecoregions for gradient or sinuosity. Particle size was smallest in the Ozark Highlands and largest in the Ouachita Mountains. Bankfull width was larger in the Ozark Highlands than in the Boston Mountains and Ouachita Mountains in larger streams. Width/depth ratios of the Boston Mountains and Ozark Highlands were not statistically different. Significant differences existed, however, between the Boston Mountains and Ozark Highlands when compared individually to the Ouachita Mountains. We found that ecoregions afforded a good spatial structure that can help in understanding longitudinal trends in stream reach morphology surveyed at the reach scale. The hierarchy of the fluvial system begins within a broad, relatively homogenous setting that imparts control on processes that affect stream function. Ecoregions provide an adequate regional division to begin a large-scale geomorphic study of processes in stream channels.

Splinter, Dale K.; Dauwalter, Daniel C.; Marston, Richard A.; Fisher, William L.

2010-10-01

396

Fast algorithm for automatically computing Strahler stream order  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An efficient algorithm was developed to determine Strahler stream order for segments of stream networks represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The algorithm correctly assigns Strahler stream order in topologically complex situations such as braided streams and multiple drainage outlets. Execution time varies nearly linearly with the number of stream segments in the network. This technique is expected to be particularly useful for studying the topology of dense stream networks derived from digital elevation model data.

Lanfear, Kenneth J.

1990-01-01

397

Bacteria Marinobacter aquaeolei. Community Living. Microbes living in coral provide  

E-print Network

Bacteria Marinobacter aquaeolei. Community Living. Microbes living in coral provide nutrients in Microbial Oceanography Cleaning up. Bacteria are being tested for use as cleaning agents of toxic chemicals microliter of seawater.The big red and green dots (numbering about 1,000) are bacteria, and the very small

Luther, Douglas S.

398

Bacteria Marinobacter aquaeolei. Community Living. Microbes living in coral provide  

E-print Network

Bacteria Marinobacter aquaeolei. Community Living. Microbes living in coral provide nutrients Cleaning up. Bacteria are being tested for use as cleaning agents of toxic chemicals and pollutants in our.The big red and green dots (numbering about 1,000) are bacteria, and the very small background dots (about

399

Lives Worth Living: Religious Education and Social Movements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When people of faith participate in movements for social change, how are their religious and moral identities formed, challenged, and transformed? Although they have explicit and tangible goals as they participate in advocacy, protest, and boycotts, religious social activists also, James Jasper argues, craft "lives worth living" (1997).…

Ayres, Jennifer R.

2013-01-01

400

Creating living machines  

PubMed Central

Development of increasingly complex integrated cellular systems will be a major challenge for the next decade and beyond, as we apply the knowledge gained from the sub-disciplines of tissue engineering, synthetic biology, micro-fabrication and nanotechnology, systems biology, and developmental biology. In this prospective, we describe the current state-of-the-art in the context of differentiating source cells from more primitive, pluripotent cells, and organizing these cells into populations of a single cell type to produce the components or building blocks of higher order systems and finally, combining multiple cell types, possibly in combination with scaffolds possessing specific physical or chemical properties, to produce greater functionality. As these “living machines” increase in capabilities, exhibit emergent behavior and potentially reveal the ability for self-assembly, self-repair, and even self-replication, questions arise regarding the ethical implications of this work. Future prospects as well as ways of addressing these complex ethical questions will be addressed. PMID:24006130

Kamm, Roger D.; Bashir, Rashid

2015-01-01

401

Predator avoidance during reproduction: diel movements by spawning sockeye salmon between stream and lake habitats.  

PubMed

Daily movements of mobile organisms between habitats in response to changing trade-offs between predation risk and foraging gains are well established; however, less in known about whether similar tactics are used during reproduction, a time period when many organisms are particularly vulnerable to predators. We investigated the reproductive behaviour of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and the activity of their principal predator, brown bears (Ursus arctos), on streams in south-western Alaska. Specifically, we continuously monitored movements of salmon between lake habitat, where salmon are invulnerable to bears, and three small streams, where salmon spawn and are highly vulnerable to bears. We conducted our study across 2 years that offered a distinct contrast in bear activity and predation rates. Diel movements by adult sockeye salmon between stream and lake habitat were observed in 51·3% ± 17·7% (mean ± SD) of individuals among years and sites. Fish that moved tended to hold in the lake for most of the day and then migrated into spawning streams during the night, coincident with when bear activity on streams tended to be lowest. Additionally, cyclic movements between lakes and spawning streams were concentrated earlier in the spawning season. Individuals that exhibited diel movements had longer average reproductive life spans than those who made only one directed movement into a stream. However, the relative effect was dependent on the timing of bear predation, which varied between years. When predation pressure primarily occurred early in the spawning run (i.e., during the height of the diel movements), movers lived 120-310% longer than non-movers. If predation pressure was concentrated later in the spawning run (i.e. when most movements had ceased), movers only lived 10-60% longer. Our results suggest a dynamic trade-off in reproductive strategies of sockeye salmon; adults must be in the stream to reproduce, but must also avoid predation long enough to spawn. Given the interannual variation in the timing and intensity of predation pressure, the advantages of a particular movement strategy will likely vary among years. Regardless, movements by salmon allowed individuals to exploit fine-scale habitat heterogeneity during reproduction, which appears to be a strategy to reduce predation risk on the spawning grounds. PMID:24702169

Bentley, Kale T; Schindler, Daniel E; Cline, Timothy J; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Macias, Daniel; Ciepiela, Lindsy R; Hilborn, Ray

2014-04-01

402

Effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas across the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urban development is an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The urban footprint on the American landscape has expanded during a century and a half of almost continuous development. Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas, and the advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic species. Every stream is connected downstream to larger water bodies, including rivers, reservoirs, and ultimately coastal waters. Inputs of chemical contaminants or sediments at any point along the stream can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism. In response to general concerns about the degradation of urban streams, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a national-scale, scientific investigation of the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems. Nine metropolitan study areas of the United States were selected—Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; Boston, Massachusetts; Denver, Colorado; Dallas, Texas; and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The studies were conducted in Salt Lake City, Birmingham, and Boston in 1999–2000; in Atlanta, Raleigh, and Denver in 2002–2003; and in Portland, Dallas, and Milwaukee in 2003–2004. The comprehensive investigation of all nine studies focused on three broad questions of interest to decision makers: 1. What are the primary effects of urban development on stream ecosystems? 2. How do the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems vary regionally across the country? 3. Which urban-related stressors are most closely linked to biological community degradation, and how can multiple stressors be managed to protect stream health as a watershed becomes increasingly urbanized?

Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Bell, Amanda H.; Brown, Larry R.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Scudder-Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Woodside, Michael D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Bryant, Wade L.; Cappiella, Karen; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Stack, William P.

2012-01-01

403

Sulfur hexafluoride gas tracer studies in streams  

SciTech Connect

Gas tracers are useful investigative tools in the study of reaeration and the fate of volatile organic contaminants in many natural streams. They enable the direct measurement of a variety of stream parameters, including the gas exchange rates between the stream and the atmosphere, as well as the spreading rate for dissolved pollutants downstream of a discharge point or spill site. The air-water mass transfer coefficients, dispersion coefficients, and mean residence times in two experimental streams and one natural stream are measured using a variation of the standard volatile tracer-dye technique. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is used as the volatile tracer and rhodamine WT is used as the conservative tracer. The low limit of quantification of SF{sub 6} makes it possible to inject SF{sub 6}-rich water into many streams and avoid complications with dosing a stream with a gaseous tracer. The experimental methods are described in detail. The SF{sub 6} measurements were extremely precise, producing smooth concentration time curves. The SF{sub 6} measurements collected in side-by-side experimental channels yielded similar values of the gas transfer coefficient.

Hibbs, D.E.; Gulliver, J.S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Parkhill, K.L. [Freese and Nichols, Inc., Fort Worth, TX (United States)

1998-08-01

404

Charting the trajectory of the ATLAS stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stellar streams provide dramatic confirmation that large systems accrete smaller systems, in the context of a hierarchical merging cosmology, and therefore contain important clues about the formation mechanism of the Galactic halo. By studying the detailed properties of streams we can determine how stars are stripped from their hosts due to the Galactic tidal field and how the formation of the Galactic halo may have proceeded. Here we propose to trace the full visible extent of the recently discovered ATLAS stream using deep, wide-field photometry, to determine its path across the sky in 3 dimensions. By utilising the very wide-field capabilities of DECam, we will determine the deep, MW decontaminated CMD in a 30 degree long portion of the stream, allowing us to determine the distance, density profile and stellar population makeup of the stream. The position and density on the sky of kinematically cold structures like the ATLAS stream provides powerful, unbiased constraints on the distribution of dark matter in the Galaxy. Furthermore, deep photometry of the stellar content of the stream will tell us what type of system was the likely progenitor: globular cluster, ultra-faint dwarf or dSph galaxy.

de Boer, Thomas; Belokurov, Vasily; Koposov, Sergey; Irwin, Mike; Erkal, Denis

2014-08-01

405

Limitations and implications of stream classification  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stream classifications that are based on channel form, such as the Rosgen Level II classification, are useful tools for the physical description and grouping of streams and for providing a means of communication for stream studies involving scientists and (or) managers with different backgrounds. The Level II classification also is used as a tool to assess stream stability, infer geomorphic processes, predict future geomorphic response, and guide stream restoration or rehabilitation activities. The use of the Level II classification for these additional purposes is evaluated in this paper. Several examples are described to illustrate the limitations and management implications of the Level II classification. Limitations include: (1) time dependence, (2) uncertain applicability across physical environments, (3) difficulty in identification of a true equilibrium condition, (4) potential for incorrect determination of bankfull elevation, and (5) uncertain process significance of classification criteria. Implications of using stream classifications based on channel form, such as Rosgen's, include: (1) acceptance of the limitations, (2) acceptance of the risk of classifying streams incorrectly, and (3) classification results may be used inappropriately. It is concluded that use of the Level II classification for purposes beyond description and communication is not appropriate. Research needs are identified that, if addressed, may help improve the usefulness of the Level II classification.

Juracek, K.E.; Fitzpatrick, F.A.

