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Sample records for iucn red list

  1. Scientific foundations for an IUCN Red List of ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Keith, David A; Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Rodríguez-Clark, Kathryn M; Nicholson, Emily; Aapala, Kaisu; Alonso, Alfonso; Asmussen, Marianne; Bachman, Steven; Basset, Alberto; Barrow, Edmund G; Benson, John S; Bishop, Melanie J; Bonifacio, Ronald; Brooks, Thomas M; Burgman, Mark A; Comer, Patrick; Comín, Francisco A; Essl, Franz; Faber-Langendoen, Don; Fairweather, Peter G; Holdaway, Robert J; Jennings, Michael; Kingsford, Richard T; Lester, Rebecca E; Mac Nally, Ralph; McCarthy, Michael A; Moat, Justin; Oliveira-Miranda, María A; Pisanu, Phil; Poulin, Brigitte; Regan, Tracey J; Riecken, Uwe; Spalding, Mark D; Zambrano-Martínez, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of risks to biodiversity is needed for planning action to slow current rates of decline and secure ecosystem services for future human use. Although the IUCN Red List criteria provide an effective assessment protocol for species, a standard global assessment of risks to higher levels of biodiversity is currently limited. In 2008, IUCN initiated development of risk assessment criteria to support a global Red List of ecosystems. We present a new conceptual model for ecosystem risk assessment founded on a synthesis of relevant ecological theories. To support the model, we review key elements of ecosystem definition and introduce the concept of ecosystem collapse, an analogue of species extinction. The model identifies four distributional and functional symptoms of ecosystem risk as a basis for assessment criteria: A) rates of decline in ecosystem distribution; B) restricted distributions with continuing declines or threats; C) rates of environmental (abiotic) degradation; and D) rates of disruption to biotic processes. A fifth criterion, E) quantitative estimates of the risk of ecosystem collapse, enables integrated assessment of multiple processes and provides a conceptual anchor for the other criteria. We present the theoretical rationale for the construction and interpretation of each criterion. The assessment protocol and threat categories mirror those of the IUCN Red List of species. A trial of the protocol on terrestrial, subterranean, freshwater and marine ecosystems from around the world shows that its concepts are workable and its outcomes are robust, that required data are available, and that results are consistent with assessments carried out by local experts and authorities. The new protocol provides a consistent, practical and theoretically grounded framework for establishing a systematic Red List of the world's ecosystems. This will complement the Red List of species and strengthen global capacity to report on and monitor the status of

  2. Scientific Foundations for an IUCN Red List of Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Keith, David A.; Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Rodríguez-Clark, Kathryn M.; Nicholson, Emily; Aapala, Kaisu; Alonso, Alfonso; Asmussen, Marianne; Bachman, Steven; Basset, Alberto; Barrow, Edmund G.; Benson, John S.; Bishop, Melanie J.; Bonifacio, Ronald; Brooks, Thomas M.; Burgman, Mark A.; Comer, Patrick; Comín, Francisco A.; Essl, Franz; Faber-Langendoen, Don; Fairweather, Peter G.; Holdaway, Robert J.; Jennings, Michael; Kingsford, Richard T.; Lester, Rebecca E.; Nally, Ralph Mac; McCarthy, Michael A.; Moat, Justin; Oliveira-Miranda, María A.; Pisanu, Phil; Poulin, Brigitte; Regan, Tracey J.; Riecken, Uwe; Spalding, Mark D.; Zambrano-Martínez, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of risks to biodiversity is needed for planning action to slow current rates of decline and secure ecosystem services for future human use. Although the IUCN Red List criteria provide an effective assessment protocol for species, a standard global assessment of risks to higher levels of biodiversity is currently limited. In 2008, IUCN initiated development of risk assessment criteria to support a global Red List of ecosystems. We present a new conceptual model for ecosystem risk assessment founded on a synthesis of relevant ecological theories. To support the model, we review key elements of ecosystem definition and introduce the concept of ecosystem collapse, an analogue of species extinction. The model identifies four distributional and functional symptoms of ecosystem risk as a basis for assessment criteria: A) rates of decline in ecosystem distribution; B) restricted distributions with continuing declines or threats; C) rates of environmental (abiotic) degradation; and D) rates of disruption to biotic processes. A fifth criterion, E) quantitative estimates of the risk of ecosystem collapse, enables integrated assessment of multiple processes and provides a conceptual anchor for the other criteria. We present the theoretical rationale for the construction and interpretation of each criterion. The assessment protocol and threat categories mirror those of the IUCN Red List of species. A trial of the protocol on terrestrial, subterranean, freshwater and marine ecosystems from around the world shows that its concepts are workable and its outcomes are robust, that required data are available, and that results are consistent with assessments carried out by local experts and authorities. The new protocol provides a consistent, practical and theoretically grounded framework for establishing a systematic Red List of the world’s ecosystems. This will complement the Red List of species and strengthen global capacity to report on and monitor the status of

  3. A practical guide to the application of the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems criteria.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Keith, David A; Rodríguez-Clark, Kathryn M; Murray, Nicholas J; Nicholson, Emily; Regan, Tracey J; Miller, Rebecca M; Barrow, Edmund G; Bland, Lucie M; Boe, Kaia; Brooks, Thomas M; Oliveira-Miranda, María A; Spalding, Mark; Wit, Piet

    2015-02-19

    The newly developed IUCN Red List of Ecosystems is part of a growing toolbox for assessing risks to biodiversity, which addresses ecosystems and their functioning. The Red List of Ecosystems standard allows systematic assessment of all freshwater, marine, terrestrial and subterranean ecosystem types in terms of their global risk of collapse. In addition, the Red List of Ecosystems categories and criteria provide a technical base for assessments of ecosystem status at the regional, national, or subnational level. While the Red List of Ecosystems criteria were designed to be widely applicable by scientists and practitioners, guidelines are needed to ensure they are implemented in a standardized manner to reduce epistemic uncertainties and allow robust comparisons among ecosystems and over time. We review the intended application of the Red List of Ecosystems assessment process, summarize 'best-practice' methods for ecosystem assessments and outline approaches to ensure operational rigour of assessments. The Red List of Ecosystems will inform priority setting for ecosystem types worldwide, and strengthen capacity to report on progress towards the Aichi Targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. When integrated with other IUCN knowledge products, such as the World Database of Protected Areas/Protected Planet, Key Biodiversity Areas and the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the Red List of Ecosystems will contribute to providing the most complete global measure of the status of biodiversity yet achieved. PMID:25561664

  4. Clarifying misconceptions of extinction risk assessment with the IUCN Red List.

    PubMed

    Collen, Ben; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Gaston, Kevin J; Gärdenfors, Ulf; Keith, David A; Punt, André E; Regan, Helen M; Böhm, Monika; Hedges, Simon; Seddon, Mary; Butchart, Stuart H M; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hoffmann, Michael; Bachman, Steven P; Akçakaya, H Reşit

    2016-04-01

    The identification of species at risk of extinction is a central goal of conservation. As the use of data compiled for IUCN Red List assessments expands, a number of misconceptions regarding the purpose, application and use of the IUCN Red List categories and criteria have arisen. We outline five such classes of misconception; the most consequential drive proposals for adapted versions of the criteria, rendering assessments among species incomparable. A key challenge for the future will be to recognize the point where understanding has developed so markedly that it is time for the next generation of the Red List criteria. We do not believe we are there yet but, recognizing the need for scrutiny and continued development of Red Listing, conclude by suggesting areas where additional research could be valuable in improving the understanding of extinction risk among species. PMID:27072401

  5. Conservation threats and the phylogenetic utility of IUCN Red List rankings in Incilius toads.

    PubMed

    Schachat, Sandra R; Mulcahy, Daniel G; Mendelson, Joseph R

    2016-02-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of extinction threat is an emerging tool in the field of conservation. However, there are problems with the methods and data as commonly used. Phylogenetic sampling usually extends to the level of family or genus, but International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) rankings are available only for individual species, and, although different species within a taxonomic group may have the same IUCN rank, the species may have been ranked as such for different reasons. Therefore, IUCN rank may not reflect evolutionary history and thus may not be appropriate for use in a phylogenetic context. To be used appropriately, threat-risk data should reflect the cause of extinction threat rather than the IUCN threat ranking. In a case study of the toad genus Incilius, with phylogenetic sampling at the species level (so that the resolution of the phylogeny matches character data from the IUCN Red List), we analyzed causes of decline and IUCN threat rankings by calculating metrics of phylogenetic signal (such as Fritz and Purvis' D). We also analyzed the extent to which cause of decline and threat ranking overlap by calculating phylogenetic correlation between these 2 types of character data. Incilius species varied greatly in both threat ranking and cause of decline; this variability would be lost at a coarser taxonomic resolution. We found far more phylogenetic signal, likely correlated with evolutionary history, for causes of decline than for IUCN threat ranking. Individual causes of decline and IUCN threat rankings were largely uncorrelated on the phylogeny. Our results demonstrate the importance of character selection and taxonomic resolution when extinction threat is analyzed in a phylogenetic context. PMID:26243724

  6. Establishing IUCN Red List Criteria for Threatened Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Rodríguez-Clark, Kathryn M; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Ash, Neville; Benson, John; Boucher, Timothy; Brown, Claire; Burgess, Neil D; Collen, Ben; Jennings, Michael; Keith, David A; Nicholson, Emily; Revenga, Carmen; Reyers, Belinda; Rouget, Mathieu; Smith, Tammy; Spalding, Mark; Taber, Andrew; Walpole, Matt; Zager, Irene; Zamin, Tara

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The potential for conservation of individual species has been greatly advanced by the International Union for Conservation of Nature's (IUCN) development of objective, repeatable, and transparent criteria for assessing extinction risk that explicitly separate risk assessment from priority setting. At the IV World Conservation Congress in 2008, the process began to develop and implement comparable global standards for ecosystems. A working group established by the IUCN has begun formulating a system of quantitative categories and criteria, analogous to those used for species, for assigning levels of threat to ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels. A final system will require definitions of ecosystems; quantification of ecosystem status; identification of the stages of degradation and loss of ecosystems; proxy measures of risk (criteria); classification thresholds for these criteria; and standardized methods for performing assessments. The system will need to reflect the degree and rate of change in an ecosystem's extent, composition, structure, and function, and have its conceptual roots in ecological theory and empirical research. On the basis of these requirements and the hypothesis that ecosystem risk is a function of the risk of its component species, we propose a set of four criteria: recent declines in distribution or ecological function, historical total loss in distribution or ecological function, small distribution combined with decline, or very small distribution. Most work has focused on terrestrial ecosystems, but comparable thresholds and criteria for freshwater and marine ecosystems are also needed. These are the first steps in an international consultation process that will lead to a unified proposal to be presented at the next World Conservation Congress in 2012. Establecimiento de Criterios para la Lista Roja de UICN de Ecosistemas Amenazados Resumen El potencial para la conservación de muchas especies ha avanzado enormemente

  7. Building on IUCN regional red lists to produce lists of species of conservation priority: a model with Irish bees.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Una; Murray, Tomás E; Paxton, Robert J; Brown, Mark J F

    2007-10-01

    A World Conservation Union (IUCN) regional red list is an objective assessment of regional extinction risk and is not the same as a list of conservation priority species. Recent research reveals the widespread, but incorrect, assumption that IUCN Red List categories represent a hierarchical list of priorities for conservation action. We developed a simple eight-step priority-setting process and applied it to the conservation of bees in Ireland. Our model is based on the national red list but also considers the global significance of the national population; the conservation status at global, continental, and regional levels; key biological, economic, and societal factors; and is compatible with existing conservation agreements and legislation. Throughout Ireland, almost one-third of the bee fauna is threatened (30 of 100 species), but our methodology resulted in a reduced list of only 17 priority species. We did not use the priority species list to broadly categorize species to the conservation action required; instead, we indicated the individual action required for all threatened, near-threatened, and data-deficient species on the national red list based on the IUCN's conservation-actions template file. Priority species lists will strongly influence prioritization of conservation actions at national levels, but action should not be exclusive to listed species. In addition, all species on this list will not necessarily require immediate action. Our method is transparent, reproducible, and readily applicable to other taxa and regions. PMID:17883497

  8. Detecting extinction risk from climate change by IUCN Red List criteria.

    PubMed

    Keith, David A; Mahony, Michael; Hines, Harry; Elith, Jane; Regan, Tracey J; Baumgartner, John B; Hunter, David; Heard, Geoffrey W; Mitchell, Nicola J; Parris, Kirsten M; Penman, Trent; Scheele, Ben; Simpson, Christopher C; Tingley, Reid; Tracy, Christopher R; West, Matt; Akçakaya, H Resit

    2014-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is a key threat to global biodiversity. To inform strategic actions aimed at conserving biodiversity as climate changes, conservation planners need early warning of the risks faced by different species. The IUCN Red List criteria for threatened species are widely acknowledged as useful risk assessment tools for informing conservation under constraints imposed by limited data. However, doubts have been expressed about the ability of the criteria to detect risks imposed by potentially slow-acting threats such as climate change, particularly because criteria addressing rates of population decline are assessed over time scales as short as 10 years. We used spatially explicit stochastic population models and dynamic species distribution models projected to future climates to determine how long before extinction a species would become eligible for listing as threatened based on the IUCN Red List criteria. We focused on a short-lived frog species (Assa darlingtoni) chosen specifically to represent potential weaknesses in the criteria to allow detailed consideration of the analytical issues and to develop an approach for wider application. The criteria were more sensitive to climate change than previously anticipated; lead times between initial listing in a threatened category and predicted extinction varied from 40 to 80 years, depending on data availability. We attributed this sensitivity primarily to the ensemble properties of the criteria that assess contrasting symptoms of extinction risk. Nevertheless, we recommend the robustness of the criteria warrants further investigation across species with contrasting life histories and patterns of decline. The adequacy of these lead times for early warning depends on practicalities of environmental policy and management, bureaucratic or political inertia, and the anticipated species response times to management actions. PMID:24512339

  9. Conservation Status of the Australian Humpback Dolphin (Sousa sahulensis) Using the IUCN Red List Criteria.

    PubMed

    Parra, Guido J; Cagnazzi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Australian humpback dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) were recently described as a new species endemic to northern Australia and potentially southern New Guinea. We assessed the species conservation status against IUCN Red List Criteria using available information on their biology, ecology and threatening processes. Knowledge of population sizes and trends across the species range is lacking. Recent genetic studies indicate Australian humpback dolphins live in small and relatively isolated populations with limited gene flow among them. The available abundance estimates range from 14 to 207 individuals and no population studied to date is estimated to contain more than 104 mature individuals. The Potential Biological Removal method indicates populations are vulnerable to even low rates of anthropogenic mortality. Habitat degradation and loss is ongoing and expected to increase across the species range in Australia, and a continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is anticipated. Considering the available evidence and following a precautionary approach, we considered this species as Vulnerable under IUCN criterion C2a(i) because the total number of mature individuals is plausibly fewer than 10,000, an inferred continuing decline due to cumulative impacts, and each of the populations studied to date is estimated to contain fewer than 1000 mature individuals. Ongoing research efforts and recently developed research strategies and priorities will provide valuable information towards the future conservation and management of Australian humpback dolphins. PMID:26790892

  10. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: an assessment of coral reef fishes in the US Pacific Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zgliczynski, B. J.; Williams, I. D.; Schroeder, R. E.; Nadon, M. O.; Richards, B. L.; Sandin, S. A.

    2013-09-01

    Widespread declines among many coral reef fisheries have led scientists and managers to become increasingly concerned over the extinction risk facing some species. To aid in assessing the extinction risks facing coral reef fishes, large-scale censuses of the abundance and distribution of individual species are critically important. We use fisheries-independent data collected as part of the NOAA Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program from 2000 to 2009 to describe the range and density across the US Pacific of coral reef fishes included on The International Union for the Conservation of Nature's (IUCN) 2011 Red List of Threatened Species. Forty-five species, including sharks, rays, groupers, humphead wrasse ( Cheilinus undulatus), and bumphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum), included on the IUCN List, were recorded in the US Pacific Islands. Most species were generally rare in the US Pacific with the exception of a few species, principally small groupers and reef sharks. The greatest diversity and densities of IUCN-listed fishes were recorded at remote and uninhabited islands of the Pacific Remote Island Areas; in general, lower densities were observed at reefs of inhabited islands. Our findings complement IUCN assessment efforts, emphasize the efficacy of large-scale assessment and monitoring efforts in providing quantitative data on reef fish assemblages, and highlight the importance of protecting populations at remote and uninhabited islands where some species included on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species can be observed in abundance.

  11. By-Catch Impacts in Fisheries: Utilizing the IUCN Red List Categories for Enhanced Product Level Assessment in Seafood LCAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornborg, Sara; Svensson, Mikael; Nilsson, Per; Ziegler, Friederike

    2013-11-01

    Overexploitation of fish stocks causes concern not only to fisheries managers and conservation biologists, but also engages seafood consumers; more integrated product perspectives would be useful. This could be provided by life cycle assessment (LCA); however, further complements of present LCA methodology are needed to assess seafood production, one being by-catch impacts. We studied the scientific rationale behind using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ for assessment of impacts relating to fish species’ vulnerability. For this purpose, the current Red List status of marine fish in Sweden was compared to the advice given in fisheries as well as key life history traits known to indicate sensitivity to high fishing pressure. Further, we quantified the amount of threatened fish (vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered) that was discarded in demersal trawl fisheries on the Swedish west coast. The results showed that not only did the national Red List of marine fish have a high consistency with advice given in fisheries and indices of vulnerability, the different fishing practices studied were also found to have vastly different amounts of threatened fish discarded per kilo landing. The suggested approach is therefore promising as a carrier of aggregated information on the extent to which seafood production interferes with conservation priorities, in particular for species lacking adequate stock assessment. To enable extensive product comparisons, it is important to increase coverage of fish species by the global IUCN Red List, and to reconsider the appropriate assessment unit (species or stocks) in order to avoid false alarms.

  12. Assessment of the Conservation Status of the Indian Ocean Humpback Dolphin (Sousa plumbea) Using the IUCN Red List Criteria.

    PubMed

    Braulik, Gill T; Findlay, Ken; Cerchio, Salvatore; Baldwin, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Indian Ocean humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) are obligate shallow-water dolphins that occur exclusively in the near-shore waters of the Indian Ocean, from South Africa to the Bay of Bengal. They have a narrow habitat preference, restricted distribution and do not appear very abundant across any part of their range. There is no estimate of total species abundance; all populations that have been quantitatively evaluated have been small in size, usually fewer than 200 individuals. Fishing, dredging, land reclamation, construction blasting, port and harbour construction, pollution, boat traffic and other coastal development activities all occur, or are concentrated within, humpback dolphin habitat and threaten their survival. Although data are far from sufficient to make a rigorous quantitative assessment of population trends for this species, the scale of threats is large enough over a significant enough portion of the range to suspect or infer a decline of at least 50% over three generations, which qualifies it for listing on the IUCN Red List as Endangered. The issue primarily responsible is incidental mortality in fisheries, but the loss and degradation of habitat is likely a contributing factor. None of the threats have been adequately addressed in any part of the species' range, even though threat levels are increasing virtually everywhere. PMID:26555624

  13. Re-assessment of the Conservation Status of the Atlantic Humpback Dolphin, Sousa teuszii (), Using the IUCN Red List Criteria.

    PubMed

    Collins, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The Atlantic humpback dolphin (Sousa teuszii) is an obligate shallow water dolphin that is endemic to the western coasts of Africa, ranging from Western Sahara to Angola. The species occurs exclusively in a limited number of near-shore habitats, a tendency that routinely exposes it to a suite of lethal and deleterious anthropogenic threats. These include habitat degradation, accidental capture in artisanal fishing nets, and hunting for use as food and bait. The species also competes with rapidly expanding human populations for coastal resources in some of the poorest countries on Earth. Data for most aspects of the species' ecology are sparse, but S. teuszii is considered by most qualified observers to be rare and greatly threatened. A lack of appropriate survey data precludes a quantitative assessment of population trends and status. Most populations for which any data are available are considered to be extremely small, numbering in the tens or low hundreds of individuals. The available published estimates suggest that the total population likely falls below 3000 individuals. Declines in abundance have been observed or are suspected for each population and will continue, given projected expansions of identified threats that affect most of the species' known range, and a corresponding lack of appropriate management actions. The apparent scale of threats, the presumed isolation of most populations, and a lack of directed conservation efforts in most areas suggest that the species qualifies for a listing of Critically Endangered (under criteria A3cd) on the IUCN Red List. PMID:26555622

  14. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Gusset, Markus; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Byers, Onnie; Flesness, Nate; Browne, Robert K; Jones, Owen R

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23%) terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful. PMID:24348999

  15. Green Plants in the Red: A Baseline Global Assessment for the IUCN Sampled Red List Index for Plants.

    PubMed

    Brummitt, Neil A; Bachman, Steven P; Griffiths-Lee, Janine; Lutz, Maiko; Moat, Justin F; Farjon, Aljos; Donaldson, John S; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Meagher, Thomas R; Albuquerque, Sara; Aletrari, Elina; Andrews, A Kei; Atchison, Guy; Baloch, Elisabeth; Barlozzini, Barbara; Brunazzi, Alice; Carretero, Julia; Celesti, Marco; Chadburn, Helen; Cianfoni, Eduardo; Cockel, Chris; Coldwell, Vanessa; Concetti, Benedetta; Contu, Sara; Crook, Vicki; Dyson, Philippa; Gardiner, Lauren; Ghanim, Nadia; Greene, Hannah; Groom, Alice; Harker, Ruth; Hopkins, Della; Khela, Sonia; Lakeman-Fraser, Poppy; Lindon, Heather; Lockwood, Helen; Loftus, Christine; Lombrici, Debora; Lopez-Poveda, Lucia; Lyon, James; Malcolm-Tompkins, Patricia; McGregor, Kirsty; Moreno, Laura; Murray, Linda; Nazar, Keara; Power, Emily; Quiton Tuijtelaars, Mireya; Salter, Ruth; Segrott, Robert; Thacker, Hannah; Thomas, Leighton J; Tingvoll, Sarah; Watkinson, Gemma; Wojtaszekova, Katerina; Nic Lughadha, Eimear M

    2015-01-01

    Plants provide fundamental support systems for life on Earth and are the basis for all terrestrial ecosystems; a decline in plant diversity will be detrimental to all other groups of organisms including humans. Decline in plant diversity has been hard to quantify, due to the huge numbers of known and yet to be discovered species and the lack of an adequate baseline assessment of extinction risk against which to track changes. The biodiversity of many remote parts of the world remains poorly known, and the rate of new assessments of extinction risk for individual plant species approximates the rate at which new plant species are described. Thus the question 'How threatened are plants?' is still very difficult to answer accurately. While completing assessments for each species of plant remains a distant prospect, by assessing a randomly selected sample of species the Sampled Red List Index for Plants gives, for the first time, an accurate view of how threatened plants are across the world. It represents the first key phase of ongoing efforts to monitor the status of the world's plants. More than 20% of plant species assessed are threatened with extinction, and the habitat with the most threatened species is overwhelmingly tropical rain forest, where the greatest threat to plants is anthropogenic habitat conversion, for arable and livestock agriculture, and harvesting of natural resources. Gymnosperms (e.g. conifers and cycads) are the most threatened group, while a third of plant species included in this study have yet to receive an assessment or are so poorly known that we cannot yet ascertain whether they are threatened or not. This study provides a baseline assessment from which trends in the status of plant biodiversity can be measured and periodically reassessed. PMID:26252495

  16. Green Plants in the Red: A Baseline Global Assessment for the IUCN Sampled Red List Index for Plants

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths-Lee, Janine; Lutz, Maiko; Moat, Justin F.; Farjon, Aljos; Donaldson, John S.; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Meagher, Thomas R.; Albuquerque, Sara; Aletrari, Elina; Andrews, A. Kei; Atchison, Guy; Baloch, Elisabeth; Barlozzini, Barbara; Brunazzi, Alice; Carretero, Julia; Celesti, Marco; Chadburn, Helen; Cianfoni, Eduardo; Cockel, Chris; Coldwell, Vanessa; Concetti, Benedetta; Contu, Sara; Crook, Vicki; Dyson, Philippa; Gardiner, Lauren; Ghanim, Nadia; Greene, Hannah; Groom, Alice; Harker, Ruth; Hopkins, Della; Khela, Sonia; Lakeman-Fraser, Poppy; Lindon, Heather; Lockwood, Helen; Loftus, Christine; Lombrici, Debora; Lopez-Poveda, Lucia; Lyon, James; Malcolm-Tompkins, Patricia; McGregor, Kirsty; Moreno, Laura; Murray, Linda; Nazar, Keara; Power, Emily; Quiton Tuijtelaars, Mireya; Salter, Ruth; Segrott, Robert; Thacker, Hannah; Thomas, Leighton J.; Tingvoll, Sarah; Watkinson, Gemma; Wojtaszekova, Katerina; Nic Lughadha, Eimear M.

