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Sample records for iv p-type atpase

  1. P-type ATPases.

    PubMed

    Palmgren, Michael G; Nissen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    P-type ATPases form a large superfamily of cation and lipid pumps. They are remarkably simple with only a single catalytic subunit and carry out large domain motions during transport. The atomic structure of P-type ATPases in different conformations, together with ample mutagenesis evidence, has provided detailed insights into the pumping mechanism by these biological nanomachines. Phylogenetically, P-type ATPases are divided into five subfamilies, P1-P5. These subfamilies differ with respect to transported ligands and the way they are regulated. PMID:21351879

  2. Evolution of Plant P-Type ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Christian N. S.; Axelsen, Kristian B.; Harper, Jeffrey F.; Palmgren, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Five organisms having completely sequenced genomes and belonging to all major branches of green plants (Viridiplantae) were analyzed with respect to their content of P-type ATPases encoding genes. These were the chlorophytes Ostreococcus tauri and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and the streptophytes Physcomitrella patens (a non-vascular moss), Selaginella moellendorffii (a primitive vascular plant), and Arabidopsis thaliana (a model flowering plant). Each organism contained sequences for all five subfamilies of P-type ATPases. Whereas Na+ and H+ pumps seem to mutually exclude each other in flowering plants and animals, they co-exist in chlorophytes, which show representatives for two kinds of Na+ pumps (P2C and P2D ATPases) as well as a primitive H+-ATPase. Both Na+ and H+ pumps also co-exist in the moss P. patens, which has a P2D Na+-ATPase. In contrast to the primitive H+-ATPases in chlorophytes and P. patens, the H+-ATPases from vascular plants all have a large C-terminal regulatory domain as well as a conserved Arg in transmembrane segment 5 that is predicted to function as part of a backflow protection mechanism. Together these features are predicted to enable H+ pumps in vascular plants to create large electrochemical gradients that can be modulated in response to diverse physiological cues. The complete inventory of P-type ATPases in the major branches of Viridiplantae is an important starting point for elucidating the evolution in plants of these important pumps. PMID:22629273

  3. Computational Classification of P-Type ATPases.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Dan; Knudsen, Michael; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of sequence data is inevitable in modern molecular biology, and important information about for example proteins can be inferred efficiently using computational methods. Here, we explain how to use the information in freely available databases together with computational methods for classification and motif detection to assess whether a protein sequence corresponds to a P-type ATPase (and if so, which subtype) or not. PMID:26695056

  4. Membrane Targeting of P-type ATPases in Plant Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey F. Harper, Ph.D.

    2004-06-30

    How membrane proteins are targeted to specific subcellular locations is a very complex and poorly understood area of research. Our long-term goal is to use P-type ATPases (ion pumps), in a model plant system Arabidopsis, as a paradigm to understand how members of a family of closely related membrane proteins can be targeted to different subcellular locations. The research is divided into two specific aims. The first aim is focused on determining the targeting destination of all 10 ACA-type calcium pumps (Arabidopsis Calcium ATPase) in Arabidopsis. ACAs represent a plant specific-subfamily of plasma membrane-type calcium pumps. In contrast to animals, the plant homologs have been found in multiple membrane systems, including the ER (ACA2), tonoplast (ACA4) and plasma membrane (ACA8). Their high degree of similarity provides a unique opportunity to use a comparative approach to delineate the membrane specific targeting information for each pump. One hypothesis to be tested is that an endomembrane located ACA can be re-directed to the plasma membrane by including targeting information from a plasma membrane isoform, ACA8. Our approach is to engineer domain swaps between pumps and monitor the targeting of chimeric proteins in plant cells using a Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) as a tag. The second aim is to test the hypothesis that heterologous transporters can be engineered into plants and targeted to the plasma membrane by fusing them to a plasma membrane proton pump. As a test case we are evaluating the targeting properties of fusions made between a yeast sodium/proton exchanger (Sod2) and a proton pump (AHA2). This fusion may potentially lead to a new strategy for engineering salt resistant plants. Together these aims are designed to provide fundamental insights into the biogenesis and function of plant cell membrane systems.

  5. A P-type ATPase from the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii similar to animal Na,K-ATPases.

    PubMed

    de Souza, F S; Gomes, S L

    1998-04-01

    We have cloned a P-type ATPase gene from the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii (BePAT1) using a probe obtained with degenerate oligonucleotides, corresponding to two amino acid sequences highly conserved among all P-type ATPase isoforms, and the polymerase chain reaction technique. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed a 3.4 kb open reading frame encoding a putative peptide of 1080 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 119 kDa, which presents all diagnostic features of P-type transporting ATPases. Comparison to other members of the family and phylogenetic analyses have shown that the BePAT1 protein belongs to the subfamily of Na,K- and H,K-ATPases, indicating that the divergence between the alpha-subunit of the Na,K-ATPase and other members of the P-type ATPase family has occurred before the divergence between the animal and fungal lineages in evolution. PMID:9602120

  6. Origin and evolution of metal P-type ATPases in Plantae (Archaeplastida)

    PubMed Central

    Hanikenne, Marc; Baurain, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Metal ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases involved in the transport of metal cations across biological membranes. They all share an architecture featuring eight transmembrane domains in pairs of two and are found in prokaryotes as well as in a variety of Eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, eight metal P-type ATPases have been described, four being specific to copper transport and four displaying a broader metal specificity, including zinc, cadmium, and possibly copper and calcium. So far, few efforts have been devoted to elucidating the origin and evolution of these proteins in Eukaryotes. In this work, we use large-scale phylogenetics to show that metal P-type ATPases form a homogenous group among P-type ATPases and that their specialization into either monovalent (Cu) or divalent (Zn, Cd…) metal transport stems from a gene duplication that took place early in the evolution of Life. Then, we demonstrate that the four subgroups of plant metal ATPases all have a different evolutionary origin and a specific taxonomic distribution, only one tracing back to the cyanobacterial progenitor of the chloroplast. Finally, we examine the subsequent evolution of these proteins in green plants and conclude that the genes thoroughly characterized in model organisms are often the result of lineage-specific gene duplications, which calls for caution when attempting to infer function from sequence similarity alone in non-model organisms. PMID:24575101

  7. PATBox: A Toolbox for Classification and Analysis of P-Type ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Søndergaard, Dan; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm

    2015-01-01

    P-Type ATPases are part of the regulatory system of the cell where they are responsible for transporting ions and lipids through the cell membrane. These pumps are found in all eukaryotes and their malfunction has been found to cause several severe diseases. Knowing which substrate is pumped by a certain P-Type ATPase is therefore vital. The P-Type ATPases can be divided into 11 subtypes based on their specificity, that is, the substrate that they pump. Determining the subtype experimentally is time-consuming. Thus it is of great interest to be able to accurately predict the subtype based on the amino acid sequence only. We present an approach to P-Type ATPase sequence classification based on the k-nearest neighbors, similar to a homology search, and show that this method provides performs very well and, to the best of our knowledge, better than any existing method despite its simplicity. The classifier is made available as a web service at http://services.birc.au.dk/patbox/ which also provides access to a database of potential P-Type ATPases and their predicted subtypes. PMID:26422234

  8. Nucleotide recognition by CopA, a Cu+-transporting P-type ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Takeo; Toyoshima, Chikashi

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metal pumps constitute a large subgroup in P-type ion-transporting ATPases. One of the outstanding features is that the nucleotide binding N-domain lacks residues critical for ATP binding in other well-studied P-type ATPases. Instead, they possess an HP-motif and a Gly-rich sequence in the N-domain, and their mutations impair ATP binding. Here, we describe 1.85 Å resolution crystal structures of the P- and N-domains of CopA, an archaeal Cu+-transporting ATPase, with bound nucleotides. These crystal structures show that CopA recognises the adenine ring completely differently from other P-type ATPases. The crystal structure of the His462Gln mutant, in the HP-motif, a disease-causing mutation in human Cu+-ATPases, shows that the Gln side chain mimics the imidazole ring, but only partially, explaining the reduction in ATPase activity. These crystal structures lead us to propose a role of the His and a mechanism for removing Mg2+ from ATP before phosphoryl transfer. PMID:19478797

  9. Computational approaches for classification and prediction of P-type ATPase substrate specificity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zinati, Zahra; Alemzadeh, Abbas; KayvanJoo, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    As an extended gamut of integral membrane (extrinsic) proteins, and based on their transporting specificities, P-type ATPases include five subfamilies in Arabidopsis, inter alia, P4ATPases (phospholipid-transporting ATPase), P3AATPases (plasma membrane H(+) pumps), P2A and P2BATPases (Ca(2+) pumps) and P1B ATPases (heavy metal pumps). Although, many different computational methods have been developed to predict substrate specificity of unknown proteins, further investigation needs to improve the efficiency and performance of the predicators. In this study, various attribute weighting and supervised clustering algorithms were employed to identify the main amino acid composition attributes, which can influence the substrate specificity of ATPase pumps, classify protein pumps and predict the substrate specificity of uncharacterized ATPase pumps. The results of this study indicate that both non-reduced coefficients pertaining to absorption and Cys extinction within 280 nm, the frequencies of hydrogen, Ala, Val, carbon, hydrophilic residues, the counts of Val, Asn, Ser, Arg, Phe, Tyr, hydrophilic residues, Phe-Phe, Ala-Ile, Phe-Leu, Val-Ala and length are specified as the most important amino acid attributes through applying the whole attribute weighting models. Here, learning algorithms engineered in a predictive machine (Naive Bays) is proposed to foresee the Q9LVV1 and O22180 substrate specificities (P-type ATPase like proteins) with 100 % prediction confidence. For the first time, our analysis demonstrated promising application of bioinformatics algorithms in classifying ATPases pumps. Moreover, we suggest the predictive systems that can assist towards the prediction of the substrate specificity of any new ATPase pumps with the maximum possible prediction confidence. PMID:27186030

  10. Structure-function relationship in P-type ATPases--a biophysical approach.

    PubMed

    Apell, H-J

    2003-01-01

    P-type ATPases are a large family of membrane proteins that perform active ion transport across biological membranes. In these proteins the energy-providing ATP hydrolysis is coupled to ion-transport that builds up or maintains the electrochemical potential gradients of one or two ion species across the membrane. P-type ATPases are found in virtually all eukaryotic cells and also in bacteria, and they are transporters of a broad variety of ions. So far, a crystal structure with atomic resolution is available only for one species, the SR Ca-ATPase. However, biochemical and biophysical studies provide an abundance of details on the function of this class of ion pumps. The aim of this review is to summarize the results of preferentially biophysical investigations of the three best-studied ion pumps, the Na,K-ATPase, the gastric H,K-ATPase, and the SR Ca-ATPase, and to compare functional properties to recent structural insights with the aim of contributing to the understanding of their structure-function relationship. PMID:12811587

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis P-Type ATPases: Possible Targets for Drug or Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has been the biggest killer in the human history; currently, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) kills nearly 2 million people each year worldwide. The high prevalence of TB obligates the identification of new therapeutic targets and the development of anti-TB vaccines that can control multidrug resistance and latent TB infections. Membrane proteins have recently been suggested as key targets for bacterial viability. Current studies have shown that mycobacteria P-type ATPases may play critical roles in ion homeostasis and in the response of mycobacteria to toxic substances in the intraphagosomal environment. In this review, we bring together the genomic, transcriptomic, and structural aspects of the P-type ATPases that are relevant during active and latent Mtb infections, which can be useful in determining the potential of these ATPases as drug targets and in uncovering their possible roles in the development of new anti-TB attenuated vaccines. PMID:25110669

  12. Structure and mechanism of Zn2+-transporting P-type ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kaituo; Sitsel, Oleg; Meloni, Gabriele; Autzen, Henriette Elisabeth; Andersson, Magnus; Klymchuk, Tetyana; Nielsen, Anna Marie; Rees, Douglas C.; Nissen, Poul; Gourdon, Pontus

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms, required for signaling and proper function of a range of proteins involved in e.g. DNA-binding and enzymatic catalysis1. In prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes Zn2+-transporting P-type ATPases of class IB (ZntA) are crucial for cellular redistribution and detoxification of Zn2+ and related elements2,3. Here we present crystal structures representing the phosphoenzyme ground state (E2P) and a dephosphorylation intermediate (E2.Pi) of ZntA from Shigella sonnei, determined at 3.2 and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively. The structures reveal a similar fold as the Cu+-ATPases with an amphipathic helix at the membrane interface. A conserved electronegative funnel connects this region to the intramembranous high-affinity ion-binding site and may promote specific uptake of cellular Zn2+ ions. The E2P structure displays a wide extracellular release pathway reaching the invariant residues at the high-affinity site, including Cys392, Cys394 and Asp714. The pathway closes in the E2.Pi state where Asp714 interacts with the conserved Lys693, which possibly stimulates Zn2+ release as a built-in counter-ion, as also proposed for H+-ATPases. Indeed, transport studies in liposomes provide experimental support for ZntA activity without counter-transport. These findings suggest a mechanistic link between PIB-type Zn2+-ATPases and PIII-type H+-ATPases, and show at the same time structural features of the extracellular release pathway that resemble the PII-type ATPases such as the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase4,5 (SERCA) and Na+,K+-ATPase6. PMID:25132545

  13. Direct observation of proton pumping by a eukaryotic P-type ATPase.

    PubMed

    Veshaguri, Salome; Christensen, Sune M; Kemmer, Gerdi C; Ghale, Garima; Møller, Mads P; Lohr, Christina; Christensen, Andreas L; Justesen, Bo H; Jørgensen, Ida L; Schiller, Jürgen; Hatzakis, Nikos S; Grabe, Michael; Pomorski, Thomas Günther; Stamou, Dimitrios

    2016-03-25

    In eukaryotes, P-type adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) generate the plasma membrane potential and drive secondary transport systems; however, despite their importance, their regulation remains poorly understood. We monitored at the single-molecule level the activity of the prototypic proton-pumping P-type ATPase Arabidopsis thaliana isoform 2 (AHA2). Our measurements, combined with a physical nonequilibrium model of vesicle acidification, revealed that pumping is stochastically interrupted by long-lived (~100 seconds) inactive or leaky states. Allosteric regulation by pH gradients modulated the switch between these states but not the pumping or leakage rates. The autoinhibitory regulatory domain of AHA2 reduced the intrinsic pumping rates but increased the dwell time in the active pumping state. We anticipate that similar functional dynamics underlie the operation and regulation of many other active transporters. PMID:27013734

  14. MD Simulations of P-Type ATPases in a Lipid Bilayer System.

    PubMed

    Autzen, Henriette Elisabeth; Musgaard, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is a computational method which provides insight on protein dynamics with high resolution in both space and time, in contrast to many experimental techniques. MD simulations can be used as a stand-alone method to study P-type ATPases as well as a complementary method aiding experimental studies. In particular, MD simulations have proved valuable in generating and confirming hypotheses relating to the structure and function of P-type ATPases. In the following, we describe a detailed practical procedure on how to set up and run a MD simulation of a P-type ATPase embedded in a lipid bilayer using software free of use for academics. We emphasize general considerations and problems typically encountered when setting up simulations. While full coverage of all possible procedures is beyond the scope of this chapter, we have chosen to illustrate the MD procedure with the Nanoscale Molecular Dynamics (NAMD) and the Visual Molecular Dynamics (VMD) software suites. PMID:26695055

  15. Mechanistic studies of phosphoserine phosphatase, an enzyme related to P-type ATPases.

    PubMed

    Collet, J F; Stroobant, V; Van Schaftingen, E

    1999-11-26

    Phosphoserine phosphatase belongs to a new class of phosphotransferases forming an acylphosphate during catalysis and sharing three motifs with P-type ATPases and haloacid dehalogenases. The phosphorylated residue was identified as the first aspartate in the first motif (DXDXT) by mass spectrometry analysis of peptides derived from the phosphorylated enzyme treated with NaBH(4) or alkaline [(18)O]H(2)O. Incubation of native phosphoserine phosphatase with phosphoserine in [(18)O]H(2)O did not result in (18)O incorporation in residue Asp-20, indicating that the phosphoaspartate is hydrolyzed, as in P-type ATPases, by attack of the phosphorus atom. Mutagenesis studies bearing on conserved residues indicated that four conservative changes either did not affect (S109T) or caused a moderate decrease in activity (G178A, D179E, and D183E). Other mutations inactivated the enzyme by >80% (S109A and G180A) or even by >/=99% (D179N, D183N, K158A, and K158R). Mutations G178A and D179N decreased the affinity for phosphoserine, suggesting that these residues participate in the binding of the substrate. Mutations of Asp-179 decreased the affinity for Mg(2+), indicating that this residue interacts with the cation. Thus, investigated residues appear to play an important role in the reaction mechanism of phosphoserine phosphatase, as is known for equivalent residues in P-type ATPases and haloacid dehalogenases. PMID:10567362

  16. Transient Expression of P-type ATPases in Tobacco Epidermal Cells.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Lisbeth R; Palmgren, Michael G; López-Marqués, Rosa L

    2016-01-01

    Transient expression in tobacco cells is a convenient method for several purposes such as analysis of protein-protein interactions and the subcellular localization of plant proteins. A suspension of Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells carrying the plasmid of interest is injected into the intracellular space between leaf epidermal cells, which results in DNA transfer from the bacteria to the plant and expression of the corresponding proteins. By injecting mixes of Agrobacterium strains, this system offers the possibility to co-express a number of target proteins simultaneously, thus allowing for example protein-protein interaction studies. In this chapter, we describe the procedure to transiently express P-type ATPases in tobacco epidermal cells, with focus on subcellular localization of the protein complexes formed by P4-ATPases and their β-subunits. PMID:26695049

  17. Reaction sequence and molecular mass of a Cl(-)-translocating P-type ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Gerencser, G A; Zelezna, B

    1993-01-01

    The basolateral membranes of Aplysia californica foregut absorptive cells contain both Cl(-)-stimulated ATPase and ATP-dependent Cl- transport activities, and each was inhibited by orthovanadate. Both of these orthovanadate-sensitive activities were reconstituted into proteoliposomes. The reaction sequence kinetics were determined by [gamma-32P]ATP-induced phosphorylation of the reconstituted Cl- pump. Rapid phosphorylation and dephosphorylation kinetics of acyl phosphate bonding were confirmed by destabilization of the phosphoprotein by either hydroxylamine or high pH. Mg2+ caused phosphorylation of the enzyme; Cl- caused dephosphorylation. Orthovanadate almost completely inhibited the Mg(2+)-driven phosphorylation reaction. The molecular mass of the catalytic unit (subunit) of the enzyme appeared to be 110 kDa, which is in agreement with molecular masses of all other catalytic units (subunits) of P-type ATPases. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8367450

  18. Transporters, chaperones, and P-type ATPases controlling grapevine copper homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Leng, Xiangpeng; Mu, Qian; Wang, Xiaomin; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Xudong; Shangguan, Lingfei; Fang, Jinggui

    2015-11-01

    With more copper and copper-containing compounds used as bactericides and fungicides in viticulture, copper homeostasis in grapevine (Vitis) has become one of the serious environmental crises with great risk. To better understand the regulation of Cu homeostasis in grapevine, grapevine seedlings cultured in vitro with different levels of Cu were utilized to investigate the tolerance mechanisms of grapevine responding to copper availability at physiological and molecular levels. The results indicated that Cu contents in roots and leaves arose with increasing levels of Cu application. With copper concentration increasing, malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased in roots and leaves and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) increased to protect the plant itself from damage. The expression patterns of 19 genes, encoding transporters, chaperones, and P-type ATPases involved in copper homeostasis in root and leaf of grapevine seedling under various levels of Cu(2+) were further analyzed. The expression patterns indicated that CTr1, CTr2, and CTr8 transporters were significantly upregulated in response both to Cu excess and deficiency. ZIP2 was downregulated in response to Cu excess and upregulated under Cu-deficient conditions, while ZIP4 had an opposite expression pattern under similar conditions. The expression of chaperones and P-type ATPases in response to Cu availability in grapevine were also briefly studied. PMID:26054906

  19. A tetrahedral coordination of Zinc during transmembrane transport by P-type Zn2+-ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Raimunda, Daniel; Subramanian, Poorna; Stemmler, Timothy; Argüello, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Zn2+ is an essential transition metal required in trace amounts by all living organisms. However, metal excess is cytotoxic and leads to cell damage. Cells rely on transmembrane transporters, with the assistance of other proteins, to establish and maintain Zn2+ homeostasis. Metal coordination during transport is key to specific transport and unidirectional translocation without the backward release of free metal. The coordination details of Zn2+ at the transmembrane metal binding site responsible for transport have now been established. Escherichia coli ZntA is a well-characterized Zn2+-ATPase responsible for intracellular Zn2+ efflux. A truncated form of the protein lacking regulatory metal sites and retaining the transport site was constructed. Metrical parameters of the metal-ligand coordination geometry for the zinc bound isolated form were characterized using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Our data support a nearest neighbor ligand environment of (O/N)2S2 that is compatible with the proposed invariant metal coordinating residues present in the transmembrane region. This ligand identification and the calculated bond lengths support a tetrahedral coordination geometry for Zn2+ bound to the TM-MBS of P-type ATPase transporters. PMID:22387457

  20. In silico identification and characterization of the ion transport specificity for P-type ATPases in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background P-type ATPases hydrolyze ATP and release energy that is used in the transport of ions against electrochemical gradients across plasma membranes, making these proteins essential for cell viability. Currently, the distribution and function of these ion transporters in mycobacteria are poorly understood. Results In this study, probabilistic profiles were constructed based on hidden Markov models to identify and classify P-type ATPases in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) according to the type of ion transported across the plasma membrane. Topology, hydrophobicity profiles and conserved motifs were analyzed to correlate amino acid sequences of P-type ATPases and ion transport specificity. Twelve candidate P-type ATPases annotated in the M. tuberculosis H37Rv proteome were identified in all members of the MTBC, and probabilistic profiles classified them into one of the following three groups: heavy metal cation transporters, alkaline and alkaline earth metal cation transporters, and the beta subunit of a prokaryotic potassium pump. Interestingly, counterparts of the non-catalytic beta subunits of Hydrogen/Potassium and Sodium/Potassium P-type ATPases were not found. Conclusions The high content of heavy metal transporters found in the MTBC suggests that they could play an important role in the ability of M. tuberculosis to survive inside macrophages, where tubercle bacilli face high levels of toxic metals. Finally, the results obtained in this work provide a starting point for experimental studies that may elucidate the ion specificity of the MTBC P-type ATPases and their role in mycobacterial infections. PMID:23031689

  1. The Use of Metal Fluoride Compounds as Phosphate Analogs for Understanding the Structural Mechanism in P-type ATPases.

    PubMed

    Danko, Stefania J; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The membrane-bound protein family, P-type ATPases, couples ATP hydrolysis with substrate transport across the membrane and forms an obligatory auto-phosphorylated intermediate in the transport cycle. The metal fluoride compounds, BeF x , AlF x , and MgF x , as phosphate analogs stabilize different enzyme structural states in the phosphoryl transfer/hydrolysis reactions, thereby fixing otherwise short-lived intermediate and transient structural states and enabling their biochemical and atomic-level crystallographic studies. The compounds thus make an essential contribution for understanding of the ATP-driven transport mechanism. Here, with a representative member of P-type ATPase, sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), we describe the method for their binding and for structural and functional characterization of the bound states, and their assignments to states occurring in the transport cycle. PMID:26695034

  2. Comparative chemical genomics reveal that the spiroindolone antimalarial KAE609 (Cipargamin) is a P-type ATPase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Goldgof, Gregory M; Durrant, Jacob D; Ottilie, Sabine; Vigil, Edgar; Allen, Kenneth E; Gunawan, Felicia; Kostylev, Maxim; Henderson, Kiersten A; Yang, Jennifer; Schenken, Jake; LaMonte, Gregory M; Manary, Micah J; Murao, Ayako; Nachon, Marie; Stanhope, Rebecca; Prescott, Maximo; McNamara, Case W; Slayman, Carolyn W; Amaro, Rommie E; Suzuki, Yo; Winzeler, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    The spiroindolones, a new class of antimalarial medicines discovered in a cellular screen, are rendered less active by mutations in a parasite P-type ATPase, PfATP4. We show here that S. cerevisiae also acquires mutations in a gene encoding a P-type ATPase (ScPMA1) after exposure to spiroindolones and that these mutations are sufficient for resistance. KAE609 resistance mutations in ScPMA1 do not confer resistance to unrelated antimicrobials, but do confer cross sensitivity to the alkyl-lysophospholipid edelfosine, which is known to displace ScPma1p from the plasma membrane. Using an in vitro cell-free assay, we demonstrate that KAE609 directly inhibits ScPma1p ATPase activity. KAE609 also increases cytoplasmic hydrogen ion concentrations in yeast cells. Computer docking into a ScPma1p homology model identifies a binding mode that supports genetic resistance determinants and in vitro experimental structure-activity relationships in both P. falciparum and S. cerevisiae. This model also suggests a shared binding site with the dihydroisoquinolones antimalarials. Our data support a model in which KAE609 exerts its antimalarial activity by directly interfering with P-type ATPase activity. PMID:27291296

  3. Comparative chemical genomics reveal that the spiroindolone antimalarial KAE609 (Cipargamin) is a P-type ATPase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Goldgof, Gregory M.; Durrant, Jacob D.; Ottilie, Sabine; Vigil, Edgar; Allen, Kenneth E.; Gunawan, Felicia; Kostylev, Maxim; Henderson, Kiersten A.; Yang, Jennifer; Schenken, Jake; LaMonte, Gregory M.; Manary, Micah J.; Murao, Ayako; Nachon, Marie; Stanhope, Rebecca; Prescott, Maximo; McNamara, Case W.; Slayman, Carolyn W.; Amaro, Rommie E.; Suzuki, Yo; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    The spiroindolones, a new class of antimalarial medicines discovered in a cellular screen, are rendered less active by mutations in a parasite P-type ATPase, PfATP4. We show here that S. cerevisiae also acquires mutations in a gene encoding a P-type ATPase (ScPMA1) after exposure to spiroindolones and that these mutations are sufficient for resistance. KAE609 resistance mutations in ScPMA1 do not confer resistance to unrelated antimicrobials, but do confer cross sensitivity to the alkyl-lysophospholipid edelfosine, which is known to displace ScPma1p from the plasma membrane. Using an in vitro cell-free assay, we demonstrate that KAE609 directly inhibits ScPma1p ATPase activity. KAE609 also increases cytoplasmic hydrogen ion concentrations in yeast cells. Computer docking into a ScPma1p homology model identifies a binding mode that supports genetic resistance determinants and in vitro experimental structure-activity relationships in both P. falciparum and S. cerevisiae. This model also suggests a shared binding site with the dihydroisoquinolones antimalarials. Our data support a model in which KAE609 exerts its antimalarial activity by directly interfering with P-type ATPase activity. PMID:27291296

  4. Crystallization, structure and dynamics of the proton-translocating P-type ATPase.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, G A

    2000-01-01

    Large single three-dimensional crystals of the dodecylmaltoside complex of the Neurospora crassa plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (H(+) P-ATPase) can be grown in polyethylene-glycol-containing solutions optimized for moderate supersaturation of both the protein surfaces and detergent micellar region. Large two-dimensional H(+) P-ATPase crystals also grow on the surface of such mixtures and on carbon films located at such surfaces. Electron crystallographic analysis of the two-dimensional crystals grown on carbon films has recently elucidated the structure of the H(+) P-ATPase at a resolution of 0.8 nm in the membrane plane. The two-dimensional crystals comprise two offset layers of ring-shaped ATPase hexamers with their exocytoplasmic surfaces face to face. Side-to-side interactions between the cytoplasmic regions of the hexamers in each layer can be seen, and an interaction between identical exocytoplasmic loops in opposing hexamer layers holds the two layers together. Detergent rings around the membrane-embedded region of the hexamers are clearly visible, and detergent-detergent interactions between the rings are also apparent. The crystal packing forces thus comprise both protein-protein and detergent-detergent interactions, supporting the validity of the original crystallization strategy. Ten transmembrane helices in each ATPase monomer are well-defined in the structure map. They are all relatively straight, closely packed, moderately tilted at various angles with respect to a plane normal to the membrane surface and average approximately 3.5 nm in length. The transmembrane helix region is connected in at least three places to the larger cytoplasmic region, which comprises several discrete domains separated by relatively wide, deep clefts. Previous work has shown that the H(+) P-ATPase undergoes substantial conformational changes during its catalytic cycle that are not changes in secondary structure. Importantly, the results of hydrogen/deuterium exchange

  5. How to Compare, Analyze, and Morph Between Crystal Structures of Different Conformations: The P-Type ATPase Example.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Jesper L; Bublitz, Maike

    2016-01-01

    In the past 15 years, a large body of structural information on P-type ATPases has accumulated in the Protein Data Bank. The available crystal structures cover different enzymes in a variety of conformational states that are associated with the enzymatic activity of ATP-dependent ion translocation across membranes. This chapter provides an overview about the available structural information, along with some practical instructions on how to make meaningful comparisons of structures in different conformations, and how to generate morphs between series of structures, in order to analyze domain movements and structural flexibility. PMID:26695058

  6. Structural studies of P-type ATPase-ligand complexes using an X-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Bublitz, Maike; Nass, Karol; Drachmann, Nikolaj D; Markvardsen, Anders J; Gutmann, Matthias J; Barends, Thomas R M; Mattle, Daniel; Shoeman, Robert L; Doak, R Bruce; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, Marvin M; Williams, Garth J; Foucar, Lutz; Reinhard, Linda; Sitsel, Oleg; Gregersen, Jonas L; Clausen, Johannes D; Boesen, Thomas; Gotfryd, Kamil; Wang, Kai-Tuo; Olesen, Claus; Møller, Jesper V; Nissen, Poul; Schlichting, Ilme

    2015-07-01

    Membrane proteins are key players in biological systems, mediating signalling events and the specific transport of e.g. ions and metabolites. Consequently, membrane proteins are targeted by a large number of currently approved drugs. Understanding their functions and molecular mechanisms is greatly dependent on structural information, not least on complexes with functionally or medically important ligands. Structure determination, however, is hampered by the difficulty of obtaining well diffracting, macroscopic crystals. Here, the feasibility of X-ray free-electron-laser-based serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) for the structure determination of membrane protein-ligand complexes using microcrystals of various native-source and recombinant P-type ATPase complexes is demonstrated. The data reveal the binding sites of a variety of ligands, including lipids and inhibitors such as the hallmark P-type ATPase inhibitor orthovanadate. By analyzing the resolution dependence of ligand densities and overall model qualities, SFX data quality metrics as well as suitable refinement procedures are discussed. Even at relatively low resolution and multiplicity, the identification of ligands can be demonstrated. This makes SFX a useful tool for ligand screening and thus for unravelling the molecular mechanisms of biologically active proteins. PMID:26175901

  7. Properties of the P-Type ATPases Encoded by the copAP Operons of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter felis

    PubMed Central

    Bayle, Denis; Wängler, Sabine; Weitzenegger, Thomas; Steinhilber, Wolfram; Volz, Jürgen; Przybylski, Michael; Schäfer, Klaus P.; Sachs, George; Melchers, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    The cop operons of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter felis were cloned by gene library screening. Both operons contain open reading frames for a P-type ion pump (CopA) with homology to Cd2+ and Cu2+ ATPases and a putative ion binding protein (CopP), the latter representing a CopZ homolog of the copYZAB operon of Enterococcus hirae. The predicted CopA ATPases contained an N-terminal GMXCXXC ion binding motif and a membrane-associated CPC sequence. A synthetic N-terminal peptide of the H. pylori CopA ATPase bound to Cu2+ specifically, and gene disruption mutagenesis of CopA resulted in an enhanced growth sensitivity of H. pylori to Cu2+ but not to other divalent cations. As determined experimentally, H. pylori CopA contains four pairs of transmembrane segments (H1 to H8), with the ATP binding and phosphorylation domains lying between H6 and H7, as found for another putative transition metal pump of H. pylori (K. Melchers, T. Weitzenegger, A. Buhmann, W. Steinhilber, G. Sachs, and K. P. Schäfer, J. Biol. Chem. 271:446–457, 1996). The corresponding transmembrane segments of the H. felis CopA pump were identified by hydrophobicity analysis and via sequence similarity. To define functional domains, similarly oriented regions of the two enzymes were examined for sequence identity. Regions with high degrees of identity included the N-terminal Cu2+ binding domain, the regions of ATP binding and phosphorylation in the energy transduction domain, and a transport domain consisting of the last six transmembrane segments with conserved cysteines in H4, H6, and H7. The data suggest that H. pylori and H. felis employ conserved mechanisms of ATPase-dependent copper resistance. PMID:9440521

  8. Differential expression of P-type ATPases in intestinal epithelial cells: Identification of putative new atp1a1 splice-variant

    SciTech Connect

    Rocafull, Miguel A.; Thomas, Luz E.; Barrera, Girolamo J.; Castillo, Jesus R. del

    2010-01-01

    P-type ATPases are membrane proteins that couple ATP hydrolysis with cation transport across the membrane. Ten different subtypes have been described. In mammalia, 15 genes of P-type ATPases from subtypes II-A, II-B and II-C, that transport low-atomic-weight cations (Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +} and H{sup +}), have been reported. They include reticulum and plasma-membrane Ca{sup 2+}-ATPases, Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase and H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPases. Enterocytes and colonocytes show functional differences, which seem to be partially due to the differential expression of P-type ATPases. These enzymes have 9 structural motifs, being the phosphorylation (E) and the Mg{sup 2+}ATP-binding (H) motifs the most preserved. These structural characteristics permitted developing a Multiplex-Nested-PCR (MN-PCR) for the simultaneous identification of different P-type ATPases. Thus, using MN-PCR, seven different cDNAs were cloned from enterocytes and colonocytes, including SERCA3, SERCA2, Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase {alpha}1-isoform, H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase {alpha}2-isoform, PMCA1, PMCA4 and a cDNA-fragment that seems to be a new cassette-type splice-variant of the atp1a1 gen. PMCA4 in enterocytes and H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase {alpha}2-isoform in colonocytes were differentially expressed. This cell-specific expression pattern is related with the distinctive enterocyte and colonocyte functions.

  9. Evolution of the P-type II ATPase gene family in the fungi and presence of structural genomic changes among isolates of Glomus intraradices

    PubMed Central

    Corradi, Nicolas; Sanders, Ian R

    2006-01-01

    Background The P-type II ATPase gene family encodes proteins with an important role in adaptation of the cell to variation in external K+, Ca2+ and Na2+ concentrations. The presence of P-type II gene subfamilies that are specific for certain kingdoms has been reported but was sometimes contradicted by discovery of previously unknown homologous sequences in newly sequenced genomes. Members of this gene family have been sampled in all of the fungal phyla except the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; phylum Glomeromycota), which are known to play a key-role in terrestrial ecosystems and to be genetically highly variable within populations. Here we used highly degenerate primers on AMF genomic DNA to increase the sampling of fungal P-Type II ATPases and to test previous predictions about their evolution. In parallel, homologous sequences of the P-type II ATPases have been used to determine the nature and amount of polymorphism that is present at these loci among isolates of Glomus intraradices harvested from the same field. Results In this study, four P-type II ATPase sub-families have been isolated from three AMF species. We show that, contrary to previous predictions, P-type IIC ATPases are present in all basal fungal taxa. Additionally, P-Type IIE ATPases should no longer be considered as exclusive to the Ascomycota and the Basidiomycota, since we also demonstrate their presence in the Zygomycota. Finally, a comparison of homologous sequences encoding P-type IID ATPases showed unexpectedly that indel mutations among coding regions, as well as specific gene duplications occur among AMF individuals within the same field. Conclusion On the basis of these results we suggest that the diversification of P-Type IIC and E ATPases followed the diversification of the extant fungal phyla with independent events of gene gains and losses. Consistent with recent findings on the human genome, but at a much smaller geographic scale, we provided evidence that structural genomic

  10. Cellular function and pathological role of ATP13A2 and related P-type transport ATPases in Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    van Veen, Sarah; Sørensen, Danny M.; Holemans, Tine; Holen, Henrik W.; Palmgren, Michael G.; Vangheluwe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in ATP13A2 lead to Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, a parkinsonism with dementia. ATP13A2 belongs to the P-type transport ATPases, a large family of primary active transporters that exert vital cellular functions. However, the cellular function and transported substrate of ATP13A2 remain unknown. To discuss the role of ATP13A2 in neurodegeneration, we first provide a short description of the architecture and transport mechanism of P-type transport ATPases. Then, we briefly highlight key P-type ATPases involved in neuronal disorders such as the copper transporters ATP7A (Menkes disease), ATP7B (Wilson disease), the Na+/K+-ATPases ATP1A2 (familial hemiplegic migraine) and ATP1A3 (rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism). Finally, we review the recent literature of ATP13A2 and discuss ATP13A2's putative cellular function in the light of what is known concerning the functions of other, better-studied P-type ATPases. We critically review the available data concerning the role of ATP13A2 in heavy metal transport and propose a possible alternative hypothesis that ATP13A2 might be a flippase. As a flippase, ATP13A2 may transport an organic molecule, such as a lipid or a peptide, from one membrane leaflet to the other. A flippase might control local lipid dynamics during vesicle formation and membrane fusion events. PMID:24904274

  11. Microbial excavation of solid carbonates powered by P-type ATPase-mediated transcellular Ca2+ transport

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Ramírez-Reinat, Edgardo; Gao, Qunjie

    2010-01-01

    Some microbes, among them a few species of cyanobacteria, are able to excavate carbonate minerals, from limestone to biogenic carbonates, including coral reefs, in a bioerosive activity that directly links biological and geological parts of the global carbon cycle. The physiological mechanisms that enable such endolithic cyanobacteria to bore, however, remain unknown. In fact, their boring constitutes a geochemical paradox, in that photoautotrophic metabolism will tend to precipitate carbonates, not dissolve them. We developed a stable microbe/mineral boring system based on a cyanobacterial isolate, strain BC008, with which to study the process of microbial excavation directly in the laboratory. Measurements of boring into calcite under different light regimes, and an analysis of photopigment content and photosynthetic rates along boring filaments, helped us reject mechanisms based on the spatial or temporal separation of alkali versus Acid-generating metabolism (i.e., photosynthesis and respiration). Instead, extracellular Ca2+ imaging of boring cultures in vivo showed that BC008 was able to take up Ca2+ at the excavation front, decreasing the local extracellular ion activity product of calcium carbonate enough to promote spontaneous dissolution there. Intracellular Ca2+ was then transported away along the multicellular cyanobacterial trichomes and excreted at the distal borehole opening into the external medium. Inhibition assays and gene expression analyses indicate that the uptake and transport was driven by P-type Ca2+-ATPases. We believe such a chemically simple and biologically sophisticated mechanism for boring to be unparalleled among bacteria. PMID:21115827

  12. Final Report for DE-FG02-04ER15626: P-type ATPases in Plants – Role of Lipid Flippases in Membrane Biogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Jeffrey F.

    2015-02-24

    The long-range goal of the research is to understand the structure and biological functions of different P-type ATPases (ion pumps) in plant cells, and to use that knowledge to enhance the production of bioenergy from plants, or plant-research inspired technologies. Ptype ATPases include ion pumps that specifically transport H+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, K+, or Na+, as well as at least one unusual subfamily that appears to function as lipid flippases, flipping specific lipids from one side of a membrane bilayer to the other. As a group, P-type ATPases are thought to consume more than 1/3 of the cellular ATP in typical eukaryotic cells. Recent research in the Harper lab focused on understanding the biochemical and biological functions of P-type ATPases that flip lipids. These flippases belong to the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases. The activity of lipid flippases is thought to induce membrane curvature and/or create an asymmetry in which certain lipid head groups are preferential exposed to one surface or the other. In Arabidopsis thaliana there are 12 members of this family referred to as Aminophospholipid ATPase (ALA) 1 to ALA12. Using genetic knockouts, the Harper lab has established that this unusual subfamily of P-type ATPases are critical for plants to cope with even modest changes in temperature (e.g., down to 15°C, or up to 30°C). In addition, members of one subclade are critical for cell expansion, and loss of function mutants result in severe dwarfism. Other members of this same sub-clade are critical for pollen tube growth, and loss of function mutants are sterile under conditions of hot days and cold nights. While the cellular processes that depend on lipid flippases are still unclear, the genetic analysis of loss of function mutants clearly show they are of fundamental importance to plant growth and response to the environment.

  13. Symbiosis-dependent gene expression in coral–dinoflagellate association: cloning and characterization of a P-type H+-ATPase gene†

    PubMed Central

    Bertucci, Anthony; Tambutté, Éric; Tambutté, Sylvie; Allemand, Denis; Zoccola, Didier

    2010-01-01

    We report the molecular cloning of a H+-ATPase in the symbiotic dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium sp. previously suggested by pharmacological studies to be involved in carbon-concentrating mechanism used by zooxanthellae when they are in symbiosis with corals. This gene encodes a protein of 975 amino acids with a calculated mass of about 105 kDa. The structure of the protein shows a typical P-type H+-ATPase structure (type IIIa plasma membrane H+-ATPases) and phylogenetic analyses show that this new proton pump groups with diatoms in the Chromoalveolates group. This Symbiodinium H+-ATPase is specifically expressed when zooxanthellae are engaged in a symbiotic relationship with the coral partner but not in free-living dinoflagellates. This proton pump, therefore, could be involved in the acidification of the perisymbiotic space leading to bicarbonate dehydration by carbonic anhydrase activity in order to supply inorganic carbon for photosynthesis as suggested by earlier studies. To our knowledge, this work provides the first example of a symbiosis-dependent gene in zooxanthellae and confirms the importance of H+-ATPase in coral–dinoflagellate symbiosis. PMID:19793745

  14. Δ²,³-ivermectin ethyl secoester, a conjugated ivermectin derivative with leishmanicidal activity but without inhibitory effect on mammalian P-type ATPases.

    PubMed

    Noël, François; Pimenta, Paulo Henrique Cotrim; Dos Santos, Anderson Rouge; Tomaz, Erick Carlos Loureiro; Quintas, Luis Eduardo Menezes; Kaiser, Carlos Roland; Silva, Claudia Lucia Martins; Férézou, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Looking at a new putative target for the large spectrum antiparasitic drug ivermectin, we recently showed that avermectin-derived drugs are active against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis at low micromolar concentrations. However, we then reported that at this concentration range ivermectin is also able to inhibit three important mammalian P-type ATPases so that unacceptable adverse effects could occur if this drug were used at such high doses therapeutically. The present work aimed to test the activity of ten ivermectin analogs on these rat ATPases in search of a compound with similar leishmanicidal activity but with no effect on the mammalian (host) ATPases at effective concentrations. We synthesized three new ivermectin analogs for testing on rat SERCA (1a and 1b), Na+, K+-ATPase (α₁ and α₂/α₃ isoforms) and H+/K+-ATPase activity, along with seven analogs already characterized for their leishmanicidal activity. Our main finding is that one of the prepared derivatives, Δ²,³-ivermectin ethyl secoester 8, is equipotent to ivermectin 1 for the in vitro leishmanicidal effects but is nearly without effect on the rat ATPases, indicating that it could have a better therapeutic index in vivo and could serve as a candidate for hit-to-lead progression. This conclusion is further supported by the fact that compound 8 produced only 6% (vs 77% for ivermectin) inhibition of the human kidney enzyme at 5 μM, a concentration corresponding to the IC₅₀ for the activity against L. amazonensis amastigotes. PMID:21088826

  15. Nonproteolytic Roles of 19S ATPases in Transcription of CIITApIV Genes

    PubMed Central

    Maganti, Nagini; Moody, Tomika D.; Truax, Agnieszka D.; Thakkar, Meghna; Spring, Alexander M.; Germann, Markus W.; Greer, Susanna F.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows the 26S proteasome is involved in the regulation of gene expression. We and others have demonstrated that proteasome components bind to sites of gene transcription, regulate covalent modifications to histones, and are involved in the assembly of activator complexes in mammalian cells. The mechanisms by which the proteasome influences transcription remain unclear, although prior observations suggest both proteolytic and non-proteolytic activities. Here, we define novel, non-proteolytic, roles for each of the three 19S heterodimers, represented by the 19S ATPases Sug1, S7, and S6a, in mammalian gene expression using the inflammatory gene CIITApIV. These 19S ATPases are recruited to induced CIITApIV promoters and also associate with CIITA coding regions. Additionally, these ATPases interact with elongation factor PTEFb complex members CDK9 and Hexim-1 and with Ser5 phosphorylated RNA Pol II. Both the generation of transcripts from CIITApIV and efficient recruitment of RNA Pol II to CIITApIV are negatively impacted by siRNA mediated knockdown of these 19S ATPases. Together, these results define novel roles for 19S ATPases in mammalian gene expression and indicate roles for these ATPases in promoting transcription processes. PMID:24625964

  16. Cd(2+) extrusion by P-type Cd(2+)-ATPase of Staphylococcus aureus 17810R via energy-dependent Cd(2+)/H(+) exchange mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tynecka, Zofia; Malm, Anna; Goś-Szcześniak, Zofia

    2016-08-01

    Cd(2+) is highly toxic to Staphylococcus aureus since it blocks dithiols in cytoplasmic 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC) participating in energy conservation process. However, S. aureus 17810R is Cd(2+)-resistant due to possession of cadA-coded Cd(2+) efflux system, recognized here as P-type Cd(2+)-ATPase. This Cd(2+) pump utilizing cellular energy-ATP, ∆μ H (+) (electrochemical proton potential) and respiratory protons, extrudes Cd(2+) from cytoplasm to protect dithiols in ODHC, but the mechanism of Cd(2+) extrusion remains unknown. Here we propose that two Cd(2+) taken up by strain 17810R via Mn(2+) uniporter down membrane potential (∆ψ) generated during glutamate oxidation in 100 mM phosphate buffer (high PiB) are trapped probably by high affinity sites in cytoplasmic domain of Cd(2+)-ATPase, forming SCdS. This stops Cd(2+) transport towards dithiols in ODHC, allowing undisturbed NADH production, its oxidation and energy conservation, while ATP could change orientation of SCdS towards facing transmembrane channel. Now, increased number of Pi-dependent protons pumped electrogenically via respiratory chain and countertransported through the channel down ∆ψ, extrude two trapped cytoplasmic Cd(2+), which move to low affinity sites, being then extruded into extracellular space via ∆ψ-dependent Cd(2+)/H(+) exchange. In 1 mM phosphate buffer (low PiB), external Cd(2+) competing with decreased number of Pi-dependent protons, binds to ψs of Cd(2+)-ATPase channel, enters cytoplasm through the channel down ∆ψ via Cd(2+)/Cd(2+) exchange and blocks dithiols in ODHC. However, Mg(2+) pretreatment preventing external Cd(2+) countertransport through the channel down ∆ψ, allowed undisturbed NADH production, its oxidation and extrusion of two cytoplasmic Cd(2+) via Cd(2+)/H(+) exchange, despite low PiB. PMID:27323956

  17. Type IV traffic ATPase TrwD as molecular target to inhibit bacterial conjugation.

    PubMed

    Ripoll-Rozada, Jorge; García-Cazorla, Yolanda; Getino, María; Machón, Cristina; Sanabria-Ríos, David; de la Cruz, Fernando; Cabezón, Elena; Arechaga, Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial conjugation is the main mechanism responsible for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. Hence, the search for specific conjugation inhibitors is paramount in the fight against the spread of these genes. In this pursuit, unsaturated fatty acids have been found to specifically inhibit bacterial conjugation. Despite the growing interest on these compounds, their mode of action and their specific target remain unknown. Here, we identified TrwD, a Type IV secretion traffic ATPase, as the molecular target for fatty acid-mediated inhibition of conjugation. Moreover, 2-alkynoic fatty acids, which are also potent inhibitors of bacterial conjugation, are also powerful inhibitors of the ATPase activity of TrwD. Characterization of the kinetic parameters of ATPase inhibition has led us to identify the catalytic mechanism by which fatty acids exert their activity. These results open a new avenue for the rational design of inhibitors of bacterial conjugation in the fight against the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:26915347

  18. Mutations in the P-type cation-transporter ATPase 4, PfATP4, mediate resistance to both aminopyrazole and spiroindolone antimalarials.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Erika L; McNamara, Case W; Kim, Sang Wan; Kato, Tomoyo Sakata; Li, Fengwu; Teng, Christine H; Gagaring, Kerstin; Manary, Micah J; Barboa, Rachel; Meister, Stephan; Kuhen, Kelli; Vinetz, Joseph M; Chatterjee, Arnab K; Winzeler, Elizabeth A

    2015-02-20

    Aminopyrazoles are a new class of antimalarial compounds identified in a cellular antiparasitic screen with potent activity against Plasmodium falciparum asexual and sexual stage parasites. To investigate their unknown mechanism of action and thus identify their target, we cultured parasites in the presence of a representative member of the aminopyrazole series, GNF-Pf4492, to select for resistance. Whole genome sequencing of three resistant lines showed that each had acquired independent mutations in a P-type cation-transporter ATPase, PfATP4 (PF3D7_1211900), a protein implicated as the novel Plasmodium spp. target of another, structurally unrelated, class of antimalarials called the spiroindolones and characterized as an important sodium transporter of the cell. Similarly to the spiroindolones, GNF-Pf4492 blocks parasite transmission to mosquitoes and disrupts intracellular sodium homeostasis. Our data demonstrate that PfATP4 plays a critical role in cellular processes, can be inhibited by two distinct antimalarial pharmacophores, and supports the recent observations that PfATP4 is a critical antimalarial target. PMID:25322084

  19. A member of the heavy metal P-type ATPase OsHMA5 is involved in xylem loading of copper in rice.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fenglin; Yamaji, Naoki; Xia, Jixing; Ma, Jian Feng

    2013-11-01

    Heavy metal-transporting P-type ATPase (HMA) has been implicated in the transport of heavy metals in plants. Here, we report the function and role of an uncharacterized member of HMA, OsHMA5 in rice (Oryza sativa). Knockout of OsHMA5 resulted in a decreased copper (Cu) concentration in the shoots but an increased Cu concentration in the roots at the vegetative stage. At the reproductive stage, the concentration of Cu in the brown rice was significantly lower in the mutants than in the wild-type rice; however, there was no difference in the concentrations of iron, manganese, and zinc between two independent mutants and the wild type. The Cu concentration of xylem sap was lower in the mutants than in the wild-type rice. OsHMA5 was mainly expressed in the roots at the vegetative stage but also in nodes, peduncle, rachis, and husk at the reproductive stage. The expression was up-regulated by excess Cu but not by the deficiency of Cu and other metals, including zinc, iron, and manganese, at the vegetative stage. Analysis of the transgenic rice carrying the OsHMA5 promoter fused with green fluorescent protein revealed that it was localized at the root pericycle cells and xylem region of diffuse vascular bundles in node I, vascular tissues of peduncle, rachis, and husk. Furthermore, immunostaining with an antibody against OsHMA5 revealed that it was localized to the plasma membrane. Expression of OsHMA5 in a Cu transport-defective mutant yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strain restored the growth. Taken together, OsHMA5 is involved in loading Cu to the xylem of the roots and other organs. PMID:24064929

  20. A phage protein that inhibits the bacterial ATPase required for type IV pilus assembly.

    PubMed

    Chung, In-Young; Jang, Hye-Jeong; Bae, Hee-Won; Cho, You-Hee

    2014-08-01

    Type IV pili (TFPs) are required for bacterial twitching motility and for phage infection in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here we describe a phage-encoded protein, D3112 protein gp05 (hereafter referred to as Tip, representing twitching inhibitory protein), whose expression is necessary and sufficient to mediate the inhibition of twitching motility. Tip interacts with and blocks the activity of bacterial-encoded PilB, the TFP assembly/extension ATPase, at an internal 40-aa region unique to PilB. Tip expression results in the loss of surface piliation. Based on these observations and the fact that many P. aeruginosa phages require TFPs for infection, Tip-mediated twitching inhibition may represent a generalized strategy for superinfection exclusion. Moreover, because TFPs are required for full virulence, PilB may be an attractive target for the development of novel antiinfectives. PMID:25049409

  1. Effects of Celangulin IV and V From Celastrus angulatus Maxim on Na+/K+-ATPase Activities of the Oriental Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Dan; Feng, Mingxing; Ji, Yufei; Wu, Wenjun; Hu, Zhaonong

    2016-01-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase (sodium pump) is an important target for the development of botanical pesticide as it is responsible for transforming chemical energy in ATP to osmotic work and maintaining electrochemical Na+ and K+ gradients across the cell membrane of most animal cells. Celangulin IV (C-IV) and V (C-V), which are isolated from the root bark of Celastrus angulatus, are the major active ingredients of this insecticidal plant. The activities of C-IV and C-V on Na+/K+-ATPase were investigated by ultramicro measuring method to evaluate the effects of C-IV and C-V on Na+/K+-ATPase activities of the brain from the fifth Mythimna separata larvae and to discuss the insecticidal mechanism of C-IV and C-V. Results indicate that inhibitory activities of Na+/K+-ATPase by C-IV and C-V possess an obvious concentration-dependent in vitro. Compared with C-IV, the inhibition of C-V on Na+/K+-ATPase was not striking. In vivo, at a concentration of 25 mg/liter, the inhibition ratio of C-IV on Na+/K+-ATPase activity from the brain in narcosis and recovery period was more remarkable than that of C-V. Furthermore, the insects were fed with different mixture ratios of C-IV and C-V. The inhibition extent of Na+/K+-ATPase activity was corresponded with the dose of C-IV. However, C-V had no notable effects. This finding may mean that the mechanism of action of C-IV and C-V on Na+/K+-ATPase were different. Na+/K -ATPase may be an action target of C-IV and C-V. PMID:27324586

  2. Effects of Celangulin IV and V From Celastrus angulatus Maxim on Na+/K+-ATPase Activities of the Oriental Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dan; Feng, Mingxing; Ji, Yufei; Wu, Wenjun; Hu, Zhaonong

    2016-01-01

    Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (sodium pump) is an important target for the development of botanical pesticide as it is responsible for transforming chemical energy in ATP to osmotic work and maintaining electrochemical Na(+ )and K(+ )gradients across the cell membrane of most animal cells. Celangulin IV (C-IV) and V (C-V), which are isolated from the root bark of Celastrus angulatus, are the major active ingredients of this insecticidal plant. The activities of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were investigated by ultramicro measuring method to evaluate the effects of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities of the brain from the fifth Mythimna separata larvae and to discuss the insecticidal mechanism of C-IV and C-V. Results indicate that inhibitory activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by C-IV and C-V possess an obvious concentration-dependent in vitro. Compared with C-IV, the inhibition of C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was not striking. In vivo, at a concentration of 25 mg/liter, the inhibition ratio of C-IV on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity from the brain in narcosis and recovery period was more remarkable than that of C-V. Furthermore, the insects were fed with different mixture ratios of C-IV and C-V. The inhibition extent of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was corresponded with the dose of C-IV. However, C-V had no notable effects. This finding may mean that the mechanism of action of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were different. Na(+)/K -ATPase may be an action target of C-IV and C-V. PMID:27324586

  3. The mammalian homologue of yeast Afg1 ATPase (lactation elevated 1) mediates degradation of nuclear-encoded complex IV subunits.

    PubMed

    Cesnekova, Jana; Rodinova, Marie; Hansikova, Hana; Houstek, Josef; Zeman, Jiri; Stiburek, Lukas

    2016-03-15

    Mitochondrial protein homeostasis is crucial for cellular function and integrity and is therefore maintained by several classes of proteins possessing chaperone and/or proteolytic activities. In the present study, we focused on characterization of LACE1 (lactation elevated 1) function in mitochondrial protein homeostasis. LACE1 is the human homologue of yeast mitochondrial Afg1 (ATPase family gene 1) ATPase, a member of the SEC18-NSF, PAS1, CDC48-VCP, TBP family. Yeast Afg1 was shown to mediate degradation of mitochondrially encoded complex IV subunits, and, on the basis of its similarity to CDC48 (p97/VCP), it was suggested to facilitate extraction of polytopic membrane proteins. We show that LACE1, which is a mitochondrial integral membrane protein, exists as part of three complexes of approximately 140, 400 and 500 kDa and is essential for maintenance of fused mitochondrial reticulum and lamellar cristae morphology. We demonstrate that LACE1 mediates degradation of nuclear-encoded complex IV subunits COX4 (cytochrome c oxidase 4), COX5A and COX6A, and is required for normal activity of complexes III and IV of the respiratory chain. Using affinity purification of LACE1-FLAG expressed in a LACE1-knockdown background, we show that the protein interacts physically with COX4 and COX5A subunits of complex IV and with mitochondrial inner-membrane protease YME1L. Finally, we demonstrate by ectopic expression of both K142A Walker A and E214Q Walker B mutants, that an intact ATPase domain is essential for LACE1-mediated degradation of nuclear-encoded complex IV subunits. Thus the present study establishes LACE1 as a novel factor with a crucial role in mitochondrial protein homeostasis. PMID:26759378

  4. H/sup +/-ATPase activity from storage tissue of Beta vulgaris. IV. N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide binding and inhibition of the plasma membrane H/sup +/-ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Oleski, N.A.; Bennett, A.B.

    1987-03-01

    The molecular weight and isoelectric point of the plasma membrane H/sup +/-ATPase from red beet storage tissue were determined using N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) and a H/sup +/-ATPase antibody. When plasma membrane vesicles were incubated with 20 micromolar (/sup 14/C)-DCCD at 0/sup 0/C, a single 97,000 dalton protein was visualized on a fluorography of a sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel. A close correlation between (/sup 14/C)DCCD labeling of the 97,000 dalton protein and the extent of ATPase inhibition over a range of DCCD concentration suggests that this 97,000 dalton protein is a component of the plasma membrane H/sup +/-ATPase. An antibody raised against the plasma membrane H/sup +/-ATPase of Neurospora crassa cross-reacted with the 97,000 dalton DCCD-binding protein, further supporting the identity of this protein. Immunoblots of two-dimensional gels of red beet plasma membrane vesicles indicated the isoelectric point of the H/sup +/-ATPase to be 6.5.

  5. A type IV P-type ATPase affects insulin-mediated glucose uptake in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in mice.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Madhu S; Yuan, Joshua S; Elliott, Sarah B; Sommardahl, Carla

    2006-12-01

    Mice carrying two pink-eyed dilution (p) locus heterozygous deletions represent a novel polygenic mouse model of type 2 diabetes associated with obesity. Atp10c, a putative aminophospholipid transporter on mouse chromosome 7, is a candidate for the phenotype. The phenotype is diet-induced. As a next logical step in the validation and characterization of the model, experiments to analyze metabolic abnormalities associated with these mice were carried out. Results demonstrate that mutants (inheriting the p deletion maternally) heterozygous for Atp10c are hyperinsulinemic, insulin-resistant and have an altered insulin-stimulated response in peripheral tissues. Adipose tissue and the skeletal muscle are the targets, and GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake is the specific metabolic pathway associated with Atp10c deletion. Insulin resistance primarily affects the adipose tissue and the skeletal muscle, and the effect in the liver is secondary. Gene expression profiling using microarray and real-time PCR show significant changes in the expression of four genes--Vamp2, Dok1, Glut4 and Mapk14--involved in insulin signaling. The expression of Atp10c is also significantly altered in the adipose tissue and the soleus muscle. The most striking observation is the loss of Atp10c expression in the mutants, specifically in the soleus muscle, after eating the high-fat diet for 12 weeks. In conclusion, experiments suggest that the target genes and/or their cognate factors in conjunction with Atp10c presumably affect the normal translocation and sequestration of GLUT4 in both the target tissues. PMID:16517145

  6. Directed evolution of a sphingomyelin flippase reveals mechanism of substrate backbone discrimination by a P4-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Roland, Bartholomew P; Graham, Todd R

    2016-08-01

    Phospholipid flippases in the type IV P-type ATPase (P4-ATPases) family establish membrane asymmetry and play critical roles in vesicular transport, cell polarity, signal transduction, and neurologic development. All characterized P4-ATPases flip glycerophospholipids across the bilayer to the cytosolic leaflet of the membrane, but how these enzymes distinguish glycerophospholipids from sphingolipids is not known. We used a directed evolution approach to examine the molecular mechanisms through which P4-ATPases discriminate substrate backbone. A mutagenesis screen in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has identified several gain-of-function mutations in the P4-ATPase Dnf1 that facilitate the transport of a novel lipid substrate, sphingomyelin. We found that a highly conserved asparagine (N220) in the first transmembrane segment is a key enforcer of glycerophospholipid selection, and specific substitutions at this site allow transport of sphingomyelin. PMID:27432949

  7. A New-Class Antibacterial-Almost. Lessons in Drug Discovery and Development: A Critical Analysis of More than 50 Years of Effort toward ATPase Inhibitors of DNA Gyrase and Topoisomerase IV.

    PubMed

    Bisacchi, Gregory S; Manchester, John I

    2015-01-01

    The introduction into clinical practice of an ATPase inhibitor of bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV (topo IV) would represent a new-class agent for the treatment of resistant bacterial infections. Novobiocin, the only historical member of this class, established the clinical proof of concept for this novel mechanism during the late 1950s, but its use declined rapidly and it was eventually withdrawn from the market. Despite significant and prolonged effort across the biopharmaceutical industry to develop other agents of this class, novobiocin remains the only ATPase inhibitor of gyrase and topo IV ever to progress beyond Phase I. In this review, we analyze the historical attempts to discover and develop agents within this class and highlight factors that might have hindered those efforts. Within the last 15 years, however, our technical understanding of the molecular details of the inhibition of the gyrase and topo IV ATPases, the factors governing resistance development to such inhibitors, and our knowledge of the physical properties required for robust clinical drug candidates have all matured to the point wherein the industry may now address this mechanism of action with greater confidence. The antibacterial spectrum within this class has recently been extended to begin to include serious Gram negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In spite of this recent technical progress, adverse economics associated with antibacterial R&D over the last 20 years has diminished industry's ability to commit the resources and perseverance needed to bring new-class agents to launch. Consequently, a number of recent efforts in the ATPase class have been derailed by organizational rather than scientific factors. Nevertheless, within this context we discuss the unique opportunity for the development of ATPase inhibitors of gyrase and topo IV as new-class antibacterial agents with broad spectrum potential. PMID

  8. Discovery of a novel azaindole class of antibacterial agents targeting the ATPase domains of DNA gyrase and Topoisomerase IV.