2003-01-01

406

Ecological health in the Nation's streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aquatic biological communities, which are collections of organisms, are a direct measure of stream health because they indicate the ability of a stream to support life. This fact sheet highlights selected findings of a national assessment of stream health by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The assessment was unique in that it integrated the condition of three biological communities—algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish—as well as measures of streamflow modification, pesticides, nutrients, and other factors. At least one biological community was altered at 83 percent of assessed streams, and the occurrence of altered communities was highest in urban streams. Streamflows were modified at 86 percent of assessed streams, and increasing severity of streamflow modification was associated with increased occurrence of altered biological communities. Agricultural and urban land use in watersheds may contribute pesticides and nutrients to stream waters, and increasing concentrations of these chemicals were associated with increased occurrence of altered biological communities.

Carlisle, Daren M.; Woodside, Michael D.

2013-01-01

407

Mercury bioaccumulation in a stream network.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) contamination is common in stream and river ecosystems, but factors mediating Hg cycling in the flowing waters are much less understood than inthe lakes and wetlands. In this study, we examined the spatial patterns of methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in the dominant groups of aquatic insect larvae across a network of streams (drainage area ranging from 0.5 to 150 km2) in northern California during summer baseflow conditions. We found that, with the exception of water striders, all invertebrate groups showed significant (p < 0.05) increases in MeHg concentrations with drainage area. The largest stream in our study watershed, the South Fork Eel River, had the highest aqueous MeHg concentration (unfiltered: 0.13-0.17 ng L(-1)) while most of the upstream tributaries had aqueous MeHg concentrations close to or below the established detection limits (0.02 ng L(-1)). A filamentous alga abundant in South Fork Eel River (Cladophora glomerata) had an exceptionally high fraction of total-Hg as MeHg (i.e., %MeHg from 50-100%). Since other potential hotspots of in-stream Hg methylation (e.g., surface sediment and deep pools) had %MeHg lower than or similar to surface water (approximately 14%), we hypothesize that Cladophora and possibly other autotrophs may serve as hotspots of in-stream MeHg production in this bedrock-dominated stream. Recent studies in other regions concluded that wetland abundance in the watershed is the predominant factor in governing Hg concentrations of stream biota. However, our results show that in the absence of wetlands, substantial spatial variation of Hg bioaccumulation can arise in stream networks due to the influence of in-stream processes. PMID:19806736

Tsui, Martin Tsz Ki; Finlay, Jacques C; Nater, Edward A

2009-09-15

408

Time-Based Data Streams: Fundamental Concepts for a Data Resource for Streams  

SciTech Connect

Real time data, which we call data streams, are readings from instruments, environmental, bodily or building sensors that are generated at regular intervals and often, due to their volume, need to be processed in real time. Often a single pass is all that can be made on the data, and a decision to discard or keep the instance is made on the spot. Too, the stream is for all practical purposes indefinite, so decisions must be made on incomplete knowledge. This notion of data streams has a different set of issues from a file, for instance, that is byte streamed to a reader. The file is finite, so the byte stream is becomes a processing convenience more than a fundamentally different kind of data. Through the duration of the project we examined three aspects of streaming data: the first, techniques to handle streaming data in a distributed system organized as a collection of web services, the second, the notion of the dashboard and real time controllable analysis constructs in the context of the Fermi Tevatron Beam Position Monitor, and third and finally, we examined provenance collection of stream processing such as might occur as raw observational data flows from the source and undergoes correction, cleaning, and quality control. The impact of this work is severalfold. We were one of the first to advocate that streams had little value unless aggregated, and that notion is now gaining general acceptance. We were one of the first groups to grapple with the notion of provenance of stream data also.

Beth A. Plale

2009-10-10

409

Influences of wildfire and channel reorganization on spatial and temporal variation in stream temperature and the distribution of fish and amphibians  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfire can influence a variety of stream ecosystem properties. We studied stream temperatures in relation to wildfire in small streams in the Boise River Basin, located in central Idaho, USA. To examine the spatio-temporal aspects of temperature in relation to wildfire, we employed three approaches: a pre-post fire comparison of temperatures between two sites (one from a burned stream and one unburned) over 13 years, a short-term (3 year) pre-post fire comparison of a burned and unburned stream with spatially extensive data, and a short-term (1 year) comparative study of spatial variability in temperatures using a "space for time" substitutive design across 90 sites in nine streams (retrospective comparative study). The latter design included streams with a history of stand-replacing wildfire and streams with severe post-fire reorganization of channels due to debris flows and flooding. Results from these three studies indicated that summer maximum water temperatures can remain significantly elevated for at least a decade following wildfire, particularly in streams with severe channel reorganization. In the retrospective comparative study we investigated occurrence of native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and tailed frog larvae (Ascaphus montanus) in relation to maximum stream temperatures during summer. Both occurred in nearly every site sampled, but tailed frog larvae were found in much warmer water than previously reported in the field (26.6??C maximum summer temperature). Our results show that physical stream habitats can remain altered (for example, increased temperature) for many years following wildfire, but that native aquatic vertebrates can be resilient. In a management context, this suggests wildfire may be less of a threat to native species than human influences that alter the capacity of stream-living vertebrates to persist in the face of natural disturbance. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Dunham, J.B.; Rosenberger, A.E.; Luce, C.H.; Rieman, B.E.

2007-01-01

410

Real-Time X-Ray ?-IMAGING of Living Organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an X-ray ?-radiographic system developed for dynamic high spatial resolution imaging of living small animals. Our system is based on a micro-focus X-ray tube and the hybrid single photon counting silicon pixel detector Medipix2 (matrix 256 × 256 sq. pixels of 55 ?m pitch). As soft tissue exhibits low contrast in classical absorption radiography, we exploit a new method of phase-enhanced imaging. Picture quality is further improved by statistical data analysis and extended calibration of individual pixel's response. Computing tomography provides 3D images of studied samples from radiographic projections. For 3D reconstruction of measured objects we use iterative algorithms which are advantageous for low statistics data, low or incomplete number of projections and complex physical model. This diagnostic system allows real-time observation of inner processes in living organisms and dynamic diagnose of living animals for biological studies. The obtained results and real-time stream video capability is demonstrated on samples of a mouse and living worm, caterpillar, etc.

Dammer, Jiri; Holy, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jakubek, Martin; Pospisil, Stanislav; Vavrik, Daniel; Hanus, Robert; Weyda, Frantisek

2008-06-01

411

Hydrovisbreaking process for hydrocarbon containing feed streams  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for hydrovisbreaking a hydrocarbon-containing feed stream comprising the steps of: introducing a decomposable molybdenum additive selected from the group consisting of a mixture of molybdenum dithiophosphate and a molybdenum carboxylate and a mixture of a molybdenum dithiocarbamate and a molybdenum carboxylate into the hydrocarbon-containing feed stream; and contacting the hydrocarbon-containing feed stream containing the decomposable molybdenum additive under hydrovisbreaking conditions with hydrogen, wherein the contacting is carried out in the absence of a solid support for the decomposable molybdenum additive.

Howell, J.A.; Kukes, S.G.

1986-08-26

412

Herbicides in streams. Midwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Results from a 2-year study of 149 streams geographically distributed across the corn-producing region of 10 midwestern States show that detectable concentrations of herbicides persist year round in most streams. Some herbicides exceeded proposed maximum contaminant levels for drinking water for periods of several weeks to several months following application. Atrazine was the most frequently detected and most persistent herbicide measured, followed by desethylatrazine and metolachlor. The seasonal distribution of atrazine indicates that aquifers contributing base flow to many of the streams are contaminated with herbicides.

Goolsby, Donald A.; Thurman, E. Michael; Kolpin, Dana W.

1991-01-01

413

Methods of separating particulate residue streams  

DOEpatents

A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Christopher T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-04-05

414

Current Velocities of the Gulf Stream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents near-realtime monitoring of the current system of the Gulf Stream with ERS-2 fast delivery altimeter data from four satellites--Envisat, Jason-1, TOPEX/Poseidon, and GFO--and DUT operational orbits. Four constantly updated maps are presented,showing current velocities of the Gulf Stream in the vicinity of the East Coast of North America one week before date of viewing, two weeks before, three weeks before, and four weeks before. Animations of the Gulf Stream velocities are also available from the site, as well as an archive of previous maps.

415

Two stream instabilities in degenerate quantum plasmas  

E-print Network

The quantum mechanical effect on the plasma two-stream instability is studied based on the dielectric function approach. The analysis suggests that the degenerate plasma relevant to the inertial confinement fusion behaves differently from classical plasmas when the electron drift velocity is comparable to the Fermi velocity. For high wave vector comparable to the Fermi wave vector, the degenerate quantum plasma has larger regime of the two-stream instabilities than the classical plasma. A regime, where the plasma waves with the frequency larger than 1.5 times of the Langmuir wave frequency become unstable to the two-stream instabilities, is identified.

S. Son

2013-10-18

416

Live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine is currently the best strategy to obtain a vaccine against dengue viruses. The Mahidol University group developed candidate live attenuated vaccines by attenuation through serial passages in certified primary cell cultures. Dengue serotype 1, 2 and 4 viruses were developed in primary dog kidney cells, whereas dengue serotype 3 was serially

N Bhamarapravati; Y Sutee

2000-01-01

417

Community Living Skills Guide: Sexuality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Sexuality. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized persons to…

Breen, Kathy

418

Complexity for survival of livings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A connection between survivability of livings and complexity of their behavior is established. New physical paradigms—exchange of information via reflections, and chain of abstractions—explaining and describing progressive evolution of complexity in living (active) systems are introduced. A biological origin of these paradigms is associated with a recently discovered mirror neuron that is able to learn by imitation. As a result,

Michail Zak

2007-01-01

419

Learning Lives and Alumni Voices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in governmental financial support are causing many would-be students to question the value of higher education or to consider attending a local university. Oral history testimonies provide a source for understanding the role that living, as well as working, within an academic community plays in the learning lives of its alumni. An…

Jacobs, Andrea; Leach, Camilla; Spencer, Stephanie

2010-01-01

420

SELLING ONLINE VERSUS LIVE &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seller choosing between auctioning online and live faces a tradeoff: lower transaction costs online against more rents left with the bidders. We model this tradeoff, and apply the theory to auctions of art. The crucial parameter for whether the seller does better online than live is not the expected price but the valuation uncertainty.

EIICHIRO KAZUMORI; JOHN MCMILLAN

2005-01-01

421

SELLING ONLINE VERSUS LIVE super  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seller choosing between auctioning online and live faces a tradeoff: lower transaction costs online against more rents left with the bidders. We model this tradeoff, and apply the theory to auctions of art. The crucial parameter for whether the seller does better online than live is not the expected price but the valuation uncertainty. Copyright Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2005.