    2015-01-01

    Plants provide fundamental support systems for life on Earth and are the basis for all terrestrial ecosystems; a decline in plant diversity will be detrimental to all other groups of organisms including humans. Decline in plant diversity has been hard to quantify, due to the huge numbers of known and yet to be discovered species and the lack of an adequate baseline assessment of extinction risk against which to track changes. The biodiversity of many remote parts of the world remains poorly known, and the rate of new assessments of extinction risk for individual plant species approximates the rate at which new plant species are described. Thus the question ‘How threatened are plants?’ is still very difficult to answer accurately. While completing assessments for each species of plant remains a distant prospect, by assessing a randomly selected sample of species the Sampled Red List Index for Plants gives, for the first time, an accurate view of how threatened plants are across the world. It represents the first key phase of ongoing efforts to monitor the status of the world’s plants. More than 20% of plant species assessed are threatened with extinction, and the habitat with the most threatened species is overwhelmingly tropical rain forest, where the greatest threat to plants is anthropogenic habitat conversion, for arable and livestock agriculture, and harvesting of natural resources. Gymnosperms (e.g. conifers and cycads) are the most threatened group, while a third of plant species included in this study have yet to receive an assessment or are so poorly known that we cannot yet ascertain whether they are threatened or not. This study provides a baseline assessment from which trends in the status of plant biodiversity can be measured and periodically reassessed. PMID:26252495

  17. Re-assessment of the Conservation Status of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) Using the IUCN Red List Criteria.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Thomas A; Smith, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    The IUCN Red List designation of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) is re-assessed in light of its newly recognized taxonomic status (it has recently been separated into three species) and findings that humpback dolphins along the coast of Bangladesh, and possibly eastern India, are phylogenetically distinct from other members of the Sousa genus. Sousa chinensis is found in Southeast/South Asia (in both the Indian and Pacific oceans), from at least the southeastern Bay of Bengal east to central China, and then south to the Indo-Malay Archipelago. There are no global population estimates, and the sum of available abundance estimates add up to about 5700 individuals, although only a portion of the range has been covered by surveys. This species occurs in shallow (<30m deep), coastal waters of the tropics and subtropics, and feeds mainly on small fishes. It has a similar reproductive biology to other large dolphins, occurs mostly in small groups, and generally has individual movements of about 50-200km(2). Major threats throughout the range include entanglement in fishing nets (primarily gillnets) and habitat destruction/degradation, although in some more industrialized areas, vessel traffic, and environmental contamination from organochlorines are also serious issues. Conservation management is largely lacking in most parts of the species' range, although there has been significant (though still inadequate) attention in some parts of China (e.g. Hong Kong and adjacent areas, and Taiwan). Much greater efforts are needed toward conservation of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins to stop apparent declines, and to lower the species' extinction risk. Sousa chinensis meets the IUCN Red List requirements for Vulnerable (under criteria A4cd), with fisheries bycatch and habitat loss/degradation being the main pervasive threats. PMID:26790886

  18. Application of the Red List Index for conservation assessment of Spanish vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Saiz, Juan Carlos Moreno; Lozano, Felipe Domínguez; Gómez, Manuel Marrero; Baudet, Ángel Bañares

    2015-06-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List Index (RLI) is used to measure trends in extinction risk of species over time. The development of 2 red lists for Spanish vascular flora during the past decade allowed us to apply the IUCN RLI to vascular plants in an area belonging to a global biodiversity hotspot. We used the Spanish Red Lists from 2000 and 2010 to assess changes in level of threat at a national scale and at the subnational scales of Canary Islands, Balearic Islands, and peninsular Spain. We assigned retrospective IUCN categories of threat to 98 species included in the Spanish Red List of 2010 but absent in the Spanish Red List of 2000. In addition, we tested the effect of different random and taxonomic and spatial Spanish samples on the overall RLI value. From 2000 to 2010, the IUCN categories of 768 species changed (10% of Spanish flora), mainly due to improved knowledge (63%), modifications in IUCN criteria (14%), and changes in threat status (12%). All measured national and subnational RLI values decreased during this period, indicating a general decline in the conservation status of the Spanish vascular flora. The Canarian RLI value (0.84) was the lowest, although the fastest deterioration in conservation status occurred on peninsular Spain (from 0.93 in 2000 to 0.92 in 2010). The RLI values based on subsamples of the Spanish Red List were not representative of RLI values for the entire country, which would discourage the use of small areas or small taxonomic samples to assess general trends in the endangerment of national biotas. The role of the RLI in monitoring of changes in biodiversity at the global and regional scales needs further reassessment because additional areas and taxa are necessary to determine whether the index is sufficiently sensitive for use in assessing temporal changes in species' risk of extinction. PMID:25580521

  19. Remotely Sensed Data Informs Red List Evaluations and Conservation Priorities in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Li, Binbin V; Hughes, Alice C; Jenkins, Clinton N; Ocampo-Peñuela, Natalia; Pimm, Stuart L

    2016-01-01

    The IUCN Red List has assessed the global distributions of the majority of the world's amphibians, birds and mammals. Yet these assessments lack explicit reference to widely available, remotely-sensed data that can sensibly inform a species' risk of extinction. Our first goal is to add additional quantitative data to the existing standardised process that IUCN employs. Secondly, we ask: do our results suggest species of concern-those at considerably greater risk than hitherto appreciated? Thirdly, these assessments are not only important on a species-by-species basis. By combining distributions of species of concern, we map conservation priorities. We ask to what degree these areas are currently protected and how might knowledge from remote sensing modify the priorities? Finally, we develop a quick and simple method to identify and modify the priority setting in a landscape where natural habitats are disappearing rapidly and so where conventional species' assessments might be too slow to respond. Tropical, mainland Southeast Asia is under exceptional threat, yet relatively poorly known. Here, additional quantitative measures may be particularly helpful. This region contains over 122, 183, and 214 endemic mammals, birds, and amphibians, respectively, of which the IUCN considers 37, 21, and 37 threatened. When corrected for the amount of remaining natural habitats within the known elevation preferences of species, the average sizes of species ranges shrink to <40% of their published ranges. Some 79 mammal, 49 bird, and 184 amphibian ranges are <20,000km2-an area at which IUCN considers most other species to be threatened. Moreover, these species are not better protected by the existing network of protected areas than are species that IUCN accepts as threatened. Simply, there appear to be considerably more species at risk than hitherto appreciated. Furthermore, incorporating remote sensing data showing where habitat loss is prevalent changes the locations of

  20. Remotely Sensed Data Informs Red List Evaluations and Conservation Priorities in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Binbin V.; Hughes, Alice C.; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Ocampo-Peñuela, Natalia; Pimm, Stuart L.

    2016-01-01

    The IUCN Red List has assessed the global distributions of the majority of the world’s amphibians, birds and mammals. Yet these assessments lack explicit reference to widely available, remotely-sensed data that can sensibly inform a species’ risk of extinction. Our first goal is to add additional quantitative data to the existing standardised process that IUCN employs. Secondly, we ask: do our results suggest species of concern—those at considerably greater risk than hitherto appreciated? Thirdly, these assessments are not only important on a species-by-species basis. By combining distributions of species of concern, we map conservation priorities. We ask to what degree these areas are currently protected and how might knowledge from remote sensing modify the priorities? Finally, we develop a quick and simple method to identify and modify the priority setting in a landscape where natural habitats are disappearing rapidly and so where conventional species’ assessments might be too slow to respond. Tropical, mainland Southeast Asia is under exceptional threat, yet relatively poorly known. Here, additional quantitative measures may be particularly helpful. This region contains over 122, 183, and 214 endemic mammals, birds, and amphibians, respectively, of which the IUCN considers 37, 21, and 37 threatened. When corrected for the amount of remaining natural habitats within the known elevation preferences of species, the average sizes of species ranges shrink to <40% of their published ranges. Some 79 mammal, 49 bird, and 184 amphibian ranges are <20,000km2—an area at which IUCN considers most other species to be threatened. Moreover, these species are not better protected by the existing network of protected areas than are species that IUCN accepts as threatened. Simply, there appear to be considerably more species at risk than hitherto appreciated. Furthermore, incorporating remote sensing data showing where habitat loss is prevalent changes the locations of

  1. Conservation Actions Based on Red Lists Do Not Capture the Functional and Phylogenetic Diversity of Birds in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hidasi-Neto, José; Loyola, Rafael Dias; Cianciaruso, Marcus Vinicius

    2013-01-01

    Red Lists of threatened species play a critical role in conservation science and practice. However, policy-making based on Red Lists ignores ecological and evolutionary consequences of losing biodiversity because these lists focus on species alone. To decide if relying on Red Lists alone can help to conserve communities’ functional (FD) and phylogenetic (PD) diversity, it is useful to evaluate whether Red List categories represent species with diverse ecological traits and evolutionary histories. Additionally, local scale analyses using regional Red Lists should represent more realistic pools of co-occurring species and thereby better capture eventual losses of FD and PD. Here, we used 21 life-history traits and a phylogeny for all Brazilian birds to determine whether species assigned under the IUCN global Red List, the Brazilian national, and regional Red Lists capture more FD and PD than expected by chance. We also built local Red Lists and analysed if they capture more FD and PD at the local scale. Further, we investigated whether individual threat categories have species with greater FD and PD than expected by chance. At any given scale, threat categories did not capture greater FD or PD than expected by chance. Indeed, mostly categories captured equal or less FD or PD than expected by chance. These findings would not have great consequences if Red Lists were not often considered as a major decision support tool for policy-making. Our results challenge the practice of investing conservation resources based only on species Red Lists because, from an ecological and evolutionary point of view, this would be the same as protecting similar or random sets of species. Thus, new prioritization methods, such as the EDGE of Existence initiative, should be developed and applied to conserve species’ ecological traits and evolutionary histories at different spatial scales. PMID:24039939

  2. Supporting Red List threat assessments with GeoCAT: geospatial conservation assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Bachman, Steven; Moat, Justin; Hill, Andrew W; de Torre, Javier; Scott, Ben

    2011-01-01

    GeoCAT is an open source, browser based tool that performs rapid geospatial analysis to ease the process of Red Listing taxa. Developed to utilise spatially referenced primary occurrence data, the analysis focuses on two aspects of the geographic range of a taxon: the extent of occurrence (EOO) and the area of occupancy (AOO). These metrics form part of the IUCN Red List categories and criteria and have often proved challenging to obtain in an accurate, consistent and repeatable way. Within a familiar Google Maps environment, GeoCAT users can quickly and easily combine data from multiple sources such as GBIF, Flickr and Scratchpads as well as user generated occurrence data. Analysis is done with the click of a button and is visualised instantly, providing an indication of the Red List threat rating, subject to meeting the full requirements of the criteria. Outputs including the results, data and parameters used for analysis are stored in a GeoCAT file that can be easily reloaded or shared with collaborators. GeoCAT is a first step toward automating the data handling process of Red List assessing and provides a valuable hub from which further developments and enhancements can be spawned. PMID:22207809

  3. Using Red List Indices to measure progress towards the 2010 target and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Butchart, S.H.M; Stattersfield, A.J; Baillie, J; Bennun, L.A; Stuart, S.N; Akçakaya, H.R; Hilton-Taylor, C; Mace, G.M

    2005-01-01

    The World Conservation Union (IUCN) Red List is widely recognized as the most authoritative and objective system for classifying species by their risk of extinction. Red List Indices (RLIs) illustrate the relative rate at which a particular set of species change in overall threat status (i.e. projected relative extinction-risk), based on population and range size and trends as quantified by Red List categories. RLIs can be calculated for any representative set of species that has been fully assessed at least twice. They are based on the number of species in each Red List category, and the number changing categories between assessments as a result of genuine improvement or deterioration in status. RLIs show a fairly coarse level of resolution, but for fully assessed taxonomic groups they are highly representative, being based on information from a high proportion of species worldwide. The RLI for the world's birds shows that that their overall threat status has deteriorated steadily during the years 1988–2004 in all biogeographic realms and ecosystems. A preliminary RLI for amphibians for 1980–2004 shows similar rates of decline. RLIs are in development for other groups. In addition, a sampled index is being developed, based on a stratified sample of species from all major taxonomic groups, realms and ecosystems. This will provide extinction-risk trends that are more representative of all biodiversity. PMID:15814344

  4. Supporting Red List threat assessments with GeoCAT: geospatial conservation assessment tool

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Steven; Moat, Justin; Hill, Andrew W.; de Torre, Javier; Scott, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Abstract GeoCAT is an open source, browser based tool that performs rapid geospatial analysis to ease the process of Red Listing taxa. Developed to utilise spatially referenced primary occurrence data, the analysis focuses on two aspects of the geographic range of a taxon: the extent of occurrence (EOO) and the area of occupancy (AOO). These metrics form part of the IUCN Red List categories and criteria and have often proved challenging to obtain in an accurate, consistent and repeatable way. Within a familiar Google Maps environment, GeoCAT users can quickly and easily combine data from multiple sources such as GBIF, Flickr and Scratchpads as well as user generated occurrence data. Analysis is done with the click of a button and is visualised instantly, providing an indication of the Red List threat rating, subject to meeting the full requirements of the criteria. Outputs including the results, data and parameters used for analysis are stored in a GeoCAT file that can be easily reloaded or shared with collaborators. GeoCAT is a first step toward automating the data handling process of Red List assessing and provides a valuable hub from which further developments and enhancements can be spawned. PMID:22207809

  5. The sampled Red List Index for plants, phase II: ground-truthing specimen-based conservation assessments.

    PubMed

    Brummitt, Neil; Bachman, Steven P; Aletrari, Elina; Chadburn, Helen; Griffiths-Lee, Janine; Lutz, Maiko; Moat, Justin; Rivers, Malin C; Syfert, Mindy M; Nic Lughadha, Eimear M

    2015-02-19

    The IUCN Sampled Red List Index (SRLI) is a policy response by biodiversity scientists to the need to estimate trends in extinction risk of the world's diminishing biological diversity. Assessments of plant species for the SRLI project rely predominantly on herbarium specimen data from natural history collections, in the overwhelming absence of accurate population data or detailed distribution maps for the vast majority of plant species. This creates difficulties in re-assessing these species so as to measure genuine changes in conservation status, which must be observed under the same Red List criteria in order to be distinguished from an increase in the knowledge available for that species, and thus re-calculate the SRLI. However, the same specimen data identify precise localities where threatened species have previously been collected and can be used to model species ranges and to target fieldwork in order to test specimen-based range estimates and collect population data for SRLI plant species. Here, we outline a strategy for prioritizing fieldwork efforts in order to apply a wider range of IUCN Red List criteria to assessments of plant species, or any taxa with detailed locality or natural history specimen data, to produce a more robust estimation of the SRLI. PMID:25561676

  6. Comprehensive Red List Assessment Reveals Exceptionally High Extinction Risk to Madagascar Palms

    PubMed Central

    Rakotoarinivo, Mijoro; Dransfield, John; Bachman, Steven P.; Moat, Justin; Baker, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of baseline IUCN Red List assessments for plants is a crucial step in conservation planning. Nowhere is this more important than in biodiversity hotspots that are subject to significant anthropogenic pressures, such as Madagascar. Here, all Madagascar palm species are assessed using the IUCN Red List categories and criteria, version 3.1. Our results indicate that 83% of the 192 endemic species are threatened, nearly four times the proportion estimated for plants globally and exceeding estimates for all other comprehensively evaluated plant groups in Madagascar. Compared with a previous assessment in 1995, the number of Endangered and Critically Endangered species has substantially increased, due to the discovery of 28 new species since 1995, most of which are highly threatened. The conservation status of most species included in both the 1995 and the current assessments has not changed. Where change occurred, more species have moved to lower threat categories than to higher categories, because of improved knowledge of species and their distributions, rather than a decrease in extinction risk. However, some cases of genuine deterioration in conservation status were also identified. Palms in Madagascar are primarily threatened by habitat loss due to agriculture and biological resource use through direct exploitation or collateral damage. The recent extension of Madagascar’s protected area network is highly beneficial for palms, substantially increasing the number of threatened species populations included within reserves. Notably, three of the eight most important protected areas for palms are newly designated. However, 28 threatened and data deficient species are not protected by the expanded network, including some Critically Endangered species. Moreover, many species occurring in protected areas are still threatened, indicating that threatening processes persist even in reserves. Definitive implementation of the new protected areas combined

  7. Comprehensive Red List assessment reveals exceptionally high extinction risk to Madagascar palms.

    PubMed

    Rakotoarinivo, Mijoro; Dransfield, John; Bachman, Steven P; Moat, Justin; Baker, William J

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of baseline IUCN Red List assessments for plants is a crucial step in conservation planning. Nowhere is this more important than in biodiversity hotspots that are subject to significant anthropogenic pressures, such as Madagascar. Here, all Madagascar palm species are assessed using the IUCN Red List categories and criteria, version 3.1. Our results indicate that 83% of the 192 endemic species are threatened, nearly four times the proportion estimated for plants globally and exceeding estimates for all other comprehensively evaluated plant groups in Madagascar. Compared with a previous assessment in 1995, the number of Endangered and Critically Endangered species has substantially increased, due to the discovery of 28 new species since 1995, most of which are highly threatened. The conservation status of most species included in both the 1995 and the current assessments has not changed. Where change occurred, more species have moved to lower threat categories than to higher categories, because of improved knowledge of species and their distributions, rather than a decrease in extinction risk. However, some cases of genuine deterioration in conservation status were also identified. Palms in Madagascar are primarily threatened by habitat loss due to agriculture and biological resource use through direct exploitation or collateral damage. The recent extension of Madagascar's protected area network is highly beneficial for palms, substantially increasing the number of threatened species populations included within reserves. Notably, three of the eight most important protected areas for palms are newly designated. However, 28 threatened and data deficient species are not protected by the expanded network, including some Critically Endangered species. Moreover, many species occurring in protected areas are still threatened, indicating that threatening processes persist even in reserves. Definitive implementation of the new protected areas combined with

  8. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  9. Measuring Global Trends in the Status of Biodiversity: Red List Indices for Birds

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The rapid destruction of the planet's biodiversity has prompted the nations of the world to set a target of achieving a significant reduction in the rate of loss of biodiversity by 2010. However, we do not yet have an adequate way of monitoring progress towards achieving this target. Here we present a method for producing indices based on the IUCN Red List to chart the overall threat status (projected relative extinction risk) of all the world's bird species from 1988 to 2004. Red List Indices (RLIs) are based on the number of species in each Red List category, and on the number changing categories between assessments as a result of genuine improvement or deterioration in status. The RLI for all bird species shows that their overall threat status has continued to deteriorate since 1988. Disaggregated indices show that deteriorations have occurred worldwide and in all major ecosystems, but with particularly steep declines in the indices for Indo-Malayan birds (driven by intensifying deforestation of the Sundaic lowlands) and for albatrosses and petrels (driven by incidental mortality in commercial longline fisheries). RLIs complement indicators based on species population trends and habitat extent for quantifying global trends in the status of biodiversity. Their main weaknesses are that the resolution of status changes is fairly coarse and that delays may occur before some status changes are detected. Their greatest strength is that they are based on information from nearly all species in a taxonomic group worldwide, rather than a potentially biased subset. At present, suitable data are only available for birds, but indices for other taxonomic groups are in development, as is a sampled index based on a stratified sample from all major taxonomic groups. PMID:15510230

  10. National red listing beyond the 2010 target.

    PubMed

    Zamin, Tara J; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Miller, Rebecca M; Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Ardid, Ana; Collen, Ben

    2010-08-01

    Following creation of the 2010 Biodiversity Target under the Convention on Biological Diversity and adoption of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, information on status and trends of biodiversity at the national level has become increasingly important to both science and policy. National red lists (NRLs) of threatened species may provide suitable data for reporting on progress toward these goals and for informing national conservation priority setting. This information will also become increasingly important for developing species- and ecosystem-based strategies for climate change adaptation. We conducted a thorough global review of NRLs in 109 countries and analyzed gaps in NRL coverage in terms of geography and taxonomy to determine priority regions and taxonomic groups for further investment. We then examined correlations between the NRL data set and gross domestic product (GDP) and vertebrate species richness. The largest geographic gap was in Oceania, followed by middle Africa, the Caribbean, and western Africa, whereas the largest taxonomic gaps were for invertebrates, fungi, and lichens. The comprehensiveness of NRL coverage within a given country was positively correlated with GDP and negatively correlated with total vertebrate richness and threatened vertebrate richness. This supports the assertion that regions with the greatest and most vulnerable biodiversity receive the least conservation attention and indicates that financial resources may be an integral limitation. To improve coverage of NRLs, we propose a combination of projects that target underrepresented taxa or regions and projects that provide the means for countries to create or update NRLs on their own. We recommend improvements in knowledge transfer within and across regions as a priority for future investment. PMID:20337689

  11. Conus: First Comprehensive Conservation Red List Assessment of a Marine Gastropod Mollusc Genus

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Howard; O'Leary, Bethan C.; Hawkins, Julie P.; Carpenter, Kent E.; Roberts, Callum M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine molluscs represent an estimated 23% of all extant marine taxa, but research into their conservation status has so far failed to reflect this importance, with minimal inclusion on the authoritative Red List of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). We assessed the status of all 632 valid species of the tropical marine gastropod mollusc, Conus (cone snails), using Red List standards and procedures to lay the groundwork for future decadal monitoring, one of the first fully comprehensive global assessments of a marine taxon. Three-quarters (75.6%) of species were not currently considered at risk of extinction owing to their wide distribution and perceived abundance. However, 6.5% were considered threatened with extinction with a further 4.1% near threatened. Data deficiency prevented 13.8% of species from being categorised although they also possess characteristics that signal concern. Where hotspots of endemism occur, most notably in the Eastern Atlantic, 42.9% of the 98 species from that biogeographical region were classified as threatened or near threatened with extinction. All 14 species included in the highest categories of Critically Endangered and Endangered are endemic to either Cape Verde or Senegal, with each of the three Critically Endangered species restricted to single islands in Cape Verde. Threats to all these species are driven by habitat loss and anthropogenic disturbance, in particular from urban pollution, tourism and coastal development. Our findings show that levels of extinction risk to which cone snails are exposed are of a similar magnitude to those seen in many fully assessed terrestrial taxa. The widely held view that marine species are less at risk is not upheld. PMID:24376693

  12. Conus: first comprehensive conservation red list assessment of a marine gastropod mollusc genus.

    PubMed

    Peters, Howard; O'Leary, Bethan C; Hawkins, Julie P; Carpenter, Kent E; Roberts, Callum M

    2013-01-01

    Marine molluscs represent an estimated 23% of all extant marine taxa, but research into their conservation status has so far failed to reflect this importance, with minimal inclusion on the authoritative Red List of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). We assessed the status of all 632 valid species of the tropical marine gastropod mollusc, Conus (cone snails), using Red List standards and procedures to lay the groundwork for future decadal monitoring, one of the first fully comprehensive global assessments of a marine taxon. Three-quarters (75.6%) of species were not currently considered at risk of extinction owing to their wide distribution and perceived abundance. However, 6.5% were considered threatened with extinction with a further 4.1% near threatened. Data deficiency prevented 13.8% of species from being categorised although they also possess characteristics that signal concern. Where hotspots of endemism occur, most notably in the Eastern Atlantic, 42.9% of the 98 species from that biogeographical region were classified as threatened or near threatened with extinction. All 14 species included in the highest categories of Critically Endangered and Endangered are endemic to either Cape Verde or Senegal, with each of the three Critically Endangered species restricted to single islands in Cape Verde. Threats to all these species are driven by habitat loss and anthropogenic disturbance, in particular from urban pollution, tourism and coastal development. Our findings show that levels of extinction risk to which cone snails are exposed are of a similar magnitude to those seen in many fully assessed terrestrial taxa. The widely held view that marine species are less at risk is not upheld. PMID:24376693

  13. Red List of spiders (araneae) of the Wadden Sea Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vangsgård, C.; Reinke, H.-D.; Schultz, W.; van Helsdingen, P. J.