    PubMed

    Manchester, John I; Dussault, Daemian D; Rose, Jonathan A; Boriack-Sjodin, P Ann; Uria-Nickelsen, Maria; Ioannidis, Georgine; Bist, Shanta; Fleming, Paul; Hull, Kenneth G

    2012-08-01

    We present the discovery and optimization of a novel series of bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors. Starting from a virtual screening hit, activity was optimized through a combination of structure-based design and physical property optimization. Synthesis of fewer than a dozen compounds was required to achieve inhibition of the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA) at compound concentrations of 1.56 μM. These compounds simultaneously inhibit DNA gyrase and Topoisomerase IV at similar nanomolar concentrations, reducing the likelihood of the spontaneous occurrence of target-based mutations resulting in antibiotic resistance, an increasing threat in the treatment of serious infections. PMID:22814212

  9. Biochemical characterization of three putative ATPases from a new type IV secretion system of Aeromonas veronii plasmid pAC3249A

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Type four secretion systems (TFSS) are bacterial macromolecular transport systems responsible for transfer of various substrates such as proteins, DNA or protein-DNA complexes. TFSSs encode two or three ATPases generating energy for the secretion process. These enzymes exhibit highest sequence conservation among type four secretion components. Results Here, we report the biochemical characterization of three ATPases namely TraE, TraJ and TraK (VirB4, VirB11 and VirD4 homologs of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfer system, respectively) from the transfer system of Aeromonas veronii plasmid pAC3249A. ATPases were expressed as His-tag fusion proteins in E. coli and purified by affinity chromatography. ATP binding and ATP hydrolysis experiments were performed with the purified ATPases. TraE and TraK showed strong binding to TNP-ATP and TNP-CTP (fluorescent analogs of ATP and CTP respectively) whereas TraJ showed weak binding. The optimum temperature range for the three ATPases was between 42°C and 50°C. Highest ATP hydrolysis activity for all the ATPases was observed in the presence of Mg2+ and Mn2+. However, TraJ and TraK also showed activity in the presence of Co2+. TraJ exhibited the highest specific activity of all the three ATPases with vmax 118 ± 5.68 nmol/min/mg protein and KM 0.58 ± 0.10 mM. Conclusions This is the first biochemical characterization of conjugative transport ATPases encoded by a conjugative plasmid from Aeromonas. Our study demonstrated that the three ATPases of a newly reported TFSS of A. veronii plasmid pAc3249A are functional in both ATP hydrolysis and ATP binding. PMID:20144229

  10. P-type gallium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

    1997-08-12

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

  11. P-type gallium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, Michael; Newman, Nathan; Fu, Tracy; Ross, Jennifer; Chan, James

    1997-01-01

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5.times.10.sup.11 /cm.sup.3 and hole mobilities of about 500 cm.sup.2 /V-sec, measured at 250.degree. K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al.

  12. Two ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Alan E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on research on two ATPases. The first is F1F0-ATPase, also known as ATP synthase. It is the terminal enzyme in oxidative phosphorylation and famous as a nanomotor. Early work on mitochondrial enzyme involved purification in large amount, followed by deduction of subunit composition and stoichiometry and determination of molecular sizes of holoenzyme and individual subunits. Later work on Escherichia coli enzyme utilized mutagenesis and optical probes to reveal the molecular mechanism of ATP hydrolysis and detailed facets of catalysis. The second ATPase is P-glycoprotein, which confers multidrug resistance, notably to anticancer drugs, in mammalian cells. Purification of the protein in large quantity allowed detailed characterization of catalysis, formulation of an alternating sites mechanism, and recently, advances in structural characterization. PMID:22822068

  13. Role of post-translational modifications at the β-subunit ectodomain in complex association with a promiscuous plant P4-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sara R; Marek, Magdalena; Axelsen, Kristian B; Theorin, Lisa; Pomorski, Thomas G; López-Marqués, Rosa L

    2016-06-01

    P-type ATPases of subfamily IV (P4-ATPases) constitute a major group of phospholipid flippases that form heteromeric complexes with members of the Cdc50 (cell division control 50) protein family. Some P4-ATPases interact specifically with only one β-subunit isoform, whereas others are promiscuous and can interact with several isoforms. In the present study, we used a site-directed mutagenesis approach to assess the role of post-translational modifications at the plant ALIS5 β-subunit ectodomain in the functionality of the promiscuous plant P4-ATPase ALA2. We identified two N-glycosylated residues, Asn(181) and Asn(231) Whereas mutation of Asn(231) seems to have a small effect on P4-ATPase complex formation, mutation of evolutionarily conserved Asn(181) disrupts interaction between the two subunits. Of the four cysteine residues located in the ALIS5 ectodomain, mutation of Cys(86) and Cys(107) compromises complex association, but the mutant β-subunits still promote complex trafficking and activity to some extent. In contrast, disruption of a conserved disulfide bond between Cys(158) and Cys(172) has no effect on the P4-ATPase complex. Our results demonstrate that post-translational modifications in the β-subunit have different functional roles in different organisms, which may be related to the promiscuity of the P4-ATPase. PMID:27048590

  14. Role of post-translational modifications at the β-subunit ectodomain in complex association with a promiscuous plant P4-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sara R.; Marek, Magdalena; Axelsen, Kristian B.; Theorin, Lisa; Pomorski, Thomas G.; López-Marqués, Rosa L.

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases of subfamily IV (P4-ATPases) constitute a major group of phospholipid flippases that form heteromeric complexes with members of the Cdc50 (cell division control 50) protein family. Some P4-ATPases interact specifically with only one β-subunit isoform, whereas others are promiscuous and can interact with several isoforms. In the present study, we used a site-directed mutagenesis approach to assess the role of post-translational modifications at the plant ALIS5 β-subunit ectodomain in the functionality of the promiscuous plant P4-ATPase ALA2. We identified two N-glycosylated residues, Asn181 and Asn231. Whereas mutation of Asn231 seems to have a small effect on P4-ATPase complex formation, mutation of evolutionarily conserved Asn181 disrupts interaction between the two subunits. Of the four cysteine residues located in the ALIS5 ectodomain, mutation of Cys86 and Cys107 compromises complex association, but the mutant β-subunits still promote complex trafficking and activity to some extent. In contrast, disruption of a conserved disulfide bond between Cys158 and Cys172 has no effect on the P4-ATPase complex. Our results demonstrate that post-translational modifications in the β-subunit have different functional roles in different organisms, which may be related to the promiscuity of the P4-ATPase. PMID:27048590

  15. Influence of decavanadate on rat synaptic plasma membrane ATPases activity.

    PubMed

    Krstić, Danijela; Colović, Mirjana; Bosnjaković-Pavlović, Nada; Spasojević-De Bire, Anne; Vasić, Vesna

    2009-09-01

    The in vitro influence of decameric vanadate species on Na+/K+-ATPase, plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA)-calcium pump and ecto-ATPase activity, using rat synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) as model system was investigated, whereas the commercial porcine cerebral cortex Na+/K+-ATPase served as a reference. The thermal behaviour of the synthesized decavanadate (V10) has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, while the type of polyvanadate anion was identified using the IR spectroscopy. The concentration-dependent responses to V10 of all enzymes were obtained. The half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the enzyme activity was achieved at (4.74 +/- 1.15) x 10(-7) mol/l for SPM Na+/K+-ATPase, (1.30 +/- 0.10) x 10(-6) mol/l for commercial Na+/K+-ATPase and (3.13 +/- 1.70) x 10(-8) mol/l for Ca2+-ATPase, while ecto-ATPase is significantly less sensitive toward V10 (IC50 = (1.05 +/- 0.10) x 10(-4) mol/l) than investigated P-type ATPases. Kinetic analysis showed that V10 inhibited Na+/K+-ATPase by reducing the maximum enzymatic velocity and apparent affinity for ATP (increasing K(m) value), implying a mixed mode of interaction between V10 and P-type ATPases. PMID:20037196

  16. Rotary ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alastair G.; Sobti, Meghna; Harvey, Richard P.; Stock, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Rotary ATPases are molecular rotary motors involved in biological energy conversion. They either synthesize or hydrolyze the universal biological energy carrier adenosine triphosphate. Recent work has elucidated the general architecture and subunit compositions of all three sub-types of rotary ATPases. Composite models of the intact F-, V- and A-type ATPases have been constructed by fitting high-resolution X-ray structures of individual subunits or sub-complexes into low-resolution electron densities of the intact enzymes derived from electron cryo-microscopy. Electron cryo-tomography has provided new insights into the supra-molecular arrangement of eukaryotic ATP synthases within mitochondria and mass-spectrometry has started to identify specifically bound lipids presumed to be essential for function. Taken together these molecular snapshots show that nano-scale rotary engines have much in common with basic design principles of man made machines from the function of individual “machine elements” to the requirement of the right “fuel” and “oil” for different types of motors. PMID:23369889

  17. The Type IV Pilus Assembly ATPase PilB of Myxococcus xanthus Interacts with the Inner Membrane Platform Protein PilC and the Nucleotide-binding Protein PilM.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Lisa Franziska; Friedrich, Carmen; Harms, Andrea; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte; van der Does, Chris

    2016-03-25

    Type IV pili (T4P) are ubiquitous bacterial cell surface structures, involved in processes such as twitching motility, biofilm formation, bacteriophage infection, surface attachment, virulence, and natural transformation. T4P are assembled by machinery that can be divided into the outer membrane pore complex, the alignment complex that connects components in the inner and outer membrane, and the motor complex in the inner membrane and cytoplasm. Here, we characterize the inner membrane platform protein PilC, the cytosolic assembly ATPase PilB of the motor complex, and the cytosolic nucleotide-binding protein PilM of the alignment complex of the T4P machinery ofMyxococcus xanthus PilC was purified as a dimer and reconstituted into liposomes. PilB was isolated as a monomer and bound ATP in a non-cooperative manner, but PilB fused to Hcp1 ofPseudomonas aeruginosaformed a hexamer and bound ATP in a cooperative manner. Hexameric but not monomeric PilB bound to PilC reconstituted in liposomes, and this binding stimulated PilB ATPase activity. PilM could only be purified when it was stabilized by a fusion with a peptide corresponding to the first 16 amino acids of PilN, supporting an interaction between PilM and PilN(1-16). PilM-N(1-16) was isolated as a monomer that bound but did not hydrolyze ATP. PilM interacted directly with PilB, but only with PilC in the presence of PilB, suggesting an indirect interaction. We propose that PilB interacts with PilC and with PilM, thus establishing the connection between the alignment and the motor complex. PMID:26851283

  18. P2C-Type ATPases and Their Regulation.

    PubMed

    Retamales-Ortega, Rocío; Vio, Carlos P; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-03-01

    P2C-type ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases comprising Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is ubiquitously expressed and has been implicated in several neurological diseases, whereas H(+)/K(+)-ATPase is found principally in the colon, stomach, and kidney. Both ATPases have two subunits, α and β, but Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase also has a regulatory subunit called FXYD, which has an important role in cancer. The most important functions of these ATPases are homeostasis, potassium regulation, and maintaining a gradient in different cell types, like epithelial cells. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase has become a center of attention ever since it was proposed that it might play a crucial role in neurological disorders such as bipolar disorder, mania, depression, familial hemiplegic migraine, rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, chronic stress, epileptogenesis, and Alzheimer's disease. On the other hand, it has been reported that lithium could have a neuroprotective effect against ouabain, which is the best known Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor, but and high concentrations of lithium could affect negatively H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, that has a key role in regulating acidosis and potassium deficiencies. Finally, potassium homeostasis regulation is composed of two main mechanisms, extrarenal and renal. Extrarenal mechanism controls plasma levels, shifting potassium from the extracellular to the intracellular, whereas renal mechanism concerns with body balance and is influenced by potassium intake and its urinary excretion. In this article, we discuss the functions, isoforms, and localization of P2C-type ATPases, describe some of their modulators, and discuss their implications in some diseases. PMID:25631710

  19. composite and p-type Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yow-Jon; Yang, Shih-Hung

    2014-07-01

    The present work reports the fabrication and detailed electrical properties of heterojunction diodes based on p-type Si and the reduced graphene oxide-based TiO2 (TiO2:RGO) composite. The enhanced dark conductivity was observed for TiO2:RGO composite films. The improved electrical conductivity is considered to mainly come from the mobility enhancement. The TiO2/p-type Si diode shows a poor rectifying behavior and low photoresponse. This is because of the dominance of electron traps in TiO2. However, the TiO2:RGO/p-type Si diode shows a good rectifying behavior and high photoresponse, which is attributed to high-mobility electron transport combined with the reduced number of electron traps.

  20. p-type transparent conducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Su; Fang, Guojia; Li, Chun; Xu, Sheng; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2006-06-01

    The recent advance of p-type transparent conductive oxide thin films is reviewed. The focus is on p-type transparent oxide semiconductors CuAlO2, CuGaO2, CuInO2, SrCu2O2, and LaCuOCh (Ch = chalcogen). These materials and related device applications are then shown as examples. Room temperature operation of current injection emission from ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on p-SCO/n-ZnO p-n junctions has been demonstrated. This changed with the discovery of p-type transparent conducting oxides, thereby opening up the possibility for all-oxide transparent electronics.

  1. Mechanism and significance of P4 ATPase-catalyzed lipid transport: lessons from a Na+/K+-pump.

    PubMed

    Puts, Catheleyne F; Holthuis, Joost C M

    2009-07-01

    Members of the P(4) subfamily of P-type ATPases are believed to catalyze phospholipid transport across membrane bilayers, a process influencing a host of cellular functions. Atomic structures and functional analysis of P-type ATPases that pump small cations and metal ions revealed a transport mechanism that appears to be conserved throughout the family. A challenging problem is to understand how this mechanism is adapted in P(4) ATPases to flip phospholipids. P(4) ATPases form oligomeric complexes with members of the CDC50 protein family. While formation of these complexes is required for P(4) ATPase export from the endoplasmic reticulum, little is known about the functional role of the CDC50 subunits. The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and closely-related H(+)/K(+)-ATPase are the only other P-type pumps that are oligomeric, comprising mandatory beta-subunits that are strikingly reminiscent of CDC50 proteins. Besides serving a role in the functional maturation of the catalytic alpha-subunit, the beta-subunit also contributes specifically to intrinsic transport properties of the Na(+)/K(+) pump. As beta-subunits and CDC50 proteins likely adopted similar structures to accomplish analogous tasks, current knowledge of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase provides a useful guide for understanding the inner workings of the P(4) ATPase class of lipid pumps. PMID:19233312

  2. Higher plant Ca(2+)-ATPase: primary structure and regulation of mRNA abundance by salt.

    PubMed Central

    Wimmers, L E; Ewing, N N; Bennett, A B

    1992-01-01

    Calcium-dependent regulatory mechanisms participate in diverse developmentally, hormonally, and environmentally regulated processes, with the precise control of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration being critical to such mechanisms. In plant cells, P-type Ca(2+)-ATPases localized in the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum are thought to play a central role in regulating cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations. Ca(2+)-ATPase activity has been identified in isolated plant cell membranes, but the protein has not been characterized at the molecular level. We have isolated a partial-length cDNA (LCA1) and a complete genomic clone (gLCA13) encoding a putative endoplasmic reticulum-localized Ca(2+)-ATPase in tomato. The deduced amino acid sequence specifies a protein (Lycopersicon Ca(2+)-ATPase) of 1048 amino acids with a molecular mass of 116 kDa, eight probable transmembrane domains, and all of the highly conserved functional domains common to P-type cation-translocating ATPases. In addition, the protein shares approximately 50% amino acid sequence identify with animal sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases but less than 30% identity with other P-type ATPases. Genomic DNA blot hybridization analysis indicates that the Lycopersicon Ca(2+)-ATPase is encoded by a single gene. RNA blot hybridization analysis indicates the presence of three transcript sizes in root tissue and a single, much less abundant, transcript in leaves. Lycopersicon Ca(2+)-ATPase mRNA levels increase dramatically upon a 1-day exposure to 50 mM NaCl. Thus this report describes the primary structure of a higher-plant Ca(2+)-ATPase and the regulation of its mRNA abundance by salt stress. Images PMID:1384045

  3. P-type transparent conducting oxides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kelvin H L; Xi, Kai; Blamire, Mark G; Egdell, Russell G

    2016-09-28

    Transparent conducting oxides constitute a unique class of materials combining properties of electrical conductivity and optical transparency in a single material. They are needed for a wide range of applications including solar cells, flat panel displays, touch screens, light emitting diodes and transparent electronics. Most of the commercially available TCOs are n-type, such as Sn doped In2O3, Al doped ZnO, and F doped SnO2. However, the development of efficient p-type TCOs remains an outstanding challenge. This challenge is thought to be due to the localized nature of the O 2p derived valence band which leads to difficulty in introducing shallow acceptors and large hole effective masses. In 1997 Hosono and co-workers (1997 Nature 389 939) proposed the concept of 'chemical modulation of the valence band' to mitigate this problem using hybridization of O 2p orbitals with close-shell Cu 3d (10) orbitals. This work has sparked tremendous interest in designing p-TCO materials together with deep understanding the underlying materials physics. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive review on traditional and recently emergent p-TCOs, including Cu(+)-based delafossites, layered oxychalcogenides, nd (6) spinel oxides, Cr(3+)-based oxides (3d (3)) and post-transition metal oxides with lone pair state (ns (2)). We will focus our discussions on the basic materials physics of these materials in terms of electronic structures, doping and defect properties for p-type conductivity and optical properties. Device applications based on p-TCOs for transparent p-n junctions will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27459942

  4. P-type transparent conducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kelvin H. L.; Xi, Kai; Blamire, Mark G.; Egdell, Russell G.

    2016-09-01

    Transparent conducting oxides constitute a unique class of materials combining properties of electrical conductivity and optical transparency in a single material. They are needed for a wide range of applications including solar cells, flat panel displays, touch screens, light emitting diodes and transparent electronics. Most of the commercially available TCOs are n-type, such as Sn doped In2O3, Al doped ZnO, and F doped SnO2. However, the development of efficient p-type TCOs remains an outstanding challenge. This challenge is thought to be due to the localized nature of the O 2p derived valence band which leads to difficulty in introducing shallow acceptors and large hole effective masses. In 1997 Hosono and co-workers (1997 Nature 389 939) proposed the concept of ‘chemical modulation of the valence band’ to mitigate this problem using hybridization of O 2p orbitals with close-shell Cu 3d 10 orbitals. This work has sparked tremendous interest in designing p-TCO materials together with deep understanding the underlying materials physics. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive review on traditional and recently emergent p-TCOs, including Cu+-based delafossites, layered oxychalcogenides, nd 6 spinel oxides, Cr3+-based oxides (3d 3) and post-transition metal oxides with lone pair state (ns 2). We will focus our discussions on the basic materials physics of these materials in terms of electronic structures, doping and defect properties for p-type conductivity and optical properties. Device applications based on p-TCOs for transparent p–n junctions will also be briefly discussed.

  5. Metal Fluoride Inhibition of a P-type H+ Pump: STABILIZATION OF THE PHOSPHOENZYME INTERMEDIATE CONTRIBUTES TO POST-TRANSLATIONAL PUMP ACTIVATION.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Jesper Torbøl; Falhof, Janus; Ekberg, Kira; Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe; Palmgren, Michael

    2015-08-14

    The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is a P-type ATPase responsible for establishing electrochemical gradients across the plasma membrane in fungi and plants. This essential proton pump exists in two activity states: an autoinhibited basal state with a low turnover rate and a low H(+)/ATP coupling ratio and an activated state in which ATP hydrolysis is tightly coupled to proton transport. Here we characterize metal fluorides as inhibitors of the fungal enzyme in both states. In contrast to findings for other P-type ATPases, inhibition of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase by metal fluorides was partly reversible, and the stability of the inhibition varied with the activation state. Thus, the stability of the ATPase inhibitor complex decreased significantly when the pump transitioned from the activated to the basal state, particularly when using beryllium fluoride, which mimics the bound phosphate in the E2P conformational state. Taken together, our results indicate that the phosphate bond of the phosphoenzyme intermediate of H(+)-ATPases is labile in the basal state, which may provide an explanation for the low H(+)/ATP coupling ratio of these pumps in the basal state. PMID:26134563

  6. P4-ATPases as Phospholipid Flippases-Structure, Function, and Enigmas.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jens P; Vestergaard, Anna L; Mikkelsen, Stine A; Mogensen, Louise S; Chalat, Madhavan; Molday, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    P4-ATPases comprise a family of P-type ATPases that actively transport or flip phospholipids across cell membranes. This generates and maintains membrane lipid asymmetry, a property essential for a wide variety of cellular processes such as vesicle budding and trafficking, cell signaling, blood coagulation, apoptosis, bile and cholesterol homeostasis, and neuronal cell survival. Some P4-ATPases transport phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine across the plasma membrane or intracellular membranes whereas other P4-ATPases are specific for phosphatidylcholine. The importance of P4-ATPases is highlighted by the finding that genetic defects in two P4-ATPases ATP8A2 and ATP8B1 are associated with severe human disorders. Recent studies have provided insight into how P4-ATPases translocate phospholipids across membranes. P4-ATPases form a phosphorylated intermediate at the aspartate of the P-type ATPase signature sequence, and dephosphorylation is activated by the lipid substrate being flipped from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic leaflet similar to the activation of dephosphorylation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by exoplasmic K(+). How the phospholipid is translocated can be understood in terms of a peripheral hydrophobic gate pathway between transmembrane helices M1, M3, M4, and M6. This pathway, which partially overlaps with the suggested pathway for migration of Ca(2+) in the opposite direction in the Ca(2+)-ATPase, is wider than the latter, thereby accommodating the phospholipid head group. The head group is propelled along against its concentration gradient with the hydrocarbon chains projecting out into the lipid phase by movement of an isoleucine located at the position corresponding to an ion binding glutamate in the Ca(2+)- and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases. Hence, the P4-ATPase mechanism is quite similar to the mechanism of these ion pumps, where the glutamate translocates the ions by moving like a pump rod. The accessory subunit CDC50 may be located in close association

  7. P4-ATPases as Phospholipid Flippases—Structure, Function, and Enigmas

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jens P.; Vestergaard, Anna L.; Mikkelsen, Stine A.; Mogensen, Louise S.; Chalat, Madhavan; Molday, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    P4-ATPases comprise a family of P-type ATPases that actively transport or flip phospholipids across cell membranes. This generates and maintains membrane lipid asymmetry, a property essential for a wide variety of cellular processes such as vesicle budding and trafficking, cell signaling, blood coagulation, apoptosis, bile and cholesterol homeostasis, and neuronal cell survival. Some P4-ATPases transport phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine across the plasma membrane or intracellular membranes whereas other P4-ATPases are specific for phosphatidylcholine. The importance of P4-ATPases is highlighted by the finding that genetic defects in two P4-ATPases ATP8A2 and ATP8B1 are associated with severe human disorders. Recent studies have provided insight into how P4-ATPases translocate phospholipids across membranes. P4-ATPases form a phosphorylated intermediate at the aspartate of the P-type ATPase signature sequence, and dephosphorylation is activated by the lipid substrate being flipped from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic leaflet similar to the activation of dephosphorylation of Na+/K+-ATPase by exoplasmic K+. How the phospholipid is translocated can be understood in terms of a peripheral hydrophobic gate pathway between transmembrane helices M1, M3, M4, and M6. This pathway, which partially overlaps with the suggested pathway for migration of Ca2+ in the opposite direction in the Ca2+-ATPase, is wider than the latter, thereby accommodating the phospholipid head group. The head group is propelled along against its concentration gradient with the hydrocarbon chains projecting out into the lipid phase by movement of an isoleucine located at the position corresponding to an ion binding glutamate in the Ca2+- and Na+/K+-ATPases. Hence, the P4-ATPase mechanism is quite similar to the mechanism of these ion pumps, where the glutamate translocates the ions by moving like a pump rod. The accessory subunit CDC50 may be located in close association with the

  8. Mechanism of proton pumping by plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase: role of residues in transmembrane segments 5 and 6.

    PubMed

    Palmgren, M G; Buch-Pedersen, M J; Møller, A L

    2003-04-01

    The mechanism of proton pumping by P-type plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases is not well clarified. Site-directed mutagenesis studies suggest that Asp684, situated in transmembrane segment M6, is involved in coordination of proton(s) in plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. This hypothesis is supported by atomic models of H(+)-ATPases built on the basis of the crystal structure of the related SERCA1a Ca(2+)-ATPase. However, more biochemical, genetic, and structural studies are required before we will be able to understand the nature of the proton binding site(s) in P-type H(+)-ATPases and the mechanism of action of these pumps. PMID:12763795

  9. A functional calcium-transporting ATPase encoded by chlorella viruses.

    PubMed

    Bonza, Maria Cristina; Martin, Holger; Kang, Ming; Lewis, Gentry; Greiner, Timo; Giacometti, Sonia; Van Etten, James L; De Michelis, Maria Ida; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Calcium-transporting ATPases (Ca(2+) pumps) are major players in maintaining calcium homeostasis in the cell and have been detected in all cellular organisms. Here, we report the identification of two putative Ca(2+) pumps, M535L and C785L, encoded by chlorella viruses MT325 and AR158, respectively, and the functional characterization of M535L. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses place the viral proteins in group IIB of P-type ATPases even though they lack a typical feature of this class, a calmodulin-binding domain. A Ca(2+) pump gene is present in 45 of 47 viruses tested and is transcribed during virus infection. Complementation analysis of the triple yeast mutant K616 confirmed that M535L transports calcium ions and, unusually for group IIB pumps, also manganese ions. In vitro assays show basal ATPase activity. This activity is inhibited by vanadate, but, unlike that of other Ca(2+) pumps, is not significantly stimulated by either calcium or manganese. The enzyme forms a (32)P-phosphorylated intermediate, which is inhibited by vanadate and not stimulated by the transported substrate Ca(2+), thus confirming the peculiar properties of this viral pump. To our knowledge this is the first report of a functional P-type Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase encoded by a virus. PMID:20573858

  10. First crystal structures of Na+,K+-ATPase: new light on the oldest ion pump.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Chikashi; Kanai, Ryuta; Cornelius, Flemming

    2011-12-01

    Na(+),K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (NKA) is the first P-type ion translocating adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) ever identified, and the significance of this class of proteins was highlighted by the 1997 Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded to Jens C. Skou for the discovery in 1957. More than half a century passed between the initial identification and the publication of a high-resolution crystal structure of NKA. Although the new crystal structures provided many surprises and insights, structural biology on this system remains challenging, as NKA is a very difficult protein to crystallize. Here we explain the reasons behind the challenges, introduce a mechanism that governs the function, and summarize current knowledge of NKA structure in comparison with another member of the P-type ATPase family, Ca(2+)-ATPase. PMID:22153495

  11. Crystal Structure of the Vanadate-Inhibited Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Johannes D; Bublitz, Maike; Arnou, Bertrand; Olesen, Claus; Andersen, Jens Peter; Møller, Jesper Vuust; Nissen, Poul

    2016-04-01

    Vanadate is the hallmark inhibitor of the P-type ATPase family; however, structural details of its inhibitory mechanism have remained unresolved. We have determined the crystal structure of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase with bound vanadate in the absence of Ca(2+). Vanadate is bound at the catalytic site as a planar VO3(-) in complex with water and Mg(2+) in a dephosphorylation transition-state-like conformation. Validating bound VO3(-) by anomalous difference Fourier maps using long-wavelength data we also identify a hitherto undescribed Cl(-) site near the dephosphorylation site. Crystallization was facilitated by trinitrophenyl (TNP)-derivatized nucleotides that bind with the TNP moiety occupying the binding pocket that normally accommodates the adenine of ATP, rationalizing their remarkably high affinity for E2P-like conformations of the Ca(2+)-ATPase. A comparison of the configurations of bound nucleotide analogs in the E2·VO3(-) structure with that in E2·BeF3(-) (E2P ground state analog) reveals multiple binding modes to the Ca(2+)-ATPase. PMID:27050689

  12. Calcium-ATPases: Gene disorders and dysregulation in cancer.

    PubMed

    Dang, Donna; Rao, Rajini

    2016-06-01

    Ca(2+)-ATPases belonging to the superfamily of P-type pumps play an important role in maintaining low, nanomolar cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels at rest and priming organellar stores, including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, and secretory vesicles with high levels of Ca(2+) for a wide range of signaling functions. In this review, we introduce the distinct subtypes of Ca(2+)-ATPases and their isoforms and splice variants and provide an overview of their specific cellular roles as they relate to genetic disorders and cancer, with a particular emphasis on recent findings on the secretory pathway Ca(2+)-ATPases (SPCA). Mutations in human ATP2A2, ATP2C1 genes, encoding housekeeping isoforms of the endoplasmic reticulum (SERCA2) and secretory pathway (SPCA1) pumps, respectively, confer autosomal dominant disorders of the skin, whereas mutations in other isoforms underlie various muscular, neurological, or developmental disorders. Emerging evidence points to an important function of dysregulated Ca(2+)-ATPase expression in cancers of the colon, lung, and breast where they may serve as markers of differentiation or novel targets for therapeutic intervention. We review the mechanisms underlying the link between calcium homeostasis and cancer and discuss the potential clinical relevance of these observations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen. PMID:26608610

  13. A novel inhibitor of vacuolar ATPase, FR167356, which can discriminate between osteoclast vacuolar ATPase and lysosomal vacuolar ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Niikura, Kazuaki; Takano, Mikiko; Sawada, Masae

    2004-01-01

    Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) has been proposed as a drug target in lytic bone diseases. Studies of bafilomycin derivatives suggest that the key issue regarding the therapeutic usefulness of V-ATPase inhibitors is selective inhibition of osteoclast V-ATPase. Previous efforts to develop therapeutic inhibitors of osteoclast V-ATPase have been frustrated by a lack of synthetically tractable and biologically selective leads. Therefore, we tried to find novel potent and specific V-ATPase inhibitors, which have new structural features and inhibition selectivity, from random screening using osteoclast microsomes. Finally, a novel V-ATPase inhibitor, FR167356, was obtained through chemical modification of a parental hit compound. FR167356 inhibited not only H+ transport activity of osteoclast V-ATPase but also H+ extrusion from cytoplasm of osteoclasts, which depends on the V-ATPase activity. As expected, FR167356 remarkably inhibited bone resorption in vitro. FR167356 also showed inhibitory effects on other V-ATPases, renal brush border V-ATPase, macrophage microsome V-ATPase and lysosomal V-ATPase. However, FR167356 was approximately seven-fold less potent in inhibiting lysosomal V-ATPase compared to osteoclast V-ATPase. Moreover, LDL metabolism in cells, which depends on acidification of lysosome, was blocked merely at higher concentration than bone resorption, suggesting that FR167356 inhibits V-ATPase of osteoclast ruffled border membrane still more selectively than lysosome at the cellular level. These results from the experiments seem to indicate that osteoclast V-ATPase may be different from lysosomal V-ATPase in respect of their structure. FR167356 had a novel chemical structural feature as well as inhibitory characteristics distinctly different from any previously known V-ATPase inhibitor family. Therefore, FR167356 is thought to be a useful tool for estimating the essential characteristics of V-ATPase inhibitors for drug development. PMID:15148249

  14. Cdc50p plays a vital role in the ATPase reaction cycle of the putative aminophospholipid transporter Drs2p.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Guillaume; Williamson, Patrick; Puts, Catheleyne F; Holthuis, Joost C M

    2009-07-01

    Members of the P(4) subfamily of P-type ATPases are believed to catalyze transport of phospholipids across cellular bilayers. However, most P-type ATPases pump small cations or metal ions, and atomic structures revealed a transport mechanism that is conserved throughout the family. Hence, a challenging problem is to understand how this mechanism is adapted in P(4)-ATPases to flip phospholipids. P(4)-ATPases form heteromeric complexes with Cdc50 proteins. The primary role of these additional polypeptides is unknown. Here, we show that the affinity of yeast P(4)-ATPase Drs2p for its Cdc50-binding partner fluctuates during the transport cycle, with the strongest interaction occurring at a point where the enzyme is loaded with phospholipid ligand. We also find that specific interactions with Cdc50p are required to render the ATPase competent for phosphorylation at the catalytically important aspartate residue. Our data indicate that Cdc50 proteins are integral components of the P(4)-ATPase transport machinery. Thus, acquisition of these subunits may have been a crucial step in the evolution of flippases from a family of cation pumps. PMID:19411703

  15. Functional characterization of a Glycine soja Ca(2+)ATPase in salt-alkaline stress responses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingzhe; Jia, Bowei; Cui, Na; Wen, Yidong; Duanmu, Huizi; Yu, Qingyue; Xiao, Jialei; Sun, Xiaoli; Zhu, Yanming

    2016-03-01

    It is widely accepted that Ca(2+)ATPase family proteins play important roles in plant environmental stress responses. However, up to now, most researches are limited in the reference plants Arabidopsis and rice. The function of Ca(2+)ATPases from non-reference plants was rarely reported, especially its regulatory role in carbonate alkaline stress responses. Hence, in this study, we identified the P-type II Ca(2+)ATPase family genes in soybean genome, determined their chromosomal location and gene architecture, and analyzed their amino acid sequence and evolutionary relationship. Based on above results, we pointed out the existence of gene duplication for soybean Ca(2+)ATPases. Then, we investigated the expression profiles of the ACA subfamily genes in wild soybean (Glycine soja) under carbonate alkaline stress, and functionally characterized one representative gene GsACA1 by using transgenic alfalfa. Our results suggested that GsACA1 overexpression in alfalfa obviously increased plant tolerance to both carbonate alkaline and neutral salt stresses, as evidenced by lower levels of membrane permeability and MDA content, but higher levels of SOD activity, proline concentration and chlorophyll content under stress conditions. Taken together, for the first time, we reported a P-type II Ca(2+)ATPase from wild soybean, GsACA1, which could positively regulate plant tolerance to both carbonate alkaline and neutral salt stresses. PMID:26801329

  16. Structural studies of P-type ATPase–ligand complexes using an X-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Bublitz, Maike; Nass, Karol; Drachmann, Nikolaj D.; Markvardsen, Anders J.; Gutmann, Matthias J.; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Mattle, Daniel; Shoeman, Robert L.; Doak, R. Bruce; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, Marvin M.; Williams, Garth J.; Foucar, Lutz; Reinhard, Linda; Sitsel, Oleg; Gregersen, Jonas L.; Clausen, Johannes D.; Boesen, Thomas; Gotfryd, Kamil; Wang, Kai -Tuo; Olesen, Claus; Møller, Jesper V.; Nissen, Poul; Schlichting, Ilme

    2015-06-11

    Membrane proteins are key players in biological systems, mediating signalling events and the specific transport ofe.g.ions and metabolites. Consequently, membrane proteins are targeted by a large number of currently approved drugs. Understanding their functions and molecular mechanisms is greatly dependent on structural information, not least on complexes with functionally or medically important ligands. Structure determination, however, is hampered by the difficulty of obtaining well diffracting, macroscopic crystals. Here, the feasibility of X-ray free-electron-laser-based serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) for the structure determination of membrane protein–ligand complexes using microcrystals of various native-source and recombinant P-type ATPase complexes is demonstrated. The data reveal the binding sites of a variety of ligands, including lipids and inhibitors such as the hallmark P-type ATPase inhibitor orthovanadate. By analyzing the resolution dependence of ligand densities and overall model qualities, SFX data quality metrics as well as suitable refinement procedures are discussed. Even at relatively low resolution and multiplicity, the identification of ligands can be demonstrated. This makes SFX a useful tool for ligand screening and thus for unravelling the molecular mechanisms of biologically active proteins.

  17. Structural studies of P-type ATPase–ligand complexes using an X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bublitz, Maike; Nass, Karol; Drachmann, Nikolaj D.; Markvardsen, Anders J.; Gutmann, Matthias J.; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Mattle, Daniel; Shoeman, Robert L.; Doak, R. Bruce; Boutet, Sébastien; et al

    2015-06-11

    Membrane proteins are key players in biological systems, mediating signalling events and the specific transport ofe.g.ions and metabolites. Consequently, membrane proteins are targeted by a large number of currently approved drugs. Understanding their functions and molecular mechanisms is greatly dependent on structural information, not least on complexes with functionally or medically important ligands. Structure determination, however, is hampered by the difficulty of obtaining well diffracting, macroscopic crystals. Here, the feasibility of X-ray free-electron-laser-based serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) for the structure determination of membrane protein–ligand complexes using microcrystals of various native-source and recombinant P-type ATPase complexes is demonstrated. The data revealmore » the binding sites of a variety of ligands, including lipids and inhibitors such as the hallmark P-type ATPase inhibitor orthovanadate. By analyzing the resolution dependence of ligand densities and overall model qualities, SFX data quality metrics as well as suitable refinement procedures are discussed. Even at relatively low resolution and multiplicity, the identification of ligands can be demonstrated. This makes SFX a useful tool for ligand screening and thus for unravelling the molecular mechanisms of biologically active proteins.« less

  18. Structural studies of P-type ATPase–ligand complexes using an X-ray free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Bublitz, Maike; Nass, Karol; Drachmann, Nikolaj D.; Markvardsen, Anders J.; Gutmann, Matthias J.; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Mattle, Daniel; Shoeman, Robert L.; Doak, R. Bruce; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, Marvin M.; Williams, Garth J.; Foucar, Lutz; Reinhard, Linda; Sitsel, Oleg; Gregersen, Jonas L.; Clausen, Johannes D.; Boesen, Thomas; Gotfryd, Kamil; Wang, Kai-Tuo; Olesen, Claus; Møller, Jesper V.; Nissen, Poul; Schlichting, Ilme

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins are key players in biological systems, mediating signalling events and the specific transport of e.g. ions and metabolites. Consequently, membrane proteins are targeted by a large number of currently approved drugs. Understanding their functions and molecular mechanisms is greatly dependent on structural information, not least on complexes with functionally or medically important ligands. Structure determination, however, is hampered by the difficulty of obtaining well diffracting, macroscopic crystals. Here, the feasibility of X-ray free-electron-laser-based serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) for the structure determination of membrane protein–ligand complexes using microcrystals of various native-source and recombinant P-type ATPase complexes is demonstrated. The data reveal the binding sites of a variety of ligands, including lipids and inhibitors such as the hallmark P-type ATPase inhibitor orthovanadate. By analyzing the resolution dependence of ligand densities and overall model qualities, SFX data quality metrics as well as suitable refinement procedures are discussed. Even at relatively low resolution and multiplicity, the identification of ligands can be demonstrated. This makes SFX a useful tool for ligand screening and thus for unravelling the molecular mechanisms of biologically active proteins. PMID:26175901

  19. Structural studies of P-type ATPase–ligand complexes using an X-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Bublitz, Maike; Nass, Karol; Drachmann, Nikolaj D.; Markvardsen, Anders J.; Gutmann, Matthias J.; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Mattle, Daniel; Shoeman, Robert L.; Doak, R. Bruce; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, Marvin M.; Williams, Garth J.; Foucar, Lutz; Reinhard, Linda; Sitsel, Oleg; Gregersen, Jonas L.; Clausen, Johannes D.; Boesen, Thomas; Gotfryd, Kamil; Wang, Kai-Tuo; Olesen, Claus; Møller, Jesper V.; Nissen, Poul; Schlichting, Ilme

    2015-06-11

    Membrane proteins are key players in biological systems, mediating signalling events and the specific transport ofe.g.ions and metabolites. Consequently, membrane proteins are targeted by a large number of currently approved drugs. Understanding their functions and molecular mechanisms is greatly dependent on structural information, not least on complexes with functionally or medically important ligands. Structure determination, however, is hampered by the difficulty of obtaining well diffracting, macroscopic crystals. Here, the feasibility of X-ray free-electron-laser-based serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) for the structure determination of membrane protein–ligand complexes using microcrystals of various native-source and recombinant P-type ATPase complexes is demonstrated. The data reveal the binding sites of a variety of ligands, including lipids and inhibitors such as the hallmark P-type ATPase inhibitor orthovanadate. By analyzing the resolution dependence of ligand densities and overall model qualities, SFX data quality metrics as well as suitable refinement procedures are discussed. Even at relatively low resolution and multiplicity, the identification of ligands can be demonstrated. This makes SFX a useful tool for ligand screening and thus for unravelling the molecular mechanisms of biologically active proteins.

  20. P-type Oxides and the Growth of Heterostructure Oxide Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Hideo

    2002-03-01

    Transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) are widely used as transparent metallic electrodes for various displays and solar cells. However, even though TCO is an n-type semiconductor, there is almost no application based on the active function as a compound semiconductor. The primary reason is because most active functions in semiconductors come from the characteristic properties of p-n junction but TCOs do not have a p-type. We anticipate that new frontier of transparent oxide semiconductors (TOSs) utilizing both optical transparency and electron activity in semiconductors will be opened if a p-type TCO is realized. In 1997, we reported on CuAlO2 (thin films) as the first p-type TCO along with a chemical design concept to explore the candidate materials. After that, a series of p-type TCOs based on a Cu+ -based system have been reported following the design concept, i.e., CuGaO2, CuInO2, and SrCu2O2. In 1999, a transparent p-n heterojunction diode exhibiting a rectifying I-V characteristic was fabricated using a combination of p-SrCu2O2 (SCO) and n-ZnO. Ultraviolet-emitting diode (UV-LED) is a typical active device, which can use the features of TOSs. Thus, since the initiation of our project (October, 1999), we concentrated our effort on the fabrication of UV-LED based on transparent p-n junction composed of TOSs. The fabrication was realized(APL,77,475,2000) by the formation of p-n heterojunction composed of heteroepitaxially grown p-SCO and n-ZnO. In this talk I will review our approach to P-type TCOs and UV-LED based on PN heterojuction utilizing TCOs along with recent advances.

  1. Method of mitigating titanium impurities effects in p-type silicon material for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, A. M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Microstructural evaluation tests performed on Cu-doped, Ti-doped and Cu/Ti doped p-type silicon single crystal wafers, before and after the solar cell fabrication, and evaluation of both dark forward and reverse I-V characteristic records for the solar cells produced from the corresponding silicon wafers, show that Cu mitigates the unfavorable effects of Ti, and thus provides for higher conversion efficiency, thereby providing an economical way to reduce the deleterious effects of titanium, one of the impurities present in metallurgical grade silicon material.

  2. Direct Measurement of Electron Beam Induced Currents in p-type Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Han, M.G.; Zhu, Y.; Sasaki, K.; Kato, T.; Fisher, C.A.J.; Hirayama, T.

    2010-08-01

    A new method for measuring electron beam induced currents (EBICs) in p-type silicon using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) with a high-precision tungsten probe is presented. Current-voltage (I-V) curves obtained under various electron-beam illumination conditions are found to depend strongly on the current density of the incoming electron beam and the relative distance of the beam from the point of probe contact, consistent with a buildup of excess electrons around the contact. This setup provides a new experimental approach for studying minority carrier transport in semiconductors on the nanometer scale.

  3. Experimental identification of p-type conduction in fluoridized boron nitride nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jing; Li, Wuxia; Tang, Chengchun; Li, Lin; Lin, Jing; Gu, Changzhi

    2013-04-01

    The transport properties of F-doped boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) top-gate field effect devices were investigated to demonstrate the realization of p-type BNNTs by F-doping. The drain current was found to increase substantially with the applied negative gate voltage, suggesting these devices persist significant field effect with holes predominated; it also suggests that F-doping remarkably modified the band gap with F atoms preferred to be absorbed on B sites. Parameters, including the resistivity, charge concentration, and mobility, were further retrieved from the I-V curves. Our results indicate that device characterization is an effective method to reveal the specific properties of BNNTs.

  4. Manganese redistribution by calcium-stimulated vesicle trafficking bypasses the need for P-type ATPase function.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Néstor; Manzano-López, Javier; Muñoz-Bravo, Miguel; Fernández-García, Elisabet; Muñiz, Manuel; Wellinger, Ralf Erik

    2015-04-10

    Regulation of intracellular ion homeostasis is essential for eukaryotic cell physiology. An example is provided by loss of ATP2C1 function, which leads to skin ulceration, improper keratinocyte adhesion, and cancer formation in Hailey-Hailey patients. The yeast ATP2C1 orthologue PMR1 codes for a Mn(2+)/Ca(2+) transporter that is crucial for cis-Golgi manganese supply. Here, we present evidence that calcium overcomes the lack of Pmr1 through vesicle trafficking-stimulated manganese delivery and requires the endoplasmic reticulum Mn(2+) transporter Spf1 and the late endosome/trans-Golgi Nramp metal transporter Smf2. Smf2 co-localizes with the putative Mn(2+) transporter Atx2, and ATX2 overexpression counteracts the beneficial impact of calcium treatment. Our findings suggest that vesicle trafficking promotes organelle-specific ion interchange and cytoplasmic metal detoxification independent of calcineurin signaling or metal transporter re-localization. Our study identifies an alternative mode for cis-Golgi manganese supply in yeast and provides new perspectives for Hailey-Hailey disease treatment. PMID:25713143

  5. Manganese Redistribution by Calcium-stimulated Vesicle Trafficking Bypasses the Need for P-type ATPase Function*

    PubMed Central

    García-Rodríguez, Néstor; Manzano-López, Javier; Muñoz-Bravo, Miguel; Fernández-García, Elisabet; Muñiz, Manuel; Wellinger, Ralf Erik

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of intracellular ion homeostasis is essential for eukaryotic cell physiology. An example is provided by loss of ATP2C1 function, which leads to skin ulceration, improper keratinocyte adhesion, and cancer formation in Hailey-Hailey patients. The yeast ATP2C1 orthologue PMR1 codes for a Mn2+/Ca2+ transporter that is crucial for cis-Golgi manganese supply. Here, we present evidence that calcium overcomes the lack of Pmr1 through vesicle trafficking-stimulated manganese delivery and requires the endoplasmic reticulum Mn2+ transporter Spf1 and the late endosome/trans-Golgi Nramp metal transporter Smf2. Smf2 co-localizes with the putative Mn2+ transporter Atx2, and ATX2 overexpression counteracts the beneficial impact of calcium treatment. Our findings suggest that vesicle trafficking promotes organelle-specific ion interchange and cytoplasmic metal detoxification independent of calcineurin signaling or metal transporter re-localization. Our study identifies an alternative mode for cis-Golgi manganese supply in yeast and provides new perspectives for Hailey-Hailey disease treatment. PMID:25713143

  6. A heavy metal P-type ATPase OsHMA4 prevents copper accumulation in rice grain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin-Yuan; Deng, Fenglin; Yamaji, Naoki; Pinson, Shannon R M; Fujii-Kashino, Miho; Danku, John; Douglas, Alex; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Salt, David E; Ma, Jian Feng

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a major source of calories and mineral nutrients for over half the world's human population. However, little is known in rice about the genetic basis of variation in accumulation of copper (Cu), an essential but potentially toxic nutrient. Here we identify OsHMA4 as the likely causal gene of a quantitative trait locus controlling Cu accumulation in rice grain. We provide evidence that OsHMA4 functions to sequester Cu into root vacuoles, limiting Cu accumulation in the grain. The difference in grain Cu accumulation is most likely attributed to a single amino acid substitution that leads to different OsHMA4 transport activity. The allele associated with low grain Cu was found in 67 of the 1,367 rice accessions investigated. Identification of natural allelic variation in OsHMA4 may facilitate the development of rice varieties with grain Cu concentrations tuned to both the concentration of Cu in the soil and dietary needs. PMID:27387148

  7. A heavy metal P-type ATPase OsHMA4 prevents copper accumulation in rice grain

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xin-Yuan; Deng, Fenglin; Yamaji, Naoki; Pinson, Shannon R.M.; Fujii-Kashino, Miho; Danku, John; Douglas, Alex; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Salt, David E.; Ma, Jian Feng

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a major source of calories and mineral nutrients for over half the world's human population. However, little is known in rice about the genetic basis of variation in accumulation of copper (Cu), an essential but potentially toxic nutrient. Here we identify OsHMA4 as the likely causal gene of a quantitative trait locus controlling Cu accumulation in rice grain. We provide evidence that OsHMA4 functions to sequester Cu into root vacuoles, limiting Cu accumulation in the grain. The difference in grain Cu accumulation is most likely attributed to a single amino acid substitution that leads to different OsHMA4 transport activity. The allele associated with low grain Cu was found in 67 of the 1,367 rice accessions investigated. Identification of natural allelic variation in OsHMA4 may facilitate the development of rice varieties with grain Cu concentrations tuned to both the concentration of Cu in the soil and dietary needs. PMID:27387148

  8. A Putative P-Type ATPase Required for Virulence and Resistance to Haem Toxicity in Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Rosemarie B.; Pi, Hualiang; Casey, Pat G.; Darby, Trevor; Charbit, Alain; Sleator, Roy D.; Joyce, Susan A.; Cowart, Richard E.; Hill, Colin; Klebba, Phillip E.; Gahan, Cormac G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of iron homeostasis in many pathogens is principally mediated by the ferric uptake regulator, Fur. Since acquisition of iron from the host is essential for the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, we predicted the existence of Fur-regulated systems that support infection. We examined the contribution of nine Fur-regulated loci to the pathogenicity of L. monocytogenes in a murine model of infection. While mutating the majority of the genes failed to affect virulence, three mutants exhibited a significantly compromised virulence potential. Most striking was the role of the membrane protein we designate FrvA (Fur regulated virulence factor A; encoded by frvA [lmo0641]), which is absolutely required for the systemic phase of infection in mice and also for virulence in an alternative infection model, the Wax Moth Galleria mellonella. Further analysis of the ΔfrvA mutant revealed poor growth in iron deficient media and inhibition of growth by micromolar concentrations of haem or haemoglobin, a phenotype which may contribute to the attenuated growth of this mutant during infection. Uptake studies indicated that the ΔfrvA mutant is unaffected in the uptake of ferric citrate but demonstrates a significant increase in uptake of haem and haemin. The data suggest a potential role for FrvA as a haem exporter that functions, at least in part, to protect the cell against the potential toxicity of free haem. PMID:22363518

  9. A heavy metal P-type ATPase OsHMA4 prevents copper accumulation in rice grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As one of the most important staple crops, rice not only provides more than one fifth of daily calories for half of the world’s human population but is also a major source of mineral nutrients. However, little is known about the genetic basis of mineral nutrient accumulation in rice grain such as co...

  10. Versatile p-Type Chemical Doping to Achieve Ideal Flexible Graphene Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Han, Tae-Hee; Kwon, Sung-Joo; Li, Nannan; Seo, Hong-Kyu; Xu, Wentao; Kim, Kwang S; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-05-17

    We report effective solution-processed chemical p-type doping of graphene using trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (CF3 SO3 H, TFMS), that can provide essential requirements to approach an ideal flexible graphene anode for practical applications: i) high optical transmittance, ii) low sheet resistance (70 % decrease), iii) high work function (0.83 eV increase), iv) smooth surface, and iv) air-stability at the same time. The TFMS-doped graphene formed nearly ohmic contact with a conventional organic hole transporting layer, and a green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode with the TFMS-doped graphene anode showed lower operating voltage, and higher device efficiencies (104.1 cd A(-1) , 80.7 lm W(-1) ) than those with conventional ITO (84.8 cd A(-1) , 73.8 lm W(-1) ). PMID:27072071

  11. Stabilisation of Na,K-ATPase structure by the cardiotonic steroid ouabain

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Andrew J.; Fedosova, Natalya U.; Hoffmann, Søren V.; Wallace, B.A.; Esmann, Mikael

    2013-05-31

    Highlights: •Ouabain binding to pig and shark Na,K-ATPase enhances thermal stability. •Ouabain stabilises both membrane-bound and solubilised Na,K-ATPase. •Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism is used for structure determination. •Secondary structure in general is not affected by ouabain binding. •Stabilisation is due to re-arrangement of tertiary structure. -- Abstract: Cardiotonic steroids such as ouabain bind with high affinity to the membrane-bound cation-transporting P-type Na,K-ATPase, leading to complete inhibition of the enzyme. Using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy we show that the enzyme-ouabain complex is less susceptible to thermal denaturation (unfolding) than the ouabain-free enzyme, and this protection is observed with Na,K-ATPase purified from pig kidney as well as from shark rectal glands. It is also shown that detergent-solubilised preparations of Na,K-ATPase are stabilised by ouabain, which could account for the successful crystallisation of Na,K-ATPase in the ouabain-bound form. The secondary structure is not significantly affected by the binding of ouabain. Ouabain appears however, to induce a reorganization of the tertiary structure towards a more compact protein structure which is less prone to unfolding; recent crystal structures of the two enzymes are consistent with this interpretation. These circular dichroism spectroscopic studies in solution therefore provide complementary information to that provided by crystallography.

  12. Two-Dimensional Crystallization of Gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase for Structural Analysis by Electron Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Abe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Electron crystallography of two-dimensional (2D) crystals has provided important information on the structural biology of P-type ATPases. Here, I describe the procedure for making 2D crystals of gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase purified from pig stomach. The 2D crystals are produced by dialyzing detergent-solubilized H(+),K(+)-ATPase mixed with synthetic phospholipids. Removal of the detergent induces the reconstitution of H(+),K(+)-ATPase molecules into the lipid bilayer. In the presence of fluorinated phosphate analogs, or in combination with transporting cations or the specific antagonist SCH28080, H(+),K(+)-ATPase forms crystalline 2D arrays. The molecular conformation and morphology of the 2D crystals vary depending on the crystallizing conditions. Using these 2D crystals, three-dimensional structures of H(+),K(+)-ATPase can be generated by data correction from ice-embedded 2D crystals using cryo-electron microscopy, followed by processing the recorded images using electron crystallography methods. PMID:26695054

  13. Transport through a single donor in p-type silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, J. A.; Mol, J. A.; Salfi, J.; Rogge, S.; Simmons, M. Y.

    2013-07-01

    Single phosphorus donors in silicon are promising candidates as qubits in the solid state. Here, we present low temperature scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy measurements of individual phosphorus dopants deliberately placed in p-type silicon ˜1 nm below the surface. The ability to image individual dopants combined with scanning tunnelling spectroscopy allows us to directly study the transport mechanism through the donor. We show that for a single P donor, transport is dominated by a minority carrier recombination process with the surrounding p-type matrix. The understanding gained will underpin future studies of atomically precise mapping of donor-donor interactions in silicon.

  14. Bacterial Transition Metal P1B-ATPases, Transport Mechanism and Roles in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Argüello, José M.; González-Guerrero, Manuel; Raimunda, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    P1B-type ATPases are polytopic membrane proteins that couple the hydrolysis of ATP to the efflux of cytoplasmic transition metals. This article reviews recent progress in our understanding of the structure and function of these proteins in bacteria. These are members of the P-type superfamily of transport ATPases. Cu+-ATPases are the most frequently observed and best-characterized members of this group of transporters. However, bacterial genomes show diverse arrays of P1B-type ATPases with a range of substrates (Cu+, Zn2+, Co2+). Furthermore, because of the structural similarities among transitions metals, these proteins can also transport non-physiological substrates (Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Au+, Ag+). P1B-type ATPases have six or eight transmembrane segments (TM) with metal coordinating amino acids in three core TMs flanking the cytoplasmic domain responsible for ATP binding and hydrolysis. In addition, regulatory cytoplasmic metal binding domains are present in most P1B-type ATPases. Central to the transport mechanism is the binding of the uncomplexed metal to these proteins when cytoplasmic substrates are bound to chaperone and chelating molecules. Metal binding to regulatory sites is through a reversible metal exchange among chaperones and cytoplasmic metal binding domains. In contrast, the chaperone-mediated metal delivery to transport sites appears as a largely irreversible event. P1B-ATPases have two overarching physiological functions: to maintain cytoplasmic metal levels and to provide metals for the periplasmic assembly of metalloproteins. Recent studies have shown that both roles are critical for bacterial virulence, since P1B-ATPases appear key to overcome high phagosomal metal levels and are required for the assembly of periplasmic and secreted metalloproteins that are essential for survival in extreme oxidant environments. PMID:21999638

  15. Active Detergent-solubilized H+,K+-ATPase Is a Monomer*

    PubMed Central

    Dach, Ingrid; Olesen, Claus; Signor, Luca; Nissen, Poul; le Maire, Marc; Møller, Jesper V.; Ebel, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The H+,K+-ATPase pumps protons or hydronium ions and is responsible for the acidification of the gastric fluid. It is made up of an α-catalytic and a β-glycosylated subunit. The relation between cation translocation and the organization of the protein in the membrane are not well understood. We describe here how pure and functionally active pig gastric H+,K+-ATPase with an apparent Stokes radius of 6.3 nm can be obtained after solubilization with the non-ionic detergent C12E8, followed by exchange of C12E8 with Tween 20 on a Superose 6 column. Mass spectroscopy indicates that the β-subunit bears an excess mass of 9 kDa attributable to glycosylation. From chemical analysis, there are 0.25 g of phospholipids and around 0.024 g of cholesterol bound per g of protein. Analytical ultracentrifugation shows one main complex, sedimenting at s20,w = 7.2 ± 0.1 S, together with minor amounts of irreversibly aggregated material. From these data, a buoyant molecular mass is calculated, corresponding to an H+,K+-ATPase α,β-protomer of 147.3 kDa. Complementary sedimentation velocity with deuterated water gives a picture of an α,β-protomer with 0.9–1.4 g/g of bound detergent and lipids and a reasonable frictional ratio of 1.5, corresponding to a Stokes radius of 7.1 nm. An α2,β2 dimer is rejected by the data. Light scattering coupled to gel filtration confirms the monomeric state of solubilized H+,K+-ATPase. Thus, α,β H+,K+-ATPase is active at least in detergent and may plausibly function as a monomer, as has been established for other P-type ATPases, Ca2+-ATPase and Na+,K+-ATPase. PMID:23055529

  16. Fabrication of p-type ZnO nanofibers by electrospinning for field-effect and rectifying devices

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shuai; Liu, Shu-Liang; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Liu, Yi-Chen; Long, Yun-Ze; Zhang, Hong-Di; Zhang, Jun-Cheng; Han, Wen-Peng

    2014-01-27

    Ce-doped p-type ZnO nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning and followed calcinations. The surface morphology, elementary composition, and crystal structure of the nanofibers were investigated. The field effect curve confirms that the resultant Ce-doped ZnO nanofibers are p-type semiconductor. A p-n heterojunction device consisting of Ce-doped p-type ZnO nanofibers and n-type indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film was fabricated on a piece of quartz substrate. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of the p-n heterojunction device shows typical rectifying diode behavior. The turn-on voltage appears at about 7 V under the forward bias and the reverse current is impassable.

  17. The purification and subunit structure of a membrane-bound ATPase from the Archaebacterium Halobacterium saccharovorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Kristjansson, Hordur; Altekar, Wijaya

    1987-01-01

    The procedure for the isolation and 70-fold purification of membrane-bound cold-sensitive ATPase from Halobacterium saccharovorum is described. Upon exposure to cold, the enzyme dissociates into two major subunits, I (87 kDa) and II (60 kDa), and two minor subunits, III (29 kDa) and IV (20 kDa). The stoichiometry of the enzyme is proposed to be I2.II2.III.IV; the molecular mass of such a complex would be 343 kDa, which is in good agreement with the value of 350 kDa obtained by gel filtration. The structure of the ATPase from H. saccharovorum makes it unlike any previously described ATPase.

  18. p-type conduction in sputtered indium oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Stankiewicz, Jolanta; Alcala, Rafael; Villuendas, Francisco

    2010-05-10

    We report p-type conductivity in intrinsic indium oxide (IO) films deposited by magnetron sputtering on fused quartz substrates under oxygen-rich ambient. Highly oriented (111) films were studied by x-ray diffraction, optical absorption, and Hall effect measurements. We fabricated p-n homojunctions on these films.

  19. Development of improved p-type silicon-germanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclane, George; Wood, Charles; Vandersande, Jan; Raag, Valvo; Heshmatpour, Ben

    1987-01-01

    Annealing experiments in the temperature range 1100-1275 C have been performed on p-type Si(0.8)Ge(0.2) samples with BP, B(6.5)P, and GaSb material additives. Both electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient generally decrease for these samples as annealing temperature is increased, with thermoelectric power factor sometimes being improved by annealing.

  20. High carrier concentration p-type transparent conducting oxide films

    DOEpatents

    Yan, Yanfa; Zhang, Shengbai

    2005-06-21

    A p-type transparent conducting oxide film is provided which is consisting essentially of, the transparent conducting oxide and a molecular doping source, the oxide and doping source grown under conditions sufficient to deliver the doping source intact onto the oxide.

  1. Characterization and expression of two genes encoding isoforms of a putative Na, K-ATPase in the chytridiomycete Blastocladiella emersonii.

    PubMed

    Fietto, Luciano Gomes; Pugliese, Luciana; Gomes, Suely Lopes

    2002-06-01

    A P-type ATPase gene (BePAT1) from the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii, which surprisingly showed high similarity with the alpha-subunit of Na, K-ATPases from animal cells, has been reported recently [Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1383 (1998) 183]. In the present study, we describe the characterization of a second gene, denominated BePAT2, and show that these two genes have a different intron-exon structure but encode putative proteins with greater than 90% amino acid identity. Northern blot and multiplex reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays have revealed that BePAT1 and BePAT2 genes have a non-coordinate, developmentally regulated expression during B. emersonii life cycle. Phosphoenzyme formation experiments using the immunopurified enzymes have indicated the presence of a Na, K-ATPase-like activity. Furthermore, immunofluorescence studies using B. emersonii zoospores localized the ATPases on the plasma membrane of these cells. PMID:12031485

  2. Synthesis of p-type GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Wook; Park, Youn Ho; Kim, Ilsoo; Park, Tae-Eon; Kwon, Byoung Wook; Choi, Won Kook; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2013-08-01

    GaN has been utilized in optoelectronics for two decades. However, p-type doping still remains crucial for realization of high performance GaN optoelectronics. Though Mg has been used as a p-dopant, its efficiency is low due to the formation of Mg-H complexes and/or structural defects in the course of doping. As a potential alternative p-type dopant, Cu has been recognized as an acceptor impurity for GaN. Herein, we report the fabrication of Cu-doped GaN nanowires (Cu:GaN NWs) and their p-type characteristics. The NWs were grown vertically via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism using a Au/Ni catalyst. Electrical characterization using a nanowire-field effect transistor (NW-FET) showed that the NWs exhibited n-type characteristics. However, with further annealing, the NWs showed p-type characteristics. A homo-junction structure (consisting of annealed Cu:GaN NW/n-type GaN thin film) exhibited p-n junction characteristics. A hybrid organic light emitting diode (OLED) employing the annealed Cu:GaN NWs as a hole injection layer (HIL) also demonstrated current injected luminescence. These results suggest that Cu can be used as a p-type dopant for GaN NWs.GaN has been utilized in optoelectronics for two decades. However, p-type doping still remains crucial for realization of high performance GaN optoelectronics. Though Mg has been used as a p-dopant, its efficiency is low due to the formation of Mg-H complexes and/or structural defects in the course of doping. As a potential alternative p-type dopant, Cu has been recognized as an acceptor impurity for GaN. Herein, we report the fabrication of Cu-doped GaN nanowires (Cu:GaN NWs) and their p-type characteristics. The NWs were grown vertically via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism using a Au/Ni catalyst. Electrical characterization using a nanowire-field effect transistor (NW-FET) showed that the NWs exhibited n-type characteristics. However, with further annealing, the NWs showed p-type characteristics. A homo

  3. The sarcoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase: design of a perfect chemi-osmotic pump.

    PubMed

    Møller, Jesper V; Olesen, Claus; Winther, Anne-Marie L; Nissen, Poul

    2010-11-01

    The sarcoplasmic (SERCA 1a) Ca2+-ATPase is a membrane protein abundantly present in skeletal muscles where it functions as an indispensable component of the excitation-contraction coupling, being at the expense of ATP hydrolysis involved in Ca2+/H+ exchange with a high thermodynamic efficiency across the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. The transporter serves as a prototype of a whole family of cation transporters, the P-type ATPases, which in addition to Ca2+ transporting proteins count Na+, K+-ATPase and H+, K+-, proton- and heavy metal transporting ATPases as prominent members. The ability in recent years to produce and analyze at atomic (2·3-3 Å) resolution 3D-crystals of Ca2+-transport intermediates of SERCA 1a has meant a breakthrough in our understanding of the structural aspects of the transport mechanism. We describe here the detailed construction of the ATPase in terms of one membraneous and three cytosolic domains held together by a central core that mediates coupling between Ca2+-transport and ATP hydrolysis. During turnover, the pump is present in two different conformational states, E1 and E2, with a preference for the binding of Ca2+ and H+, respectively. We discuss how phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of these conformational states with cytosolic, occluded or luminally exposed cation-binding sites are able to convert the chemical energy derived from ATP hydrolysis into an electrochemical gradient of Ca2+ across the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. In conjunction with these basic reactions which serve as a structural framework for the transport function of other P-type ATPases as well, we also review the role of the lipid phase and the regulatory and thermodynamic aspects of the transport mechanism. PMID:20809990

  4. Na(+)-, ouabain-, Ca(2+)-, and thapsigargin-sensitive ATPase activity expressed in chimeras between the calcium and the sodium pump alpha subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, T; Lemas, M V; Takeyasu, K

    1994-01-01

    Using the chicken sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ (SERCA)-ATPase as a parental molecule and replacing various portions with the corresponding portions of the chicken Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit, Ca2+/thapsigargin- and Na+/ouabain-sensitive domains critical for these P-type ATPase activities were identified. In the chimera, [n/c]CC, the amino-terminal amino acids Met-1 to Asp-162 of the SERCA (isoform 1) (SERCA1) ATPase were replaced with the corresponding portion (Met-1-Asp-200) of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit. In the chimera CC[c/n], the carboxyl-terminal amino acids (Ser-830 to COOH) of the SERCA1 ATPase were replaced with the corresponding segment (Leu-861 to COOH) of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit, and in the chimera CNC, the middle part (Gly-354-Lys-712) of the SERCA1 ATPase was exchanged with the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit (Gly-378-Lys-724). None of the chimeric molecules exhibited any detectable ouabain-sensitive Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity, but they did exhibit thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+)-ATPase activity. Therefore, the segments Ile-163-Gly-354 and Lys-712-Ser-830 of the SERCA1 ATPase are sufficient for Ca2+ and thapsigargin sensitivity. The SERCA1-ATPase activity of [n/c]CC, but not of CCC, CNC, or CC[c/n], was further stimulated by addition of Na+ in the assay medium containing Ca2+. This additional stimulation of SERCA1-ATPase activity by Na+ was abolished when the amino-terminal region (Met-1-Leu-69) of [n/c]CC was deleted ([delta n/c]CC). In the absence of Na+, the SERCA1-ATPase activity of [n/c]CC was inhibited by ouabain, and, in the presence of Na+, its activity was stimulated by this drug. On the other hand, the ATPase activity of [delta n/c]CC was not affected by ouabain, although [delta n/c]CC can still bind [3H]ouabain. These results suggest that a distinct Na(+)-sensitive domain (Na+ sensor) located within the restricted amino-terminal region (Met-1-Leu-69) of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit regulates ATPase

  5. On archaebacterial ATPase from Halobacterium saccharovorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristjansson, H.; Ponnamperuma, C.; Hochstein, L.; Altekar, W.