EIICHIRO KAZUMORI; JOHN MCMILLAN

2005-01-01

422

Web-Streamed Didactic Instruction on Substance Use Disorders Compares Favorably with Live-Lecture Format  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Education about substance use disorders in medical schools and, subsequently, physicians' identification of and intervention in these diagnoses lag behind that of most other disabling disorders. To reduce barriers and improve access to education about this major public health concern, medical schools are increasingly adopting web-based…

Maher, Karam-Hage; Brower, Kirk J.; Mullan, Patricia B.; Gay, Tamara; Gruppen, Larry D.

2013-01-01

423

Towards building large scale live media streaming framework for a U-city  

E-print Network

, Korea has installed multiple cameras in major spots within the city to Multimed Tools Appl DOI 10.1007/s11042-007-0166-z E.-S. Ryu (*) :C. Yoo 236, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea e-mail: esryu@os.korea.ac.kr C. Yoo e-mail: hxy@os.korea.ac.kr #12;provide

424

One Video Stream to Serve Diverse Receivers  

E-print Network

The fundamental problem of wireless video multicast is to scalably serve multiple receivers which may have very different channel characteristics. Ideally, one would like to broadcast a single stream that allows each ...

Woo, Grace

2008-10-18

425

Water Stream "Loop-the-Loop"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the design of a modified loop-the-loop apparatus in which a water stream is used to illustrate centripetal forces and phenomena of high-velocity hydrodynamics. Included are some procedures of carrying out lecture demonstrations. (CC)

Jefimenko, Oleg

1974-01-01

426

Web Audio/Video Streaming Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to promote NASA-wide educational outreach program to educate and inform the public of space exploration, NASA, at Kennedy Space Center, is seeking efficient ways to add more contents to the web by streaming audio/video files. This project proposes a high level overview of a framework for the creation, management, and scheduling of audio/video assets over the web. To support short-term goals, the prototype of a web-based tool is designed and demonstrated to automate the process of streaming audio/video files. The tool provides web-enabled users interfaces to manage video assets, create publishable schedules of video assets for streaming, and schedule the streaming events. These operations are performed on user-defined and system-derived metadata of audio/video assets stored in a relational database while the assets reside on separate repository. The prototype tool is designed using ColdFusion 5.0.

Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

2003-01-01

427

Window Update Patterns in Stream Operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous queries applied over nonterminating data streams usually specify windows in order to obtain an evolving -yet restricted- set of tuples and thus provide timely results. Among other typical variants, sliding windows are mostly employed in stream processing engines and several advanced techniques have been suggested for their incremental evaluation. In this paper, we set out to study the existence of monotonic-related semantics in windowing constructs towards a more efficient maintenance of their changing contents. We investigate update patterns observed in common window variants as well as their impact on windowed adaptations of typical operators (like selection, join or aggregation), offering more insight towards design and implementation of stream processing mechanisms. Finally, to demonstrate its significance, this framework is validated for several windowed operations against streaming datasets with simulations at diverse arrival rates and window sizes.

Patroumpas, Kostas; Sellis, Timos

428

Stream ecology in an Alaskan tundra watershed  

SciTech Connect

This study was part of the R4D Project'', a large, multi- investigator study of an arctic watershed on the Alaskan North Slope. The ultimate goal of this program was to examine the response, resistance, and resilience to, and recovery from disturbances in arctic tundra ecosystems (hence, R4D). This report concerns the Steam Ecology portion of the R4D, project under the direction of Dr. Mark Oswood. Consideration of arctic streams is critical to rational management of the arctic landscape. Since streams drain upslope areas, disturbances visited upon valley slopes often have unwelcome consequences to the stream at the bottom of the valley. Degradation of water quality is generally not limited to a localized stretch of stream but transported some distance downstream and may involve changes in water quality or fish and wildlife populations in downstream rivers lakes, or estuaries. 14 refs.

Oswood, M.W.

1991-03-01

429

WHITE DWARFS IN LOCAL STAR STREAMS  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the fine structure of the phase space distribution of white dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. White dwarfs have kinematics that are typical for the stellar population of the old thin disk of the Milky Way. Using a projection of the space velocities of stars onto vertical angular momentum components and eccentricities of the stellar orbits we demonstrate that stellar streams can be identified in the phase space distribution of the white dwarfs. These correspond to the well-known Sirius, Pleiades, and Hercules star streams. Membership of white dwarfs, which represent the oldest population in the Galaxy, in these streams lends support to the interpretation that the streams owe their existence to dynamical resonance effects of the stars with Galactic spiral arms or the Galactic bar, because these indiscriminately affect all stellar populations.

Fuchs, Burkhard; Dettbarn, Christian [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-01-15

430

Directional detection of dark matter streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directional detection of weakly interacting massive particles, in which the energies and directions of the recoiling nuclei are measured, currently presents the only prospect for probing the local velocity distribution of Galactic dark matter. We investigate the extent to which future directional detectors would be capable of probing dark matter substructure in the form of streams. We analyze the signal expected from a Sagittarius-like stream and also explore the full parameter space of stream speed, direction, dispersion and density. Using a combination of nonparametric directional statistics, a profile likelihood ratio test and Bayesian parameter inference we find that within acceptable exposure times [O (10 ) kg yr for cross sections just below the current exclusion limits] future directional detectors will be sensitive to a wide range of stream velocities and densities. We also examine and discuss the importance of the energy window of the detector.

O'Hare, Ciaran A. J.; Green, Anne M.

2014-12-01

431

Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.

2014-09-01

432

Slip-stream corrections performance computation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is an analysis of experiments performed by Eiffel on the air velocity in slip stream of a propeller, and also includes a theoretical discussion of the magnitude of the velocity in different propellers.

Warner, Edward P

1920-01-01

433

Reactive solute transport in acidic streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spatial and temporal profiles of Ph and concentrations of toxic metals in streams affected by acid mine drainage are the result of the interplay of physical and biogeochemical processes. This paper describes a reactive solute transport model that provides a physically and thermodynamically quantitative interpretation of these profiles. The model combines a transport module that includes advection-dispersion and transient storage with a geochemical speciation module based on MINTEQA2. Input to the model includes stream hydrologic properties derived from tracer-dilution experiments, headwater and lateral inflow concentrations analyzed in field samples, and a thermodynamic database. Simulations reproduced the general features of steady-state patterns of observed pH and concentrations of aluminum and sulfate in St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream near Leadville, Colorado. These patterns were altered temporarily by injection of sodium carbonate into the stream. A transient simulation reproduced the observed effects of the base injection.

Broshears, R.E.

1996-01-01

434

The comet-meteor stream complex.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The genetic relationship between short-period comets and meteor streams is investigated. It is shown that mechanisms exist for the radial and the longitudinal focussing of particles in meteor streams with characteristic time scales of agglomeration significantly smaller than those of any of the known dispersive processes. Consequently, it is claimed that meteor streams may not merely form a sink for short-period comets but may also form a source. A likely origin for the volatiles observed in such comets is suggested. It is finally stressed that this reciprocity in the genetic relationship between short-period comets and meteor streams should form an important consideration in any attempt at accounting for the observed population of short-period comets.

Mendis, D. A.

1973-01-01

435

A hierarchical framework for stream habitat classification: Viewing streams in a watershed context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification of streams and stream habitats is useful for research involving establishment of monitoring stations, determination of local impacts of land-use practices, generalization from site-specific data, and assessment of basin-wide, cumulative impacts of human activities on streams and their biota. This article presents a frame-work for a hierarchical classification system, entailing an organized view of spatial and temporal variation among

Christopher A. Frissell; William J. Liss; Charles E. Warren; Michael D. Hurley

1986-01-01

436

Statistical model of meteor streams. IV - A study of radio streams from the synoptic year  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives a detailed description of a search procedure for radio meteor streams and reports the detection of 275 streams in a synoptic-year sample of 19,698 radio meteors observed by the radar system of the Radio Meteor Project at Havana, Illinois. The orbital elements and related parameters of the detected streams are presented, the two parameters of the D-distribution

Z. Sekanina

1976-01-01

437

Living With the Great Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site was developed to assist students and educators with learning about the Great Lakes. The links provide materials on basic earth science concepts, a set of lesson plans on the lakes, and other Great Lakes topics. Concepts covered include Langmuir circulation, longshore current and beach drift, sediments, stream flow, seasonal stratification and water quality.

438

Data Streams: An Overview and Scientific Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, advances in hardware technology have facilitated the ability to collect data continuously. Simple transactions of everyday life such as using a credit card, a phone, or browsing the web lead to automated data storage. Similarly, advances in information technology have lead to large flows of data across IP networks. In many cases, these large volumes of data can be mined for interesting and relevant information in a wide variety of applications. When the volume of the underlying data is very large, it leads to a number of computational and mining challenges: With increasing volume of the data, it is no longer possible to process the data efficiently by using multiple passes. Rather, one can process a data item at most once. This leads to constraints on the implementation of the underlying algorithms. Therefore, stream mining algorithms typically need to be designed so that the algorithms work with one pass of the data. In most cases, there is an inherent temporal component to the stream mining process. This is because the data may evolve over time. This behavior of data streams is referred to as temporal locality. Therefore, a straightforward adaptation of one-pass mining algorithms may not be an effective solution to the task. Stream mining algorithms need to be carefully designed with a clear focus on the evolution of the underlying data. Another important characteristic of data streams is that they are often mined in a distributed fashion. Furthermore, the individual processors may have limited processing and memory. Examples of such cases include sensor networks, in which it may be desirable to perform in-network processing of data stream with limited processing and memory [1, 2]. This chapter will provide an overview of the key challenges in stream mining algorithms which arise from the unique setup in which these problems are encountered. This chapter is organized as follows. In the next section, we will discuss the generic challenges that stream mining poses to a variety of data management and data mining problems. The next section also deals with several issues which arise in the context of data stream management. In Sect. 3, we discuss several mining algorithms on the data stream model. Section 4 discusses various scientific applications of data streams. Section 5 discusses the research directions and conclusions.

Aggarwal, Charu C.

439

Digital image processing of coal stream combustion  

E-print Network

spacing. Thus interactions exist amongst the particles for dense clouds. While the earlier literature dealt with combustion processes of isolated particles, the recent research focusses upon the interactive combustion. The interactive combustion studies... include arrays consisting of a finite number of particles, and streams and clouds of a large number of particles. Particularly stream combustion models assume cylindrical geometry and predict the ignition and combustion characteristics. The models show...