    1996-10-01

    In the Wadden Sea, in total, 55 species of spiders are threatened in at least one subregion. Of these, 50 species are threatened in the entire area and are therefore placed on the trilateral Red List. According to the present knowledge, no species of the listed spiders are extinct in the entire Wadden Sea area. The status of 3 species of spiders is (probably) critical; 12 species are endangered; the status of 30 species is (probably) vulnerable and of 6 species susceptible.

  14. A population accounting approach to assess tourism contributions to conservation of IUCN-redlisted mammal species.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Ralf C; Castley, J Guy; Pegas, Fernanda de Vasconcellos; Mossaz, Alexa C; Steven, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    Over 1,000 mammal species are red-listed by IUCN, as Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable. Conservation of many threatened mammal species, even inside protected areas, depends on costly active day-to-day defence against poaching, bushmeat hunting, invasive species and habitat encroachment. Many parks agencies worldwide now rely heavily on tourism for routine operational funding: >50% in some cases. This puts rare mammals at a new risk, from downturns in tourism driven by external socioeconomic factors. Using the survival of individual animals as a metric or currency of successful conservation, we calculate here what proportions of remaining populations of IUCN-redlisted mammal species are currently supported by funds from tourism. This proportion is ≥ 5% for over half of the species where relevant data exist, ≥ 15% for one fifth, and up to 66% in a few cases. Many of these species, especially the most endangered, survive only in one single remaining subpopulation. These proportions are not correlated either with global population sizes or recognition as wildlife tourism icons. Most of the more heavily tourism-dependent species, however, are medium sized (>7.5 kg) or larger. Historically, biological concern over the growth of tourism in protected areas has centered on direct disturbance to wildlife. These results show that conservation of threatened mammal species has become reliant on revenue from tourism to a previously unsuspected degree. On the one hand, this provides new opportunities for conservation funding; but on the other, dependence on such an uncertain source of funding is a new, large and growing threat to red-listed species. PMID:22984467

  15. A Population Accounting Approach to Assess Tourism Contributions to Conservation of IUCN-Redlisted Mammal Species

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Ralf C.; Castley, J. Guy; Pegas, Fernanda de Vasconcellos; Mossaz, Alexa C.; Steven, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    Over 1,000 mammal species are red-listed by IUCN, as Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable. Conservation of many threatened mammal species, even inside protected areas, depends on costly active day-to-day defence against poaching, bushmeat hunting, invasive species and habitat encroachment. Many parks agencies worldwide now rely heavily on tourism for routine operational funding: >50% in some cases. This puts rare mammals at a new risk, from downturns in tourism driven by external socioeconomic factors. Using the survival of individual animals as a metric or currency of successful conservation, we calculate here what proportions of remaining populations of IUCN-redlisted mammal species are currently supported by funds from tourism. This proportion is ≥5% for over half of the species where relevant data exist, ≥15% for one fifth, and up to 66% in a few cases. Many of these species, especially the most endangered, survive only in one single remaining subpopulation. These proportions are not correlated either with global population sizes or recognition as wildlife tourism icons. Most of the more heavily tourism-dependent species, however, are medium sized (>7.5 kg) or larger. Historically, biological concern over the growth of tourism in protected areas has centered on direct disturbance to wildlife. These results show that conservation of threatened mammal species has become reliant on revenue from tourism to a previously unsuspected degree. On the one hand, this provides new opportunities for conservation funding; but on the other, dependence on such an uncertain source of funding is a new, large and growing threat to red-listed species. PMID:22984467

  16. Red List of vascular plants of the Wadden Sea Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wind, P.; van der Ende, M.; Garve, E.; Schacherer, A.; Thissen, J. B. M.

    1996-10-01

    In the Wadden Sea area, a total of 248 (sub)species of vascular plants are threatened in at least one subregion. Of these, 216 (sub)species are threatened in the entire area and are therefore placed on the trialteral Red List. 17 (sub)species of the listed vascular plants are (probably) extinct in the entire Wadden Sea area. The status of 47 (sub)species of vascular plants is (probably) critical; 61 (sub)species are (probably) endangered; the status of 65 (sub)species is (probably) vulnerable and that of 26 (sub)species susceptible.

  17. Red List of macrofaunal benthic invertebrates of the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, G. H.; Madsen, P. B.; Jensen, K. T.; van Bernem, K. H.; Harms, J.; Heiber, W.; Kröncke, I.; Michaelis, H.; Rachor, E.; Reise, K.; Dekker, R.; Visser, G. J. M.; Wolff, W. J.

    1996-10-01

    In the Wadden Sea, in total, 93 species of macrofaunal benthic invertebrates are threatened in at least one subregion. Of these, 72 species are threatened in the entire area and are therefore placed on the trilateral Red List. 7 species are (probably) extinct in the entire Wadden Sea area. The status of 9 species of macrofaunal invertebrates is critical, 13 species are (probably) endangered, the status of 25 species is (probably) vulnerable and of 17 species (probably) susceptible.

  18. Red List of beetles of the Wadden Sea Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, V.; Suikat, R.; Aßmann, Th.

    1996-10-01

    As no data on beetles in the Wadden Sea area are available from The Netherlands, the trilateral status of threat only refers to the Danish and German part of the Wadden Sea. In this area, in total, 238 species of beetles are threatened in at least one subregion. Of these, 189 species are threatened in the entire area and are therefore placed on the trilateral Red List. 4 species are (probably) extinct in the entire Wadden Sea area. The status of 24 species of beetles is (probably) critical, 46 species are (probably) endangered, the status of 86 species is (probably) vulnerable and of 29 species (probably) susceptible.

  19. Red List of grasshoppers of the Wadden Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holst, K.; Grein, G.; Dierking, U.; van Wingerden, W. K. R. E.

    1996-10-01

    In typical coastal habitats of the Wadden Sea, 15 species of grasshoppers are threatened in at least one subregion. Of these, 14 species are threatened in the entire area and are therefore placed on the trilateral Red List. The situation in the Danish part of the Wadden Sea could only be taken into consideration in a limited way due to the latest available data in Denmark from 1969. The status of 2 species of grasshoppers in the entire Wadden Sea area is critical, 4 species are endangered, the status of 3 species is vulnerable and of 5 species susceptible.

  20. The role of IUCN protected area categories in the conservation of geoheritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Kyung Sik; Gordon, John E.; Crofts, Roger; Diaz-Martinez, Enrique; McKeever, Patrick J.; Hill, Wesley

    2015-04-01

    Geoheritage comprises those elements of the Earth's geodiversity that are considered to have significant scientific, educational, cultural/aesthetic, ecological or ecosystem service value. IUCN Resolutions 4.040 (2008) and 5.048 (2012) both clearly recognise that geodiversity is part of nature and geoheritage is part of natural heritage. Formal recognition of the geodiversity component of protected areas was made in 2008 in the revised IUCN Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories (Dudley, 2008). All 6 of the IUCN Protected Area Management Categories (strict nature reserve/wilderness area, national park, national monument or feature, habitat/species management area, protected landscape/seascape, and protected area with sustainable use of natural resources) are applicable to the protection of geoheritage and provide opportunities to integrate conservation of geosites and the wider landscape values of geodiversity much more closely in protected area networks (Crofts & Gordon, 2015). Although geoparks are not a protected area category as such, and may only include some parts of protected areas as geosites, the UNESCO-supported Global Geoparks Network also provides an international framework to conserve and enhance geoheritage, as does the UNESCO World Heritage List. The Geoheritage Specialist Group of the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas provides specialist advice and guidance on all aspects of geodiversity and geoheritage in relation to the establishment and management of protected areas, the integration of geodiversity into IUCN's programmes, and the promotion of better understanding of the links between geodiversity and biodiversity. http://www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/gpap_home/gpap_biodiversity/gpap_wcpabiodiv/gpap_geoheritage/). Crofts, R., Gordon, J. E. (2015) Geoconservation in protected areas. In: G.L. Worboys, M. Lockwood, A. Kothari, S. Feary, I. Pulsford (eds), Protected Area Governance and Management. ANU Press, Canberra

  1. Red List of amphibians and reptiles of the Wadden Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fog, K.; Podloucky, R.; Dierking, U.; Stumpel, A. H. P.

    1996-10-01

    In the Wadden Sea, in total, 8 species of amphibians and 4 species of reptiles are threatened in at least one subregion. Of these, 7 species of amphibians and all 4 species of reptiles are threatened in the entire area and are therefore placed on the trilateral Red List. 1 species of the listed reptiles is (probably) extinct in the entire Wadden Sea area. The status of 1 species of amphibians is endangered, the status of (probably) 4 species of amphibians and 3 species of reptiles are vulnerable and of 2 species of amphibians susceptible.

  2. Using Social Media to Measure the Contribution of Red List Species to the Nature-Based Tourism Potential of African Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Willemen, Louise; Cottam, Andrew J; Drakou, Evangelia G; Burgess, Neil D

    2015-01-01

    Cultural ecosystem services are defined by people's perception of the environment, which make them hard to quantify systematically. Methods to describe cultural benefits from ecosystems typically include resource-demanding survey techniques, which are not suitable to assess cultural ecosystem services for large areas. In this paper we explore a method to quantify cultural benefits through the enjoyment of natured-based tourism, by assessing the potential tourism attractiveness of species for each protected area in Africa using the IUCN's Red List of Threatened Species. We use the number of pictures of wildlife posted on a photo sharing website as a proxy for charisma, popularity, and ease of observation, as these factors combined are assumed to determine how attractive species are for the global wildlife tourist. Based on photo counts of 2473 African animals and plants, species that seem most attractive to nature-based tourism are the Lion, African Elephant and Leopard. Combining the photo counts with species range data, African protected areas with the highest potential to attract wildlife tourists based on attractive species occurrence were Samburu National Reserve in Kenya, Mukogodo Forest Reserve located just north of Mount Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park in South-Africa. The proposed method requires only three data sources which are freely accessible and available online, which could make the proposed index tractable for large scale quantitative ecosystem service assessments. The index directly links species presence to the tourism potential of protected areas, making the connection between nature and human benefits explicit, but excludes other important contributing factors for tourism, such as accessibility and safety. This social media based index provides a broad understanding of those species that are popular globally; in many cases these are not the species of highest conservation concern. PMID:26068111

  3. Red List of lampreys and marine fishes of the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, S.; Krog, C.; Muus, B.; Nielsen, J.; Fricke, R.; Berghahn, R.; Neudecker, Th.; Wolff, W. J.

    1996-10-01

    In the Wadden Sea areas of Denmark, Germany and The Netherlands, a total of 162 fish and lamprey species is known. 72 of these species are migrants entering the area occasionally; the total number of resident species in the Wadden Sea area is 90. In the Wadden Sea, in total, 20 species of fish and lamprey species are threatened in at least one subregion. Of these, 19 species are threatened in the entire area and are therefore placed on the trilateral Red List. 2 species of the listed fish and lamprey species are (probably) extinct in the entire Wadden Sea area. The status of 5 species of fish and lamprey species is critical, 5 species are (probably) endangered, the status of 6 is vulnerable and of 1 species susceptible. For about 16 rare species which may also be threatened, data were not sufficient to estimate past and present population sizes. The contributors to the list would like to encourage researchers to intensify work on the ecology and the present population sizes of these rare Wadden Sea species (see Fricke et al., 1995).

  4. IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) Yearbook, 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, (Switzerland).

    This yearbook covers the period from January 1975 to May 1976. It reviews the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources' (IUCN) conservation strategy for the coming years, important international conservation treaties, IUCN organizational reforms, and the financial report for 1975. Conservation discussions include…

  5. International Union for Conservation of Nature Bulletin (IUCN), Volume 3 Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IUCN Bulletin, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Compiled in this newsletter are activities, viewpoints, reports, extracts from speeches, and book reviews by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). Principal items deal with the 11th General Assembly of the IUCN held September, 1972 in Banff, Alberta, Canada. A general summary of the meeting is reported as…

  6. International Union for Conservation of Nature Bulletin (IUCN), Volume 3 Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IUCN Bulletin, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Compiled in this newsletter are activities, viewpoints, reports, and publications of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The principal article in this issue is a discussion of land use, one of the major forces contributing to the crisis of the human environment in addition to population and pollution.…

  7. International Union for Conservation of Nature Bulletin (IUCN), Volume 4 Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, (Switzerland).

    Compiled in this newsletter are activities, viewpoints, reports, book reviews, and conference proceedings emanating from the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). Principle items deal with viewpoints of politics and conservation and the International Workshop on Environmental Studies in Higher Education and…

  8. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Yearbook (IUCN) 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, (Switzerland).

    Presented is the annual report of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) for the year 1972. This organization, founded in 1948, aims at maintaining and enhancing the diversity of the biosphere by promoting rational management of the earth's resources. The union is dedicated to maintaining the highest…

  9. Total Catch of a Red-Listed Marine Species Is an Order of Magnitude Higher than Official Data

    PubMed Central

    Kleiven, Alf Ring; Olsen, Esben Moland; Vølstad, Jon Helge

    2012-01-01

    Accurate information on total catch and effort is essential for successful fisheries management. Officially reported landings, however, may be underestimates of total catch in many fisheries. We investigated the fishery for the nationally red-listed European lobster (Homarus gammarus) in south-eastern Norway. Probability-based strip transect surveys were used to count buoys in the study area in combination with catch per unit effort data obtained independently from volunteer catch diaries, phone interviews, and questionnaires. We estimate that recreational catch accounts for 65% of total catch in the study area. Moreover, our results indicate that only a small proportion (24%) of lobsters landed commercially were sold through the legal market and documented. Total estimated lobster catch was nearly 14 times higher than reported officially. Our study highlights the need for adequate catch monitoring and data collection efforts in coastal areas, presents a clear warning to resource managers that illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fisheries in coastal areas should not be ignored, and shows the potential impact of recreational fisheries. PMID:22363583

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Forest Fragmentation in the Atlantic Forest Reveals More Threatened Bird Species than the Current Red List

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Jessica K.; Harris, Grant M.; Pimm, Stuart L.; Russell, Gareth J.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss and attendant fragmentation threaten the existence of many species. Conserving these species requires a straightforward and objective method that quantifies how these factors affect their survival. Therefore, we compared a variety of metrics that assess habitat fragmentation in bird ranges, using the geographical ranges of 127 forest endemic passerine birds inhabiting the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. A common, non-biological metric — cumulative area of size-ranked fragments within a species range — was misleading, as the least threatened species had the most habitat fragmentation. Instead, we recommend a modified version of metapopulation capacity. The metric links detailed spatial information on fragment sizes and spatial configuration to the birds’ abilities to occupy and disperse across large areas (100,000+ km2). In the Atlantic Forest, metapopulation capacities were largely bimodal, in that most species’ ranges had either low capacity (high risk of extinction) or high capacity (very small risk of extinction). This pattern persisted within taxonomically and ecologically homogenous groups, indicating that it is driven by fragmentation patterns and not differences in species ecology. Worryingly, we found IUCN considers some 28 of 58 species in the low metapopulation capacity cluster to not be threatened. We propose that assessing the effect of fragmentation will separate species more clearly into distinct risk categories than does a simple assessment of remaining habitat. PMID:23734248

  11. 76 FR 304 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Red Knot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... our list of candidate species with a listing priority number of 6 (71 FR 53758-53759). ``Warranted but... threats were determined to be imminent (73 FR 75178-75179, December 10, 2008). Because we determined that... number of 3 for this subspecies (74 FR 57825-57826, November 9, 2009). Accordingly, as we addressed...

  12. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Bulletin, New Series Vol. 7, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, (Switzerland).

    Described is the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) marine program which centers around the world wildlife fund marine program. The program has been divided into three phases - launch, main, and follow-up; the launch phase is described. Action plans are described for each sub-program. Each action plan…

  13. Session of the General Assembly of IUCN (15th, Christchurch, New Zealand, October 11-23, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, (Switzerland).

    Resolutions adopted by the 15th session of the General Assembly of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) are provided in this document. These resolutions focus on areas/issues related to: (1) world conservation strategy; (2) conservation and peace; (3) people, resources, and environment; (4) environmental…

  14. Human Disturbance Threats the Red-Listed Macrolichen Seirophora villosa (Ach.) Frödén in Coastal Juniperus Habitats: Evidence From Western Peninsular Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benesperi, Renato; Lastrucci, Lorenzo; Nascimbene, Juri

    2013-10-01

    In Europe, coastal dune systems with Juniperus spp. (Natura 2000 habitat code 2250) are a priority habitat for conservation according to the Natura 2000 policies. Currently, anthropogenic pressure is threatening the biodiversity of this habitat. While the impact of human pressure on animals and vascular plants is already documented, information is still scanty for other organisms such as epiphytic lichens. The main aim of this study is to test the effect of human disturbance on the occurrence and abundance of the red-listed macrolichen Seirophora villosa. We also tested the effect of human disturbance on the whole community of epiphytic lichens in terms of species richness and composition. The study was performed along the coast of Tuscany by comparing both disturbed and undisturbed Juniperus stands according to a stratified random sampling design. Our results provided evidence that in coastal systems the long-term conservation of the red-listed macrolichen S. villosa and its characteristic community composed by several Mediterranean species of conservation concern depends on the maintenance of undisturbed Juniperus habitats. Results also support the possibility of using S. villosa as an indicator species of habitat conservation importance and habitat integrity since its occurrence is predicted on nestedness in term of species composition, assemblages of species poor disturbed stands being subsets of those of richer undisturbed stands.

  15. The contribution of DNA metabarcoding to fungal conservation: diversity assessment, habitat partitioning and mapping red-listed fungi in protected coastal Salix repens communities in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Geml, József; Gravendeel, Barbara; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J; Neilen, Manon; Lammers, Youri; Raes, Niels; Semenova, Tatiana A; de Knijff, Peter; Noordeloos, Machiel E

    2014-01-01

    Western European coastal sand dunes are highly important for nature conservation. Communities of the creeping willow (Salix repens) represent one of the most characteristic and diverse vegetation types in the dunes. We report here the results of the first kingdom-wide fungal diversity assessment in S. repens coastal dune vegetation. We carried out massively parallel pyrosequencing of ITS rDNA from soil samples taken at ten sites in an extended area of joined nature reserves located along the North Sea coast of the Netherlands, representing habitats with varying soil pH and moisture levels. Fungal communities in Salix repens beds are highly diverse and we detected 1211 non-singleton fungal 97% sequence similarity OTUs after analyzing 688,434 ITS2 rDNA sequences. Our comparison along a north-south transect indicated strong correlation between soil pH and fungal community composition. The total fungal richness and the number OTUs of most fungal taxonomic groups negatively correlated with higher soil pH, with some exceptions. With regard to ecological groups, dark-septate endophytic fungi were more diverse in acidic soils, ectomycorrhizal fungi were represented by more OTUs in calcareous sites, while detected arbuscular mycorrhizal genera fungi showed opposing trends regarding pH. Furthermore, we detected numerous red listed species in our samples often from previously unknown locations, indicating that some of the fungal species currently considered rare may be more abundant in Dutch S. repens communities than previously thought. PMID:24937200

  16. The Contribution of DNA Metabarcoding to Fungal Conservation: Diversity Assessment, Habitat Partitioning and Mapping Red-Listed Fungi in Protected Coastal Salix repens Communities in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Geml, József; Gravendeel, Barbara; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J.; Neilen, Manon; Lammers, Youri; Raes, Niels; Semenova, Tatiana A.; de Knijff, Peter; Noordeloos, Machiel E.

    2014-01-01

    Western European coastal sand dunes are highly important for nature conservation. Communities of the creeping willow (Salix repens) represent one of the most characteristic and diverse vegetation types in the dunes. We report here the results of the first kingdom-wide fungal diversity assessment in S. repens coastal dune vegetation. We carried out massively parallel pyrosequencing of ITS rDNA from soil samples taken at ten sites in an extended area of joined nature reserves located along the North Sea coast of the Netherlands, representing habitats with varying soil pH and moisture levels. Fungal communities in Salix repens beds are highly diverse and we detected 1211 non-singleton fungal 97% sequence similarity OTUs after analyzing 688,434 ITS2 rDNA sequences. Our comparison along a north-south transect indicated strong correlation between soil pH and fungal community composition. The total fungal richness and the number OTUs of most fungal taxonomic groups negatively correlated with higher soil pH, with some exceptions. With regard to ecological groups, dark-septate endophytic fungi were more diverse in acidic soils, ectomycorrhizal fungi were represented by more OTUs in calcareous sites, while detected arbuscular mycorrhizal genera fungi showed opposing trends regarding pH. Furthermore, we detected numerous red listed species in our samples often from previously unknown locations, indicating that some of the fungal species currently considered rare may be more abundant in Dutch S. repens communities than previously thought. PMID:24937200

  17. Occurrence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis in the Red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) and the Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) housed in the Poznan Zoological Garden, Poland.

    PubMed

    Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Majewska, Anna C; Trzesowska, Ewa; Skrzypczak, Łukasz

    2012-01-01

    Encephalitozoon intestinalis is one of the most common microsporidial species found in humans worldwide but it has rarely been identified in animals. The presence of this pathogen has been detected in a few species of domestic, captive and wild mammals as well as in three species of birds. The aim of the present study was to examine fecal samples obtained from mammals housed in the Poznan Zoological Garden, Poland, for the presence of potentially human-infectious microsporidia. A total of 339 fresh fecal samples collected from 75 species of mammals belonging to 27 families and 8 orders were examined for the presence of microsporidian spores. Microsporidian spores were identified in 3 out of 339 (0.9%) examined fecal samples. All samples identified as positive by chromotrope 2R and calcofluor white M2R were also positive by the FISH assay. Using multiplex FISH in all 3 fecal samples, only spores of E. intestinalis were identified in 2 out of 14 Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and in one out of 17 Red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra). To our knowledge this is the first diagnosis of E. intestinalis in Ring-tailed and Red ruffed lemurs. It should be mentioned that both lemur species are listed by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Although the lemurs were asymptomatically infected, the possibility of widespread infection or death of these animals remains in the event of an elevated stress or a decrease in their immunological functions. PMID:23094336

  18. Using Social Media to Measure the Contribution of Red List Species to the Nature-Based Tourism Potential of African Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Drakou, Evangelia G.; Burgess, Neil D.