    1984-01-01

    The energy transducing ATPase from Halobacterium saccharovorum was studied in order to define the origin of energy transducing systems. The ATPase required high salt concentration (4M NaCl) for activity; activity was rapidly lost when NaCl was below 1 Molar. At low salt concentration, the membrane bound ATPase activity could be stabilized in presence of spermine. However, following solubilization spermine was ineffective. Furthermore, F1 ATPase activity was stabilized by ammonium sulfate even when the NaCl concentration was less than 1 Molar. These studies suggest that stabilization by hydrophobic interactions preceded ionic ones in the evolution of the energy transducing ATPases.

  6. CELLULAR MULTITASKING: THE DUAL ROLE OF HUMAN CU-ATPASES IN COFACTOR DELIVERY AND INTRACELLULAR COPPER BALANCE

    PubMed Central

    Lutsenko, Svetlana; Gupta, Arnab; Burkhead, Jason L.; Zuzel, Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Summary The human copper-transporting ATPases (Cu-ATPases) are essential for dietary copper uptake, normal development and function of the CNS, and regulation of copper homeostasis in the body. In a cell, Cu-ATPases maintain the intracellular concentration of copper by transporting copper into intracellular exocytic vesicles. In addition, these P-type ATPases mediate delivery of copper to copper-dependent enzymes in the secretory pathway and in specialized cell compartments such as secretory granules or melanosomes. The multiple functions of human Cu-ATPase necessitate complex regulation of these transporters that is mediated through the presence of regulatory domains in their structure, posttranslational modification and intracellular trafficking, as well as interactions with the copper chaperone Atox1 and other regulatory molecules. In this review, we summarize the current information on the function and regulatory mechanisms acting on human Cu-ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B. Brief comparison with the Cu-ATPase orthologues from other species is included. PMID:18534184

  7. Identification of a Region of the Polypeptide Chain of Na,K-ATPase α-Subunit Interacting with 67-kDa Melittin-Like Protein.

    PubMed

    Kamanina, Yu V; Klimanova, E A; Dergousova, E A; Petrushanko, I Yu; Lopina, O D

    2016-03-01

    It was shown earlier that a 67-kDa protein purified from mouse kidney using polyclonal antibodies against melittin (a peptide from bee venom) interacted with Na,K-ATPase from rabbit kidney. In this study, a 43-kDa proteolytic fragment of Na,K-ATPase α-subunit interacting with the 67-kDa melittin-like protein was found. The α-subunit was hydrolyzed by trypsin in the presence of 0.5 mM ouabain (E2-conformation of Na,K-ATPase). A proteolytic fragment interacting with the 67-kDa melittin-like protein that was identified by mass-spectrometry is a region of the cytoplasmic domain of Na,K-ATPase α-subunit located between amino acid residues 591 and 775. The fragment includes a conservative DPPRA motif that occurs in many P-type ATPases. It was shown earlier that this motif of H,K-ATPase from gastric mucosa binds to melittin. We suggest that namely this motif of P-type ATPases is able to interact with proteins containing melittin-like modules. PMID:27262194

  8. Thermoelectric properties of gallium-doped p-type germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohishi, Yuji; Takarada, Sho; Aikebaier, Yusufu; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Miyazaki, Yoshinobu; Uchida, Noriyuki; Tada, Tetsuya

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the temperature-dependent thermoelectric properties of p-type single-crystal Ge, which is a useful material for thermoelectric applications owing to its significantly high carrier mobility, were investigated. The thermoelectric properties of Ga-doped (5.7 × 1016, 3.4 × 1018, and 1.0 × 1019 cm-3) p-type single-crystal Ge were measured from room temperature to 770 K. The sample with a carrier concentration of 1.0 × 1019 cm-3 showed the highest thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, over the entire measured temperature range. The maximum ZT value was 0.06 at 650 K. A theoretical model based on the Boltzmann transport equation with relaxation-time approximation was developed and quantitatively reproduced the experimentally observed data. The optimal impurity concentration predicted by this model was 3 × 1019 cm-3 at 300 K and increased with temperature.

  9. p type doping of zinc oxide by arsenic ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Braunstein, G.; Muraviev, A.; Saxena, H.; Dhere, N.; Richter, V.; Kalish, R.

    2005-11-07

    p type doping of polycrystalline ZnO thin films, by implantation of arsenic ions, is demonstrated. The approach consisted of carrying out the implantations at liquid-nitrogen temperature ({approx}-196 deg. C), followed by a rapid in situ heating of the sample, at 560 deg. C for 10 min, and ex situ annealing at 900 deg. C for 45 min in flowing oxygen. p type conductivity with a hole concentration of 2.5x10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} was obtained using this approach, following implantation of 150 keV 5x10{sup 14} As/cm{sup 2}. A conventional room-temperature implantation of 1x10{sup 15} As/cm{sup 2}, followed by the same ex situ annealing, resulted in n type conductivity with a carrier concentration of 1.7x10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}.

  10. P-type conductivity in annealed strontium titanate

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Poole, Violet M.; Corolewski, Caleb D.; McCluskey, Matthew D.

    2015-12-17

    In this study, Hall-effect measurements indicate p-type conductivity in bulk, single-crystal strontium titanate (SrTiO3, or STO) samples that were annealed at 1200°C. Room temperature mobilities above 100 cm2/Vs were measured, an order of magnitude higher than those for electrons (5-10 cm2/Vs). Average hole densities were in the 109-1010 cm-3 range, consistent with a deep acceptor.

  11. Anodic etching of p-type cubic silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, G. L.; Fekade, K.; Wongchotigul, K.

    1992-01-01

    p-Type cubic silicon carbide was anodically etched using an electrolyte of HF:HCl:H2O. The etching depth was determined versus time with a fixed current density of 96.4 mA/sq cm. It was found that the etching was very smooth and very uniform. An etch rate of 22.7 nm/s was obtained in a 1:1:50 HF:HCl:H2O electrolyte.

  12. X, E, M, and P-Type Asteroid Spectral Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. E.; Rivkin, A. S.; Bus, S. J.; Sanders, J.

    2003-05-01

    What are the X-types made of? How would knowledge of their composition change our picture of the geological structure of the asteroid regions? X-types are important in the main belt, yet we do not understand their composition or meteorite linkage. This is an outstanding problem in asteroid-meteorite studies, because X-types comprise approximately 20% of the inner main belt (Tholen and Barucci 1989; Bus 1999). We have conducted a program of infrared (0.8-2.5microns) observations aimed at determining mineralogy without albedo information. Because X-types are spectrally like E, M, and P-type asteroids, we observed 18 X-types, 5 E-types, 8 M-types, and 4 P-types. This is the first focused study of XEMP asteroids. In this paper, we present a compositional analysis of the new spectral data. What we call XEMPs are asteroids identified as ambiguous on the basis of their visible spectral properties only (Zellner et al. 1985; Tholen 1984; Bus and Binzel 2002). By convention (Bowell et al. 1978; Tholen and Barucci 1989), X-types with measured geometric albedos are classified into E, M, or P-types, where E-types (designated ``E" based on their possible link with enstatite meteorites) are high-albedo objects, P-types are low-albedo objects (there are no meteorite analogs for these objects), and M-types (designated ``M" based on their possible link with metallic meteorites) are intermediate. Bus and Binzel (2002) found subtle features in X-class spectra in a high resolution survey. We have regrouped XEMP spectra for a reanalysis of the extended wavelength coverage now available (0.3-2.5 microns). When continuum slope is removed, we find distinct 0.9 micron bands at the level of 2-5% in many of our XEMP objects. We also find consistent wavelength maxima near 1.5 microns, and hints of 2.0 micron bands in some objects. Our preliminary findings suggest that new mineralogy-based groupings may be called for, breaking down the old albedo-based E, M, and P-type designations. We

  13. Relationship of the Membrane ATPase from Halobacterium saccharovorum to Vacuolar ATPases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga; Bowman, Emma J.; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1991-01-01

    Polyclonal antiserum against subunit A (67 kDa) of the vacuolar ATPase from Neurospora crassa reacted with subunit I (87 kDa) from a membrane ATPase of the extremely halophilic archaebacterium Halobacterium saccharovorum. The halobacterial ATPase was inhibited by nitrate and N-ethylmaleimide; the extent of the latter inhibition was diminished in the presence of adenosine di- or triphosphates. 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan in- hibited the hatobacterial ATPase also in a nucleotide- protectable manner; the bulk of inhibitor was associated with subunit II (60 kDa). The data suggested that this halobacterial ATPase may have conserved structural features from both the vacuotar and the F-type ATPases.

  14. Relationship of the membrane ATPase from Halobacterium saccharovorum to vacuolar ATPases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga; Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Bowman, Emma J.

    1991-01-01

    Polyclonal antiserum against subunit A (67 kDa) of the vacuolar ATPase from Neurospora crassa reacted with subunit I (87 kDa) from a membrane ATPase of the extremely halophilic archaebacterium Halobacterium saccharovorum. The halobacterial ATPase was inhibited by nitrate and N-ethylmaleimide; the extent of the latter inhibition was diminished in the presence of adenosine di- or triphosphates. 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan inhibited the halobacterial ATPase also in a nucleotide-protectable manner; the bulk of inhibitor was associated with subunit II (60 kDa). The data suggest that this halobacterial ATPase may have conserved structural features from both the vacuolar and the F-type ATPases.

  15. Regulation of the plasma membrane proton pump (H(+)-ATPase) by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Miyoshi; Gray, William M; Sussman, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    In plants and fungi, energetics at the plasma membrane is provided by a large protonmotive force (PMF) generated by the family of P-type ATPases specialized for proton transport (commonly called PM H(+)-ATPases or, in Arabidopsis, AHAs for Arabidopsis H(+)-ATPases). Studies have demonstrated that this 100-kDa protein is essential for plant growth and development. Posttranslational modifications of the H(+)-ATPase play crucial roles in its regulation. Phosphorylation of several Thr and Ser residues within the carboxy terminal regulatory domain composed of ∼100 amino acids change in response to environmental stimuli, endogenous hormones, and nutrient conditions. Recently developed mass spectrometric technologies provide a means to carefully quantify these changes in H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation at the different sites. These chemical modifications can then be genetically tested in planta by complementing the loss-of-function aha mutants with phosphomimetic mutations. Interestingly, recent data suggest that phosphatase-mediated changes in PM H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation are important in mediating auxin-regulated growth. Thus, as with another hormone (abscisic acid), dephosphorylation by phosphatases, rather than kinase mediated phosphorylation, may be an important focal point for regulation during plant signal transduction. Although interactions with other proteins have also been implicated in ATPase regulation, the very hydrophobic nature and high concentration of this polytopic protein presents special challenges in evaluating the biological significance of these interactions. Only by combining biochemical and genetic experiments can we attempt to meet these challenges to understand the essential molecular details by which this protein functions in planta. PMID:26476298

  16. The promiscuous phosphomonoestearase activity of Archaeoglobus fulgidus CopA, a thermophilic Cu+ transport ATPase.

    PubMed

    Bredeston, Luis M; González Flecha, F Luis

    2016-07-01

    Membrane transport P-type ATPases display two characteristic enzymatic activities: a principal ATPase activity provides the driving force for ion transport across biological membranes, whereas a promiscuous secondary activity catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters. This last activity is usually denoted as the phosphatase activity of P-ATPases. In the present study, we characterize the phosphatase activity of the Cu(+)-transport ATPase from Archaeglobus fulgidus (Af-CopA) and compare it with the principal ATPase activity. Our results show that the phosphatase turnover number was 20 times higher than that corresponding to the ATPase activity, but it is compensated by a high value of Km, producing a less efficient catalysis for pNPP. This secondary activity is enhanced by Mg(2+) (essential activator) and phospholipids (non-essential activator), and inhibited by salts and Cu(+). Transition state analysis of the catalyzed and noncatalyzed hydrolysis of pNPP indicates that Af-CopA enhances the reaction rates by a factor of 10(5) (ΔΔG(‡)=38 kJ/mol) mainly by reducing the enthalpy of activation (ΔΔH(‡)=30 kJ/mol), whereas the entropy of activation is less negative on the enzyme than in solution. For the ATPase activity, the decrease in the enthalpic component of the barrier is higher (ΔΔH(‡)=39 kJ/mol) and the entropic component is small on both the enzyme and in solution. These results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in the transference of the phosphoryl group of p-nitrophenyl phosphate and ATP. PMID:27086711

  17. "Oxygen Sensing" by Na,K-ATPase: These Miraculous Thiols.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Anna; Petrushanko, Irina Y; Hernansanz-Agustín, Pablo; Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Control over the Na,K-ATPase function plays a central role in adaptation of the organisms to hypoxic and anoxic conditions. As the enzyme itself does not possess O2 binding sites its "oxygen-sensitivity" is mediated by a variety of redox-sensitive modifications including S-glutathionylation, S-nitrosylation, and redox-sensitive phosphorylation. This is an overview of the current knowledge on the plethora of molecular mechanisms tuning the activity of the ATP-consuming Na,K-ATPase to the cellular metabolic activity. Recent findings suggest that oxygen-derived free radicals and H2O2, NO, and oxidized glutathione are the signaling messengers that make the Na,K-ATPase "oxygen-sensitive." This very ancient signaling pathway targeting thiols of all three subunits of the Na,K-ATPase as well as redox-sensitive kinases sustains the enzyme activity at the "optimal" level avoiding terminal ATP depletion and maintaining the transmembrane ion gradients in cells of anoxia-tolerant species. We acknowledge the complexity of the underlying processes as we characterize the sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production in hypoxic cells, and identify their targets, the reactive thiol groups which, upon modification, impact the enzyme activity. Structured accordingly, this review presents a summary on (i) the sources of free radical production in hypoxic cells, (ii) localization of regulatory thiols within the Na,K-ATPase and the role reversible thiol modifications play in responses of the enzyme to a variety of stimuli (hypoxia, receptors' activation) (iii) redox-sensitive regulatory phosphorylation, and (iv) the role of fine modulation of the Na,K-ATPase function in survival success under hypoxic conditions. The co-authors attempted to cover all the contradictions and standing hypotheses in the field and propose the possible future developments in this dynamic area of research, the importance of which is hard to overestimate. Better understanding of the processes

  18. Single electron transistor with P-type sidewall spacer gates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Han; Li, Dong Hua; Lee, Joung-Eob; Kang, Kwon-Chil; Kim, Kyungwan; Park, Byung-Gook

    2011-07-01

    A single-electron transistor (SET) is one of the promising solutions to overcome the scaling limit of the Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET). Up to now, various kinds of SETs are being proposed and SETs with a dual gate (DG) structure using an electrical potential barrier have been demonstrated for room temperature operation. To operate DG-SETs, however, extra bias of side gates is necessary. It causes new problems that the electrode for side gates and the extra bias for electrical barrier increase the complexity in circuit design and operation power consumption, respectively. For the reason, a new mechanism using work function (WF) difference is applied to operate a SET at room temperature by three electrodes. Its structure consists of an undoped active region, a control gate, n-doped source/drain electrodes, and metal/silicide or p-type silicon side gates, and a SET with metal/silicide gates or p-type silicon gates forms tunnel barriers induced by work function between an undoped channel and grounded side gates. Via simulation, the effectiveness of the new mechanism is confirmed through various silicide materials that have different WF values. Furthermore, by considering the realistic conditions of the fabrication process, SET with p-type sidewall spacer gates was designed, and its brief fabrication process was introduced. The characteristics of its electrical barrier and the controllability of its control gate were also confirmed via simulation. Finally, a single-hole transistor with n-type sidewall spacer gates was designed. PMID:22121580

  19. Bi-Se doped with Cu, p-type semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath; Phok, Sovannary; Parilla, Philip Anthony

    2013-08-20

    A Bi--Se doped with Cu, p-type semiconductor, preferably used as an absorber material in a photovoltaic device. Preferably the semiconductor has at least 20 molar percent Cu. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor comprises at least 28 molar percent of Cu. In one embodiment, the semiconductor comprises a molar percentage of Cu and Bi whereby the molar percentage of Cu divided by the molar percentage of Bi is greater than 1.2. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor is manufactured as a thin film having a thickness less than 600 nm.

  20. P-type conductivity in annealed strontium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, Violet M.; Corolewski, Caleb D.; McCluskey, Matthew D.

    2015-12-17

    In this study, Hall-effect measurements indicate p-type conductivity in bulk, single-crystal strontium titanate (SrTiO3, or STO) samples that were annealed at 1200°C. Room temperature mobilities above 100 cm2/Vs were measured, an order of magnitude higher than those for electrons (5-10 cm2/Vs). Average hole densities were in the 109-1010 cm-3 range, consistent with a deep acceptor.

  1. P-type conductivity in annealed strontium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, Violet M.; Corolewski, Caleb D.; McCluskey, Matthew D.

    2015-12-15

    Hall-effect measurements indicate p-type conductivity in bulk, single-crystal strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}, or STO) samples that were annealed at 1200°C. Room-temperature mobilities above 100 cm{sup 2}/V s were measured, an order of magnitude higher than those for electrons (5-10 cm{sup 2}/V s). Average hole densities were in the 10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} range, consistent with a deep acceptor.

  2. STRENGTH OF N- AND P-TYPE SKUTTERUDITES

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Ragan, Meredith E; Strong, Kevin T; Ritt, Patrick J; Wang, Hsin; Salvador, James R.; Yang, Jihui

    2010-01-01

    The failure stress distributions of developmental Yb0.27Co4Sb12.08 (n-type) and Ce0.86Co1.02Fe2.98Sb11.97 (p type) skutterudites were measured as a function of temperature. These thermoelectric materials are attractive candidates for use in devices under consideration for power generation sourced from intermediate to high-temperature waste heat recovery. A self-aligning, high-temperature-capable, three-point-bend fixture was developed and used to test specimens whose cross-sectional dimensions were equivalent to those typically used in thermoelectric device legs. The strength of the n-type skutterudite was approximately 115 MPa and independent of temperature to 500 C. The strength of the p-type skutterudite was equivalent to that of the n type material and independent of temperature to at least 200 C, but its strength dropped by ~20% at 400 C. Compared to other skutterudites, the herein tested compositions have equivalent or even superior strength.

  3. Towards High Performance p-Type Transparent Conducting Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, B.; Ode, A.; Readey, D.; Perkins, J.; Parilla, P.; Teplin, C.; Kaydanova, T.; Miedaner, A.; Curtis, C.; Martinson, A.; Coutts, T.; Ginley, D.; Hosono, H.

    2003-05-01

    P-type transparent conductive oxides would have potential applications in photovoltaics, transparent electronics and organic opto-electronics. In this paper we present results on the synthesis of Cu2SrO2, a p-type transparent conducting oxide, by a chemical solution route as well as the conventional pulse laser deposition (PLD) method. For Cu2SrO2 by the chemical solution route, samples were made by spraying deposition on quartz substrates using an aqueous solution of Copper formate and Strontium acetate. Phase pure materials were obtained by an optimum two stage annealing sequence. This initial work led to the development of good quality homogeneous films by a related sol-gel approach. We have also used pulsed laser depostion (PLD) to deposit Cu2SrO2 and CuInO2 thin films on quartz substrates. We have obtained improved conductivities in the CuInO2 thin films over previously published work. We present details on the nature of the relationship of process parameters to the opto-electronic properties of the films.

  4. Substrate trajectory through phospholipid-transporting P4-ATPases.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    A difference in the lipid composition between the two leaflets of the same membrane is a relatively simple instance of lipid compositional heterogeneity. The large activation energy barrier for transbilayer movement for some (but not all) membrane lipids creates a regime governed by active transport processes. An early step in eukaryote evolution was the development of a capacity for generating transbilayer compositional heterogeneity far from equilibrium by directly tapping energy from the ATP pool. The mechanism of the P-type ATPases that create lipid asymmetry is well understood in terms of ATP hydrolysis, but the trajectory taken by the phospholipid substrate through the enzyme is a matter of current active research. There are currently three different models for this trajectory, all with support by mutation/activity measurements and analogies with known atomic structures. PMID:25233416

  5. Investigation of the optical and electrical properties of p-type porous GaAs structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghrouni, H.; Missaoui, A.; Hannachi, R.; Beji, L.

    2013-12-01

    Porous GaAs layers have been formed by electrochemical anodic etching of (1 0 0) heavily doped p-type GaAs substrate in a HF:C2H5OH solution. The surface morphology of porous GaAs has been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Nano-structural nature of the porous layer has been demonstrated by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and confirmed by AFM. An estimation of the main size of the GaAs crystallites obtained from effective mass theory and based on PL data was close to the lowest value obtained from the AFM results. The porous p-GaAs samples are characterised by spectroscopic ellipsometry and modulation spectroscopy techniques. The objective of this study is to determine the porosity, refractive index, and thickness. The porosity of GaAs determined by atomic force microscopy confirmed by the value obtained from the spectroscopic ellipsometry. In fact the current-voltage I(V) characteristics of metal-semiconductor Au/p-GaAs are investigated and compared with Au/p-porous GaAs structures. From the forward bias I(V) characteristics of these devices, the main electrical parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height, and series resistance have been determined.

  6. Laser induced lifetime degradation in p-type crystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Ametowobla, M.; Bilger, G.; Koehler, J. R.; Werner, J. H.

    2012-06-01

    Pulsed, green laser irradiation of uncoated p-type silicon leads to a significant reduction of the effective minority carrier lifetime. The reason for the lifetime drop lies in the introduction of recombination centres into the laser melted and recrystallized surface layer, leading to a low local minority carrier lifetime {tau} Almost-Equal-To 10 ns inside this surface layer. The laser treatment introduces the impurities oxygen, carbon and nitrogen into the silicon and further leads to an n-type doping of the surface layer. There are strong indications that these impurities are responsible for the observed n-type doping, as well as the lifetime reduction after irradiation. Both effects are removed by thermal annealing. An estimate shows that the low local lifetime does nevertheless not affect the performance of industrial or contacted selective solar cell emitter structures.

  7. Laser induced lifetime degradation in p-type crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ametowobla, M.; Bilger, G.; Köhler, J. R.; Werner, J. H.

    2012-06-01

    Pulsed, green laser irradiation of uncoated p-type silicon leads to a significant reduction of the effective minority carrier lifetime. The reason for the lifetime drop lies in the introduction of recombination centres into the laser melted and recrystallized surface layer, leading to a low local minority carrier lifetime τ ≈ 10 ns inside this surface layer. The laser treatment introduces the impurities oxygen, carbon and nitrogen into the silicon and further leads to an n-type doping of the surface layer. There are strong indications that these impurities are responsible for the observed n-type doping, as well as the lifetime reduction after irradiation. Both effects are removed by thermal annealing. An estimate shows that the low local lifetime does nevertheless not affect the performance of industrial or contacted selective solar cell emitter structures.

  8. Ferromagnetic states of p-type silicon doped with Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunusov, Z. A.; Yuldashev, Sh. U.; Igamberdiev, Kh. T.; Kwon, Y. H.; Kang, T. W.; Bakhadyrkhanov, M. K.; Isamov, S. B.; Zikrillaev, N. F.

    2014-05-01

    In this work, the ferromagnetic states of Mn-doped p-type silicon samples were investigated. Two different types of ferromagnetic states have been observed in Si (Mn, B). The samples with a relatively high concentration of Mn revealed a ferromagnetic state with a Curie temperature above room temperature, and that ferromagnetism was due to the Mn x B y ferromagnetic clusters. The samples with a moderate concentration of Mn at low temperatures revealed a ferromagnetic state that was mediated by carriers (holes). The samples demonstrated the anomalous Hall effect at temperatures below 100 K and had a negative magneto-resistivity peak at a temperature close to the Curie temperature. The thermal diffusivity measurements demonstrated the existence of a second-order phase transition in the samples with a moderate Mn concentration. The specific heat's critical exponent α = 0.5, determined from the thermal diffusivity measurements, confirmed the long-range nature of the magnetic exchange interaction in these samples.

  9. p-Type NiO Hybrid Visible Photodetector.

    PubMed

    Mallows, John; Planells, Miquel; Thakare, Vishal; Bhosale, Reshma; Ogale, Satishchandra; Robertson, Neil

    2015-12-23

    A novel hybrid visible-light photodetector was created using a planar p-type inorganic NiO layer in a junction with an organic electron acceptor layer. The effect of different oxygen pressures on formation of the NiO layer by pulsed laser deposition shows that higher pressure increases the charge carrier density of the film and lowers the dark current in the device. The addition of a monolayer of small molecules containing conjugated π systems and carboxyl groups at the device interface was also investigated and with correct alignment of the energy levels improves the device performance with respect to the quantum efficiency, responsivity, and photogeneration. The thickness of the organic layer was also optimized for the device, giving a responsivity of 1.54 × 10(-2) A W(-1) in 460 nm light. PMID:26654105

  10. A P4-ATPase gene GbPATP of cotton confers chilling tolerance in plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingli; Guo, Shiwei; Lian, Ziyi; Chen, Fei; Yang, Yuwen; Chen, Tianzi; Ling, Xitie; Liu, Aiming; Wang, Rongfu; Zhang, Baolong

    2015-03-01

    Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are implicated in generating lipid asymmetry between the two lipid leaflets of the plasma membrane in Arabidopsis and are important for resistance to low temperatures, but the function of P4-ATPases in cotton remains unclear. In this study, we found using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis that the expression of the P4-ATPase gene GbPATP in cotton was induced at low temperatures. In addition, GbPATP-silenced cotton plants were more sensitive to low temperatures and exhibited greater malondialdehyde (MDA) content and lower catalase (CAT) activity than the control plants. GbPATP transgenic tobacco plants showed better chilling tolerance, had a lower MDA content and had higher CAT activity than wild-type plants under low-temperature treatment. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-GbPATP fusion protein was found to be localized to the cell plasma membrane. Collectively, the results suggest that GbPATP functions as a P4-ATPase and plays an important role in improving chilling tolerance in plant. PMID:25520408

  11. Leishmania amazonensis: characterization of an ouabain-insensitive Na+-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Pires, Vanessa Maria Pereira; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2008-02-01

    We characterized ouabain-insensitive Na+-ATPase activity present in the plasma membrane of Leishmania amazonensis and investigated its possible role in the growth of the parasite. An increase in Na+ concentration in the presence of 1mM ouabain, increased the ATPase activity with a V(max) of 154.1+/-13.5nmol Pi x h(-1) x mg(-1) and a K0.5 of 28.9+/-7.7mM. Furosemide and sodium orthovanadate inhibited the Na+-stimulated ATPase activity with an IC(50) of 270microM and 0.10microM, respectively. Furosemide inhibited the growth of L. amazonensis after 48h incubation, with maximal effect after 96h. The IC50 for furosemide was 840. On the other hand, ouabain (1mM) did not change the growth of the parasite. Taken together, these results show that L. amazonensis expresses a P-type, ouabain-insensitive Na+-ATPase that could be involved with the growth of the parasite. PMID:17825292

  12. Stabilisation of Na,K-ATPase structure by the cardiotonic steroid ouabain.

    PubMed

    Miles, Andrew J; Fedosova, Natalya U; Hoffmann, Søren V; Wallace, B A; Esmann, Mikael

    2013-05-31

    Cardiotonic steroids such as ouabain bind with high affinity to the membrane-bound cation-transporting P-type Na,K-ATPase, leading to complete inhibition of the enzyme. Using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy we show that the enzyme-ouabain complex is less susceptible to thermal denaturation (unfolding) than the ouabain-free enzyme, and this protection is observed with Na,K-ATPase purified from pig kidney as well as from shark rectal glands. It is also shown that detergent-solubilised preparations of Na,K-ATPase are stabilised by ouabain, which could account for the successful crystallisation of Na,K-ATPase in the ouabain-bound form. The secondary structure is not significantly affected by the binding of ouabain. Ouabain appears however, to induce a reorganization of the tertiary structure towards a more compact protein structure which is less prone to unfolding; recent crystal structures of the two enzymes are consistent with this interpretation. These circular dichroism spectroscopic studies in solution therefore provide complementary information to that provided by crystallography. PMID:23618866

  13. P type porous silicon resistivity and carrier transport

    SciTech Connect

    Ménard, S.; Fèvre, A.; Billoué, J.; Gautier, G.

    2015-09-14

    The resistivity of p type porous silicon (PS) is reported on a wide range of PS physical properties. Al/PS/Si/Al structures were used and a rigorous experimental protocol was followed. The PS porosity (P{sub %}) was found to be the major contributor to the PS resistivity (ρ{sub PS}). ρ{sub PS} increases exponentially with P{sub %}. Values of ρ{sub PS} as high as 1 × 10{sup 9} Ω cm at room temperature were obtained once P{sub %} exceeds 60%. ρ{sub PS} was found to be thermally activated, in particular, when the temperature increases from 30 to 200 °C, a decrease of three decades is observed on ρ{sub PS}. Based on these results, it was also possible to deduce the carrier transport mechanisms in PS. For P{sub %} lower than 45%, the conduction occurs through band tails and deep levels in the tissue surrounding the crystallites. When P{sub %} overpasses 45%, electrons at energy levels close to the Fermi level allow a hopping conduction from crystallite to crystallite to appear. This study confirms the potential of PS as an insulating material for applications such as power electronic devices.

  14. Electronic processes in uniaxially stressed p-type germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Dubon, O.D. Jr.

    1996-02-01

    Effect of uniaxial stress on acceptor-related electronic processes in Ge single crystals doped with Ga, Be, and Cu were studied by Hall and photo-Hall effect measurements in conjunction with infrared spectroscopy. Stress dependence of hole lifetime in p-type Ge single crystals is used as a test for competing models of non-radiative capture of holes by acceptors. Photo-Hall effect shows that hole lifetime in Ga- and Be-doped Ge increases by over one order of magnitude with uniaxial stress at liq. He temps. Photo-Hall of Ge:Be shows a stress-induced change in the temperature dependence of hole lifetime. This is consistent with observed increase of responsivity of Ge:Ga detectors with uniaxial stress. Electronic properties of Ge:Cu are shown to change dramatically with uniaxial stress; the results provide a first explanation for the performance of uniaxially stressed, Cu-diffused Ge:Ga detectors which display a high conductivity in absence of photon signal and therefore have poor sensitivity.

  15. Greyscale proton beam writing in p-type Gallium Arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diering, D.; Spemann, D.; Lenzner, J.; Müller, St.; Böntgen, T.; von Wenckstern, H.

    2013-07-01

    Proton beam writing (PBW) is a well known method for micromachining, e.g. of semiconductors. Up to now, only few indication is given on how the resulting structure height in micromachined semiconductors can be controlled by means of fluence variation. This approach for 3D-microstructuring, called Greyscale PBW, was already successfully demonstrated for negative photoresists. In this study (1 0 0) p-type Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) was irradiated with 2.28 MeV protons and fluences in the range from 1.2×1014 H+ cm-2 to 1.0×1018 H+ cm-2 at the ion beam laboratory LIPSION and subsequently electrochemically etched with 10%-KOH. A linear dependency of structure height on ion fluence was established. In this way, pyramid-like structures as well as concave-shaped structures could be created. GaAs showed a lateral anisotropic etch behaviour during the development step with preferential etching along the [0 1 1] directions. On some structures the surface roughness and the change of conductivity were investigated by atomic force and scanning capacitance microscopy, respectively. The rms roughness of the surface of the structures was 5.4 nm and 10.6 nm for a fluence of 7.8×1015 H+ cm-2 and 1.2×1017 H+ cm-2, respectively. We observed an increasing etching rate for fluences larger than 1016 H+ cm-2.

  16. (Ga,Fe)Sb: A p-type ferromagnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Nguyen Thanh; Anh, Le Duc; Tanaka, Masaaki; Hai, Pham Nam

    2014-09-29

    A p-type ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb (x = 3.9%–13.7%) has been grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs(001) substrates. Reflection high energy electron diffraction patterns during the MBE growth and X-ray diffraction spectra indicate that (Ga,Fe)Sb layers have the zinc-blende crystal structure without any other crystallographic phase of precipitates. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy characterizations indicate that (Ga,Fe)Sb has the zinc-blende band structure with spin-splitting induced by s,p-d exchange interactions. The magnetic field dependence of the MCD intensity and anomalous Hall resistance of (Ga,Fe)Sb show clear hysteresis, demonstrating the presence of ferromagnetic order. The Curie temperature (T{sub C}) increases with increasing x and reaches 140 K at x = 13.7%. The crystal structure analyses, magneto-transport, and magneto-optical properties indicate that (Ga,Fe)Sb is an intrinsic ferromagnetic semiconductor.

  17. Challenges in p-type Doping of CdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Jedidiah; Swain, Santosh; Lynn, Kelvin

    We have made progress in defect identification of arsenic and phosphorous doped CdTe to understand the self-compensation mechanism which will help improve minority bulk carrier lifetime and net acceptor density. Combining previous measurements of un-doped CdTe, we performed a systematic comparison of defects between different types of crystals and confirmed the defects impacting the doping efficiency. CdTe bulk crystals have been grown via vertical Bridgman based melt growth technique with varying arsenic and phosphorous dopant schemes to attain p-type material. Furnace temperature profiles were varied to influence dopant solubility. Large carrier densities have been reproducibly obtained from these boules indicating successful incorporation of dopants into the lattice. However, these values are orders of magnitude lower than theoretical solubility values. Infrared Microscopy has revealed a plethora of geometrically abnormal second phase defects and X-ray Fluorescence has been used to identify the elemental composition of these defects. We believe that dopants become incorporated into these second phase defects as Cd compounds which act to inhibit dopant solubility in the lattice.

  18. Vacuolar ATPase in Phagosome-Lysosome Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kissing, Sandra; Hermsen, Christina; Repnik, Urska; Nesset, Cecilie Kåsi; von Bargen, Kristine; Griffiths, Gareth; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Lee, Beth S.; Schwake, Michael; De Brabander, Jef; Haas, Albert; Saftig, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (v-ATPase) complex is instrumental in establishing and maintaining acidification of some cellular compartments, thereby ensuring their functionality. Recently it has been proposed that the transmembrane V0 sector of v-ATPase and its a-subunits promote membrane fusion in the endocytic and exocytic pathways independent of their acidification functions. Here, we tested if such a proton-pumping independent role of v-ATPase also applies to phagosome-lysosome fusion. Surprisingly, endo(lyso)somes in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking the V0 a3 subunit of the v-ATPase acidified normally, and endosome and lysosome marker proteins were recruited to phagosomes with similar kinetics in the presence or absence of the a3 subunit. Further experiments used macrophages with a knockdown of v-ATPase accessory protein 2 (ATP6AP2) expression, resulting in a strongly reduced level of the V0 sector of the v-ATPase. However, acidification appeared undisturbed, and fusion between latex bead-containing phagosomes and lysosomes, as analyzed by electron microscopy, was even slightly enhanced, as was killing of non-pathogenic bacteria by V0 mutant macrophages. Pharmacologically neutralized lysosome pH did not affect maturation of phagosomes in mouse embryonic cells or macrophages. Finally, locking the two large parts of the v-ATPase complex together by the drug saliphenylhalamide A did not inhibit in vitro and in cellulo fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes. Hence, our data do not suggest a fusion-promoting role of the v-ATPase in the formation of phagolysosomes. PMID:25903133

  19. The emerging structure of vacuolar ATPases.

    PubMed

    Drory, Omri; Nelson, Nathan

    2006-10-01

    Bioenergetics and physiology of primary pumps have been revitalized by new insights into the mechanism of energizing biomembranes. Structural information is becoming available, and the three-dimensional structure of F-ATPase is being resolved. The growing understanding of the fundamental mechanism of energy coupling may revolutionize our view of biological processes. The F- and V-ATPases (vacuolar-type ATPase) exhibit a common mechanical design in which nucleotide-binding on the catalytic sector, through a cycle of conformation changes, drives the transmembrane passage of protons by turning a membrane-embedded rotor. This motor can run in forward or reverse directions, hydrolyzing ATP as it pumps protons uphill or creating ATP as protons flow downhill. In contrast to F-ATPases, whose primary function in eukaryotic cells is to form ATP at the expense of the proton-motive force (pmf), V-ATPases function exclusively as an ATP-dependent proton pump. The pmf generated by V-ATPases in organelles and membranes of eukaryotic cells is utilized as a driving force for numerous secondary transport processes. V- and F-ATPases have similar structure and mechanism of action, and several of their subunits evolved from common ancestors. Electron microscopy studies of V-ATPase revealed its general structure at low resolution. Recently, several structures of V-ATPase subunits, solved by X-ray crystallography with atomic resolution, were published. This, together with electron microscopy low-resolution maps of the whole complex, and biochemistry cross-linking experiments, allows construction of a structural model for a part of the complex that may be used as a working hypothesis for future research. PMID:16990452

  20. Irradiation and annealing of p-type silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Alexander A.; Bogdanova, Elena V.; Grigor'eva, Maria V.; Lebedev, Sergey P.; Kozlovski, Vitaly V.

    2014-02-21

    The development of the technology of semiconductor devices based on silicon carbide and the beginning of their industrial manufacture have made increasingly topical studies of the radiation hardness of this material on the one hand and of the proton irradiation to form high-receptivity regions on the other hand. This paper reports on a study of the carrier removal rate (V{sub d}) in p-6H-SiC under irradiation with 8 MeV protons and of the conductivity restoration in radiation- compensated epitaxial layers of various p-type silicon carbide polytypes. V{sub d} was determined by analysis of capacitance-voltage characteristics and from results of Hall effect measurements. It was found that the complete compensation of samples with the initial value of Na - Nd ≈ 1.5 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} occurs at an irradiation dose of ∼1.1 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}. It is shown that specific features of the sublimation layer SiC (compared to CVD layers) are clearly manifested upon the gamma and electron irradiation and are hardly noticeable under the proton and neutron irradiation. It was also found that the radiation-induced compensation of SiC is retained after its annealing at ≤1000°C. The conductivity is almost completely restored at T ≥ 1200°C. This character of annealing of the radiation compensation is independent of a silicon carbide polytype and the starting doping level of the epitaxial layer. The complete annealing temperatures considerably exceed the working temperatures of SiC-based devices. It is shown that the radiation compensation is a promising method in the technology of high-temperature devices based on SiC.

  1. Characterization of vacuolar-ATPase and selective inhibition of vacuolar-H(+)-ATPase in osteoclasts

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, GuanFeng; Feng, HaoTian; Cai, YanLing; Qi, WeiLi; Kong, KangMei . E-mail: kangmeikong@21cn.com

    2007-06-15

    V-ATPase plays important roles in controlling the extra- and intra-cellular pH in eukaryotic cell, which is most crucial for cellular processes. V-ATPases are composed of a peripheral V{sub 1} domain responsible for ATP hydrolysis and integral V{sub 0} domain responsible for proton translocation. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells responsible for bone resorption and relate to many common lytic bone disorders such as osteoporosis, bone aseptic loosening, and tumor-induced bone loss. This review summarizes the structure and function of V-ATPase and its subunit, the role of V-ATPase subunits in osteoclast function, V-ATPase inhibitors for osteoclast function, and highlights the importance of V-ATPase as a potential prime target for anti-resorptive agents.

  2. Picosecond intersubband hole relaxation in p-type quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Fauchet, P.M.; Rella, C.W.; Schwettman, H.A.

    1995-12-31

    We report the first direct measurement of the relaxation time of holes in p-type quantum wells using tunable, subpicosecond mid-infrared laser pulses in a pump-probe arrangement. The QW layers consisted of 50 In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As/Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As periods. The In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As well was 4 nm wide and the Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As barrier was 8 nm wide. The dopant concentration was 10{sup 19} CM{sup -3} which corresponds to a sheet density of 1.2 x 10{sup 13} CM{sup -2}. The room temperature IR spectrum showed a 50 meV wide absorption peak at 5.25 {mu}m (220 meV). This energy agrees with the calculated n=1 heavy hole to n=1 light hole transition energy of 240 meV (150 meV for strain and 90 meV for confinement). The large absorption width results from hole-hole scattering and the difference in dispersion relations between the two subbands. The equal-wavelength pump-probe transmission measurements were performed using the Stanford free electron laser (FEL). The FEL pulses were tuned between 4 and 6 {mu} m and their duration was less than 1 ps. The measurements were performed as a function of temperature, pump wavelength and intensity (from 0.3 to 10 GW/cm{sup 2}). In all our experiments, we find an increase of transmission (decrease of absorption or bleaching) following photopumping, which recovers as a single exponential with a time constant (relaxation time) of the order of 1 picosecond. The maximum change in transmission is linear with pump 2 intensity below 1 GW/cm{sup 2} and saturates to {approximately}3% with a saturation intensity I{sub sat} of 3 GW/cm{sup 2}. As the saturation regime is entered, the relaxation time increases from 0.8 ps to 1.8 ps. This relaxation time depends on the temperature T: it increases from 0.8 ps to 1.3 ps as T decreases from 300 K to 77 K. Finally, when we tune the laser through the absorption band, the magnitude of the signal changes but its temporal behavior does not change, within the accuracy of the measurements.

  3. Inactivation of mitochondrial ATPase by ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, E.; Cuellar, A.

    1984-05-01

    The present work describes experiments that show that far-ultraviolet irradiation induce the inhibition of ATPase activity in both membrane-bound and soluble F1. It was also found that ultraviolet light promotes the release of tightly bound adenine nucleotides from F1-ATPase. Experiments carried out with submitochondrial particles indicate that succinate partially protects against these effects of ultraviolet light. Titration of sulfhydryl groups in both irradiated submitochondrial particles and soluble F1-ATPase indicates that a conformational change induced by photochemical modifications of amino acid residues appears involved in the inactivation of the enzyme. Finally, experiments are described which show that the tyrosine residue located in the active site of F1-ATPase is modified by ultraviolet irradiation.

  4. [ATPase and phosphatase activity of drone brood].

    PubMed

    Bodnarchuk, L I; Stakhman, O S

    2004-01-01

    Most researches on insect enzymes concern carbohydrate and nitrogenous exchange. Data on ATPase activity for larval material of drone brood are absent in the available literature. The drone brood is one of the least investigated apiproducts. Allowing for the important role of ATPase in the vital functions of the insect cells our work was aimed at the study of ATPase of the drone blood activity and that of alkaline and acid phosphatases. When studying liophylised preparations of the drone brood homogenate we have found out high activity of Mg2+, Na+, K+-, Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase and of alkaline and acid phosphatase, that is the possible explanation of the high-intensity power and plastic processes proceeding during growth and development of larvae. PMID:16350755

  5. The Mechanism of Cu+ Transport ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Benavides, Teresita; McCann, Courtney J.; Argüello, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Cu+-ATPases are membrane proteins that couple the hydrolysis of ATP to the efflux of cytoplasmic Cu+. In cells, soluble chaperone proteins bind and distribute cytoplasmic Cu+, delivering the ion to the transmembrane metal-binding sites in the ATPase. The structure of Legionella pneumophila Cu+-ATPase (Gourdon, P., Liu, X. Y., Skjørringe, T., Morth, J. P., Møller, L. B., Pedersen, B. P., and Nissen, P. (2011) Nature 475, 59–64) shows that a kinked transmembrane segment forms a “platform” exposed to the cytoplasm. In addition, neighboring invariant Met, Asp, and Glu are located at the “entrance” of the ion path. Mutations of amino acids in these regions of the Archaeoglobus fulgidus Cu+-ATPase CopA do not affect ATPase activity in the presence of Cu+ free in solution. However, Cu+ bound to the corresponding chaperone (CopZ) could not activate the mutated ATPases, and in parallel experiments, CopZ was unable to transfer Cu+ to CopA. Furthermore, mutation of a specific electronegative patch on the CopZ surface abolishes the ATPase activation and Cu+ transference, indicating that the region is required for the CopZ-CopA interaction. Moreover, the data suggest that the interaction is driven by the complementation of the electropositive platform in the ATPase and the electronegative Cu+ chaperone. This docking likely places the Cu+ proximal to the conserved carboxyl and thiol groups in the entrance site that induce metal release from the chaperone via ligand exchange. The initial interaction of Cu+ with the pump is transient because Cu+ is transferred from the entrance site to transmembrane metal-binding sites involved in transmembrane translocation. PMID:23184962

  6. Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization-doped p-type layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wenxiao; Qin, Ping; Song, Weidong; Zhang, Chongzhen; Wang, Rupeng; Zhao, Liangliang; Xia, Chao; Yuan, Songyang; Yin, Yian; Li, Shuti

    2016-09-01

    We report ultraviolet light emitting diode (LEDs) with polarization doped p-type layer. Fabricated LEDs with polarization doped p-type layer exhibited reduced forward voltage and enhanced light output power, compared to those with traditional p-type AlGaN layer. The improvement is attributed to improved hole concentration and the smooth valence band by the polarization enhanced p-type doping. Our simulated results reveal that this p-type layer can further enhance the performance of ultraviolet LEDs by removing the electron blocking layer (EBL).

  7. Welding IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding IV, a competency-based course in advanced arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with proficiency in: (1) single vee groove welding using code specifications established by the American Welding Society…

  8. Regulation of V-ATPase assembly and function of V-ATPases in tumor cell invasiveness.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Christina; Cotter, Kristina; Stransky, Laura; Forgac, Michael

    2016-08-01

    V-ATPases are ATP-driven proton pumps that function within both intracellular compartments and the plasma membrane in a wide array of normal physiological and pathophysiological processes. V-ATPases are composed of a peripheral V(1) domain that hydrolyzes ATP and an integral V(0) domain that transports protons. Regulated assembly of the V-ATPase represents an important mechanism of regulating V-ATPase activity in response to a number of environmental cues. Our laboratory has demonstrated that glucose-dependent assembly of the V-ATPase complex in yeast is controlled by the Ras/cAMP/PKA pathway. By contrast, increased assembly of the V-ATPase during dendritic cell maturation involves the PI-3 kinase and mTORC1 pathways. Recently, we have shown that amino acids regulate V-ATPase assembly in mammalian cells, possibly as a means to maintain adequate levels of amino acids upon nutrient starvation. V-ATPases have also been implicated in cancer cell survival and invasion. V-ATPases are targeted to different cellular membranes by isoforms of subunit a, with a3 targeting V-ATPases to the plasma membrane of osteoclasts. We have shown that highly invasive human breast cancer cell lines express higher levels of the a3 isoform than poorly invasive lines and that knockdown of a3 reduces both expression of V-ATPases at the plasma membrane and in vitro invasion of breast tumor cells. Moreover, overexpression of a3 in a non-invasive breast epithelial line increases both plasma membrane V-ATPases and in vitro invasion. Finally, specific ablation of plasma membrane V-ATPases in highly invasive human breast cancer cells using either an antibody or small molecule approach inhibits both in vitro invasion and migration. These results suggest that plasma membrane and a3-containing V-ATPases represent a novel and important target in the development of therapeutics to limit breast cancer metastasis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics

  9. Is the Paracoccus halodenitrificans ATPase a chimeric enzyme?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.

    1996-01-01

    Membranes from Paracoccus halodenitrificans contain an ATPase that is most active in the absence of NaCl. The most unusual characteristic of the enzyme is its pattern of sensitivity to various inhibitors. Azide and rhodamine 6G, inhibitors of F1F0-ATPases, inhibit ATP hydrolysis as do bafilomycin A1, concanamycin A (folimycin), N-ethylmaleimide, and p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonate which are inhibitors of vacuolar ATPases. This indiscriminate sensitivity suggests that this ATPase may be a hybrid and that caution should be exercised when using inhibition as a diagnostic for distinguishing between F1F0-ATPases and vacuolar ATPases.

  10. IVS Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    International VLBI Service (IVS) is an international collaboration of organizations which operate or support Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) components. The goals are: To provide a service to support geodetic, geophysical and astrometric research and operational activities. To promote research and development activities in all aspects of the geodetic and astrometric VLBI technique. To interact with the community of users of VLBI products and to integrate VLBI into a global Earth observing system.

  11. Photovoltaic Cell Having A P-Type Polycrystalline Layer With Large Crystals

    DOEpatents

    Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes R.

    1996-03-26

    A photovoltaic cell has an n-type polycrystalline layer and a p-type polycrystalline layer adjoining the n-type polycrystalline layer to form a photovoltaic junction. The p-type polycrystalline layer comprises a substantially planar layer portion having relatively large crystals adjoining the n-type polycrystalline layer. The planar layer portion includes oxidized impurities which contribute to obtainment of p-type electrical properties in the planar layer portion.

  12. Torsin ATPases: structural insights and functional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Laudermilch, Ethan; Schlieker, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Torsin ATPases are the only members of the AAA+ ATPase family that localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and contiguous perinuclear space. Accordingly, they are well positioned to perform essential work in these compartments, but their precise functions remain elusive. Recent studies have deciphered an unusual ATPase activation mechanism relying on Torsin-associated transmembrane cofactors, LAP1 or LULL1. These findings profoundly change our molecular view of the Torsin machinery and rationalize several human mutations in TorsinA or LAP1 leading to congenital disorders, symptoms of which have recently been recapitulated in mouse models. Here, we review these recent advances in the Torsin field and discuss the most pressing questions in relation to nuclear envelope dynamics. PMID:26803745

  13. ATPases, ion exchangers and human sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Arias, Rubén D; Vívenes, Carmen Y; Camejo, María I; Piñero, Sandy; Proverbio, Teresa; Martínez, Elizabeth; Marín, Reinaldo; Proverbio, Fulgencio

    2015-05-01

    Human sperm has several mechanisms to control its ionic milieu, such as the Na,K-ATPase (NKA), the Ca-ATPase of the plasma membrane (PMCA), the Na(+)/Ca(2) (+)-exchanger (NCX) and the Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger (NHE). On the other hand, the dynein-ATPase is the intracellular motor for sperm motility. In this work, we evaluated NKA, PMCA, NHE, NCX and dynein-ATPase activities in human sperm and investigated their correlation with sperm motility. Sperm motility was measured by Computer Assisted Semen Analysis. It was found that the NKA activity is inhibited by ouabain with two Ki (7.9 × 10(-9) and 9.8 × 10(-5) M), which is consistent with the presence of two isoforms of α subunit of the NKA in the sperm plasma membranes (α1 and α4), being α4 more sensitive to ouabain. The decrease in NKA activity is associated with a reduction in sperm motility. In addition, sperm motility was evaluated in the presence of known inhibitors of NHE, PMCA and NCX, such as amiloride, eosin, and KB-R7943, respectively, as well as in the presence of nigericin after incubation with ouabain. Amiloride, eosin and KB-R7943 significantly reduced sperm motility. Nigericin reversed the effect of ouabain and amiloride on sperm motility. Dynein-ATPase activity was inhibited by acidic pH and micromolar concentrations of Ca(2) (+). We explain our results in terms of inhibition of the dynein-ATPase in the presence of higher cytosolic H(+) and Ca(2) (+), and therefore inhibition of sperm motility. PMID:25820902

  14. Aurora kinase A activates the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in kidney carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Bataineh, Mohammad M; Alzamora, Rodrigo; Ohmi, Kazuhiro; Ho, Pei-Yin; Marciszyn, Allison L; Gong, Fan; Li, Hui; Hallows, Kenneth R; Pastor-Soler, Núria M

    2016-06-01

    Extracellular proton-secreting transport systems that contribute to extracellular pH include the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). This pump, which mediates ATP-driven transport of H(+) across membranes, is involved in metastasis. We previously showed (Alzamora R, Thali RF, Gong F, Smolak C, Li H, Baty CJ, Bertrand CA, Auchli Y, Brunisholz RA, Neumann D, Hallows KR, Pastor-Soler NM. J Biol Chem 285: 24676-24685, 2010) that V-ATPase A subunit phosphorylation at Ser-175 is important for PKA-induced V-ATPase activity at the membrane of kidney intercalated cells. However, Ser-175 is also located within a larger phosphorylation consensus sequence for Aurora kinases, which are known to phosphorylate proteins that contribute to the pathogenesis of metastatic carcinomas. We thus hypothesized that Aurora kinase A (AURKA), overexpressed in aggressive carcinomas, regulates the V-ATPase in human kidney carcinoma cells (Caki-2) via Ser-175 phosphorylation. We found that AURKA is abnormally expressed in Caki-2 cells, where it binds the V-ATPase A subunit in an AURKA phosphorylation-dependent manner. Treatment with the AURKA activator anacardic acid increased V-ATPase expression and activity at the plasma membrane of Caki-2 cells. In addition, AURKA phosphorylates the V-ATPase A subunit at Ser-175 in vitro and in Caki-2 cells. Immunolabeling revealed that anacardic acid induced marked membrane accumulation of the V-ATPase A subunit in transfected Caki-2 cells. However, anacardic acid failed to induce membrane accumulation of a phosphorylation-deficient Ser-175-to-Ala (S175A) A subunit mutant. Finally, S175A-expressing cells had decreased migration in a wound-healing assay compared with cells expressing wild-type or a phospho-mimetic Ser-175-to-Asp (S175D) mutant A subunit. We conclude that AURKA activates the V-ATPase in kidney carcinoma cells via phosphorylation of Ser-175 in the V-ATPase A subunit. This regulation contributes to kidney carcinoma V-ATPase-mediated extracellular

  15. Isolation and characterization of a specific endogenous Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase inhibitor from bovine adrenal

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, M.; Lam, T.T.; Inagami, T.

    1988-06-14

    In order to identify a specific endogenous Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase inhibitor which could possibly be related to salt-dependent hypertension, the authors looked for substances in the methanol extract of bovine whole adrenal which show all of the following properties: (i) inhibitory activity for Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase; (ii) competitive displacing activity against (/sup 3/H)ouabain binding to the enzyme; (iii) inhibitory activity for /sup 86/Rb uptake into intact human erythrocytes; and (iv) cross-reactivity with sheep anti-digoxin-specific antibody. After stepwise fractionation of the methanol extract of bovine adrenal glands by chromatography on a C/sub 18/ open column, a 0-15% acetonitrile fraction was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography on a Zorbax octadecylsilane column. One of the most active fractions in 0-15% acetonitrile was found to exhibit all of the four types of the activities. It was soluble in water and was distinct from various substances which have been known to inhibit Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase. These results strongly suggest that this water-soluble nonpeptidic Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase inhibitor may be a specific endogenous regulator for the ATPase.

  16. Inorganic Nano Light-Emitting Transistor: p-Type Porous Silicon Nanowire/n-Type ZnO Nanofilm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jong Woo; Lee, Tae Il; Myoung, Jae Min

    2016-08-01

    An inorganic nano light-emitting transistor (INLET) consisting of p-type porous Si nanowires (PoSiNWs) and an n-type ZnO nanofilm was integrated on a heavily doped p-type Si substrate with a thermally grown SiO2 layer. To verify that modulation of the Fermi level of the PoSiNWs is key for switchable light emitting, I-V and electroluminescent characteristics of the INLET are investigated as a function of gate bias (V g ). As the V g is changed from 0 V to -20 V, the current level and light-emission intensity in the orange-red range increase by three and two times, respectively, with a forward bias of 20 V in the p-n junction, compared to those at a V g of 0 V. On the other hand, as the V g approaches 10 V, the current level decreases and the emission intensity is reduced and then finally switched off. This result arises from the modulation of the Fermi level of the PoSiNWs and the built-in potential at the p-n junction by the applied gate electric field. PMID:27378257

  17. Decavanadate, decaniobate, tungstate and molybdate interactions with sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase: quercetin prevents cysteine oxidation by vanadate but does not reverse ATPase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Fraqueza, Gil; Batista de Carvalho, Luís A E; Marques, M Paula M; Maia, Luisa; Ohlin, C André; Casey, William H; Aureliano, Manuel

    2012-11-01

    Recently we demonstrated that the decavanadate (V(10)) ion is a stronger Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor than other oxometalates, such as the isoelectronic and isostructural decaniobate ion, and the tungstate and molybdate monomer ions, and that it binds to this protein with a 1 : 1 stoichiometry. The V(10) interaction is not affected by any of the protein conformations that occur during the process of calcium translocation (i.e. E1, E1P, E2 and E2P) (Fraqueza et al., J. Inorg. Biochem., 2012). In the present study, we further explore this subject, and we can now show that the decaniobate ion, [Nb(10) = Nb(10)O(28)](6-), is a useful tool in deducing the interaction and the non-competitive Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibition by the decavanadate ion [V(10) = V(10)O(28)](6-). Moreover, decavanadate and vanadate induce protein cysteine oxidation whereas no effects were detected for the decaniobate, tungstate or molybdate ions. The presence of the antioxidant quercetin prevents cysteine oxidation, but not ATPase inhibition, by vanadate or decavanadate. Definitive V(IV) EPR spectra were observed for decavanadate in the presence of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, indicating a vanadate reduction at some stage of the protein interaction. Raman spectroscopy clearly shows that the protein conformation changes that are induced by V(10), Nb(10) and vanadate are different from the ones induced by molybdate and tungstate monomer ions. Here, Mo and W cause changes similar to those by phosphate, yielding changes similar to the E1P protein conformation. The putative reduction of vanadium(V) to vanadium(IV) and the non-competitive binding of the V(10) and Nb(10) decametalates may explain the differences in the Raman spectra compared to those seen in the presence of molybdate or tungstate. Putting it all together, we suggest that the ability of V(10) to inhibit the Ca(2+)-ATPase may be at least in part due to the process of vanadate reduction and associated protein cysteine oxidation. These

  18. The transport mechanism of bacterial Cu+-ATPases: distinct efflux rates adapted to different function.

    PubMed

    Raimunda, Daniel; González-Guerrero, Manuel; Leeber, Blaise W; Argüello, José M

    2011-06-01

    Cu(+)-ATPases play a key role in bacterial Cu(+) homeostasis by participating in Cu(+) detoxification and cuproprotein assembly. Characterization of Archaeoglobus fulgidus CopA, a model protein within the subfamily of P(1B-1) type ATPases, has provided structural and mechanistic details on this group of transporters. Atomic resolution structures of cytoplasmic regulatory metal binding domains (MBDs) and catalytic actuator, phosphorylation, and nucleotide binding domains are available. These, in combination with whole protein structures resulting from cryo-electron microscopy analyses, have enabled the initial modeling of these transporters. Invariant residues in helixes 6, 7 and 8 form two transmembrane metal binding sites (TM-MBSs). These bind Cu(+) with high affinity in a trigonal planar geometry. The cytoplasmic Cu(+) chaperone CopZ transfers the metal directly to the TM-MBSs; however, loading both of the TM-MBSs requires binding of nucleotides to the enzyme. In agreement with the classical transport mechanism of P-type ATPases, occupancy of both transmembrane sites by cytoplasmic Cu(+) is a requirement for enzyme phosphorylation and subsequent transport into the periplasmic or extracellular milieus. Recent transport studies have shown that all Cu(+)-ATPases drive cytoplasmic Cu(+) efflux, albeit with quite different transport rates in tune with their various physiological roles. Archetypical Cu(+)-efflux pumps responsible for Cu(+) tolerance, like the Escherichia coli CopA, have turnover rates ten times higher than those involved in cuproprotein assembly (or alternative functions). This explains the incapability of the latter group to significantly contribute to the metal efflux required for survival in high copper environments. PMID:21210186

  19. Ultra-thin ohmic contacts for p-type nitride light emitting devices

    DOEpatents

    Raffetto, Mark; Bharathan, Jayesh; Haberern, Kevin; Bergmann, Michael; Emerson, David; Ibbetson, James; Li, Ting

    2012-01-03

    A semiconductor based Light Emitting Device (LED) can include a p-type nitride layer and a metal ohmic contact, on the p-type nitride layer. The metal ohmic contact can have an average thickness of less than about 25 .ANG. and a specific contact resistivity less than about 10.sup.-3 ohm-cm.sup.2.