Gopalakrishnan, Chengappalli Periyasamy

1994-01-01

440

The Uummannaq Ice Stream System, West Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The offshore and coastal geomorphology of the Uummannaq region of West Greenland records evidence for the advance and decay of the Uummannaq Ice Stream system (UISS) during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Regional ice flow patterns across this region show evidence for a large coalescent onset zone formed of smaller ice streams and fjord outlet glaciers which converged into the Uummannaq trough to form a single ice stream which flowed to the continental shelf break at the LGM. Ice stream surface elevation throughout the onset zone is constrained to a minimum of 1000m asl based on striae, bedform and moraine data, and is further supported by cosmogenic exposure ages on erratics that show warm based ice operating up to 975m asl in both ice stream and inter-stream areas. 14C and surface exposure ages along a transect from the mid-shelf to the present ice margin record initial ice surface down-wasting between 25 to 10.5 ka BP, though some ice stream marginal moraines show late stage ice re-thickening prior to extremely rapid ice stream collapse through the Uummannaq trough between 10.5 and 10.1 ka BP. We suggest this pattern of deglaciation reflects strong surface ablation associated with increased air temperatures running up to the Bolling Interstadial (GIS1e) at c. 14 ka BP, followed by ice re-thickening during the Younger Dryas, and late stage rapid marine calving driven by peak sea-level and bathymetric over-deepening at the start of the Holocene.

Roberts, D. H.; Rea, B.; Lane, T.; Schnabel, C.; Rodes, A.

2012-04-01

441

Updates to the MSFC Meteoroid Stream Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Meteoroid Stream Model simulates particle ejection and subsequent evolution from comets in order to provide meteor shower forecasts to spacecraft operators for hazard mitigation and planning purposes. The model, previously detailed, has recently been updated; the changes include the implementation of the RADAU integrator, an improved planetary treatment, and the inclusion of general relativistic effects in the force function. The results of these updates are investigated with respect to various meteoroid streams and the outcome presented.

Moser, D. E.; Cooke, W. J.

2007-01-01

442

Removal of odors from gas streams  

SciTech Connect

Odoriferous constituents are removed from relatively dry and/or warm gas streams by contacting the gas with a very finely divided aqueous spray containing a reagent reactive toward the odoriferous constituents of the gas. Droplet size of the aqueous spray is controlled as a function of temperature and relative humidity of the gas stream so as to prevent complete evaporation of liquid droplets and to achieve a maximum droplet size after evaporation of about ten microns.

Devries, E.

1980-12-09

443

Ecoregions and stream morphology in eastern Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broad-scale variables (i.e., geology, topography, climate, land use, vegetation, and soils) influence channel morphology. How and to what extent the longitudinal pattern of channel morphology is influenced by broad-scale variables is important to fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In the last couple of decades, there has been an increase in the amount of interdisciplinary research between fluvial geomorphologists and stream

Dale K. Splinter; Daniel C. Dauwalter; Richard A. Marston; William L. Fisher

2010-01-01

444

A three-dimensional model of corotating streams in the solar wind. II - Hydrodynamic streams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical aspects of corotating solar wind dynamics on a global scale are examined by means of numerical simulations executed with a nonlinear, inviscid, adiabatic, single fluid, three-dimensional hydrodynamic formulation. The factors most strongly affecting stream evolution, namely, the intrinsic correlations among density, temperature, and velocity existing near the source, the amplitude, longitudinal breadth and latitudinal breadth of the stream, and the heliographic latitude of the centroid of the stream, are considered. Calculations indicate that even in the presence of substantial meridional gradients, the latitudinal transport of mass, energy, and momentum by streams appears to have little impact on the overall evolution of the structure.

Pizzo, V. J.

1980-01-01

445

STREAMS - Supporting Underrepresented Groups in Earth Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Fall 2008, STREAMS (Supporting Talented and Remarkable Environmental And Marine Science students) Scholarship initiative began at the University of South Florida St. Petersburg, the only public university in Pinellas County. STREAMS is a partnership between the University of South Florida St. Petersburg’s (USFSP) Environmental Science and Policy Program and University of South Florida’s (USF) College of Marine Science. The STREAMS Student Scholarship Program has facilitated increased recruitment, retention, and graduation of USFSP environmental science and USF marine science majors. The STREAMS program has increased opportunities for minorities and women to obtain undergraduate and graduate degrees, gain valuable research experience and engage in professional development activities. STREAMS scholars have benefited from being mentored by USFSP and USF faculty and as well as MSPhDs students and NSF Florida-Georgia LSAMP Bridge to Doctorate graduate fellows. In addition, STREAMS has facilitated activities designed to prepare student participants for successful Earth system science-related careers. We will elucidate the need for this initiative and vision for the collaboration.

Carvalho-Knighton, K.; Johnson, A.

2009-12-01

446

REVISED STREAM CODE AND WASP5 BENCHMARK  

SciTech Connect

STREAM is an emergency response code that predicts downstream pollutant concentrations for releases from the SRS area to the Savannah River. The STREAM code uses an algebraic equation to approximate the solution of the one dimensional advective transport differential equation. This approach generates spurious oscillations in the concentration profile when modeling long duration releases. To improve the capability of the STREAM code to model long-term releases, its calculation module was replaced by the WASP5 code. WASP5 is a US EPA water quality analysis program that simulates one-dimensional pollutant transport through surface water. Test cases were performed to compare the revised version of STREAM with the existing version. For continuous releases, results predicted by the revised STREAM code agree with physical expectations. The WASP5 code was benchmarked with the US EPA 1990 and 1991 dye tracer studies, in which the transport of the dye was measured from its release at the New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam downstream to Savannah. The peak concentrations predicted by the WASP5 agreed with the measurements within {+-}20.0%. The transport times of the dye concentration peak predicted by the WASP5 agreed with the measurements within {+-}3.6%. These benchmarking results demonstrate that STREAM should be capable of accurately modeling releases from SRS outfalls.

Chen, K

2005-05-01

447

To create live treatments of actuality : an investigation of the emerging field of live documentary practice  

E-print Network

Keywords: documentary, interactive, live, liveness, ephemerality, interactivity, theater, performance, television, televisuality, database, data, live data, real time Abstract: The field of documentary is undergoing a ...

Fischer, Julie (Julie Lynn)

2014-01-01

448

River restoration and biocoenoses improvement in two streams renaturated using bioengeneering.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bioengineering is a constructive discipline having its own technical, ecological and environmental friendly scopes, by using living materials. The aim of this study is to assess the river restoration efficiency of Bioengineering. The basic goals of many management-concepts are the integrity of the river habitat, self-regulation and self-regeneration, the preservation of intact resources, to recreate the uniqueness, diversity and beauty of natural river landscape. From an ecological point of view the richness, diversity and age composition of the populations developing after restoration as a result of habitat improvement reveal the degree to which comprehensive concepts were applied (Jungwirth et al., 1995). The following results summarised an investigation on streams Boesio and Rancina in Valcuvia, (Varese, Northern Italy). These streams are characterised by human impacts like water pollution, river engineering and river bioengineering (palificata doppia viva). The samples of macrobenthic fauna were collected between August 2000 and July 2001 in 4 stations for each stream, where the 3rd station of Boesio and Rancina streams is characterised by bioengeneering measure, using a Surber sampler (0.125 m2, mesh size 0.45 mm). The zoobenthic communities of these pre-alpine streams are characterised by low richness and diversity and few families and genera were predominant. In Rancina stream, Ephemeroptera (genus Baetis), Trichoptera (families Hydropsychidae, Limnephilidae and Rhyacophilidae) and Diptera (families Chironomidae and Simuliidae) are present throughout the year with significant densities. The faunal composition of Boesio stream is similar. It differs, only, from stream Rancina to costant presence of Plecoptera with genus Leuctra. To evaluate the restoration of environmental quality two indices were applied: Indice Biotico Esteso (I.B.E.- Ghetti, 1995); Indice di Funzionalità Fluviale (I.F.F.- Siligardi, 2000). The E.B.I. scores of Boesio stream indicate that stations 1 and 2 are in good condition (Ecological status classification: II): therefore the level of diversity and abundance of macrobenthic taxa is slightly outside the range associated with the normal conditions and the most of the sensitive taxa of the type specific communities are present. The stations 3 and 4 are in moderate condition (Ecological status classification: III): the level of diversity and abundance of invertebrate taxa is moderately outside the normal condition range, the taxa indicative of pollution are present and many of the sensitive taxa of the type specific communities are absent. In the Rancina stream in all of the 4 stations the ecological status is indicated like moderate (Ecological status classification: III): there is a predominance of taxa more resistant at pollution and at changes in other biological components of the stream. The I.F.F. show that in Boesio stream the right shore score is moderate-good and the left shore score is moderate-poor. Differently, the Rancina stream presents the right shore with a value poor and the left shore with a wide gradient between good and poor-bad. In conclusion, we can affirm the low efficiency of Bioengineering to restore the Boesio and Rancina streams, because we cannot observe the habitat and aquatic biocoenoses improvement. An explication could be that the conversions are restricted to morphological measures, which are carried out on a small way of banks. Whereas, the restoration using the Bioengineering requires taking the entire catchment area into consideration.

Leoni, B.; Forasacco, E.; Dobner, R.; Cotta Ramusino, M.

2003-04-01

449

Advanced Visualization of Experimental Data in Real Time Using LiveView3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LiveView3D is a software application that imports and displays a variety of wind tunnel derived data in an interactive virtual environment in real time. LiveView3D combines the use of streaming video fed into a three-dimensional virtual representation of the test configuration with networked communications to the test facility Data Acquisition System (DAS). This unified approach to real time data visualization provides a unique opportunity to comprehend very large sets of diverse forms of data in a real time situation, as well as in post-test analysis. This paper describes how LiveView3D has been implemented to visualize diverse forms of aerodynamic data gathered during wind tunnel experiments, most notably at the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). Planned future developments of the LiveView3D system are also addressed.

Schwartz, Richard J.; Fleming, Gary A.