    2015-01-01

    Cultural ecosystem services are defined by people’s perception of the environment, which make them hard to quantify systematically. Methods to describe cultural benefits from ecosystems typically include resource-demanding survey techniques, which are not suitable to assess cultural ecosystem services for large areas. In this paper we explore a method to quantify cultural benefits through the enjoyment of natured-based tourism, by assessing the potential tourism attractiveness of species for each protected area in Africa using the IUCN’s Red List of Threatened Species. We use the number of pictures of wildlife posted on a photo sharing website as a proxy for charisma, popularity, and ease of observation, as these factors combined are assumed to determine how attractive species are for the global wildlife tourist. Based on photo counts of 2473 African animals and plants, species that seem most attractive to nature-based tourism are the Lion, African Elephant and Leopard. Combining the photo counts with species range data, African protected areas with the highest potential to attract wildlife tourists based on attractive species occurrence were Samburu National Reserve in Kenya, Mukogodo Forest Reserve located just north of Mount Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park in South-Africa. The proposed method requires only three data sources which are freely accessible and available online, which could make the proposed index tractable for large scale quantitative ecosystem service assessments. The index directly links species presence to the tourism potential of protected areas, making the connection between nature and human benefits explicit, but excludes other important contributing factors for tourism, such as accessibility and safety. This social media based index provides a broad understanding of those species that are popular globally; in many cases these are not the species of highest conservation concern. PMID:26068111

  19. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  20. LINE LISTS FOR THE A {sup 2}Π-X {sup 2}Σ{sup +} (RED) AND B {sup 2}Σ{sup +}-X {sup 2}Σ{sup +} (VIOLET) SYSTEMS OF CN, {sup 13}C{sup 14}N, AND {sup 12}C{sup 15}N, AND APPLICATION TO ASTRONOMICAL SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Sneden, Christopher; Lucatello, Sara; Ram, Ram S.; Brooke, James S. A.; Bernath, Peter E-mail: sara.lucatello@oapd.inaf.it E-mail: jsabrooke@gmail.com

    2014-10-01

    New red and violet system line lists for the CN isotopologues {sup 13}C{sup 14}N and {sup 12}C{sup 15}N have been generated. These new transition data are combined with those previously derived for {sup 12}C{sup 14}N, and applied to the determination of CNO abundances in the solar photosphere and in four red giant stars: Arcturus, the bright, very low-metallicity star HD 122563, and the carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars HD 196944 and HD 201626. When both red and violet system lines are detectable in a star, their derived N abundances are in good agreement. The mean N abundances determined in this work are also generally in accord with published values.

  1. TIP list

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, M E

    2006-06-22

    Subcontractors and vendors providing services, including the installation of purchased goods, are required to complete a TIP List. This list does not include every Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) related concern at LLNL. It is intended to highlight major concerns common to most on-site service activities.

  2. Software List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computers in Chemical Education Newsletter, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Lists and briefly describes computer programs recently added to those currently available from Project SERAPHIM. Program name, subject, hardware, author, supplier, and current cost are provided in separate listings for Apple, Atari, Pet, VIC-20, TRS-80, and IBM-PC. (JN)

  3. Conservation and the Antarctic environment: the working group reports of the joint IUCN/SCAR symposium on the scientific requirements for Antarctic conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, W.N.; Angel, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    Six working groups were set up at the joint IUCN/SCAR Symposium on the scientific requirements for Antarctic conservation. These were charged with (i) identifying gaps in the scientific understanding of ecosystems that inhibit rational management, and (ii) considering whether present conservation practices were taking enough account of what is known of the region, particularly with regard to protected areas. There is still a need for synthesis and further work on stocks and the life history of krill in the pelagic ecosystem. Studies of crabeater seals deserve priority. The network of existing protected areas is inadequate for preserving all species of birds, seals and whales; new criteria are needed for effective conservation. On land, the Agreed Measures provide an adequate framework for conservation, though additional steps are needed to ensure adherence to their provisions. Selection criteria are deficient and additional measures are required. Commercial mineral exploitation in the Antarctic is a long way in the future but exploitation could result from political motives. There is a need for a data base for the design of investigations and impact assessment. Operational hazards need to be modelled in advance. The relevance of existing drilling technology (both for mining and for deep stratographical information) onshore and offshore, and the applicability of Arctic experience to future operations in the Antarctic need to be assessed. Operational hazards, such as icebergs, pressures encountered while drilling, well blow-outs, and oil spills, need to the anticipated and modelled in advance.

  4. Eye redness

    MedlinePlus

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to worry about. ...

  5. Red Clover

    MedlinePlus

    ... 17):2057–2071. Red clover. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 22, 2009. Red clover ( Trifolium pratense ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on July ...

  6. Listing people.

    PubMed

    Delbourgo, James

    2012-12-01

    Historians and commentators have long discussed tensions between specialist and lay expertise in the making of scientific knowledge. Such accounts have often described quarrels over the distribution of expertise in nineteenth-century "popular" and imperial sciences. The "crowdsourcing" of science on a global scale, however, arguably began in the early modern era. This essay examines the lists of specimen suppliers, the artifacts of a worldwide collecting campaign, published by the London apothecary James Petiver at the turn of the eighteenth century. Listing suppliers helped Petiver advertise his status as a global specimen broker in the Republic of Letters. However, publicly listing his sources drew criticism over the social character of his collecting project, while lists became synonymous with the debasement of learning in polemics over natural history. PMID:23488241

  7. Molecular Systematics of Threatened Seed Plant Species Endemic in the Caribbean Islands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review of available Caribbean Island red-lists species (CR and EN categories based on the IUCN guidelines from 2001, and E category established according to the IUCN guidelines from 1980) is presented. A database of at least 1,300 endemic species that are either Critically Endangered or Endangered...

  8. Red clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. An estimated 2.8 million kg of red clover seed per year was produced worldwide in 2005-2007. This amount of seed would be enough to maintain approximately 4 million hectares of red...

  9. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

  10. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-14

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  11. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-23

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  12. Red Capes, Red Herrings, and Red Flags.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Donald W.

    The argument that the personality structures obtained from retrospective ratings reflect semantic similarity structures has been as provocative as a red cape in the bull ring. High congruence between those two kinds of structures seems well established. What is less clear is how and why those structures differ from that for immediate judgments of…

  13. List based prefetch

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Peter; Christ, Norman; Gara, Alan; Kim, Changhoan; Mawhinney, Robert; Ohmacht, Martin; Sugavanam, Krishnan

    2014-08-12

    A list prefetch engine improves a performance of a parallel computing system. The list prefetch engine receives a current cache miss address. The list prefetch engine evaluates whether the current cache miss address is valid. If the current cache miss address is valid, the list prefetch engine compares the current cache miss address and a list address. A list address represents an address in a list. A list describes an arbitrary sequence of prior cache miss addresses. The prefetch engine prefetches data according to the list, if there is a match between the current cache miss address and the list address.

  14. List based prefetch

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Peter; Christ, Norman; Gara, Alan; Kim; ,Changhoan; Mawhinney, Robert; Ohmacht, Martin; Sugavanam, Krishnan

    2012-08-28

    A list prefetch engine improves a performance of a parallel computing system. The list prefetch engine receives a current cache miss address. The list prefetch engine evaluates whether the current cache miss address is valid. If the current cache miss address is valid, the list prefetch engine compares the current cache miss address and a list address. A list address represents an address in a list. A list describes an arbitrary sequence of prior cache miss addresses. The prefetch engine prefetches data according to the list, if there is a match between the current cache miss address and the list address.

  15. 76 FR 54741 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 7/8/2011 (76 FR 40342-40343), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... added to the Procurement List: Products NSN: M.R. 1001--Towels, Dish, Kitchen Gourmet, Black, 2pc. NSN: M.R. 1002--Towels, Dish, Kitchen Gourmet, Red, 2pc. NSN: M.R. 1003--Towels, Dish, Kitchen...

  16. Seeing Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

    New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

    The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io

  17. Acronym master list

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This document is a master list of acronyms and other abbreviations that are used by or could be useful to, the personnel at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Many specialized and well-known abbreviations are not included in this list.

  18. Galaxy Zoo: passive red spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen L.; Mosleh, Moein; Romer, A. Kathy; Nichol, Robert C.; Bamford, Steven P.; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Campbell, Heather C.; Crowcroft, Ben; Doyle, Isabelle; Edmondson, Edward M.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-06-01

    curiously large optical bar fraction in the red spirals (70 +/- 5 verses 27 +/- 5 per cent in blue spirals) suggesting that the cessation of star formation and bar instabilities in spirals are strongly correlated. We conclude by discussing the possible origins of these red spirals. We suggest that they may represent the very oldest spiral galaxies which have already used up their reserves of gas - probably aided by strangulation or starvation, and perhaps also by the effect of bar instabilities moving material around in the disc. We provide an online table listing our full sample of red spirals along with the normal/blue spirals used for comparison. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 160000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at http://www.galaxyzoo.org/Volunteers.aspx E-mail: karen.masters@port.ac.uk

  19. List mode multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Daniel E.; Luke, S. John; Mauger, G. Joseph; Riot, Vincent J.; Knapp, David A.

    2007-08-07

    A digital list mode multichannel analyzer (MCA) built around a programmable FPGA device for onboard data analysis and on-the-fly modification of system detection/operating parameters, and capable of collecting and processing data in very small time bins (<1 millisecond) when used in histogramming mode, or in list mode as a list mode MCA.

  20. Against Reading Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lennard J.

    2012-01-01

    A course's reading list is the skeleton of a semester's body of thought, the inventory that a professor writes up for the departmental Web site and the schedule of courses that lists the goods. Despite the obvious utility of fixed reading lists, one should jettison them when possible. The author has been conducting an informal experiment using a…

  1. Acquisitions List No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The "Acquisitions List" of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  2. Acquisitions List No. 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The "Acquisitions List" of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  3. Red List of birds of the Wadden Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, L. M.; Norden Andersen, O. G.; Frikke, J.; Laursen, K.; Salvig, J.; Fleet, D. M.; Hälterlein, B.; Heckenroth, H.; Merck, T.; Rösner, H.-U.; Südbeck, P.; Wolff, W. J.; Thissen, J. B. M.

    1996-10-01

    350000 400000 pairs of breeding birds as well as 10 12 millions of migratory waterbirds use the Danish-German-Dutch Wadden Sea as a feeding, roosting and moulting area. The exact number of migrating birds using the Wadden Sea is unknown. 4 Wadden Sea breeding bird species are (probably) extinct in the area, e.g. Caspian Tern ( Sterna caspia) and Roseate Tern ( Sterna dougallii); the status of 5 species is critical, 4 species are endangered, the status of 6 species is vulnerable and of 4 species susceptible. Internaional responsibility can be stated for at least 15 breeding bird species or subspecies, because considerable parts of the north-west-european population (at least 5%) breed in the Wadden Sea (e.g. Eurasian Spoonbill ( Platalea leucorodia), Common Shelduck ( Tadorna tadorna), Hen Harrier ( Circus cyaneus), Avocet ( Recurvirostra avosetta), Kentish Plover ( Charadrius alexandrinus), Common Redshank ( Tringa totanus totanus), Gull-billed Tern ( Gelochelidon nilotica), Sandwich Tern ( Sterna sandvicensis), Common Tern ( Sterna hirundo), Little Tern ( Sterna albifrons). International responsibility can be determined for at least 54 migratory bird species or subspecies, because considerable parts of the biogeographical population (at least 1%) occur in the Wadden Sea during migration. Some species are present in the Wadden Sea with about 50% or nearly 90% of all individuals of the concerned populations, which means a very special international responsibility of the Wadden Sea has to be stated for these species.

  4. Story-List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lanaii

    The program, STORY-LIST, generates alphabetized cumulative word lists by story number within a school grade. It is designed to read a group of cards until it finds a new grade/story number. Each word read is stored in an array, sorted, and an asterisk is added to each word in the array. This array is then merged with the old sorted word list and…

  5. Course Resource Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Robert G.

    The Mountain-Plains Course Resource List is presented by job title for 26 curriculum areas. For each area the printed materials, audiovisual aids, and equipment needed for the course are listed. The 26 curriculum areas are: mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution,…

  6. Associative list processing unit

    DOEpatents

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

    2013-01-29

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

  7. NSSDC Data Listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Data available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) are listed. The spacecraft, principal investigator, the experiment, and time span of the data are given. A listing is also included of ground-based data, models, computer routines and composite spacecraft data that are available from NSSDC.

  8. Three-dimensional mapping of red stingray ( Dasyatis akajei) movement with reference to bottom topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otaki, Takayoshi; Hamana, Masahiro; Tanoe, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Shibuno, Takuro; Komatsu, Teruhisa

    2015-06-01

    Most demersal fishes maintain strong relations with bottom substrates and bottom depths and/or topography during their lives. It is important to know these relations to for understand their lives. In Tokyo Bay, red stingray, Dasyatis akajei, classified as near-threatened species by IUCN, has increased since the 1980s. It is a top predator and engages in ecosystem engineer by mixing the sand bed surface through burring behavior, and greatly influences a coastal ecosystem. It is reported that this species invades in plage and tidal flats and has sometimes injured beachgoers and people gathering clams in Tokyo bay. Thus, it is necessary to know its behavior and habitat use to avoid accidents and to better conserve the biodiversity of ecosystems. However, previous studies have not examined its relationship with the bottom environment. This study aims to describe its behavior in relation to the bottom environment. We sounded three dimensional bottom topography of their habitat off Kaneda Cove in Tokyo Bay with interferometric sidescan sonar system and traced the movement of red stingrays by attaching a data logger system to survey their migration. The results revealed that red stingray repeated vertical movement between the surface and bottom, and used not only sand beds but also rocky beds.

  9. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen to the body’s tissues in exchange for carbon dioxide, which is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts ...

  10. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  11. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

    MedlinePlus

    ... dignity and resilience Geneva, 14 September 2016 – The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies... ... News Contact us Sitemap Go to top The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies ( ...

  12. Mesopotamian Star Lists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Wayne

    Sumerian and Akkadian names of stars and constellations occur in cuneiform texts for over 2,000 years, from the third millennium BC down to the death of cuneiform in the early first millennium AD, but no fully comprehensive list was ever compiled in antiquity. Lists of stars and constellations are available in both the lexical tradition and astronomical-astrological tradition of the cuneiform scribes. The longest list in the former is that in the series Urra = hubullu, in the latter, those in Mul-Apin.

  13. NSSDC data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The first part of this listing, Satellite Data, is in an abbreviated form compared to the data catalogs published by NSSDC. It is organized by NSSDC spacecraft common name. The launch date and NSSDC ID are printed for each spacecraft. The experiments are listed alphabetically by the principal investigator's or team leader's last name following the spacecraft name. The experiment name and NSSDC ID are printed for each experiment. The data sets are listed by NSSDC ID following the experiment name. The data set name, data form code, quantity of data, and the time span of the data as verified by NSSDC are printed for each data set.

  14. Red Quasars: Hunting For Hidden Rubies in the Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calapa, Marie; Gregg, M.; West, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energetic galactic nuclei, known as quasars, have typically been thought of as blue objects. Over the past decade, however, the existence of a population of red quasars has emerged, revealing a new frontier in the study of these objects. Techniques for efficiently finding red quasars are needed, and we are exploring various selection methods for identifying them in large photometric surveys. Combining IR and optical photometry from UKIDSS and SDSS, we have found a way to separate red quasar candidates from most other sources more effectively than using optical data alone. After our technique proved successful with known red quasars, we applied it to a sample of random objects chosen from a small patch of sky. Investigating those objects that qualified as likely candidates, we found that a large fraction, approaching 50%, were red quasars. This selection technique was then used to make a list of red quasar candidates for further investigation with SpeX at IRTF. Our method for effectively identifying red quasars, using only photometric data, will improve statistics of the red population of quasars. In our small sample area alone, we were able to find over a 1,000 red quasar candidates, implying their numbers may be a significant fraction of all quasars in the universe, perhaps even the majority. Developing a reliable method to find these objects will increase our understanding of the relation between red and blue quasars and the quasar phenomenon in general.

  15. Getting on the List

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices About Organ Allocation Getting on the List Financing a Transplant Waiting for your Transplant About the ... Types Being a Living Donor About the Operation Financing Living Donation Home / Before The Transplant / Getting On ...

  16. An Energy Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VocEd, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Selected energy resource information, from both federal and private sources, is listed under funding, general information and assistance, recycling, solar, transportation, utilities, and wind power. Books, pamphlets, films, journals, newsletters, and other materials are included. (MF)

  17. Associative list processing unit

    DOEpatents

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D

    2014-04-01

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full.

  18. NSSDC data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to identify, in a highly summarized way, data available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). Most data are maintained as offline data sets gathered from individual instruments carried on spacecraft; these comprise the Satellite Data Listing. Descriptive names, time spans, data form, and quality of these data sets are identified in the listing, which is sorted alphabetically, first by spacecraft name and then by the principal investigator's or team leader's last name. Several data sets not associated with individual spaceflight instruments are identified in separate listings following the Satellite Data Listing. These include composite spacecraft data sets, ground based data, models, and computer routines. NSSDC also offers data via special services and systems in a number of areas, including the Astronomical Data Center, Coordinated Data Analysis Workshops, NASA Climate Data System, Pilot Land Data System, and Crustal Dynamics Data Information System.

  19. 21 CFR 82.1334 - D&C Red No. 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 34. 82.1334 Section 82.1334 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1334 D&C Red No. 34. Calcium salt of 3-hydroxy-4-[(1-sulfo-2...

  20. 21 CFR 82.1334 - D&C Red No. 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 34. 82.1334 Section 82.1334 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1334 D&C Red No. 34. Calcium salt of 3-hydroxy-4-[(1-sulfo-2...

  1. NSSDC data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Richard; King, Joseph H.

    1990-01-01

    In a highly summarized way, data available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) is identified. Most data are offline data sets (on magnetic tape or as film/print products of various sizes) from individual instruments carried on spacecraft; these compose the Satellite Data Listing. Descriptive names, time spans, data form, and quantity of these data sets are identified in the listing, which is sorted alphabetically-first by spacecraft name and then by the principal investigator's or team leader's last name. Several data sets held at NSSDC, not associated with individual spaceflight instruments, are identified in separate listings following the Satellite Data Listing. These data sets make up the Supplementary Data Listings and include composite spacecraft data sets, ground-based data, models, and computer routines. The identifiers used in the Supplementary Data Listings were created by NSSDC and are explained in the pages preceding the listings. Data set form codes are listed. NSSDC offers primarily archival, retrieval, replication, and dissemination services associated with the data sets discussed in the two major listings identified above. NSSDC also provides documentation which enables the data recipient to use the data received. NSSDC is working toward expanding presently limited capabilities for data subsetting and for promotion of data files to online residence for user downloading. NSSDC data holdings span the range of scientific disciplines in which NASA is involved, and include astrophysics, lunar and planetary science, solar physics, space plasma physics, and Earth science. In addition to the functions mentioned above, NSSDC offers data via special services and systems in a number of areas, including Astronomical Data Center (ADC), Coordinated Data Analysis Workshops (CDAWs), NASA Climate Data System (NCDS), Pilot Land Data System (PLDS), and Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS). Furthermore, NSSDC has a no-password account on its

  2. Exchange lists: revised 1986.

    PubMed

    Franz, M J; Barr, P; Holler, H; Powers, M A; Wheeler, M L; Wylie-Rosett, J

    1987-01-01

    A committee composed of members of The American Dietetic Association and the American Diabetes Association has revised Exchange List for Meal Planning. Changes were made, as deemed necessary, on the basis of nutritional recommendations for persons with diabetes as understood in 1986. Major changes include rewriting the text to make it more useful in the education of persons with diabetes; changing the order of the exchange lists to emphasize a high-carbohydrate, high-fiber diet, as well as to better reflect the order of foods in menu planning; adding symbols to foods high in fiber and sodium; changing nutritive values for the starch/bread and fruit lists; adding lists of combination foods, free foods, and foods recommended only for occasional use; developing a data base; and initiating a plan for field testing and evaluation. The committee also developed a simplified meal planning tool, Healthy Food Choices, to be used for initial or "survival" level education. In poster format, foods are grouped by calories into six food groups. Approximate portion sizes of commonly used foods are listed. Blank lines are provided for the nutrition counselor to write in a suggested menu or meal plan for the client. Because the booklet does not use the word "diabetes" specifically, it is appropriate as a general teaching tool. PMID:3794130

  3. Superfund list adds Pantex

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-13

    While Congress crafts Superfund reauthorization to see that more money is spent on cleanups instead of legal fees, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency added 24 federal facilities to the National Priorities List of the worst pollution problems. Three Department of Energy sites were added on May 31, despite objections from state and other officials about how sites were selected. The Pantex nuclear weapon plant in Amarillo, Texas, was included despite protests by state officials, while environmentalists claim that {open_quotes}political gamesmanship{close_quotes} kept a Portsmouth, Ohio, uranium enrichment plant off the list. Other DOE sites listed were the Paducah (Kentucky) Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Laboratory for Energy Related Health Research in Davis, California.

  4. 21 CFR 74.1303 - FD&C Red No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 3. 74.1303 Section 74.1303 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... use in color additive mixtures for coloring ingested drugs. (b) Uses and restrictions. FD&C Red No....

  5. 21 CFR 74.1303 - FD&C Red No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 3. 74.1303 Section 74.1303 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... use in color additive mixtures for coloring ingested drugs. (b) Uses and restrictions. FD&C Red No....

  6. 21 CFR 74.1303 - FD&C Red No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 3. 74.1303 Section 74.1303 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... use in color additive mixtures for coloring ingested drugs. (b) Uses and restrictions. FD&C Red No....

  7. 21 CFR 74.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 74.1336 Section 74.1336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring drugs. (b) Specifications. D&C Red No. 36 shall conform to the following specifications and...

  8. 21 CFR 74.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 74.1336 Section 74.1336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring drugs. (b) Specifications. D&C Red No. 36 shall conform to the following specifications and...

  9. 21 CFR 74.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 74.1336 Section 74.1336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring drugs. (b) Specifications. D&C Red No. 36 shall conform to the following specifications and...

  10. 21 CFR 74.3230 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 74.3230 Section 74.3230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3230 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity and...

  11. 21 CFR 74.3230 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 74.3230 Section 74.3230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3230 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity and...

  12. Red Clover Breeding Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. It has a long and varied history in agriculture. Active breeding efforts began at the end of the 19th century. Since this time significant improvement in red clover cultivar for a...

  13. 21 CFR 74.1340 - FD&C Red No. 40.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 40. 74.1340 Section 74.1340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... additive mixtures for coloring drugs. (3) The listing of this color additive includes lakes prepared...

  14. 21 CFR 74.1340 - FD&C Red No. 40.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 40. 74.1340 Section 74.1340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... additive mixtures for coloring drugs. (3) The listing of this color additive includes lakes prepared...

  15. 21 CFR 74.1340 - FD&C Red No. 40.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 40. 74.1340 Section 74.1340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... additive mixtures for coloring drugs. (3) The listing of this color additive includes lakes prepared...

  16. 21 CFR 74.2306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 6. 74.2306 Section 74.2306 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 74.1331 Section 74.1331 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 31 is principally the calcium...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 74.2330 Section 74.2330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 30...

  19. 21 CFR 74.2304 - FD&C Red No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 4. 74.2304 Section 74.2304 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2304 FD&C Red No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive FD&C Red No. 4...

  20. 21 CFR 74.2334 - D&C Red No. 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 34. 74.2334 Section 74.2334 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2334 D&C Red No. 34. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 34...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 74.2327 Section 74.2327 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2327 D&C Red No. 27. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 27...

  2. 21 CFR 74.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 74.1330 Section 74.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 30 is principally...

  3. 21 CFR 74.2321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 74.2321 Section 74.2321 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 21...

  4. 21 CFR 74.2322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 74.2322 Section 74.2322 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2322 D&C Red No. 22. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 22...

  5. 21 CFR 74.2328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 74.2328 Section 74.2328 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2328 D&C Red No. 28. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 28...

  6. 21 CFR 74.2307 - D&C Red No. 7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 7 74.2307 Section 74.2307 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2307 D&C Red No. 7 (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 74.2331 Section 74.2331 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 31...

  8. 21 CFR 74.2317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 74.2317 Section 74.2317 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2317 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 17...

  9. 21 CFR 74.340 - FD&C Red No. 40.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 40. 74.340 Section 74.340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.340 FD&C Red No. 40. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive FD&C Red No. 40 is principally the...

  10. 21 CFR 74.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 74.1333 Section 74.1333 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 33 is principally the...

  11. 21 CFR 74.340 - FD&C Red No. 40.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 40. 74.340 Section 74.340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.340 FD&C Red No. 40. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive FD&C Red No. 40 is principally the...

  12. 21 CFR 74.1304 - FD&C Red No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 4. 74.1304 Section 74.1304 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1304 FD&C Red No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive FD&C Red No. 4 is principally the...