  20. Piezoresistance behaviors of p-type 6H-SiC nanowires.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fengmei; Zheng, Jinju; Wang, Mingfang; Wei, Guodong; Yang, Weiyou

    2011-11-21

    We reported, for the first time, the piezoresistance behaviors of single p-type 6H-SiC nanowires. The results suggest that present p-type 6H-SiC nanowires could be an excellent candidate for the fabrication of robust and reliable stress sensors. PMID:21959148

  1. Application of neutron transmutation doping method to initially p-type silicon material.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myong-Seop; Kang, Ki-Doo; Park, Sang-Jun

    2009-01-01

    The neutron transmutation doping (NTD) method was applied to the initially p-type silicon in order to extend the NTD applications at HANARO. The relationship between the irradiation neutron fluence and the final resistivity of the initially p-type silicon material was investigated. The proportional constant between the neutron fluence and the resistivity was determined to be 2.3473x10(19)nOmegacm(-1). The deviation of the final resistivity from the target for almost all the irradiation results of the initially p-type silicon ingots was at a range from -5% to 2%. In addition, the burn-up effect of the boron impurities, the residual (32)P activity and the effect of the compensation characteristics for the initially p-type silicon were studied. Conclusively, the practical methodology to perform the neutron transmutation doping of the initially p-type silicon ingot was established. PMID:19318259

  2. Luminance behavior of lithium-doped ZnO nanowires with p-type conduction characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ko, Won Bae; Lee, Jun Seok; Lee, Sang Hyo; Cha, Seung Nam; Sohn, Jung Inn; Kim, Jong Min; Park, Young Jun; Kim, Hyun Jung; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2013-09-01

    The present study describes the room-temperature cathodeluminescence (CL) and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) properties of p-type lithium (Li)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) grown by hydrothermal doping and post-annealing processes. A ZnO thin film was used as a seed layer in NW growth. The emission wavelengths and intensities of undoped ZnO NWs and p-type Li-doped ZnO NWs were analyzed for comparison. CL and PL observations of post-annealed p-type Li-doped ZnO NWs clearly exhibited a dominant sharp band-edge emission. Finally, a n-type ZnO thin film/p-type annealed Li-doped ZnO NW homojunction diode was prepared to confirm the p-type conduction of annealed Li-doped ZnO NWs as well as the structural properties measured by transmission electron microscopy. PMID:24205635

  3. Sans study of spinach CF 1-ATPase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmettes, P.; Girault, G.; Berger, G.; Galmiche, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    SANS experiments were performed on solutions of spinach chloroplast CF 1-ATPase in heavy water. Removal of the ɛ subunit partially activates the enzyme and further addition of dithiothreitol fully activates it. Molar masses and gyration radii values are given for these different conditions.

  4. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-sensitive ATPase in Halobacterium saccharovorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristjansson, H.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1985-01-01

    Membranes from Halobacterium saccharovorum contained a cryptic ATPase which required Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) and was activated by Triton X-100. The optimal pH for ATP hydrolysis was 9-10. ATP or GTP were hydrolyzed at the same rate while ITP, CTP, and UTP were hydrolyzed at about half that rate. The products of ATP hydrolysis were ADP and phosphate. The ATPase required high concentrations (3.5 M) of NaCl for maximum activity. ADP was a competitive inhibitor of the activity, with an apparent Ki of 50 micro-M. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) inhibited ATP hydrolysis. The inhibition was marginal at the optimum pH of the enzyme. When the ATPase was preincubated with DCCD at varying pH values, but assayed at the optimal pH for activity, DCCD inhibition was observed to increase with increasing acidity of the preincubation medium. DCCD inhibition was also dependent on time of preincubation, and protein and DCCD concentrations. When preincubated at pH 6.0 for 4 h at a protein:DCCD ratio of 40 (w/w), ATPase activity was inhibited 90 percent.

  5. Silicon mitigates heavy metal stress by regulating P-type heavy metal ATPases, Oryza sativa low silicon genes, and endogenous phytohormones

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Silicon (Si) application has been known to enhance the tolerance of plants against abiotic stresses. However, the protective mechanism of Si under heavy metals contamination is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the role of Si in counteracting toxicity due to cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in rice plants (Oryza sativa). Results Si significantly improved the growth and biomass of rice plants and reduced the toxic effects of Cd/Cu after different stress periods. Si treatment ameliorated root function and structure compared with non-treated rice plants, which suffered severe root damage. In the presence of Si, the Cd/Cu concentration was significantly lower in rice plants, and there was also a reduction in lipid peroxidation and fatty acid desaturation in plant tissues. The reduced uptake of metals in the roots modulated the signaling of phytohormones involved in responses to stress and host defense, such as abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid. Furthermore, the low concentration of metals significantly down regulated the mRNA expression of enzymes encoding heavy metal transporters (OsHMA2 and OsHMA3) in Si-metal-treated rice plants. Genes responsible for Si transport (OsLSi1 and OsLSi2), showed a significant up-regulation of mRNA expression with Si treatment in rice plants. Conclusion The present study supports the active role of Si in the regulation of stresses from heavy metal exposure through changes in root morphology. PMID:24405887

  6. Reassessment of the recombination parameters of chromium in n- and p-type crystalline silicon and chromium-boron pairs in p-type crystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Chang Rougieux, Fiacre E.; Macdonald, Daniel

    2014-06-07

    Injection-dependent lifetime spectroscopy of both n- and p-type, Cr-doped silicon wafers with different doping levels is used to determine the defect parameters of Cr{sub i} and CrB pairs, by simultaneously fitting the measured lifetimes with the Shockley-Read-Hall model. A combined analysis of the two defects with the lifetime data measured on both n- and p-type samples enables a significant tightening of the uncertainty ranges of the parameters. The capture cross section ratios k = σ{sub n}/σ{sub p} of Cr{sub i} and CrB are determined as 3.2 (−0.6, +0) and 5.8 (−3.4, +0.6), respectively. Courtesy of a direct experimental comparison of the recombination activity of chromium in n- and p-type silicon, and as also suggested by modelling results, we conclude that chromium has a greater negative impact on carrier lifetimes in p-type silicon than n-type silicon with similar doping levels.

  7. Asteroids IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  8. Asteroids IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  9. Design of Shallow p-type Dopants in ZnO (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, S.H.; Li, J.; Yan. Y.

    2008-05-01

    ZnO is a promising material for short wave-length opto-electronic devices such as UV lasers and LEDs due to its large exciton binding energy and low material cost. ZnO can be doped easily n-type, but the realization of stable p-type ZnO is rather difficult. Using first-principles band structure methods the authors address what causes the p-type doping difficulty in ZnO and how to overcome the p-type doping difficulty in ZnO.

  10. High performance p-type thermoelectric materials and methods of preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Borshchevsky, Alexander (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention is embodied in high performance p-type thermoelectric materials having enhanced thermoelectric properties and the methods of preparing such materials. In one aspect of the invention, p-type semiconductors of formula Zn4-xAxSb3-yBy wherein 0?x?4, A is a transition metal, B is a pnicogen, and 0?y?3 are formed for use in manufacturing thermoelectric devices with substantially enhanced operating characteristics and improved efficiency. Two methods of preparing p-type Zn4Sb3 and related alloys of the present invention include a crystal growth method and a powder metallurgy method.

  11. ZnO homojunction photodiodes based on Sb-doped p-type nanowire array and n-type film for ultraviolet detection

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Guoping; Chu Sheng; Zhan Ning; Liu Jianlin; Lin Yuqing; Chernyak, Leonid

    2011-01-24

    ZnO p-n homojunctions based on Sb-doped p-type nanowire array and n-type film were grown by combining chemical vapor deposition (for nanowires) with molecular-beam epitaxy (for film). Indium tin oxide and Ti/Au were used as contacts to the ZnO nanowires and film, respectively. Characteristics of field-effect transistors using ZnO nanowires as channels indicate p-type conductivity of the nanowires. Electron beam induced current profiling confirmed the existence of ZnO p-n homojunction. Rectifying I-V characteristic showed a turn-on voltage of around 3 V. Very good response to ultraviolet light illumination was observed from photocurrent measurements.

  12. Effect of palmitate on carbohydrate utilization and Na/K-ATPase activity in aortic vascular smooth muscle from diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, J M; Solar, S M; Paulson, D J; Hill, N M; Broderick, T L

    1999-04-01

    Several investigators have reported that carbohydrate metabolism is suppressed in blood vessels from diabetic (Db) rats. However, it is not known if metabolites from the reciprocal increase in oxidation of long-chain fatty acids that accompanies insulin-deficiency exacerbates the suppression of this pathway in the Db blood vessels. Such inhibition may have particularly deleterious consequences in vascular smooth muscle since aerobic glycolysis is believed to preferentially fuel the sarcolemmal Na/K ATPase in this tissue. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of physiological (0.4 mM) and elevated (1.2 mM) concentrations of the long-chain fatty acid palmitate on both carbohydrate utilization and Na/K-ATPase activity in aorta from insulin-deficient Db rat. Thoracic aorta were removed from 10 week Db (streptozotocin 60 mg/Kg , i.v.) or control (C) rats and intima-media aortic preparations were incubated in the absence or presence of palmitate. Glycolysis (microM/g dry wt/h) and glucose oxidation (microM/g dry wt/h) were quantified using 3H-glucose and 14C-glucose, respectively. Na/K-ATPase activity was estimated by the measurement of 86rubidium uptake in the absence and presence of 2 mM ouabain. In the absence of exogenous palmitate, glycolysis (p < 0.05), glucose oxidation (p < 0.01) and the estimated ATP production from exogenous glucose were decreased in aorta from Db rat. However, despite this diminished rate of glycolysis, Na/K ATPase activity was similar in Db and C aorta. Palmitate (0.4 mM) inhibited Na/K ATPase activity and glucose oxidation to a similar extent in both Db and C but had no effect on glycolysis in either group. Elevation of palmitate to 1.2 mM had no additional inhibitory effect on glucose oxidation, Na/K ATPase activity or glycolysis in either the Db or C aorta. The metabolism of exogenous palmitate restored the ATP production in Db to control values. These data demonstrate that, despite the diminished glycolysis and glucose oxidation

  13. Vacuolar ATPase depletion affects mitochondrial ATPase function, kinetoplast dependency, and drug sensitivity in trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicola; Hamilton, Graham; Wilkes, Jonathan M; Hutchinson, Sebastian; Barrett, Michael P; Horn, David

    2015-07-21

    Kinetoplastid parasites cause lethal diseases in humans and animals. The kinetoplast itself contains the mitochondrial genome, comprising a huge, complex DNA network that is also an important drug target. Isometamidium, for example, is a key veterinary drug that accumulates in the kinetoplast in African trypanosomes. Kinetoplast independence and isometamidium resistance are observed where certain mutations in the F1-γ-subunit of the two-sector F1Fo-ATP synthase allow for Fo-independent generation of a mitochondrial membrane potential. To further explore kinetoplast biology and drug resistance, we screened a genome-scale RNA interference library in African trypanosomes for isometamidium resistance mechanisms. Our screen identified 14 V-ATPase subunits and all 4 adaptin-3 subunits, implicating acidic compartment defects in resistance; V-ATPase acidifies lysosomes and related organelles, whereas adaptin-3 is responsible for trafficking among these organelles. Independent strains with depleted V-ATPase or adaptin-3 subunits were isometamidium resistant, and chemical inhibition of the V-ATPase phenocopied this effect. While drug accumulation in the kinetoplast continued after V-ATPase subunit depletion, acriflavine-induced kinetoplast loss was specifically tolerated in these cells and in cells depleted for adaptin-3 or endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex subunits, also identified in our screen. Consistent with kinetoplast dispensability, V-ATPase defective cells were oligomycin resistant, suggesting ATP synthase uncoupling and bypass of the normal Fo-A6-subunit requirement; this subunit is the only kinetoplast-encoded product ultimately required for viability in bloodstream-form trypanosomes. Thus, we describe 30 genes and 3 protein complexes associated with kinetoplast-dependent growth. Mutations affecting these genes could explain natural cases of dyskinetoplasty and multidrug resistance. Our results also reveal potentially conserved communication between the

  14. Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase is inhibited by organic vanadium coordination compounds: pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylatodioxovanadium(V), BMOV, and an amavadine analogue.

    PubMed

    Aureliano, Manuel; Henao, Fernando; Tiago, Teresa; Duarte, Rui O; Moura, J J G; Baruah, Bharat; Crans, Debbie C

    2008-07-01

    The general affinity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca (2+)-ATPase was examined for three different classes of vanadium coordination complexes including a vanadium(V) compound, pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylatodioxovanadium(V) (PDC-V(V)), and two vanadium(IV) compounds, bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV) (BMOV), and an analogue of amavadine, bis( N-hydroxylamidoiminodiacetato)vanadium(IV) (HAIDA-V(IV)). The ability of vanadate to act either as a phosphate analogue or as a transition-state analogue with enzymes' catalysis phosphoryl group transfer suggests that vanadium coordination compounds may reveal mechanistic preferences in these classes of enzymes. Two of these compounds investigated, PDC-V(V) and BMOV, were hydrolytically and oxidatively reactive at neutral pH, and one, HAIDA-V(IV), does not hydrolyze, oxidize, or otherwise decompose to a measurable extent during the enzyme assay. The SR Ca (2+)-ATPase was inhibited by all three of these complexes. The relative order of inhibition was PDC-V(V) > BMOV > vanadate > HAIDA-V(IV), and the IC 50 values were 25, 40, 80, and 325 microM, respectively. Because the observed inhibition is more potent for PDC-V(V) and BMOV than that of oxovanadates, the inhibition cannot be explained by oxovanadate formation during enzyme assays. Furthermore, the hydrolytically and redox stable amavadine analogue HAIDA-V(IV) inhibited the Ca (2+)-ATPase less than oxovanadates. To gauge the importance of the lipid environment, studies of oxidized BMOV in microemulsions were performed and showed that this system remained in the aqueous pool even though PDC-V(V) is able to penetrate lipid interfaces. These findings suggest that the hydrolytic properties of these complexes may be important in the inhibition of the calcium pump. Our results show that two simple coordination complexes with known insulin enhancing effects can invoke a response in calcium homeostasis and the regulation of muscle contraction through the SR Ca (2+)-ATPase. PMID:18510311

  15. The parietal cell gastric H, K-ATPase also functions as the Na, K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase in altered states.

    PubMed

    Ray, Tushar

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an explanation for the apparent lack of Na, K-ATPase activity in parietal cells although ouabain has been known to inhibit gastric acid secretion since 1962. The gastric H, K-ATPase (proton-pump) seems to be acting in altered states, thus behaving like a Na, K-ATPase (Na-pump) and/or Ca-ATPase (Ca-pump) depending on cellular needs.  This conclusion is based on the following findings. First, parietal cell fractions do not exhibit Na, K-ATPase activity at pH 7.0 but do at pH 8.5. Second, the apical plasma membrane (APM) fraction exhibits a (Ca or Mg)-ATPase activity with negligible H, K-ATPase activity. However, when assayed with Mg alone in presence of the 80 k Da cytosolic proton-pump activator (HAF), the APM fraction reveals remarkably high H, K-ATPase activity, suggesting the observed low affinity of Ca (or Mg)-ATPase is an altered state of the latter. Third, calcium (between 1 and 4 µM) shows both stimulation and inhibition of the HAF-stimulated H, K-ATPase depending on its concentration, revealing a close interaction between the  proton-pump activator and local Ca concentration in gastric H, K-ATPase function. Such interactions suggest that Ca is acting as a terminal member of the intracellular signaling system for the HAF-regulated proton-pump. It appears that during resting state, the HAF-associated H, K-ATPase remains inhibited by Ca (>1 µM) and, prior to resumption of acid secretion the gastric H, K-ATPase acts temporarily as a Ca-pump for removing excess Ca from its immediate environment. This conclusion is consistent with the recent reports of immunochemical co-localization of the gastric H, K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase by superimposition in parietal cells, and a transitory efflux of Ca immediately preceding the onset of acid secretion. These new perspectives on proton-pump function would open new avenues for a fuller understanding of the intracellular regulation of the ubiquitous Na-pump. PMID:24555080

  16. The parietal cell gastric H, K-ATPase also functions as the Na, K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase in altered states

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Tushar

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an explanation for the apparent lack of Na, K-ATPase activity in parietal cells although ouabain has been known to inhibit gastric acid secretion since 1962. The gastric H, K-ATPase (proton-pump) seems to be acting in altered states, thus behaving like a Na, K-ATPase (Na-pump) and/or Ca-ATPase (Ca-pump) depending on cellular needs.  This conclusion is based on the following findings. First, parietal cell fractions do not exhibit Na, K-ATPase activity at pH 7.0 but do at pH 8.5. Second, the apical plasma membrane (APM) fraction exhibits a (Ca or Mg)-ATPase activity with negligible H, K-ATPase activity. However, when assayed with Mg alone in presence of the 80 k Da cytosolic proton-pump activator (HAF), the APM fraction reveals remarkably high H, K-ATPase activity, suggesting the observed low affinity of Ca (or Mg)-ATPase is an altered state of the latter. Third, calcium (between 1 and 4 µM) shows both stimulation and inhibition of the HAF-stimulated H, K-ATPase depending on its concentration, revealing a close interaction between the  proton-pump activator and local Ca concentration in gastric H, K-ATPase function. Such interactions suggest that Ca is acting as a terminal member of the intracellular signaling system for the HAF-regulated proton-pump. It appears that during resting state, the HAF-associated H, K-ATPase remains inhibited by Ca (>1 µM) and, prior to resumption of acid secretion the gastric H, K-ATPase acts temporarily as a Ca-pump for removing excess Ca from its immediate environment. This conclusion is consistent with the recent reports of immunochemical co-localization of the gastric H, K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase by superimposition in parietal cells, and a transitory efflux of Ca immediately preceding the onset of acid secretion. These new perspectives on proton-pump function would open new avenues for a fuller understanding of the intracellular regulation of the ubiquitous Na-pump. PMID:24555080

  17. Sol-gel method of p-type zinc oxide films preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Armen R.; Li, XiaoNan; Manukyan, Alexandr L.; Grigoryan, Stepan G.; Vardanyan, Eduard S.

    2007-09-01

    Both n-type and p-type ZnO will be required for development of homojunction light-emitting diodes and laser diodes. It is easy to obtain strong n-type ZnO, but very difficult to create consistent, reliable, high-conductivity p-type material. Here we present our investigations of p-type ZnO thin film preparation by sol-gel method using single Li doping and Ga(Al)+N codoping technique. ZnO thin films with c-axis orientation have been prepared on glass substrates. Zn acetate dihydrate, gallium nitrate and acetamide were used as zinc, gallium and nitrogen precursors respectively. SEM, X-ray diffraction, electric conductivity and Hall effect measurements were carried out. The results show that p-type conducting ZnO films with hole concentrations as high as 5x10 17 cm -3 were obtained by this method.

  18. Opto-electrical properties of Sb-doped p-type ZnO nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Tzu-Hsuan; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Chiu, Chung-Hua; Huang, Chun-Wei; Wu, Wen-Wei

    2014-03-17

    P-type ZnO nanowires (NWs) have attracted much attention in the past years due to the potential applications for optoelectronics and piezotronics. In this study, we have synthesized Sb-doped p-type ZnO NWs on Si (100) substrates by chemical vapor deposition with Aucatalyst. The Sb-doped ZnO NWs are single crystalline with high density, grown along [1-1-2] direction. The doping percentage of Sb is about 2.49%, which has been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ZnO NW field effect transistor demonstrated its p-type characteristics. A high responsivity to ultraviolet photodetection was also observed. In addition, compared to intrinsic ZnO NWs, the conductivity of the Sb-doped ZnO NWs exhibited ∼2 orders of magnitude higher. These properties make the p-type ZnO NWs a promising candidate for electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  19. Effect of p-type multi-walled carbon nanotubes for improving hydrogen storage behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seul-Yi; Yop Rhee, Kyong; Nahm, Seung-Hoon; Park, Soo-Jin

    2014-02-15

    In this study, the hydrogen storage behaviors of p-type multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were investigated through the surface modification of MWNTs by immersing them in sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) at various ratios. The presence of acceptor-functional groups on the p-type MWNT surfaces was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Measurement of the zeta-potential determined the surface charge transfer and dispersion of the p-type MWMTs, and the hydrogen storage capacity was evaluated at 77 K and 1 bar. From the results obtained, it was found that acceptor-functional groups were introduced onto the MWNT surfaces, and the dispersion of MWNTs could be improved depending on the acid-mixed treatment conditions. The hydrogen storage was increased by acid-mixed treatments of up to 0.36 wt% in the p-type MWNTs, compared with 0.18 wt% in the As-received MWNTs. Consequently, the hydrogen storage capacities were greatly influenced by the acceptor-functional groups of p-type MWNT surfaces, resulting in increased electron acceptor–donor interaction at the interfaces. - Graphical abstract: Hydrogen storage behaviors of the p-type MWNTs with the acid-mixed treatments are described. Display Omitted Display Omitted.

  20. Convergence of valence bands for high thermoelectric performance for p-type InN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-Zhu; Li, Ruo-Ping; Liu, Jun-Hui; Huang, Ming-Ju

    2015-12-01

    Band engineering to converge the bands to achieve high valley degeneracy is one of effective approaches for designing ideal thermoelectric materials. Convergence of many valleys in the valence band may lead to a high Seebeck coefficient, and induce promising thermoelectric performance of p-type InN. In the current work, we have systematically investigated the electronic structure and thermoelectric performance of wurtzite InN by using the density functional theory combined with semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory. Form the results, it can be found that intrinsic InN has a large Seebeck coefficient (254 μV/K) and the largest value of ZeT is 0.77. The transport properties of p-type InN are better than that of n-type one at the optimum carrier concentration, which mainly due to the large Seebeck coefficient for p-type InN, although the electrical conductivity of n-type InN is larger than that of p-type one. We found that the larger Seebeck coefficient for p-type InN may originate from the large valley degeneracy in the valence band. Moreover, the low minimum lattice thermal conductivity for InN is one key factor to become a good thermoelectric material. Therefore, p-type InN could be a potential material for further applications in the thermoelectric area.

  1. Kinesin ATPase: Rate-Limiting ADP Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackney, David D.

    1988-09-01

    The ATPase rate of kinesin isolated from bovine brain by the method of S. A. Kuznetsov and V. I. Gelfand [(1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 8530-8534)] is stimulated 1000-fold by interaction with tubulin (turnover rate per 120-kDa peptide increases from ≈ 0.009 sec-1 to 9 sec-1). The tubulin-stimulated reaction exhibits no extra incorporation of water-derived oxygens over a wide range of ATP and tubulin concentrations, indicating that Pi release is faster than the reversal of hydrolysis. ADP release, however, is slow for the basal reaction and its release is rate limiting as indicated by the very tight ADP binding (Ki < 5 nM), the retention of a stoichiometric level of bound ADP through ion-exchange chromatography and dialysis, and the reversible labeling of a bound ADP by [14C]ATP at the steady-state ATPase rate as shown by centrifuge gel filtration and inaccessibility to pyruvate kinase. Tubulin accelerates the release of the bound ADP consistent with its activation of the net ATPase reaction. The detailed kinetics of ADP release in the presence of tubulin are biphasic indicating apparent heterogeneity with a fraction of the kinesin active sites being unaffected by tubulin.

  2. Kinesin ATPase: Rate-limiting ADP release

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, D.D.

    1988-09-01

    The ATPase rate of kinesin isolated from bovine brain by the method of S.A. Kuznetsov and V.I. Gelfand is stimulated 1000-fold by interaction with tubulin. The tubulin-stimulated reaction exhibits no extra incorporation of water-derived oxygens over a wide range of ATP and tubulin concentrations, indicating that P/sub i/ release is faster than the reversal of hydrolysis. ADP release, however, is slow for the basal reaction and its release is rate limiting as indicated by the very tight ADP binding (K/sub i/ < 5 nM), the retention of a stoichiometric level of bound ADP through ion-exchange chromatography and dialysis, and the reversible labeling of a bound ADP by (/sup 14/C)ATP at the steady-state ATPase rate as shown by centrifuge gel filtration and inaccessibility to pyruvate kinase. Tubulin accelerates the release of the bound ADP consistent with its activation of the net ATPase reaction. The detailed kinetics of ADP release in the presence of tubulin are biphasic indicating apparent heterogeneity with a fraction of the kinesin active sites being unaffected by tubulin.

  3. Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase interactions with decaniobate, decavanadate, vanadate, tungstate and molybdate.

    PubMed

    Fraqueza, Gil; Ohlin, C André; Casey, William H; Aureliano, Manuel

    2012-02-01

    Over the last few decades there has been increasing interest in oxometalate and polyoxometalate applications to medicine and pharmacology. This interest arose, at least in part, due to the properties of these classes of compounds as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic agents, and also for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, among others. However, our understanding of the mechanism of action would be improved if biological models could be used to clarify potential toxicological effects in main cellular processes. Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles, containing a large amount of Ca(2+)-ATPase, an enzyme that accumulates calcium by active transport using ATP, have been suggested as a useful model to study the effects of oxometalates on calcium homeostasis. In the present article, it is shown that decavanadate, decaniobate, vanadate, tungstate and molybdate, all inhibited SR Ca(2+)-ATPase, with the following IC(50) values: 15, 35, 50, 400 μM and 45 mM, respectively. Decaniobate (Nb(10)), is the strongest P-type enzyme inhibitor, after decavanadate (V(10)). Atomic-absorption spectroscopy (AAS) analysis, indicates that decavanadate binds to the protein with a 1:1 decavanadate:Ca(2+)-ATPase stoichiometry. Furthermore, V(10) binds with similar extension to all the protein conformations, which occur during calcium translocation by active transport, namely E1, E1P, E2 and E2P, as analysed by AAS. In contrast, it was confirmed that the binding of monomeric vanadate (H(2)VO(4)(2-); V(1)) to the calcium pump is favoured only for the E2 and E2P conformations of the ATPase, whereas no significant amount of vanadate is bound to the E1 and E1P conformations. Scatchard plot analysis, confirmed a 1:1 ratio for decavanadate-Ca(2+)-ATPase, with a dissociation constant, k(d) of 1 μM(-1). The interaction of decavanadate V(10)O(28)(6-) (V(10)) with Ca(2+)-ATPase is prevented by the isostructural and isoelectronic decaniobate Nb(10)O(28)(6-) (Nb(10)), whereas no significant effects were

  4. “Oxygen Sensing” by Na,K-ATPase: These Miraculous Thiols

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanova, Anna; Petrushanko, Irina Y.; Hernansanz-Agustín, Pablo; Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Control over the Na,K-ATPase function plays a central role in adaptation of the organisms to hypoxic and anoxic conditions. As the enzyme itself does not possess O2 binding sites its “oxygen-sensitivity” is mediated by a variety of redox-sensitive modifications including S-glutathionylation, S-nitrosylation, and redox-sensitive phosphorylation. This is an overview of the current knowledge on the plethora of molecular mechanisms tuning the activity of the ATP-consuming Na,K-ATPase to the cellular metabolic activity. Recent findings suggest that oxygen-derived free radicals and H2O2, NO, and oxidized glutathione are the signaling messengers that make the Na,K-ATPase “oxygen-sensitive.” This very ancient signaling pathway targeting thiols of all three subunits of the Na,K-ATPase as well as redox-sensitive kinases sustains the enzyme activity at the “optimal” level avoiding terminal ATP depletion and maintaining the transmembrane ion gradients in cells of anoxia-tolerant species. We acknowledge the complexity of the underlying processes as we characterize the sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production in hypoxic cells, and identify their targets, the reactive thiol groups which, upon modification, impact the enzyme activity. Structured accordingly, this review presents a summary on (i) the sources of free radical production in hypoxic cells, (ii) localization of regulatory thiols within the Na,K-ATPase and the role reversible thiol modifications play in responses of the enzyme to a variety of stimuli (hypoxia, receptors' activation) (iii) redox-sensitive regulatory phosphorylation, and (iv) the role of fine modulation of the Na,K-ATPase function in survival success under hypoxic conditions. The co-authors attempted to cover all the contradictions and standing hypotheses in the field and propose the possible future developments in this dynamic area of research, the importance of which is hard to overestimate. Better understanding of the

  5. [The effect of tetrandrine on rat myocardial ATPases].

    PubMed

    Chen, N H; Wang, Y L; Ding, J H; Li, D X

    1991-01-01

    The effect of tetrandrine (Tet) on Na+,K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase in rat myocardial microsomes was investigated in vitro. Under optimal condition, Tet did not influence Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity but concentration-dependently inhibited Mg(2+)-ATPase with an IC50 of 179 mumol/L. At 10 or 100 mumol/L, Tet caused the concentration-inhibition curves for ouabain a parallel shift to the right. Tet 100 mumol/L markedly increased the activity of Na+,K(+)-ATPase under suboptimal K+ or excessive Ca2+ condition. However, it did not significantly increase the enzyme activity when the Na+ concentration was lower. A kinetic analysis showed that Tet increased the affinity of Na+,K(+)-ATPase to ATP, but did not change the maximal velocity of the enzyme reaction. PMID:1668215

  6. Systematic Comparison of Molecular Conformations of H+,K+-ATPase Reveals an Important Contribution of the A-M2 Linker for the Luminal Gating*

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Kazuhiro; Tani, Kazutoshi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Gastric H+,K+-ATPase, an ATP-driven proton pump responsible for gastric acidification, is a molecular target for anti-ulcer drugs. Here we show its cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structure in an E2P analog state, bound to magnesium fluoride (MgF), and its K+-competitive antagonist SCH28080, determined at 7 Å resolution by electron crystallography of two-dimensional crystals. Systematic comparison with other E2P-related cryo-EM structures revealed that the molecular conformation in the (SCH)E2·MgF state is remarkably distinguishable. Although the azimuthal position of the A domain of the (SCH)E2·MgF state is similar to that in the E2·AlF (aluminum fluoride) state, in which the transmembrane luminal gate is closed, the arrangement of transmembrane helices in the (SCH)E2·MgF state shows a luminal-open conformation imposed on by bound SCH28080 at its luminal cavity, based on observations of the structure in the SCH28080-bound E2·BeF (beryllium fluoride) state. The molecular conformation of the (SCH)E2·MgF state thus represents a mixed overall structure in which its cytoplasmic and luminal half appear to be independently modulated by a phosphate analog and an antagonist bound to the respective parts of the enzyme. Comparison of the molecular conformations revealed that the linker region connecting the A domain and the transmembrane helix 2 (A-M2 linker) mediates the regulation of luminal gating. The mechanistic rationale underlying luminal gating observed in H+,K+-ATPase is consistent with that observed in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase and other P-type ATPases and is most likely conserved for the P-type ATPase family in general. PMID:25231997

  7. Systematic comparison of molecular conformations of H+,K+-ATPase reveals an important contribution of the A-M2 linker for the luminal gating.

    PubMed

    Abe, Kazuhiro; Tani, Kazutoshi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori

    2014-10-31

    Gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase, an ATP-driven proton pump responsible for gastric acidification, is a molecular target for anti-ulcer drugs. Here we show its cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structure in an E2P analog state, bound to magnesium fluoride (MgF), and its K(+)-competitive antagonist SCH28080, determined at 7 Å resolution by electron crystallography of two-dimensional crystals. Systematic comparison with other E2P-related cryo-EM structures revealed that the molecular conformation in the (SCH)E2·MgF state is remarkably distinguishable. Although the azimuthal position of the A domain of the (SCH)E2·MgF state is similar to that in the E2·AlF (aluminum fluoride) state, in which the transmembrane luminal gate is closed, the arrangement of transmembrane helices in the (SCH)E2·MgF state shows a luminal-open conformation imposed on by bound SCH28080 at its luminal cavity, based on observations of the structure in the SCH28080-bound E2·BeF (beryllium fluoride) state. The molecular conformation of the (SCH)E2·MgF state thus represents a mixed overall structure in which its cytoplasmic and luminal half appear to be independently modulated by a phosphate analog and an antagonist bound to the respective parts of the enzyme. Comparison of the molecular conformations revealed that the linker region connecting the A domain and the transmembrane helix 2 (A-M2 linker) mediates the regulation of luminal gating. The mechanistic rationale underlying luminal gating observed in H(+),K(+)-ATPase is consistent with that observed in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase and other P-type ATPases and is most likely conserved for the P-type ATPase family in general. PMID:25231997

  8. The ATP-binding site of Ca(2+)-ATPase revealed by electron image analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Yonekura, K; Stokes, D L; Sasabe, H; Toyoshima, C

    1997-01-01

    The location of the ATP-binding site of a P-type ion pump, Ca(2+)-ATPase from rabbit sarcoplasmic reticulum, was examined by cryoelectron microscopy. A nonhydrolyzable analog of ATP, beta, gamma-bidentate chromium (III) complex of ATP (CrATP), was used to stabilize the enzyme in the Ca(2+)-occluded state. Tubular crystals were then induced by vanadate in the presence of EGTA, keeping CrATP bound to the enzyme. The three-dimensional structures of the crystals were determined at 14 A resolution by cryoelectron microscopy and helical image analysis. Statistical comparison of the structures with and without CrATP showed clear and significant differences at the groove proposed previously as the ATP-binding pocket. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:9138598

  9. Transcriptional regulators of Na,K-ATPase subunits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiqin; Langhans, Sigrid A.

    2015-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase classically serves as an ion pump creating an electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane that is essential for transepithelial transport, nutrient uptake and membrane potential. In addition, Na,K-ATPase also functions as a receptor, a signal transducer and a cell adhesion molecule. With such diverse roles, it is understandable that the Na,K-ATPase subunits, the catalytic α-subunit, the β-subunit and the FXYD proteins, are controlled extensively during development and to accommodate physiological needs. The spatial and temporal expression of Na,K-ATPase is partially regulated at the transcriptional level. Numerous transcription factors, hormones, growth factors, lipids, and extracellular stimuli modulate the transcription of the Na,K-ATPase subunits. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of Na,K-ATPase expression. With the ever growing knowledge about diseases associated with the malfunction of Na,K-ATPase, this review aims at summarizing the best-characterized transcription regulators that modulate Na,K-ATPase subunit levels. As abnormal expression of Na,K-ATPase subunits has been observed in many carcinoma, we will also discuss transcription factors that are associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a crucial step in the progression of many tumors to malignant disease. PMID:26579519

  10. Na(+),K (+)-ATPase as a docking station: protein-protein complexes of the Na(+),K (+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Linda; Tidow, Henning; Clausen, Michael J; Nissen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    The Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, or sodium pump, is well known for its role in ion transport across the plasma membrane of animal cells. It carries out the transport of Na(+) ions out of the cell and of K(+) ions into the cell and thus maintains electrolyte and fluid balance. In addition to the fundamental ion-pumping function of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, recent work has suggested additional roles for Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in signal transduction and biomembrane structure. Several signaling pathways have been found to involve Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, which serves as a docking station for a fast-growing number of protein interaction partners. In this review, we focus on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase as a signal transducer, but also briefly discuss other Na(+),K(+)-ATPase protein-protein interactions, providing a comprehensive overview of the diverse signaling functions ascribed to this well-known enzyme. PMID:22695678

  11. Segmentation of the Outer Contact on P-Type Coaxial Germanium Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, Ethan L.; Pehl, Richard H.; Lathrop, James R.; Martin, Gregory N.; Mashburn, R. B.; Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hossbach, Todd W.

    2006-09-21

    Germanium detector arrays are needed for low-level counting facilities. The practical applications of such user facilities include characterization of low-level radioactive samples. In addition, the same detector arrays can also perform important fundamental physics measurements including the search for rare events like neutrino-less double-beta decay. Coaxial germanium detectors having segmented outer contacts will provide the next level of sensitivity improvement in low background measurements. The segmented outer detector contact allows performance of advanced pulse shape analysis measurements that provide additional background reduction. Currently, n-type (reverse electrode) germanium coaxial detectors are used whenever a segmented coaxial detector is needed because the outer boron (electron barrier) contact is thin and can be segmented. Coaxial detectors fabricated from p-type germanium cost less, have better resolution, and are larger than n-type coaxial detectors. However, it is difficult to reliably segment p-type coaxial detectors because thick (~1 mm) lithium-diffused (hole barrier) contacts are the standard outside contact for p-type coaxial detectors. During this Phase 1 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) we have researched the possibility of using amorphous germanium contacts as a thin outer contact of p-type coaxial detectors that can be segmented. We have developed amorphous germanium contacts that provide a very high hole barrier on small planar detectors. These easily segmented amorphous germanium contacts have been demonstrated to withstand several thousand volts/cm electric fields with no measurable leakage current (<1 pA) from charge injection over the hole barrier. We have also demonstrated that the contact can be sputter deposited around and over the curved outside surface of a small p-type coaxial detector. The amorphous contact has shown good rectification properties on the outside of a small p-type coaxial detector. These encouraging

  12. Chemical-free n-type and p-type multilayer-graphene transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissanayake, D. M. N. M.; Eisaman, M. D.

    2016-08-01

    A single-step doping method to fabricate n- and p-type multilayer graphene (MG) top-gate field effect transistors (GFETs) is demonstrated. The transistors are fabricated on soda-lime glass substrates, with the n-type doping of MG caused by the sodium in the substrate without the addition of external chemicals. Placing a hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) barrier layer between the MG and the substrate blocks the n-doping, resulting in p-type doping of the MG above regions patterned with HSQ. The HSQ is deposited in a single fabrication step using electron beam lithography, allowing the patterning of arbitrary sub-micron spatial patterns of n- and p-type doping. When a MG channel is deposited partially on the barrier and partially on the glass substrate, a p-type and n-type doping profile is created, which is used for fabricating complementary transistors pairs. Unlike chemically doped GFETs in which the external dopants are typically introduced from the top, these substrate doped GFETs allow for a top gate which gives a stronger electrostatic coupling to the channel, reducing the operating gate bias. Overall, this method enables scalable fabrication of n- and p-type complementary top-gated GFETs with high spatial resolution for graphene microelectronic applications.

  13. p-type Mesoscopic Nickel Oxide/Organometallic Perovskite Heterojunction Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kuo-Chin; Jeng, Jun-Yuan; Shen, Po-Shen; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang; Tsai, Cheng-Hung; Chao, Tzu-Yang; Hsu, Hsu-Cheng; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Peter; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Wen, Ten-Chin

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a new paradigm for organometallic hybrid perovskite solar cell using NiO inorganic metal oxide nanocrystalline as p-type electrode material and realized the first mesoscopic NiO/perovskite/[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) heterojunction photovoltaic device. The photo-induced transient absorption spectroscopy results verified that the architecture is an effective p-type sensitized junction, which is the first inorganic p-type, metal oxide contact material for perovskite-based solar cell. Power conversion efficiency of 9.51% was achieved under AM 1.5 G illumination, which significantly surpassed the reported conventional p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. The replacement of the organic hole transport materials by a p-type metal oxide has the advantages to provide robust device architecture for further development of all-inorganic perovskite-based thin-film solar cells and tandem photovoltaics. PMID:24755642

  14. Recent Developments in p-Type Oxide Semiconductor Materials and Devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenwei; Nayak, Pradipta K; Caraveo-Frescas, Jesus A; Alshareef, Husam N

    2016-05-01

    The development of transparent p-type oxide semiconductors with good performance may be a true enabler for a variety of applications where transparency, power efficiency, and greater circuit complexity are needed. Such applications include transparent electronics, displays, sensors, photovoltaics, memristors, and electrochromics. Hence, here, recent developments in materials and devices based on p-type oxide semiconductors are reviewed, including ternary Cu-bearing oxides, binary copper oxides, tin monoxide, spinel oxides, and nickel oxides. The crystal and electronic structures of these materials are discussed, along with approaches to enhance valence-band dispersion to reduce effective mass and increase mobility. Strategies to reduce interfacial defects, off-state current, and material instability are suggested. Furthermore, it is shown that promising progress has been made in the performance of various types of devices based on p-type oxides. Several innovative approaches exist to fabricate transparent complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices, including novel device fabrication schemes and utilization of surface chemistry effects, resulting in good inverter gains. However, despite recent developments, p-type oxides still lag in performance behind their n-type counterparts, which have entered volume production in the display market. Recent successes along with the hurdles that stand in the way of commercial success of p-type oxide semiconductors are presented. PMID:26879813

  15. Piezotronic effect in solution-grown p-type ZnO nanowires and films.

    PubMed

    Pradel, Ken C; Wu, Wenzhuo; Zhou, Yusheng; Wen, Xiaonan; Ding, Yong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-06-12

    Investigating the piezotronic effect in p-type piezoelectric semiconductor is critical for developing a complete piezotronic theory and designing/fabricating novel piezotronic applications with more complex functionality. Using a low temperature solution method, we were able to produce ultralong (up to 60 μm in length) Sb doped p-type ZnO nanowires on both rigid and flexible substrates. For the p-type nanowire field effect transistor, the on/off ratio, threshold voltage, mobility, and carrier concentration of 0.2% Sb-doped sample are found to be 10(5), 2.1 V, 0.82 cm(2)·V(-1)·s(-1), and 2.6 × 10(17) cm(-3), respectively, and the corresponding values for 1% Sb doped samples are 10(4), 2.0 V, 1.24 cm(2)·V(-1)·s(-1), and 3.8 × 10(17) cm(-3). We further investigated the universality of piezotronic effect in the as-synthesized Sb-doped p-type ZnO NWs and reported for the first time strain-gated piezotronic transistors as well as piezopotential-driven mechanical energy harvesting based on solution-grown p-type ZnO NWs. The results presented here broaden the scope of piezotronics and extend the framework for its potential applications in electronics, optoelectronics, smart MEMS/NEMS, and human-machine interfacing. PMID:23635319

  16. Mycobacterial P1-Type ATPases Mediate Resistance to Zinc Poisoning in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Botella, Hélène; Peyron, Pascale; Levillain, Florence; Poincloux, Renaud; Poquet, Yannick; Brandli, Irène; Wang, Chuan; Tailleux, Ludovic; Tilleul, Sylvain; Charrière, Guillaume M.; Waddell, Simon J.; Foti, Maria; Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Gao, Qian; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Butcher, Philip D.; Castagnoli, Paola Ricciardi; Gicquel, Brigitte; de Chastellier, Chantal; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Summary Mycobacterium tuberculosis thrives within macrophages by residing in phagosomes and preventing them from maturing and fusing with lysosomes. A parallel transcriptional survey of intracellular mycobacteria and their host macrophages revealed signatures of heavy metal poisoning. In particular, mycobacterial genes encoding heavy metal efflux P-type ATPases CtpC, CtpG, and CtpV, and host cell metallothioneins and zinc exporter ZnT1, were induced during infection. Consistent with this pattern of gene modulation, we observed a burst of free zinc inside macrophages, and intraphagosomal zinc accumulation within a few hours postinfection. Zinc exposure led to rapid CtpC induction, and ctpC deficiency caused zinc retention within the mycobacterial cytoplasm, leading to impaired intracellular growth of the bacilli. Thus, the use of P1-type ATPases represents a M. tuberculosis strategy to neutralize the toxic effects of zinc in macrophages. We propose that heavy metal toxicity and its counteraction might represent yet another chapter in the host-microbe arms race. PMID:21925112

  17. Modeling of the Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type IrSb(sub 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleurial, J.

    1994-01-01

    IrSb(sub 3) is a compound of the skutterudite family of materials now being investigated at JPL. A combination of experimental and theoretical approaches has been recently applied at JPL to evaluate the potential of several thermoelectric materials such as n-type and p-type Si(sub 80) Ge(sub 20) alloys, n-type and p-type Bi(sub 2) Te(sub 3)-based alloys and p-type Ru(sub 2) Ge(sub 3) compound. The use of a comprehensive model for the thermal and electrical transport properties of a given material over its full temperature range of usefulness is a powerful tool for guiding experimental optimization of the composition, temperature and doping level as well as for predicting the maximum ZT value likely to be achieved.

  18. Identification and design principles of low hole effective mass p-type transparent conducting oxides

    PubMed Central

    Hautier, Geoffroy; Miglio, Anna; Ceder, Gerbrand; Rignanese, Gian-Marco; Gonze, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    The development of high-performance transparent conducting oxides is critical to many technologies from transparent electronics to solar cells. Whereas n-type transparent conducting oxides are present in many devices, their p-type counterparts are not largely commercialized, as they exhibit much lower carrier mobilities due to the large hole effective masses of most oxides. Here we conduct a high-throughput computational search on thousands of binary and ternary oxides and identify several highly promising compounds displaying exceptionally low hole effective masses (up to an order of magnitude lower than state-of-the-art p-type transparent conducting oxides), as well as wide band gaps. In addition to the discovery of specific compounds, the chemical rationalization of our findings opens new directions, beyond current Cu-based chemistries, for the design and development of future p-type transparent conducting oxides. PMID:23939205

  19. Dopant source choice for formation of p-type ZnO: Li acceptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y. J.; Ye, Z. Z.; Xu, W. Z.; Li, D. Y.; Lu, J. G.; Zhu, L. P.; Zhao, B. H.

    2006-02-01

    Li-doped, p-type ZnO thin films have been realized via dc reactive magnetron sputtering. An optimized result with a resistivity of 16.4Ωcm, Hall mobility of 2.65cm2/Vs, and hole concentration of 1.44×1017cm-3 was achieved, and electrically stable over a month. Hall-effect measurements supported by secondary ion mass spectroscopy indicated that the substrate temperature played a key role in optimizing the p-type conduction of Li-doped ZnO thin films. Furthermore, ZnO-based p-n homojunction was fabricated by deposition of a Li-doped p-type ZnO layer on an Al-doped n-type ZnO layer.

  20. Realization of p-type ZnO films via monodoping of Li acceptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yu-Jia; Ye, Zhi-Zhen; Xu, Wei-Zhong; Chen, Lan-Lan; Li, Dan-Ying; Zhu, Li-Ping; Zhao, Bing-Hui; Hu, Ying-Lin

    2005-09-01

    p-Type ZnO thin films have been realized via monodoping of Li acceptor by adopting DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The lowest room-temperature resistivity was found to be 17.6 Ω cm with a Hall mobility of 3.47 cm2 V-1 s-1 and carrier concentration of 1.01×1017 cm-3 for Li-doped p-type ZnO film deposited on glass substrate. The Li-doped ZnO film possessed a good crystallinity with c-axis orientation and a high transmittance (90%) in the visible region. Moreover, the effects of Li content on the crystallinity, electrical and optical properties of p-type ZnO films were discussed.

  1. High performance P-type thermoelectric materials and methods of preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Borshchevsky, Alexander (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is embodied in high performance p-type thermoelectric materials having enhanced thermoelectric properties and the methods of preparing such materials. In one aspect of the invention, p-type semiconductors of formula Zn.sub.4-x A.sub.x Sb.sub.3-y B.sub.y wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.4, A is a transition metal, B is a pnicogen, and 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.3 are formed for use in manufacturing thermoelectric devices with substantially enhanced operating characteristics and improved efficiency. Two methods of preparing p-type Zn.sub.4 Sb.sub.3 and related alloys of the present invention include a crystal growth method and a powder metallurgy method.

  2. Topography of a vacuolar-type H+-translocating ATPase: chromaffin-granule membrane ATPase I.

    PubMed Central

    Apps, D K; Percy, J M; Perez-Castineira, J R

    1989-01-01

    Proteins exposed on the cytoplasmic face of isolated chromaffin granules were labelled by lactoperoxidase-catalysed radioiodination and by non-enzymic biotinylation. Granule membranes were then prepared, and the H+-translocating ATPase isolated by fractionation with Triton X-114. The labelling of individual ATPase subunits was assessed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, followed by autoradiography or by blotting and decoration with 125I-labelled streptavidin. Subunits of 72, 57 and kDa were strongly labelled, and could be removed from the membrane at pH 11: they are therefore extrinsic proteins. The 120 kDa subunit was also labelled, but it was not solubilized at pH 11. Photolabelling with a hydrophobic probe indicated that this subunit penetrates the bilayer, and enzymic degradation studies showed the presence of N-linked oligosaccharides; this subunit therefore spans the chromaffin-granule membrane. Labelling of the 17 kDa subunit occurred predominantly on the extracytoplasmic (matrix) face of the granule membrane. These results are consistent with this V-type ATPase having a structure that is generally similar to that of mitochondrial (F-type) ATPases, although the attachment of the 120 kDa subunit may be asymmetrical. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 5. PMID:2532503

  3. Dual ohmic contact to N- and P-type silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous formation of electrical ohmic contacts to silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor having donor and acceptor impurities (n- and p-type doping, respectively) is disclosed. The innovation provides for ohmic contacts formed on SiC layers having n- and p-doping at one process step during the fabrication of the semiconductor device. Further, the innovation provides a non-discriminatory, universal ohmic contact to both n- and p-type SiC, enhancing reliability of the specific contact resistivity when operated at temperatures in excess of 600.degree. C.

  4. Electrical and optical properties of p-type InN

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, Marie A.; Choi, Soojeong; Bierwagen, Oliver; Smith, Holland M.; Haller, Eugene E.; Speck, James S.; Walukiewicz, Wladek

    2011-01-01

    We have performed comprehensive studies of optical, thermoelectric and electrical properties of Mg doped InN with varying Mg doping levels and sample thicknesses. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra show a Mg acceptor related emission and the thermopower provides clear evidence for the presence of mobile holes. Although the effects of the hole transport are clearly observed in the temperature dependent electrical properties, the sign of the apparent Hall coefficient remains negative in all samples. We show that the standard model of two electrically well connected layers (n-type surface electron accumulation and p-type bulk) does not properly describe Hall effect in p-type InN.

  5. Tunable electronic structures of p-type Mg doping in AlN nanosheet

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yuting; Xia, Congxin Zhang, Heng; Wang, Tianxing; Wei, Shuyi; Jia, Yu

    2014-07-28

    The p-type impurity properties are investigated in the Mg-doped AlN nanosheet by means of first-principles calculations. Numerical results show that the transition energy levels reduce monotonously with the increase in Mg doping concentration in the Mg-doped AlN nanosheet systems, and are lower than that of the Mg-doped bulk AlN case for the cases with larger doping concentration. Moreover, Mg substituting Al atom is energy favorably under N-rich growth experimental conditions. These results are new and interesting to further improve p-type doping efficiency in the AlN nanostructures.

  6. Purification and Properties of an ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1992-01-01

    A sulfite-activated ATPase isolated from Sulfolobus solfataricus had a relative molecular mass of 370,000. It was composed of three subunits whose relative molecular masses were 63,000, 48,000, and 24,000. The enzyme was inhibited by the vacuolar ATPase inhibitors nitrate and N-ethylmaleimide; 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-furazan (NBD-Cl) was also inhibitory. N-Ethylmaleimide was predominately bound to the largest subunit while NBD-CL was bound to both subunits. ATPase activity was inhibited by low concentrations of p-chloromercuri-phenyl sulfonate and the inhibition was reversed by cysteine which suggested that thiol groups were essential for activity. While the ATPase from S. solfataricus shared several properties with the ATPase from S. acidocaldarius there were significant differences. The latter enzyme was activated by sulfate and chloride and was unaffected by N-ethylmaleimide, whereas the S. solfataricus ATPase was inhibited by these anions as well as N-ethyimaleimide. These differences as well as differences that occur in other vacuolar-like ATPases isolated from the methanogenic and the extremely halophilic bacteria suggest the existence of several types of archaeal ATPases, none of which have been demonstrated to synthesize ATP.

  7. A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na+/K+-ATPases in osmoregulation?

    PubMed Central

    Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Léna; Bouteau, François

    2013-01-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na+/K+-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na+/K+-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos. PMID:24505501

  8. Purification and properties of an ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports properties of a sulfite-activated ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus, purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation, column chromatography on UltraGel and Sepharose 6B, and SDS-PAGE. The 92-fold purified enzyme had a relative molecular mass of 370,000. It could be dissociated into three subunits with respective molecular masses of 63,000, 48,000, and 24,000. The ATPase activity was found to be inhibitable by nitrate, N-ethylmaleimide (which bound predominantly to the largest subunit), and 4-chloro 7-nitrobenzofurazan, but not by azide, quercetin, or vanadate. While the ATPase from S. solfataricus shared a number of properties with the S. acidocaldarius ATPase, there were also significant differences suggesting the existence of several types of archaeal ATPases.

  9. Quercetin interaction with the chloroplast ATPase complex.

    PubMed

    Shoshan, V; Shahak, Y; Shavit, N

    1980-07-01

    1. Quercetin, a flavonoid which acts as an energy transfer inhibitor in photophosphorylation is shown to inhibit the P-ATP exchange activity of membrane-bound CF1 and the ATPase activity of isolated CF1. Quercetin, affects also the proton uptake in chloroplasts in a manner similar to that of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. 2. The light-dependent proton uptake in EDTA-treated chloroplasts is stimulated by quercetin. In untreated chloroplasts quercetin has a dual effect: it enhances at pH above 7.5 while at lower pH values it decreases the extent of H+ uptake. Similar effects were obtained with dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. 3. Like quercetin, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide was also found to inhibit the ATPase activity of isolated CF1. 4. Quercetin inhibits uncoupled electron transport induced by either EDTA-treatment of chloroplasts or by addition of uncouplers. Quercetin restores H+ uptake in both types of uncoupled chloroplasts. 5. The mode of action of quercetin and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide in photophosphorylation is discussed, and interaction with both CF1 and F0 is suggested. PMID:6446936

  10. Diffusion, Uptake and Release of Hydrogen in p-type Gallium Nitride: Theory and Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    MYERS JR.,SAMUEL M.; WRIGHT,ALAN F.; PETERSEN,GARY A.; WAMPLER,WILLIAM R.; SEAGER,CARLETON H.; CRAWFORD,MARY H.; HAN,JUNG

    2000-06-27

    The diffusion, uptake, and release of H in p-type GaN are modeled employing state energies from density-function theory and compared with measurements of deuterium uptake and release using nuclear-reaction analysis. Good semiquantitative agreement is found when account is taken of a surface permeation barrier.

  11. p -type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low-temperature thermoelectric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hor, Y. S.; Richardella, A.; Roushan, P.; Xia, Y.; Checkelsky, J. G.; Yazdani, A.; Hasan, M. Z.; Ong, N. P.; Cava, R. J.

    2009-05-01

    The growth and elementary properties of p -type Bi2Se3 single crystals are reported. Based on a hypothesis about the defect chemistry of Bi2Se3 , the p -type behavior has been induced through low-level substitutions (1% or less) of Ca for Bi. Scanning tunneling microscopy is employed to image the defects and establish their charge. Tunneling and angle-resolved photoemission spectra show that the Fermi level has been lowered into the valence band by about 400 meV in Bi1.98Ca0.02Se3 relative to the n -type material. p -type single crystals with ab -plane Seebeck coefficients of +180μV/K at room temperature are reported. These crystals show an anomalous peak in the Seebeck coefficient at low temperatures, reaching +120μVK-1 at 7 K, giving them a high thermoelectric power factor at low temperatures. In addition to its interesting thermoelectric properties, p -type Bi2Se3 is of substantial interest for studies of technologies and phenomena proposed for topological insulators.

  12. Pure silver ohmic contacts to N- and P- type gallium arsenide materials

    DOEpatents

    Hogan, Stephen J.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved process for manufacturing gallium arsenide semiconductor devices having as its components an n-type gallium arsenide substrate layer and a p-type gallium arsenide diffused layer. The improved process comprises forming a pure silver ohmic contact to both the diffused layer and the substrate layer, wherein the n-type layer comprises a substantially low doping carrier concentration.

  13. Process for forming pure silver ohmic contacts to N- and P-type gallium arsenide materials

    DOEpatents

    Hogan, S.J.

    1983-03-13

    Disclosed is an improved process for manufacturing gallium arsenide semiconductor devices having as its components a n-type gallium arsenide substrate layer and a p-type gallium arsenide diffused layer. The improved process comprises forming a pure silver ohmic contact to both the diffuse layer and the substrate layer wherein the n-type layer comprises a substantially low doping carrier concentration.

  14. A structural and functional perspective of DyP-type peroxidase family.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toru; Sugano, Yasushi

    2015-05-15

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidase from the basidiomycete Bjerkandera adusta Dec 1 (DyP) is a heme peroxidase. This name reflects its ability to degrade several anthraquinone dyes. The substrate specificity, the amino acid sequence, and the tertiary structure of DyP are different from those of the other heme peroxidase (super)families. Therefore, many proteins showing the similar amino acid sequences to that of DyP are called DyP-type peroxidase which is a new family of heme peroxidase identified in 2007. In fact, all structures of this family show a similar structure fold. However, this family includes many proteins whose amino acid sequence identity to DyP is lower than 15% and/or whose catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) is a few orders of magnitude less than that of DyP. A protein showing an activity different from peroxidase activity (dechelatase activity) has been also reported. In addition, the precise physiological roles of DyP-type peroxidases are unknown. These facts raise a question of whether calling this family DyP-type peroxidase is suitable. Here, we review the differences and similarities of structure and function among this family and propose the reasonable new classification of DyP-type peroxidase family, that is, class P, I and V. In this contribution, we discuss the adequacy of this family name. PMID:25655348

  15. Improvement of photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation by surface modification of p-type silicon semiconductor photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Dominey, R.N.; Lewis, N.S.; Bruce, J.A.; Bookbinder, D.C.; Wrighton, M.S.

    1982-01-27

    The improvement of H/sub 2/ evolution from two different types of catalytic p-type photocathode surfaces has been examined. p-Type Si has been platinized by phtotelectrochemically plating Pt(0) onto the Si surface. Such a photocathode shows significant improvement (compared to naked p-type Si) for photochemical H/sub 2/ evolution with respect to output photovoltage, fill factor, and overall efficiency. Such photocathodes having an optimun amount of Pt(0) give a pH-dependent output voltage with respect to the H/sub 2/O/H/sub 2/ couple, but the dependence is not a simple 59-mV/pH dependence. No pH dependence would be expected if Pt(0) formed a Schottky barrier when plated onto p-type Si. A second kind of H/sub 2/ evolution catalyst has been confined to the surface of p-type Si. Polymeric quantities of an electroactive N,N'-dialkyl-4,4'-bipridinium reagent, (PQ/sup 2 +/.)/sub n/, have been confined to the surface. The Br/sup -/ counterions of the polymer are then exchanged by PtCl/sub 6//sup 2 -/. Photoreduction then yields Pt(0) dispersed in the polymer. Such a surface is again significantly improved compared to naked p-type Si with respect to H/sub 2/ evolution. A comparison of the naked p-Si, the simply platinized, and the (PQ/sup 2 +//sup ///sup +//sub n/.nPt(0))/sub surf./ system is made and contrasted to the expected behavior of an external Schottky barrier photocell driving an electrolysis cell with a Pt cathode. Experiments with n-type MoS/sub 2/, n-type Si, Pt, Au, and W cathodes functionalized with the (PQ/sup 2 +//sup ///sup +/.)sub n/.nPt(0))/sub surf./ system compared to the same surface directly platinized confirm an important difference in the mechanism of H/sub 2/ evolution catalysis for the two surface catalyst systems. p-Type Si modified with optimum amounts of Pt(0) by direct platinization appears to give improved H/sub 2/ evolution efficiency by a mechanism where the Pt(0) serves as a catalyst that does not alter the interface energetics of the

  16. Coordinated Overexpression in Yeast of a P4-ATPase and Its Associated Cdc50 Subunit: The Case of the Drs2p/Cdc50p Lipid Flippase Complex.

    PubMed

    Azouaoui, Hassina; Montigny, Cédric; Jacquot, Aurore; Barry, Raphaëlle; Champeil, Philippe; Lenoir, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Structural and functional characterization of integral membrane proteins requires milligram amounts of purified sample. Unless the protein you are studying is abundant in native membranes, it will be critical to overexpress the protein of interest in a homologous or heterologous way, and in sufficient quantities for further purification. The situation may become even more complicated if you chose to investigate the structure and function of a complex of two or more membrane proteins. Here, we describe the overexpression of a yeast lipid flippase complex, namely the P4-ATPase Drs2p and its associated subunit Cdc50p, in a coordinated manner. Moreover, we can take advantage of the fact that P4-ATPases, like most other P-type ATPases, form an acid-stable phosphorylated intermediate, to verify that the expressed complex is functional. PMID:26695021

  17. Functional classification of mitochondrion-rich cells in euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) embryos, by means of triple immunofluorescence staining for Na+/K+-ATPase, Na +/K+/2Cl- cotransporter and CFTR anion channel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hiroi, J.; McCormick, S.D.; Ohtani-Kaneko, R.; Kaneko, T.

    2005-01-01

    Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus embryos were transferred from freshwater to seawater and vice versa, and short-term changes in the localization of three major ion transport proteins, Na+/K +-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) were examined within mitochondrion-rich cells (MRCs) in the embryonic yolk-sac membrane. Triple-color immunofluorescence staining allowed us to classify MRCs into four types: type I, showing only basolateral Na+/K +-ATPase staining; type II, basolateral Na+/K +-ATPase and apical NKCC; type III, basolateral Na+/K +-ATPase and basolateral NKCC; type IV, basolateral Na +/K+-ATPase, basolateral NKCC and apical CFTR. In freshwater, type-I, type-II and type-III cells were observed. Following transfer from freshwater to seawater, type-IV cells appeared at 12 h and showed a remarkable increase in number between 24 h and 48 h, whereas type-III cells disappeared. When transferred from seawater back to freshwater, type-IV cells decreased and disappeared at 48 h, type-III cells increased, and type-II cells, which were not found in seawater, appeared at 12 h and increased in number thereafter. Type-I cells existed consistently irrespective of salinity changes. These results suggest that type I is an immature MRC, type II is a freshwater-type ion absorptive cell, type III is a dormant type-IV cell and/or an ion absorptive cell (with a different mechanism from type II), and type IV is a seawater-type ion secretory cell. The intracellular localization of the three ion transport proteins in type-IV cells is completely consistent with a widely accepted model for ion secretion by MRCs. A new model for ion absorption is proposed based on type-II cells possessing apical NKCC.