2006-01-01

450

Segregation and Integration of Auditory Streams when Listening to Multi-Part Music  

PubMed Central

In our daily lives, auditory stream segregation allows us to differentiate concurrent sound sources and to make sense of the scene we are experiencing. However, a combination of segregation and the concurrent integration of auditory streams is necessary in order to analyze the relationship between streams and thus perceive a coherent auditory scene. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigates the relative role and neural underpinnings of these listening strategies in multi-part musical stimuli. We compare a real human performance of a piano duet and a synthetic stimulus of the same duet in a prioritized integrative attention paradigm that required the simultaneous segregation and integration of auditory streams. In so doing, we manipulate the degree to which the attended part of the duet led either structurally (attend melody vs. attend accompaniment) or temporally (asynchronies vs. no asynchronies between parts), and thus the relative contributions of integration and segregation used to make an assessment of the leader-follower relationship. We show that perceptually the relationship between parts is biased towards the conventional structural hierarchy in western music in which the melody generally dominates (leads) the accompaniment. Moreover, the assessment varies as a function of both cognitive load, as shown through difficulty ratings and the interaction of the temporal and the structural relationship factors. Neurally, we see that the temporal relationship between parts, as one important cue for stream segregation, revealed distinct neural activity in the planum temporale. By contrast, integration used when listening to both the temporally separated performance stimulus and the temporally fused synthetic stimulus resulted in activation of the intraparietal sulcus. These results support the hypothesis that the planum temporale and IPS are key structures underlying the mechanisms of segregation and integration of auditory streams, respectively. PMID:24475030

Ragert, Marie; Fairhurst, Merle T.; Keller, Peter E.

2014-01-01

451

Improving Video-on-Demand Server Efficiency Through Stream Tapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficiency is essential for Video-on-Demand (VOD) to be successful. Conventional VOD servers are inefficient; they dedicate a disk stream for each client, quickly using up all available streams. However, several systems have been proposed that allow clients to share streams. We present a new system called stream tapping that allows a client to greedily \\

Steven W. Carter; Darrell D. E. Long

1997-01-01

452

RIPARIAN FOREST INDICATORS OF POTENTIAL FUTURE STREAM CONDITION  

EPA Science Inventory

Large wood in streams can play an extraordinarily important role in influencing the physical structure of streams and in providing habitat for aquatic organisms. Since wood is continually lost from streams, predicting the future input of wood to streams from riparian forests is c...

453

Adaptation Reveals Multiple Levels of Representation in Auditory Stream Segregation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When presented with alternating low and high tones, listeners are more likely to perceive 2 separate streams of tones ("streaming") than a single coherent stream when the frequency separation ([delta]f) between tones is greater and the number of tone presentations is greater ("buildup"). However, the same large-[delta]f sequence reduces streaming…

Snyder, Joel S.; Carter, Olivia L.; Hannon, Erin E.; Alain, Claude

2009-01-01

454

Multimedia Streaming via TCP: An Analytic Performance Study  

E-print Network

Technical Report 04-21 Abstract-- TCP is widely used in commercial media streaming systems, with recent in a significant growth in streaming media us- age. The conventional wisdom for media streaming is to use UDP measurement studies indicating that a significant fraction of Internet streaming media is currently delivered

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

455

Are trout populations affected by reach-scale stream slope?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reach-scale stream slope and the structure of associated physical habitats are thought to affect trout popula - tions, yet previous studies confound the effect of stream slope with other factors that influence trout populations. We isolated the effect of stream slope on trout populations by sampling reaches immediately upstream and downstream of 23 marked changes in stream slope on 18

Daniel J. Isaak; Wayne A. Hubert

2000-01-01

456

Uncovering Global Icebergs in Distributed Streams: Results and Implications  

E-print Network

Uncovering Global Icebergs in Distributed Streams: Results and Implications Guanyao Huang · Ashwin at Springerlink.com Abstract Discovering icebergs in distributed streams of data is an important problem these icebergs in the non-distributed streaming case or in the non-streaming distributed case, we present

Chuah, Chen-Nee

457

Stream flow, salmon and beaver dams: roles in the structuring of stream fish communities within an anadromous salmon dominated stream.  

PubMed

The current paradigm of fish community distribution is one of a downstream increase in species richness by addition, but this concept is based on a small number of streams from the mid-west and southern United States, which are dominated by cyprinids. Further, the measure of species richness traditionally used, without including evenness, may not be providing an accurate reflection of the fish community. We hypothesize that in streams dominated by anadromous salmonids, fish community diversity will be affected by the presence of the anadromous species, and therefore be influenced by those factors affecting the salmonid population. Catamaran Brook, New Brunswick, Canada, provides a long-term data set to evaluate fish community diversity upstream and downstream of an obstruction (North American beaver Castor canadensis dam complex), which affects distribution of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. The Shannon Weiner diversity index and community evenness were calculated for sample sites distributed throughout the brook and over 15 years. Fish community diversity was greatest upstream of the beaver dams and in the absence of Atlantic salmon. The salmon appear to depress the evenness of the community but do not affect species richness. The community upstream of the beaver dams changes due to replacement of slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus by salmon, rather than addition, when access is provided. Within Catamaran Brook, location of beaver dams and autumn streamflow interact to govern adult Atlantic salmon spawner distribution, which then dictates juvenile production and effects on fish community. These communities in an anadromous Atlantic salmon dominated stream do not follow the species richness gradient pattern shown in cyprinid-dominated streams and an alternative model for stream fish community distribution in streams dominated by anadromous salmonids is presented. This alternative model suggests that community distribution may be a function of semipermeable obstructions, streamflow and the distribution of the anadromous species affecting resident stream fish species richness, evenness, biomass and production. PMID:17922703

Mitchell, Sean C; Cunjak, Richard A

2007-11-01

458

Resource synergy in stream periphyton communities  

SciTech Connect

1. Light and nutrients play pivotal roles in determining the growth of autotrophs, yet the potential for synergistic interactions between the two resources in algal communities is poorly understood, especially in stream ecosystems. In this study, light and phosphorus were manipulated in large experimental streams to examine resource colimitation and synergy in stream periphyton. 2. Whole-stream metabolism was simultaneously limited by light and phosphorus. Increasing the supply of either light or phosphorus resulted in significant increases in primary production and the transformation of the streams from heterotrophy to autotrophy. 3. Resource-driven changes in periphyton community structure occurred in concert with changes in production. Algal assemblages in highly shaded streams were composed primarily of small diatoms such as Achnanthidium minutissima, whereas larger diatoms such as Melosira varians predominated at higher irradiances. Phosphorus enrichment had relatively little effect on assemblage structure, but it did substantially diminish the abundance of Meridion circulare, a diatom whose mucilaginous colonies were conspicuously abundant in phosphorus-poor, high-light streams. Bacterial biomass declined relative to algal biomass with increases in primary productivity, regardless of whether the increases were caused by light or phosphorus. 4. Synergistic effects on primary production appeared to occur because the availability of one resource facilitated the utilization of the other. Light increased the abundance of large diatoms, which are known to convert high concentrations of nutrients into primary production more effectively than smaller taxa. Phosphorus enrichment led to the replacement of Meridion circulare by non-mucilaginous taxa in phosphorus-enriched streams, and we hypothesize that this change enabled more efficient use of light in photosynthesis. Higher ratios of chlorophyll a : biomass in phosphorus-enriched streams may have also led to more efficient photon capture and higher photosynthetic rates. 5.Synthesis. Our results underscore the potential for resource colimitation, even in habitats where a single resource is as strongly limiting as is light in shaded streams. The capacity of autotrophic communities to respond to more than one limiting resource suggests that prevailing single-resource models of ecosystem productivity are overly simplistic.

Hill, Walter [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Fanta, S.E. [University of Illinois; Roberts, Brian J [ORNL; Francoeur, Steven N. [Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI

2011-03-01

459

Technology for Independent Living: Sourcebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sourcebook provides information for the practical implementation of independent living technology in the everyday rehabilitation process. "Information Services and Resources" lists databases, clearinghouses, networks, research and development programs, toll-free telephone numbers, consumer protection caveats, selected publications, and…

Enders, Alexandra, Ed.

460

Blood Banking in Living Droplets  

E-print Network

Blood banking has a broad public health impact influencing millions of lives daily. It could potentially benefit from emerging biopreservation technologies. However, although vitrification has shown advantages over traditional ...

Samot, Josh

461

Living with Coronary Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Coronary Heart Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) can cause serious ... any new symptoms or if your symptoms worsen. Heart Attack Warning Signs CHD raises your risk for ...

462

Living with Carotid Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Carotid Artery Disease If you have carotid artery disease, you can take steps to manage the ... treatment plan, and getting ongoing care. Having carotid artery disease raises your risk of having a stroke . ...

463

Living with High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure (HBP), you' ... Have High Blood Pressure Web page. High Blood Pressure and Pregnancy Many pregnant women who have HBP ...

464

Living with a Single Parent  

MedlinePLUS

... United States live with one parent. Separation and divorce are the most common reasons for this. In ... What Kids Say About: Parents What Is a Divorce? What Kids Who Are Moving Should Do Going ...

465

THE EFFECT OF AUXINS UPON PROTOPLASMIC STREAMING  

PubMed Central

1. Evidence has accumulated that the action of auxins in promoting growth is exerted not upon the cell wall but upon the cell contents; i.e., the protoplasm. Following indications previously obtained, therefore, the effect of auxins on the rate of protoplasm streaming in the Avena coleoptile was studied. 2. Indole-3-acetic acid, the most active auxin available in pure form, was found to increase the rate of streaming in the epidermal cells of the Avena coleoptile at concentrations between 0.5 and 0.002 mg. per liter, the maximum increase being brought about at 0.01 mg. per liter. This concentration is approximately that which, applied in agar to one side of the decapitated coleoptile, would give a curvature of 1°; i.e., it is well within the range of concentrations active in growth promotion. It is, however, much less than that which produces maximum elongation in immersed sections of Avena coleoptiles. 3. This accelerating effect is readily determined quantitatively by comparison with the streaming in control coleoptiles in pure water, which, if thoroughly aerated, maintain a constant rate for over an hour. The accelerating effect takes place immediately and is over within about 30 minutes. 4. Concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid greater than 0.5 mg.per liter inhibit the streaming, the effect being also over in about 30 minutes, and its extent increasing with increasing auxin concentration. This parallels the effect of high auxin concentrations in inhibiting elongation, although the inhibition of streaming is obtained at much lower concentrations than inhibit elongation. 5. The effects of indole-3-acetic acid on streaming are not specific for that substance, but appear to be common to auxins in general. Thus coumaryl-3-acetic acid and allocinnamic acid, both of which bring about cell enlargement, root formation, and bud inhibition, i.e. are typical auxins, also cause an immediate acceleration of the rate of streaming, and as with indole-acetic add the effect is over in about 30 minutes. The concentrations of these two substances which produce the maximum effect are about ten times that of indole-acetic acid, which approximately corresponds with their relative auxin activities. The curves relating concentrations of these substances to their effects on streaming are very similar to that for indole-acetic acid. 6. On the other hand, certain substances which are known to affect streaming in other materials do not produce any effect comparable to that of auxin. Ethylene chlorhydrin, histidine, and urea in all concentrations were without effect on streaming in the Avena coleoptile within the first 30 minutes of treatment. 7. The effects produced by the auxins were not due to pH. 8. The action on streaming here studied is evidently quite different from the re-starting of streaming after its cessation, studied by Fitting in Vallisneria. Correspondingly histidine, which in Fitting's experiments showed activity down to 10–7 M, is inactive here. 9. Per contra, the effect of auxin here studied is on normal streaming. It takes place immediately and at concentrations in the same range as those which produce growth. The curve of effect against concentration parallels that for growth although the actual concentration values differ. It is therefore reasonable to suppose that the effect of auxin on streaming is closely connected with one of the first stages of its effect on the growth process. PMID:19873042

Thimann, Kenneth V.; Sweeney, Beatrice Marcy

1937-01-01

466

Streaming Supercomputer The goal of the streaming supercomputer project is to develop a high-performance computer sys-  

E-print Network

Chapter 5 Streaming Supercomputer The goal of the streaming supercomputer project is to develop of magnitude improvement in performance/cost compared to today's supercomputers based on clusters of SMPs. The stream- ing supercomputer achieves this cost performance advantage through the combination of a stream

Dally, William J.