  13. 21 CFR 74.1304 - FD&C Red No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 4. 74.1304 Section 74.1304 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1304 FD&C Red No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive FD&C Red No. 4 is principally the...

  14. 21 CFR 74.1334 - D&C Red No. 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 34. 74.1334 Section 74.1334 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1334 D&C Red No. 34. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 34 is principally the calcium...

  15. 21 CFR 74.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 74.1333 Section 74.1333 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 33 is principally the...

  16. 21 CFR 74.1334 - D&C Red No. 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 34. 74.1334 Section 74.1334 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1334 D&C Red No. 34. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 34 is principally the calcium...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 74.1336 Section 74.1336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 is 1- -2-naphthalenol (CAS...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 74.2333 Section 74.2333 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 33...

  19. 21 CFR 74.1303 - FD&C Red No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 3. 74.1303 Section 74.1303 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1303 FD&C Red No. 3. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive FD&C Red No. 3...

  20. 21 CFR 82.1306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 6. 82.1306 Section 82.1306 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306...

  1. 21 CFR 82.304 - FD&C Red No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 4. 82.304 Section 82.304 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics § 82.304 FD&C Red No. 4. The color additive FD&C Red No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  2. 21 CFR 82.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 82.1330 Section 82.1330 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1330 D&C Red No. 30. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1330...

  3. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 82.1321 Section 82.1321 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  4. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 82.1317 Section 82.1317 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317...

  5. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 82.1322 Section 82.1322 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  6. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 82.1327 Section 82.1327 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  7. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 82.1328 Section 82.1328 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  8. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 7. 82.1307 Section 82.1307 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  9. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 82.1331 Section 82.1331 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  10. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 82.1336 Section 82.1336 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...

  11. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 82.1333 Section 82.1333 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 82.1336 Section 82.1336 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 82.1333 Section 82.1333 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  14. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 7. 82.1307 Section 82.1307 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 6. 82.1306 Section 82.1306 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 82.1331 Section 82.1331 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  17. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 82.1322 Section 82.1322 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  18. 21 CFR 82.304 - FD&C Red No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 4. 82.304 Section 82.304 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics § 82.304 FD&C Red No. 4. The color additive FD&C Red No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  19. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 82.1317 Section 82.1317 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317...

  20. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 82.1328 Section 82.1328 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  1. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 82.1328 Section 82.1328 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  2. 21 CFR 82.1306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 6. 82.1306 Section 82.1306 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306...

  3. 21 CFR 82.304 - FD&C Red No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 4. 82.304 Section 82.304 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics § 82.304 FD&C Red No. 4. The color additive FD&C Red No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  4. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 82.1327 Section 82.1327 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  5. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 82.1331 Section 82.1331 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  6. 21 CFR 82.304 - FD&C Red No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 4. 82.304 Section 82.304 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics § 82.304 FD&C Red No. 4. The color additive FD&C Red No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  7. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 82.1321 Section 82.1321 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  8. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 82.1317 Section 82.1317 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317...

  9. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 82.1327 Section 82.1327 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  10. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 82.1331 Section 82.1331 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  11. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 82.1333 Section 82.1333 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 82.1330 Section 82.1330 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1330 D&C Red No. 30. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1330...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 82.1321 Section 82.1321 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  14. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 82.1322 Section 82.1322 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 82.1322 Section 82.1322 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 82.1336 Section 82.1336 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...

  17. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 82.1336 Section 82.1336 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...

  18. 21 CFR 82.304 - FD&C Red No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 4. 82.304 Section 82.304 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics § 82.304 FD&C Red No. 4. The color additive FD&C Red No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  19. 21 CFR 82.1306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 6. 82.1306 Section 82.1306 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306...

  20. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 82.1333 Section 82.1333 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  1. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 82.1328 Section 82.1328 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  2. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 82.1321 Section 82.1321 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  3. 21 CFR 82.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 82.1330 Section 82.1330 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1330 D&C Red No. 30. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1330...

  4. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 82.1328 Section 82.1328 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  5. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 82.1317 Section 82.1317 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317...

  6. 21 CFR 82.1306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 6. 82.1306 Section 82.1306 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306...

  7. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 7. 82.1307 Section 82.1307 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  8. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 82.1322 Section 82.1322 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  9. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 82.1317 Section 82.1317 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317...

  10. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 82.1327 Section 82.1327 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  11. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 82.1321 Section 82.1321 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 82.1330 Section 82.1330 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1330 D&C Red No. 30. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1330...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 7. 82.1307 Section 82.1307 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  14. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 7. 82.1307 Section 82.1307 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 82.1331 Section 82.1331 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 82.1327 Section 82.1327 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  17. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 82.1336 Section 82.1336 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...

  18. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 82.1333 Section 82.1333 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  19. 21 CFR 82.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 82.1330 Section 82.1330 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1330 D&C Red No. 30. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1330...

  20. 21 CFR 74.2340 - FD&C Red No. 40.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 40. 74.2340 Section 74.2340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring cosmetics generally, except that only FD&C Red No. 40 and FD&C Red No. 40 Aluminum Lake may...

  1. 21 CFR 74.1340 - FD&C Red No. 40.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 40. 74.1340 Section 74.1340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR....1051 of this chapter.) (b) Uses and restrictions. (1) FD&C Red No. 40 and FD&C Red No. 40 Aluminum...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2340 - FD&C Red No. 40.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 40. 74.2340 Section 74.2340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring cosmetics generally, except that only FD&C Red No. 40 and FD&C Red No. 40 Aluminum Lake may...

  3. NSSDC data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Richard; King, Joseph H.

    1993-01-01

    This document identifies, in a highly summarized way, all the data held at the NSSDC. These data cover astrophysics and astronomy, solar and space physics, planetary and lunar, and Earth science disciplines. They are primarily, but not exclusively, from past and ongoing NASA spaceflight missions. We first identify all the data electronically available through NSSDC's principal online (magnetic disk-based) and nearline (robotics jukebox-based) systems, and then those data available on CDROM's. Finally, we identify all NSSDC-held data, the majority of which are still offline on magnetic tape, film, etc., but including the electronically accessible and CD-ROM resident data of earlier sections. These comprehensive identifications are in the form of two listings, one for the majority of NSSDC-held data sets resulting from individual instruments flown on individual spacecraft, and the other listing for the remainder of NSSDC-held data sets which do not adhere to this spacecraft/experiment/dataset hierarchy. The latter listing is presented in two parts, one for the numerous source catalogs of the NSSDC-operated Astronomical Data Center, and the other for the remainder. Access paths to all these data, and to further information about each, are also given in the related sections of this Data Listing. Note that this document is a companion to the electronically accessible information files (in particular, the NASA Master Directory) at NSSDC which also identify NSSDC-resident (and other) data.

  4. Lists of committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-03-01

    Lists of the members of the International Programme Advisory Committee of the 21st IAEA Technical Meeting on Research using Small Fusion Devices(RUSFD), the International Advisory Committee of the 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP) and the Local Organizing Committee of the Joint RUSFD, LAWPP Meeting can be found in the PDF.

  5. Getting on the List

    MedlinePlus

    ... length of time because there are not enough donor organs for all who need them. The National Waiting ... transplant candidate, you are registered on the national organ transplant waiting list. A living donor may also be identified and evaluated for living ...

  6. Water Conservation Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  7. RARE DISEASES LIST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rare disease list includes rare diseases and conditions for which information requests have been made to the Office of Rare Diseases. A rare disease is defined as a disease or condition for which there are fewer than 200,000 affected persons alive in the United States. The Of...

  8. List 47: currants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This summary presents the descriptions of two newly released black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) for the List of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars. These black currant cultivars were just released and now hold US plant patents. The cultivars are 'Ben Chaska' and 'Ben Como'. These black currants have quality f...

  9. A Storyteller's Book List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shalhoub, Marylou A.

    1991-01-01

    Five elementary teachers share their favorite books for storytelling, offering strategies to help children bring them to life. The article presents techniques for acquainting students with different stories and includes an annotated list of books recommended for expanding a storytelling library (myths, fairy tales, folktales, contemporary stories,…

  10. Jupiter's Great Red spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This color composite made from Voyager 2 narrow-angle camera frames shows the Great Red Spot during the late Jovian afternoon. North of the Red Spot lies a curious darker section of the South Equatorial Belt (SEB), the belt in which the Red Spot is located. A bright eruption of material passing from the SEB northward into the diffuse equatorial clouds has been observed on all occasions when this feature passes north of the Red Spot. The remnants of one such eruption are apparent in this photograph. To the lower left of the Red Spot lies one of the three long-lived White Ovals. This photograph was taken on June 29, 1979, when Voyager 2 was over 9 million kilometers (nearly 6 million miles) from Jupiter. The smallest features visible are over 170 kilometers (106 miles) across.

  11. Description of the female and notes on distribution, habitat, nymphal development, song and chromosomes of Tropidonotacris grandis Ragge (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae).

    PubMed

    Hemp, Claudia; Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Warchałowska-Śliwa, Elżbieta; Hemp, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The female of Tropidonotacris grandis is described and information on distribution, habitat, song, chromosomes and nymphal development of this species given. The populations of northern Tanzania all occur in deciduous dry forest, a habitat highly endangered by destruction and therefore T. grandis must be regarded at least as a vulnerable species according to the IUCN red list.  PMID:25544539

  12. Complexity versus certainty in understanding species’ declines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundstrom, Shana M.; Allen, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional approaches to predict species declines (e.g. government processes or IUCN Red Lists), may be too simplistic and may therefore misguide management and conservation. Using complex systems approaches that account for scale-specific patterns and processes have the potential to overcome these limitations.

  13. Lists as Research Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Wille, Staffan; Charmantier, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    The Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) is famous for having turned botany into a systematic discipline, through his classification systems – most notably the sexual system – and his nomenclature. Throughout his life, Linnaeus experimented with various paper technologies designed to display information synoptically. The list took pride of place among these and is also the common element of more complex representations he produced, such as genera descriptions or his “natural system.” Taking our clues from the anthropology of writing, we want to demonstrate that lists can be considered as genuine research technologies. They possess a potential to generate research problems of their own but also pose limitations to inquiries that can only be overcome by the use of new media. PMID:23488242

  14. NSSDC Data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A convenient reference to space science and supportive data available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) is provided. Satellite data are organized by NSSDC spacecraft common name. The launch date and NSSDC ID are given. Experiments are listed alphabetically by the principal investigator or team leader. The experiment name and NSSDC ID, data set ID, data set name, data form code, quantity of data, and the time span of the data as verified by NSSDC are shown. Ground-based data, models, computer routines, and composite spacecraft data that are available from NSSDC are listed alphabetically by discipline, source, data type, data content, and data set. The data set name, data form code, quantity of data, and the time span covered where appropriate are included.

  15. Red Bull Stratos Presentation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Red Bull Stratos High Performance Director Andy Walshe & Technical Project Director Art Thompson share the Stratos story with JSC. Supported by a team of experts, Felix Baumgartner reached 128,100 ...

  16. Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This view of Jupiter's Great Red Spot is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft. The image was created using two filters, violet and near-infrared, at each of two camera positions. The Great Red Spot is a storm in Jupiter's atmosphere and is at least 300 years-old. Winds blow counterclockwise around the Great Red Spot at about 400 kilometers per hour (250 miles per hour). The size of the storm is more than one Earth diameter (13,000 kilometers or 8,000 miles) in the north-south direction and more than two Earth diameters in the east-west direction. In this oblique view, where the Great Red Spot is shown on the planet's limb, it appears longer in the north-south direction. The image was taken on June 26, 1996.

    The Galileo mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  17. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen ... hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming ...

  18. Whence the red panda?

    PubMed

    Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A; Dragoo, J W; Honeycutt, R L

    2000-11-01

    The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasels, skunks, otters, and badgers [mustelids]), or as a monotypic lineage of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Nucleotide sequence data from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron were analyzed, with more complete taxonomic sampling of relevant taxa (arctoids) than previously available in analyses of primary molecular data, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the red panda to other arctoid carnivorans. This study provides detailed phylogenetic analyses (both parsimony and maximum-likelihood) of primary character data for arctoid carnivorans, including bootstrap and decay indices for all arctoid nodes, and three statistical tests of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for the placement of the red panda. Combined phylogenetic analyses reject the hypotheses that the red panda is most closely related to the bears (ursids) or to the raccoons (procyonids). Rather, evidence from nucleotide sequences strongly support placement of the red panda within a broad Musteloidea (sensu lato) clade, including three major lineages (the red panda, the skunks [mephitids], and a clearly monophyletic clade of procyonids plus mustelids [sensu stricto, excluding skunks]). Within the Musteloidea, interrelationships of the three major lineages are unclear and probably are best considered an unresolved trichotomy. These data provide compelling evidence for the relationships of the red panda and demonstrate that small taxonomic sample sizes can result in misleading or possibly erroneous

  19. A New Academic Vocabulary List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Dee; Davies, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article presents our new Academic Vocabulary List (AVL), derived from a 120-million-word academic subcorpus of the 425-million-word Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA; Davies 2012). We first explore reasons why a new academic core list is warranted, and why such a list is still needed in English language education. We also provide…

  20. 77 FR 24947 - BOST3 Hydroelectric LLC; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12756-003--Louisiana; Red River Lock & Dam No. 3 Hydroelectric Project] BOST3 Hydroelectric LLC; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement... proposed Red River Lock & Dam No. 3 Hydroelectric Project No. 12756. The programmatic agreement,...

  1. 77 FR 24948 - BOST5 Hydroelectric LLC; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12758-004--Louisiana Red River Lock & Dam No. 5 Hydroelectric Project] BOST5 Hydroelectric LLC; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement... proposed Red River Lock & Dam No. 5 Hydroelectric Project No. 12758. The programmatic agreement,...

  2. Identification list of binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov,, O.; Karchevsky,, A.; Kaygorodov, P.; Kovaleva, D.

    The Identification List of Binaries (ILB) is a star catalogue constructed to facilitate cross-referencing between different catalogues of binary stars. As of 2015, it comprises designations for approximately 120,000 double/multiple systems. ILB contains star coordinates and cross-references to the Bayer/Flemsteed, DM (BD/CD/CPD), HD, HIP, ADS, WDS, CCDM, TDSC, GCVS, SBC9, IGR (and some other X-ray catalogues), PSR designations, as well as identifications in the recently developed BSDB system. ILB eventually became a part of the BDB stellar database.

  3. NSSDC data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Richard; King, Joseph H.

    1994-01-01

    This document identifies, in a highly summarized way, all the data held at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). These data cover astrophysics and astronomy, solar and space physics, planetary and lunar, and Earth science disciplines. They are primarily but not exclusively from past and on-going NASA spaceflight missions. We first identify all the data electronically available through NSSDC's principal on-line (magnetic disk-based) and near-line (robotics jukebox-based) systems and then those data available on CD-ROM's. Finally, we identify all NSSDC-held data, the majority of which are still off line on magnetic tape, film, etc., but include the electronically accessible and CD-ROM-resident data of earlier sections. These comprehensive identifications are in the form of two listings, one for the majority of NSSDC-held data sets resulting from individual instruments flown on individual spacecraft and the other for the remainder of NSSDC-held data sets that do not adhere to this spacecraft/experiment/data set hierarchy. The latter listing is presented in two parts, one for the numerous source catalogs of the NSSDC-operated Astronomical Data Center and the other for the remainder.

  4. Listing Occupational Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Siemiatycki, Jack; Richardson, Lesley; Straif, Kurt; Latreille, Benoit; Lakhani, Ramzan; Campbell, Sally; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Boffetta, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The occupational environment has been a most fruitful one for investigating the etiology of human cancer. Many recognized human carcinogens are occupational carcinogens. There is a large volume of epidemiologic and experimental data concerning cancer risks in different work environments. It is important to synthesize this information for both scientific and public health purposes. Various organizations and individuals have published lists of occupational carcinogens. However, such lists have been limited by unclear criteria for which recognized carcinogens should be considered occupational carcinogens, and by inconsistent and incomplete information on the occupations and industries in which the carcinogenic substances may be found and on their target sites of cancer. Based largely on the evaluations published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and augmented with additional information, the present article represents an attempt to summarize, in tabular form, current knowledge on occupational carcinogens, the occupations and industries in which they are found, and their target organs. We have considered 28 agents as definite occupational carcinogens, 27 agents as probable occupational carcinogens, and 113 agents as possible occupational carcinogens. These tables should be useful for regulatory or preventive purposes and for scientific purposes in research priority setting and in understanding carcinogenesis. PMID:15531427

  5. Reviving red snapper.

    PubMed

    Estabrook, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Red snappers in the Gulf of Mexico once hovered on the brink of extinction, their population having dropped to 2 percent of what had historically swum in the Gulf. But thanks to a recently introduced plan that turns the conventional wisdom of fisheries management on its head, the picture has begun to change. Called Individual Fishing Quotas (IFQs), the new regulations, which give a guaranteed allotment of fish to each participant instead of applying industry-wide quotas, went into effect for Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) in early 2007. The results were immediate and so profound that the Gulf Fishery Management Council voted earlier this year to increase the annual limit on red snapper to nearly 7 million pounds from 5 million. PMID:21542214

  6. Red-based cumulus.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    2015-02-01

    Observations and model simulations of cumulus clouds whose bases are tinted red when the Sun is well above the horizon are presented. Conditions for seeing red bases include (1) a red underlying surface (which may consist of dust clouds, as from haboobs) with high albedo, (2) small fractional cloud cover when the Sun is far enough below the zenith for direct sunlight to illuminate much of the surface directly below and around cloud base, (3) optically thick clouds so that the bases are dark, and (4) clouds with bases that are near enough to the observer to appear high in the sky so that the admixture of scattered light from the intervening atmosphere is minimized. PMID:25967822

  7. Lustre on Red Sky.

    SciTech Connect

    Monk, Stephen Todd; Mervini, Joe

    2010-04-01

    The goals of Lustre on Red Sky are: (1) provide home/projects/scratch Lustre file systems; (2) adhere to the Sun HPC stack; (3) implement software RAID on Sun provided JBODs; and (4) design for easy administration. Conclusions are: (1) software RAID includes additional risks and administration vs. hardware RAID solutions; (2) limited testing of hardware in these configurations make it ill-suited for rapid deployment in a production environment; and (3) Lustre has been a shining star on this machine, Red Sky users are pleased with its performance.

  8. Predicting the distribution of the Asian tapir in Peninsular Malaysia using maximum entropy modeling.

    PubMed

    Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Rayan, D Mark; Aziz, Sheema Abdul; Kawanishi, Kae; Traeholt, Carl; Magintan, David; Yazi, Muhammad Fadlli Abdul; Tingley, Reid

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, the IUCN threat status of the Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) was reclassified from 'vulnerable' to 'endangered'. The latest distribution map from the IUCN Red List suggests that the tapirs' native range is becoming increasingly fragmented in Peninsular Malaysia, but distribution data collected by local researchers suggest a more extensive geographical range. Here, we compile a database of 1261 tapir occurrence records within Peninsular Malaysia, and demonstrate that this species, indeed, has a much broader geographical range than the IUCN range map suggests. However, extreme spatial and temporal bias in these records limits their utility for conservation planning. Therefore, we used maximum entropy (MaxEnt) modeling to elucidate the potential extent of the Asian tapir's occurrence in Peninsular Malaysia while accounting for bias in existing distribution data. Our MaxEnt model predicted that the Asian tapir has a wider geographic range than our fine-scale data and the IUCN range map both suggest. Approximately 37% of Peninsular Malaysia contains potentially suitable tapir habitats. Our results justify a revision to the Asian tapir's extent of occurrence in the IUCN Red List. Furthermore, our modeling demonstrated that selectively logged forests encompass 45% of potentially suitable tapir habitats, underscoring the importance of these habitats for the conservation of this species in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:23253371

  9. 75 FR 44787 - RED-Scotia, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission RED-Scotia, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... above-referenced proceeding of RED-Scotia, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... in the above list. They are also available for review in the Commission's Public Reference Room...

  10. Lists2Networks: Integrated analysis of gene/protein lists

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Systems biologists are faced with the difficultly of analyzing results from large-scale studies that profile the activity of many genes, RNAs and proteins, applied in different experiments, under different conditions, and reported in different publications. To address this challenge it is desirable to compare the results from different related studies such as mRNA expression microarrays, genome-wide ChIP-X, RNAi screens, proteomics and phosphoproteomics experiments in a coherent global framework. In addition, linking high-content multilayered experimental results with prior biological knowledge can be useful for identifying functional themes and form novel hypotheses. Results We present Lists2Networks, a web-based system that allows users to upload lists of mammalian genes/proteins onto a server-based program for integrated analysis. The system includes web-based tools to manipulate lists with different set operations, to expand lists using existing mammalian networks of protein-protein interactions, co-expression correlation, or background knowledge co-annotation correlation, as well as to apply gene-list enrichment analyses against many gene-list libraries of prior biological knowledge such as pathways, gene ontology terms, kinase-substrate, microRNA-mRAN, and protein-protein interactions, metabolites, and protein domains. Such analyses can be applied to several lists at once against many prior knowledge libraries of gene-lists associated with specific annotations. The system also contains features that allow users to export networks and share lists with other users of the system. Conclusions Lists2Networks is a user friendly web-based software system expected to significantly ease the computational analysis process for experimental systems biologists employing high-throughput experiments at multiple layers of regulation. The system is freely available at http://www.lists2networks.org. PMID:20152038

  11. Clover, Red (Trifolium pretense)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

  12. 'Valley Red' Strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Valley Red' is a new June-bearing (short-day) strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) cultivar from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, Ore., released in cooperation with the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, Th...

  13. 'Vintage' Red Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Vintage' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station and the Washington State University Agricu...

  14. Red Cross Swimming Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasich, Cynthia

    1989-01-01

    Six new aquatic courses, developed by the Red Cross, are described. They are: Infant and Preschool Aquatics, Longfellow's Whale Tales (classroom water safety lessons for K-Six), Basic Water Safety, Emergency Water Safety, Lifeguard Training, and Safety Training for Swim Coaches. (IAH)

  15. Red Emitting VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetter, Michael; Roßbach, Robert; Michler, Peter

    This chapter describes the progress in development of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) emitting in the red spectral region around 650 nm for data transmission over polymer optical fibers (POF). First, growth issues of red VCSEL using two different material systems, namely AlGaAs and AlGaInP, are introduced. In particular, the optical and electrical state-of-the-art characteristics as low threshold currents ({≤} 1 mA) and high output powers (several mW) are presented with a special focus on emission wavelength. Also the thermal budget and heat removal in the devices are pointed out with regard to the geometry of the VCSEL. Small-signal modulation response in terms of maximum resonance frequency in dependance on temperature behavior are discussed. Applications of these devices in optical interconnects are described and digital data transmission at data rates up to 2.1 Gbit/s over step-index POF is reported. These properties make red emitting VCSEL perfectly suited for high-speed low power consuming light sources for optical data communication via POF. By introducing InP quantum dots as gain material in red emitting VCSEL nearly temperature independent record low threshold current densities of around 10 A/cm2 could be observed.

  16. 'Saanich' Red Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Saanich' is a new floricane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) cultivar from the breeding program at the Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre (PARC) of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Agassiz, British Columbia. 'Saanich', tested as BC 89-34-41, was selected from a 1989 cross of BC 82-5-161 and BC...

  17. Canadian Red Cross.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Red Cross is guided by its Fundamental Principles--humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality--and organized in a traditional geographic hierarchical structure. Among the characteristics that have contributed to its success are a budgeting process that starts at the local level, measurement of program outcomes, and coordinated fundraising activities at the regional level. PMID:18551842

  18. Seeing Red over Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes federal case involving suspension of New Jersey high school student for wearing a T-shirt listing top 10 reasons for being a "redneck" in violation of district's racial harassment policy. Court upheld the policy with a minor exception, but ruled its application to the student's "redneck" T-shirt violated his First Amendment Free Speech…

  19. Welding Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for six occupations in the welding series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for…

  20. Cosmetology Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for three occupations in the cosmetology series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  1. Adult ESL Suggested Materials List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Gerlando, Rose; And Others

    This annotated bibliography lists print, non-print, and organizational resources for use by directors and teachers of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs. Citations are presented in three sections: (1) General Purpose ESL; (2) English for Specific Purposes; and (3) Teacher Resources. The first section lists basic texts and integrated…

  2. Receptionist: Task List Competency Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Instructional Materials Center, White Bear Lake.