  18. The p-type conduction mechanism in Cu2O: a first principles study.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Michael; Elliott, Simon D

    2006-12-01

    Materials based on Cu2O are potential p-type transparent semiconducting oxides. Developing an understanding of the mechanism leading to p-type behaviour is important. An accepted origin is the formation of Cu vacancies. However, the way in which this mechanism leads to p-type properties needs to be investigated. This paper presents a first principles analysis of the origin of p-type semiconducting behaviour in Cu2O with 1.5 and 3% Cu vacancy concentrations. Plane wave density functional theory (DFT) with the Perdew-Burke Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange-correlation functional is applied. In order to investigate the applicability of DFT, we firstly show that CuO, with 50% Cu vacancies cannot be described with DFT and in order to obtain a consistent description of CuO, the DFT + U approach is applied. The resulting electronic structure is consistent with experiment, with a spin moment of 0.64 mu(B) and an indirect band gap of 1.48 eV for U = 7 eV. However, for a 3% Cu vacancy concentration in Cu2O, the DFT and DFT + U descriptions of Cu vacancies are similar, indicating that DFT is suitable for a small concentration of Cu vacancies; the formation energy of a Cu vacancy is no larger than 1.7 eV. Formation of Cu vacancies produces delocalised hole states with hole effective masses consistent with the semiconducting nature of Cu2O. These results demonstrate that the p-type semiconducting properties observed for Cu2O are explained by a small concentration of Cu vacancies. PMID:19810413

  19. Metal binding to the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the PIB ATPase HMA4 is required for metal transport in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Clémentine; Lekeux, Gilles; Ukuwela, Ashwinie A; Xiao, Zhiguang; Charlier, Jean-Benoit; Bosman, Bernard; Carnol, Monique; Motte, Patrick; Damblon, Christian; Galleni, Moreno; Hanikenne, Marc

    2016-03-01

    PIB ATPases are metal cation pumps that transport metals across membranes. These proteins possess N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic extensions that contain Cys- and His-rich high affinity metal binding domains, which may be involved in metal sensing, metal ion selectivity and/or in regulation of the pump activity. The PIB ATPase HMA4 (Heavy Metal ATPase 4) plays a central role in metal homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana and has a key function in zinc and cadmium hypertolerance and hyperaccumulation in the extremophile plant species Arabidopsis halleri. Here, we examined the function and structure of the N-terminal cytoplasmic metal-binding domain of HMA4. We mutagenized a conserved CCTSE metal-binding motif in the domain and assessed the impact of the mutations on protein function and localization in planta, on metal-binding properties in vitro and on protein structure by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. The two Cys residues of the motif are essential for the function, but not for localization, of HMA4 in planta, whereas the Glu residue is important but not essential. These residues also determine zinc coordination and affinity. Zinc binding to the N-terminal domain is thus crucial for HMA4 protein function, whereas it is not required to maintain the protein structure. Altogether, combining in vivo and in vitro approaches in our study provides insights towards the molecular understanding of metal transport and specificity of metal P-type ATPases. PMID:26797794

  20. Ratchet model for type IV pilus retraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindén, Martin; Tuohimaa, Tomi; Jonsson, Ann-Beth; Wallin, Mats

    2004-03-01

    Type IV pilus rectraction is required for twitching motility in a wide range of bacteriae, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Myxococcus xanthus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The mechanism of retraction is believed to be filament disassembly mediated by PilT, a member of the AAA family of motor proteins. Recent laser tweezer measurements of the force-velocity relation of PilT in N. gonorrhoeae, reveal that single PilT complexes generate forces of over 100 pN. We assume that PilT forms a cyclic ATPase surrounding the base of the pilus and formulate a model of retraction in terms of coupled flashing ratchets. We obtain a force-velocity relation by numerical simulation of the model which is in qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

  1. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  2. The amino-terminal 200 amino acids of the plasma membrane Na+,K+-ATPase alpha subunit confer ouabain sensitivity on the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, T; Takeyasu, K

    1993-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides such as G-strophanthin (ouabain) bind to and inhibit the plasma membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase but not the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase, whereas thapsigargin specifically blocks the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase. The chimera [n/c]CC, in which the amino-terminal amino acids Met1 to Asp162 of the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA1) were replaced with the corresponding portion of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit (Met1 to Asp200), retained thapsigargin- and Ca(2+)-sensitive ATPase activity, although the activity was lower than that of the wild-type SR Ca(2+)-ATPase. Moreover, this Ca(2+)-sensitive ATPase activity was inhibited by ouabain. The chimera NCC, in which Met1-Gly354 of the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase were replaced with the corresponding portion of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase, lost the thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+)-ATPase activity seen in CCC and [n/c]CC. [3H]Ouabain binding to [n/c]CC and NCC demonstrated that the affinity for this inhibitor seen in the wild-type chicken Na+,K(+)-ATPase was restored in these chimeric molecules. Thus, the ouabain-binding domains are distinct from the thapsigargin sites; ouabain binds to the amino-terminal portion (Met1 to Asp200) of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit, whereas thapsigargin interacts with the regions after Asp162 of the Ca(2+)-ATPase. Moreover, the amino-terminal 200 amino acids of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit are sufficient to exert ouabain-dependent inhibition even after incorporation into the corresponding portion of the Ca(2+)-ATPase, and the segment Ile163 to Gly354 of the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase is critical for thapsigargin- and Ca(2+)-sensitive ATPase activity. Images Fig. 5 PMID:8415625

  3. Photoreduction at illuminated p-type semiconducting silicon photoelectrodes. Evidence for Fermi level pinning

    SciTech Connect

    Bocarsly, A.B.; Bookbinder, D.C.; Dominey, R.N.; Lewis, N.S.; Wrighton, M.S.

    1980-05-21

    Studies of p- and n-type Si electrodes are reported which show that semiconducting Si electrode surfaces do not allow efficient H/sub 2/ evolution in the dark (n type) or upon illumination with band gap or greater energy light (p type). The key experiment is that N,N'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (PQ/sup 2 +/) is reversibly reduced at n-type Si in aqueous media at a pH where H/sub 2/ should be evolved at nearly the same potential, but no H/sub 2/ evolution current is observable. The PQ/sup 2+/+/.system may be useful as an electron-transfer mediator, since PQ/sup +/.can be used to effect generation of H/sub 2/ from H/sub 2/O using a heterogeneous catalyst. The PQ/sup +/.can be produced in an uphill sense by illumination of p-type Si in aqueous solutions. Studies of p-type Si in nonaqueous solvents show that PQ/sup 2 +/, PQ/sup +/., Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +/, Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup +/, and Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 0/ are all reducible upon illumination of the p-type Si. Interestingly, each species can be photoreduced at a potential approx. 500 mV more positive than at a reversible electrode in the dark. This result reveals that a p-type Si-based photoelectrochemical cell based on PQ/sup 2+/+/., PQ/sup +/l/sup 0//, Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2+/+/, Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup +/0/, or Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 0/-/ would all yield a common output photovoltage, despite the fact that the formal potentials for these couples vary by more than the band gap (1.1 V) of the photocathode. These data support the notion that p-type Si exhibits Fermi level pinning under the conditions employed.Surface chemistry is shown to be able to effect changes in interface kinetics for electrodes exhibiting Fermi level pinning.

  4. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1335 View Download Large: 2400x2670 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV shows ...

  5. Kinetic studies on Na+/K+-ATPase and inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase by ATP.

    PubMed

    Xia, Li; Yuwen, Liu; Jie, Li; Huilin, Li; Xi, Yang; Cunxin, Wang; Zhiyong, Wang

    2004-08-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase (EC 3.6.1.3) is an important membrane-bound enzyme. In this paper, kinetic studies on Na+/K+-ATPase were carried out under mimetic physiological conditions. By using microcalorimeter, a thermokinetic method was employed for the first time. Compared with other methods, it provided accurate measurements of not only thermodynamic data (deltarHm) but also the kinetic data (Km and Vmax). At 310.15K and pH 7.4, the molar reaction enthalpy (deltarHm) was measured as -40.514 +/- 0.9kJmol(-1). The Michaelis constant (Km) was determined to be 0.479 +/- 0.020 mM and consistent with literature data. The reliability of the thermokinetic method was further confirmed by colorimetric studies. Furthermore, a simple and reliable kinetic procedure was presented for ascertaining the true substrate for Na+/K+-ATPase and determining the effect of free ATP. Results showed that the MgATP complex was the real substrate with a Km value of about 0.5mM and free ATP was a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 0.253 mM. PMID:15558949

  6. Capsazepine, a synthetic vanilloid that converts the Na,K-ATPase to Na-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Mahmmoud, Yasser A

    2008-02-01

    Capsazepine (CPZ), a synthetic capsaicin analogue, inhibits ATP hydrolysis by Na,K-ATPase in the presence but not in the absence of K(+). Studies with purified membranes revealed that CPZ reduced Na(+)-dependent phosphorylation by interference with Na(+) binding from the intracellular side of the membrane. Kinetic analyses showed that CPZ stabilized an enzyme species that constitutively occluded K(+). Low-affinity ATP interaction with the enzyme was strongly reduced after CPZ treatment; in contrast, indirectly measured interaction with ADP was much increased, which suggests that composite regulatory communication with nucleotides takes place during turnover. Studies with lipid vesicles revealed that CPZ reduced ATP-dependent digitoxigenin-sensitive (22)Na(+) influx into K(+)-loaded vesicles only at saturating ATP concentrations. The drug apparently abolishes the regulatory effect of ATP on the pump. Drawing on previous homology modeling studies of Na,K-ATPase to atomic models of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase and on kinetic data, we propose that CPZ uncouples an Na(+) cycle from an Na(+)/K(+) cycle in the pump. The Na(+) cycle possibly involves transport through the recently characterized Na(+)-specific site. A shift to such an uncoupled mode is believed to produce pumps mediating uncoupled Na(+) efflux by modifying the transport stoichiometry of single pump units. PMID:18230728

  7. Photosynthesis Activates Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase via Sugar Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Masaki; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Kuwata, Keiko; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-05-01

    Plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase acts as a primary transporter via proton pumping and regulates diverse physiological responses by controlling secondary solute transport, pH homeostasis, and membrane potential. Phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine and the subsequent binding of 14-3-3 proteins in the carboxyl terminus of the enzyme are required for H(+)-ATPase activation. We showed previously that photosynthesis induces phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine in the nonvascular bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha However, (1) whether this response is conserved in vascular plants and (2) the process by which photosynthesis regulates H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation at the plasma membrane remain unresolved issues. Here, we report that photosynthesis induced the phosphorylation and activation of H(+)-ATPase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves via sugar accumulation. Light reversibly phosphorylated leaf H(+)-ATPase, and this process was inhibited by pharmacological and genetic suppression of photosynthesis. Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses indicated that light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase occurred autonomously in mesophyll cells. We also show that the phosphorylation status of H(+)-ATPase and photosynthetic sugar accumulation in leaves were positively correlated and that sugar treatment promoted phosphorylation. Furthermore, light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase was strongly suppressed in a double mutant defective in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (adg1-1 tpt-2); these mutations strongly inhibited endogenous sugar accumulation. Overall, we show that photosynthesis activated H(+)-ATPase via sugar production in the mesophyll cells of vascular plants. Our work provides new insight into signaling from chloroplasts to the plasma membrane ion transport mechanism. PMID:27016447

  8. Temperature driven p-n-p type conduction switching materials: current trends and future directions.

    PubMed

    Guin, Satya N; Biswas, Kanishka

    2015-04-28

    Modern technological inventions have been going through a "renaissance" period. Development of new materials and understanding of fundamental structure-property correlations are the important steps to move further for advanced technologies. In modern technologies, inorganic semiconductors are the leading materials which are extensively used for different applications. In the current perspective, we present discussion on an important class of materials that show fascinating p-n-p type conduction switching, which can have potential applications in diodes or transistor devices that operate reversibly upon temperature or voltage change. We highlight the key concepts, present the current fundamental understanding and show the latest developments in the field of p-n-p type conduction switching. Finally, we point out the major challenges and opportunities in this field. PMID:25812630

  9. Effects of hole localization on limiting p-type conductivity in oxide and nitride semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J. L.; Janotti, A.; Van de Walle, C. G.

    2014-01-07

    We examine how hole localization limits the effectiveness of substitutional acceptors in oxide and nitride semiconductors and explain why p-type doping of these materials has proven so difficult. Using hybrid density functional calculations, we find that anion-site substitutional impurities in AlN, GaN, InN, and ZnO lead to atomic-like states that localize on the impurity atom itself. Substitution with cation-site impurities, on the other hand, triggers the formation of polarons that become trapped on nearest-neighbor anions, generally leading to large ionization energies for these acceptors. Unlike shallow effective-mass acceptors, these two types of deep acceptors couple strongly with the lattice, significantly affecting the optical properties and severely limiting prospects for achieving p-type conductivity in these wide-band-gap materials.

  10. Absence of positronium formation in clean buried nanocavities in p-type silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Brusa, R.S.; Macchi, C.; Mariazzi, S.; Karwasz, G.P.; Egger, W.; Sperr, P.; Koegel, G.

    2005-06-15

    Buried nanocavities at about 350 nm depth in Si were produced by thermal treatment of He implanted p-type (100) Si. The internal surfaces of the nanocavities were found free of impurity decorations by examining the high-momentum part of the Doppler-broadened positron annihilation spectra. Positron lifetime measurements with a pulsed slow positron beam show neither a short lifetime (125-150 ps) ascribable to parapositronium nor a longer lifetime (2-4 ns) ascribable to pick-off annihilation of orthopositronium. The lifetime of positrons trapped into nanocavities was found to be about 500 ps. The absence of positronium formation could be explained by an insufficient electron density and a lack of electron states in the band gap at the nanocavities internal surfaces produced in the p-type silicon.

  11. Ultra-thin ohmic contacts for p-type nitride light emitting devices

    DOEpatents

    Raffetto, Mark; Bharathan, Jayesh; Haberern, Kevin; Bergmann, Michael; Emerson, David; Ibbetson, James; Li, Ting

    2014-06-24

    A flip-chip semiconductor based Light Emitting Device (LED) can include an n-type semiconductor substrate and an n-type GaN epi-layer on the substrate. A p-type GaN epi-layer can be on the n-type GaN epi-layer and a metal ohmic contact p-electrode can be on the p-type GaN epi-layer, where the metal ohmic contact p-electrode can have an average thickness less than about 25 .ANG.. A reflector can be on the metal ohmic contact p-electrode and a metal stack can be on the reflector. An n-electrode can be on the substrate opposite the n-type GaN epi-layer and a bonding pad can be on the n-electrode.

  12. High-temperature elastic moduli of bulk nanostructured n - and p -type silicon germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladden, J. R.; Li, G.; Adebisi, R.; Firdosy, S.; Caillat, T.; Ravi, V.

    2010-07-01

    Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) has been used to measure the elastic moduli of n - and p -type doped polycrystalline bulk nanostructured silicon germanium alloys at elevated temperatures. A direct contact RUS transducer system with a working temperature range up to 900 K was successfully constructed for these measurements. For higher temperatures (up to 1300 K), we employed a traditional buffer rod RUS system. Experimental results show the Young’s and shear moduli of p -type SiGe alloys monotonically decrease with increasing temperatures in the 300-1200 K range. The n -type samples show a marked stiffening beginning at 675 K which does not repeat upon cooling or subsequent reheating. We attribute the stiffening of the n -type samples to the thermally activated precipitation of the phosphorous dopant. Electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient data are also presented for both types of SiGe which support this conclusion.

  13. High temperature terahertz response in a p-type quantum dot-in-well photodetector

    SciTech Connect

    Wolde, Seyoum; Lao, Yan-Feng; Unil Perera, A. G.; Zhang, Y. H.; Wang, T. M.; Kim, J. O.; Schuler-Sandy, Ted; Tian, Zhao-Bing; Krishna, S.

    2014-10-13

    Terahertz (THz) response observed in a p-type InAs/In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}As/GaAs quantum dots-in-a-well (DWELL) photodetector is reported. This detector displays expected mid-infrared response (from ∼3 to ∼10 μm) at temperatures below ∼100 K, while strong THz responses up to ∼4.28 THz is observed at higher temperatures (∼100–130 K). Responsivity and specific detectivity at 9.2 THz (32.6 μm) under applied bias of −0.4 V at 130 K are ∼0.3 mA/W and ∼1.4 × 10{sup 6} Jones, respectively. Our results demonstrate the potential use of p-type DWELL in developing high operating temperature THz devices.

  14. Detection of minority carrier traps in p-type 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Alfieri, G.; Kimoto, T.

    2014-03-03

    Contrarily to the case of n-type 4H-SiC, very little is known about the presence of minority carrier traps in p-type epilayers. In this study, we performed the electrical characterization of as-grown, electron irradiated, and thermally oxidized p-type 4H-SiC, by using minority carrier transient spectroscopy. Four minority carrier traps are reported in 1.6–2.3 eV energy range above the valence band edge (E{sub V}). Particular emphasis is given to the mid-gap minority carrier trap (EH{sub 6∕7}) and to its correlation to an energetically close mid-gap majority carrier trap (HK4)

  15. p-type conduction in Zn-ion implanted InN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, W. M.; Y Xie, Q.; Zhu, H. P.; Wang, W.; Cai, H. L.; Zhang, F. M.; Wu, X. S.

    2015-06-01

    We report p-type conductivity in wurtzite indium nitride (InN) experimentally and theoretically. The as-deposited InN films are implanted with various doses of Zn ions. The Hall coefficient is positive for samples with doses of 2.5 ~ 10   ×   1014 ions cm-2 at low temperature and turns negative as the temperature increases. This notable sign change of the Hall coefficient confirms the existence of mobile holes in Zn-implanted InN. Moreover, first principle calculations indicate that Zn may be a more stable p-type dopant in InN than that of Mg and Ba because of its low ionization energy.

  16. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Haghighipour, Nader; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results.

  17. Use of hexamethyldisiloxane for p-type microcrystalline silicon oxycarbide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Prabal; Hong, Junegie; Haddad, Farah; Maurice, Jean-Luc; Cabarrocas, Pere Roca i.; Johnson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The use of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as an oxygen source for the growth of p-type silicon-based layers deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition is evaluated. The use of this source led to the incorporation of almost equivalent amounts of oxygen and carbon, resulting in microcrystalline silicon oxycarbide thin films. The layers were examined with characterisation techniques including Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, Dark Conductivity, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Transmission Electron Microscopy to check material composition and structure. Materials studies show that the refractive indices of the layers can be tuned over the range from 2.5 to 3.85 (measured at 600 nm) and in-plane dark conductivities over the range from 10-8 S/cm to 1 S/cm, suggesting that these doped layers are suitable for solar cell applications. The p-type layers were tested in single junction amorphous silicon p-i-n type solar cells.

  18. Photoinduced p-Type Conductivity in n-Type ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W. X.; Sun, B.; Shen, Z.; Liu, Y. H.; Chen, P.

    2015-03-01

    Ag/[BaTiO3/γ-Fe2O3]/ZnO composite films were grown on an n-type silicon (100) single-crystal substrate by magnetron sputtering, and annealed at various temperatures. Capacitance-voltage ( C- V) curves show that the capacitance gradually increases with increasing annealed temperature. In addition, ZnO exhibits n-type conductivity in the dark but p-type conductivity under incandescent lamp illumination. The photoinduced p-type conductivity in n-type ZnO should be related to a special n-type ZnO layer originating from high-temperature annealing. The current-voltage ( I- V) curves of the [BaTiO3/γ-Fe2O3]/ZnO thin films display a strong photoconductivity effect.

  19. P-Type Polar Transition of Chemically Doped Multilayer MoS2 Transistor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaochi; Qu, Deshun; Ryu, Jungjin; Ahmed, Faisal; Yang, Zheng; Lee, Daeyeong; Yoo, Won Jong

    2016-03-01

    A high-performance multilayer MoS2 p-type field-effect transistor is realized via controllable chemical doping, which shows an excellent on/off ratio of 10(9) and a maximum hole mobility of 132 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at 133 K. The developed technique will enable 2D materials to be used for future high-efficiency and low-power semiconductor device applications. PMID:26808483

  20. Efficient p-type dye-sensitized solar cells based on disulfide/thiolate electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaobao; Zhang, Bingyan; Cui, Jin; Xiong, Dehua; Shen, Yan; Chen, Wei; Sun, Licheng; Cheng, Yibing; Wang, Mingkui

    2013-08-01

    Herein, an organic redox couple 1-methy-1H-tetrazole-5-thiolate (T-) and its disulfide dimer (T2) redox shuttle, as an electrolyte, is introduced in a p-type dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) on the basis of an organic dye (P1) sensitizer and nanocrystal CuCrO2 electrode. Using this iodide-free transparent redox electrolyte in conjunction with the sensitized heterojunction, we achieve a high open-circuit voltage of over 300 mV. An optimal efficiency of 0.23% is obtained using a CoS counter electrode and an optimized electrolyte composition under AM 1.5 G 100 mW cm-2 light illumination which, to the best of our knowledge, represents the highest efficiency that has so far been reported for p-type DSCs using organic redox couples.Herein, an organic redox couple 1-methy-1H-tetrazole-5-thiolate (T-) and its disulfide dimer (T2) redox shuttle, as an electrolyte, is introduced in a p-type dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) on the basis of an organic dye (P1) sensitizer and nanocrystal CuCrO2 electrode. Using this iodide-free transparent redox electrolyte in conjunction with the sensitized heterojunction, we achieve a high open-circuit voltage of over 300 mV. An optimal efficiency of 0.23% is obtained using a CoS counter electrode and an optimized electrolyte composition under AM 1.5 G 100 mW cm-2 light illumination which, to the best of our knowledge, represents the highest efficiency that has so far been reported for p-type DSCs using organic redox couples. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Optimization of electrolyte concentration and the solvent used in the experiment, and the effects of different redox couples and the counter electrode on the dark current. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02169f

  1. Interfacial energy level bending in a crystalline p/p-type organic heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Feng; Grobosch, Mandy; Treske, Uwe; Knupfer, Martin; Huang Lizhen; Ji Shiliang; Yan Donghang

    2011-05-16

    A conduction channel was observed at the heterointerface of the crystalline p-type organic films copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and 2,5-bis(4-biphenylyl) bithiophene (BP2T). Energy level bending at the interface is confirmed by photoemission spectroscopy, which verifies a charge transfer between CuPc and BP2T. This provides a further route to utilize interfacial electronic properties in functional devices and also documents the importance of reconsidering the interfacial electronic structure of organic heterostructures.

  2. Low-temperature solution-processed p-type vanadium oxide for perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haocheng; Hou, Xiaomeng; Wei, Qiulong; Liu, Huawei; Yang, Kecheng; Wang, Wei; An, Qinyou; Rong, Yaoguang

    2016-06-21

    A low-temperature solution-processed inorganic p-type contact material of vanadium oxide (VOx) was developed to fabricate planar-heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Using a solvent-assisted process, high-quality uniform and compact perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) films were deposited on VOx coated substrates. Due to the high transmittance and quenching efficiency of VOx layers, a power conversion efficiency of over 14% was achieved. PMID:27263631

  3. Tunable p-type conductivity and transport properties of AlN nanowires via Mg doping.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yong-Bing; Bo, Xiang-Hui; Xu, Jun; Cao, Yu-Lin; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Song, Hai-Sheng; Liu, Chao-Ping; Hung, Tak-Fu; Zhang, Wen-Jun; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Bello, Igor; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2011-05-24

    Arrays of well-aligned AlN nanowires (NWs) with tunable p-type conductivity were synthesized on Si(111) substrates using bis(cyclopentadienyl)magnesium (Cp(2)Mg) vapor as a doping source by chemical vapor deposition. The Mg-doped AlN NWs are single-crystalline and grow along the [001] direction. Gate-voltage-dependent transport measurements on field-effect transistors constructed from individual NWs revealed the transition from n-type conductivity in the undoped AlN NWs to p-type conductivity in the Mg-doped NWs. By adjusting the doping gas flow rate (0-10 sccm), the conductivity of AlN NWs can be tuned over 7 orders of magnitude from (3.8-8.5) × 10(-6) Ω(-1) cm(-1) for the undoped sample to 15.6-24.4 Ω(-1) cm(-1) for the Mg-doped AlN NWs. Hole concentration as high as 4.7 × 10(19) cm(-3) was achieved for the heaviest doping. In addition, the maximum hole mobility (∼6.4 cm(2)/V s) in p-type AlN NWs is much higher than that of Mg-doped AlN films (∼1.0 cm(2)/V s). (2) The realization of p-type AlN NWs with tunable electrical transport properties may open great potential in developing practical nanodevices such as deep-UV light-emitting diodes and photodetectors. PMID:21480640

  4. Method for producing high carrier concentration p-Type transparent conducting oxides

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xiaonan; Yan, Yanfa; Coutts, Timothy J.; Gessert, Timothy A.; Dehart, Clay M.

    2009-04-14

    A method for producing transparent p-type conducting oxide films without co-doping plasma enhancement or high temperature comprising: a) introducing a dialkyl metal at ambient temperature and a saturated pressure in a carrier gas into a low pressure deposition chamber, and b) introducing NO alone or with an oxidizer into the chamber under an environment sufficient to produce a metal-rich condition to enable NO decomposition and atomic nitrogen incorporation into the formed transparent metal conducting oxide.

  5. P-type Semiconducting Behavior of BaSn1-xRuxO3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyukwoo; Shin, Juyeon; Char, Kookrin

    2015-03-01

    BaSnO3 is a promising transparent perovskite oxide semiconductor due to its high mobility and chemical stability. Exploiting such properties, we have applied BaSnO3 to the field effect, the 2-dimensional electron gas, and the pn-junction devices. In spite of the success of the K-doped BaSnO3 as a p-type doped, its carrier density at room temperature is rather small due to its high activation energy of about 0.5 eV. In continuation of our previous study on SrSn1-xRuxO3 system, we studied the p-type semiconducting behavior of BaSn1-xRuxO3 system. We have epitaxially grown the BaSn1-xRuxO3 (0 <=x <=0.12) thin films by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the films maintain a single phase over the entire doping range and the lattice constants of the system decrease monotonously as the doping increases. Transport measurements show that the films are semiconducting and their resistivities dramatically decrease as the Ru doping increases. Hall measurement data show that the charge carriers are p-type and its corresponding mobility values vary from 0.3 ~ 0.04 cm2/V .s, depending on the doping rate. The hole carrier densities, measured to be 1017 ~ 1019 /cm3, are larger than those of K-doped BaSnO3. Using BaSn1-xRuxO3 and Ba1-xLaxSnO3 as p-type and n-type semiconductors, we will fabricate pn-junctions and report its performance.

  6. Calcium Modulation of Plant Plasma Membrane-Bound Atpase Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, C.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetic properties of barley enzyme are discussed and compared with those of other plants. Possibilities for calcium transport in the plasma membrane by proton pump and ATPase-dependent calcium pumps are explored. Topics covered include the ph phase of the enzyme; high affinity of barley for calcium; temperature dependence, activation enthalpy, and the types of ATPase catalytic sites. Attention is given to lipids which are both screened and bound by calcium. Studies show that barley has a calmodulin activated ATPase that is found in the presence of magnesium and calcium.

  7. Human myocardial Na,K-ATPase concentration in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bundgaard, H; Kjeldsen, K

    1996-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase is of major importance for active ion transport across the sarcolemma and thus for electrical as well as contractile function of the myocardium. Furthermore, it is receptor for digitalis glycosides. In human studies of the regulatory aspects of myocardial Na,K-ATPase concentration a major problem has been to obtain tissue samples. Methodological accomplishments in quantification of myocardial Na,K-ATPase using vanadate facilitated 3H-ouabain binding to intact samples have, however, made it possible to obtain reliable measurements on human myocardial necropsies obtained at autopsy as well as on biopsies of a wet weight of only 1-2 mg obtained during heart catheterisation. However, access to the ultimately, normal, vital myocardial tissue has come from the heart transplantation programs, through which myocardial samples from cardiovascular healthy organ donors have become available. In the present paper we evaluate the various values reported for normal human myocardial Na,K-ATPase concentration, its regulation in heart disease and the association with digitalization. Normal myocardial Na,K-ATPase concentration level is found to be 700 pmol/g wet weight. No major variations were found between or within the walls of the heart ventricles. During the first few years of life a marked decrease in myocardial Na,K-ATPase concentration is followed by a stable level obtained in early adulthood and normally maintained throughout life. In patients with enlarged cardiac x-ray silhouette a significant positive, linear correlation between left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and Na,K-ATPase concentration was established. A maximum reduction in Na,K-ATPase concentration of 89% was obtained when EF was reduced to 20%. Generally, heart failure associated with heart dilatation, myocardial hypertrophy as well as ischaemic heart disease is associated with reductions in myocardial Na,K-ATPase concentration of around 25%. During digoxin treatment of heart failure

  8. Correlation between interface modification and rectifying behavior of p-type Cu2ZnSnS4/n-type Si diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yow-Jon; Ruan, Cheng-He; Chu, Yu-Ju; Liu, Chia-Jyi; Lin, Fei-Hung

    2015-10-01

    The effect of surface sulfidation of Si on electronic transport of heterojunction diodes based on the p-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and n-type Si is investigated. The temperature-dependent current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of CZTS/Si diodes with and without sulfide treatment are measured in the temperature range of -30 ~ 90 °C. The temperature dependence of forward bias I-V characteristics can be explained on the basis of the thermionic emission theory. Compared with the CZTS/Si diode without sulfide treatment, the CZTS/Si diode with sulfide treatment exhibits a better rectifying behavior. The enhanced device performance is mainly the result of the formation of Si-S bonds that serve to reduce the interfacial potential fluctuations. In order to obtain a greater understanding of the improved rectifying I-V characteristics, the photoresponse measurement is performed. The increased photocurrent density can be interpreted by the device rectifying performance and interface passivation.

  9. p-type semiconducting Cu2O-CoO thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Shingo; Miyata, Toshihiro; Minami, Tadatsugu

    2003-07-01

    The preparation by magnetron sputtering of p-type semiconducting thin films consisting of a multicomponent oxide composed of Cu oxide and Co oxide is described. The electrical, optical, and crystallographical properties of films deposited by rf magnetron sputtering using (Cu2O)1-x-(CoO)x powder targets were strongly dependent on not only the deposition condition but also the calcination condition as well as the CoO content of the targets. These properties drastically changed in films prepared with a CoO content around 90 mol %. All prepared films, i.e., CoO content in the range from 0 to 100 mol %, were found to be p type, or positive hole conductors, as evidenced from the Seebeck effect: Resistivities in the range from 103 to 10-3 Ω cm. A hole concentration on the order of 1016 cm-3 and a mobility on the order of 10-1 cm2/V s were obtained in an amorphous multicomponent oxide film prepared with a CoO content of 50 mol %. Fabricated thin-film pin heterojunction diodes consisting of a p-type high-resistance multicomponent oxide combined with undoped ZnO and n-type Al-doped ZnO exhibited a rectifying current-voltage characteristic.

  10. Efficient synthesis of triarylamine-based dyes for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Martin; Griebel, Jan; Hajduk, Anna; Friedrich, Dirk; Stark, Annegret; Abel, Bernd; Siefermann, Katrin R.

    2016-01-01

    The class of triarylamine-based dyes has proven great potential as efficient light absorbers in inverse (p-type) dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, detailed investigation and further improvement of p-type DSSCs is strongly hindered by the fact that available synthesis routes of triarylamine-based dyes are inefficient and particularly demanding with regard to time and costs. Here, we report on an efficient synthesis strategy for triarylamine-based dyes for p-type DSSCs. A protocol for the synthesis of the dye-precursor (4-(bis(4-bromophenyl)amino)benzoic acid) is presented along with its X-ray crystal structure. The dye precursor is obtained from the commercially available 4(diphenylamino)benzaldehyde in a yield of 87% and serves as a starting point for the synthesis of various triarylamine-based dyes. Starting from the precursor we further describe a synthesis protocol for the dye 4-{bis[4′-(2,2-dicyanovinyl)-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-yl]amino}benzoic acid (also known as dye P4) in a yield of 74%. All synthesis steps are characterized by high yields and high purities without the need for laborious purification steps and thus fulfill essential requirements for scale-up. PMID:27196877

  11. Single p-type/intrinsic/n-type silicon nanowires as nanoscale avalanche photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Barrelet, Carl J; Capasso, Federico; Lieber, Charles M

    2006-12-01

    We report the controlled synthesis of axial modulation-doped p-type/intrinsic/n-type (p-i-n) silicon nanowires with uniform diameters and single-crystal structures. The p-i-n nanowires were grown in three sequential steps: in the presence of diborane for the p-type region, in the absence of chemical dopant sources for the middle segment, and in the presence of phosphine for the n-type region. The p-i-n nanowires were structurally characterized by transmission electron microscopy, and the spatially resolved electrical properties of individual nanowires were determined by electrostatic force and scanning gate microscopies. Temperature-dependent current-voltage measurements recorded from individual p-i-n devices show an increase in the breakdown voltage with temperature, characteristic of band-to-band impact ionization, or avalanche breakdown. Spatially resolved photocurrent measurements show that the largest photocurrent is generated at the intrinsic region located between the electrode contacts, with multiplication factors in excess of ca. 30, and demonstrate that single p-i-n nanowires function as avalanche photodiodes. Electron- and hole-initiated avalanche gain measurements performed by localized photoexcitation of the p-type and n-type regions yield multiplication factors of ca. 100 and 20, respectively. These results demonstrate the significant potential of single p-i-n nanowires as nanoscale avalanche photodetectors and open possible opportunities for studying impact ionization of electrons and holes within quasi-one-dimensional semiconductor systems. PMID:17163733

  12. Towards p-type doping of ZnO by ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, V; Tan, H H; Jagadish, C; Kucheyev, S; Phillips, M; Zou, J

    2005-01-18

    Zinc oxide is a very attractive material for a range of optoelectronic devices including blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes. Though n-type doping has been successfully achieved, p-type doing of ZnO is still a challenge that must be overcome before p-n junction devices can be realized. Ion implantation is widely used in the microelectronics industry for selective area doping and device isolation. Understanding damage accumulation and recrystallization processes is important for achieving selective area doping. In this study, As (potential p-type dopant) ion implantation and annealing studies were carried out. ZnO samples were implanted with high dose (1.4 x 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}) 300 keV As ions at room temperature. Furnace annealing of samples in the range of 900 C to 1200 C was employed to achieve recrystallization of amorphous layers and electrical activation of the dopant. Rutherford backscattering/channeling spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and cathodolumiescence spectroscopy were used to monitor damage accumulation and annihilation behavior in ZnO. Results of this study have significant implications for p-type doing of ZnO by ion implantation.

  13. Surface photovoltage studies of n-type and p-type InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurgate, S. M.; Blight, K.; Laceusta, T. D.

    1994-05-01

    Surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPV) was used to study the initial stages of oxidation of single crystal InP(110) in an attempt to understand the nature and origin of the surface states that develop. Distinct surface states were seen to develop on n-type as the surface was exposed to oxygen. A surface state, associated with cleavage damage, was also observed on p-type. A detailed fit to the experimental data was made by using a model of the dependence of surface charge on photon energy. This was used to unfold the position and intensity of the states. States trailing into the band gap from the bulk bands were seen on both n- and p-types. The analysis also indicated that pairs of isolated states, a donor and an acceptor state, were produced. On p-type, these were present on the clean, cleaved surface while they developed with oxygen exposure on n-type. These states are consistent with the point defect states proposed by the unified defect model. The time response of the SPV signal was also recorded for these surfaces. They were analysed by careful fitting to a model describing the charging and discharging characteristics. This revealed that the midgap state on n-type had a fast and a slow component.

  14. Efficient synthesis of triarylamine-based dyes for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wild, Martin; Griebel, Jan; Hajduk, Anna; Friedrich, Dirk; Stark, Annegret; Abel, Bernd; Siefermann, Katrin R

    2016-01-01

    The class of triarylamine-based dyes has proven great potential as efficient light absorbers in inverse (p-type) dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, detailed investigation and further improvement of p-type DSSCs is strongly hindered by the fact that available synthesis routes of triarylamine-based dyes are inefficient and particularly demanding with regard to time and costs. Here, we report on an efficient synthesis strategy for triarylamine-based dyes for p-type DSSCs. A protocol for the synthesis of the dye-precursor (4-(bis(4-bromophenyl)amino)benzoic acid) is presented along with its X-ray crystal structure. The dye precursor is obtained from the commercially available 4(diphenylamino)benzaldehyde in a yield of 87% and serves as a starting point for the synthesis of various triarylamine-based dyes. Starting from the precursor we further describe a synthesis protocol for the dye 4-{bis[4'-(2,2-dicyanovinyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl]amino}benzoic acid (also known as dye P4) in a yield of 74%. All synthesis steps are characterized by high yields and high purities without the need for laborious purification steps and thus fulfill essential requirements for scale-up. PMID:27196877

  15. Efficient synthesis of triarylamine-based dyes for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin; Griebel, Jan; Hajduk, Anna; Friedrich, Dirk; Stark, Annegret; Abel, Bernd; Siefermann, Katrin R.

    2016-05-01

    The class of triarylamine-based dyes has proven great potential as efficient light absorbers in inverse (p-type) dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, detailed investigation and further improvement of p-type DSSCs is strongly hindered by the fact that available synthesis routes of triarylamine-based dyes are inefficient and particularly demanding with regard to time and costs. Here, we report on an efficient synthesis strategy for triarylamine-based dyes for p-type DSSCs. A protocol for the synthesis of the dye-precursor (4-(bis(4-bromophenyl)amino)benzoic acid) is presented along with its X-ray crystal structure. The dye precursor is obtained from the commercially available 4(diphenylamino)benzaldehyde in a yield of 87% and serves as a starting point for the synthesis of various triarylamine-based dyes. Starting from the precursor we further describe a synthesis protocol for the dye 4-{bis[4‧-(2,2-dicyanovinyl)-[1,1‧-biphenyl]-4-yl]amino}benzoic acid (also known as dye P4) in a yield of 74%. All synthesis steps are characterized by high yields and high purities without the need for laborious purification steps and thus fulfill essential requirements for scale-up.

  16. Computational design of p-type contacts for MoS2-based electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Priyank; Musso, Tiziana; Foster, Adam; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    The excellent physical and semiconducting properties of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers make them promising materials for many applications. A well-known example is MoS2, which has gained significant attention as a channel material for next-generation transistors. While n-type MoS2 field-effect transistors (n-FETs) can be fabricated with relative ease, fabrication of p-FETs remains a challenge as the Fermi-level of elemental metals used as contacts are pinned close to the conduction band, leading to large p-type Schottky barrier heights (SBHs). Using ab initio computations, we design and propose efficient hole contacts utilizing high work function oxide-based hole injection materials, with the aim of advancing p-type MoS2 device technology. Our calculations will highlight the possibility to tune and lower the p-type SBH at the metal/semiconductor interface by controlling the structural properties of oxide materials. Taken together, our results provide an interesting platform for experimental design of next-generation MoS2-based electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  17. C-peptide, Na+,K+-ATPase, and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Coste, T. C.; Jannot, M. F.; Raccah, D.; Tsimaratos, M.

    2004-01-01

    Na+,K+-ATPase is an ubiquitous membrane enzyme that allows the extrusion of three sodium ions from the cell and two potassium ions from the extracellular fluid. Its activity is decreased in many tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals. This impairment could be at least partly responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Na+,K+-ATPase activity is decreased in the red blood cell membranes of type 1 diabetic individuals, irrespective of the degree of diabetic control. It is less impaired or even normal in those of type 2 diabetic patients. The authors have shown that in the red blood cells of type 2 diabetic patients, Na+,K+-ATPase activity was strongly related to blood C-peptide levels in non–insulin-treated patients (in whom C-peptide concentration reflects that of insulin) as well as in insulin-treated patients. Furthermore, a gene-environment relationship has been observed. The alpha-1 isoform of the enzyme predominant in red blood cells and nerve tissue is encoded by the ATP1A1 gene.Apolymorphism in the intron 1 of this gene is associated with lower enzyme activity in patients with C-peptide deficiency either with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but not in normal individuals. There are several lines of evidence for a low C-peptide level being responsible for low Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the red blood cells. Short-term C-peptide infusion to type 1 diabetic patients restores normal Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Islet transplantation, which restores endogenous C-peptide secretion, enhances Na+,K+-ATPase activity proportionally to the rise in C-peptide. This C-peptide effect is not indirect. In fact, incubation of diabetic red blood cells with C-peptide at physiological concentration leads to an increase of Na+,K+-ATPase activity. In isolated proximal tubules of rats or in the medullary thick ascending limb of the kidney, C-peptide stimulates in a dose-dependent manner Na+,K+-ATPase activity. This impairment in Na+,K+-ATPase activity, mainly

  18. Inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in the hypothalamus, pons and cerebellum of the offspring rat due to experimentally-induced maternal hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Koromilas, Christos; Liapi, Charis; Zarros, Apostolos; Tsela, Smaragda; Zissis, Konstantinos M; Kalafatakis, Konstantinos; Skandali, Nikolina; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos; Carageorgiou, Haris; Tsakiris, Stylianos

    2015-08-01

    Neurodevelopment is known to be particularly susceptible to thyroid hormone insufficiency and can result in extensive structural and functional deficits within the central nervous system (CNS), subsequently leading to the establishment of cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptomatology. The current study evaluated the effects of gestational and/or lactational maternal exposure to propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism (as a suggestive multilevel experimental approach to the study of hypothyroidism-induced changes that has been developed and characterized by the authors) on crucial brain enzyme activities of 21-day-old Wistar rat offspring in a CNS region-specific manner. The activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase in the offspring hypothalamus, cerebellum and pons were assessed. The study demonstrated that maternal exposure to PTU (0.05% w/v in the drinking water) during the critical periods of neurodevelopment can result in an inhibition of hypothalamic, pontine and cerebellar Na(+),K(+)-ATPase; a major marker of neuronal excitability and metabolic energy production as well as an important regulator of important systems of neurotransmission. On the other hand, no significant changes in the activities of the herein offspring CNS regions' AChE and Mg(2+)-ATPase were recorded. The observed Na(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibition: (i) is region-specific (and non-detectable in whole brain homogenetes), (ii) could constitute a central event in the pathophysiology of clinically-relevant hypothyroidism-associated developmental neurotoxicity, (iii) occurs under all examined experimental schemes, and (iv) certainly deserves further clarification at a molecular and histopathological level. As these findings are analyzed and compared to the available literature, they also underline the need for the adoption and further study of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity as a consistent neurochemical marker within the context of a systematic

  19. The Function of V-ATPases in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Stransky, Laura; Cotter, Kristina; Forgac, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The vacuolar ATPases (V-ATPases) are a family of proton pumps that couple ATP hydrolysis to proton transport into intracellular compartments and across the plasma membrane. They function in a wide array of normal cellular processes, including membrane traffic, protein processing and degradation, and the coupled transport of small molecules, as well as such physiological processes as urinary acidification and bone resorption. The V-ATPases have also been implicated in a number of disease processes, including viral infection, renal disease, and bone resorption defects. This review is focused on the growing evidence for the important role of V-ATPases in cancer. This includes functions in cellular signaling (particularly Wnt, Notch, and mTOR signaling), cancer cell survival in the highly acidic environment of tumors, aiding the development of drug resistance, as well as crucial roles in tumor cell invasion, migration, and metastasis. Of greatest excitement is evidence that at least some tumors express isoforms of V-ATPase subunits whose disruption is not lethal, leading to the possibility of developing anti-cancer therapeutics that selectively target V-ATPases that function in cancer cells. PMID:27335445

  20. Temperature Dependent Tensile Fracture Stress of n- and p-Type Filled-Skutterudite Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Salvador, James R.; Yang, Jihui; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Wang, Hsin; Cho, Jung Y

    2011-01-01

    While materials with excellent thermoelectric performance are most desirable for higher heat to electrical energy conversion efficiency, thermoelectric materials must also be sufficiently mechanically robust to withstand the large number of thermal cycles and vibrational stresses likely to be encountered while in service, particularly in automotive applications. Further these TE materials should be composed of non-toxic and naturally abundant constituent elements and be available as both n- and p-type varieties. Skutterudite based thermoelectric materials seemingly fit this list of criteria. In this contribution we report on the synthesis, tensile fracture strengths, low temperature electrical and thermal transport properties, and coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE), of the n-type skutterudite La{sub 0.05({+-}0.01)}Ba{sub 0.07({+-}0.04)}Yb{sub 0.08({+-}0.02)}Co{sub 4.00({+-}0.01)}Sb{sub 12.02({+-}0.03)} and the p-type Ce{sub 0.30({+-}0.02)}Co{sub 2.57({+-}0.02)}Fe{sub 1.43({+-}0.02)}Sb{sub 11.98({+-}0.03)}. Both materials have tensile fracture strengths that are temperature independent up to 500 C, and are in the range of {approx}140 MPa as measured by a three point bend flexure test fixture described herein. The CTE's were measured by dual rod dilatometry and were determined to be 10.3 ppm/C for the n-type material and 11.5 ppm/C for p-type up to 450 C.

  1. Quasi-perpetual discharge behaviour in p-type Ge-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Ocon, Joey D; Kim, Jin Won; Abrenica, Graniel Harne A; Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2014-11-01

    Metal-air batteries continue to become attractive energy storage and conversion systems due to their high energy and power densities, safer chemistries, and economic viability. Semiconductor-air batteries - a term we first define here as metal-air batteries that use semiconductor anodes such as silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) - have been introduced in recent years as new high-energy battery chemistries. In this paper, we describe the excellent doping-dependent discharge kinetics of p-type Ge anodes in a semiconductor-air cell employing a gelled KOH electrolyte. Owing to its Fermi level, n-type Ge is expected to have lower redox potential and better electronic conductivity, which could potentially lead to a higher operating voltage and better discharge kinetics. Nonetheless, discharge measurements demonstrated that this prediction is only valid at the low current regime and breaks down at the high current density region. The p-type Ge behaves extremely better at elevated currents, evident from the higher voltage, more power available, and larger practical energy density from a very long discharge time, possibly arising from the high overpotential for surface passivation. A primary semiconductor-air battery, powered by a flat p-type Ge as a multi-electron anode, exhibited an unprecedented full discharge capacity of 1302.5 mA h gGe(-1) (88% anode utilization efficiency), the highest among semiconductor-air cells, notably better than new metal-air cells with three-dimensional and nanostructured anodes, and at least two folds higher than commercial Zn-air and Al-air cells. We therefore suggest that this study be extended to doped-Si anodes, in order to pave the way for a deeper understanding on the discharge phenomena in alkaline metal-air conversion cells with semiconductor anodes for specific niche applications in the future. PMID:24975009

  2. Na+-K+-ATPase alpha-subunit containing Q905-V930 of gastric H+-K+-ATPase alpha preferentially assembles with H+-K+-ATPase beta.

    PubMed

    Wang, S G; Eakle, K A; Levenson, R; Farley, R A

    1997-03-01

    Amino acids N886-A911 of the rat Na+-K+-ATPase alpha3-subunit were replaced by the corresponding region (Q905-V930) of the rat gastric H+-K+-ATPase alpha-subunit. The chimera (NGH26) was expressed in yeast with the rat Na+-K+ -ATPase beta1-subunit (rbeta1), the rat H+-K+-ATPase beta-subunit (HKbeta), the chimeric beta-subunit NHbeta1 (containing the carboxy-terminal ectodomain of HKbeta), or the chimeric beta-subunit HNbeta1 (containing the carboxy-terminal ectodomain of rbeta1). Increased resistance to trypsin digestion indicated that NGH26 preferentially assembled with HKbeta and NHbeta1 rather than with rbeta1 or HNbeta1. Ouabain binding also indicated that more functional complexes were assembled when NGH26 was expressed with HKbeta or NHbeta1. These results suggest that the sequence Q905-V930 interacts with the HKbeta-subunit on the extracellular side of the cell membrane. The NGH26 + HKbeta complex is less stable than alpha3 + HKbeta when heated and also has a lower binding affinity for ouabain [dissociation constant (Kd) = 63 nM] compared with alpha3 + rbeta1 or alpha3 + HKbeta (K(d) = 5-10 nM). In contrast, the NGH26+NHbeta1 complex is thermally as stable as alpha3 + rbeta1 complexes, and its ouabain binding affinity (K(d) = 10 nM) is the same as the wild type. These results indicate that the amino acids Q905-V930 of the rat gastric H+-K+-ATPase alpha-subunit preferentially associate with the extracellular domain of H+-K+-ATPase beta-subunit to form functional pump complexes and that the cytoplasmic and/or transmembrane region of the beta-subunit influences the stability of the alpha beta complexes. PMID:9124528

  3. Does p-type ohmic contact exist in WSe2-metal interfaces?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yangyang; Yang, Ruo Xi; Quhe, Ruge; Zhong, Hongxia; Cong, Linxiao; Ye, Meng; Ni, Zeyuan; Song, Zhigang; Yang, Jinbo; Shi, Junjie; Li, Ju; Lu, Jing

    2015-12-01

    Formation of low-resistance metal contacts is the biggest challenge that masks the intrinsic exceptional electronic properties of two dimensional WSe2 devices. We present the first comparative study of the interfacial properties between monolayer/bilayer (ML/BL) WSe2 and Sc, Al, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt contacts by using ab initio energy band calculations with inclusion of the spin-orbital coupling (SOC) effects and quantum transport simulations. The interlayer coupling tends to reduce both the electron and hole Schottky barrier heights (SBHs) and alters the polarity for the WSe2-Au contact, while the SOC chiefly reduces the hole SBH. In the absence of the SOC, the Pd contact has the smallest hole SBH. Dramatically, the Pt contact surpasses the Pd contact and becomes the p-type ohmic or quasi-ohmic contact with inclusion of the SOC. Therefore, p-type ohmic or quasi-ohmic contact exists in WSe2-metal interfaces. Our study provides a theoretical foundation for the selection of favorable metal electrodes in ML/BL WSe2 devices.Formation of low-resistance metal contacts is the biggest challenge that masks the intrinsic exceptional electronic properties of two dimensional WSe2 devices. We present the first comparative study of the interfacial properties between monolayer/bilayer (ML/BL) WSe2 and Sc, Al, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt contacts by using ab initio energy band calculations with inclusion of the spin-orbital coupling (SOC) effects and quantum transport simulations. The interlayer coupling tends to reduce both the electron and hole Schottky barrier heights (SBHs) and alters the polarity for the WSe2-Au contact, while the SOC chiefly reduces the hole SBH. In the absence of the SOC, the Pd contact has the smallest hole SBH. Dramatically, the Pt contact surpasses the Pd contact and becomes the p-type ohmic or quasi-ohmic contact with inclusion of the SOC. Therefore, p-type ohmic or quasi-ohmic contact exists in WSe2-metal interfaces. Our study provides a theoretical foundation for

  4. Fabrication and performance tests of a segmented p-type HPGe detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, George S.; Avignone, Frank T.; Cox, Christopher E.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Jennings, Wayne; Reeves, James H.

    2008-10-01

    A p-type semi-coaxial HPGe detector has been segmented by cutting, with a diamond saw, and etching four circumferential grooves through the Li-diffused dead layer. The degree of segmentation was tested using a well-collimated low-energy gamma-ray source. An analysis cut that rejected events depositing energy in more than one segment was applied to an energy interval of 2038±5 keV, the region of interest ( Q ββ) for 76Ge 0 νββ decay experiments. This segmentation cut resulted in a reduction of the Compton continuum of 59%.

  5. Bipolar resistive switching in p-type Co3O4 nanosheets prepared by electrochemical deposition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Metal oxide nanosheets have potential applications in novel nanoelectronics as nanocrystal building blocks. In this work, the devices with a structure of Au/p-type Co3O4 nanosheets/indium tin oxide/glass having bipolar resistive switching characteristics were successfully fabricated. The experimental results demonstrate that the device have stable high/low resistance ratio that is greater than 25, endurance performance more than 200 cycles, and data retention more than 10,000 s. Such a superior performance of the as-fabricated device could be explained by the bulk film and Co3O4/indium tin oxide glass substrate interface effect. PMID:23331856

  6. Elastic constants determined by nanoindentation for p-type thermoelectric half-Heusler

    SciTech Connect

    Gahlawat, S.; Wheeler, L.; White, K. W. E-mail: kwwhite@uh.edu; He, R.; Chen, S.; Ren, Z. F. E-mail: kwwhite@uh.edu

    2014-08-28

    This paper presents a study of the elastic properties of the p-type thermoelectric half-Heusler material, Hf{sub 0.44}Zr{sub 0.44}Ti{sub 0.12}CoSb{sub 0.8}Sn{sub 0.2}, using nanoindentation. Large grain-sized polycrystalline specimens were fabricated for these measurements, providing sufficient indentation targets within single grains. Electron Backscatter Diffraction methods indexed the target grains for the correlation needed for our elastic analysis of individual single crystals for this cubic thermoelectric material. Elastic properties, including the Zener ratio and the Poisson ratio, obtained from the elasticity tensor are also reported.

  7. Dislocation scatterings in p-type Si(1-x)Ge(x) under weak electric field.

    PubMed

    Hur, Ji-Hyun; Jeon, Sanghun

    2015-12-11

    We present a theoretical model which describes hole mobility degradation by charged dislocations in p-type Si(1-x)Ge(x). The complete analytical expression of the dislocation mobility is calculated from the momentum relaxation time of hole carriers under weak electric field. The obtained dislocation mobility shows a T(3/2)/λ relation and is proportional to the germanium density x. We also suggest a criterion for negating scatterings by dislocations in terms of the controllable parameters such as acceptor dopant density, dislocation density, temperature, and Ge density x, etc. PMID:26567870

  8. Photovoltaic properties of ZnO nanorods/p-type Si heterojunction structures.

    PubMed

    Pietruszka, Rafal; Witkowski, Bartlomiej Slawomir; Luka, Grzegorz; Wachnicki, Lukasz; Gieraltowska, Sylwia; Kopalko, Krzysztof; Zielony, Eunika; Bieganski, Piotr; Placzek-Popko, Ewa; Godlewski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Selected properties of photovoltaic (PV) structures based on n-type zinc oxide nanorods grown by a low temperature hydrothermal method on p-type silicon substrates (100) are investigated. PV structures were covered with thin films of Al doped ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition acting as transparent electrodes. The investigated PV structures differ in terms of the shapes and densities of their nanorods. The best response is observed for the structure containing closely-spaced nanorods, which show light conversion efficiency of 3.6%. PMID:24605282

  9. Suppression of hydrogen diffusion at the hydrogen-induced platelets in p-type Czochralski silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.L.; Ma, Y.; Job, R.; Fahrner, W.R.

    2005-03-28

    Hydrogen diffusion in p-type Czochralski silicon is investigated by combined Raman spectroscope, scanning electron microscope, and spreading resistance probe measurements. Exposure of silicon wafers to rf hydrogen plasma results in the formation of platelets. The increase of hydrogenation duration leads to the growth of the platelets and the reduction of the hydrogen diffusivity. The large platelets grow faster than the small ones. The growth of the platelets is based on the capture of hydrogen. The dependence of the hydrogen diffusivity upon the average size of the platelets suggests that the indiffusion of hydrogen is suppressed by the platelets.

  10. Homojunction photodiodes based on Sb-doped p-type ZnO for ultraviolet detection

    SciTech Connect

    Mandalapu, L.J.; Yang, Z.; Xiu, F.X.; Zhao, D.T.; Liu, J.L.

    2006-02-27

    ZnO-based p-n homojunctions were grown using molecular-beam epitaxy. Sb and Ga were used as dopants to achieve the p-type and n-type ZnO, respectively. The mesa devices were fabricated by employing wet etching and standard photolithography techniques. Al/Ti metal was deposited by electron-beam evaporation and annealed to form Ohmic contacts. Current-voltage measurements of the device showed good rectifying behavior, from which a turn-on voltage of about 2 V was obtained. Very good response to ultraviolet light illumination was observed from photocurrent measurements.

  11. Dynamic electrical conduction in p-type CuIn3Se5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essaleh, L.; Marín, G.; Wasim, S. M.; Alimoussa, A.; Bourial, A.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, ac electrical conductivity measurements were studied for the first time in p type bulk ternary semiconductor compound CuIn3Se5. The dynamic electrical conductivity is analyzed in the frequency range 20 Hz to 1 MHz and temperature from 308 K to 500 K. The relaxation times for the grain and grain boundaries were studied from the second derivative of electric modulus versus frequency at various temperatures. The relaxation time is found to decrease with increasing temperature and to obey the Arrhenius relationship. The values of activation energies for conduction and relaxation times are obtained.

  12. Fabrication and morphology of porous p-type SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkin, Y.; Ke, Y.; Devaty, R. P.; Choyke, W. J.

    2005-02-01

    Porous silicon carbide fabricated from p-type 4H and 6H SiC wafers by electrochemical etching in hydrofluoric electrolyte is studied. An investigation of the dependence on wafer polarity reveals that pore formation is favored on the C face while complete dissolution occurs on the Si face. When the etching is done on the C face, the pore wall thickness decreases with increasing current density. The morphology of the front surface of the sample depends on the prior treatment of the workpiece surface. The porosity is estimated based on the analysis of scanning electron microscope images, charge-transfer calculations, and gravimetric analysis.

  13. Peculiarities of high electric field conduction in p-type diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortet, V.; Trémouilles, D.; Bulíř, J.; Hubík, P.; Heller, L.; Bedel-Pereira, E.; Soltani, A.

    2016-04-01

    The electrical properties of chemical vapour deposited p-type epitaxial diamond layers are studied in high electric field conditions. The quasi-static current-voltage characteristics have been measured using transmission-line pulse method with 100 ns pulses. Reproducible impurity impact ionization avalanche breakdown occurs at a critical electrical field in the range of 100-200 kV cm-1 depending on the acceptor concentration and temperature, leading to complete ionisation of neutral impurities. The current-voltage characteristics exhibit an S-shape with the bi-stable conduction characteristic of impurity impact ionisation.

  14. Energy levels and lifetimes of Nd IV, Pm IV, Sm IV, and Eu IV

    SciTech Connect

    Dzuba, V. A.; Safronova, U. I.; Johnson, W. R.

    2003-09-01

    To address the shortage of experimental data for electron spectra of triply ionized rare-earth elements we have calculated energy levels and lifetimes of 4f{sup n+1} and 4f{sup n}5d configurations of Nd IV (n=2), Pm IV (n=3), Sm IV (n=4), and Eu IV (n=5) using Hartree-Fock and configuration-interaction methods. To control the accuracy of our calculations we also performed similar calculations for Pr III, Nd III, and Sm III, for which experimental data are available. The results are important, in particular, for physics of magnetic garnets.

  15. Solvent-dependent dual-mode photochromism between T- and P-types in a dipyrrinone derivative.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Yoko; Fukushima, Satomi; Akine, Shigehisa; Setsune, Jun-ichiro

    2016-01-21

    A newly synthesized dipyrrinone derivative bearing an ethoxycarbonyl group at the pyrrolic-α position exhibited solvent-dependent dual-mode photochromism between T- and P-types. While this molecule underwent thermally reversible (T-type) photoresponsive reaction in chloroform, it became a thermally irreversible (P-type) system in methanol. PMID:26615770

  16. p-Type semiconducting nickel oxide as an efficiency-enhancing anodal interfacial layer in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, Michael D; Buchholz, Donald B; Marks, Tobin J; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2014-11-25

    The present invention, in one aspect, relates to a solar cell. In one embodiment, the solar cell includes an anode, a p-type semiconductor layer formed on the anode, and an active organic layer formed on the p-type semiconductor layer, where the active organic layer has an electron-donating organic material and an electron-accepting organic material.

  17. Cadmium inhibits motility, activities of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase and axonemal dynein-ATPase of human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, R; Botana, D; Piñero, S; Proverbio, F; Marín, R

    2016-05-01

    Cd(2+) has been associated with decreased sperm motility in individuals exposed to this element, such as smokers. Among other factors, this lowered motility could be the result of inhibition exerted by Cd(2+) on the activity of the sperm ATPases associated with sperm motility. In this study, we evaluated the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase and the axonemal dynein-ATPase activities as well as sperm motility, in the presence of different free Cd(2+) concentrations in the assay media. It was found that spermatozoa incubated for 5 h in a medium containing 25 nm free Cd(2+) showed a significant inhibition of progressive motility, reaching values even lower at higher Cd(2+) concentrations. In addition, it was found that the activity of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase reached maximal inhibition at 50 nm free Cd(2+), with a K50% inhibition of 18.3 nm free Cd(2+). The dynein-ATPase activity was maximally inhibited by 25 nm free Cd(2+) in the assay medium, with a K50% inhibition of 11.3 nm Cd(2+). Our results indicate that the decreased activity of the sperm ATPases might have a critical importance in the biochemical mechanisms underlying the decreased sperm motility of individuals exposed to Cd(2+). PMID:26259968

  18. Rotating with the brakes on and other unresolved features of the vacuolar ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Shaun; Harrison, Michael A.; Muench, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    The rotary ATPase family comprises the ATP synthase (F-ATPase), vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) and archaeal ATPase (A-ATPase). These either predominantly utilize a proton gradient for ATP synthesis or use ATP to produce a proton gradient, driving secondary transport and acidifying organelles. With advances in EM has come a significant increase in our understanding of the rotary ATPase family. Following the sub nm resolution reconstructions of both the F- and V-ATPases, the secondary structure organization of the elusive subunit a has now been resolved, revealing a novel helical arrangement. Despite these significant developments in our understanding of the rotary ATPases, there are still a number of unresolved questions about the mechanism, regulation and overall architecture, which this mini-review aims to highlight and discuss. PMID:27284051

  19. Rotating with the brakes on and other unresolved features of the vacuolar ATPase.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Shaun; Harrison, Michael A; Muench, Stephen P

    2016-06-15

    The rotary ATPase family comprises the ATP synthase (F-ATPase), vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) and archaeal ATPase (A-ATPase). These either predominantly utilize a proton gradient for ATP synthesis or use ATP to produce a proton gradient, driving secondary transport and acidifying organelles. With advances in EM has come a significant increase in our understanding of the rotary ATPase family. Following the sub nm resolution reconstructions of both the F- and V-ATPases, the secondary structure organization of the elusive subunit a has now been resolved, revealing a novel helical arrangement. Despite these significant developments in our understanding of the rotary ATPases, there are still a number of unresolved questions about the mechanism, regulation and overall architecture, which this mini-review aims to highlight and discuss. PMID:27284051

  20. p-type conduction induced by N-doping in {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Morikawa, Takeshi; Kitazumi, Kousuke; Takahashi, Naoko; Arai, Takeo; Kajino, Tsutomu

    2011-06-13

    A p-type N-doped {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was developed by magnetron sputtering of a Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} target in a plasma containing N{sub 2} and Ar followed by postannealing. Photoelectrochemical measurement under visible light irradiation (>410 nm) showed that N-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibits a typical cathodic photocurrent originated from the p-type conduction. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy indicated that the atomic N incorporated substitutionally at O sites was responsible for the p-type conduction. The concentration of acceptors was very close to that for Zn-doped Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, a typical p-type {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This finding would stimulate further research on p-type Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} for solar fuel generation, etc.

  1. Impurity Resonant States p-type Doping in Wide-Band-Gap Nitrides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiqiang; Yi, Xiaoyan; Yu, Zhiguo; Yuan, Gongdong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin; Lu, Na; Ferguson, Ian; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new strategy for achieving efficient p-type doping in high bandgap nitride semiconductors to overcome the fundamental issue of high activation energy has been proposed and investigated theoretically, and demonstrated experimentally. Specifically, in an AlxGa(1-x)N/GaN superlattice structure, by modulation doping of Mg in the AlxGa(1-x)N barriers, high concentration of holes are generated throughout the material. A hole concentration as high as 1.1 × 10(18) cm(-3) has been achieved, which is about one order of magnitude higher than that typically achievable by direct doping GaN. Results from first-principle calculations indicate that the coupling and hybridization between Mg 2p impurity and the host N 2p orbitals are main reasons for the generation of resonant states in the GaN wells, which further results in the high hole concentration. We expect this approach to be equally applicable for other high bandgap materials where efficient p-type doing is difficult. Furthermore, a two-carrier-species Hall-effect model is proposed to delineate and discriminate the characteristics of the bulk and 2D hole, which usually coexist in superlattice-like doping systems. The model reported here can also be used to explain the abnormal freeze-in effect observed in many previous reports. PMID:26777294

  2. Characteristics of p-type transparent conductive CuCrO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ruei-Sung; Wu, Chung-Ming

    2013-10-01

    Cu-Cr-O films were prepared using reactive magnetron sputtering deposition followed by annealing at temperatures ranging from 550 to 625 °C in 25 °C increments. Correlations between the optoelectronic and microstructural properties of the p-type CuCrO2 films are discussed. The as-deposited film was amorphous; after annealing at 550 and 575 °C, films adopted mixed CuO and CuCr2O4 phases. Annealing at 600 °C led to the formation of a dominant phase of delafossite CuCrO2. The 625 °C-annealed film was single-phase CuCrO2 which had a bar- and polygonal-like mixed surface appearance, with a root mean square roughness of 17.7 nm. CuCrO2 is an intrinsic p-type semiconductor which exhibits electrical conductivity and transparency over the visible wavelength range. Two higher-energy subband transitions at 3.69 and 4.82 eV were observed in the band structure of CuCrO2. Point defects were the main reason source of hole carrier scattering in the material. The single-phase CuCrO2 film had the lowest resistivity of the films, 4.31 Ω cm, and had a direct band gap of 3.14 eV and light transmittance of 62% at 600 nm.