467

Water, heat and solute fluxes through hyporheic zones at stream restoration sites and their associated reference stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practice of stream restoration in the U.S. has evolved into a billion dollar industry. Stream restoration goals typically include generation of in-stream habitat or reduced bank erosion, but little is known about how restoration efforts affect hyporheic exchange. Stream restoration projects are often designed based on an analogous reference reach, which provides guiding channel form and function and serves

T. Daniluk; L. K. Lautz; R. P. Gordon

2010-01-01

468

Movement Patterns of Stream Fishes in a Ouachita Highlands Stream: An Examination of the Restricted Movement Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restricted movement paradigm (RMP), which states adult fish do not move out of a pool or restricted stream reach, does not fully define the movements of stream fishes. Although stream fishes may spend the majority of their time in a home pool, they also make regular ex- ploratory trips away from the home pool. Recapture of Ouachita Highlands stream

Elizabeth B. Smithson; Carol E. Johnston

1999-01-01

469

Movement Patterns of Stream Fishes in a Ouachita Highlands Stream: An Examination of the Restricted Movement Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restricted movement paradigm (RMP), which states adult fish do not move out of a pool or restricted stream reach, does not fully define the movements of stream fishes. Although stream fishes may spend the majority of their time in a home pool, they also make regular exploratory trips away from the home pool. Recapture of Ouachita Highlands stream fish

Elizabeth B. Smithson; Carol E. Johnston

1999-01-01

470

Girls Fight for a Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Girls Fight for a Living is an online component to an exhibit from the University of Louisville Special Collections. The exhibit profiles women in the forefront of several industries including some of the first women to earn wages in journalism, the arts, and the military. Along with photographs and accompanying descriptions and texts, Girls Fight for a Living also includes numerous links throughout the exhibit, leading to additional information and resources from a multitude of sources.

471

Comparing Data Streams Using Hamming Norms (How to Zero In)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Massive data streams are now fundamental tomany data processing applications. For example,Internet routers produce large scale diagnosticdata streams. Such streams are rarely stored in traditionaldatabases, and instead must be processed"on the fly" as they are produced. Similarly, sensornetworks produce multiple data streams of observationsfrom their sensors. There is growingfocus on manipulating data streams, and hence,there is a need to identify

Graham Cormode; Mayur Datar; Piotr Indyk; S. Muthukrishnan

2002-01-01

472

Quality control in the recycling stream of PVC from window frames by hyperspectral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is one of the most commonly used thermoplastic materials in respect to the worldwide polymer consumption. PVC is mainly used in the building and construction sector, products such as pipes, window frames, cable insulation, floors, coverings, roofing sheets, etc. are realised utilising this material. In recent years, the problem of PVC waste disposal gained increasing importance in the public discussion. The quantity of used PVC items entering the waste stream is gradually increased as progressively greater numbers of PVC products approach to the end of their useful economic lives. The quality of the recycled PVC depends on the characteristics of the recycling process and the quality of the input waste. Not all PVC-containing waste streams have the same economic value. A transparent relation between value and composition is required to decide if the recycling process is cost effective for a particular waste stream. An objective and reliable quality control technique is needed in the recycling industry for the monitoring of both recycled flow streams and final products in the plant. In this work hyperspectral imaging technique in the near infrared (NIR) range (1000-1700 nm) was applied to identify unwanted plastic contaminants and rubber present in PVC coming from windows frame waste in order to assess a quality control procedure during its recycling process. Results showed as PVC, PE and rubber can be identified adopting the NIR-HSI approach.

Luciani, Valentina; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Di Maio, Francesco; Rem, Peter

2013-05-01

473

Systematic forward scatter radar observations of radio waves from meteoroid streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forward scatter (FS) continuous wave (CW) meteor radar observations carried out during 1992-95 over the long baseline Bologna-Lecce in Italy, enabled us to determine the mass distribution versus duration of particles in main meteoroid streams (Lyrids, eta Aquarids, delta Aquarids, Perseids, Orionids, Leonids, Geminids) and the sporadic background. The unexpected high proportion of short-lived echoes with duration T < 0.2s suggests that the missing mass of meteor particles observed so far by backscatter radars in the 1E-6 - 1E-4 g mass range, is present in the form of faint high-velocity meteors, which ablate above the echo ceiling of conventional radars. The trends of the mass distribution of particles for the quoted meteor complexes are discussed in terms of variation of the mass index s and of steady-state conditions for each meteor population. The combined cumulative distributions of meteor trails vs peak signal amplitudes and vs durations represent a more reliable indicator of the meteoroid stream activity and, consequently, of the mass index variation. The mass index values of the sporadic background are generally higher than for meteor showers in the duration range of 0.1streaming, mutual collisions, etc... are taken into account to justify the widespread radiants and unstable populations of particles, mainly in meteoroid streams of asteroidal origing.

Cevolani, G.; Bortolotti, G.; Foschini, L.; Franceschi, C.; Gabucci, M. F.; Trivellone, G.

1996-07-01

474

Acidic stream mitigation by limestone sand addition  

SciTech Connect

The Town Line Run watershed comprises an area of 3,600 wooded acres. The tributaries feeding the stream consist of sandstone springs that do not contribute alkalinity to the watershed, leaving the stream susceptible to acid precipitation. This has a negative affect on Iser`s Run, a native brook trout fishery above the confluence with Town Line Run. The objective in stream liming is to improve water chemistry by increasing pH, alkalinity, and reducing acidity, aluminum, and iron. Introducing crushed limestone directly into a stream from a dump truck is an inexpensive but temporary solution to accomplish this objective. In this type of liming operation, a bed of limestone is spread down the stream channel by the momentum of the stream from the introduction point, rather than manually. Water moving across this bed dissolves the limestone, increasing the pH, alkalinity, and calcium while decreasing the acidity, iron, and aluminum concentrations of the water. The size of the limestone particles is important for this purpose because particles that are too small (<150 microns) will carried away, while particles that are too large (>1000 microns) will remain at the introduction point. Our study placed 80 tons of sand-sized limestone (85% calcite) in the stream channel at a single point. Water samples were collected monthly at the following sites (1) directly upstream of the addition site, (2) 100 yards downstream of the site, and (3) 2500 yards downstream of the site. Other sample locations include (4) upstream and (5) downstream of the Town Line Run- Iser`s Run confluence and the Casselman River upstream (6) and downstream (7) of Town Line Run. The samples were analyzed for pH. Specific conductivity, Alkalinity, Acidity, Iron, Manganese, Aluminum, and Sulfate.

Brant, D.L. [WVU National Research Center for Coal and Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States); Marich, A.J. Jr. [PA Dept. of Environmental Protection, Markleton, PA (United States); Largent, K.L. [Somerset Conservation District, Somerset, PA (United States)

1996-12-31

475

[Passive euthanasia and living will].  

PubMed

This article deals with the intentional distinction between murder of first degree and passive euthanasia. In Hungary, active euthanasia is considered to be a murder of first degree, whilst the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg and Switzerland have legalized the active form of mercy killing in Europe. The palliative terminal care, when e.g. giving pain-killer morphine to the patient, might result in decreasing the patient's life-span, and thus causing indirect euthanasia. However, the legal institution of living will exists in several counter-euthanasia countries. The living will allows future patients to express their decision in advance to refuse a life-sustaining treatment, e.g. in case of irreversible coma. The institution of living will exists in Germany and in Hungary too. Nevertheless, the formal criteria of living will make it hardly applicable. The patient ought to express his/her will before a notary public in advance, and he/she should hand it over when being hospitalized. If the patient is not able to present his/her living will to his/her doctor in the hospital, then his/her only hope remains that he/she has given a copy of the living will to the family doctor previously, and the family doctor will notify the hospital. PMID:24974840

Julesz, Máté

2014-07-01

476

Welcome to the PHYSICS OF LIVING CELLS  

E-print Network

Imaging (FReI): protein folding dynamics in living cells Single-event detection in living cells Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy (PALM/STORM) Tracking cell surface growth in living fruit fly embryos Molecular

Ha, Taekjip

477

Streaming in Flemish Secondary Schools: Exploring Teachers' Perceptions of and Adaptations to Students in Different Streams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A rich body of research on streaming or tracking conducted mainly in the USA and UK suggests that teachers have lower expectations of students in lower education streams and adapt their curriculum and pedagogy in line with such expectations. Recent large-scale quantitative research conducted in Flanders (Belgium) shows that teachers teaching in…

Stevens, Peter A. J.; Vermeersch, Hans

2010-01-01

478

Modeling Fluvial Response to In-stream Woody Vegetation: Implications for Stream Corridor Restoration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

River restoration and bank stabilization programs often use vegetation for improving stream corridor habitat, aesthetic, and function. Yet no study has examined the use of managed vegetation plantings to transform a straight, degraded stream corridor into a more functional, aesthetically-pleasing m...

479

EFFECTS OF STREAM RESTORATION ON IN-STREAM WATER QUALITY IN AN URBAN WATERSHED  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this on-going project is to provide information to Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4s) operators and states on the performance of selected best management practices (BMPs), specifically, stream restoration techniques, on improving biological and in-stream ...