    One of a series of 12 in the secretarial/clerical area, this booklet for the vocational instructor contains a job description for the receptionist, a task list of areas of competency, an occupational tasks competency record (suggested as replacement for the traditional report card), a list of industry representatives and educators involved in…

  3. Advisory List of Computer Courseware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Educational Media.

    Computer courseware appropriate for instruction in grades K-12 is listed in two advisory lists. Entries, selected from materials submitted by producers which received favorable reviews by educators, are arranged in the following categories: arts education, communication skills, mathematics, science, utility (a quiz generator), word processing, and…

  4. BASIC (SPOKEN) GERMAN IDIOM LIST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PFEFFER, J. ALAN

    THIRD IN A SERIES OF RELATED STUDIES UNDERTAKEN TO ARRIVE AT THE CORE ELEMENTS OF SPOKEN GERMAN, THIS LIST IS BASED ON THE LATEST COMPUTER TECHNIQUES IN FREQUENCY ANALYSIS. AN INTRODUCTION EXAMINES AND REDEFINES THE CONCEPT OF IDIOMATIC PATTERNS. THE BODY OF THE TEXT LISTS, BY FREQUENCY AND RANGE, 1,100 OF THE MOST COMMON IDIOMS IN SPOKEN GERMAN.…

  5. Listing of Food Service Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    A comprehensive listing of food service equipment including--(1) companies authorized to use the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, and (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF standards including soda fountains, spray-type dishwashers, dishwashing equipment, cooking equipment, commerical cooking and warming equipment, freezers,…

  6. Registration of 'Red Ruby' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red Ruby’ soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2007 via an exclusive licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Red Ruby was selected from the cross Pioneer ‘2552’/Pioneer ‘2737W’ ma...

  7. The great red flashlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbach, Edward A.

    After fifty years of fighting with flashlights which persisted in rolling to the ground, being mislaid, or stashed in a pocket, the author designed a unit which was always on hand and needed no search for the switch. A normally closed switch, internal to the bottom of the flashlight case, is opened by the weight of the unit suspended on a cord about the neck. Lifting the unit with two fingers turns on the red light, while releasing the unit automatically turns it off. A felt covering around the flashlight provides comfort on cold nights. Because this red light would be a welcome tool for other variable star observers, more units were assembled and brought to the AAVSO meeting in Houston for distribution to observers who agreed to give each unit a workout and report on its performance. The author is waiting to hear from these observers.

  8. Great Red Spot (GRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A huge permanent anticyclone in Jupiter's southern hemisphere, visible as a reddish oval at just over 20 °S. The earliest unequivocal observation was by Heinrich Schwabe in 1831 (the often-quoted sighting by Robert Hooke in 1664 now seems to have been of a similar but different spot). The GRS became a striking feature around 1880, when it developed a deep red coloration. It was also prominent in ...

  9. Red giants seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosser, B.; Samadi, R.; Belkacem, K.

    2013-11-01

    The space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler are indiscreet. With their asteroseismic programs, they tell us what is hidden deep inside the stars. Waves excited just below the stellar surface travel throughout the stellar interior and unveil many secrets: how old is the star, how big, how massive, how fast (or slow) its core is dancing. This paper intends to paparazze the red giants according to the seismic pictures we have from their interiors.

  10. 21 CFR 74.303 - FD&C Red No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 3. 74.303 Section 74.303 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... mixtures for food use made with FD&C Red No. 3 may contain only those diluents that are suitable and...

  11. 21 CFR 74.303 - FD&C Red No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 3. 74.303 Section 74.303 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... mixtures for food use made with FD&C Red No. 3 may contain only those diluents that are suitable and...

  12. 21 CFR 74.303 - FD&C Red No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 3. 74.303 Section 74.303 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... mixtures for food use made with FD&C Red No. 3 may contain only those diluents that are suitable and...

  13. 21 CFR 81.10 - Termination of provisional listings of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 81.10, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... the controls that have died have shown liver damage. (2) Groups of 100 mice are being fed diets containing 2 percent, 1 percent, 0.5 percent, and 0.1 percent FD&C Red No. 1, with 400 mice as controls....

  14. 21 CFR 81.10 - Termination of provisional listings of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 81.10, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... the controls that have died have shown liver damage. (2) Groups of 100 mice are being fed diets containing 2 percent, 1 percent, 0.5 percent, and 0.1 percent FD&C Red No. 1, with 400 mice as controls....

  15. 21 CFR 81.10 - Termination of provisional listings of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 81.10, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... the controls that have died have shown liver damage. (2) Groups of 100 mice are being fed diets containing 2 percent, 1 percent, 0.5 percent, and 0.1 percent FD&C Red No. 1, with 400 mice as controls....

  16. 21 CFR 81.10 - Termination of provisional listings of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 81.10, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... the controls that have died have shown liver damage. (2) Groups of 100 mice are being fed diets containing 2 percent, 1 percent, 0.5 percent, and 0.1 percent FD&C Red No. 1, with 400 mice as controls....

  17. 21 CFR 81.10 - Termination of provisional listings of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 81.10, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... the controls that have died have shown liver damage. (2) Groups of 100 mice are being fed diets containing 2 percent, 1 percent, 0.5 percent, and 0.1 percent FD&C Red No. 1, with 400 mice as controls....

  18. Jupiter's Great Red Spot and other vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, Philip S.

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical explanation of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) as the self-organization of vorticity in turbulence is presented. A number of properties of the GRS and other Jovian vortices that are unambiguous from the data are listed. The simplest possible model that explains these properties one at a time rather than in a difficult all-encompassing planetary global circulation model is presented. It is shown that Jovian vortices reflect the behavior of quasi-geostrophic (QG) vortices embedded in an east-west wind with bands of uniform potential vorticity. It is argued that most of the properties of the Jovian vortices can be easily explained and understood with QG theory. Many of the signatures of QG vortices are apparent on Voyager images. In numerical and laboratory experiments, QG vortices relax to approximately steady states like the Jovian vortices, rather than oscillating or rotating Kida ellipses.

  19. Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.

    The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.

    Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.

    The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet

  20. Red - Take a Closer Look

    PubMed Central

    Buechner, Vanessa L.; Maier, Markus A.; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Schwarz, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Color research has shown that red is associated with avoidance of threat (e.g., failure) or approach of reward (e.g., mating) depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations. According to our theory, red is supposed to highlight the relevance (importance) of a goal-related stimulus and correspondingly intensifies the perceivers’ attentional reaction to it. Angry and happy human compared to non-human facial expressions were used as goal-relevant stimuli. The data indicate that the color red leads to enhanced attentional engagement to angry and happy human facial expressions (compared to neutral ones) - the use of non-human facial expressions does not bias attention. The results are discussed with regard to the idea that red induced attentional biases might explain the red-context effects on motivation. PMID:25254380

  1. List of Posters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List of Posters: Dark matter annihilation in the Galactic galo, by Dokuchaev Vyacheslav, et al. NEMO developments towards km3 telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The NEMO project. Neutrino Mediterranean Observatory By Antonio Capone, NEMO Collaboration. Alignment as a result from QCD jet production or new still unknown physics at LHC? By Alexander Snigirev. Small-scale fluctuations of extensive air showers: systematics in energy and muon density estimation By Grigory Rubtsov. SHINIE: Simulation of High-Energy Neutrino Interacting with the Earth By Lin Guey-Lin, et al.. Thermodynamics of rotating solutions in n+1 dimensional Einstein - Maxwell -dilation gravity By Ahmad Sheykhi, et al.. Supernova neutrino physics with future large Cherenkov detectors By Daniele Montanino. Crossing of the Cosmological Constant Barrier in the string Inspired Dark Energy Model By S. Yu. Vernov. Calculations of radio signals produced by ultra-high and extremely high energy neutrino induced cascades in Antarctic ice By D. Besson, et al.. Inflation, Cosmic Acceleration and string Gravity By Ischwaree Neupane. Neutrino Physics: Charm and J/Psi production in the atmosphere By Liudmila Volkova. Three generation flavor transitions and decays of supernova relic neutrinos By Daniele Montanino. Lattice calculations & computational quantum field theory: Sonification of Quark and Baryon Spectra By Markum Harald, et al.. Generalized Kramers-Wannier Duality for spin systems with non-commutative symmetry By V. M. Buchstaber, et al.. Heavy ion collisions & quark matter: Nuclear matter jets and multifragmentation By Danut Argintaru, et al.. QCD hard interactions: The qT-spectrum of the Higgs and Slepton-pairs at the LHC By Guiseppe Bozzi. QCD soft interactions: Nonperturbative effects in Single-Spin Asymmetries: Instantons and TMD-parton distributions By Igor Cherednikov, et al.. Gluon dominance model and high multiplicity By Elena Kokoulina. Resonances in eta pi- pi- pi+ system By Dmitry Ryabchikov

  2. Seeing red on the road.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Romnán, Amparo; Megías, Alberto; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Catena, Andrés; Di Stasi, Leandro L

    2015-01-01

    Human and animal research has found that red perception is associated with specific behavioral reactions, generally characterized by intense responses. Here, we explored whether red cars are perceived as more dangerous than other colored cars. One hundred Spanish drivers examined several road scenarios which involved hazardous cars with different colors: red, green, yellow, black, gray, and white. Driver's behavior (response time and probability of braking) and the perceived level of risk for each scenario were analyzed. Although car color affected participants' response times, contrary to expectations, red cars did not elicit faster responses or higher perceived levels of risk. PMID:26489219

  3. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  4. Fade to Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared Andromeda Galaxy (M31) Poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stars Dust

    This animation shows the Andromeda galaxy, first as seen in visible light by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, then as seen in infrared by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    The visible-light image highlights the galaxy's population of about one trillion stars. The stars are so crammed into its core that this region blazes with bright starlight.

    In contrast, the false-colored Spitzer view reveals red waves of dust against a more tranquil sea of blue stars. The dust lanes can be seen twirling all the way into the galaxy's center. This dust is warmed by young stars and shines at infrared wavelengths , which are represented in red. The blue color signifies shorter-wavelength infrared light primarily from older stars.

    The Andromeda galaxy, also known affectionately by astronomers as Messier 31, is located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. It is the closest major galaxy to the Milky Way, making it the ideal specimen for carefully examining the nature of galaxies. On a clear, dark night, the galaxy can be spotted with the naked eye as a fuzzy blob.

    Andromeda's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, the Milky Way is about 100,000 light-years across. When viewed from Earth, Andromeda occupies a portion of the sky equivalent to seven full moons.

    Because this galaxy is so large, the infrared images had to be stitched together out of about 3,000 separate Spitzer exposures. The light detected by Spitzer's infrared array camera at 3.6 and 4.5 microns is sensitive mostly to starlight and is shown in blue and green, respectively. The 8-micron light shows warm dust and is shown in red. The

  5. Red microchip VECSEL array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastie, Jennifer E.; Morton, Lynne G.; Calvez, Stephane; Dawson, Martin D.; Leinonen, Tomi; Pessa, Markus; Gibson, Graham; Padgett, Miles J.

    2005-09-01

    We report an InGaP/AlInGaP/GaAs microchip vertical-external-cavity surface emitting laser operating directly at red wavelengths and demonstrate its potential for array-format operation. Optical pumping with up to 3.3W at 532nm produced a maximum output power of 330mW at 675nm, in a single circularly-symmetric beam with M2<2. Simultaneous pumping with three separate input beams, generated using a diffractive optical element, achieved lasing from three discrete areas of the same chip. Output power of ~95mW per beam was obtained from this 3x1 array, each beam having a Gaussian intensity profile with M2<1.2. In a further development, a spatial light modulator allowed computer control over the orientation and separation of the pump beams, and hence dynamic control over the configuration of the VECSEL array.

  6. Red microchip VECSEL array.

    PubMed

    Hastie, Jennifer; Morton, Lynne; Calvez, Stephane; Dawson, Martin; Leinonen, Tomi; Pessa, Markus; Gibson, Graham; Padgett, Miles

    2005-09-01

    We report an InGaP/AlInGaP/GaAs microchip vertical-external-cavity surface emitting laser operating directly at red wavelengths and demonstrate its potential for array-format operation. Optical pumping with up to 3.3W at 532nm produced a maximum output power of 330mW at 675nm, in a single circularly-symmetric beam with M2<2. Simultaneous pumping with three separate input beams, generated using a diffractive optical element, achieved lasing from three discrete areas of the same chip. Output power of ~95mW per beam was obtained from this 3x1 array, each beam having a Gaussian intensity profile with M2<1.2. In a further development, a spatial light modulator allowed computer control over the orientation and separation of the pump beams, and hence dynamic control over the configuration of the VECSEL array. PMID:19498743

  7. Ambiguous red shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulfman, Carl E.

    2010-12-01

    A one-parameter conformal invariance of Maxwell's equations allows the wavelengths of electromagnetic waves to change as they propagate, and do so even in otherwise field-free space. This produces an ambiguity in interpretations of stellar red shifts. Experiments that will determine the value of the group parameter, and thereby remove the ambiguity, are proposed. They are based on an analysis of the anomalous frequency shifts uncovered in the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft studies, and physical interpretation of an isomorphism discovered by E.L. Hill. If the group parameter is found to be non-zero, Hubble's relations will have to be reinterpreted and space-time metrics will have to be altered. The cosmological consequences of the transformations are even more extensive because, though they change frequencies they do not alter the energy and momentum conservation laws of classical and quantum-electrodynamical fields established by Cunningham and by Białynicki-Birula.

  8. 21 CFR 74.2333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 74.2333 Section 74.2333 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... for coloring cosmetic lip products in amounts not to exceed 3 percent total color by weight of...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 74.2333 Section 74.2333 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... for coloring cosmetic lip products in amounts not to exceed 3 percent total color by weight of...

  10. 21 CFR 74.2333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 74.2333 Section 74.2333 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... for coloring cosmetic lip products in amounts not to exceed 3 percent total color by weight of...

  11. 21 CFR 74.303 - FD&C Red No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.303 FD&C Red No. 3. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive FD&C...-xanthen-3-one, disodium salt, with smaller amounts of lower imdinated fluoresceins. (2) Color additive... are listed in part 73 of this chapter as safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...

  12. 76 FR 80346 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee... Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add services to the Procurement List that will be... connection with the services proposed for addition to the Procurement List. Comments on this...

  13. 18 CFR 46.3 - Purchaser list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... filing procedures posted on the Commission's Web site at http://www.ferc.gov and make the list publicly... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purchaser list. 46.3... FOR PERSONS HOLDING INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 46.3 Purchaser list. (a) Compilation and filing list....

  14. 18 CFR 46.3 - Purchaser list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... filing procedures posted on the Commission's Web site at http://www.ferc.gov and make the list publicly... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purchaser list. 46.3... FOR PERSONS HOLDING INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 46.3 Purchaser list. (a) Compilation and filing list....

  15. 18 CFR 46.3 - Purchaser list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... filing procedures posted on the Commission's Web site at http://www.ferc.gov and make the list publicly... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purchaser list. 46.3... FOR PERSONS HOLDING INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 46.3 Purchaser list. (a) Compilation and filing list....

  16. 18 CFR 46.3 - Purchaser list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... filing procedures posted on the Commission's Web site at http://www.ferc.gov and make the list publicly... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purchaser list. 46.3... FOR PERSONS HOLDING INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 46.3 Purchaser list. (a) Compilation and filing list....

  17. Core Journal Lists: Classic Tool, New Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paynter, Robin A.; Jackson, Rose M.; Mullen, Laura Bowering

    2010-01-01

    Reviews the historical context of core journal lists, current uses in collection assessment, and existing methodologies for creating lists. Outlines two next generation core list projects developing new methodologies and integrating novel information/data sources to improve precision: a national-level core psychology list and the other a local…

  18. The Compton Effect Red Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kierein, John

    2004-05-01

    In 1923 (Phil Mag. 46, 897.) A. H. Compton noted that the Compton effect produces a red shift for all wavelengths when the scattered electron is free and not bound to an atom or molecule. He suggested that the red shift in the visible spectrum at the limb of the sun is larger than that at the center due to the Compton effect from the greater number of free electrons in the sun's atmosphere along the line of sight. Kierein and Sharp (1968, Solar Physics 3, 450) quantified this and showed a good correlation of red shift observations with the variation in the number of these electrons along the line of sight from center to limb and suggested that the quasar red shift and cosmological red shift could be similarly explained. Grote Reber mapped and measured the background hectometric radiation and found it to be unexpectedly bright. In 1968 (J. Franklin Inst. 285,1), while describing these measurements and maps he explained this brightness as being due to the Compton effect causing the cosmological red shift and accelerating intergalactic electrons. The resulting universe is static. The predicted red shift from the Compton effect deviates from Hubble's law only at large red shifts.

  19. The status of coral reef ecology research in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berumen, M. L.; Hoey, A. S.; Bass, W. H.; Bouwmeester, J.; Catania, D.; Cochran, J. E. M.; Khalil, M. T.; Miyake, S.; Mughal, M. R.; Spaet, J. L. Y.; Saenz-Agudelo, P.

    2013-09-01

    The Red Sea has long been recognized as a region of high biodiversity and endemism. Despite this diversity and early history of scientific work, our understanding of the ecology of coral reefs in the Red Sea has lagged behind that of other large coral reef systems. We carried out a quantitative assessment of ISI-listed research published from the Red Sea in eight specific topics (apex predators, connectivity, coral bleaching, coral reproductive biology, herbivory, marine protected areas, non-coral invertebrates and reef-associated bacteria) and compared the amount of research conducted in the Red Sea to that from Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and the Caribbean. On average, for these eight topics, the Red Sea had 1/6th the amount of research compared to the GBR and about 1/8th the amount of the Caribbean. Further, more than 50 % of the published research from the Red Sea originated from the Gulf of Aqaba, a small area (<2 % of the area of the Red Sea) in the far northern Red Sea. We summarize the general state of knowledge in these eight topics and highlight the areas of future research priorities for the Red Sea region. Notably, data that could inform science-based management approaches are badly lacking in most Red Sea countries. The Red Sea, as a geologically "young" sea located in one of the warmest regions of the world, has the potential to provide insight into pressing topics such as speciation processes as well as the capacity of reef systems and organisms to adapt to global climate change. As one of the world's most biodiverse coral reef regions, the Red Sea may yet have a significant role to play in our understanding of coral reef ecology at a global scale.

  20. Pragmatic Perspective on Conservation Genetics and Demographic History of the Last Surviving Population of Kashmir Red Deer (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in India

    PubMed Central

    Mukesh; Kumar, Ved P.; Sharma, Lalit K.; Shukla, Malay; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) is of great conservation concern because it represents the easternmost and only hope for an Asiatic survivor of the red deer species in the Indian subcontinent. Despite the rigorous conservation efforts of the Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu & Kashmir, the hangul population has experienced a severe decline in numbers and range contraction in the past few decades. The hangul population once abundant in the past has largely become confined to the Dachigam landscape, with a recent population estimate of 218 individuals. We investigated the genetic variability and demographic history of the hangul population and found that it has shown a relatively low diversity estimates when compared to other red deer populations of the world. Neutrality tests, which are used to evaluate demographic effects, did not support population expansion, and the multimodal pattern of mismatch distribution indicated that the hangul population is under demographic equilibrium. Furthermore, the hangul population did not exhibit any signature of bottleneck footprints in the past, and Coalescent Bayesian Skyline plot analysis revealed that the population had not experienced any dramatic changes in the effective population size over the last several thousand years. We observed a strong evidence of sub-structuring in the population, wherein the majority of individuals were assigned to different clusters in Bayesian cluster analysis. Population viability analysis demonstrated insignificant changes in the mean population size, with a positive growth rate projected for the next hundred years. We discuss the phylogenetic status of hangul for the first time among the other red deer subspecies of the world and strongly recommend to upgrade hangul conservation status under IUCN that should be discrete from the other red deer subspecies of the world to draw more conservation attention from national and international bodies. PMID:25671567

  1. Pragmatic perspective on conservation genetics and demographic history of the last surviving population of Kashmir red deer (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in India.

    PubMed

    Mukesh; Kumar, Ved P; Sharma, Lalit K; Shukla, Malay; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) is of great conservation concern because it represents the easternmost and only hope for an Asiatic survivor of the red deer species in the Indian subcontinent. Despite the rigorous conservation efforts of the Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu & Kashmir, the hangul population has experienced a severe decline in numbers and range contraction in the past few decades. The hangul population once abundant in the past has largely become confined to the Dachigam landscape, with a recent population estimate of 218 individuals. We investigated the genetic variability and demographic history of the hangul population and found that it has shown a relatively low diversity estimates when compared to other red deer populations of the world. Neutrality tests, which are used to evaluate demographic effects, did not support population expansion, and the multimodal pattern of mismatch distribution indicated that the hangul population is under demographic equilibrium. Furthermore, the hangul population did not exhibit any signature of bottleneck footprints in the past, and Coalescent Bayesian Skyline plot analysis revealed that the population had not experienced any dramatic changes in the effective population size over the last several thousand years. We observed a strong evidence of sub-structuring in the population, wherein the majority of individuals were assigned to different clusters in Bayesian cluster analysis. Population viability analysis demonstrated insignificant changes in the mean population size, with a positive growth rate projected for the next hundred years. We discuss the phylogenetic status of hangul for the first time among the other red deer subspecies of the world and strongly recommend to upgrade hangul conservation status under IUCN that should be discrete from the other red deer subspecies of the world to draw more conservation attention from national and international bodies. PMID:25671567

  2. Red Marks the Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This hematite abundance index map helps geologists choose hematite-rich locations to visit around Opportunity's landing site. Blue dots equal areas low in hematite and red dots equal areas high in hematite.

    Why Hematite Geologists are eager to reach the hematite-rich area in the upper left to closely examine the soil, which may reveal secrets about how the hematite got to this location. Knowing how the hematite on Mars was formed may help scientists characterize the past environment and determine whether that environment provided favorable conditions for life.

    The Plan Over the next few sols, engineers and scientists plan to drive Opportunity to the hematite-rich area then attempt a 'pre-trench' sequence, taking measurements with the Moessbauer spectrometer, alpha particle X-ray spectrometer and microscopic imager. Next, the plan is to trench the hematite rich area by spinning one wheel in place to 'dig' a shallow hole. Finally, scientists will aim the instrument arm back at the same area where it pre-trenched to get post-trench data with the same instruments to compare and contrast the levels of hematite and revel how deep the hematite lays in the dirt.

    Index Map Details The hematite abundance index map was created using data from the miniature thermal emission instrument. The first layer is a mosaic of panoramic camera images taken prior to egress, when Opportunity was still on the lander. The colored dots represent data collected by the miniature thermal emission spectrometer on sol 11, after Opportunity had rolled off of the lander and the rover was located at the center of the blue semi-circle.

    The spectrometer is located on the panoramic camera mast. On sol 11, it took a low-angle 180-degree panorama of the area in front of the rover, indicated by the blue shaded dots. The instrument then raised the angle of its field of view a few degrees higher to sweep around behind the rover, indicated by the red and yellow dots offset at the far sides of the

  3. The Making of "The List"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, David T.; Venable, Colleen; Barman, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Many educators, librarians, and even some parents anticipate the publication of the Outstanding Science Trade Books (OSTB) for grades K-12 each year. wondered how Some wonder how the mountain of trade books out there gets evaluated or how books are chosen as "outstanding"? This list does not just magically appear but is the result of a careful…

  4. The Making of the List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, David T.; Venable, Colleen; Barman, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Many educators, librarians, and even some parents anticipate the publication of the Outstanding Science Trade Books (OSTB) for grades K-12 each year (page 23). Have you ever wondered how the mountain of trade books out there gets evaluated or how books are chosen as "outstanding"? This list doesn't just magically appear but is the result of a…

  5. The program RADLST (Radiation Listing)

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, T.W.