  3. Easily doped p-type, low hole effective mass, transparent oxides

    PubMed Central

    Sarmadian, Nasrin; Saniz, Rolando; Partoens, Bart; Lamoen, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Fulfillment of the promise of transparent electronics has been hindered until now largely by the lack of semiconductors that can be doped p-type in a stable way, and that at the same time present high hole mobility and are highly transparent in the visible spectrum. Here, a high-throughput study based on first-principles methods reveals four oxides, namely X2SeO2, with X = La, Pr, Nd, and Gd, which are unique in that they exhibit excellent characteristics for transparent electronic device applications – i.e., a direct band gap larger than 3.1 eV, an average hole effective mass below the electron rest mass, and good p-type dopability. Furthermore, for La2SeO2 it is explicitly shown that Na impurities substituting La are shallow acceptors in moderate to strong anion-rich growth conditions, with low formation energy, and that they will not be compensated by anion vacancies VO or VSe. PMID:26854336

  4. Does p-type ohmic contact exist in WSe2-metal interfaces?

    PubMed

    Wang, Yangyang; Yang, Ruo Xi; Quhe, Ruge; Zhong, Hongxia; Cong, Linxiao; Ye, Meng; Ni, Zeyuan; Song, Zhigang; Yang, Jinbo; Shi, Junjie; Li, Ju; Lu, Jing

    2016-01-14

    Formation of low-resistance metal contacts is the biggest challenge that masks the intrinsic exceptional electronic properties of two dimensional WSe2 devices. We present the first comparative study of the interfacial properties between monolayer/bilayer (ML/BL) WSe2 and Sc, Al, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt contacts by using ab initio energy band calculations with inclusion of the spin-orbital coupling (SOC) effects and quantum transport simulations. The interlayer coupling tends to reduce both the electron and hole Schottky barrier heights (SBHs) and alters the polarity for the WSe2-Au contact, while the SOC chiefly reduces the hole SBH. In the absence of the SOC, the Pd contact has the smallest hole SBH. Dramatically, the Pt contact surpasses the Pd contact and becomes the p-type ohmic or quasi-ohmic contact with inclusion of the SOC. Therefore, p-type ohmic or quasi-ohmic contact exists in WSe2-metal interfaces. Our study provides a theoretical foundation for the selection of favorable metal electrodes in ML/BL WSe2 devices. PMID:26666570

  5. Characterization of irradiated detectors fabricated on p-type silicon substrates for super-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñano, M.; Campabadal, F.; Escobar, C.; García, C.; González, S.; Lacasta, C.; Lozano, M.; Martí i García, S.; Pellegrini, G.; Rafí, J. M.; Ullán, M.

    2007-12-01

    An upgrade of the large hadron collider (LHC), the Super-LHC (SLHC), towards higher luminosities is currently being discussed as an extension of the LHC physics program. The goal of the SLHC is to operate at a luminosity of 10 35 cm -2 s -1 (10 times larger than that of the LHC one). Thus, the operation of the SLHC implies a need to upgrade the detectors of the LHC experiments. The current tracking system of ATLAS will not cope with that luminosity. New solutions must be investigated to improve the radiation tolerance of the semiconductor detector. p-Type bulk sensors are being considered for the ATLAS tracking system for the SLHC. Microstrip detectors fabricated by CNM-IMB on p-type high-resistivity float zone silicon have been irradiated with neutrons at the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana up to a fluence of 10 16 cm -2 (as expected in the innermost region of the ATLAS upgrade) and have been characterized at IFIC Laboratory. The collected charge, after irradiation, has been measured by infrared laser illumination. The leakage current of those sensors is also reported.

  6. Reduced thermal conductivity due to scattering centers in p-type SiGe alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaty, John S.; Rolfe, Jonathon L.; Vandersande, Jan; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre

    1992-01-01

    Spark erosion was used to produce ultra-fine particles of SiGe thermoelectric material and boron nitride, an inert phonon-scattering material. A homogeneous powder was made by mixing the two powders. The mixture was hot pressed to produce a thermoelectric material with uniformity dispersed, ultra-fine, inert, phonon-scattering centers. It is shown that, in samples with inert boron nitride or silicon nitride, thermal conductivity of a SiGe alloy can be reduced by about 25 percent while maintaining the electrical properties of the samples. Annealing of all the samples at 1525 K caused grain growth to over a micron, eliminating the detrimental effect attributable to small grains. Only in the sample with boron nitride the thermal conductivity did remain well below that for standard p-type SiGe (about 25 percent), while the electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient were very close to the values for standard p-type 80/20 SiGe.

  7. Imperceptible and Ultraflexible p-Type Transistors and Macroelectronics Based on Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Chongwu

    2016-01-26

    Flexible thin-film transistors based on semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes are promising for flexible digital circuits, artificial skins, radio frequency devices, active-matrix-based displays, and sensors due to the outstanding electrical properties and intrinsic mechanical strength of carbon nanotubes. Nevertheless, previous research effort only led to nanotube thin-film transistors with the smallest bending radius down to 1 mm. In this paper, we have realized the full potential of carbon nanotubes by making ultraflexible and imperceptible p-type transistors and circuits with a bending radius down to 40 μm. In addition, the resulted transistors show mobility up to 12.04 cm(2) V(-1) S(-1), high on-off ratio (∼10(6)), ultralight weight (<3 g/m(2)), and good mechanical robustness (accommodating severe crumpling and 67% compressive strain). Furthermore, the nanotube circuits can operate properly with 33% compressive strain. On the basis of the aforementioned features, our ultraflexible p-type nanotube transistors and circuits have great potential to work as indispensable components for ultraflexible complementary electronics. PMID:26624921

  8. Easily doped p-type, low hole effective mass, transparent oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmadian, Nasrin; Saniz, Rolando; Partoens, Bart; Lamoen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Fulfillment of the promise of transparent electronics has been hindered until now largely by the lack of semiconductors that can be doped p-type in a stable way, and that at the same time present high hole mobility and are highly transparent in the visible spectrum. Here, a high-throughput study based on first-principles methods reveals four oxides, namely X2SeO2, with X = La, Pr, Nd, and Gd, which are unique in that they exhibit excellent characteristics for transparent electronic device applications - i.e., a direct band gap larger than 3.1 eV, an average hole effective mass below the electron rest mass, and good p-type dopability. Furthermore, for La2SeO2 it is explicitly shown that Na impurities substituting La are shallow acceptors in moderate to strong anion-rich growth conditions, with low formation energy, and that they will not be compensated by anion vacancies VO or VSe.

  9. Structural and Thermoelectric Properties of Polycrystalline p-Type Mg2- x Li x Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieroda, P.; Kolezynski, A.; Oszajca, M.; Milczarek, J.; Wojciechowski, K. T.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the location of Li atoms in Mg2Si structure, and verify the influence of Li dopant on the transport properties of obtained thermoelectric materials. The results of theoretical studies of the electronic band structure (full potential linearized augmented plane wave method) in Li-doped Mg2Si are presented. Theoretical calculations indicate that only in the case when Li is located in the Mg position, the samples will have p-type conduction. To confirm the theoretical predictions, a series of samples with nominal composition Mg2- x Li x Si ( x = 0-0.5) were prepared using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. Structural and phase composition analyses were carried out by x-ray and neutron powder diffraction, as well as scanning electron microscopy. Neutron diffraction studies confirmed that the lithium atoms substitute magnesium in the Mg2Si structure. The investigations of the influence of Li dopant on the transport properties, i.e. electrical conductivity, the Seebeck coefficient and the thermal conductivity, were carried out in a temperature range from 340 K to 720 K. Carrier concentration was measured with Hall method. The positive values of the Seebeck coefficient and Hall coefficient indicate that all examined samples show p-type conductivity. On the basis of the experimental data, the temperature dependencies of the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT were calculated.

  10. Conducting mechanism in the epitaxial p -type transparent conducting oxide C r2O3:Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, L.; Fleischer, K.; Caffrey, D.; Mullarkey, D.; Norton, E.; Shvets, I. V.

    2015-03-01

    Epitaxial p -type transparent conducting oxide (TCO) C r2O3:Mg was grown by electron-beam evaporation in a molecular beam epitaxy system on c -plane sapphire. The influence of Mg dopants and the oxygen partial pressure were investigated by thermoelectric and electrical measurements. The conduction mechanism is analyzed using the small-polaron hopping model, and hopping activation energies have been determined, which vary with doping concentration in the range of 210-300 ± 5 meV. Films with better conductivity were obtained by postannealing. The effect of postannealing is discussed in terms of a crystallographic reordering of the Mg dopant. The highest Seebeck mobilities obtained from thermoelectric measurements are of the order of 10-4cm2V-1s-1 . We investigate the fundamental properties of a Mg dopant in a high crystalline quality epitaxial film of a binary oxide, helping us understand the role of short range crystallographic order in a p -type TCO in detail.

  11. Tailoring of the Metal-N/P-Type GaSb Interface Properties for Device Production

    SciTech Connect

    Varblianska, K.; Tzeneva, S.; Comninou, Ph.; Nihtianova, D.

    2007-04-23

    There are some difficulties in producing Schottky barriers (SB) to p-type GaSb and ohmic contacts (OC) to n-type GaSb connected with the physical nature of the GaSb itself. By applying low energy Ar ion sputtering at 200-700V and (NH4)2S solution treatment of the p-type substrates we achieved a rectifying behavior of the p-GaSb/Pd contacts. The same procedure combined with a proper annealing led to the production of good n-GaSb/Pd/Ge/Au ohmic contacts. The electrical behavior of the SB and OC is inferred from their current-voltage characteristics on specially prepared diode structures. SEM and TEM investigations are conducted to specify the surface and interface reactions during the processing. We interpret these results in terms of the generation of such a Ga to Sb vacancy concentration ratio during the ion sputtering that enhances the incorporation of Ge and S as donor impurities in the GaSb surface.

  12. Development of improved p-type Si-20 at. % Ge by addition of fullerite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, B. A.; Harringa, J. L.

    1994-08-01

    In a series of experiments designed to evaluate the possibility of lowering the lattice thermal conductivity of silicon-germanium alloys through the formation of an inert, intragranular nanophase, a number of p-type Si-20 at. % Ge alloys, with a nominal doping level of 0.5 at. % boron, were prepared with varying amounts of fullerite, a mixture of 90% C60+10% C70 with a particle size of 0.7 nm. The alloys were synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) and the fullerite was added at various stages of the preparation sequence. Compacts consolidated by hot pressing at temperatures of 1200 °C to 1265 °C were found to be fully dense and homogeneous. Each compact was characterized by Hall effect at room temperature and also by electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal diffusivity measurements to 1000 °C. A reduction in thermal conductivity of up to 22% compared to standard p-type alloys was observed in samples containing 0.8 weight percent additions. In this study, a maximum integrated average figure of merit, Z, between 300 and 1000 °C of 0.65×10-3 °C-1 was obtained, corresponding to 0.4 weight percent addition of fullerite. Observation of selected samples by transmission electron microscopy revealed that the fullerite reacted with silicon to form nanophase SiC inclusions.

  13. Impurity Resonant States p-type Doping in Wide-Band-Gap Nitrides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiqiang; Yi, Xiaoyan; Yu, Zhiguo; Yuan, Gongdong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin; Lu, Na; Ferguson, Ian; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new strategy for achieving efficient p-type doping in high bandgap nitride semiconductors to overcome the fundamental issue of high activation energy has been proposed and investigated theoretically, and demonstrated experimentally. Specifically, in an AlxGa1−xN/GaN superlattice structure, by modulation doping of Mg in the AlxGa1−xN barriers, high concentration of holes are generated throughout the material. A hole concentration as high as 1.1 × 1018 cm−3 has been achieved, which is about one order of magnitude higher than that typically achievable by direct doping GaN. Results from first-principle calculations indicate that the coupling and hybridization between Mg 2p impurity and the host N 2p orbitals are main reasons for the generation of resonant states in the GaN wells, which further results in the high hole concentration. We expect this approach to be equally applicable for other high bandgap materials where efficient p-type doing is difficult. Furthermore, a two-carrier-species Hall-effect model is proposed to delineate and discriminate the characteristics of the bulk and 2D hole, which usually coexist in superlattice-like doping systems. The model reported here can also be used to explain the abnormal freeze-in effect observed in many previous reports. PMID:26777294

  14. Quantum mechanical simulation of hole transport in p-type Si Schottky barrier MOSFETs.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wonchul; Shin, Mincheol

    2011-07-01

    A full quantum-mechanical simulation of p-type nanowire Schottky barrier metal oxide silicon field effect transistors (SB-MOSFETs) is performed by solving the three-dimensional Schrödinger and Poisson's equations self-consistently. The non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) approach is adopted to treat hole transport, especially quantum tunneling through SB. In this work, p-type nanowire SB-MOSFETs are simulated based on the 3-band k.p method, using the k.p parameters that were tuned by benchmarking against the tight-binding method with sp3s* orbitals. The device shows a strong dependence on the transport direction, due to the orientation-sensitive tunneling effective mass and the confinement energy. With regard to the subthreshold slope, the [110] and [111] oriented devices with long channel show better performance, but they are more vulnerable to the short channel effects than the [100] oriented device. The threshold voltage also shows a greater variation in the [110] and [111] oriented devices with the decrease of the channel length. PMID:22121621

  15. Proposed explanation of the p-type doping proclivity of ZnTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dow, John D.; Hong, Run-Di; Klemm, Stefan; Ren, Shang Yuan; Tsai, M.-H.; Sankey, Otto F.; Kasowski, R. V.

    1991-02-01

    An explanation is proposed for the fact that ZnTe is unique among the II-VI compound semiconductors in that it can be doped p type rather easily: a p-like deep-level resonance lies within the valence band of ZnTe and emerges into the fundamental band gap with increasing Se content x in ZnTe1-xSex random alloys. This level generates free holes when it lies below the Fermi energy in the valence band, making its parent defect a shallow acceptor. When the level moves into the gap, the impurity becomes a deep hole trap. The native and foreign antisite defects ZnTe and LiTe are suggested as possible parent defects of the relevant deep level; they are predicted to be shallow acceptors in ZnTe, while the corresponding defects are deep traps in other II-VI compound semiconductors. Tests of this proposal are suggested and the substitutional s- and p-bonded deep levels of ZnSe and ZnTe are predicted, extending the theory of Hjalmarson et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 810 (1980)]. The possibility of doping ZnSe p type with (antisite) Be is also proposed and discussed.

  16. p-Type polymer-hybridized high-performance piezoelectric nanogenerators.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun Young; Kumar, Brijesh; Seo, Ju-Seok; Kim, Kwon-Ho; Sohn, Jung Inn; Cha, Seung Nam; Choi, Dukhyun; Wang, Zhong Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2012-04-11

    Enhancing the output power of a nanogenerator is essential in applications as a sustainable power source for wireless sensors and microelectronics. We report here a novel approach that greatly enhances piezoelectric power generation by introducing a p-type polymer layer on a piezoelectric semiconducting thin film. Holes at the film surface greatly reduce the piezoelectric potential screening effect caused by free electrons in a piezoelectric semiconducting material. Furthermore, additional carriers from a conducting polymer and a shift in the Fermi level help in increasing the power output. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was used as a p-type polymer on piezoelectric semiconducting zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film, and phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was added to P3HT to improve carrier transport. The ZnO/P3HT:PCBM-assembled piezoelectric power generator demonstrated 18-fold enhancement in the output voltage and tripled the current, relative to a power generator with ZnO only at a strain of 0.068%. The overall output power density exceeded 0.88 W/cm(3), and the average power conversion efficiency was up to 18%. This high power generation enabled red, green, and blue light-emitting diodes to turn on after only tens of times bending the generator. This approach offers a breakthrough in realizing a high-performance flexible piezoelectric energy harvester for self-powered electronics. PMID:22409420

  17. Valence Band Structure of Highly Efficient p-type Thermoelectric PbTe-PbS Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jaworski, C. M.; Nielsen, Mechele; Wang, Hsin; Girard, Steven N.; Cai, Wei; Porter, Wallace D; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Heremans, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    New experimental evidence is given relevant to the temperature-dependence of valence band structure of PbTe and PbTe1-xSx alloys (0.04 x 0.12), and its effect on the thermoelectric figure of merit zT. The x = 0.08 sample has zT ~ 1.55 at 773K. The magnetic field dependence of the high-temperature Hall resistivity of heavily p-type (> 1019 cm-3) Na-doped PbTe1-xSx reveals the presence of high-mobility electrons. This put in question prior analyses of the Hall coefficient and the conclusion that PbTe would be an indirect gap semiconductor at temperatures where its zT is optimal. Possible origins for these electrons are discussed: they can be induced by photoconductivity, or by the topology of the Fermi surface when the L and -bands merge. Negative values for the low-temperature thermopower are also observed. Our data show that PbTe continues to be a direct gap semiconductor at temperatures where the zT and S2 of p-type PbTe are optimal e.g. 700-900K. The previously suggested temperature induced rapid rise in energy of the heavy hole LVB relative to the light hole UVB is not supported by the experimental data.

  18. Fullerene C{sub 70} as a p-type donor in organic photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Taojun; Wang, Xiao-Feng E-mail: zrhong@ucla.edu Sano, Takeshi; Kido, Junji E-mail: zrhong@ucla.edu; Hong, Ziruo E-mail: zrhong@ucla.edu; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang

    2014-09-01

    Fullerenes and their derivatives have been widely used as n-type materials in organic transistor and photovoltaic devices. Though it is believed that they shall be ambipolar in nature, there have been few direct experimental proofs for that. In this work, fullerene C{sub 70}, known as an efficient acceptor, has been employed as a p-type electron donor in conjunction with 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile as an electron acceptor in planar-heterojunction (PHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. High fill factors (FFs) of more than 0.70 were reliably achieved with the C{sub 70} layer even up to 100 nm thick in PHJ cells, suggesting the superior potential of fullerene C{sub 70} as the p-type donor in comparison to other conventional donor materials. The optimal efficiency of these unconventional PHJ cells was 2.83% with a short-circuit current of 5.33 mA/cm{sup 2}, an open circuit voltage of 0.72 V, and a FF of 0.74. The results in this work unveil the potential of fullerene materials as donors in OPV devices, and provide alternative approaches towards future OPV applications.

  19. Antibodies to mammalian and plant V-ATPases cross react with the V-ATPase of insect cation-transporting plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Russell, V E; Klein, U; Reuveni, M; Spaeth, D D; Wolfersberger, M G; Harvey, W R

    1992-05-01

    In immunobiochemical blots, polyclonal antibodies against subunits of plant and mammalian vacuolar-type ATPases (V-ATPases) cross-react strongly with corresponding subunits of larval Manduca sexta midgut plasma membrane V-ATPase. Thus, rabbit antiserum against Kalanchoe daigremontiana tonoplast V-ATPase holoenzyme cross-reacts with the 67, 56, 40, 28 and 20 kDa subunits of midgut V-ATPase separated by SDS-PAGE. Antisera against bovine chromaffin granule 72 and 39 kDa V-ATPase subunits cross-react with the corresponding 67 and 43 kDa subunits of midgut V-ATPase. Antisera against the 57 kDa subunit of both beet root and oat root V-ATPase cross-react strongly with the midgut 56 kDa V-ATPase subunit. In immunocytochemical light micrographs, antiserum against the beet root 57 kDa V-ATPase subunit labels the goblet cell apical membrane of both posterior and anterior midgut in freeze-substituted and fixed sections. The plant antiserum also labels the apical brush-border plasma membrane of Malpighian tubules. The ability of antibodies against plant V-ATPase to label these insect membranes suggests a high sequence homology between V-ATPases from plants and insects. Both of the antibody-labelled insect membranes transport K+ and both membranes possess F1-like particles, portasomes, on their cytoplasmic surfaces. This immunolabelling by xenic V-ATPase antisera of two insect cation-transporting membranes suggests that the portasomes on these membranes may be V-ATPase particles, similar to those reported on V-ATPase-containing vacuolar membranes from various sources. PMID:1534830

  20. Investigation of band bending in n- and p-type gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foussekis, Michael Alexander

    This dissertation details the study of band bending in n- and p-type GaN samples with a Kelvin probe utilizing different illumination geometries, ambients (air, oxygen, vacuum 10-6 mbar), and sample temperatures (77 -- 650 K). The Kelvin probe, which is mounted inside an optical cryostat, is used to measure the surface potential. Illumination of the GaN surface with band-to-band light generates electron-hole pairs, which quickly separate in the depletion region due to a strong electric field caused by the near-surface band bending. The charge that is swept to the surface reduces the band bending and generates a surface photovoltage (SPV). Information about the band bending can be obtained by fitting the SPV measurements with a thermionic model based on the emission of charge carriers from bulk to surface and vice versa. The band bending in freestanding n-type GaN templates has been evaluated. The Ga-polar and N-polar surfaces exhibit upward band bending of about 0.74 and 0.57 eV, respectively. The surface treatment also plays a major role in the SPV behavior, where the SPV for mechanical polished surfaces restores faster than predicted by a thermionic model in dark. When measuring the photoluminescence (PL) signal, the PL from mechanically polished surfaces was about 4 orders of magnitude smaller than the PL from chemically mechanically polished surfaces. The PL and SPV behaviors were explained by the presence of a large density of defects near the surface, which quench PL and aid in the restoration of the SPV via electron hopping between defects. Temperature-dependent SPV studies have also been performed on doped n- and p-type GaN samples. In Si-doped n-type GaN, the estimated upward band bending was about 1 eV at temperatures between 295 and 500 K. However, in p-type GaN, the downward band bending appeared to increase with increasing temperature, where the magnitude of band bending increased from 0.8 eV to 2.1 eV as the temperature increased from 295 to 650 K. It

  1. Meiotic Clade AAA ATPases: Protein Polymer Disassembly Machines.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Nicole; Hill, Christopher P

    2016-05-01

    Meiotic clade AAA ATPases (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities), which were initially grouped on the basis of phylogenetic classification of their AAA ATPase cassette, include four relatively well characterized family members, Vps4, spastin, katanin and fidgetin. These enzymes all function to disassemble specific polymeric protein structures, with Vps4 disassembling the ESCRT-III polymers that are central to the many membrane-remodeling activities of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) pathway and spastin, katanin p60 and fidgetin affecting multiple aspects of cellular dynamics by severing microtubules. They share a common domain architecture that features an N-terminal MIT (microtubule interacting and trafficking) domain followed by a single AAA ATPase cassette. Meiotic clade AAA ATPases function as hexamers that can cycle between the active assembly and inactive monomers/dimers in a regulated process, and they appear to disassemble their polymeric substrates by translocating subunits through the central pore of their hexameric ring. Recent studies with Vps4 have shown that nucleotide-induced asymmetry is a requirement for substrate binding to the pore loops and that recruitment to the protein lattice via MIT domains also relieves autoinhibition and primes the AAA ATPase cassettes for substrate binding. The most striking, unifying feature of meiotic clade AAA ATPases may be their MIT domain, which is a module that is found in a wide variety of proteins that localize to ESCRT-III polymers. Spastin also displays an adjacent microtubule binding sequence, and the presence of both ESCRT-III and microtubule binding elements may underlie the recent findings that the ESCRT-III disassembly function of Vps4 and the microtubule-severing function of spastin, as well as potentially katanin and fidgetin, are highly coordinated. PMID:26555750

  2. Electrostatic interactions in catalytic centers of F1-ATPase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrebnaya, Alexandra F.; Romanovsky, Yury M.; Tikhonov, Alexander N.

    2003-10-01

    F1-ATPase is one of the most important enzymes of membrane bioenergetics. F1-ATPase is the constituent complex that provides the ATP formation from ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) at the expense of energy of electrochemical gradient of hydrogen ions generated across the energy transducing mitochondrial, chloroplast or bacterial membrane. F1-ATPase is a reversible molecular machine that can work as a proton pump due to energy released in the course of ATP hydrolysis (ATPase reaction). The unusual feature of this enzyme is that it operates as a rotary molecular motor. Recently, using the fluorescence microscopy method for the real time visualization of molecular mobility of individual molecules, it was demonstrated directly that the ATP hydrolysis by F1-ATPase is accompanied by unidirectional rotations of mobile subunits (rotor) of F1F0-ATP synthase. In this work, we calculated the contribution of electrostatic interactions between charged groups of a substrate (MgATP), products molecules (MgADP and Pi), and charged amino acid residuals of ATPase molecule to the energy changes associated with the substrate binding and their chemical transformations in the catalytic centers located at the interface of α and β subunits of the enzyme (oligomer complex α3β3γ of bovine mitochondria ATPase). A catalytic cycle of ATP hydrolysis considered in our work includes conformational changes of α and β subunits caused by unidirectional rotations of an eccentric γ subunit. The knowledge of energy characteristics and force field in catalytic center of an enzyme in different conformational states may be important for further simulation dynamic properties of ATP synthase complex.

  3. High glucose uptake unexpectedly is accompanied by high levels of the mitochondrial β-F1-ATPase subunit in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Preuss, Simon F.; Schiffer, Theresa; Schilder, Sarah; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Schmidt, Matthias; Klussmann, Jens P.; Wiesner, Rudolf J.

    2015-01-01

    A hallmark of solid tumors is the consumption of large amounts of glucose and production of lactate, also known as Warburg-like metabolism. This metabolic phenotype is typical for aggressive tumor growth, and can be visualized by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake detected by positron emission tomography (PET). High 18F-FDG uptake inversely correlates with survival and goes along with reduced expression of the catalytic beta-subunit of the H+-ATP synthase (β-F1-ATPase) in several tumor entities analyzed so far. For this study we characterized a series of 15 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by (i) determining 18F-FDG-uptake; (ii) quantitative expression analysis of β-F1-ATPase (Complex V), NDUF-S1 (Complex I) and COX1 (Complex IV) of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), as well as Hsp60 (mitochondrial mass) and GAPDH (glycolysis) in tumor cells; (iii) sequencing of the mtDNA of representative tumor samples. Whereas high 18F-FDG-uptake also correlates with poor prognosis in HNSCC, it surprisingly is accompanied by high levels of β-F1-ATPase, but not by any of the other analyzed proteins. In conclusion, we here describe a completely new phenotype of metabolic adaptation possibly enabling those tumors with highest levels of β-F1-ATPase to rapidly proliferate even in hypoxic zones, which are typical for HNSCC. PMID:26452026

  4. A comparison of an ATPase from the archaebacterium Halobacterium saccharovorum with the F1 moiety from the Escherichia coli ATP Synthase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1989-01-01

    A purified ATPase associated with membranes from Halobacterium saccharovorum was compared with the F sub 1 moiety from the Escherichia coli ATP Synthase. The halobacterial enzyme was composed of two major (I and II) and two minor subunits (III and IV), whose molecular masses were 87 kDa, 60 kDa, 29 kDa, and 20 kDa, respectively. The isoelectric points of these subunits ranged from 4.1 to 4.8, which in the case of the subunits I and II was consistent with the presence of an excess of acidic amino acids (20 to 22 Mol percent). Peptide mapping of sodium dodecylsulfate-denatured subunits I and II showed no relationship between the primary structures of the individual halobacterial subunits or similarities to the subunits of the F sub 1 ATPase (EC 3.6.1.34) from E. coli. Trypsin inactivation of the halobacterial ATPase was accompanied by the partial degradation of the major subunits. This observation, taken in conjunction with molecular masses of the subunits and the native enzyme, was consistent with the previously proposed stoichiometry of 2:2:1:1. These results suggest that H. saccharovorum, and possibly, Halobacteria in general, possess an ATPase which is unlike the ubiquitous F sub o F sub 1 - ATP Synthase.

  5. Using PLATO IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meller, David V.

    This beginning reference manual describes PLATO IV hardware for prospective users and provides an introduction to PLATO for new authors. The PLATO terminal is described in detail in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 provides a block diagram of the PLATO IV system. Procedures for getting on line are described in Chapter 3, and Chapter 4 provides references to…

  6. IV treatment at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... 24 hours a day. If there is a problem with the IV, you can call your home health care agency for help. If the IV comes out of ... bleeding stops. Then call the home health care agency or the doctor right away.

  7. An RNA polymerase II transcription factor has an associated DNA-dependent ATPase (dATPase) activity strongly stimulated by the TATA region of promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Conaway, R C; Conaway, J W

    1989-01-01

    A transcription factor required for synthesis of accurately initiated run-off transcripts by RNA polymerase II has been purified and shown to have an associated DNA-dependent ATPase (dATPase) activity that is strongly stimulated by the TATA region of promoters. This transcription factor, designated delta, was purified more than 3000-fold from extracts of crude rat liver nuclei and has a native molecular mass of approximately 230 kDa. DNA-dependent ATPase (dATPase) and transcription activities copurify when delta is analyzed by hydrophobic interaction and ion-exchange HPLC, arguing that transcription factor delta possesses an ATPase (dATPase) activity. ATPase (dATPase) is specific for adenine nucleotides; ATP and dATP, but not CTP, UTP, or GTP, are hydrolyzed. ATPase (dATPase) is stimulated by both double-stranded and single-stranded DNAs, including pUC18, ssM13, and poly(dT); however, DNA fragments containing the TATA region of either the adenovirus 2 major late or mouse interleukin 3 promoters stimulate ATPase as much as 10-fold more effectively than DNA fragments containing nonpromoter sequences. These data suggest the intriguing possibility that delta plays a critical role in the ATP (dATP)-dependent activation of run-off transcription through a direct interaction with the TATA region of promoters. Images PMID:2552440

  8. EXAFS Study of N- And P-Type Ba(8)Ga(16)Ge(30)

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y.; Bridges, F.; Avila, M.A.; Takabatake, T.; Guzman, J.; Kurczveil, G.

    2009-05-18

    We report extended x-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) studies of n- and p-type Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub 16}Ge{sub 30} samples (type-I clathrate) at the Ga, Ge, and Ba K edges, to probe the local structure, particularly around the Ba atoms located inside 20- and 24-atom cages (Ba1 and Ba2 sites, respectively) composed of Ga/Ge atoms. In agreement with diffraction analysis, we find Ba2 is off center, with a component in the bc plane (0.15 {angstrom}) comparable to that found in diffraction. However, under the assumption of a stiff cage, we also require a significant a component. This suggests a coupling or attraction between the Ba2 atoms and the hexagonal rings at the top or bottom of the cage that encloses the Ba2 site. Further, changing the a component can change the number of shortest Ba2-Ga/Ge neighbors and hence the coupling of Ba2 to the surrounding cage. Within the cage structures which enclose both Ba sites, the Ga-Ga/Ge distances are slightly longer, while the Ge-Ga/Ge distances are slightly shorter than the average distance reported from diffraction. The longer Ga-Ga/Ge distances indicate that the Ba1 and Ba2 cages may be dimpled or distorted. At the second Ga/Ge distance, the local distortions in the Ba clathrate are smaller than those observed in the Eu clathrate, which likely plays a role in understanding the higher thermal conductivity of Ba clathrates compared to that of Eu clathrates. However, there is no clear difference in the EXAFS between the n- and p-type materials for either the Ba, Ga, or Ge K-edge data, which would explain the difference in thermal conductivity between n- and p-type materials. Finally, an average Einstein temperature for the shortest Ba2-Ga/Ge bonds is comparable to that for Ba1-Ga/Ge. This indicates a large effective spring constant for the closest Ga/Ge atoms to Ba2. We also develop a simple vibrational model to show explicitly the three types of vibration for Ba2 within the type-2 cage.

  9. NbFeSb based p-type half-Heusler for power generation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Giri; He, Ran; Engber, Michael; Samsonidze, Georgy; Pantha, Tej; Dahal, Ekraj; Dahal, Keshab; Yang, Jian; Lan, Yucheng; Kozinsky, Boris; Ren, Zhifeng

    2015-03-01

    We report a peak dimensionless figure-of-merit (ZT) of ~1 at 700 oC in nanostructured p-type Nb0.6Ti0.4FeSb0.95Sn0.05composition. Even though the power factor of the Nb0.6Ti0.4FeSb0.95Sn0.05 composition is improved by 25% in comparison to the previously reported p-type Hf0.44Zr0.44Ti0.12CoSb0.8Sn0.2, the ZT value is not increased due to a higher thermal conductivity. However, the higher power factor of the Nb0.6Ti0.4FeSb0.95Sn0.05 composition led to a 15% increase in power output of a thermoelectric device in comparison to a device made from the previous best material Hf0.44Zr0.44Ti0.12CoSb0.8Sn0.2. The n-type material used to make the unicouple device is the best reported nanostructured Hf0.25Zr0.75NiSn0.99Sb0.01 composition with the lowest hafnium (Hf) content. Both the p- and n-type nanostructured samples are prepared by ball milling the arc melted ingot and hot pressing the finely ground powders. Moreover, the raw material cost of the Nb0.6Ti0.4FeSb0.95Sn0.05 composition is more than six times lower compared to the cost of the previous best p-type Hf0.44Zr0.44Ti0.12CoSb0.8Sn0.2. This cost reduction is crucial for these materials to be used in large-scale quantities for vehicle and industrial waste heat recovery applications. DOE:DE-EE0004840.

  10. H/sup +/-translocating ATPases: advances using membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, H.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, two primary active transport systems (H/sup +/ -ATPases) in plant cells are examined using membrane vesicles as a simple experimental tool. One electrogenic, H/sup +/ -translocating ATPase is vanadate-sensitive and associated with the plasma membrane. Another electrogenic, H/sup +/ -translocating ATPases is anion-sensitive, and localized on the tonoplast (and perhaps other membranes). According to the working model, the plasma membrane and tonoplast-type H/sup +/ -ATPases are detectable in inside-out plasma membrane and right-side-out tonoplast vesicles. The direction of H/sup +/ pumping into these vesicles would be consistent with the results from intact cells where H/sup +/ are extruded from the cell across the plasma membrane and pumped into the vacuole from the cytoplasm. Understanding the properties of H/sup +/ -pumping ATPases using membrane vesicles has paved the way for studies to identify secondary active transport systems coupled to the proton electrochemical gradient. Redox-driven transport systems can also be studied directly using the isolated vesicles. As transport proteins are identified, the functional activities can be specifically studied after reconstitution of the purified protein(s) into phospholipid membrane vesicles. 154 references.

  11. Hormonal regulation of Na -K -ATPase in cultured epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.P.; Jones, D.; Wiesmann, W.P.

    1986-08-01

    Aldosterone and insulin stimulate Na transport through mechanisms involving protein synthesis. Na -K -ATPase has been implicated in the action of both hormones. The authors examined the effect of aldosterone and insulin on Na -K -ATPase in epithelial cells in culture derived from toad urinary bladder (TB6C) and toad kidney (A6). Aldosterone, but not insulin, increases short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) in TB6C cells. Aldosterone increases Na -K -(TSP)ATPase activity after 18 h of incubation, but no effect can be seen at 3 and 6 h. Amiloride, which inhibits aldosterone-induced increases in I/sub sc/, has no effect on either basal or aldosterone stimulated enzyme activity. Both aldosterone and insulin increase I/sub sc/ in A6 cells and when added together are synergistic. Aldosterone stimulates enzyme activity in A6 cells, but insulin alone has no effect. However, aldosterone and insulin together stimulate enzyme activity more than aldosterone alone. It appears that stimulation of Na -K -ATPase activity is involved in aldosterone action in both cell lines but does not appear to be due to increased Na entry, since enhanced enzyme activity is not inhibited by amiloride. In contrast, insulin alone has no direct effect on Na -K -ATPase, although the increased enzyme activity following both agents in combination may explain their synergism on I/sub sc/.

  12. Measuring In Vitro ATPase Activity for Enzymatic Characterization.

    PubMed

    Rule, Chelsea S; Patrick, Marcella; Sandkvist, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes, or ATPases, play a critical role in a diverse array of cellular functions. These dynamic proteins can generate energy for mechanical work, such as protein trafficking and degradation, solute transport, and cellular movements. The protocol described here is a basic assay for measuring the in vitro activity of purified ATPases for functional characterization. Proteins hydrolyze ATP in a reaction that results in inorganic phosphate release, and the amount of phosphate liberated is then quantitated using a colorimetric assay. This highly adaptable protocol can be adjusted to measure ATPase activity in kinetic or endpoint assays. A representative protocol is provided here based on the activity and requirements of EpsE, the AAA+ ATPase involved in Type II Secretion in the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The amount of purified protein needed to measure activity, length of the assay and the timing and number of sampling intervals, buffer and salt composition, temperature, co-factors, stimulants (if any), etc. may vary from those described here, and thus some optimization may be necessary. This protocol provides a basic framework for characterizing ATPases and can be performed quickly and easily adjusted as necessary. PMID:27584824

  13. The mitochondrial ATPase. Evidence for a single essential tyrosine residue.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, S J; Lloyd, W J; Lyons, M H; Radda, G K

    1975-05-01

    1. Evidence is presented which indicates that inactivation of the mitochondrial ATPase from bovine heart by the reagent 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan results from modification of one tyrosine residue per enzyme molecule. Activity can be restored by a variety of sulphydryl reagents. 2. In sodium dodecyl sulphate, the nitrogenzofurazan group on tyrosine is transfered to newly exposed sulphydryl groups on the enzyme. 3. The rate of transfer of the nitrobenzofurazan moiety from theenzyme to sulphydryl compounds is compared with that for transfer from the model compound N-acetyl-tyrosine-0(7-nitrobenzo-furazan) ethyl ester, the synthesis and properties of which are also described. 4. The ligands ATP and ADP exert a protective effect on the rate of reaction between the mitochondrial ATPase and 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan. The variation in rate of this reaction with change in pH has also been examined and a pKa of 9.5 estimated for the tyrosine residue. 5. The modification does not prevent substrate binding as judged by changes in the fluorescence of aurovertin, an antibiotic with specific affinity for mitochondiral ATPases. 6. When the ATPase activity of submitochondrial particles is inhibited by 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-furazan, there is a parallel decrease in the extent of the energy-linked fluorescence enhancement of 1-anilino-naphthalene-8-sulphonate induced by ATP hydrolysis. Both ATPase activity and the fluorescence enhancement are restored by sluphydryl reagents. PMID:238839

  14. A Method to Measure Hydrolytic Activity of Adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases)

    PubMed Central

    Bartolommei, Gianluca; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The detection of small amounts (nanomoles) of inorganic phosphate has a great interest in biochemistry. In particular, phosphate detection is useful to evaluate the rate of hydrolysis of phosphatases, that are enzymes able to remove phosphate from their substrate by hydrolytic cleavage. The hydrolysis rate is correlated to enzyme activity, an extremely important functional parameter. Among phosphatases there are the cation transporting adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases), that produce inorganic phosphate by cleavage of the γ-phosphate of ATP. These membrane transporters have many fundamental physiological roles and are emerging as potential drug targets. ATPase hydrolytic activity is measured to test enzyme functionality, but it also provides useful information on possible inhibitory effects of molecules that interfere with the hydrolytic process. We have optimized a molybdenum-based protocol that makes use of potassium antimony (III) oxide tartrate (originally employed for phosphate detection in environmental analysis) to allow its use with phosphatase enzymes. In particular, the method was successfully applied to native and recombinant ATPases to demonstrate its reliability, validity, sensitivity and versatility. Our method introduces significant improvements to well-established experimental assays, which are currently employed for ATPase activity measurements. Therefore, it may be valuable in biochemical and biomedical investigations of ATPase enzymes, in combination with more specific tests, as well as in high throughput drug screening. PMID:23472215

  15. Thermodynamic efficiency and mechanochemical coupling of F1-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Toyabe, Shoichi; Watanabe-Nakayama, Takahiro; Okamoto, Tetsuaki; Kudo, Seishi; Muneyuki, Eiro

    2011-01-01

    F1-ATPase is a nanosized biological energy transducer working as part of FoF1-ATP synthase. Its rotary machinery transduces energy between chemical free energy and mechanical work and plays a central role in the cellular energy transduction by synthesizing most ATP in virtually all organisms. However, information about its energetics is limited compared to that of the reaction scheme. Actually, fundamental questions such as how efficiently F1-ATPase transduces free energy remain unanswered. Here, we demonstrated reversible rotations of isolated F1-ATPase in discrete 120° steps by precisely controlling both the external torque and the chemical potential of ATP hydrolysis as a model system of FoF1-ATP synthase. We found that the maximum work performed by F1-ATPase per 120° step is nearly equal to the thermodynamical maximum work that can be extracted from a single ATP hydrolysis under a broad range of conditions. Our results suggested a 100% free-energy transduction efficiency and a tight mechanochemical coupling of F1-ATPase. PMID:21997211

  16. Origin of resistivity anomaly in p-type leads chalcogenide multiphase compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Aminorroaya Yamini, Sima E-mail: jsnyder@caltech.edu; Dou, Shi Xue; Mitchell, David R. G.; Wang, Heng; Gibbs, Zachary M.; Pei, Yanzhong; Snyder, G. Jeffrey E-mail: jsnyder@caltech.edu

    2015-05-15

    The electrical resistivity curves for binary phase compounds of p-type lead chalcogenide (PbTe){sub (0.9−x)}(PbSe){sub 0.1}(PbS){sub x,} (x = 0.15, 0.2, 0.25), which contain PbS-rich secondary phases, show different behaviour on heating and cooling between 500-700 K. This is contrast to single phase compounds which exhibit similar behaviour on heating and cooling. We correlate these anomalies in the electrical resistivities of multiphase compounds to the variation in phase composition at high temperatures. The inhomogeneous distribution of dopants between the matrix and secondary phase is found to be crucial in the electronic transport properties of the multiphase compounds. These results can lead to further advances in designing composite Pb-chalcogenides with high thermoelectric performance.

  17. Microhardness studies on thin carbon films grown on P-type, (100) silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    A program to grow thin carbon films and investigate their physical and electrical properties is described. Characteristics of films grown by rf sputtering and vacuum arc deposition on p type, (100) silicon wafers are presented. Microhardness data were obtained from both the films and the silicon via the Vickers diamond indentation technique. These data show that the films are always harder than the silicon, even when the films are thin (of the order of 1000 A). Vacuum arc films were found to contain black carbon inclusions of the order of a few microns in size, and clusters of inclusions of the order of tens of microns. Transmission electron diffraction showed that the films being studied were amorphous in structure.

  18. OMVPE growth of P-type GaN using solution Cp2Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yundong; Musante, Charles; Lau, Kei May; Smith, Lesley; Odedra, Rajesh; Kanjolia, Ravi

    2001-11-01

    Bis(cyclopentadienyl)magnesium (Cp2Mg) is a common source for p-type doping in GaN and AlInGaP materials. It is a white crystalline solid with very low vapor pressure, leading to transport problems similar to solid trimethyindium (TMI). Some of these problems can be alleviated by a newly developed source-solution magnesocene, Cp2Mg, dissolved in a solvent that is essentially nonvolatile. In this paper, we report the growth and comparative results of Mg-doped GaN grown by OMVPE using solid and solution Cp2Mg. Using both sources, we optimized parameters to obtain high-quality GaN growth with hole concentrations up to 1 1018/cm3.

  19. High frequency characteristics and modelling of p-type 6H-silicon carbide MOS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, J.; Godignon, P.; Berberich, S.; Rebollo, J.; Brezeanu, G.; Millán, J.

    1996-09-01

    This paper presents the high frequency electrical characteristics and modelling of Al/SiO 2/ p-type 6HSiC structures. The oxide was thermally grown under dry conditions. Capacitance and conductance vs bias and frequency measurements have been performed in daylight and exposing the capacitors to u.v. light. The experimental Cm- Vg and Gm- Vg characteristics show hysteresis effects, which are more important when the samples are exposed to 254 nm u.v. light. This behaviour can be explained in terms of interface traps. The MOS structure modelling is based on an interface trap model in which the interface trap levels are considered to be continuously distributed in the SiC bandgap and only charge exchange between interface trap levels and the SiC bands is allowed. From this formulation and from the Gm- f characteristics, the interface state density and the interface trap time constant have been determined.

  20. p-type conduction in beryllium-implanted hexagonal boron nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, B.; Zhang, W. J.; Yao, Z. Q.; Chong, Y. M.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Q.; Pan, X. J.; Zapien, J. A.; Bello, I.; Lee, S. T.; Gerhards, I.; Zutz, H.; Hofsäss, H.

    2009-12-01

    p-type conduction in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) films was achieved by beryllium implantation and subsequent rapid thermal annealing treatment. The dependence of phase composition and electrical properties of hBN films on the implantation fluence and annealing was studied. A maximum resistivity reduction by six orders of magnitude was demonstrated. Hall measurements revealed a corresponding hole concentration of 3×1019 cm-3 and mobility of 27 cm2/V s. The activation energy of Be ions was estimated to be 0.21 eV. It is suggested that hBN is a promising wide bandgap semiconductor for applications in high-temperature electronic devices and transparent conductive coatings.

  1. InAs/GaAs p-type quantum dot infrared photodetector with higher efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lao, Yan-Feng; Wolde, Seyoum; Unil Perera, A. G.; Zhang, Y. H.; Wang, T. M.; Liu, H. C.; Kim, J. O.; Schuler-Sandy, Ted; Tian, Zhao-Bing; Krishna, S. S.

    2013-12-09

    An InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) based on p-type valence-band intersublevel hole transitions as opposed to conventional electron transitions is reported. Two response bands observed at 1.5–3 and 3–10 μm are due to transitions from the heavy-hole to spin-orbit split-off QD level and from the heavy-hole to heavy-hole level, respectively. Without employing optimized structures (e.g., the dark current blocking layer), the demonstrated QDIP displays promising characteristics, including a specific detectivity of 1.8×10{sup 9} cm·Hz{sup 1/2}/W and a quantum efficiency of 17%, which is about 5% higher than that of present n-type QDIPs. This study shows the promise of utilizing hole transitions for developing QDIPs.

  2. Polymer photovoltaic cell embedded with p-type single walled carbon nanotubes fabricated by spray process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dal-Ho; Park, Jea-Gun

    2012-08-01

    In the current study, we fabricated polymer (poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric-acid methyl-ester (PCBM) blend) photovoltaic (PV) cells embedded with p-type single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with tangled hair morphology. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) rapidly increased with SWCNT concentration of up to 6.83% coverage, and then decreased and saturated with increasing SWCNT concentration; i.e., the PCE peaks at 5.379%. This tendency is mainly associated with hole transport efficiency toward the transparent electrode (indium-tin-oxide (ITO)) via SWCNTs, directly determining the series resistance and shunt resistance of the polymer PV cells embedded with SWCNTs: the PV cell is increasing shunt resistance and decreasing series resistance.

  3. Study of PbTe p-Type Doping With BaF{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Mengui, U. A.; Rappl, P. H. O.; Diaz, B.; Closs, H.; Ueta, A. Y.; Abramof, E.

    2010-01-04

    We investigate here the electrical and structural properties of PbTe layers doped with BaF{sub 2}. The layers were grown on (111)BaF{sub 2} substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The nominal doping level, defined as the beam flux ratio between BaF{sub 2} and PbTe, was varied from 0.02 to 1%. The hole concentration increases monotonously from 5x10{sup 17} to 1x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} as the doping level is raised from 0.02 to 0.4%, and saturates at p approx10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} for higher doping levels. This result demonstrates that PbTe can be effectively p-type doped with BaF{sub 2}. Even for the highest doping levels, the PbTe layers remained with a good structural quality, as evidenced by the (222) x-ray rocking curves.

  4. Chemical synthesis of p-type nanocrystalline copper selenide thin films for heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambade, Swapnil B.; Mane, R. S.; Kale, S. S.; Sonawane, S. H.; Shaikh, Arif V.; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2006-12-01

    Nanocrystalline thin films of copper selenide have been grown on glass and tin doped-indium oxide substrates using chemical method. At ambient temperature, golden films have been synthesized and annealed at 200 °C for 1 h and were examined for their structural, surface morphological and optical properties by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry techniques, respectively. Cu 2- xSe phase was confirmed by XRD pattern and spherical grains of 30 ± 4 - 40 ± 4 nm in size aggregated over about 130 ± 10 nm islands were seen by SEM images. Effect of annealing on crystallinity improvement, band edge shift and photoelectrochemical performance (under 80 mW/cm 2 light intensity and in lithium iodide electrolyte) has been studied and reported. Observed p-type electrical conductivity in copper selenide thin films make it a suitable candidate for heterojunction solar cells.

  5. Ultrafast hole carrier relaxation dynamics in p-type CuO nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ultrafast hole carrier relaxation dynamics in CuO nanowires have been investigated using transient absorption spectroscopy. Following femtosecond pulse excitation in a non-collinear pump-probe configuration, a combination of non-degenerate transmission and reflection measurements reveal initial ultrafast state filling dynamics independent of the probing photon energy. This behavior is attributed to the occupation of states by photo-generated carriers in the intrinsic hole region of the p-type CuO nanowires located near the top of the valence band. Intensity measurements indicate an upper fluence threshold of 40 μJ/cm2 where carrier relaxation is mainly governed by the hole dynamics. The fast relaxation of the photo-generated carriers was determined to follow a double exponential decay with time constants of 0.4 ps and 2.1 ps. Furthermore, time-correlated single photon counting measurements provide evidence of three exponential relaxation channels on the nanosecond timescale. PMID:22151927

  6. Novel method of separating macroporous arrays from p-type silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobo, Peng; Fei, Wang; Tao, Liu; Zhenya, Yang; Lianwei, Wang; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a novel method to fabricate separated macroporous silicon using a single step of photo-assisted electrochemical etching. The method is applied to fabricate silicon microchannel plates in 100 mm p-type silicon wafers, which can be used as electron multipliers and three-dimensional Li-ion microbatteries. Increasing the backside illumination intensity and decreasing the bias simultaneously can generate additional holes during the electrochemical etching which will create lateral etching at the pore tips. In this way the silicon microchannel can be separated from the substrate when the desired depth is reached, then it can be cut into the desired shape by using a laser cutting machine. Also, the mechanism of lateral etching is proposed.

  7. Development of radiation hard edgeless detectors with current terminating structure on p-type silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbitskaya, E.; Eremin, V.; Ruggiero, G.

    2011-12-01

    The development of edgeless Si detectors was stimulated by the tasks of the total pp cross-section study in the TOTEM experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. For this, the dead region at the detector diced side should be reduced below 50 μm. This requirement is successfully realized in edgeless Si detectors with current terminating structure (CTS), which are now operating at LHC. The development of the experiment and future LHC upgrade need the elaboration of radiation hard version of edgeless Si detectors. The current investigation represents an extension in understanding on edgeless detectors operation and development of a new issue - edgeless detectors with CTS on p-type Si.

  8. Hall scattering factors in p-type 4H-SiC with various doping concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asada, Satoshi; Okuda, Takafumi; Kimoto, Tsunenobu; Suda, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The Hall scattering factor (γH) in p-type 4H-SiC with various aluminum doping concentrations of 5.8 × 1014-7.1 × 1018 cm-3 was investigated from 300 to 900 K. γH was determined by comparing the Hall coefficient with the theoretical carrier concentration derived from acceptor and donor concentrations obtained from secondary ion mass spectrometry and capacitance-voltage measurements. γH decreased with increasing temperature or doping concentration; γH = 1-0.4 for the doping concentration of 5.8 × 1014 cm-3 and γH = 0.5-0.2 for the doping concentration of 7.1 × 1018 cm-3. The dependence might be caused by the anisotropic and nonparabolic valence band structure of 4H-SiC.

  9. Studies of minority carrier diffusion length increase in p-type ZnO:Sb

    SciTech Connect

    Lopatiuk-Tirpak, O.; Chernyak, L.; Xiu, F. X.; Liu, J. L.; Jang, S.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Gartsman, K.; Feldman, Y.; Osinsky, A.; Chow, P.

    2006-10-15

    Minority electron diffusion length was measured in p-type, Sb-doped ZnO as a function of temperature using the electron beam induced current technique. A thermally induced increase of electron diffusion length was determined to have an activation energy of 184{+-}10 meV. Irradiation with a low energy (5 kV) electron beam also resulted in an increase of diffusion length with a similar activation energy (219{+-}8 meV). Both phenomena are suggested to involve a Sb{sub Zn}-2V{sub Zn} acceptor complex. Saturation and relaxation dynamics of minority carrier diffusion length are explored. Details of a possible mechanism for diffusion length increase are presented.

  10. Phonon bottleneck in p-type Ge/Si quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Yakimov, A. I.; Kirienko, V. V.; Armbrister, V. A.; Bloshkin, A. A.; Dvurechenskii, A. V.

    2015-11-23

    We study the effect of quantum dot size on the mid-infrared photo- and dark current, photoconductive gain, and hole capture probability in ten-period p-type Ge/Si quantum dot heterostructures. The dot dimensions are varied by changing the Ge coverage and the growth temperature during molecular beam epitaxy of Ge/Si(001) system in the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. In all samples, we observed the general tendency: with decreasing the size of the dots, the dark current and hole capture probability are reduced, while the photoconductive gain and photoresponse are enhanced. Suppression of the hole capture probability in small-sized quantum dots is attributed to a quenched electron-phonon scattering due to phonon bottleneck.

  11. Can aliphatic anchoring groups be utilised with dyes for p-type dye sensitized solar cells?

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Wood, Christopher J; Clark, Charlotte A; Calladine, James A; Horvath, Raphael; Hanson-Heine, Magnus W D; Sun, Xue-Zhong; Clark, Ian P; Towrie, Michael; George, Michael W; Yang, Xichuan; Sun, Licheng; Gibson, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    A series of novel laterally anchoring tetrahydroquinoline derivatives have been synthesized and investigated for their use in NiO-based p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. The kinetics of charge injection and recombination at the NiO-dye interface for these dyes have been thoroughly investigated using picosecond transient absorption and time-resolved infrared measurements. It was revealed that despite the anchoring unit being electronically decoupled from the dye structure, charge injection occurred on a sub picosecond timescale. However, rapid recombination was also observed due to the close proximity of the electron acceptor on the dyes to the NiO surface, ultimately limiting the performance of the p-DSCs. PMID:27055102

  12. Identification of acceptor states in Li-doped p-type ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y. J.; Ye, Z. Z.; Lu, J. G.; Xu, W. Z.; Zhu, L. P.; Zhao, B. H.; Limpijumnong, Sukit

    2006-07-01

    We investigate photoluminescence from reproducible Li-doped p-type ZnO thin films prepared by dc reactive magnetron sputtering. The LiZn acceptor state, with an energy level located at 150meV above the valence band maximum, is identified from free-to-neutral-acceptor transitions. Another deeper acceptor state located at 250meV emerges with the increased Li concentration. A broad emission centered at 2.96eV is attributed to a donor-acceptor pair recombination involving zinc vacancy. In addition, two chemical bonding states of Li, evident in x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, are probably associated with the two acceptor states observed.

  13. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Li-doped p -type luminescent ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Santa; Jayanthi, K.; Kotnala, R. K.

    2009-03-01

    We have observed ferromagnetism in Li-doped ZnO nanorods with Curie temperature up to 554 K. Li forms shallow acceptor states in substitutional zinc sites giving rise to p -type conductivity. An explicit correlation emerges between increase in hole concentration with decrease in magnetization and Curie temperature in ZnO:Li. Occurrence of ferromagnetism at room temperature has been established with observed magnetic domain formation in ZnO:Li pellets in magnetic force microscopy and prominent ferromagnetic resonance signal in electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum. Magnetic ZnO:Li nanorods are luminescent, showing strong near UV emission. Substitutional Li atoms can induce local moments on neighboring oxygen atoms, which when considered in a correlated model for oxygen orbitals with random potentials introduced by dopant atom could explain the observed ferromagnetism and high Curie temperature in ZnO:Li nanorods.

  14. Fabrication of p-type Li-doped ZnO films by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Bin; Ye, Zhizhen; Zhang, Yinzhu; Zeng, Yujia; Zhu, Liping; Zhao, Binghui

    2006-11-01

    p-Type ZnO thin films have been realized via doping Li as acceptor by using pulsed laser deposition. In our experiment, Li 2CO 3 was used as Li precursor, and the growth temperature was varied from 400 to 600 °C in pure O 2 ambient. The Li-doped ZnO film prepared at 450 °C possessed the lowest resistivity of 34 Ω cm with a Hall mobility of 0.134 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and hole concentration of 1.37 × 10 18 cm -3. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed that the Li-doped ZnO films grown at different substrate temperatures were of completely (0 0 2)-preferred orientation.

  15. Piezoresistivity of polycrystalline p-type diamond films of various doping levels at different temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.L.; Jiang, X.; Taube, K.; Klages, C.

    1997-07-01

    The piezoresistivity of polycrystalline p-type diamond films has been studied. The films were grown by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition and {ital in situ} doped with different concentrations of boron. A four-point electrical measurement was performed to evaluate the film resistivity change upon straining in a four-point bending beam setup. Films were glued directly onto a stainless steel beam and the silicon substrates were selectively removed. A gauge factor (relative change of the resistivity divided by the elastic strain) of about 690 under 100 microstrains was obtained at room temperature for a film doped with 32 ppm boron. With increasing temperature and dopant concentration the gauge factor increases. The experimental results obtained are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. P-type InGaN across the entire alloy composition range

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K.; Araki, T.; Katsuki, T.; Yu, K. M.; Mayer, M. A.; Ager, J. W. III; Walukiewicz, W.; Alarcon-Llado, E.; Nanishi, Y.

    2013-03-11

    A systematic investigation on Mg doped and undoped InGaN epilayers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy has been conducted. Single phase InGaN alloys across the entire composition range were synthesized and Mg was doped into In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (0.1 {<=} x {<=} 0.88) epilayers up to {approx}10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3}. Hall effect, thermopower, and electrochemical capacitance voltage experimental results demonstrate the realization of p-type InGaN across the entire alloy composition range for properly Mg doped InGaN. Hole densities have been measured or estimated to be in the lower {approx}10{sup 18}/cm{sup 3} range when the net acceptor concentrations are in the lower {approx}10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3} range across the composition range.

  17. Improved performance of P-type DSCs with a compact blocking layer coated by different thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Phuong; Bao, Le Quoc; Cheruku, Rajesh; Kim, Jae Hong

    2016-07-01

    The introduction of different thicknesses of a compact NiO blocking layer coating with different spin speeds on FTO and followed by a coating of photoactive NiO electrode for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSCs). This study examined the fabrication of a compact NiO blocking layer by decomposing an ethanolic precursor solution of nickel acetate tetrahydrate. The DCBZ dye used as the photosensitizer for the NiO electrode in the p-DSCs device and their performances have been analyzed. The enhancement of photovoltaic performance and resulted from an increase in the power conversion efficiency (η). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement demonstrated that charge recombination was suppressed when a compact NiO blocking layer was applied. The results showed that the best p-DSC was achieved by employing 3000 rpm spin-coated process for different times of blocking layer.

  18. Electron Traps Detected in p-type GaAsN Using Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, S.; Kurtz, S.; Friedman, D.; Ptak, A.; Ahrenkiel, R.; Crandall, R.

    2005-01-01

    The GaAsN alloy can have a band gap as small as 1.0 eV when the nitrogen composition is about 2%. Indium can also be added to the alloy to increase lattice matching to GaAs and Ge. These properties are advantageous for developing a highly-efficient, multi-junction solar cell. However, poor GaAsN cell properties, such as low open-circuit voltage, have led to inadequate performance. Deep-level transient spectroscopy of p-type GaAsN has identified an electron trap having an activation energy near 0.2 eV and a trap density of at least 1016 cm-3. This trap level appears with the addition of small amounts of nitrogen to GaAs, which also corresponds to an increased drop in open-circuit voltage.

  19. Scanning electrochemical microscopy investigations of monolayers bound to p-type silicon substrates.

    PubMed

    Ghilane, Jalal; Hauquier, Fanny; Fabre, Bruno; Hapiot, Philippe

    2006-09-01

    p-Si type electrodes modified with different organic monolayers were investigated by reaction with radical anion and cation electrogenerated at a microelectrode operating in the configuration of a scanning electrochemical microscope. The method proves to be a convenient tool for investigating both the quality and the redox properties of the layer as previously demonstrated on metallic electrodes especially when the sample cannot be electrically connected. Approach curves recorded with the different mediators were used to investigate the electron-transfer rates across alkyl monolayers bound to p-type silicon substrates. Preliminary results indicate that the interfacial electron transfer occurs via electron tunneling through the organic layer as generally described for SAMs grafted on gold electrodes. PMID:16944879

  20. Characterization of homoepitaxial p-type ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Look, D. C.; Reynolds, D. C.; Litton, C. W.; Jones, R. L.; Eason, D. B.; Cantwell, G.

    2002-09-01

    An N-doped, p-type ZnO layer has been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on an Li-diffused, bulk, semi-insulating ZnO substrate. Hall-effect and conductivity measurements on the layer give: resistivity=4 x101 Omega cm; hole mobility=2 cm2/V s; and hole concentration=9 x1016 cm-3. Photoluminescence measurements in this N-doped layer show a much stronger peak near 3.32 eV (probably due to neutral acceptor bound excitons), than at 3.36 eV (neutral donor bound excitons), whereas the opposite is true in undoped ZnO. Calibrated, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy measurements show an N surface concentration of about 1019 cm-3 in the N-doped sample, but only about 1017 cm-3 in the undoped sample.

  1. Effect of Geometric Parameters on the Performance of P-Type Junctionless Lateral Gate Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Larki, Farhad; Dehzangi, Arash; Md Ali, Sawal Hamid; Jalar, Azman; Islam, Md. Shabiul; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of two important geometrical parameters, namely the thickness and source/drain extensions on the performance of low doped p-type double lateral gate junctionless transistors (DGJLTs). The three dimensional Technology Computer-Aided Design simulation is implemented to calculate the characteristics of the devices with different thickness and source/drain extension and based on that, the parameters such as threshold voltage, transconductance and resistance in saturation region are analyzed. In addition, simulation results provide a physical explanation for the variation of device characteristics given by the variation of geometric parameters, mainly based on investigation of the electric field components and the carries density variation. It is shown that, the variation of the carrier density is the main factor which affects the characteristics of the device when the device's thickness is varied. However, the electric field is mainly responsible for variation of the characteristics when the source/drain extension is changed. PMID:24743692

  2. Autoinhibition of a calmodulin-dependent calcium pump involves a structure in the stalk that connects the transmembrane domain to the ATPase catalytic domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, A. C.; Hwang, I.; Corbin, J.; Martinez, S.; Rayle, D.; Sze, H.; Harper, J. F.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The regulation of Ca(2+)-pumps is important for controlling [Ca(2+)] in the cytosol and organelles of all eukaryotes. Here, we report a genetic strategy to identify residues that function in autoinhibition of a novel calmodulin-activated Ca(2+)-pump with an N-terminal regulatory domain (isoform ACA2 from Arabidopsis). Mutant pumps with constitutive activity were identified by complementation of a yeast (K616) deficient in two Ca(2+)-pumps. Fifteen mutations were found that disrupted a segment of the N-terminal autoinhibitor located between Lys(23) and Arg(54). Three mutations (E167K, D219N, and E341K) were found associated with the stalk that connects the ATPase catalytic domain (head) and with the transmembrane domain. Enzyme assays indicated that the stalk mutations resulted in calmodulin-independent activity, with V(max), K(mATP), and K(mCa(2+)) similar to that of a pump in which the N-terminal autoinhibitor had been deleted. A highly conservative substitution at Asp(219) (D219E) still produced a deregulated pump, indicating that the autoinhibitory structure in the stalk is highly sensitive to perturbation. In plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases from yeast and plants, similarly positioned mutations resulted in hyperactive pumps. Together, these results suggest that a structural feature of the stalk is of general importance in regulating diverse P-type ATPases.