480

Skeletons in the Stream: A Temporal Study of In-Stream Leaf Decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allochthonous leaf litter plays a pivotal role in streams. Laboratory exercises highlighting its ecological role can examine several components simultaneously. The rate of leaf decomposition is an ecosystem-level process that represents the composite effects of microbial, invertebrate, and physical activity. Leaves that fall into streams often cluster together in \\

J. M. Delmonte; G. W. Minshall; R. J. Smith

2005-01-01

481

The S-Net System for Internet Packet Streams: Strategies for Stream Analysis and System Architecture  

E-print Network

, and the performance of engineering protocols. This paper discusses strategies for the analysis of very large databases for graphics and data analysis, and has been developed on Linux. 1 Introduction 1.1 Internet TechnologyThe S-Net System for Internet Packet Streams: Strategies for Stream Analysis and System

Cleveland, William S.

482

Perspectives on ecological research at the Outdoor StreamLab, a field-scale experimental stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial streams hold great promise for examining ecological processes. They lend themselves to manipulations of discharge, sediment load, water chemistry, and other parameters difficult or impossible to control in natural streams. However, artificial streams also have important limitations. In this presentation we describe insights gained from several ecological studies conducted at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory’s Outdoor StreamLab, including, 1) short-term turbidity exposure effects on fish health, 2) macroinvertebrate grazing rates on periphyton as a function of velocity, 3) rates of macroinvertebrate colonization as related to velocity, and 4) fine-scale correlations of periphytic biomass with hydraulic conditions. Several lessons emerge from these initial attempts at ecological research in the Outdoor StreamLab. We have learned that the size, flow rate, substrate, water chemistry, and available colonization population of the artificial stream limit the kinds of organisms and types of ecological processes that can be examined and the types of experiments that can be run. We suggest that short-term biotic responses are best for study in a system of this type, and note that constant experiment maintenance is essential. Operating artificial streams to meet the needs of multiple researchers also presents challenges of scheduling, coordination, and conflict resolution. Although ecological research in artificial streams has considerable potential, the planning required is no less than that of traditional field studies.

Merten, E. C.; Dieterman, D.; Kramarczuk, K.; Lightbody, A.; Orr, C. H.; Wellnitz, T.

2009-12-01

483

DIATOM SPECIES RICHNESS IN STREAMS OF THE EASTERN US: STREAM SIZE AND HABITAT EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

We analyzed the relationship between benthic diatom assemblages, stream size, and habitat characteristics in 445 first through seventh order streams in the Mid-Atlantic (n=230), South Atlantic (n=61), Ohio (n=140), and Tennessee (n=14) hydrologic regions. Diatom samples were col...

484

VIDEO STREAM INTEGRATION The integration of video streams and the 3-  

E-print Network

VIDEO STREAM INTEGRATION The integration of video streams and the 3- D model allows the user (cshahabi@cs.usc.edu) Craig Knoblock (knoblock@isi.edu) Ulrich Neumann (uneumann@usc.edu) Ram Nevatia (nevatia@usc.edu) Suya You (suyay@imsc.usc.edu) Staff Yao-Yi Chiang (yaoyichi@isi.edu) Kelvin Chung

Shahabi, Cyrus

485

Designing stream restoration structures using 3D hydro-morphodynamic numerical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efforts to stabilize and restore streams and rivers across the nation have grown dramatically in the last fifteen years, with over $1 billion spent every year since 1990. The development of effective and long-lasting strategies, however, is far from trivial and despite large investments it is estimated that at least 50% of stream restoration projects fail. This is because stream restoration is today more of an art than a science. The lack of physics-based engineering standards for stream restoration techniques is best underscored in the design and installation of shallow, in-stream, low-flow structures, which direct flow away from the banks, protect stream banks from erosion and scour, and increase habitat diversity. Present-day design guidelines for such in-stream structures are typically vague and rely heavily on empirical knowledge and intuition rather than physical understanding of the interactions of the structures the flow and sediment transport processes in the waterway. We have developed a novel computer-simulation based paradigm for designing in stream structures that is based on state-of-the-art 3D hydro-morphodynamic modeling validated with laboratory and field-scale experiments. The numerical model is based on the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary (CURVIB) approach of Kang et al. and Khosronejad et al. (Adv. in Water Res. 2010, 2011), which can simulate flow and sediment transport processes in arbitrarily complex waterways with embedded rock structures. URANS or large-eddy simulation (LES) models are used to simulate turbulence. Transport of bed materials is simulated using the non-equilibrium Exner equation for the bed surface elevation coupled with a transport equation for suspended load. Extensive laboratory and field-scale experiments have been carried out and employed to validate extensively the computational model. The numerical model is used to develop a virtual testing environment within which one or multiple in-stream structures can be embedded in representative live-bed meandering waterways and simulated numerically to systematically investigate the sensitivity of various design and installation parameters on structure performance and reliability. Waterway geometries are selected by a statistical classification of rivers and streams to represent typical sand-bed and gravel-bed systems found in nature. Results will be presented for rock vanes, J-hook vanes and bendway weirs. Our findings provide novel physical insights into the effects of various in-stream structures on turbulent flow and sediment transport processes in meandering rivers, underscore these effects for different stream-bed materials, and demonstrate how such physics-based analysis can yield design guidelines that often challenge what is commonly done in practice today. To our knowledge, our work is the first systematic attempt to employ advanced numerical modeling coupled with massively parallel supercomputers to design hydraulic structures for stream restoration. This work was supported by NSF Grants EAR-0120914 and EAR-0738726, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Grant NCHRP-HR 24-33.

Khosronejad, A.; Kozarek, J. L.; Hill, C.; Kang, S.; Plott, R.; Diplas, P.; Sotiropoulos, F.

2012-12-01

486

Thermal migration of ice stream shear margins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice stream shear margins can be viewed as boundary layers connecting a Poiseuille-like shear flow in ice ridges with a membrane-like, lateral-shear dominated flow in the ice stream itself. The discharge of the ice stream is then highly sensitive to its width: with a Glen's law rheology, ice velocity scales as the fourth power of ice stream width. A crucial question therefore is how the width of the ice stream evolves over time. Existing, depth-integrated models of ice stream dynamics typically predict that the bed underlying an ice ridge should freeze over time, while the ice stream bed remains unfrozen, and the transition between the two should occur in the shear margin. Depth-integrated models however cannot describe the details of that transition, which would allow the rate of margin migration to be computed. We consider this boundary layer problem in detail, focusing on an abrupt transition from free slip to no slip at the point where the bed temperature changes from temperate (i.e., at the melting point) to subtemperate (i.e., below the melting point). This engenders multiple singularities in both, stress field and hence volumetric heating rate, and in heat flux. We show that the strength of these singularities is controlled by the far field, and that one of the singularities in the heat flux must be alleviated in order to allow the ice stream to widen. In the process, we show that at least a small zone of temperate ice must also form above the transition between frozen and unfrozen ice. We show that the alleviation of the heat flux singularity is possible only for specific combinations of the following quantities : i) the strength of shear heating in the margin dicated by lateral shear stress acting on the ice stream margin ii) the background temperature gradient dictated by surface temperatures and advection in the ice ridge and iii) the margin migration rate. More specifically, in the absence of significant advection from the ice ridge, we are able to show (by using the Wiener-Hopf technique) that margin migration rate is determined uniquely by lateral shear stresses and background temperature gradient.

Schoof, C.; Haseloff, M.

2012-12-01

487

Thermal migration of ice stream shear margins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice stream shear margins can be viewed as boundary layers connecting a Poiseuille-like shear flow in ice ridges with a membrane-like, lateral-shear dominated flow in the ice stream itself. The discharge of the ice stream is then highly sensitive to its width: with a Glen's law rheology, ice velocity scales as the fourth power of ice stream width. A crucial question therefore is how the width of the ice stream evolves over time. Existing, depth-integrated models of ice stream dynamics typically predict that the bed underlying an ice ridge should freeze over time, while the ice stream bed remains unfrozen, and the transition between the two should occur in the shear margin. Depth-integrated models however cannot describe the details of that transition, which would allow the rate of margin migration to be computed. We consider this boundary layer problem in detail, focusing on an abrupt transition from no slip to free slip at the point where the bed temperature changes from temperate (i.e., at the melting point) to subtemperate (i.e., below the melting point). This engenders multiple singularities in both, stress field and hence volumetric heating rate, and in heat flux. We show that the strength of these singularities is controlled by the far field, and that one of the singularities in the heat flux must be alleviated in order to allow the ice stream to widen. In the process, we show that at least a small zone of temperate ice must also form above the transition between frozen and unfrozen ice. We show that the alleviation of the heat flux singularity is possible only for specific combinations of the following quantities : i) the strength of shear heating in the margin dicated by lateral shear stress acting on the ice stream margin ii) the background temperature gradient dictated by surface temperatures and advection in the ice ridge and iii) the margin migration rate. More specifically, in the absence of significant advection from the ice ridge, we are able to show (by using the Wiener-Hopf technique) that margin migration rate is determined uniquely by lateral shear stresses and background temperature gradient.

Schoof, C.; Haseloff, M.

2012-04-01

488

Living with the Great Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site was developed to assist students and educators with learning about the Great Lakes. The topics discussed include, grain size, langmuir circulation, longshore current, beach drift, river plumes, lake stratification, and waves. Lesson plans can be found on the following subjects: lake levels, sediments, stream flow, and water quality. Also included is a virtual flight along the Eastern Lake Michigan Shoreline which includes topo maps, 3D maps, and photos. A directory of related links is also available.

Videtich, Patricia

489

Microscale instabilities in stream interaction regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The microstructure of solar wind stream interaction regions is considered theoretically with emphasis on the role of several electrostatic kinetic instabilities which may be important within the stream interface and the compression region. Inside of 1 AU, the interface is likely to be stable against the electrostatic streaming instabilities considered. Between 1 and 2 AU, the interface will excite the magnetized ion-ion instability. The compression region is also found to be unstable beyond 1 AU where the modified two-stream instability, beam-cyclotron instability, and ion-acoustic instability are important in determining the structure of the compressive pulses as they evolve into forward and reverse shocks. It is concluded that the modified two-stream instability and beam-cyclotron instability predominately play a role in heating the electrons to the threshold for the ion-acoustic instability. Various electrostatic plasma waves, ranging in frequency from the lower-hybrid to harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency, would be produced by these instabilities. Their signature should also be seen by high time resolution measurements of the temperature of the various plasma species.

Eviatar, A.; Goldstein, M. L.