    1988-02-29

    The program RADLST (Radiation Listing) is designed to calculate the nuclear and atomic radiations associated with the radioactive decay of nuclei. It uses as its primary input nuclear decay data in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) format. The code is written in FORTRAN 77 and, with a few exceptions, is consistent with the ANSI standard. 65 refs.

  6. Holidays. Instructional Media Advisory List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Media Evaluation Service.

    This annotated bibliography is directed at teachers of students in grades preK-6 and covers books about holidays. The holidays for which materials are listed are: Christmas, Easter, Halloween, Hanukkah, Passover, Purim, Rosh Hashanah, Sukkot, Thanksgiving, and Valentine's Day. A directory of publishers from whom these items are available is…

  7. National Priorities List book set

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The report provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) sites. The set of documents compiles State-Specific site summary fact sheets on each site being cleaned up under the Superfund program. The individual state sites are available as PB91-921207, and PB91-921209 thru PB91-921258.

  8. Drafting Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in drafting. The tasks required to perform the duties of seven types of drafters (i.e., general, architectural, electronic, civil, structural, mechanical, and process pipe drafters) and technical illustrators are outlined. The following are among the duties…

  9. Energy Materials: A Classified Listing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography includes 615 books and audiovisual products on energy and related topics. Books are listed in the following categories: reference, general, alternative sources, citizen action, coal, conservation and ecology, economics and politics, electricity, gas, geothermal, nuclear power, oil, solar, water, wind, and juveniles. A/V materials…

  10. Schindler's List: A Viewer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulkower, Benjamin; And Others

    This guide aids in understanding the film, "Schindlers List," and how to present it for classroom use. The guide contains: (1) an historical overview of Krakow (Poland); (2) guidelines for viewing; (3) preparation for viewing; (4) topics for discussion after viewing; (5) activities after viewing; and (6) classroom enrichment activities (Allan…

  11. Electricity Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in electricity. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 10 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: residential electrician apprentice, material handler/supply clerk, maintenance electrician apprentice,…

  12. Top Ten List for 2016.

    PubMed

    Mulaik, Melody W

    2016-01-01

    These ten items should cover many of the key issues impacting imaging. Every organization should create their own list on an annual basis and update it quarterly. Ensuring compliance with the myriad coding, reimbursement, and regulatory requirements is ongoing. Embrace the challenge, don't get discouraged and know that your efforts make a difference! PMID:26939296

  13. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  14. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  15. Red or uncomfortable eye.

    PubMed Central

    Davey, C.; Hurwitz, B.

    1992-01-01

    1. A red, uncomfortable eye may be accompanied by other symptoms such as blurred, decreased, or double vision, haloes, photophobia, pain or discharge. 2. A careful history and brief systematic examination will sort out most problems. 3. Examine eyelids, the conjunctivae and corneas. Checking visual acuity is often important. 4. The most common underlying causes can usually be managed within general practice, though a few patients will require urgent eye assessment, or routine referral to ophthalmic outpatients. 5. The following are typical eye problems which require urgent referral: History of pain as opposed to discomfort, Trauma including foreign bodies, chemicals and suspected penetrating injury, Unexplained drop in visual acuity of two lines or more in a painful eye. Specific conditions: preseptal cellulitis, herpes simplex ulcer, scleritis, orbital cellulitis, herpes zoster, bacterial corneal ulcer, dacryocystitis. 6. The following are typical problems which may require routine referral: Persistence of the problem not relieved by simple measures, Recurrent disorders of uncertain diagnosis, Eyelid swelling such as chalazion, cysts, basal cell carcinoma, Gradual loss of vision, for example cataract, macular degeneration. PMID:1345157

  16. Red ginseng and cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Anderson, Samantha; DU, Wei; He, Tong-Chuan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2016-01-01

    The ginseng family, including Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng), and Panax notoginseng (notoginseng), is commonly used herbal medicine. White ginseng is prepared by air-drying after harvest, while red ginseng is prepared by a steaming or heating process. The anticancer activity of red ginseng is significantly increased, due to the production of active anticancer ginsenosides during the steaming treatment, compared with that of white ginseng. Thus far, anticancer studies have been mostly focused on Asian ginseng. In this article, we review the research progress made in the anticancer activities of red Asian ginseng, red American ginseng and red notoginseng. The major anticancer mechanisms of red ginseng compounds include cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis/paraptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis. The structure-function relationship analysis has revealed that the protopanaxadiol group ginsenosides have more potent effects than the protopanaxatriol group. Sugar molecules in ginsenosides inversely impact the antiproliferative potential of these compounds. In addition, ginsenoside stereoselectivity and double bond position also influence the anticancer activity. Future studies should focus on characterizing active red ginseng derivatives as potential anticancer drugs. PMID:26850342

  17. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species. PMID:18954199

  18. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  19. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Nuri Faruk

    2015-02-10

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  20. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? RBC Antibody Identification Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Alloantibody Identification; Antibody ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell ...

  1. Long Secondary Periods in variable red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, C. P.; Wood, P. R.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; Soszyński, I.

    2009-11-01

    We present a study of a sample of Large Magellanic Cloud red giants exhibiting Long Secondary Periods (LSPs). We use radial velocities obtained from VLT spectral observations and MACHO and OGLE light curves to examine properties of the stars and to evaluate models for the cause of LSPs. This sample is much larger than the combined previous studies of Hinkle et al. and Wood, Olivier & Kawaler. Binary and pulsation models have enjoyed much support in recent years. Assuming stellar pulsation, we calculate from the velocity curves that the typical fractional radius change over an LSP cycle is greater than 30 per cent. This should lead to large changes in Teff that are not observed. Also, the small light amplitude of these stars seems inconsistent with the radius amplitude. We conclude that pulsation is not a likely explanation for the LSPs. The main alternative, physical movement of the star - binary motion - also has severe problems. If the velocity variations are due to binary motion, the distribution of the angle of periastron in our large sample of stars has a probability of 1.4 × 10-3 that it comes from randomly aligned binary orbits. In addition, we calculate a typical companion mass of 0.09Msolar. Less than 1 per cent of low-mass main-sequence stars have companions near this mass (0.06-0.12Msolar) whereas ~25-50 per cent of low-mass red giants end up with LSPs. We are unable to find a suitable model for the LSPs and conclude by listing their known properties.

  2. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  3. National Priorities List sites: Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  4. National Priorities List sites: Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  5. National Priorities List sites: Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  6. National Priorities List sites: Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  7. National Priorities List sites: Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  8. National Priorities List sites: Delaware

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  9. National Priorities List sites: Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  10. National Priorities List sites: Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  11. National Priorities List sites: Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  12. National Priorities List sites: Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  13. National Priorities List sites: Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  14. National Priorities List sites: Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  15. National Priorities List sites: Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  16. National Priorities List sites: Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  17. National Priorities List sites: Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  18. National Priorities List sites: Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  19. National Priorities List sites: Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  20. National Priorities List sites: Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  1. National Priorities List sites: Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  2. National Priorities List sites: Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  3. National Priorities List sites: Vermont

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  4. National Priorities List sites: Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  5. National Priorities List sites: Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  6. National Priorities List sites: Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  7. National Priorities List sites: Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  8. National Priorities List sites: Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  9. National Priorities List sites: Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  10. National Priorities List sites: California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  11. National Priorities List sites: Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  12. National Priorities List sites: Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  13. National Priorities List sites: Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  14. National Priorities List sites: Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  15. National Priorities List sites: Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  16. National Priorities List sites: Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  17. National Priorities List sites: Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  18. National Priorities List sites: Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  19. National Priorities List sites: Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  20. National Priorities List sites: Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Together with the companion National Overview volume this publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The document is intended to clearly describe what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. The State volume compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund program.

  1. 77 FR 53179 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... addition to the Procurement List for production by the nonprofit agencies listed: Products NSN: 1095-01-446-4348--Knife, Combat, Drop Point, Automatic, with Sheath. NSN: 1095-01-456-4457--Knife, Combat,...

  2. 78 FR 43270 - List of Applications Delayed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration List of Applications Delayed AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of applications delayed more than 180... Hazardous Materials Special Permits ] and Approvals, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  3. RTO Technical Publications: A Quarterly Listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is a listing of recent unclassified RTO technical publications processed by the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information from Oct 1, 2001 through Dec 31, 2001. This listing includes one citataion titled 'Logistics Test and Evaluation in Flight'.

  4. JPL preferred parts list: Reliable electronic components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covey, R. E.; Scott, W. R.; Hess, L. M.; Steffy, T. G.; Stott, F. R.

    1982-01-01

    The JPL Preferred Parts List was prepared to provide a basis for selection of electronic parts for JPL spacecraft programs. Supporting tests for the listed parts were designed to comply with specific spacecraft environmental requirements. The list tabulates the electronic, magnetic, and electromechanical parts applicable to all JPL electronic equipment wherein reliability is a major concern. The parts listed are revelant to equipment supplied by subcontractors as well as fabricated at the laboratory.

  5. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  6. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  7. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  8. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  9. 78 FR 40727 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and a service to the Procurement List that will...

  10. 76 FR 59117 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and services to the Procurement List that will...

  11. 75 FR 34701 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and services to the Procurement List that will...

  12. 75 FR 38467 - Procurement List: Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List: Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products to the Procurement List that will be furnished...

  13. 77 FR 47823 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a product to the Procurement List that will be furnished by...

  14. 75 FR 60739 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the procurement list. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add services to the Procurement List that will be provided...

  15. 75 FR 16757 - Procurement List; Proposed Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Deletions From the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to delete from the Procurement List services...

  16. 76 FR 45542 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed addition to the procurement list. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a product to the Procurement List that will be furnished by...

  17. 75 FR 19945 - Procurement List; Proposed Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ] ACTION: Proposed deletions from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to delete from the Procurement List services...

  18. 75 FR 14575 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add to the Procurement List products and a service to be...

  19. 77 FR 66181 - Procurement List; Proposed Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Deletions from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to delete products from the Procurement List that...

  20. 78 FR 19248 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a service to the Procurement List that will be provided...

  1. 76 FR 76952 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a service to the Procurement List that will be provided by...

  2. 78 FR 52512 - Procurement List Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and a service to the Procurement List that will...

  3. 76 FR 75536 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a service to the Procurement List that will be provided by...

  4. 1968 Listing of Swimming Pool Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    An up-to-date listing of swimming pool equipment including--(1) companies authorized to display the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standards relating to diatomite type filters, (3) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standard relating to sand type…

  5. TESOL CALL Interest Section Software List, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Deborah, Ed.; Johnson, Norman, Ed.

    The bibliography is an annotated list of software for language learning and includes items in use by TESOL teachers and those marketed for bilingual and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) education. An introductory section describes the listings and their use, gives a brief history of the software list, a brief introduction to computer-assisted…

  6. 75 FR 69639 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a service to the Procurement List that will be provided by...

  7. 78 FR 51819 - List of Applications Delayed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration List of Applications Delayed AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of applications delayed more than 180... following list of special permit applications that have been in process for 180 days or more. The...

  8. 78 FR 36820 - List of Applications Delayed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration List of Applications Delayed AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of applications delayed more than 180... following list of special permit applications that have been in process for 180 days or more. The...

  9. 77 FR 26795 - Product List Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... Product List Changes AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to remove Parcel Post from the market dominant product list and to add a nearly identical ``Parcel Post'' to the competitive product list. Alaska...

  10. Publication List - New York State Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Museum, Albany.

    Presented is a list of publications in six areas: (1) Anthropology and Archeology, (2) Botany, (3) Entomology, (4) Zoology, (5) Geology and Paleontology, and (6) Miscellaneous. This list was produced by the New York State Department of Education in cooperation with the New York State Museum. The list includes the publication number, author(s),…

  11. The ESL Teacher's Book of Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Jacqueline E.

    The book for teachers of English as a Second Language (ESL) contains 80 lists of words, expressions, constructions, ideas, and materials for use in ESL lesson planning and classroom instruction. The lists are presented in seven groups: (1) general vocabulary, consisting of 21 lists of English words used in various situations in daily life,…

  12. 76 FR 9338 - List of Correspondence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION List... Education. ACTION: List of Correspondence from July 1, 2010 through September 30, 2010. SUMMARY: The Secretary is publishing the following list pursuant to section 607(f) of the Individuals with...

  13. 76 FR 74779 - List of Correspondence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION List... Education. ACTION: List of Correspondence from April 1, 2011, through June 30, 2011. SUMMARY: The Secretary is publishing the following list pursuant to section 607(f) of the Individuals with...

  14. 75 FR 2510 - Procurement List: Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List: Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add to the Procurement List services to be provided by...

  15. 76 FR 19978 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a service to the Procurement List that will be furnished...

  16. 76 FR 26279 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add services to the Procurement List that will be provided...

  17. 77 FR 69598 - Procurement List Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed addition to the procurement list. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a service to the Procurement List that will be provided by...

  18. 76 FR 777 - National Wetland Plant List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... basis for the names included within the proposed list, National List of Vascular Plant Species that... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers ZRIN 0710-ZA06 National Wetland Plant List AGENCY: U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Wetland Plant...

  19. 19 CFR 4.50 - Passenger lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Passenger lists. 4.50 Section 4.50 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Passengers on Vessels § 4.50 Passenger lists. (a) The master of... passenger and crew lists, as required by § 4.7(a) of this part. If the vessel is arriving from...

  20. Acquisitions List No. 41, January 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The Acquisitions List of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katherine Dexter-McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  1. Acquisitions List No. 39, October 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The Acquisitions List of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  2. 77 FR 55233 - Product List Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Product List Changes AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... Service Contract 1 to the competitive product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with... Mail & First-Class Package Service Contract 1 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal...

  3. 77 FR 29393 - Product List Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... Product List Changes AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... competitive product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with this filing. DATES... supporting information to add First-Class Package Service Contract 2 to the Competitive Product List.\\1\\...

  4. 77 FR 28640 - Product List Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... Product List Changes AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... to the competitive product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with this filing... Parcel Return Service Contract 3 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts...

  5. 77 FR 29702 - Product List Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Product List Changes AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... competitive product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with this filing. DATES... supporting information to add First-Class Package Service Contract 5 to the competitive product list.\\1\\...

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian tapirs (Tapirus indicus): the only extant Tapiridae species in the old world.

    PubMed

    Muangkram, Yuttamol; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Kaolim, Nongnid; Buddhakosai, Waradee; Kamolnorranath, Sumate; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Tipkantha, Wanlaya; Dongsaard, Khwanruean; Maikaew, Umaporn; Sanannu, Saowaphang

    2016-01-01

    Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) is categorized as Endangered on the 2008 IUCN red list. The first full-length mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Asian tapir is 16,717 bp in length. Base composition shows 34.6% A, 27.2% T, 25.8% C and 12.3% G. Highest polymorphic site is on the control region as typical for many species. PMID:24621216

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of Germain's Peacock-Pheasant Polyplectron germaini (Aves, Galliformes, Phasianidae).

    PubMed

    Omeire, Destiny; Abdin, Shaunte; Brooks, Daniel M; Miranda, Hector C

    2015-04-01

    The Germain's Peacock-Pheasant Polyplectron germaini (Aves, Galliformes, Phasianidae) is classified as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List. The complete mitochondrial genome of P. germaini is 16,699 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. All of the 13 protein-coding genes have ATG as start codon. Eight of the 13 protein-coding genes have TAA as stop codon. PMID:24460165

  8. Alien species as a driver of recent extinctions.

    PubMed

    Bellard, Céline; Cassey, Phillip; Blackburn, Tim M

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the prevalence of alien species as a driver of recent extinctions in five major taxa (plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals), using data from the IUCN Red List. Our results show that alien species are the second most common threat associated with species that have gone completely extinct from these taxa since AD 1500. Aliens are the most common threat associated with extinctions in three of the five taxa analysed, and for vertebrate extinctions overall. PMID:26888913

  9. RED: a red-cell antibody identification expert module.

    PubMed

    Smith, J W; Svirbely, J R; Evans, C A; Strohm, P; Josephson, J R; Tanner, M

    1985-06-01

    We describe a software module in an expert system RED, which interprets data related to red cell antibody identification. There are three portions to this module: the problem-solving component, which incorporates the knowledge required for antibody identification as a hierarchy of programs. The programs in the hierarchy organize within themselves small pieces of knowledge represented in the form of production rules, which are capable of making judgments concerning a specific hypothesis; an intelligent data base for storage of patient data, red cell attributes, and test results; the "overview critic" portion, which combines the atomic hypotheses judged favorably by the antibody programs into a unified judgment concerning the case. Overview makes the decision to terminate processing with a conclusion about which antibodies are actually present and what specific further tests need to be performed to resolve any remaining ambiguities. PMID:3840517

  10. Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengel, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Blood samples from Spacelab crewmembers were studied for possible environment effects on red cell components. Analysis involved peroxidation of red cell lipids, enzymes of red cell metabolism, and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid and adenosine triphosphate. Results show that there is no evidence of lipid peroxidation, that biochemical effect known to be associated with irreversible red cell damage. Changes observed in glycolytic intermediates and enzymes cannot be directly implicated as indicating evidence of red cell damage.

  11. Characterizing warfare in red teaming.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ang; Abbass, Hussein A; Sarker, Ruhul

    2006-04-01

    Red teaming is the process of studying a problem by anticipating adversary behaviors. When done in simulations, the behavior space is divided into two groups; one controlled by the red team which represents the set of adversary behaviors or bad guys, while the other is controlled by the blue team which represents the set of defenders or good guys. Through red teaming, analysts can learn about the future by forward prediction of scenarios. More recently, defense has been looking at evolutionary computation methods in red teaming. The fitness function in these systems is highly stochastic, where a single configuration can result in multiple different outcomes. Operational, tactical and strategic decisions can be made based on the findings of the evolutionary method in use. Therefore, there is an urgent need for understanding the nature of these problems and the role of the stochastic fitness to gain insight into the possible performance of different methods. This paper presents a first attempt at characterizing the search space difficulties in red teaming to shed light on the expected performance of the evolutionary method in stochastic environments. PMID:16604725

  12. The EUVE bright source list

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroozas, B.; Mcdonald, K.; Antia, B.; Mcdonald, J.; Wiercigroch, A.

    1993-01-01

    Initial results for bright extreme ultraviolet sources discovered during the EUVE all-sky and deep ecliptic surveys have been published as a Bright Source List (BSL) and released to the astronomical community with a recent NASA research announcement (NRA 93-OSS-02, Appendix F). This paper describes the data processing software, the EUVE survey data set, and the production of the BSL at the Center for EUV Astrophysics. The contents, format, and selection criteria for sources, the data processing strategy, some problems encountered, and a summary of the BSL results are presented.

  13. Growth declines in red spruce

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B. ); Adams, H.S. )

    1987-10-01

    In this letter, the authors take issue with Zedaker, Hyink, and Smith who have indicated that observed red spruce growth declines can be expected based on growth trends for even-aged stands of red spruce as documented in Meyer (1929). Recently, an examination was made of stand stocking levels at 750 sites where red spruce were cored and neither the rate of growth decline nor the extent of mortality were found to be related to stand stocking levels or previous disturbance history. The authors conclude that the Meyer data do not represent an appropriate model for stand dynamics of old-growth, high-elevation stands and no not adequately explain the growth declines observed at many of those sites.

  14. Jupiter Great Red Spot Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter's Great Red Spot was taken by Voyager 1 in early March 1979. Distance from top to bottom of the picture is 15,000 miles (24,000 kilometers). Smallest features visible are about 20 miles (30 kilometers) across. The white feature below the Great Red Spot is one of several white ovals that were observed to form about 40 years ago; they move around Jupiter at a different velocity from the Red Spot. During the Voyager 1 encounter period, material was observed to revolve around the center of the spot with a period of six days. The Voyager project is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  15. Site maps and facilities listings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    In September 1989, a Memorandum of Agreement among DOE offices regarding the environmental management of DOE facilities was signed by appropriate Assistant Secretaries and Directors. This Memorandum of Agreement established the criteria for EM line responsibility. It stated that EM would be responsible for all DOE facilities, operations, or sites (1) that have been assigned to DOE for environmental restoration and serve or will serve no future production need; (2) that are used for the storage, treatment, or disposal of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed hazardous waste materials that have been properly characterized, packaged, and labelled, but are not used for production; (3) that have been formally transferred to EM by another DOE office for the purpose of environmental restoration and the eventual return to service as a DOE production facility; or (4) that are used exclusively for long-term storage of DOE waste material and are not actively used for production, with the exception of facilities, operations, or sites under the direction of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. As part of the implementation of the Memorandum of Agreement, Field Offices within DOE submitted their listings of facilities, systems, operation, and sites for which EM would have line responsibility. It is intended that EM facility listings will be revised on a yearly basis so that managers at all levels will have a valid reference for the planning, programming, budgeting and execution of EM activities.

  16. Red facts: Ethylene. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    EPA is directed by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act as amended in 1988 (FIFRA '88) to review all pesticide products containing active ingredients initially registered before November 1, 1984, and to reregister those products that have a substantially complete data base and do not pose unreasonable adverse effects to people or the environment. The pesticide reregistration program is to be completed by the late 1990's. The RED FACTS fact sheet summarizes EPA's conclusion, as set forth in the Reregistration Eligibility Document (or RED), that products containing a pesticide do not pose unreasonable risks when used as directed by Agency-approved labeling, and are eligible for reregistration.

  17. Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

  18. Betelgeuse and the Red Supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, J. Th.

    2013-05-01

    Betelgeuse is one of the most magnificent stars in the sky, and one of the nearest red supergiants. Astronomers gathered in Paris in the Autumn of 2012 to decide what we know about its structure, behaviour, and past and future evolution, and how to place this in the general context of the class of red supergiants. Here I reflect on the discussions and propose a synthesis of the presented evidence. I believe that, in those four days, we have achieved to solve a few riddles.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Halo red giants from the SEGUE survey (Martell+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, S. L.; Smolinski, J. P.; Beers, T. C.; Grebel, E. K.

    2011-09-01

    Table 1 lists SDSS identifiers, astrometry and photometry, stellar parameters and survey name for 2519 stars observed as part of the SDSS-II/SEGUE-1 and SDSS-III/SEGUE-2 surveys. The stars in this table were selected as red giants with halo-like metallicities (-1.8<[Fe/H]<-1.0) and reasonably clean spectra (mean S/N per pixel between 4000 and 4100A greater than 15). Table 3 lists SDSS identifiers, CN and CH bandstrength indices, CN bandstrength class, absolute r magnitudes, heliocentric and Galactocentric distances, and survey name, for the same stars as in Table 1. (2 data files).

  20. Red list plants: colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophytes.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, B; Haselwandter, K

    2004-08-01

    Since information concerning the mycorrhization of endangered plants is of major importance for their potential re-establishment, we determined the mycorrhizal status of Serratula tinctoria (Asteraceae), Betonica officinalis (Lamiaceae), Drosera intermedia (Droseraceae) and Lycopodiella inundata (Lycopodiaceae), occurring at one of two wetland sites (fen meadow and peat bog), which differed in soil pH and available P levels. Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) was quantified. Colonization by AMF appeared to be more frequent in the fen meadow than in the peat bog, and depended on the host plant. Roots of S. tinctoria and B. officinalis were well colonized by AMF in the fen meadow (35-55% root length) and both arbuscules and vesicles were observed to occur in spring as well as in autumn. In the peat bog, L. inundata showed a low level of root colonization in spring, when vesicles were found frequently but no arbuscules. In roots of D. intermedia from the peat bog, arbuscules and vesicles were observed, but AMF colonization was lower than in L. inundata. In contrast, the amount of AMF spores extracted from soil at the peat bog site was higher than from the fen meadow soil. Spore numbers did not differ between spring and autumn in the fen meadow, but they were higher in spring than in autumn in the peat bog. Acaulospora laevis or A. colossica and Glomus etunicatum were identified amongst the AMF spores extracted from soil at the two sites. S. tinctoria and B. officinalis roots were also regularly colonized by DSE (18-40% root length), while L. inundata was only rarely colonized and D. intermedia did not seem to be colonized by DSE at all. PMID:15221579

  1. Return to the Red Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, W.

    1996-01-01

    In November 1996, NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will begin America's return to Mars after a 20-year absence by launching the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. This mission will usher in a new and exciting era of scientific missions to study the red planet.