  3. Investigations of p-type point contact detectors for the MAJORANA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowes, Alyssa

    2014-09-01

    The importance of studying neutrinoless double-beta decays and techniques used to do so are described. The use of germanium detectors to search for such decays is of particular interest because of their high intrinsic energy resolution. Germanium detectors also represent a mature technology, as they have been used extensively in many applications for several decades. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR project uses novel p-type, point-contact (PPC) germanium detectors, enriched to 87% Ge-76, to search for those rare decays. This poster will present the results of a characterization study on the temporal stability of PPC germanium detectors. Any instability could potentially influence the sensitivity to the search for neutrinoless double-beta decays. The importance of studying neutrinoless double-beta decays and techniques used to do so are described. The use of germanium detectors to search for such decays is of particular interest because of their high intrinsic energy resolution. Germanium detectors also represent a mature technology, as they have been used extensively in many applications for several decades. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR project uses novel p-type, point-contact (PPC) germanium detectors, enriched to 87% Ge-76, to search for those rare decays. This poster will present the results of a characterization study on the temporal stability of PPC germanium detectors. Any instability could potentially influence the sensitivity to the search for neutrinoless double-beta decays. We acknowledge support from the Office of Nuclear Physics in the DOE Office of Science, the Particle and Nuclear Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

  4. Review: The HSP90 molecular chaperone—an enigmatic ATPase

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The HSP90 molecular chaperone is involved in the activation and cellular stabilization of a range of ‘client’ proteins, of which oncogenic protein kinases and nuclear steroid hormone receptors are of particular biomedical significance. Work over the last two decades has revealed a conformational cycle critical to the biological function of HSP90, coupled to an inherent ATPase activity that is regulated and manipulated by many of the co‐chaperones proteins with which it collaborates. Pharmacological inhibition of HSP90 ATPase activity results in degradation of client proteins in vivo, and is a promising target for development of new cancer therapeutics. Despite this, the actual function that HSP90s conformationally‐coupled ATPase activity provides in its biological role as a molecular chaperone remains obscure. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 594–607, 2016. PMID:26991466

  5. Review: The HSP90 molecular chaperone-an enigmatic ATPase.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Laurence H

    2016-08-01

    The HSP90 molecular chaperone is involved in the activation and cellular stabilization of a range of 'client' proteins, of which oncogenic protein kinases and nuclear steroid hormone receptors are of particular biomedical significance. Work over the last two decades has revealed a conformational cycle critical to the biological function of HSP90, coupled to an inherent ATPase activity that is regulated and manipulated by many of the co-chaperones proteins with which it collaborates. Pharmacological inhibition of HSP90 ATPase activity results in degradation of client proteins in vivo, and is a promising target for development of new cancer therapeutics. Despite this, the actual function that HSP90s conformationally-coupled ATPase activity provides in its biological role as a molecular chaperone remains obscure. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 594-607, 2016. PMID:26991466

  6. Infrared spectroscopic studies on the V-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Kandori, Hideki; Furutani, Yuji; Murata, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    V-ATPase is an ATP-driven rotary motor that vectorially transports ions. Together with F-ATPase, a homologous protein, several models on the ion transport have been proposed, but their molecular mechanisms are yet unknown. V-ATPase from Enterococcus hirae forms a large supramolecular protein complex (total molecular weight: ~700,000) and physiologically transports Na⁺ and Li⁺ across a hydrophobic lipid bilayer. Stabilization of these cations in the binding site has been discussed on the basis of X-ray crystal structures of a membrane-embedded domain, the K-ring (Na⁺ and Li⁺ bound forms). Sodium or lithium ion binding-induced difference FTIR spectra of the intact E. hirae V-ATPase have been measured in aqueous solution at physiological temperature. The results suggest that sodium or lithium ion binding induces the deprotonation of Glu139, a hydrogen-bonding change in the tyrosine residue and rigid α-helical structures. Identical difference FTIR spectra between the entire V-ATPase complex and K-ring strongly suggest that protein interaction with the I subunit does not cause large structural changes in the K-ring. This result supports the previously proposed Na⁺ transport mechanism by V-ATPase stating that a flip-flop movement of a carboxylate group of Glu139 without large conformational changes in the K-ring accelerates the replacement of a Na⁺ ion in the binding site. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vibrational spectroscopies and bioenergetic systems. PMID:25111748

  7. Revealing of the transition from n- to p-type conduction of InN:Mg by photoconductivity effect measurement

    PubMed Central

    Guo, L.; Wang, X. Q.; Zheng, X. T.; Yang, X. L.; Xu, F. J.; Tang, N.; Lu, L. W.; Ge, W. K.; Shen, B.; Dmowski, L. H.; Suski, T.

    2014-01-01

    We report evidence of the transition from n- to p-type conduction of InN with increasing Mg dopant concentration by using photoconductivity (PC) measurement at room temperature. This transition is depicted as a conversion from negative to positive PC under above-bandgap optical excitation. The n- to p-type transition in InN:Mg is further confirmed by thermopower measurements. PC detection method is a bulk effect since the optical absorption of the surface electron accumulation is negligibly low due to its rather small thickness, and thus shows advantage to detect p-type conduction. This technique is certainly helpful to study p-type doping of InN, which is still a subject of discussions. PMID:24621830

  8. IV treatment at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... home; PICC line - home; Infusion therapy - home; Home health care - IV treatment ... Often, home health care nurses will come to your home to give you the medicine. Sometimes, a family member, a friend, or ...

  9. High-Resolution p-Type Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanowire Array as an Ultrasensitive Sensor for Volatile Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soo-Yeon; Yoo, Hae-Wook; Kim, Ju Ye; Jung, Woo-Bin; Jin, Ming Liang; Kim, Jong-Seon; Jeon, Hwan-Jin; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2016-07-13

    The development of high-performance volatile organic compound (VOC) sensor based on a p-type metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) is one of the important topics in gas sensor research because of its unique sensing characteristics, namely, rapid recovery kinetics, low temperature dependence, high humidity or thermal stability, and high potential for p-n junction applications. Despite intensive efforts made in this area, the applications of such sensors are hindered because of drawbacks related to the low sensitivity and slow response or long recovery time of p-type MOSs. In this study, the VOC sensing performance of a p-type MOS was significantly enhanced by forming a patterned p-type polycrystalline MOS with an ultrathin, high-aspect-ratio (∼25) structure (∼14 nm thickness) composed of ultrasmall grains (∼5 nm size). A high-resolution polycrystalline p-type MOS nanowire array with a grain size of ∼5 nm was fabricated by secondary sputtering via Ar(+) bombardment. Various p-type nanowire arrays of CuO, NiO, and Cr2O3 were easily fabricated by simply changing the sputtering material. The VOC sensor thus fabricated exhibited higher sensitivity (ΔR/Ra = 30 at 1 ppm hexane using NiO channels), as well as faster response or shorter recovery time (∼30 s) than that of previously reported p-type MOS sensors. This result is attributed to the high resolution and small grain size of p-type MOSs, which lead to overlap of fully charged zones; as a result, electrical properties are predominantly determined by surface states. Our new approach may be used as a route for producing high-resolution MOSs with particle sizes of ∼5 nm within a highly ordered, tall nanowire array structure. PMID:27304752

  10. Chemomechanical coupling of F1-ATPase under hydrolysis conditions

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Rikiya; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    F1-ATPase (F1) is the smallest rotary motor protein that couples ATP hydrolysis/synthesis to rotary motion in a highly reversible manner. F1 is unique compared with other motor proteins because of its high efficiency and reversibility in converting chemical energy into mechanical work. To determine the energy conversion mechanism of F1-ATPase, we developed a novel single-molecule manipulation technique with magnetic tweezers and determined the timing of Pi release, which was the last unknown piece of the chemomechanical coupling scheme of F1. The established fundamental chemomechanical coupling scheme provides evidence to explain the high reversibility between catalysis and mechanical work.

  11. Regulation of cough by neuronal Na(+)-K(+) ATPases.

    PubMed

    Canning, Brendan J; Farmer, David G S

    2015-06-01

    The Na(+)-K(+) ATPases play an essential role in establishing the sodium gradients in excitable cells. Multiple isoforms of the sodium pumps have been identified, with tissue and cell specific expression patterns. Because the vagal afferent nerves regulating cough must be activated at sustained high frequencies of action potential patterning to achieve cough initiation thresholds, it is a certainty that sodium pump function is essential to maintaining cough reflex sensitivities in health and in disease. The mechanisms by which Na(+)-K(+) ATPases regulate bronchopulmonary vagal afferent nerve excitability are reviewed as are potential therapeutic strategies targeting the sodium pumps in cough. PMID:26048736

  12. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase-mediated proton transport in the rat parietal cell.

    PubMed

    Kopic, Sascha; Wagner, Maximilian E H; Griessenauer, Christoph; Socrates, Thenral; Ritter, Markus; Geibel, John P

    2012-03-01

    The vacuolar-type H-ATPase (V-ATPase) plays an important role in the active acidification of intracellular organelles. In certain specialized cells, such as the renal intercalated cell, apical V-ATPase can also function as a proton secretion pathway. In the parietal cells of the stomach, it has been thought that acid secretion is controlled solely via the H,K-ATPase. However, recent observations suggest that functional V-ATPase is necessary for acid secretion to take place. This study aimed to investigate and characterize the role of V-ATPase in parietal cell proton transport. Individual rat gastric glands were incubated with the pH-sensitive dye (BCECF) to monitor changes in intracellular pH in real time. Parietal cell V-ATPase activity was measured by quantifying the rate of intracellular alkalinization (ΔpH/minute) following an acid load, while excluding the contribution of non-V-ATPase proton transport mechanisms through pharmacological inhibition or ion substitution. Expression of V-ATPase was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. We observed concanamycin A-sensitive V-ATPase activity in rat parietal cells following intracellular acidification and H,K-ATPase inhibition. Furthermore, V-ATPase-mediated proton transport could be abolished by inhibiting trafficking mechanisms with paclitaxel and by stimulating H,K-ATPase with acid secretagogues. Our results propose that parietal cells contain a functional V-ATPase that can be mobilized using a microtubule network. V-ATPase may function as an auxiliary acid secretion or proton-buffering pathway in parietal cells, which is inactive during H,K-ATPase activity. Our findings may have important implications for patients experiencing acid breakthrough under proton pump inhibitor therapy. PMID:22146938

  13. The C-terminal 165 amino acids of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase confer Ca2+/calmodulin sensitivity on the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, T; Takeyasu, K

    1995-01-01

    The C-terminal 165 amino acids of the rat brain plasma membrane (PM) Ca(2+)-ATPase II containing the calmodulin binding auto-inhibitory domain was connected to the C-terminus of the ouabain sensitive chicken Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit. Expression of this chimeric molecule in ouabain resistant mouse L cells was assured by the high-affinity binding of [3H]ouabain. In the presence of Ca2+/calmodulin, this chimeric molecule exhibited ouabain inhibitable Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity; the putative chimeric ATPase activity was absent in the absence of Ca2+/calmodulin and activated by Ca2+/calmodulin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, this chimeric molecule could bind monoclonal IgG 5 specific to the chicken Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit only in the presence of Ca2+/calmodulin, suggesting that the epitope for IgG 5 in this chimera is masked in the absence of Ca2+/calmodulin and uncovered in their presence. These results propose a direct interaction between the calmodulin binding auto-inhibitory domain of the PM Ca(2+)-ATPase and the specific regions of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit that are structurally homologous to the PM Ca(2+)-ATPase. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed several possible regions within the Na+,K(+)-ATPase that might interact with the auto-inhibitory domain of the PM Ca(2+)-ATPase. Images PMID:7828596

  14. Role of electrolytes disturbances and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in cisplatin - induced renal toxicity and effects of ethanolic extract of Cichorium intybus.

    PubMed

    Noori, Shafaq; Mahboob, Tabassum

    2012-10-01

    Cisplatin is known by its toxicity by disturbing electrolytes homeostasis. Thus we aimed to find out the role of herbal plant Cichorium intybus on Cisplatin - induced toxicity. 24 male Albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Group I is termed as untreated control; Group II is Cisplatin control and received 3 mg/ kg b.w.; i.p.; Group III received C. intybus ethanolic extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg b.w. orally for 10 consecutive days and Group IV is Cisplatin + C. intybus pretreated group. C. intybus is given 30 minutes prior to Cisplatin. Cisplatin - induced electrolytes disturbances is indicated by increase Intra - erythrocyte sodium content, decreased plasma magnesium, calcium and Intra-erythrocyte Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase which implicates the renal toxicity. At a dose of 500 mg/kg b.w. of C. Intybus pretreatment showed partial counter action on the electrolytes imbalances and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. PMID:23010005

  15. GCF Mark IV development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, L. O.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark IV ground communication facility (GCF) as it is implemented to support the network consolidation program is reviewed. Changes in the GCF are made in the area of increased capacity. Common carrier circuits are the medium for data transfer. The message multiplexing in the Mark IV era differs from the Mark III era, in that all multiplexing is done in a GCF computer under GCF software control, which is similar to the multiplexing currently done in the high speed data subsystem.

  16. Few-Layer MoS₂ p-Type Devices Enabled by Selective Doping Using Low Energy Phosphorus Implantation.

    PubMed

    Nipane, Ankur; Karmakar, Debjani; Kaushik, Naveen; Karande, Shruti; Lodha, Saurabh

    2016-02-23

    P-type doping of MoS2 has proved to be a significant bottleneck in the realization of fundamental devices such as p-n junction diodes and p-type transistors due to its intrinsic n-type behavior. We report a CMOS compatible, controllable and area selective phosphorus plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) process for p-type doping of MoS2. Physical characterization using SIMS, AFM, XRD and Raman techniques was used to identify process conditions with reduced lattice defects as well as low surface damage and etching, 4X lower than previous plasma based doping reports for MoS2. A wide range of nondegenerate to degenerate p-type doping is demonstrated in MoS2 field effect transistors exhibiting dominant hole transport. Nearly ideal and air stable, lateral homogeneous p-n junction diodes with a gate-tunable rectification ratio as high as 2 × 10(4) are demonstrated using area selective doping. Comparison of XPS data from unimplanted and implanted MoS2 layers shows a shift of 0.67 eV toward lower binding energies for Mo and S peaks indicating p-type doping. First-principles calculations using density functional theory techniques confirm p-type doping due to charge transfer originating from substitutional as well as physisorbed phosphorus in top few layers of MoS2. Pre-existing sulfur vacancies are shown to enhance the doping level significantly. PMID:26789206

  17. Structure determination using poorly diffracting membrane-protein crystals: the H+-ATPase and Na+,K+-ATPase case history.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Bjørn P; Morth, J Preben; Nissen, Poul

    2010-03-01

    An approach is presented for the structure determination of membrane proteins on the basis of poorly diffracting crystals which exploits molecular replacement for heavy-atom site identification at 6-9 A maximum resolution and improvement of the heavy-atom-derived phases by multi-crystal averaging using quasi-isomorphous data sets. The multi-crystal averaging procedure allows real-space density averaging followed by phase combination between non-isomorphous native data sets to exploit crystal-to-crystal nonisomorphism despite the crystals belonging to the same space group. This approach has been used in the structure determination of H(+)-ATPase and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase using Ca(2+)-ATPase models and its successful application to the Mhp1 symporter using LeuT as a search model is demonstrated. PMID:20179343

  18. Understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in crossbred bulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Rajib; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Singh, Umesh; Alex, Rani; Raja, T. V.; Alyethodi, Rafeeque R.; Kumar, Sushil; Sengar, Gyanendra; Sharma, Sheetal; Singh, Rani; Prakash, B.

    2015-12-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral membrane protein composed of a large catalytic subunit (alpha), a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta), and gamma subunit. The beta subunit is essential for ion recognition as well as maintenance of the membrane integrity. Present study was aimed to analyze the expression pattern of ATPase beta subunit genes (ATPase B1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3) among the crossbred bulls under different ambient temperatures (20-44 °C). The present study was also aimed to look into the relationship of HSP70 with the ATPase beta family genes. Our results demonstrated that among beta family genes, transcript abundance of ATPase B1 and ATPase B2 is significantly ( P < 0.05) higher during the thermal stress. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the expression of ATPase Β1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3 is highly correlated ( P < 0.01) with HSP70, representing that the change in the expression pattern of these genes is positive and synergistic. These may provide a foundation for understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in cattle.

  19. ALKYTIN INHIBITION OF ATPASE ACTIVITIES IN TISSUE HOMOGENATES AND SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS FROM NEONATAL AND ADULT RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of triethyltin (TET) on ATPase activities in brain and liver homogenates and subcellular fractions were compared in neonatal and adult rats. n 5 day old rats, relative sensitivities to TET inhibition were: brain and liver mitochondrial ATPase >> rain Na+/K+ ATPase > b...

  20. Simultaneous Formation of Ni/Al Ohmic Contacts to Both n- and p-Type 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kazuhiro; Onishi, Toshitake; Takeda, Hidehisa; Kohama, Kazuyuki; Tsukimoto, Susumu; Konno, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Yuya; Murakami, Masanori

    2008-11-01

    The fabrication procedure for silicon carbide power metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors can be improved through simultaneous formation (i.e., using the same contact materials and a one-step annealing process) of ohmic contacts on both the n-source and p-well regions. We have succeeded in the simultaneous formation of Ni/Al ohmic contacts to n- and p-type SiC after annealing at 1000°C for 5 min in an ultrahigh vacuum. Ohmic contacts to n-type SiC were found when the Al-layer thickness was less than about 6 nm, while ohmic contacts to p-type SiC were observed for an Al-layer thickness greater than about 5 nm. Only the contacts with an Al-layer thickness in the range of 5 nm to 6 nm exhibited ohmic behavior to both n- and p-type SiC, with a specific contact resistance of 1.8 × 10-4 Ω cm2 and 1.2 × 10-2 Ω cm2 for n- and p-type SiC, respectively. An about 100-nm-thick contact layer was uniformly formed on the SiC substrate, and polycrystalline δ-Ni2Si(Al) grains were formed at the contact/SiC interface. In the samples that exhibited ohmic behavior to both n- and p-type SiC, the distribution of the Al/Ni ratios in the δ-Ni2Si(Al) grains was larger than that observed for any of the samples that showed ohmic behavior to either n- or p-type SiC. Furthermore, the grain size of the δ-Ni2Si(Al) grains in the samples showing ohmic behavior to both n- and p-type SiC was smaller than the grains in any of the samples that showed ohmic behavior to either n- or p-type SiC. Thus, the large distribution in the Al/Ni ratios and a fine microstructure were found to be characteristic of the ohmic contacts to both n- and p-type SiC. Grains with a low Al concentration correspond to ohmic contacts to n-type SiC, while grains with a high Al concentration correspond to ohmic contacts to p-type SiC.

  1. Fabrication and Characterization of N-Type Zinc Oxide/P-Type Boron Doped Diamond Heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marton, Marián; Mikolášek, Miroslav; Bruncko, Jaroslav; Novotný, Ivan; Ižák, Tibor; Vojs, Marian; Kozak, Halyna; Varga, Marián; Artemenko, Anna; Kromka, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Diamond and ZnO are very promising wide-bandgap materials for electronic, photovoltaic and sensor applications because of their excellent electrical, optical, physical and electrochemical properties and biocompatibility. In this contribution we show that the combination of these two materials opens up the potential for fabrication of bipolar heterojunctions. Semiconducting boron doped diamond (BDD) thin films were grown on Si and UV grade silica glass substrates by HFCVD method with various boron concentration in the gas mixture. Doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al, ZnO:Ge) thin layers were deposited by diode sputtering and pulsed lased deposition as the second semiconducting layer on the diamond films. The amount of dopants within the films was varied to obtain optimal semiconducting properties to form a bipolar p-n junction. Finally, different ZnO/BDD heterostructures were prepared and analyzed. Raman spectroscopy, SEM, Hall constant and I-V measurements were used to investigate the quality, structural and electrical properties of deposited heterostructures, respectively. I-V measurements of ZnO/BDD diodes show a rectifying ratio of 55 at ±4 V. We found that only very low dopant concentrations for both semiconducting materials enabled us to fabricate a functional p-n junction. Obtained results are promising for fabrication of optically transparent ZnO/BDD bipolar heterojunction.

  2. Photoluminescence and SIMS studies of hydrogen passivation of Mg-doped p-type gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Lu, Y.; Hwang, C.Y.; Schurman, M.; Mayo, W.; Shen, H.; Wraback, M.; Salagaj, T.; Stall, R.A.

    1996-11-01

    The effects of hydrogen passivation in MOCVD grown Mg doped p-type GaN were studied using low temperature (5K) photoluminescence (PL) and secondary-ion-mass spectroscopy (SIMS). GaN films with different Mg doping level were annealed at 700 C in N{sub 2} ambient with different annealing times. The SIMS results indicate that the hydrogen concentration increases with increasing Mg doping level in the as-grown Mg:GaN film. After 20 minutes of annealing, most of the hydrogen escapes form the film. The 3.455 eV PL peak before annealing and the 3.446 eV peak after annealing found in the mg doped samples were attributed to the exciton bound to the Mg-H complex and to the Mg acceptor, respectively. The shift of the bound exciton peak to higher energy (3.465 eV) in the lightly doped sample is due to an effective n-type compensation associated with an annealing-induced increase in the nitrogen vacancies. In heavily doped Mg:GaN, the decreases in the integrated PL intensity after 700 C annealing may be associated with the hydrogen depassivation of nonradiative recombination centers in the film. The increase of PL intensity in the lightly doped sample after annealing is attributed to the reduction of defects by the annealing process.

  3. Quasiparticle band structures and thermoelectric transport properties of p-type SnSe

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Guangsha; Kioupakis, Emmanouil

    2015-02-14

    We used density functional and many-body perturbation theory to calculate the quasiparticle band structures and electronic transport parameters of p-type SnSe both for the low-temperature Pnma and high-temperature Cmcm phases. The Pnma phase has an indirect band gap of 0.829 eV, while the Cmcm has a direct band gap of 0.464 eV. Both phases exhibit multiple local band extrema within an energy range comparable to the thermal energy of carriers from the global extrema. We calculated the electronic transport coefficients as a function of doping concentration and temperature for single-crystal and polycrystalline materials to understand the previous experimental measurements. The electronic transport coefficients are highly anisotropic and are strongly affected by bipolar transport effects at high temperature. Our results indicate that SnSe exhibits optimal thermoelectric performance at high temperature when doped in the 10{sup 19}–10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3} range.

  4. High-Performance p-Type Black Phosphorus Transistor with Scandium Contact.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Engel, Michael; Farmer, Damon B; Han, Shu-Jen; Wong, H-S Philip

    2016-04-26

    A record high current density of 580 μA/μm is achieved for long-channel, few-layer black phosphorus transistors with scandium contacts after 400 K vacuum annealing. The annealing effectively improves the on-state current and Ion/Ioff ratio by 1 order of magnitude and the subthreshold swing by ∼2.5×, whereas Al2O3 capping significantly degrades transistor performances, resulting in 5× lower on-state current and 3× lower Ion/Ioff ratio. The influences of moisture on black phosphorus metal contacts are elucidated by analyzing the hysteresis of 3-20 nm thick black phosphorus transistors with scandium and gold contacts under different conditions: as-fabricated, after vacuum annealing, and after Al2O3 capping. The optimal black phosphorus film thickness for transistors with scandium contacts is found to be ∼10 nm. Moreover, p-type performance is shown in all transistors with scandium contacts, suggesting that the Fermi level is pinned closer to the valence band regardless of the flake thickness. PMID:27023751

  5. Aluminum-natural oxide-P type silicon /MIS/ solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badura, E.; Zdanowicz, W.

    1980-12-01

    MIS (metal-interfacial region-semiconductor) solar cells are attractive because of their relatively high conversion efficiency. Their performance, however, is strongly affected by device preparation. Two methods are described for preparing Al - natural SiO - p-type Si cells which exhibit high photovoltaic values. The first, involving a 'nonsintered oxide' process, entails etching the active silicon surfaces in HF acid and exposing them to air at room temperature for 48 hours. The second method differs from the first only in that it requires the additional step of sintering the oxidized surfaces in a vacuum at about 500 C. In both cases, a semitransparent Al film is then applied to the oxide, after which an Al grid electrode and 70-nm SiOx antireflection coatings are deposited on the device. Measured against both the nonsintered cell and the Schottky barrier cell, the sintered assembly shows the highest open-circuit voltage (0.46-0.492), the highest fill factor (0.66-0.73), and the most efficient dark parameters.

  6. Observations of exciton and carrier spin relaxation in Be doped p-type GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Asaka, Naohiro; Harasawa, Ryo; Tackeuchi, Atsushi; Lu, Shulong; Dai, Pan

    2014-03-17

    We have investigated the exciton and carrier spin relaxation in Be-doped p-type GaAs. Time-resolved spin-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed spin relaxation behaviors between 10 and 100 K. Two PL peaks were observed at 1.511 eV (peak 1) and 1.497 eV (peak 2) at 10 K, and are attributed to the recombination of excitons bound to neutral Be acceptors (peak 1) and the band-to-acceptor transition (peak 2). The spin relaxation times of both PL peaks were measured to be 1.3–3.1 ns at 10–100 K, and found to originate from common electron spin relaxation. The observed existence of a carrier density dependence of the spin relaxation time at 10–77 K indicates that the Bir-Aronov-Pikus process is the dominant spin relaxation mechanism.

  7. Comparison of boron precipitation in p-type bulk nanostructured and polycrystalline silicon germanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamanipour, Zahra; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Vashaee, Daryoosh

    2013-04-01

    Boron precipitation process and its effect on electronic properties of p-type bulk nanostructured silicon germanium (Si0.8Ge0.2) compared with large grain polycrystalline Si0.8Ge0.2 have been studied. The structures were synthesized and their thermoelectric properties were measured versus temperature during heating and cooling cycles. The experimental data showed stronger temperature variation of Seebeck coefficient, carrier concentration, and conductivity in the nanostructured Si0.8Ge0.2 compared with the polycrystalline form indicating stronger boron precipitation in this structure. The electrical properties of both samples were calculated using a multi-band semi-classical model. The theoretical calculations confirm that the increase of boron precipitation in the nanostructured Si0.8Ge0.2 is responsible for its higher thermal instability. Since the thermoelectric properties of the nanostructured sample degrade as a result of thermal cycling, the material is appropriate only for continuous operation at high temperature without cooling.

  8. Accelerated light-induced degradation for detecting copper contamination in p-type silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Inglese, Alessandro Savin, Hele; Lindroos, Jeanette

    2015-08-03

    Copper is a harmful metal impurity that significantly impacts the performance of silicon-based devices if present in active regions. In this contribution, we propose a fast method consisting of simultaneous illumination and annealing for the detection of copper contamination in p-type silicon. Our results show that, within minutes, such method is capable of producing a significant reduction of the minority carrier lifetime. A spatial distribution map of copper contamination can then be obtained through the lifetime values measured before and after degradation. In order to separate the effect of the light-activated copper defects from the other metastable complexes in low resistivity Cz-silicon, we carried out a dark anneal at 200 °C, which is known to fully recover the boron-oxygen defect. Similar to the boron-oxygen behavior, we show that the dark anneal also recovers the copper defects. However, the recovery is only partial and it can be used to identify the possible presence of copper contamination.

  9. Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in n and p type Bi2Se3 flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongchao; Liu, Shiguang; Yi, Ya; He, Hongtao; Wang, Jiannong

    2015-12-01

    Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillation, describing the magnetic quantum oscillation in material resistivity at low temperatures, is recently observed in topological insulators and plays an important role in clarifying the existence of topological surface states. Here, we report the SdH oscillations observed in both n and p type Bi2Se3 flake samples. The angle dependent magneto-resistance results reveal the 2D nature of SdH oscillations and the Landau level fan diagrams exhibit π Berry phase. These indicate that the observed SdH oscillations originate from the topological surface states. Moreover, the cyclotron mass, Dingle temperature, Fermi velocity, and other parameters of the systems are deduced from the analysis of temperature dependent SdH oscillations. The obtained Fermi velocities of surface electrons and holes in Bi2Se3 show a good agreement with those found in the typical angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments. This further confirms that the topological surface electrons/holes are responsible for observed SdH oscillations.

  10. p-type doping of GaAs nanowires using carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehzadeh, O.; Zhang, X.; Gates, B. D.; Kavanagh, K. L.; Watkins, S. P.

    2012-11-01

    We report on the electrical properties of Au-catalyzed C-doped GaAs nanowires (NWs) grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Transport measurements were carried out using a tungsten nanoprobe inside a scanning electron microscope by contacting to the Au catalyst particle of individual nanowires. The doping level could be varied from approximately (4 ± 1) × 1016 cm-3 to (1.0 ± 0.3) × 1019 cm-3 by varying the molar flow of the gas phase carbon precursor, as well as the group V to group III precursor ratio. It was found that the current transport mechanism switches from generation-recombination to tunnelling field emission by increasing the doping level to 1 × 1019 cm-3. Based on a diameter-dependent analysis of the apparent resistivity of the C-doped NWs, we propose that C incorporates into GaAs NWs through the triple boundary at the Au/NW interface. The p-type conductivity of the C-doped NWs was inferred by observing a rectification at negative bias (applied to the Au electrode) and confirmed by back-gating measurements performed on field effect transistor devices.

  11. p-type doping of MoS{sub 2} thin films using Nb

    SciTech Connect

    Laskar, Masihhur R.; Nath, Digbijoy N.; Lee, Edwin W.; Lee, Choong Hee; Yang, Zihao; Ma, Lu; Wu, Yiying; Kent, Thomas; Mishra, Rohan; Roldan, Manuel A.; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Myers, Roberto C.; Rajan, Siddharth

    2014-03-03

    We report on the first demonstration of p-type doping in large area few-layer films of (0001)-oriented chemical vapor deposited MoS{sub 2}. Niobium was found to act as an efficient acceptor up to relatively high density in MoS{sub 2} films. For a hole density of 3.1 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}, Hall mobility of 8.5 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} was determined, which matches well with the theoretically expected values. X-ray diffraction scans and Raman characterization indicated that the film had good out-of-plane crystalline quality. Absorption measurements showed that the doped sample had similar characteristics to high-quality undoped samples, with a clear absorption edge at 1.8 eV. Scanning transmission electron microscope imaging showed ordered crystalline nature of the Nb-doped MoS{sub 2} layers stacked in the [0001] direction. This demonstration of substitutional p-doping in large area epitaxial MoS{sub 2} could help in realizing a wide variety of electrical and opto-electronic devices based on layered metal dichalcogenides.

  12. Nonpolar a-plane p-type GaN and p-n Junction Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Arpan; Xing, H.; Craven, M.D.; Keller, S.; Mates, T.; Speck, J.S.; Baars, S.P. den; Mishra, U.K.

    2004-10-15

    Growth and electrical characteristics of Mg-doped p-type nonpolar (1120) a-plane GaN films, grown on (1102) r-plane sapphire substrates via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, were investigated as a function of growth rate, the ammonia to trimethylgallium flow ratio (V/III ratio), and the growth temperature. The electrical conductivity of the films exhibited a strong dependence on the growth parameters. Secondary-ion-mass-spectroscopy measurements indicated that more Mg was incorporated at higher growth rate and at lower growth temperatures. The Mg concentration in the films increased linearly with the Mg flow. A maximum hole concentration of 6.8x10{sup 17}cm{sup -3} was achieved at room temperature for a Mg concentration of 7.6x10{sup 19}cm{sup -3}, corresponding to 0.9% ionization. Further increase in the Mg concentration resulted in increased surface roughness as well as a significant decrease in the hole concentration. p-n junction diodes were fabricated using nonpolar a-plane GaN, and the current-voltage characteristics of these diodes showed a sharp turn-on at {approx}3 V.

  13. Improved source design for p-type tunnel field-effect transistors: Towards truly complementary logic

    SciTech Connect

    Verreck, Devin Groeseneken, Guido; Verhulst, Anne S.; Collaert, Nadine; Mocuta, Anda; Thean, Aaron; Sorée, Bart

    2014-12-15

    Complementary logic based on tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) would drastically reduce power consumption thanks to the TFET's potential to obtain a sub-60 mV/dec subthreshold swing (SS). However, p-type TFETs typically do not meet the performance of n-TFETs for direct bandgap III-V configurations. The p-TFET SS stays well above 60 mV/dec, due to the low density of states in the conduction band. We therefore propose a source configuration in which a highly doped region is maintained only near the tunnel junction. In the remaining part of the source, the hot carriers in the exponential tail of the Fermi-Dirac distribution are blocked by reducing the doping degeneracy, either with a source section with a lower doping concentration or with a heterostructure. We apply this concept to n-p-i-p configurations consisting of In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As and an InP-InAs heterostructure. 15-band quantum mechanical simulations predict that the configurations with our source design can obtain sub-60 mV/dec SS, with an on-current comparable to the conventional source design.

  14. Ferromagnetic ordering of Cr and Fe doped p-type diamond: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Benecha, E. M.; Lombardi, E. B.

    2014-02-21

    Ferromagnetic ordering of transition metal dopants in semiconductors holds the prospect of combining the capabilities of semiconductors and magnetic systems in single hybrid devices for spintronic applications. Various semiconductors have so far been considered for spintronic applications, but low Curie temperatures have hindered room temperature applications. We report ab initio DFT calculations on the stability and magnetic properties of Fe and Cr impurities in diamond, and show that their ground state magnetic ordering and stabilization energies depend strongly on the charge state and type of co-doping. We predict that divacancy Cr{sup +2} and substitutional Fe{sup +1} order ferromagnetically in p-type diamond, with magnetic stabilization energies (and magnetic moment per impurity ion) of 16.9 meV (2.5 μ{sub B}) and 33.3 meV (1.0 μ{sub B}), respectively. These magnetic stabilization energies are much larger than what has been achieved in other semiconductors at comparable impurity concentrations, including the archetypal dilute magnetic semiconductor GaAs:Mn. In addition, substitutional Fe{sup +1} exhibits a strong half-metallic character, with the Fermi level crossing bands in only the spin down channel. These results, combined with diamond’s extreme properties, demonstrate that Cr or Fe dopedp-type diamond may successfully be considered in the search for room temperature spintronic materials.

  15. SIM Lite Detection of Habitable Planets in P-Type Binary-Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Xiaopei; Shao, Michael; Shaklan, Stuart; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    Close binary stars like spectroscopic binaries create a completely different environment than single stars for the evolution of a protoplanetary disk. Dynamical interactions between one star and protoplanets in such systems provide more challenges for theorists to model giant planet migration and formation of multiple planets. For habitable planets the majority of host stars are in binary star systems. So far only a small amount of Jupiter-size planets have been discovered in binary stars, whose minimum separations are 20 AU and the median value is about 1000 AU (because of difficulties in radial velocity measurements). The SIM Lite mission, a space-based astrometric observatory, has a unique capability to detect habitable planets in binary star systems. This work analyzed responses of the optical system to the field stop for companion stars and demonstrated that SIM Lite can observe exoplanets in visual binaries with small angular separations. In particular we investigated the issues for the search for terrestrial planets in P-type binary-planetary systems, where the planets move around both stars in a relatively distant orbit.

  16. SIM-Lite detection of habitable planets in P-type binary-planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaopei; Shao, Michael; Shaklan, Stuart; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-07-01

    Close binary stars like spectroscopic binaries create a completely different environment than single stars for the evolution of a protoplanetary disk. Dynamical interactions between one star and protoplanets in such systems provide more challenges for theorists to model giant planet migration and formation of multiple planets. For habitable planets the majority of host stars are in binary star systems. So far only a small amount of Jupiter-size planets have been discovered in binary stars, whose minimum separations are 20 AU and the median value is about 1000 AU (because of difficulties in radial velocity measurements). The SIM Lite mission, a space-based astrometric observatory, has a unique capability to detect habitable planets in binary star systems. This work analyzed responses of the optical system to the field stop for companion stars and demonstrated that SIM Lite can observe exoplanets in visual binaries with small angular separations. In particular we investigated the issues for the search for terrestrial planets in P-type binary-planetary systems, where the planets move around both stars in a relatively distant orbit.

  17. Towards P-Type Conductivity in SnO2 Nanocrystals through Li Doping

    SciTech Connect

    Chaparadza, Allen; Rananavare, Shankar B

    2010-01-22

    This paper examines electrical transport properties and Li doping in SnO2 synthesized by the sol–gel method. Solid-state 7Li-NMR lineshapes reveal that Li ions occupy two distinct sites with differing dynamic mobilities. The chemical exchange rate between the two sites is, however, too slow for detection on the NMR timescale. Compressed nanoparticulate films of this doped semiconductor exhibit a positive Seebeck coefficient implying a p-type conductivity. A variable-temperature direct current conductivity, over a 25–350 °C temperature range, follows an Efros–Shklovskii variable range hopping (ES-VRH) conduction mechanism (ln(ρ) versus T -1/2) at temperatures below 100 °C with a crossover to 2D Mott variable range hopping (M-VRH) (ln(ρ) versus T -1/3) conduction at temperatures above 250 °C. In a transition region between these two limiting behaviors, the dc resistivity exhibits an anomalous temperature-independent plateau. We suggest that its origin may lie in a carrier inversion phenomenon wherein the majority carriers switch from holes to electrons due to Li ion expulsion from the crystalline core and creation of oxygen vacancies generated by loss of oxygen at elevated temperatures.

  18. Near Field Enhanced Photocurrent Generation in P-type Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaobao; Cui, Jin; Han, Junbo; Zhang, Junpei; Zhang, Yibo; Luan, Lin; Alemu, Getachew; Wang, Zhong; Shen, Yan; Xiong, Dehua; Chen, Wei; Wei, Zhanhua; Yang, Shihe; Hu, Bin; Cheng, Yibing; Wang, Mingkui

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the field of p-type dye-sensitized solar cell (p-DSSC) devices has undergone tremendous advances, in which Cu-based delafossite nanocrystal is of prime interest. This paper presents an augment of about 87% improvement in photocurrent observed in a particular configuration of organic dye P1 sensitized CuCrO2 delafossite nanocrystal electrode coupled with organic redox shuttle, 1-methy-1H- tetrazole-5-thiolate and its disulfide dimer when Au nanoparticles (NPs, with diameter of about 20 nm) is added into the photocathode, achieving a power convert efficiency of 0.31% (measured under standard AM 1.5 G test conditions). Detailed investigation shows that the local electrical-magnetic field effect, induced by Au NPs among the mesoporous CuCrO2 film, can improve the charge injection efficiency at dye/semiconductor interface, which is responsible for the bulk of the gain in photocurrent. PMID:24492539

  19. On the recombination behaviour of iron in moderately boron-doped p-type silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walz, D.; Joly, J.-P.; Kamarinos, G.

    1996-04-01

    The recombination lifetime and diffusion length of intentionally iron-contaminated samples were measured by the Surface Photo Voltage (SPV) and the Elymat technique. The lifetime results from these techniques for intentionally iron-contaminated samples were analysed, in particular for the aspect of the injection-level dependency of recombination lifetime. Based on theoretical considerations, a method for the analysis of deep-level parameters combining constant photon flux SPV and Elymat measurements has been developed. This method is based on a detailed numerical analysis of the Elymat technique, including the Dember electric field, the characteristics of the laser beam, the transport parameters of the semiconductor and multilevel Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination kinetics. The results of the numerical simulation are applied to the analysis of recombination lifetime measurements on intentionally iron-contaminated samples. We compared numerical simulations and experimental results from SPV and Elymat for p-type samples using the classical acceptor level at E v +0.1 eV and the donor level of FeB pairs at E c -0.3 eV as recombination centre. Better consistency in the interpretation of the results has been found in the doping range 1014 1016 cm-3 supposing the E c -0.3 eV level as predominant recombination centre. An attempt to extract the electron and hole capture cross-sections for this defect is made.

  20. Ti/Al/W Ohmic contacts to p-type implanted 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivona, M.; Greco, G.; Lo Nigro, R.; Bongiorno, C.; Roccaforte, F.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, the morphological, structural, and electrical properties of Ti/Al/W contacts to p-type implanted silicon carbide (4H-SiC) have been monitored as a function of the annealing temperature (800-1100 °C). The increase of the annealing temperature induces a transition from a rectifying to an Ohmic behavior, with a specific contact resistance of 5.8 × 10-4 Ωcm2. The electrical behavior has been correlated with the morphological and structural analyses. In particular, the transition to an Ohmic behavior was accompanied by a gradual increase of the surface roughness and by the occurrence of a reaction leading to the formation of new phases in the stack and at the interface (TiAl3, W(SiAl)2, and TiC). The presence of Al-rich protrusions penetrating in the SiC substrate was also observed. From the temperature dependence of the electrical parameters, a barrier height of 0.69 eV for this system was determined. The thermal stability of the contacts has been demonstrated for long-term (up to 100 h) thermal cycling at 400 °C.

  1. Optical and electrical properties of p-type Li-doped ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáaedi, Abdolhossein; Yousefi, Ramin; Jamali-Sheini, Farid; Cheraghizade, Mohsen; Khorsand Zak, A.; Huang, Nay Ming

    2013-09-01

    Undoped and Li-doped ZnO nanowires were grown on Si(1 1 1) substrates using a thermal evaporation method. Undoped and Li-doped ZnO nanoparticles, which were prepared using a sol-gel method, were used as material sources to grow the undoped and Li-doped ZnO nanowires, respectively. X-ray diffraction patterns clearly indicated hexagonal structures for all of the products. The nanowires were completely straight, with non-aligned arrays, and were tapered. Field emission Auger spectrometer indicated lithium element in the nanowires structures. Photoluminescence (PL) studies showed lower optical properties for the Li-doped ZnO nanowires compared to the undoped ZnO nanowires. Furthermore, the UV peak of the Li-doped ZnO nanowires was red-shifted compared to the undoped ZnO nanowires. Two probe method results proved that the Li-doped ZnO nanowires exhibited p-type properties.

  2. Enhanced p-type conduction of B-doped nanocrystalline diamond films by high temperature annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, S. S.; Hu, X. J.

    2013-07-14

    We report the enhanced p-type conduction with Hall mobility of 53.3 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} in B-doped nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films by 1000 Degree-Sign C annealing. High resolution transmission electronic microscopy, uv, and visible Raman spectroscopy measurements show that a part of amorphous carbon grain boundaries (GBs) transforms to diamond phase, which increases the opportunity of boron atoms located at the GBs to enter into the nano-diamond grains. This phase transition doping is confirmed by the secondary ion mass spectrum depth profile results that the concentration of B atoms in nano-diamond grains increases after 1000 Degree-Sign C annealing. It is also observed that 1000 Degree-Sign C annealing improves the lattice perfection, reduces the internal stress, decreases the amount of trans-polyacetylene, and increases the number or size of aromatic rings in the sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon cluster in B-doped NCD films. These give the contributions to improve the electrical properties of 1000 Degree-Sign C annealed B-doped NCD films.

  3. Neganov-Luke Phonon Amplification in P-type Point Contact Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabolfathi, N.; Amman, M.; Faiez, D.; Luke, P. N.; Martin, R. D.; Rolla, J. A.; Sadoulet, B.; Serfass, B.; Vetter, K.

    2014-08-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) detectors measure ionization and athermal phonons in high purity germanium crystals to discriminate between nuclear recoils from dark matter candidates and radioactive backgrounds. In order to reach lower energy detection thresholds, the CDMSlite experiment operates the CDMS detectors with a larger voltage bias to increase the signal-to-noise ratio using the Neganov-Luke effect. Breakdown in those detectors was observed at fields of order 30 V/cm, but the reason for the breakdown is unknown. It is unclear if the breakdowns are due to surface leakage current, impact ionization in the bulk of the crystals, or some other effect due to the very low operating temperatures of the detectors. Germanium detectors used in gamma spectroscopy at 77 K are regularly operated with fields in excess of 1,000 V/cm. In order to understand the origin of breakdown in the CDMS detectors, a P-type Point Contact detector was equipped with transition edge phonon thermistors and operated at a base temperature of 30 mK. The linearity of the Neganov-Luke phonon amplification was studied and no sign of breakdown for biases up to 400 V was observed. This excludes impact ionization on neutral impurity states as the primary cause of the breakdown observed in the CDMSLite detectors. This demonstrates that the Neganov-Luke phonon amplification is a viable method for lowering the energy threshold in germanium detectors of masses of order 1 kg.

  4. Evidence for an iron-hydrogen complex in p-type silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, S. Markevich, V. P.; Peaker, A. R.; Hamilton, B.; Murphy, J. D.

    2015-07-20

    Interactions of hydrogen with iron have been studied in Fe contaminated p-type Czochralski silicon using capacitance-voltage profiling and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Hydrogen has been introduced into the samples from a silicon nitride layer grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. After annealing of the Schottky diodes on Si:Fe + H samples under reverse bias in the temperature range of 90–120 °C, a trap has been observed in the DLTS spectra which we have assigned to a Fe-H complex. The trap is only observed when a high concentration of hydrogen is present in the near surface region. The trap concentration is higher in samples with a higher concentration of single interstitial Fe atoms. The defect has a deep donor level at E{sub v} + 0.31 eV. Direct measurements of capture cross section of holes have shown that the capture cross section is not temperature dependent and its value is 5.2 × 10{sup −17} cm{sup 2}. It is found from an isochronal annealing study that the Fe-H complex is not very stable and can be eliminated completely by annealing for 30 min at 125 °C.

  5. High performance p-type NiOx thin-film transistor by Sn doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tengda; Li, Xiuling; Jang, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Major obstacles towards power efficient complementary electronics employing oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) lie in the lack of equivalent well performing p-channel devices. Here, we report a significant performance enhancement of solution-processed p-type nickel oxide (NiOx) TFTs by introducing Sn dopant. The Sn-doped NiOx (Sn-NiOx) TFTs annealed at 280 °C demonstrate substantially improved electrical performances with the increase in the on/off current ratio (Ion/Ioff) by ˜100 times, field-effect mobility (μlin) by ˜3 times, and the decrease in subthreshold swing by half, comparing with those of pristine NiOx TFTs. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction results confirm that Sn atoms tend to substitute Ni sites and induce more amorphous phase. A decrease in density of states in the gap of NiOx by Sn doping and the shift of Fermi level (EF) into the midgap lead to the improvements of TFT performances. As a result, Sn-NiOx can be a promising material for the next-generation, oxide-based electronics.

  6. Evidence for an iron-hydrogen complex in p-type silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, S.; Markevich, V. P.; Peaker, A. R.; Hamilton, B.; Murphy, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    Interactions of hydrogen with iron have been studied in Fe contaminated p-type Czochralski silicon using capacitance-voltage profiling and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Hydrogen has been introduced into the samples from a silicon nitride layer grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. After annealing of the Schottky diodes on Si:Fe + H samples under reverse bias in the temperature range of 90-120 °C, a trap has been observed in the DLTS spectra which we have assigned to a Fe-H complex. The trap is only observed when a high concentration of hydrogen is present in the near surface region. The trap concentration is higher in samples with a higher concentration of single interstitial Fe atoms. The defect has a deep donor level at Ev + 0.31 eV. Direct measurements of capture cross section of holes have shown that the capture cross section is not temperature dependent and its value is 5.2 × 10-17 cm2. It is found from an isochronal annealing study that the Fe-H complex is not very stable and can be eliminated completely by annealing for 30 min at 125 °C.

  7. p-Type hydrogen sensing with Al- and V-doped TiO2 nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Doping with other elements is one of the efficient ways to modify the physical and chemical properties of TiO2 nanomaterials. In the present work, anatase TiO2 nanofilms doped with Al and V elements were fabricated through anodic oxidation of Ti6Al4V alloy and further annealing treatment. Hydrogen sensing behavior of the crystallized Ti-Al-V-O nanofilms at various working temperatures was investigated through exposure to 1,000 ppm H2. Different from n-type hydrogen sensing characteristics of undoped TiO2 nanotubes, the Al- and V-doped nanofilms presented a p-type hydrogen sensing behavior by showing increased resistance upon exposure to the hydrogen-containing atmosphere. The Ti-Al-V-O nanofilm annealed at 450°C was mainly composed of anatase phase, which was sensitive to hydrogen-containing atmosphere only at elevated temperatures. Annealing of the Ti-Al-V-O nanofilm at 550°C could increase the content of anatase phase in the oxide nanofilm and thus resulted in a good sensitivity and resistance recovery at both room temperature and elevated temperatures. The TiO2 nanofilms doped with Al and V elements shows great potential for use as a robust semiconducting hydrogen sensor. PMID:23311459

  8. The participation of metals in the mechanism of the F(1)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Frasch, W D

    2000-05-31

    The Mg(2+) cofactor of the F(1)F(0) ATP synthase is required for the asymmetry of the catalytic sites that leads to the differences in affinity for nucleotides. Vanadyl (V(IV)=O)(2+) is a functional surrogate for Mg(2+) in the F(1)-ATPase. The (51)V-hyperfine parameters derived from EPR spectra of VO(2+) bound to specific sites on the enzyme provide a direct probe of the metal ligands at each site. Site-directed mutations of residues that serve as metal ligands were found to cause measurable changes in the (51)V-hyperfine parameters of the bound VO(2+), thereby providing a means by which metal ligands were identified in the functional enzyme in several conformations. At the low-affinity catalytic site comparable to beta(E) in mitochondrial F(1), activation of the chloroplast F(1)-ATPase activity induces a conformational change that inserts the P-loop threonine and catch-loop tyrosine hydroxyl groups into the metal coordination sphere thereby displacing an amino group and the Walker homology B aspartate. Kinetic evidence suggests that coordination of this tyrosine by the metal when the empty site binds substrate may provide an escapement mechanism that allows the gamma subunit to rotate and the conformation of the catalytic sites to change, thereby allowing rotation only when the catalytic sites are filled. In the high-affinity conformation analogous to the beta(DP) site of mitochondrial F(1), the catch-loop tyrosine has been displaced by carboxyl groups from the Walker homology B aspartate and from betaE197 in Chlamydomonas CF(1). Coordination of the metal by these carboxyl groups contributes significantly to the ability of the enzyme to bind the nucleotide with high affinity. PMID:10838047

  9. Lycopene protects against atrazine-induced hepatic ionic homeostasis disturbance by modulating ion-transporting ATPases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia; Zhao, Hua-Shan; Xiang, Li-Run; Xia, Jun; Wang, Li-Li; Li, Xue-Nan; Li, Jin-Long; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible chemoprotective role of lycopene (LYC) against atrazine (ATR)-induced ionic disorder and hepatotoxicity in mice. Male kunming mice were treated with LYC (5mg/kg) and/or ATR (50mg/kg or 200mg/kg) by lavage administration for 21days. Ionic disorder was assessed by determining the Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) content and the alteration in ATP enzymes (ATPases) including Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase and the mRNA levels of ATPase's subunits in liver. ATR caused the increases of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and histological changes. LYC pretreatment significantly protected liver against ATR-caused alternation. The significant effect of ATR and LYC on the K(+) and Mg(2+) content in liver was not observed, but ATR increased hepatic Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and decreased Mg(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase activity. The mRNA expressions of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase subunits were regulated significantly by ATR. A significant increase of Ca(2+) content and seven down-regulated mRNA expressions of Ca(2+)-ATPase subunits and a decrease of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity were observed in the ATR-treated mice. Notably, LYC modulated these ATR-induced alterations of ATPase activity and mRNA expression of their subunits. These results suggest that ATR presents hepatotoxicity via regulating hepatic ATPase's activities and their subunit transcriptions and inducing ionic disorder. LYC protects liver against ATR-induced hepatotoxicity, significantly. LYC modulated hepatic ionic homeostasis disturbance via regulation of ATPase activities and their subunits' (1a1, 1b3, 1b4 and 2b4) transcriptions. In summary, these effects play a critical role of LYC-mediated chemoprevention against ATR-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:26476475

  10. Realization of Cu-Doped p-Type ZnO Thin Films by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Suja, Mohammad; Bashar, Sunayna B; Morshed, Muhammad M; Liu, Jianlin

    2015-04-29

    Cu-doped p-type ZnO films are grown on c-sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Photoluminescence (PL) experiments reveal a shallow acceptor state at 0.15 eV above the valence band edge. Hall effect results indicate that a growth condition window is found for the formation of p-type ZnO thin films, and the best conductivity is achieved with a high hole concentration of 1.54 × 10(18) cm(-3), a low resistivity of 0.6 Ω cm, and a moderate mobility of 6.65 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature. Metal oxide semiconductor capacitor devices have been fabricated on the Cu-doped ZnO films, and the characteristics of capacitance-voltage measurements demonstrate that the Cu-doped ZnO thin films under proper growth conditions are p-type. Seebeck measurements on these Cu-doped ZnO samples lead to positive Seebeck coefficients and further confirm the p-type conductivity. Other measurements such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron, Raman, and absorption spectroscopies are also performed to elucidate the structural and optical characteristics of the Cu-doped p-type ZnO films. The p-type conductivity is explained to originate from Cu substitution of Zn with a valency of +1 state. However, all p-type samples are converted to n-type over time, which is mostly due to the carrier compensation from extrinsic defects of ZnO. PMID:25835032

  11. The insensitivity to uncouplers of testis mitochondrial ATPase.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Memije, M E; Izquierdo-Reyes, V; Delhumeau-Ongay, G

    1988-01-01

    Albumin-free testis mitochondrial ATPase activity failed to be stimulated by either 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) or carbonyl cyanide rho-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP). DNP scarcely enhanced the state 4 respiration and mitochondria proved to be poorly coupled. When 1% bovine serum albumin was added to the isolation medium, DNP or FCCP stimulated ATPase nearly twofold and the dose-response curves for the uncouplers on the QO2 reached a plateau at five- to sixfold. The DNP coupling index (q) also showed a 30-40% improvement. A dose-response curve for oligomycin on the rate of [gamma-32P]ATP synthesis showed a stimulation of ATP synthase activity by 10-100 ng inhibitor/mg protein, suggesting a possible blockade of "open" F0 channels. In the albumin preparation oligomycin inhibited ATP synthesis in the range 10-100 ng/mg protein. Since testis ATPase is known to be loosely bound to the membrane, an effect of albumin, improving tightness in the interaction of the F1 and the F0 sectors of the ATPase, is suggested. PMID:2449129

  12. A structural pathway for activation of the kinesin motor ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Mikyung; Zhang, Xiaohua; Park, Cheon-Gil; Park, Hee-Won; Endow, Sharyn A.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular motors move along actin or microtubules by rapidly hydrolyzing ATP and undergoing changes in filament-binding affinity with steps of the nucleotide hydrolysis cycle. It is generally accepted that motor binding to its filament greatly increases the rate of ATP hydrolysis, but the structural changes in the motor associated with ATPase activation are not known. To identify the conformational changes underlying motor movement on its filament, we solved the crystal structures of three kinesin mutants that decouple nucleotide and microtubule binding by the motor, and block microtubule-activated, but not basal, ATPase activity. Conformational changes in the structures include a disordered loop and helices in the switch I region and a visible switch II loop, which is disordered in wild-type structures. Switch I moved closer to the bound nucleotide in two mutant structures, perturbing water-mediated interactions with the Mg2+. This could weaken Mg2+ binding and accelerate ADP release to activate the motor ATPase. The structural changes we observe define a signaling pathway within the motor for ATPase activation that is likely to be essential for motor movement on microtubules. PMID:11387196

  13. Structural changes of CF 1-ATPase in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmettes, P.; Pezennec, S.; Berger, G.; Girault, G.

    1992-06-01

    Small changes in neutron scattering spectra were observed when spinach CF 1-ATPase is activated by dithiothreitol or allowed to bind to a nucleotide. It is shown that activation induces a significant conformation change whereas substrate binding does not. In solution, MgATP or MgAMP mainly modifies the interactions between the solute molecules.

  14. Fluoride inhibition of proton-translocating ATPases of oral bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, S V; Bender, G R; Marquis, R E

    1987-01-01

    The ATPases of isolated membranes of lactic acid bacteria were found to be inhibited by fluoride in a complex manner. Among the enzymes tested, that of Streptococcus mutans GS-5 was the most sensitive to fluoride, and the initial rate of hydrolysis of ATP was reduced 50% by approximately 3 mM fluoride. The enzyme of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 4646 was the most resistant, and about 25 mM fluoride was required for 50% inhibition. The response to fluoride appeared to involve reversible, noncompetitive inhibition during short exposure to low levels of fluoride and nonreversible inhibition at higher fluoride levels. In addition, kinetic studies of the effects of fluoride on the enzymes of membranes of S. mutans and L. casei indicated that reversible inhibition was at least partly overcome at high levels of either ATP or Mg. The effects of pH on fluoride inhibition of ATPases were markedly different from the effects of pH on inhibition of acid/base regulation of intact cells by fluoride. It appeared that formation of HF was not required for inhibition of the ATPases. F1 ATPases isolated from the membranes by washing with buffers of low ionic strength proved to be less sensitive to fluoride than the membrane-associated F1F0 holoenzymes, and it was concluded that the F0 or membrane sector of the holoenzyme is involved in fluoride inhibition. PMID:2889674

  15. Structural Insights on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Proteasomal ATPase Mpa

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.; Li, H; Lin, G; Tang, C; Li, D; Nathan, C; Heran Darwin, K

    2009-01-01

    Proteasome-mediated protein turnover in all domains of life is an energy-dependent process that requires ATPase activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) was recently shown to possess a ubiquitin-like proteasome pathway that plays an essential role in Mtb resistance to killing by products of host macrophages. Here we report our structural and biochemical investigation of Mpa, the presumptive Mtb proteasomal ATPase. We demonstrate that Mpa binds to the Mtb proteasome in the presence of ATPS, providing the physical evidence that Mpa is the proteasomal ATPase. X-ray crystallographic determination of the conserved interdomain showed a five stranded double {beta} barrel structure containing a Greek key motif. Structure and mutational analysis indicate a major role of the interdomain for Mpa hexamerization. Our mutational and functional studies further suggest that the central channel in the Mpa hexamer is involved in protein substrate translocation and degradation. These studies provide insights into how a bacterial proteasomal ATPase interacts with and facilitates protein degradation by the proteasome.

  16. A sulfur-based transport pathway in Cu+-ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Mattle, Daniel; Zhang, Limei; Sitsel, Oleg; Pedersen, Lotte Thue; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco; Gourdon, Pontus; Rees, Douglas C; Nissen, Poul; Meloni, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Cells regulate copper levels tightly to balance the biogenesis and integrity of copper centers in vital enzymes against toxic levels of copper. PIB-type Cu+-ATPases play a central role in copper homeostasis by catalyzing the selective translocation of Cu+ across cellular membranes. Crystal structures of a copper-free Cu+-ATPase are available, but the mechanism of Cu+ recognition, binding, and translocation remains elusive. Through X-ray absorption spectroscopy, ATPase activity assays, and charge transfer measurements on solid-supported membranes using wild-type and mutant forms of the Legionella pneumophila Cu+-ATPase (LpCopA), we identify a sulfur-lined metal transport pathway. Structural analysis indicates that Cu+ is bound at a high-affinity transmembrane-binding site in a trigonal-planar coordination with the Cys residues of the conserved CPC motif of transmembrane segment 4 (C382 and C384) and the conserved Met residue of transmembrane segment 6 (M717 of the MXXXS motif). These residues are also essential for transport. Additionally, the studies indicate essential roles of other conserved intramembranous polar residues in facilitating copper binding to the high-affinity site and subsequent release through the exit pathway. PMID:25956886

  17. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  18. ATPaseTb2, a Unique Membrane-bound FoF1-ATPase Component, Is Essential in Bloodstream and Dyskinetoplastic Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Šubrtová, Karolína; Panicucci, Brian; Zíková, Alena

    2015-01-01

    In the infectious stage of Trypanosoma brucei, an important parasite of humans and livestock, the mitochondrial (mt) membrane potential (Δψm) is uniquely maintained by the ATP hydrolytic activity and subsequent proton pumping of the essential FoF1-ATPase. Intriguingly, this multiprotein complex contains several trypanosome-specific subunits of unknown function. Here, we demonstrate that one of the largest novel subunits, ATPaseTb2, is membrane-bound and localizes with monomeric and multimeric assemblies of the FoF1-ATPase. Moreover, RNAi silencing of ATPaseTb2 quickly leads to a significant decrease of the Δψm that manifests as a decreased growth phenotype, indicating that the FoF1-ATPase is impaired. To further explore the function of this protein, we employed a trypanosoma strain that lacks mtDNA (dyskinetoplastic, Dk) and thus subunit a, an essential component of the proton pore in the membrane Fo-moiety. These Dk cells generate the Δψm by combining the hydrolytic activity of the matrix-facing F1-ATPase and the electrogenic exchange of ATP4- for ADP3- by the ATP/ADP carrier (AAC). Surprisingly, in addition to the expected presence of F1-ATPase, the monomeric and multimeric FoF1-ATPase complexes were identified. In fact, the immunoprecipitation of a F1-ATPase subunit demonstrated that ATPaseTb2 was a component of these complexes. Furthermore, RNAi studies established that the membrane-bound ATPaseTb2 subunit is essential for maintaining normal growth and the Δψm of Dk cells. Thus, even in the absence of subunit a, a portion of the FoF1-ATPase is assembled in Dk cells. PMID:25714685

  19. Assembly of ATPase protein in sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Scales, D; Giuseppeinesi

    1976-01-01

    Three specimen preparation techniques for electron microscopy were used to investigate the incorporation of the ATPase polypeptide chains in the membranes of fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) obtained from rabbit skeletal muscle. Observations were made of both normal vesicles and vesicles exposed to trypsin, which is known to cleave the ATPase protein and to alter the ultrastructure of the vesicles in predictable ways. Freeze-fracture replicas reveal the typical 90-A particles on the concave (PF) faces with a density of 5,730 +/- 520/mum2. On the other hand both negatively stained and deeply etched preparations display outer projections, which are absent on trypsin-incubated vesicles. The etched specimens afford for the first time top views of the vesicles in the absence of any stain. These views reveal outer projections on the PS surface with a density of 21,000 +/- 3,900/mum2, a value nearly approximating the density of the ATPase polypeptide chains (106,000 mol wt) calculated on the basis of protein and membrane area determinations. On the other hand, this value is three to four times higher than that found for the density of the 90-A particles on the concave fracture faces. Since both outer projections and 90-A particles are identified with the ATPase protein, it is suggested that the ATPase polypeptide chains are amphiphilic molecules, with polar ends protruding individually as outer projections on the surface of the vesicles, and hydrophobic ends appearing as 90-A particles on the concave fracture faces. The discrepancy between the densities of the outer projections and the 90-A particles may be attributed either to variable penetration of the polypeptide chains into the membrane bilayer, or to formation of oligomers containing three or four hydrophobic ends and appearing as single 90-A particles. Each ATPase chain forms a complex with 20-30 phospholipid molecules. The remaining phospholipids (approximately 70% of the total SR phospholipids) account for

  20. Trypsin digestion for determining orientation of ATPase in Halobacterium saccharovorum membrane vesicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristjansson, H.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1986-01-01

    Membranes prepared by low pressure disruption of cells exhibited no ATPase activity in the absence of Triton X-100, although 43% of the total menadione reductase activity was detected. Trypsin digestion reduced menadione reductase activity by 45% whereas ATPase activity was not affected. Disruption of the membrane fraction at higher pressure solubilized about 45% of the ATPase activity. The soluble activity was still enhanced by Triton X-100, suggesting that the detergent, besides disrupting membrane vesicles, also activated the ATPase. The discrepancy in localization of menadione reductase and ATPase activities raised questions regarding the reliability of using a single marker enzyme as an indicator of vesicle orientation.