1979-01-01

490

Vulnerability of streams to legacy nitrate sources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The influence of hydrogeologic setting on the susceptibility of streams to legacy nitrate was examined at seven study sites having a wide range of base flow index (BFI) values. BFI is the ratio of base flow to total streamflow volume. The portion of annual stream nitrate loads from base flow was strongly correlated with BFI. Furthermore, dissolved oxygen concentrations in streambed pore water were significantly higher in high BFI watersheds than in low BFI watersheds suggesting that geochemical conditions favor nitrate transport through the bed when BFI is high. Results from a groundwater-surface water interaction study at a high BFI watershed indicate that decades old nitrate-laden water is discharging to this stream. These findings indicate that high nitrate levels in this stream may be sustained for decades to come regardless of current practices. It is hypothesized that a first approximation of stream vulnerability to legacy nutrients may be made by geospatial analysis of watersheds with high nitrogen inputs and a strong connection to groundwater (e.g., high BFI).

Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Du?, John H.; Saad, David A.; Spahr, Norman E.; Wolock, David M.

2013-01-01

491

Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Stream Bedforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Streams are complex, dynamic environments that experience significant changes to the bathymetry over the course of hours when sediments are mobilized. Understanding the evolution of stream bed morphology is essential for a broad range of practical purposes including: assessing habitat for fish and forecasting the transport of sediments, nutrients, and pollutants. The objective of this work is to quantify bedform migration at a meander bend in a near-prototype scale laboratory stream and ultimately develop a dataset for comparison with sediment transport models. The spatial and temporal evolution of bedforms was observed at the University of Minnesota's St. Anthony Falls Stream Laboratory. The Outdoor Stream Lab (OSL) is a sandy (D50 = 0.7 mm) , meandering channel approximately 40 m in length 2.7 m in width, and 0.3 m in depth. Observations were made at overbank flow of 284 L/s. Color cameras were positioned at 5 m and 2 m above a meander bend and images were collected at a rate of 7.5 Hz as bedforms migrated through the field of view. Upstream of the meander bend, bedforms were nearly linear and migrated at 0.5 cm/s, while downstream of the bend, bedforms became extremely nonlinear in form and appeared nearly stationary. Images were rectified and post-processed to extract bedform dimensions as well as migration rate. The remotely sensed migration rates were compared with in situ measurements collected using sonar to map bedforms during the experiment.

Palmsten, M. L.; Kozarek, J. L.; Calantoni, J.; Kooney, T.; Holland, K.

2011-12-01

492

Electrohydrodynamic and flow induced tip-streaming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A liquid subjected to a strong electric field emits thin fluid jets from conical structures (Taylor cones) that form at its surface. Such behavior has both practical and fundamental implications, e.g. for raindrops in thunderclouds and in electrospray mass spectrometry. Theoretical analysis of the temporal development of such electrohydrodynamic (EHD) tip- streaming phenomena has been elusive given the large disparity in length scales between the macroscopic drops/films and the microscopic (nanoscopic) jets. Here, simulation and experiment are used to investigate the mechanisms of EHD tip-streaming from a film of finite conductivity. In the simulations, the full Taylor-Melcher leaky-dielectric model, which accounts for charge relaxation, is solved. Simulations show that tip- streaming does not occur for perfectly conducting or perfectly insulating liquids. Scaling laws for sizes of drops produced from the breakup of the thin jets is developed. Further, simulations demonstrate the critical role played by electrically induced surface shear stresses in the inception of tip-streaming. This invites a comparison to flow focusing, i.e. tip-streaming induced by co-flowing two fluids. The latter phenomenon is also investigated by simulation. In collaboration with Ronald Suryo, Exxon-Mobil; and Jeremy Jones, Michael Harris, and Osman Basaran, Purdue University.

Collins, Robert

2008-11-01

493

Evolution of the Quadrantid meteor stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to previous orbital calculations, the last close approach of the Quadrantid stream with Jupiter occurred 3200 years ago at which time the parent comet of the stream may have been captured into its present short-period orbit. If this is the case the stream may only be a few thousand years old. We have modeled the evolution of the stream to determine if such a short time scale is consistent with the observed features of the Quadrantid/ delta- Aquarid/Arietid/Ursid complex. A detailed modeling of a stream consisting of 500 test particles released 4000 yr ago and which included the effects of the gravitational perturbations of 6 planets as well as the likely spread in the initial orbital elements resulting from the ejection of the grains from the comet was carried out. Our calculations indicate that an intense shower should be seen a few days before the Quadrantid shower, and that, 4000 yr is too short a period for the branch corresponding to the D-Arietid branch to appear. We have considered the quasi-constants of motion 1/a and J, the Tisserand quantity, and find that the Ursids and the D-Arietids are unlikely to be members of the complex, and that, the complex is probably be less than 4000 yr old.

Jones, James; Jones, William

1992-12-01

494

Evolution of the Quadrantid meteor stream  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to previous orbital calculations, the last close approach of the Quadrantid stream with Jupiter occurred 3200 years ago at which time the parent comet of the stream may have been captured into its present short-period orbit. If this is the case the stream may only be a few thousand years old. We have modeled the evolution of the stream to determine if such a short time scale is consistent with the observed features of the Quadrantid/ delta- Aquarid/Arietid/Ursid complex. A detailed modeling of a stream consisting of 500 test particles released 4000 yr ago and which included the effects of the gravitational perturbations of 6 planets as well as the likely spread in the initial orbital elements resulting from the ejection of the grains from the comet was carried out. Our calculations indicate that an intense shower should be seen a few days before the Quadrantid shower, and that, 4000 yr is too short a period for the branch corresponding to the D-Arietid branch to appear. We have considered the quasi-constants of motion 1/a and J, the Tisserand quantity, and find that the Ursids and the D-Arietids are unlikely to be members of the complex, and that, the complex is probably be less than 4000 yr old.

Jones, James; Jones, William

1992-01-01

495

The Impact of Point-Source Pollution on the Concentration and Distribution of Escherichia coli in a Stream Draining an Urban Watershed  

E-print Network

poultry processing plant would lead to an increase in the concentration of total coliform and E. coli downstream from the point of discharge. Our study focused on two categories of E. coli: "free-living" E. coli found in surface water samples and "attached" E. coli found on rocks located in the stream. We also

496

Boundary streaming with Navier boundary condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In microfluidic applications involving high-frequency acoustic waves over a solid boundary, the Stokes boundary-layer thickness ? is so small that some non-negligible slip may occur at the fluid-solid interface. This paper assesses the impact of this slip by revisiting the classical problem of steady acoustic streaming over a flat boundary, replacing the no-slip boundary condition with the Navier condition u |y =0=Ls?yu |y =0, where u is the velocity tangent to the boundary y =0, and the parameter Ls is the slip length. A general expression is obtained for the streaming velocity across the boundary layer as a function of the dimensionless parameter Ls/?. The limit outside the boundary layer provides an effective slip velocity satisfied by the interior mean flow. Particularizing to traveling and standing waves shows that the boundary slip respectively increases and decreases the streaming velocity.

Xie, Jin-Han; Vanneste, Jacques

2014-06-01

497

Giant Intergalactic Gas Stream Longer Than Thought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A giant stream of gas flowing from neighbor galaxies around our own Milky Way is much longer and older than previously thought, astronomers have discovered. The new revelations provide a fresh insight on what started the gaseous intergalactic streamer. The astronomers used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to fill important gaps in the picture of gas streaming outward from the Magellanic Clouds. The first evidence of such a flow, named the Magellanic Stream, was discovered more than 30 years ago, and subsequent observations added tantalizing suggestions that there was more. However, the earlier picture showed gaps that left unanswered whether this other gas was part of the same system. "We now have answered that question. The stream is continuous," said David Nidever, of the University of Virginia. "We now have a much more complete map of the Magellanic Stream," he added. The astronomers presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, DC. The Magellanic Clouds are the Milky Way's two nearest neighbor galaxies, about 150,000 to 200,000 light-years distant from the Milky Way. Visible in the Southern Hemisphere, they are much smaller than our Galaxy and may have been distorted by its gravity. Nidever and his colleagues observed the Magellanic Stream for more than 100 hours with the GBT. They then combined their GBT data with that from earlier studies with other radio telescopes, including the Arecibo telescope in Puerto Rico, the Parkes telescope in Australia, and the Westerbork telescope in the Netherlands. The result shows that the stream is more than 40 percent longer than previously known with certainty. One consequence of the added length of the gas stream is that it must be older, the astronomers say. They now estimate the age of the stream at 2.5 billion years. The revised size and age of the Magellanic Stream also provides a new potential explanation for how the flow got started. "The new age of the stream puts its beginning at about the time when the two Magellanic Clouds may have passed close to each other, triggering massive bursts of star formation," Nidever explained. "The strong stellar winds and supernova explosions from that burst of star formation could have blown out the gas and started it flowing toward the Milky Way," he said. "This fits nicely with some of our earlier work that showed evidence for just such blowouts in the Magellanic Clouds," said Steven Majewski, of the University of Virginia. Earlier explanations for the stream's cause required the Magellanic Clouds to pass much closer to the Milky Way, but recent orbital simulations have cast doubt on such mechanisms. Nidever and Majewski worked with Butler Burton of the Leiden Observatory and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, and Lou Nigra of the University of Wisconsin. In addition to presenting the results to the American Astronomical Society, the scientists have submitted a paper to the Astrophysical Journal.

2010-01-01

498

Conversion method for gas streams containing hydrocarbons  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and a method of using the apparatus are provided for converting a gas stream containing hydrocarbons to a reaction product containing effluent molecules having at least one carbon atom, having at least one interior surface and at least one exterior surface, a first electrode and a second electrode with the first and second electrodes being selectively movable in relation to each other and positioned within the housing so as to be spatially disposed a predetermined distance from each other, a plasma discharge generator between the first and second electrodes, gas stream introducer and a collector for collecting the reaction product effluent produced by the reaction of the gas stream containing hydrocarbons with the plasma discharge between the first and second electrodes.

Mallinson, Richard G. (Norman, OK); Lobban, Lance (Norman, OK); Liu, Chang-jun (Tianjin, CN)

2000-01-01

499

Waste streams in a crewed space habitat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A judicious compilation of generation rates and chemical compositions of potential waste feed streams in a typical crewed space habitat was made in connection with the waste-management aspect of NASA's Physical/Chemical Closed-Loop Life Support Program. Waste composition definitions are needed for the design of waste-processing technologies involved in closing major life support functions in future long-duration human space missions. Tables of data for the constituents and chemical formulas of the following waste strea