  2. Growth declines in red spruce

    SciTech Connect

    Zedaker, S.M.; Hyink, D.M.; Smith, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past two decades second-growth red spruce stands in the Northeast have demonstrated declines in radial increment. Some observers are implicating air pollution as a primary cause of the declines, based on recently acquired increment cores from dominant trees. Various forms of air pollution (O/sub 3/, NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/, and trace metals) are known to reduce growth and development of tree species, but few studies have provided concrete evidence of regional pollution-caused declines in forest ecosystems. Recently published evidence of a synchronous, consistent, and unprecedented regional decline in red spruce should be weighed against the realization that radial increment in red spruce declines naturally as stands age. Separating anthropogenic stress-caused growth patterns from natural stand dynamics requires an in-depth knowledge of forest growth and yield, tree silvics, and forest ecosystem processes. Detailed analyses of growth by stand characteristics - site index, density, elevation, stand history - will be necessary to implicate air pollution as a primary cause of red spruce decline.

  3. Infra-red soft universality

    SciTech Connect

    Jack, I.

    1997-06-15

    In a special class of supersymmetric grand unified theories, the commonly assumed universal form of the soft supersymmetry-breaking terms is approached in the infra-red limit. The resulting universal scalar mass and trilinear coupling are predicted in terms of the gaugino mass.

  4. "Red Power" and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, G. Louis

    The document is the result of research conducted on 14 Indian reservations and one settlement in the Southwest, Midwest, West, and Pacific Northwest by Illinois State University in the summer of 1970. Some 124 Indians were interviewed, many of whom were leaders and participants in various Red Power organizations. As noted, the dominant impression…

  5. Genetic Basis for Red Coloration in Birds.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ricardo J; Johnson, James D; Toomey, Matthew B; Ferreira, Mafalda S; Araujo, Pedro M; Melo-Ferreira, José; Andersson, Leif; Hill, Geoffrey E; Corbo, Joseph C; Carneiro, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    The yellow and red feather pigmentation of many bird species [1] plays pivotal roles in social signaling and mate choice [2, 3]. To produce red pigments, birds ingest yellow carotenoids and endogenously convert them into red ketocarotenoids via an oxidation reaction catalyzed by a previously unknown ketolase [4-6]. We investigated the genetic basis for red coloration in birds using whole-genome sequencing of red siskins (Spinus cucullata), common canaries (Serinus canaria), and "red factor" canaries, which are the hybrid product of crossing red siskins with common canaries [7]. We identified two genomic regions introgressed from red siskins into red factor canaries that are required for red coloration. One of these regions contains a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP2J19. Transcriptome analysis demonstrates that CYP2J19 is significantly upregulated in the skin and liver of red factor canaries, strongly implicating CYP2J19 as the ketolase that mediates red coloration in birds. Interestingly, a second introgressed region required for red feathers resides within the epidermal differentiation complex, a cluster of genes involved in development of the integument. Lastly, we present evidence that CYP2J19 is involved in ketocarotenoid formation in the retina. The discovery of the carotenoid ketolase has important implications for understanding sensory function and signaling mediated by carotenoid pigmentation. PMID:27212400

  6. NASA thesaurus. Volume 1: Hierarchical Listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    There are over 17,000 postable terms and nearly 4,000 nonpostable terms approved for use in the NASA scientific and technical information system in the Hierarchical Listing of the NASA Thesaurus. The generic structure is presented for many terms. The broader term and narrower term relationships are shown in an indented fashion that illustrates the generic structure better than the more widely used BT and NT listings. Related terms are generously applied, thus enhancing the usefulness of the Hierarchical Listing. Greater access to the Hierarchical Listing may be achieved with the collateral use of Volume 2 - Access Vocabulary and Volume 3 - Definitions.

  7. Program/project management resource lists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Program/Project Management Collection at NASA Headquarters Library is part of a larger initiative by the Training and Development Division, Code FT, NASA Headquarters. The collection is being developed to support the Program/Project Management Initiative which includes the training of NASA managers. These PPM Resource Lists have proven to be a useful method of informing NASA employees nationwide about the subject coverage of the library collection. All resources included on the lists are available at or through NASA Headquarters Library. NASA employees at other Centers may request listed books through interlibrary loan, and listed articles by contacting me by phone, mail, or e-mail.

  8. NASA Thesaurus. Volume 1: Hierarchical listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    There are 16,713 postable terms and 3,716 nonpostable terms approved for use in the NASA scientific and technical information system in the Hierarchical Listing of the NASA Thesaurus. The generic structure is presented for many terms. The broader term and narrower term relationships are shown in an indented fashion that illustrates the generic structure better than the more widely used BT and NT listings. Related terms are generously applied, thus enhancing the usefulness of the Hierarchical Listing. Greater access to the Hierarchical Listing may be achieved with the collateral use of Volume 2 - Access Vocabulary.

  9. NASA thesaurus. Volume 1: Hierarchical listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    There are 16,835 postable terms and 3,765 nonpostable terms approved for use in the NASA scientific and technical information system in the Hierarchical Listing of the NASA Thesaurus. The generic structure is presented for many terms. The broader term and narrower term relationships are shown in an indented fashion that illustrates the generic structure better than the more widely used BT and NT listings. Related terms are generously applied, thus enhancing the usefulness of the Hierarchical Listing. Greater access to the Hierarchical Listing may be achieved with the collateral use of Volume 2 - Access Vocabulary.

  10. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). ... abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  11. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). The abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  12. Current issues relating to the transfusion of stored red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Zimrin, A B; Hess, J R

    2009-02-01

    The development of blood storage systems allowed donation and transfusion to be separated in time and space. This separation has permitted the regionalization of donor services with subsequent economies of scale and improvements in the quality and availability of blood products. However, the availability of storage raises the question of how long blood products can and should be stored and how long they are safe and effective. The efficacy of red blood cells was originally measured as the increment in haematocrit and safety began with typing and the effort to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination. Appreciation of a growing list of storage lesions of red blood cells has developed with our increasing understanding of red blood cell physiology and our experience with red blood cell transfusion. However, other than frank haemolysis, rare episodes of bacterial contamination and overgrowth, the reduction of oxygen-carrying capacity associated with the failure of some transfused cells to circulate, and the toxicity of lysophospholipids released from membrane breakdown, storage-induced lesions have not had obvious correlations with safety or efficacy. The safety of red blood cell storage has also been approached in retrospective epidemiologic studies of transfused patients, but the results are frequently biased by the fact that sicker patients are transfused more often and blood banks do not issue blood products in a random order. Several large prospective studies of the safety of stored red blood cells are planned. PMID:19152602

  13. Red cell distribution width and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gulcan Kurt, Yasemin; Cayci, Tuncer; Aydin, Fevzi Nuri; Agilli, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Red cell distribution width is a measure of deviation of the volume of red blood cells. It is a marker of anisocytosis and often used to evaluate the possible causes of anemia. Elevated red cell distribution width levels are also associated with acute and chronic inflammatory responses. In nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, inflammation is accompanied with steatosis. For assuming red cell distribution width as a marker of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, intervening factors such as levels of inflammatory markers should also be evaluated. PMID:25473202

  14. Grape (Vitis spp.) - Grapevine Red Blotch Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine red blotch disease is caused by Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV), which was first reported in 2012 from New York and subsequently in California, Washington, Oregon, Idaho and elsewhere in the U.S. The discovery occurred when grapevines with red leaf symptoms that tested negati...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis furcata, Porphyra...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  18. 7 CFR 29.1053 - Red (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Red (R). 29.1053 Section 29.1053 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1053 Red (R). A brownish red....

  19. 7 CFR 29.1053 - Red (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Red (R). 29.1053 Section 29.1053 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1053 Red (R). A brownish red....

  20. 7 CFR 29.1053 - Red (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Red (R). 29.1053 Section 29.1053 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1053 Red (R). A brownish red....

  1. 7 CFR 29.1053 - Red (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Red (R). 29.1053 Section 29.1053 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1053 Red (R). A brownish red....

  2. 7 CFR 29.1053 - Red (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Red (R). 29.1053 Section 29.1053 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1053 Red (R). A brownish red....

  3. Registration of ‘Red Amber’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red Amber’ (Reg. No.__________ PI _______) soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released March 28, 2008 in a licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Red Amber was selected from the cross ‘255...

  4. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  5. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  6. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  7. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  8. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  11. “AmaRosa,” a red skinned, red fleshed fingerling with high phytonutrient value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AmaRosa is a mid season specialty potato with red skin and red flesh. This selection is unique among commercially available potato varieties in that plants set a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers with red skin and red flesh. AmaRosa tubers have higher total anthocyanin and hyd...

  12. 76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY... Safety Unit Duluth, MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is... entering all navigable waters of the Red River in the State of Minnesota north of a line drawn...

  13. Jupiter's Great Red Spot Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This mosaic of the Great Red Spot shows that the region has changed significantly since the Voyager 1 encounter three months ago. Around the northern boundary a white cloud is seen, which extends to east of the region. The presence of this cloud prevents small cloud vertices from circling the spot in the manner seen in the Voyager 1 encounter. Another white oval cloud (different from the one present in this position three months ago) is seen south of the Great Red Spot. The internal structure of these spots is identical. Since they both rotate in an anticyclonic manner these observations indicate that they are meteorologically similar. This image was taken on July 6 from a range of 2,633,003 kilometers.

  14. Red cell DAMPs and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Rafaela; Silveira, Angélica A A; Conran, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Intravascular hemolysis, or the destruction of red blood cells in the circulation, can occur in numerous diseases, including the acquired hemolytic anemias, sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia, as well as during some transfusion reactions, preeclampsia and infections, such as those caused by malaria or Clostridium perfringens. Hemolysis results in the release of large quantities of red cell damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) into the circulation, which, if not neutralized by innate protective mechanisms, have the potential to activate multiple inflammatory pathways. One of the major red cell DAMPs, heme, is able to activate converging inflammatory pathways, such as toll-like receptor signaling, neutrophil extracellular trap formation and inflammasome formation, suggesting that this DAMP both activates and amplifies inflammation. Other potent DAMPs that may be released by the erythrocytes upon their rupture include heat shock proteins (Hsp), such as Hsp70, interleukin-33 and Adenosine 5' triphosphate. As such, hemolysis represents a major inflammatory mechanism that potentially contributes to the clinical manifestations that have been associated with the hemolytic diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension and leg ulcers, and likely plays a role in specific complications of sickle cell disease such as endothelial activation, vaso-occlusive processes and tissue injury. PMID:27251171

  15. 77 FR 2561 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... List (CBP Form I-418) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security... concerning the Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This request for comment is being made pursuant to..., utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; (d) ways to minimize the burden including the...

  16. 78 FR 26648 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... List (CBP Form I-418) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security... concerning the Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This request for comment is being made pursuant to..., utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; (d) ways to minimize the burden including the...

  17. 78 FR 46998 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew... accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This is a proposed... Register (78 FR 26648) on May 7, 2013, allowing for a 60-day comment period. This notice allows for...

  18. 76 FR 9806 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... previously published in the Federal Register (75 FR 76021) on December 7, 2010, allowing for a 60-day comment... List (CBP Form I-418) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form...

  19. Establishment of a Medical Academic Word List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing; Liang, Shao-lan; Ge, Guang-chun

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a corpus-based lexical study of the most frequently used medical academic vocabulary in medical research articles (RAs). A Medical Academic Word List (MAWL), a word list of the most frequently used medical academic words in medical RAs, was compiled from a corpus containing 1 093 011 running words of medical RAs from online…

  20. 77 FR 49783 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/15/2012 (77 FR 35942-35944) and 6/22/2012 (77 FR 37659-37660), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  1. 75 FR 3714 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the procurement list... Must Be Received On or Before: 2/22/2010. ADDRESSES: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are...

  2. 75 FR 81235 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the Procurement List... Must Be Received On or Before: 1/23/2011. ADDRESSES: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are...

  3. 77 FR 35942 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List...: Comments Must be Received on or Before: 7/16/2012. ADDRESSES: Committee for Purchase From People Who...

  4. 14 CFR 1212.603 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1212.603 Section 1212.603 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT-NASA REGULATIONS Instructions for NASA Employees § 1212.603 Mailing lists. NASA will not sell, rent, or otherwise disclose...

  5. 14 CFR 1212.603 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1212.603 Section 1212.603 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT-NASA REGULATIONS Instructions for NASA Employees § 1212.603 Mailing lists. NASA will not sell, rent, or otherwise disclose...

  6. 14 CFR 1212.603 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Mailing lists. 1212.603 Section 1212.603 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT-NASA REGULATIONS Instructions for NASA Employees § 1212.603 Mailing lists. NASA will not sell, rent, or otherwise disclose...

  7. 48 CFR Appendix - List of IAAR Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false List of IAAR Forms Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms The Broadcasting Board of Governors forms. List of IAAR Forms 1953.370-21The Broadcasting Board of Governors Form IA-21, Abstract...

  8. 48 CFR Appendix - List of IAAR Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false List of IAAR Forms Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms The Broadcasting Board of Governors forms. List of IAAR Forms 1953.370-21The Broadcasting Board of Governors Form IA-21, Abstract...

  9. 48 CFR Appendix - List of IAAR Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false List of IAAR Forms Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS CLAUSES AND FORMS Reserved List of IAAR Forms 1953.370-21The Broadcasting Board of Governors Form IA-21, Abstract of Quotations. 1953.370-44The Broadcasting Board of Governors Form...

  10. Pupil Personnel Services: Material Review List Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinale, Anthony

    This list of materials provides recommendations to counselors and guidance personnel for the purchase of materials for pupil personnel services programs in the Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DDDS). The listing, based on staff reviews in each of the six DDDS regions, is divided into 10 content areas: (1) assessment and evaluation; (2)…

  11. 77 FR 30336 - Product List Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... competitive product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with this filing. DATES: Comments... competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class Package Service Contract 7 is ``a competitive product not of general applicability within the meaning of 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3).'' Id. at 1....

  12. 77 FR 30335 - Product List Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... competitive product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with this filing. DATES: Comments... competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class Package Service Contract 6 is ``a competitive product not of general applicability within the meaning of 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3).'' Id. at 1....

  13. 76 FR 66181 - The Commerce Control List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 The Commerce Control List CFR Correction In Title 15 of...: Supplement No. 1 to PART 774--THE COMMERCE CONTROL LIST * * * * * 1C118 Titanium-stabilized duplex...

  14. 76 FR 66181 - The Commerce Control List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 The Commerce Control List CFR Correction In Title 15 of... No. 1 to PART 774--THE COMMERCE CONTROL LIST * * * * * 2B008 Assemblies or Units, Specially...

  15. 10 CFR 1304.116 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1304.116 Section 1304.116 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.116 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent an individual's name and/or address unless such action is specifically authorized by law....

  16. 10 CFR 1304.116 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1304.116 Section 1304.116 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.116 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent an individual's name and/or address unless such action is specifically authorized by law....

  17. 40 CFR 60.16 - Priority list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Priority list. 60.16 Section 60.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES General Provisions § 60.16 Priority list. Prioritized Major Source Categories Priority Number 1...

  18. 78 FR 9386 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/30/2012 (77 FR 71400-71401), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  19. 78 FR 34351 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... (78 FR 21916), the Committee for Purchase from People Who are Blind or Severely Disabled published... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase from People Who are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  20. 78 FR 40727 - Procurement List Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... (78 FR 25970-25971), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  1. 78 FR 45183 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 5/31/2013 (78 FR 32631-32632); 6/7/2013 (78 FR 34350-34351); and 6/14/2013 (78 FR... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  2. 77 FR 73620 - Procurement List; Additions; Clarification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Committee's Notice in the Federal Register of Friday, October 26, 2012 (77 FR 65365-65366), concerning additions to the Procurement List, specified ``Eyewear'' with coverage for 100... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions; Clarification AGENCY:...

  3. 78 FR 46927 - Procurement List; Proposed Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Deletions from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to delete products and services from the Procurement...

  4. 22 CFR 1507.11 - Mailing list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Mailing list. 1507.11 Section 1507.11 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION RULES SAFEGUARDING PERSONAL INFORMATION § 1507.11 Mailing list. An individual's name and address may not be sold or rented by the Foundation unless such action is...

  5. 48 CFR 8.703 - Procurement list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Procurement List may be accessed at: http://www.abilityone.gov/index.html Questions concerning whether a...@abilityone.gov or referred to the Committee offices at the following address and telephone number: Committee... Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, VA 22202-3259, (703) 603-7740. Many items on the Procurement List...

  6. An Annotated Publications List on Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutunjian, Beth Ann

    This annotated publications list on homelessness contains citations for 19 publications, most of which deal with problems of alcohol or drug abuse among homeless persons. Citations are listed alphabetically by author and cover the topics of homelessness and alcoholism, drug abuse, public policy, research methodologies, mental illness, alcohol- and…

  7. Listing of data systems elements authorities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA personnel have a need to be aware of and to interact with key technical experts in all areas of data systems. This report presents a partial listing (names, addresses and telephone numbers) of individuals known to be authorities in selected areas of data systems of interest to NASA. The listings are based primarily on recent publications by the named individuals.

  8. 15 CFR 286.11 - Listings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.11 Listings. (a) NIST maintains lists of all bodies holding current NIST program certificates, together with the assessment areas for which they...

  9. 15 CFR 286.11 - Listings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.11 Listings. (a) NIST maintains lists of all bodies holding current NIST program certificates, together with the assessment areas for which they...

  10. 15 CFR 286.11 - Listings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.11 Listings. (a) NIST maintains lists of all bodies holding current NIST program certificates, together with the assessment areas for which they...

  11. 15 CFR 286.11 - Listings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.11 Listings. (a) NIST maintains lists of all bodies holding current NIST program certificates, together with the assessment areas for which they...

  12. Residential Carpentry Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for nine occupations in the residential carpentry series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to…

  13. Punch List Process Concludes Building Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roark, Steven

    2002-01-01

    The fourteenth article in a series following a single building project (the expansion and renovation of Longview Community College's Liberal Arts Building), describes the punch list process that concludes every building project. This list delineates issues for the contractor that, when addressed, transfer responsibility to the owner. (EV)

  14. Fashion Merchandising Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for seven occupations in the fashion merchandising series. Each occupation is divided into 6 to 15 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to…

  15. 75 FR 33269 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 4/9/2010 (75 FR 18164-18165), the Committee for Purchase From People Who... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  16. 77 FR 29701 - Product List Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... competitive product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with this filing. DATES... supporting information to add First-Class Package Service Contract 3 to the Competitive Product List.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class Package Service Contract 3 is ``a competitive product not...

  17. 50 CFR 300.172 - Vessel list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Pacific Albacore Tuna Fisheries § 300.172 Vessel list. The “vessel list” is the list of U.S. vessels that.... vessel that wishes to be eligible to fish for albacore tuna under the Treaty as amended in 2002...

  18. 50 CFR 300.172 - Vessel list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Pacific Albacore Tuna Fisheries § 300.172 Vessel list. The “vessel list” is the list of U.S. vessels that.... vessel that wishes to be eligible to fish for albacore tuna under the Treaty as amended in 2002...

  19. 50 CFR 300.172 - Vessel list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Pacific Albacore Tuna Fisheries § 300.172 Vessel list. The “vessel list” is the list of U.S. vessels that.... vessel that wishes to be eligible to fish for albacore tuna under the Treaty as amended in 2002...

  20. 50 CFR 300.172 - Vessel list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Pacific Albacore Tuna Fisheries § 300.172 Vessel list. The “vessel list” is the list of U.S. vessels that.... vessel that wishes to be eligible to fish for albacore tuna under the Treaty as amended in 2002...

  1. 50 CFR 300.172 - Vessel list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Pacific Albacore Tuna Fisheries § 300.172 Vessel list. The “vessel list” is the list of U.S. vessels that.... vessel that wishes to be eligible to fish for albacore tuna under the Treaty as amended in 2002...

  2. 40 CFR 60.16 - Priority list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Priority list. 60.16 Section 60.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES General Provisions § 60.16 Priority list. Prioritized Major Source Categories Priority Number 1...

  3. The Invention of the School Discipline Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Barry

    1994-01-01

    The 1940 school discipline list, a "national teacher survey" of the top seven offenses has been extensively cited by outspoken school critics. The list, along with its 1990 counterpart, has been traced to T. Cullen Davis, a wealthy Texas businessman-turned evangelical Christian/education lobbyist. The conflation of school discipline with social…

  4. 29 CFR 780.108 - Listed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Agriculture Farming in All Its Branches § 780.108 Listed activities. Section 3(f), in defining the... specifically listed in the earlier portion of the definition (the “primary” meaning) as “farming” operations. They may therefore be considered as illustrative of “farming in all its branches” as used in...

  5. Textbooks in Greek and Latin: 1975 List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Thomas G.

    1975-01-01

    List of textbooks in Greek and Latin for 1975. Subject, title, publisher and price are noted. Greek and Latin works are listed separately under the eight categories of texts, beginner's books, grammars, books about the language, readers and anthologies, composition, dictionaries, and New Testament Greek and Later Latin. (RM)

  6. List of Core Journals in Earth Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Council for Scientific and Technical Information, Paris (France).

    Selection and acquisition of relevant materials for building and developing an information infrastructure are modern worldwide problems. This document provides a core listing of journals in the earth sciences in an effort to develop a tool for the improvement of information handling and transfer. The core list was generated using several databases…

  7. Listing Intonation in Cameroon English Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouafeu, Yves Talla Sando

    2006-01-01

    Compelling evidence from the literature on English intonation suggests that the tone patterns of some sentence types like lists have been grossly underresearched. This undercharacterization of listing intonation in English is inferable from the paucity of literature on this topic. The main thrust of this study is to report the findings from the…

  8. 10 CFR 1304.116 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1304.116 Section 1304.116 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.116 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent an individual's name and/or address unless such action is specifically authorized by law....

  9. 10 CFR 1304.116 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1304.116 Section 1304.116 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.116 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent an individual's name and/or address unless such action is specifically authorized by law....

  10. 77 FR 38683 - Product List Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Product List Changes AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... contracts. Id. at 1. A grouping for GEPS 3 contracts was later added to the competitive product list as an..., 2012. The public portions of the Postal Service's filing can be accessed via the Commission's Web...

  11. 77 FR 38682 - Product List Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Product List Changes AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... contracts. Id. at 1. A grouping for GEPS 3 contracts was later added to the competitive product list as an..., 2012. The public portions of the Postal Service's filing can be accessed via the Commission's Web...

  12. 76 FR 18189 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 1/28/2011 (76 FR 5142-5143), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  13. 75 FR 4784 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/16/2009 (74 FR 58949-58950), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  14. 75 FR 54114 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 7/2/2010 (75 FR 38467-38468) and 7/9/2010 (75 FR 39497-39499), the... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  15. 78 FR 65617 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... 9/13/2013 (78 FR 56680) and 9/20/2013 (78 FR 57844), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  16. 76 FR 5142 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... Procurement List. Service Type/Location: Base Operations Support Service Directorate of Public Works (DPW... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the Procurement...

  17. 77 FR 53180 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/15/2012 (77 FR 35942-35944) and 6/29/2012 (77 FR 38775-38776), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase from People who are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  18. 76 FR 19751 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 1/28/2011 (76 FR 5142-5143), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  19. Machine Tool Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course to prepare machine tool, drill press, grinding machine, lathe, mill, and/or power saw operators. The listing is divided into six sections, with each one outlining the tasks required to perform the duties that have been identified for the given occupation.…

  20. 48 CFR Appendix - List of IAAR Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true List of IAAR Forms Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms The Broadcasting Board of Governors forms. List of IAAR Forms 1953.370-21The Broadcasting Board of Governors Form IA-21, Abstract...