  1. Bovine brain kinesin is a microtubule-activated ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, S A; Gelfand, V I

    1986-01-01

    Recently, a protein called kinesin was described, which is capable of inducing movement of inert particles along microtubules. To purify this protein from bovine brain, we used the ability of kinesin to bind to taxol-stabilized microtubules in the presence of inorganic tripolyphosphate. The brain kinesin preparation contained one major polypeptide of 135 kDa and four minor polypeptides of 45-70 kDa. The minor polypeptides were eluted from a gel-permeation chromatography column at the same position as the major component. All the polypeptides of the preparation were capable of binding to the microtubules under identical conditions. The kinesin molecule is most probably a complex of these polypeptides. Brain kinesin had a very low ATPase activity (0.06-0.08 mumol X min-1 X mg-1 in 3 mM Mg2+ at pH 6.7). ATPase activity was strongly stimulated by microtubules (Vmax = 4.6 mumol per min per mg of kinesin). Microtubule-activated kinesin ATPase had a Km for ATP between 10 and 12 X 10(-6) M and a Kapp for microtubules (i.e., polymerized tubulin concentration required for a half-maximal activation) of 12-14 X 10(-6) M. Kinesin had a significant ATPase activity even without microtubules if 2 mM Ca2+ was substituted for Mg2+ (Vmax = 1.6 mumol X min-1 X mg-1; Km = 800 X 10(-6) M). Kinesin is therefore a mechanochemical ATPase that is activated by microtubules. Images PMID:2946042

  2. Models for the a subunits of the Thermus thermophilus V/A-ATPase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae V-ATPase enzymes by cryo-EM and evolutionary covariance.

    PubMed

    Schep, Daniel G; Zhao, Jianhua; Rubinstein, John L

    2016-03-22

    Rotary ATPases couple ATP synthesis or hydrolysis to proton translocation across a membrane. However, understanding proton translocation has been hampered by a lack of structural information for the membrane-embedded a subunit. The V/A-ATPase from the eubacteriumThermus thermophilusis similar in structure to the eukaryotic V-ATPase but has a simpler subunit composition and functions in vivo to synthesize ATP rather than pump protons. We determined theT. thermophilusV/A-ATPase structure by cryo-EM at 6.4 Å resolution. Evolutionary covariance analysis allowed tracing of the a subunit sequence within the map, providing a complete model of the rotary ATPase. Comparing the membrane-embedded regions of theT. thermophilusV/A-ATPase and eukaryotic V-ATPase fromSaccharomyces cerevisiaeallowed identification of the α-helices that belong to the a subunit and revealed the existence of previously unknown subunits in the eukaryotic enzyme. Subsequent evolutionary covariance analysis enabled construction of a model of the a subunit in theS. cerevisaeV-ATPase that explains numerous biochemical studies of that enzyme. Comparing the two a subunit structures determined here with a structure of the distantly related a subunit from the bovine F-type ATP synthase revealed a conserved pattern of residues, suggesting a common mechanism for proton transport in all rotary ATPases. PMID:26951669

  3. Vacuolar ATPases, like F1,F0-ATPases, show a strong dependence of the reaction velocity on the binding of more than one ATP per enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Kasho, V N; Boyer, P D

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies with vacuolar ATPases have shown that multiple copies catalytic subunits are present and that these have definite sequence homology with catalytic subunits of the F1,F0-ATPases. Experiments are reported that assess whether the vacuolar ATPases may have the unusual catalytic cooperativity with sequential catalytic site participation as in the binding change mechanism for the F1,F0-ATPases. The extent of reversal of bound ATP hydrolysis to bound ADP and Pi as medium ATP concentration was lowered was determined by 18O-exchange measurements for yeast and neurospora vacuolar ATPases. The results show a pronounced increase in the extent of water oxygen incorporation into the Pi formed as ATP concentration is decreased to the micromolar range. The F1,F0-ATPase from neurospora mitochondria showed an even more pronounced modulation, similar to that of other F1-type ATPases. The vacuolar ATPases thus appear to have a catalytic mechanism quite analogous to that of the F1,F0-ATPases. PMID:2530585

  4. Photoluminescence study of p-type vs. n-type Ag-doped ZnO films

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, M. A.; Jian, J.; Khranovskyy, V.; Lee, J. H.; Wang, Han; Wang, Haiyan E-mail: hwang00@tamu.edu

    2015-08-14

    Silver doped ZnO films have been grown on sapphire (0001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Hall measurements indicate that p-type conductivity is realized for the films deposited at 500 °C and 750 °C. Transmission electron microscopy images show more obvious and higher density of stacking faults (SFs) present in the p-type ZnO films as compared to the n-type films. Top view and cross sectional photoluminescence of the n- and p-type samples revealed free excitonic emission from both films. A peak at 3.314 eV, attributed to SF emission, has been observed only for the n-type sample, while a weak neutral acceptor peak observed at 3.359 eV in the p-type film. The SF emission in the n-type sample suggests localization of acceptor impurities nearby the SFs, while lack of SF emission for the p-type sample indicates the activation of the Ag acceptors in ZnO.

  5. Growth and conduction mechanism of As-doped p-type ZnO thin films deposited by MOCVD

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Y.; Gao, Q.; Wu, G.G.; Li, W.C.; Gao, F.B.; Yin, J.Z.; Zhang, B.L.; Du, G.T.

    2013-03-15

    Highlight: ► P-type As-doped ZnO thin films was fabricated by MOCVD after post-growth annealing. ► The formation mechanism of p-ZnO with high hole concentration above 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} was elucidated. ► Besides As{sub Zn}–2V{sub Zn} complex, C impurities also played an important role in realizing p-ZnO. ► The formations of As{sub O} and O-C-O complex were partially contributed to the p-type ZnO: As films. - Abstract: As-doped p-type ZnO thin films were fabricated by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) after in situ annealing in a vacuum. The p-type conduction mechanism was suggested by the analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. It was found that most of the As dopants in p-ZnO thin films formed As{sub Zn}–2V{sub Zn} shallow acceptor complex, simultaneously, carbon impurities also played an important role in realizing p-type conductivity in ZnO. Substitutional carbon on oxygen site created passivated defect bands by combining with Ga atoms due to the donor-acceptor pair Coulomb binding, which shifted the valence-band maximum upwards for ZnO and thus increased the hole concentration.

  6. Plasmodium P-Type Cyclin CYC3 Modulates Endomitotic Growth during Oocyst Development in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, David J. P.; Kaindama, Mbinda L.; Brusini, Lorenzo; Joshi, Nimitray; Rchiad, Zineb; Brady, Declan; Guttery, David S.; Wheatley, Sally P.; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Holder, Anthony A.; Pain, Arnab; Wickstead, Bill; Tewari, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Cell-cycle progression and cell division in eukaryotes are governed in part by the cyclin family and their regulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Cyclins are very well characterised in model systems such as yeast and human cells, but surprisingly little is known about their number and role in Plasmodium, the unicellular protozoan parasite that causes malaria. Malaria parasite cell division and proliferation differs from that of many eukaryotes. During its life cycle it undergoes two types of mitosis: endomitosis in asexual stages and an extremely rapid mitotic process during male gametogenesis. Both schizogony (producing merozoites) in host liver and red blood cells, and sporogony (producing sporozoites) in the mosquito vector, are endomitotic with repeated nuclear replication, without chromosome condensation, before cell division. The role of specific cyclins during Plasmodium cell proliferation was unknown. We show here that the Plasmodium genome contains only three cyclin genes, representing an unusual repertoire of cyclin classes. Expression and reverse genetic analyses of the single Plant (P)-type cyclin, CYC3, in the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear location of the GFP-tagged protein throughout the lifecycle. Deletion of cyc3 resulted in defects in size, number and growth of oocysts, with abnormalities in budding and sporozoite formation. Furthermore, global transcript analysis of the cyc3-deleted and wild type parasites at gametocyte and ookinete stages identified differentially expressed genes required for signalling, invasion and oocyst development. Collectively these data suggest that cyc3 modulates oocyst endomitotic development in Plasmodium berghei. PMID:26565797

  7. P-type point contact germanium detectors and their application in rare-event searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanetti, Graham Kurt

    In the last two decades, experimental results from the direct detection of solar, reactor, and atmospheric neutrinos have provided convincing evidence that neutrinos have mass, the first definitive evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. The existence of massive neutrinos opens many questions about the neutrino's intrinsic properties, including the absolute mass, the relative hierarchy of the neutrino mass states, and the Majorana or Dirac nature of the neutrino. The Majorana Demonstrator is an array of p-type point contact (PPC) high purity germanium detectors that will search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay (0nubetabeta) of 76Ge, a process that can only occur if the neutrino is a Majorana particle. PPC detectors have several characteristics that make them well suited for a 76Ge 0nubetabeta search, including sub-keV energy thresholds that allow for background rejection based on low-energy x-ray tagging. This feature makes the Majorana Demonstrator sensitive to signals that might be present from processes that are not in the current Standard Model of particle physics. The Majorana Low-background Broad Energy Germanium Detector at KURF (MALBEK) is a PPC detector operated at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) in Ripplemead, VA. MALBEK was used to test the stability and performance of PPC detectors and study sources of background near the detector energy threshold. It was found that the dominant background below 1 keV in MALBEK data is due to slow surface events, a class of signals originating from interactions that occur near the detector surface. Techniques were developed for identifying surface events and simulating their formation and distribution. These techniques were then applied to 89.5 kg-d of data and searches were performed for signals from weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), solar axions, and Pauli exclusion principle violating electron transitions. No evidence of a signal was found. These results are presented in

  8. Controllable nondegenerate p-type doping of tungsten diselenide by octadecyltrichlorosilane.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong-Ho; Shim, Jaewoo; Jang, Sung Kyu; Jeon, Jeaho; Jeon, Min Hwan; Yeom, Geun Young; Jung, Woo-Shik; Jang, Yun Hee; Lee, Sungjoo; Park, Jin-Hong

    2015-02-24

    Despite heightened interest in 2D transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) doping methods for future layered semiconductor devices, most doping research is currently limited to molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), which is generally used for n-channel 2D transistors. In addition, previously reported TMD doping techniques result in only high-level doping concentrations (degenerate) in which TMD materials behave as near-metallic layers. Here, we demonstrate a controllable nondegenerate p-type doping (p-doping) technique on tungsten diselenide (WSe2) for p-channel 2D transistors by adjusting the concentration of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS). This p-doping phenomenon originates from the methyl (-CH3) functional groups in OTS, which exhibit a positive pole and consequently reduce the electron carrier density in WSe2. The controlled p-doping levels are between 2.1 × 10(11) and 5.2 × 10(11) cm(-2) in the nondegenerate regime, where the performance parameters of WSe2-based electronic and optoelectronic devices can be properly designed or optimized (threshold voltage↑, on-/off-currents↑, field-effect mobility↑, photoresponsivity↓, and detectivity↓ as the doping level increases). The p-doping effect provided by OTS is sustained in ambient air for a long time showing small changes in the device performance (18-34% loss of ΔVTH initially achieved by OTS doping for 60 h). Furthermore, performance degradation is almost completely recovered by additional thermal annealing at 120 °C. Through Raman spectroscopy and electrical/optical measurements, we have also confirmed that the OTS doping phenomenon is independent of the thickness of the WSe2 films. We expect that our controllable p-doping method will make it possible to successfully integrate future layered semiconductor devices. PMID:25629805

  9. Invariant Functional Forms for K(r,P) Type Equations of State for Hydrodynamically Driven Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrbek, George

    2001-06-01

    At the 11th American Physical Society Topical Group Meeting on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, Group Theoretic Methods, as defined by Lie were applied to the problem of temperature independent, hydrodynamic shock in a Birch-Murnaghan continuum. (1) Group parameter ratios were linked to the physical quantities (i.e., KT, K'T, and K''T) specified for the various order Birch-Murnaghan approximations. This technique has now been generalized to provide a mathematical formalism applicable to a wide class of forms (i.e., K(r,P)) for the equation of state. Variations in material expansion and resistance (i.e., counter pressure) are shown to be functions of compression and material variation ahead of the expanding front. Illustrative examples include the Birch-Murnaghan, Vinet, Brennan-Stacey, Shanker, Tait, Poirier, and Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) forms. The results of this study will allow the various equations of state, and their respective fitting coefficients, to be compared with experiments. To do this, one must introduce the group ratios into a numerical simulation for the flow and generate the density, pressure, and particle velocity profiles as the shock moves through the material. (2) (1) Hrbek, G. M., Invariant Functional Forms For The Second, Third, And Fourth Order Birch-Murnaghan Equation of State For Materials Subject to Hydrodynamic Shock, Proceedings of the 11th American Physical Society Topical Group Meeting on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter (SCCM Shock 99), Snowbird, Utah (2) Hrbek, G. M., Physical Interpretation of Mathematically Invariant K(r,P) Type Equations Of State For Hydrodynamically Driven Flows, Submitted to the 12th American Physical Society Topical Group Meeting on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter (SCCM Shock 01), Atlanta, Georgia

  10. Plasmodium P-Type Cyclin CYC3 Modulates Endomitotic Growth during Oocyst Development in Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Roques, Magali; Wall, Richard J; Douglass, Alexander P; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Ferguson, David J P; Kaindama, Mbinda L; Brusini, Lorenzo; Joshi, Nimitray; Rchiad, Zineb; Brady, Declan; Guttery, David S; Wheatley, Sally P; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Holder, Anthony A; Pain, Arnab; Wickstead, Bill; Tewari, Rita

    2015-11-01

    Cell-cycle progression and cell division in eukaryotes are governed in part by the cyclin family and their regulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Cyclins are very well characterised in model systems such as yeast and human cells, but surprisingly little is known about their number and role in Plasmodium, the unicellular protozoan parasite that causes malaria. Malaria parasite cell division and proliferation differs from that of many eukaryotes. During its life cycle it undergoes two types of mitosis: endomitosis in asexual stages and an extremely rapid mitotic process during male gametogenesis. Both schizogony (producing merozoites) in host liver and red blood cells, and sporogony (producing sporozoites) in the mosquito vector, are endomitotic with repeated nuclear replication, without chromosome condensation, before cell division. The role of specific cyclins during Plasmodium cell proliferation was unknown. We show here that the Plasmodium genome contains only three cyclin genes, representing an unusual repertoire of cyclin classes. Expression and reverse genetic analyses of the single Plant (P)-type cyclin, CYC3, in the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear location of the GFP-tagged protein throughout the lifecycle. Deletion of cyc3 resulted in defects in size, number and growth of oocysts, with abnormalities in budding and sporozoite formation. Furthermore, global transcript analysis of the cyc3-deleted and wild type parasites at gametocyte and ookinete stages identified differentially expressed genes required for signalling, invasion and oocyst development. Collectively these data suggest that cyc3 modulates oocyst endomitotic development in Plasmodium berghei. PMID:26565797

  11. Structure of a Type IV Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Calzada, Angel; Braun, Nathalie; Connery, Sarah; Dujeancourt, Annick; Lu, Fang; Redzej, Adam; Fronzes, Rémi; Orlova, Elena V.; Waksman, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial type IV secretion (T4S) systems translocate virulence factors into eukaryotic cells1,2, distribute genetic material between bacteria, and have shown potential as a tool for the genetic modification of human cells3. Given the complex choreography of the substrate through the secretion apparatus4, the molecular mechanism of the T4S system has proven difficult to dissect in the absence of structural data for the entire machinery. Here we use electron microscopy (EM) to reconstruct the T4S system encoded by the Escherichia coli R388 conjugative plasmid. We show that eight proteins assemble in an intricate stoichiometric relationship to form a ~3 megadalton (MDa) nanomachine that spans the entire cell envelope. The structure comprises an outer membrane-associated core complex1 connected by a central stalk to a substantial inner membrane complex that is dominated by a battery of twelve VirB4 ATPase subunits organised as side by side hexameric barrels. Our results show a secretion system with markedly different architecture, and consequently mechanism, to other known bacterial secretion systems1,4-6. PMID:24670658

  12. Characterization of the macrocyclic carbon suboxide factors as potent Na,K-ATPase and SR Ca-ATPase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kerek, Franz; Stimac, Robert; Apell, Hans-Jürgen; Freudenmann, Frank; Moroder, Luis

    2002-12-23

    Recently discovered macrocyclic carbon suboxide (MCS) factors with the general formula (C(3)O(2))(n) were found to strongly inhibit rabbit and rat Na,K-ATPase as well as SR Ca-ATPase. Highly active MCS factors were obtained by a base/acid treatment of their lipophilic precursor isolated from plants. In the ESI-MS spectra, the dominant molar mass ion of 431 Da corresponds to a 1:1 complex of the carbon suboxide hexamer (n=6; M(r)=408 Da) with a Na(+) ion. Additional mass ions identified in positive and negative ion mode were assigned as complexes of the MCS hexamer (n=6) and octamer (n=8) with Na(+) or with TFA(-) in various ratios. The dominant mass ion values of these active MCS factors from plants are also found in mass spectra of previously described endogenous digitalis-like factors (EDLF) from animals. This would suggest that ubiquitously distributed MCS factors may function as putative endogenous regulatory substances of Na,K-ATPase and possibly of other ATPases. With the symmetric display of several equivalent carbonyl or hydroxy groups, the structure of MCS factors is particularly suited for interactions with proteins and other bio-molecules. This could explain the high biological activity and the unusual properties of the MCS factors. PMID:12488055

  13. Synthesis and assembly of functional mammalian Na,K-ATPase in yeast.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, B; Eakle, K A; Scheiner-Bobis, G; Randolph, G R; Chen, C Y; Hitzeman, R A; Farley, R A

    1990-03-15

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated as an in vivo protein expression system for mammalian Na,K-ATPase. Unlike animal cells, yeast cells lack endogenous Na,K-ATPase. Expression of high affinity ouabain binding sites, ouabain-sensitive ATPase activity, or ouabain-sensitive p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity in membrane fractions of yeast cells was observed to require the expression of both alpha subunit and beta subunit polypeptides of Na,K-ATPase in the same cell. High affinity ouabain binding sites are also expressed at the cell surface of intact yeast cells containing both the alpha subunit and the beta subunit of Na,K-ATPase. These observations demonstrate that both the alpha subunit and the beta subunit of Na,K-ATPase are required for the expression of functional Na,K-ATPase activity and that yeast cells can correctly assemble this oligomeric membrane protein and transport it to the cell surface. PMID:1689721

  14. Regulation of proximal tubule vacuolar H+-ATPase by PKA and AMP-activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Al-bataineh, Mohammad M.; Gong, Fan; Marciszyn, Allison L.; Myerburg, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) mediates ATP-driven H+ transport across membranes. This pump is present at the apical membrane of kidney proximal tubule cells and intercalated cells. Defects in the V-ATPase and in proximal tubule function can cause renal tubular acidosis. We examined the role of protein kinase A (PKA) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the regulation of the V-ATPase in the proximal tubule as these two kinases coregulate the V-ATPase in the collecting duct. As the proximal tubule V-ATPases have different subunit compositions from other nephron segments, we postulated that V-ATPase regulation in the proximal tubule could differ from other kidney tubule segments. Immunofluorescence labeling of rat ex vivo kidney slices revealed that the V-ATPase was present in the proximal tubule both at the apical pole, colocalizing with the brush-border marker wheat germ agglutinin, and in the cytosol when slices were incubated in buffer alone. When slices were incubated with a cAMP analog and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, the V-ATPase accumulated at the apical pole of S3 segment cells. These PKA activators also increased V-ATPase apical membrane expression as well as the rate of V-ATPase-dependent extracellular acidification in S3 cell monolayers relative to untreated cells. However, the AMPK activator AICAR decreased PKA-induced V-ATPase apical accumulation in proximal tubules of kidney slices and decreased V-ATPase activity in S3 cell monolayers. Our results suggest that in proximal tubule the V-ATPase subcellular localization and activity are acutely coregulated via PKA downstream of hormonal signals and via AMPK downstream of metabolic stress. PMID:24553431

  15. Effect of colchicine on sensitivity of duck salt gland Na,K-ATPase to Na+.

    PubMed

    Yakushev, S S; Kumskova, E M; Rubtsov, A M; Lopina, O D

    2008-09-01

    Low molecular mass proteins of the FXYD family that affect the sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase to Na+ and K+ are known to be present in Na,K-ATPases in various tissues. In particular, in Na,K-ATPase from kidney a gamma-subunit (with electrophoretic mobility corresponding to molecular mass of about 10 kD) is present, and Na,K-ATPase preparations from heart contain phospholemman (electrophoretic mobility of this protein corresponds to molecular mass of 13-14 kD), which provides for the interaction of heart Na,K-ATPase with cytoskeletal microtubules. Disruption of microtubules by colchicine removes phospholemman from heart Na,K-ATPase preparations. The goal of the present study was to reveal a low molecular mass protein (probably a member of FXYD family) in preparation of Na,K-ATPase from duck salt glands. Immunoprecipitation of solubilized duck salt gland Na,K-ATPase using antibodies against alpha1-subunit results in the coprecipitation of a 13 kD protein with the Na,K-ATPase complex. Treatment of homogenate from duck salt glands with colchicine removes this protein from the purified preparation of Na,K-ATPase. Simultaneously, we observed a decrease in the sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase to Na+ at pH 6.5. However, colchicine treatment of homogenate from rabbit kidney does not affect either the sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase obtained from this homogenate to Na+ or the content of 10 kD protein (presumably gamma-subunit). The data suggest that phospholemman (or a similar member of the FXYD family) tightly interacts with Na,K-ATPase from duck salt glands and binds it to microtubules, simultaneously participating in the regulation of the sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase to Na+. PMID:18976215

  16. Investigation of Ohmic mechanism for chlorine-treated p-type GaN using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Sung; Lee, Ching-Ting

    2006-08-01

    To investigate the function and mechanism of oxidation, the surface of the chlorine-treated p-type GaN semiconductor was analyzed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The chlorinated surface treatment was performed by electrolyzing HCl chemical solution to generate HClO, which in turn could be used to oxidize the p-type GaN. The chlorinated surface treatment enhances the formation of GaOx on the GaN surface and removing GaOx layer from the surface thereafter leads to the creation of additional Ga vacancies. Consequently, more holes are generated as a result of the generated Ga vacancies. Therefore, a relatively higher Ohmic performance with a specific contact resistance of 6.1×10-6Ωcm2 can be obtained for Ni /Au metal contact subsequently patterned on the chlorine-treated p-type GaN via the enhanced formation of GaOx.

  17. P-type conductivity control of Si-doped GaAsSb layers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Haruki; Hoshi, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of Si-doped GaAsSb layers grown at various growth temperatures from 530 to 630 °C by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), are investigated. When the substrate temperature is 530 °C, the conductivity of Si-doped GaAsSb layers is n-type. In contrast, Si-doped GaAsSb layers grown at higher temperature (580 °C) show p-type conductivity. Moreover, the p-type carrier concentration in these layers increases proportionally to the increase of the disilane (Si2H6) flow rate. This is the first time that p-type doping into GaAsSb layers has been achieved by MOCVD using Si as a dopant.

  18. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  19. IVS Technology Coordinator Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This report of the Technology Coordinator includes the following: 1) continued work to implement the new VLBI2010 system, 2) the 1st International VLBI Technology Workshop, 3) a VLBI Digital- Backend Intercomparison Workshop, 4) DiFX software correlator development for geodetic VLBI, 5) a review of progress towards global VLBI standards, and 6) a welcome to new IVS Technology Coordinator Bill Petrachenko.

  20. The PLATO IV Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifle, Jack

    The PLATO IV computer-based instructional system consists of a large scale centrally located CDC 6400 computer and a large number of remote student terminals. This is a brief and general description of the proposed input/output hardware necessary to interface the student terminals with the computer's central processing unit (CPU) using available…

  1. Electronic passivation of n- and p-type GaAs using chemical vapor deposited GaS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabib-Azar, Massood; Kang, Soon; Macinnes, Andrew N.; Power, Michael B.; Barron, Andrew R.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    1993-01-01

    We report on the electronic passivation of n- and p-type GaAs using CVD cubic GaS. Au/GaS/GaAs-fabricated metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures exhibit classical high-frequency capacitor vs voltage (C-V) behavior with well-defined accumulation and inversion regions. Using high- and low-frequency C-V, the interface trap densities of about 10 exp 11/eV per sq cm on both n- and p-type GaAs are determined. The electronic condition of GaS/GaAs interface did not show any deterioration after a six week time period.

  2. Perovskite Sr-Doped LaCrO3 as a New p-Type Transparent Conducting Oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kelvin H L; Du, Yingge; Papadogianni, Alexandra; Bierwagen, Oliver; Sallis, Shawn; Piper, Louis F J; Bowden, Mark E; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Sushko, Peter V; Chambers, Scott A

    2015-09-16

    Epitaxial La1-x Srx CrO3 deposited on SrTiO3 (001) is shown to be a p-type transparent conducting oxide with competitive figures of merit and a cubic perovskite structure, facilitating integration into oxide electronics. Holes in the Cr 3d t2g bands play a critical role in enhancing p-type conductivity, while transparency to visible light is maintained because low-lying d-d transitions arising from hole doping are dipole forbidden. PMID:26248327

  3. Low-temperature (77-300 K) current-voltage characteristics of 4H-SiC p{sup +}-p-n{sup +} diodes: Effect of impurity breakdown in the p-type base

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, P. A. Potapov, A. S.; Samsonova, T. P.

    2012-04-15

    The effect of impurity breakdown on the low-temperature (77-300 K) current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of 4H-SiC diodes with a p-type base has been studied. Experimental samples were fabricated from CVD-grown (chemical vapor deposition) commercial p{sup +}-p-n{sup +} 4H-SiC structures. A high electric field in the p-type base was created by applying a forward bias to the diodes. It was found that, at temperatures of 136, 89, and 81 K, the commonly observed 'diode' portion of the I-V characteristics is followed by a portion in which the current grows more rapidly due to the impact ionization of frozen-out Al acceptor atoms in the ground (unexcited) state. At temperatures of 81 and 77 K, this portion is followed by one with a negative differential resistance due to the regenerative dynistor-like switching of the diode, caused by impact ionization of aluminum atoms in the excited state.

  4. Temperature Dependence and High-Temperature Stability of the Annealed Ni/Au Ohmic Contact to p-Type GaN in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shirong; McFavilen, Heather; Wang, Shuo; Ponce, Fernando A.; Arena, Chantal; Goodnick, Stephen; Chowdhury, Srabanti

    2016-04-01

    We report on the temperature-dependent contact resistivity and high-temperature stability of the annealed Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN in air. As the measure temperature increases from 25°C to 390°C, both the specific contact resistivity (ρ c) and sheet resistance (R sh) decrease by factors ˜10, contributing to the 10-fold increase in current at 390°C compared with that at 25°C. It was also observed that the ρ c was further reduced by 36%, i.e., from 2.2 × 10-3 Ω cm2 to 1.4 × 10-3 Ω cm2, during the 48-h high-temperature stability test at 450°C in air, showing excellent stability of the contacts. An increase in ρ c was observed after the contacts were subjected to 500°C in air. Higher temperature stress led to a significant increase in ρ c. The contacts show rectifying I-V characteristics after being subjected to 700°C for 1 h. The degradation mechanics were analyzed with the assistance of transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy.

  5. Mitf is a master regulator of the v-ATPase, forming a control module for cellular homeostasis with v-ATPase and TORC1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianyi; Zhou, Qingxiang; Ogmundsdottir, Margret Helga; Möller, Katrin; Siddaway, Robert; Larue, Lionel; Hsing, Michael; Kong, Sek Won; Goding, Colin Ronald; Palsson, Arnar; Steingrimsson, Eirikur; Pignoni, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The v-ATPase is a fundamental eukaryotic enzyme that is central to cellular homeostasis. Although its impact on key metabolic regulators such as TORC1 is well documented, our knowledge of mechanisms that regulate v-ATPase activity is limited. Here, we report that the Drosophila transcription factor Mitf is a master regulator of this holoenzyme. Mitf directly controls transcription of all 15 v-ATPase components through M-box cis-sites and this coordinated regulation affects holoenzyme activity in vivo. In addition, through the v-ATPase, Mitf promotes the activity of TORC1, which in turn negatively regulates Mitf. We provide evidence that Mitf, v-ATPase and TORC1 form a negative regulatory loop that maintains each of these important metabolic regulators in relative balance. Interestingly, direct regulation of v-ATPase genes by human MITF also occurs in cells of the melanocytic lineage, showing mechanistic conservation in the regulation of the v-ATPase by MITF family proteins in fly and mammals. Collectively, this evidence points to an ancient module comprising Mitf, v-ATPase and TORC1 that serves as a dynamic modulator of metabolism for cellular homeostasis. PMID:26092939

  6. A monoclonal antibody to the calmodulin-binding (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-dependent ATPase from pig stomach smooth muscle inhibits plasmalemmal (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-dependent ATPase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Verbist, J; Wuytack, F; Raeymaekers, L; Van Leuven, F; Cassiman, J J; Casteels, R

    1986-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (2B3) directed against the calmodulin-binding (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-dependent ATPase from pig stomach smooth muscle was prepared. This antibody reacts with a 130,000-Mr protein that co-migrates on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with the calmodulin-binding (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase purified from smooth muscle by calmodulin affinity chromatography. The antibody causes partial inhibition of the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase activity in plasma membranes from pig stomach smooth muscle, in pig erythrocytes and human erythrocytes. It appears to be directed against a specific functionally important site of the plasmalemmal Ca2+-transport ATPase and acts as a competitive inhibitor of ATP binding. Binding of the antibody does not change the Km of the ATPase for Ca2+ and its inhibitory effect is not altered by the presence of calmodulin. No inhibition of (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase activity or of the oxalate-stimulated Ca2+ uptake was observed in a pig smooth-muscle vesicle preparation enriched in endoplasmic reticulum. These results confirm the existence in smooth muscle of two different types of Ca2+-transport ATPase: a calmodulin-binding (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase located in the plasma membrane and a second one confined to the endoplasmic reticulum. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2950852

  7. A novel multigene cloning method for the production of a motile ATPase.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min Su; Song, Woo Chul; Shin, Seung Won; Park, Kyung Soo; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Dong-Ik; Kim, Byung Woo; Um, Soong Ho

    2015-08-10

    With the advent of nanotechnology, new functional modules (e.g., nanomotors, nanoprobes) have become essential in several medical fields. Generally, mechanical modulators systems are the principal components of most cutting-edge technologies in modern biomedical applications. However, the in vivo use of motile probes has raised many concerns due to their low sensitivity and non-biocompatibility. As an alternative, biological enzymatic engines have received increased attention. In particular, ATPases, which belong to a class of motile enzymes that catalyze chemical metabolic reactions, have emerged as a promising motor due to their improved biocompatibility and performance. However, ATPases usually suffer from lower functional activity and are difficult to express recombinantly in bacteria relative to their conventional and synthetic competitors. Here, we report a novel functional modified ATPase with both a simple purification protocol and enhanced motile activity. For this mutant ATPase, a new bacterial subcloning method was established. The ATPase-encoding sequence was redesigned so that the mutant ATPase could be easily produced in an Escherichia coli system. The modified thermophilic F1-ATPase (mTF1-ATPase) demonstrated 17.8unit/mg ATPase activity. We propose that derivatives of our ATPase may enable the development of novel in vitro and in vivo synthetic medical diagnostics, as well as therapeutics. PMID:25956244

  8. Identification of Inhibitors of V-ATPase Pumps in Yeast by HTS Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rebecca M.; Allen, Chris; Melman, Sandra D.; Waller, Anna; Young, Susan M.; Sklar, Larry A.; Parra, Karlett J.

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence intensity of the pH-sensitive carboxyfluorescein derivative BCECF was monitored by high throughput flow cytometry in living yeast cells. We measured fluorescence intensity of BCECF trapped in yeast vacuoles, acidic compartments equivalent to lysosomes where V-ATPases are abundant. Because V-ATPases maintain a low pH in the vacuolar lumen, V-ATPase inhibition by concanamycin A alkalinized the vacuole and increased BCECF fluorescence. Likewise, V-ATPase deficient mutant cells had greater fluorescence intensity than wild-type cells. Thus, we detected an increase of fluorescence intensity after short-term and long-term inhibition of V-ATPase function. We used yeast cells loaded with BCECF to screen a small chemical library of structurally diverse compounds in order to identify V-ATPase inhibitors. One compound, disulfiram, enhanced BCECF fluorescence intensity (although to a degree beyond anticipated for pH changes alone in the mutant cells). Once confirmed by dose response assays (EC50=26 μM), we verified V-ATPase inhibition by disulfiram in secondary assays which measured ATP hydrolysis in vacuolar membranes. The inhibitory action of disulfiram against V-ATPase pumps revealed a novel effect previously unknown for this compound. Because V-ATPases are highly conserved, new inhibitors identified could be used as research and therapeutic tools in cancer, viral infections, and other diseases where V-ATPases are involved. PMID:20018164

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar H+-ATPase regulation by disassembly and reassembly: one structure and multiple signals.

    PubMed

    Parra, Karlett J; Chan, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Jun

    2014-06-01

    Vacuolar H(+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) are highly conserved ATP-driven proton pumps responsible for acidification of intracellular compartments. V-ATPase proton transport energizes secondary transport systems and is essential for lysosomal/vacuolar and endosomal functions. These dynamic molecular motors are composed of multiple subunits regulated in part by reversible disassembly, which reversibly inactivates them. Reversible disassembly is intertwined with glycolysis, the RAS/cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, and phosphoinositides, but the mechanisms involved are elusive. The atomic- and pseudo-atomic-resolution structures of the V-ATPases are shedding light on the molecular dynamics that regulate V-ATPase assembly. Although all eukaryotic V-ATPases may be built with an inherent capacity to reversibly disassemble, not all do so. V-ATPase subunit isoforms and their interactions with membrane lipids and a V-ATPase-exclusive chaperone influence V-ATPase assembly. This minireview reports on the mechanisms governing reversible disassembly in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, keeping in perspective our present understanding of the V-ATPase architecture and its alignment with the cellular processes and signals involved. PMID:24706019

  10. Dietary selenium increases the antioxidant levels and ATPase activity in the arteries and veins of poultry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Changyu; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jinxin; Luan, Yilin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. It has been shown that oxidative levels and ATPase activity were involved in Se deficiency diseases in humans and mammals; however, the mechanism by how Se influences the oxidative levels and ATPase activity in the poultry vasculature is unclear. We assessed the effects of dietary Se deficiency on the oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyl radical) and ATPase (Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Ca(++)-ATPase, Mg(++)-ATPase, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase) activity in broiler poultry. A total of 40 broilers (1-day old) were randomly divided into a Se-deficient group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.08 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.20 mg/kg Se). Then, arteries and veins were collected following euthanasia when typical symptoms of Se deficiency appeared. Antioxidant indexes and ATPase activity were evaluated using standard assays in arteries and veins. The results indicated that superoxide dismutase activity in the artery according to dietary Se deficiency was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The catalase activity in the veins and hydroxyl radical inhibition in the arteries and veins by dietary Se deficiency were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The Se-deficient group showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) tendency in Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, Ca(++)-ATPase activity, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase activity. There were strong correlations between antioxidant indexes and Ca(++)-ATPase activity. Thus, these results indicate that antioxidant indexes and ATPases may have special roles in broiler artery and vein injuries under Se deficiency. PMID:26637493

  11. Feeding induces translocation of vacuolar proton ATPase and pendrin to the membrane of leopard shark (Triakis semifasciata) mitochondrion-rich gill cells.

    PubMed

    Roa, Jinae N; Munévar, Christian L; Tresguerres, Martin

    2014-08-01

    In this study we characterized mitochondrion-rich (MR) cells and regulation of acid/base (A/B) relevant ion-transporting proteins in leopard shark (Triakis semifasciata) gills. Immunohistochemistry revealed that leopard shark gills posses two separate cell populations that abundantly express either Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase (NKA) or V-H⁺-ATPase (VHA), but not both ATPases together. Co-immunolocalization with mitochondrial Complex IV demonstrated, for the first time in shark gills, that both NKA- and VHA-rich cells are also MR cells, and that all MR cells are either NKA- or VHA-rich cells. Additionally we localized the anion exchanger pendrin to VHA-rich cells, but not NKA-rich cells. In starved sharks, VHA was localized throughout the cell cytoplasm and pendrin was present at the apical pole (but not in the membrane). However, in a significant number of gill cells from fed leopard sharks, VHA translocated to the basolateral membrane (as previously described in dogfish), and pendrin translocated to the apical membrane. Our results highlight the importance of translocation of ion-transporting proteins to the cell membrane as a regulatory mechanism for A/B regulation. PMID:24746982

  12. Mitochondrial ATPase: a target for paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Parmar, D V; Ahmed, G; Khandkar, M A; Katyare, S S

    1995-10-01

    We examined the effect of paracetamol treatment (650 mg/kg) on the function of ATPase from rat hepatic mitochondria. The drug treatment caused an overall 35% decrease in ATPase activity, with a complete loss of the high affinity component as determined by substrate kinetic studies. The Km for the intermediate and low affinity components decreased by about 30% without change in Vmax, which may represent a compensatory mechanism. The drug treatment also resulted in a dramatic decrease in the phase transition temperature by about 19 degrees C without affecting the energies of activation of the enzyme. Mitochondrial total phospholipid content increased significantly with a reciprocal decrease in the cholesterol content. The total phospholipid/cholesterol molar ration increased by 50% after paracetamol treatment. However, phospholipid composition (as % of total) of the mitochondria was unaltered. PMID:8666039

  13. Study of p-type ZnO and MgZnO Thin Films for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jianlin

    2015-07-31

    This project on study of p-type ZnO and MgZnO thin films for solid state lighting was carried out by research group of Prof. Jianlin Liu of UCR during the four-year period between August 2011 and July 2015. Tremendous progress has been made on the proposed research. This final report summarizes the important findings.

  14. Mechanism for doping induced p type C60 using thermally evaporated molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) as a dopant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin-Peng; Wang, Wen-Qing; Cheng, Li-Wen; Li, Yan-Qing; Tang, Jian-Xin; Kera, Satoshi; Ueno, Nobuo; Zeng, Xiang-hua

    2016-05-01

    Thermally evaporated molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) doped C60 films, which could change n type features of pristine C60 to form a p type mixed C60 layer, are investigated by x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. It is found that C60 HOMO progressively shifts closer to the Fermi level after increased MoO3 doping concentration, and final onset of C60 HOMO is pinned at binding energy of 0.20 eV, indicating the formation of p type C60 films. It is proposed that in charge transfer induced p type C60 formation, due to large electron affinity of MoO3 (6.37 eV), electrons from HOMO of C60 could easily transfer to MoO3 to form cations and therefore increase hole concentration, which could gradually push C60 HOMO to the Fermi level and finally form p type C60 films. Moreover, clear different types of C60 species have been confirmed from UPS spectra in highly doped films.

  15. Mechanism for doping induced p type C60 using thermally evaporated molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) as a dopant.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Peng; Wang, Wen-Qing; Cheng, Li-Wen; Li, Yan-Qing; Tang, Jian-Xin; Kera, Satoshi; Ueno, Nobuo; Zeng, Xiang-Hua

    2016-05-11

    Thermally evaporated molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) doped C60 films, which could change n type features of pristine C60 to form a p type mixed C60 layer, are investigated by x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. It is found that C60 HOMO progressively shifts closer to the Fermi level after increased MoO3 doping concentration, and final onset of C60 HOMO is pinned at binding energy of 0.20 eV, indicating the formation of p type C60 films. It is proposed that in charge transfer induced p type C60 formation, due to large electron affinity of MoO3 (6.37 eV), electrons from HOMO of C60 could easily transfer to MoO3 to form cations and therefore increase hole concentration, which could gradually push C60 HOMO to the Fermi level and finally form p type C60 films. Moreover, clear different types of C60 species have been confirmed from UPS spectra in highly doped films. PMID:27058225

  16. Optical and electronic properties of delafossite CuBO{sub 2}p-type transparent conducting oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ruttanapun, Chesta E-mail: krchesta@kmitl.ac.th

    2013-09-21

    CuBO{sub 2} delafossite was prepared by solid state reaction and calcined/sintered at 1005 °C. The optical properties of this p-type transparent conducting oxide were investigated. Its crystal structure, morphology, composition, oxygen decomposition, and optical and electronic properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-VIS-NIR) and fluorescence spectroscopies, Seebeck coefficient, and electrical conductivity measurements. CuBO{sub 2} delafossite possesses a hexagonal space group R3{sup ¯}m. TGA indicated a weight loss of 10%, which was attributed to excess oxygen. The positive Seebeck coefficient confirmed p-type behavior. Emission at 355 nm indicated a direct band type transition, and the UV-VIS-NIR spectrum indicated an optical direct gap of 3.6 eV. Activation energies for carrier production and electrical conduction were 0.147 and 0.58 eV, respectively, indicating the thermal activation of carriers. CuBO{sub 2} delafossite is a p-type transparent conducting oxide with a wide band gap and may have potential in industrial p-type electrodes.

  17. Study of the ATP-binding site of helicase IV from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Dubaele, Sandy; Lourdel, Claude; Chène, Patrick

    2006-03-17

    Helicases contain conserved motifs involved in ATP/magnesium/nucleic acid binding and in the mechanisms coupling nucleotide hydrolysis to duplex unwinding. None of these motifs are located at the adenine-binding pocket of the protein. We show here that the superfamily I helicase, helicase IV from Escherichia coli, utilizes a conserved glutamine and conserved aromatic residue to interact with ATP. Other superfamily I helicases such as, UvrD/Rep/PcrA also possess these residues but in addition they interact with adenine via a conserved arginine, which is replaced by a serine in helicase IV. Mutation of this serine residue in helicase IV into histidine or methionine leads to proteins with unaffected ATPase and DNA-binding activities but with low helicase activity. This suggests that residues located at the adenine-binding pocket, in addition to be involved in ATP-binding, are important for efficient coupling between ATP hydrolysis and DNA unwinding. PMID:16442499

  18. Characterization of p-type wide band gap transparent oxide for heterojunction devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sang-Hyun

    Transparent p-type CuCr1-xMgxO2 wide band gap oxide semiconductor thin films were deposited over quartz substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis technique using metalloorganic precursors. A mechanism of synthesis of CuCrO2 films involving precursor decomposition, oxidation, and reaction between constituent oxides in the spray deposition process is presented. Crystalline single phase CuCrO2 delafossite structure was dominant in ≥700ºC argon ambient annealed films but the as-deposited films contained spinel CuCr2O4 mixed phases as shown by XRD and XPS studies. Spin-orbital energy ˜9.8eV in Cr 2p electron spectra consistent with Cr3+ valence state and Cr 2p3/2 resolved peaks show mixed valence state on Cr4+ /Cr6+ confirming CuCr1-xMgxO 2 compound phase in the films. Effect of substrate temperature, film thickness, and acceptor Mg2+ doping on crystallographic structure, optical, electrical conductivity and thermoelectric coefficient was investigated. The invariance of the alpha- and increase of the c-lattice parameter with Mg concentration suggests that Mg2+ ions are introduced at the Cr3+ site. Highly transparent ≥80% CuCr 0.93Mg0.07O2 films with direct and indirect optical band gaps 3.08 and 2.58eV for 155 nm and 3.14 and 2.79eV for 305nm thin films, respectively were obtained. Photoluminescence emission bands at 532 and 484nm interpreted to arise from 3d94s1 and 3d 10 Cu+ intra-band transitions. Electrical conductivity of CuCr0.93Mg0.07O 2 films ranged from 0.6-1.0 Scm-1 and exhibits activation energies ˜0.11eV in 300-420K and ˜0.23eV in ≥ 420K region ascribed to activated conduction and grain boundary trap assisted conduction, respectively. Restricted by the Mg solubility, the substituted Mg dopants limited to x≤0.05 are only able to contribute to the optimum hole carrier in the range ˜2-4x1019cm-3 and thus no substantial increase of electrical conductivity could be realized with increased Mg concentration. A major fraction of Mg atoms do not act as

  19. THE ATPase ACTIVITY OF BfpD IS GREATLY ENHANCED BY ZINC AND ALLOSTERIC INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER Bfp PROTEINS

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Lynette J.; Yamagata, Atsushi; Craig, Lisa; Tainer, John A.; Donnenberg, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    Type IV pilus biogenesis, protein secretion, DNA transfer and filamentous phage morphogenesis systems are thought to possess similar architectures and mechanisms. These multiprotein complexes include members of the PulE superfamily of putative NTPases that have extensive sequence similarity and probably similar functions as the energizers of macromolecular transport. We purified the PulE homologue BfpD of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli bundle-forming pilus (BFP) biogenesis machine and characterized its ATPase activity, providing new insights into its mode of action. Numerous techniques revealed that BfpD forms hexamers in the presence of nucleotide. Hexameric BfpD displayed weak ATPase activity. We previously demonstrated that the N-termini of membrane proteins BfpC and BfpE recruit BfpD to the cytoplasmic membrane. Here, we identified two BfpD-binding sites, BfpE39-76 and BfpE77-114, in the N-terminus of BfpE using a yeast two-hybrid system. Isothermal titration calorimetry and protease sensitivity assays showed that hexameric BfpD-ATP?S binds to BfpE77-114, while hexameric BfpD-ADP binds to BfpE39-76. Interestingly, the N-terminus of BfpC and BfpE77-114 together increased the ATPase activity of hexameric BfpD over 1200-fold to a Vmax of 75.3 μmol Pi min−1 mg−1, which exceeds by over 1200-fold the activity of other PulE family members. This augmented activity occurred only in the presence of Zn2+. We conclude that allosteric interactions between BfpD and BfpC and BfpE dramatically stimulate its ATPase activity. The differential nucleotide-dependent binding of hexameric BfpD to BfpE39-76 and BfpE77-114 suggests a model for the mechanism by which BfpD transduces mechanical energy to the biogenesis machine. PMID:15866879

  20. Protein import into chloroplasts requires a chloroplast ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Pain, D.; Blobel, G.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have transcribed mRNA from a cDNA clone coding for pea ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, translated the mRNA in a wheat germ cell-free system, and studied the energy requirement for posttranslational import of the (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled protein into the stroma of pea chloroplasts. They found that import depends on ATP hydrolysis within the stroma. Import is not inhibited when H/sup +/, K/sup +/, Na/sup +/, or divalent cation gradients across the chloroplast membranes are dissipated by ionophores, as long as exogenously added ATP is also present during the import reaction. The data suggest that protein import into the chloroplast stroma requires a chloroplast ATPase that does not function to generate a membrane potential for driving the import reaction but that exerts its effect in another, yet-to-be-determined, mode. They have carried out a preliminary characterization of this ATPase regarding its nucleotide specificity and the effects of various ATPase inhibitors.

  1. Oxidative inhibition of red blood cell ATPases by glyceraldehyde.

    PubMed

    Mira, M L; Martinho, F; Azevedo, M S; Manso, C F

    1991-11-01

    Glyceraldehyde and other simple monosaccharides autoxidize under physiological conditions, forming dicarbonyl compounds and hydrogen peroxide via intermediate free radicals. These products may have deleterious effects on cell components. In this paper we study the effect of glyceraldehyde autoxidation on red-cell ATPase activities. The autoxidation of glyceraldehyde in imidazole-glycylglycine buffer, measured by oxygen consumption, depends on the buffer concentration and decreases in the presence of superoxide dismutase and catalase. The addition of DETAPAC inhibits the autoxidation almost completely. When human red-blood-cell membranes are incubated with glyceraldehyde, the red-blood-cell ATPase activities decrease significantly. The addition of DETAPAC, GSH and DTE (dithioerythritol) protects the enzyme from inactivation, but superoxide dismutase and catalase have no effect. Methylglyoxal (a dicarbonyl which is analogous to hydroxypyruvaldehyde derived from glyceraldehyde autoxidation) proved to have a powerful inhibitory action on ATPase activities. The addition of DTE completely protects the enzyme from inactivation, suggesting that the sulphydryl groups of the active site of the enzyme are the critical targets for dicarbonyl compounds. PMID:1836354

  2. A unique mechanism of curcumin inhibition on F1 ATPase.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Mizuki; Hisasaka, Ryosuke; Iwamoto-Kihara, Atsuko; Futai, Masamitsu; Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi

    2014-10-01

    ATP synthase (F-ATPase) function depends upon catalytic and rotation cycles of the F1 sector. Previously, we found that F1 ATPase activity is inhibited by the dietary polyphenols, curcumin, quercetin, and piceatannol, but that the inhibitory kinetics of curcumin differs from that of the other two polyphenols (Sekiya et al., 2012, 2014). In the present study, we analyzed Escherichia coli F1 ATPase rotational catalysis to identify differences in the inhibitory mechanism of curcumin versus quercetin and piceatannol. These compounds did not affect the 120° rotation step for ATP binding and ADP release, though they significantly increased the catalytic dwell duration for ATP hydrolysis. Analysis of wild-type F1 and a mutant lacking part of the piceatannol binding site (γΔ277-286) indicates that curcumin binds to F1 differently from piceatannol and quercetin. The unique inhibitory mechanism of curcumin is also suggested from its effect on F1 mutants with defective β-γ subunit interactions (γMet23 to Lys) or β conformational changes (βSer174 to Phe). These results confirm that smooth interaction between each β subunit and entire γ subunit in F1 is pertinent for rotational catalysis. PMID:25230139

  3. The Mechanism of Hsp90 ATPase Stimulation by Aha1.

    PubMed

    Wolmarans, Annemarie; Lee, Brian; Spyracopoulos, Leo; LaPointe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Hsp90 is a dimeric molecular chaperone responsible for the folding, maturation, and activation of hundreds of substrate proteins called 'clients'. Numerous co-chaperone proteins regulate progression through the ATP-dependent client activation cycle. The most potent stimulator of the Hsp90 ATPase activity is the co-chaperone Aha1p. Only one molecule of Aha1p is required to fully stimulate the Hsp90 dimer despite the existence of two, presumably identical, binding sites for this regulator. Using ATPase assays with Hsp90 heterodimers, we find that Aha1p stimulates ATPase activity by a three-step mechanism via the catalytic loop in the middle domain of Hsp90. Binding of the Aha1p N domain to the Hsp90 middle domain exerts a small stimulatory effect but also drives a separate conformational rearrangement in the Hsp90 N domains. This second event drives a rearrangement in the N domain of the opposite subunit and is required for the stimulatory action of the Aha1p C domain. Furthermore, the second event can be blocked by a mutation in one subunit of the Hsp90 dimer but not the other. This work provides a foundation for understanding how post-translational modifications regulate co-chaperone engagement with the Hsp90 dimer. PMID:27615124

  4. V-ATPase as an effective therapeutic target for sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Perut, Francesca; Avnet, Sofia; Fotia, Caterina; Baglìo, Serena Rubina; Salerno, Manuela; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki; Baldini, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Malignant tumors show intense glycolysis and, as a consequence, high lactate production and proton efflux activity. We investigated proton dynamics in osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma, and evaluated the effects of esomeprazole as a therapeutic agent interfering with tumor acidic microenvironment. All sarcomas were able to survive in an acidic microenvironment (up to 5.9–6.0 pH) and abundant acidic lysosomes were found in all sarcoma subtypes. V-ATPase, a proton pump that acidifies intracellular compartments and transports protons across the plasma membrane, was detected in all cell types with a histotype-specific expression pattern. Esomeprazole administration interfered with proton compartmentalization in acidic organelles and induced a significant dose-dependent toxicity. Among the different histotypes, rhabdomyosarcoma, expressing the highest levels of V-ATPase and whose lysosomes are most acidic, was mostly susceptible to ESOM treatment. - Highlights: • Osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma survive in acidic microenvironment. • At acidic extracellular pH, sarcoma survival is dependent on V-ATPase expression. • Esomeprazole administration induce a significant dose-dependent toxicity.

  5. Radiation inactivation analysis of chloroplast CF0-CF1 ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Y.; Chien, L.F.; Pan, R.L.

    1988-06-25

    Radiation inactivation technique was employed to measure the functional size of adenosine triphosphatase of spinach chloroplasts. The functional size for acid-base-induced ATP synthesis was 450 +/- 24 kilodaltons; for phenazine methosulfate-mediated ATP synthesis, 613 +/- 33 kilodaltons; and for methanol-activated ATP hydrolysis, 280 +/- 14 kilodaltons. The difference (170 +/- 57 kilodaltons) between 450 +/- 24 and 280 +/- 14 kilodaltons is explained to be the molecular mass of proton channel (coupling factor 0) across the thylakoid membrane. Our data suggest that the stoichiometry of subunits I, II, and III of coupling factor 0 is 1:2:15. Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase activated by methanol, heat, and trypsin digestion have a similar functional size. However, anions such as SO/sub 3/(2-) and CO/sub 3/(2-) increased the molecular mass for both ATPase's (except trypsin-activated Mg2+-ATPase) by 12-30%. Soluble coupling factor 1 has a larger target size than that of membrane-bound. This is interpreted as the cold effect during irradiation.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation exploration of cooperative migration mechanism of calcium ions in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongqi; Li, Huifang; Bu, Yuxiang

    2009-10-01

    Calcium ATPase is a member of the P-type ATPase, and it pumps calcium ions from the cytoplasm into the reticulum against a concentration gradient. Several X-ray structures of different conformations have been solved in recent years, providing basis for elucidating the active transport mechanism of Ca2+ ions. In this work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed at atomic level to investigate the dynamical process of calcium ions moving from the outer mouth of the protein to their binding sites. Five initial locations of Ca2+ ions were considered, and the simulations lasted for 2 or 6 ns, respectively. Specific pathways leading to the binding sites and large structural rearrangements around binding sites caused by uptake of calcium ions were identified. A cooperative binding mechanism was observed from our simulation. Firstly, the first Ca2+ ion binds to site I, and then, the second Ca2+ ion approaches. The interactions between the second Ca2+ and the residues around site I disturb the binding state of site I and weaken its binding ability for the first bound Ca2+. Because of the electrostatic repulsion of the second Ca2+ and the electrostatic attraction of site II, the first bound Ca2+ shifts from site I to site II. Concertedly, the second Ca2+ binds to site I, forming a binding state with two Ca2+ ions, one at site I and the other at site II. Both of Glu908 and Asp800 coordinate with the two Ca2+ ions simultaneously during the concerted binding process, which is believed to be the hinge to achieve the concerted binding. In our simulations, four amino acid residues that serve as the channel to link the outer mouth and the binding sites during the binding process were recognized, namely Tyr837, Tyr763, Asn911, and Ser767. The analyses regarding the activity of the proteins via mutations of some key residues also supported our cooperative mechanism. PMID:19242958

  7. A sputnik IV saga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Charles A.

    2009-12-01

    The Sputnik IV launch occurred on May 15, 1960. On May 19, an attempt to deorbit a 'space cabin' failed and the cabin went into a higher orbit. The orbit of the cabin was monitored and Moonwatch volunteer satellite tracking teams were alerted to watch for the vehicle demise. On September 5, 1962, several team members from Milwaukee, Wisconsin made observations starting at 4:49 a.m. of a fireball following the predicted orbit of Sputnik IV. Requests went out to report any objects found under the fireball path. An early morning police patrol in Manitowoc had noticed a metal object on a street and had moved it to the curb. Later the officers recovered the object and had it dropped off at the Milwaukee Journal. The Moonwarch team got the object and reported the situation to Moonwatch Headquarters at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. A team member flew to Cambridge with the object. It was a solid, 9.49 kg piece of steel with a slag-like layer attached to it. Subsequent analyses showed that it contained radioactive nuclei produced by cosmic ray exposure in space. The scientists at the Observatory quickly recognized that measurements of its induced radioactivity could serve as a calibration for similar measurements of recently fallen nickel-iron meteorites. Concurrently, the Observatory directorate informed government agencies that a fragment from Sputnik IV had been recovered. Coincidently, a debate in the UN Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space involved the issue of liability for damage caused by falling satellite fragments. On September 12, the Observatory delivered the bulk of the fragment to the US Delegation to the UN. Two days later, the fragment was used by US Ambassador Francis Plimpton as an exhibit that the time had come to agree on liability for damage from satellite debris. He offered the Sputnik IV fragment to USSR Ambassador P.D. Morozov, who refused the offer. On October 23, Drs. Alla Massevitch and E.K. Federov of the USSR visited the

  8. The Chromodomains of the Chd1 Chromatin Remodeler Regulate DNA Access to the ATPase Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Hauk, G.; McKnight, J; Nodelman, I; Bowman, G

    2010-01-01

    Chromatin remodelers are ATP-driven machines that assemble, slide, and remove nucleosomes from DNA, but how the ATPase motors of remodelers are regulated is poorly understood. Here we show that the double chromodomain unit of the Chd1 remodeler blocks DNA binding and activation of the ATPase motor in the absence of nucleosome substrates. The Chd1 crystal structure reveals that an acidic helix joining the chromodomains can pack against a DNA-binding surface of the ATPase motor. Disruption of the chromodomain-ATPase interface prevents discrimination between nucleosomes and naked DNA and reduces the reliance on the histone H4 tail for nucleosome sliding. We propose that the chromodomains allow Chd1 to distinguish between nucleosomes and naked DNA by physically gating access to the ATPase motor, and we hypothesize that related ATPase motors may employ a similar strategy to discriminate among DNA-containing substrates.

  9. Influence of activating hormones on human platelet membrane Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Resink, T.J.; Dimitrov, D.; Stucki, S.; Buehler, F.R.

    1986-07-16

    Intact platelets were pretreated with hormones and thereafter membranes were prepared and Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity determined. Thrombin decreased the V/sub max/ of Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase after pretreatment of intact platelets. Platelet activating factor, vasopressin and ADP also decreased Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or A23187 or ionomycin alone had no effect, while the simultaneous pretreatment with TPA and Ca/sup 2 +/-ionophore decreased Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity. cAMP elevating agents prostaglandin E/sub 1/ (PGE/sub 1/) and forskolin had no influence per se on Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase, but antagonized the inhibitory effect of thrombin. The data suggest a close connection between phosphoinositide metabolism and the Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase system.

  10. Crystal structure of yeast V1-ATPase in the autoinhibited state.

    PubMed

    Oot, Rebecca A; Kane, Patricia M; Berry, Edward A; Wilkens, Stephan

    2016-08-01

    Vacuolar ATPases (V-ATPases) are essential proton pumps that acidify the lumen of subcellular organelles in all eukaryotic cells and the extracellular space in some tissues. V-ATPase activity is regulated by a unique mechanism referred to as reversible disassembly, wherein the soluble catalytic sector, V1, is released from the membrane and its MgATPase activity silenced. The crystal structure of yeast V1 presented here shows that activity silencing involves a large conformational change of subunit H, with its C-terminal domain rotating ~150° from a position near the membrane in holo V-ATPase to a position at the bottom of V1 near an open catalytic site. Together with biochemical data, the structure supports a mechanistic model wherein subunit H inhibits ATPase activity by stabilizing an open catalytic site that results in tight binding of inhibitory ADP at another site. PMID:27295975

  11. Brain Na(+), K(+)-ATPase Activity In Aging and Disease.

    PubMed

    de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez; Ordieres, María Graciela López

    2014-06-01

    Na(+)/K(+) pump or sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine 5'-triphosphatase (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase), its enzymatic version, is a crucial protein responsible for the electrochemical gradient across the cell membranes. It is an ion transporter, which in addition to exchange cations, is the ligand for cardenolides. This enzyme regulates the entry of K(+) with the exit of Na(+) from cells, being the responsible for Na(+)/K(+) equilibrium maintenance through neuronal membranes. This transport system couples the hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP to exchange three sodium ions for two potassium ions, thus maintaining the normal gradient of these cations in animal cells. Oxidative metabolism is very active in brain, where large amounts of chemical energy as ATP molecules are consumed, mostly required for the maintenance of the ionic gradients that underlie resting and action potentials which are involved in nerve impulse propagation, neurotransmitter release and cation homeostasis. Protein phosphorylation is a key process in biological regulation. At nervous system level, protein phosphorylation is the major molecular mechanism through which the function of neural proteins is modulted in response to extracellular signals, including the response to neurotransmitter stimuli. It is the major mechanism of neural plasticity, including memory processing. The phosphorylation of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase catalytic subunit inhibits enzyme activity whereas the inhibition of protein kinase C restores the enzyme activity. The dephosphorylation of neuronal Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is mediated by calcineurin, a serine / threonine phosphatase. The latter enzyme is involved in a wide range of cellular responses to Ca(2+) mobilizing signals, in the regulation of neuronal excitability by controlling the activity of ion channels, in the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as in synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. In the present article evidence showing Na(+), K(+)-ATPase involvement

  12. Brain Na+, K+-ATPase Activity In Aging and Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez; Ordieres, María Graciela López

    2014-01-01

    Na+/K+ pump or sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine 5’-triphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase), its enzymatic version, is a crucial protein responsible for the electrochemical gradient across the cell membranes. It is an ion transporter, which in addition to exchange cations, is the ligand for cardenolides. This enzyme regulates the entry of K+ with the exit of Na+ from cells, being the responsible for Na+/K+ equilibrium maintenance through neuronal membranes. This transport system couples the hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP to exchange three sodium ions for two potassium ions, thus maintaining the normal gradient of these cations in animal cells. Oxidative metabolism is very active in brain, where large amounts of chemical energy as ATP molecules are consumed, mostly required for the maintenance of the ionic gradients that underlie resting and action potentials which are involved in nerve impulse propagation, neurotransmitter release and cation homeostasis. Protein phosphorylation is a key process in biological regulation. At nervous system level, protein phosphorylation is the major molecular mechanism through which the function of neural proteins is modulted in response to extracellular signals, including the response to neurotransmitter stimuli. It is the major mechanism of neural plasticity, including memory processing. The phosphorylation of Na+, K+-ATPase catalytic subunit inhibits enzyme activity whereas the inhibition of protein kinase C restores the enzyme activity. The dephosphorylation of neuronal Na+, K+-ATPase is mediated by calcineurin, a serine / threonine phosphatase. The latter enzyme is involved in a wide range of cellular responses to Ca2+ mobilizing signals, in the regulation of neuronal excitability by controlling the activity of ion channels, in the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as in synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. In the present article evidence showing Na+, K+-ATPase involvement in signaling pathways

  13. Disturbance of energy and redox homeostasis and reduction of Na+,K+-ATPase activity provoked by in vivo intracerebral administration of ethylmalonic acid to young rats.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Luciana; Kleemann, Daniele; Hickmann, Fernanda Hermes; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Sitta, Ângela; Wajner, Moacir; Ribeiro, César Augusto João

    2015-05-01

    Ethylmalonic acid (EMA) accumulation occurs in various metabolic diseases with neurological manifestation, including short acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) and ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE). Since pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for brain damage in these disorders are still poorly understood, we investigated the ex vivo effects of acute intrastriatal administration of EMA on important parameters of energy and redox homeostasis in striatum from young rats. We evaluated CO(2) production from glucose, glucose utilization and lactate production, as well as the activities of the citric acid cycle (CAC) enzymes, the electron transfer chain (ETC) complexes II-IV (oxidative phosphorylation, OXPHOS) and synaptic Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. We also tested the effect of EMA on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (marker of lipid oxidation) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. EMA significantly reduced CO(2) production, increased glucose utilization and lactate production, and reduced the activities of citrate synthase and of complexes II and II-III of the ETC, suggesting an impairment of CAC and OXPHOS. EMA injection also reduced Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and GSH concentrations, whereas MDA levels were increased. Furthermore, EMA-induced diminution of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and reduction of GSH levels were prevented, respectively, by the antioxidants melatonin and N-acetylcysteine, indicating that reactive species were involved in these effects. Considering the importance of CAC and ETC for energy production and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase for the maintenance of the cell membrane potential, the present data indicate that EMA compromises mitochondrial homeostasis and neurotransmission in striatum. We presume that these pathomechanisms may be involved to a certain extent in the neurological damage found in patients affected by SCADD and EE. PMID:25583115

  14. The extremely halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum R1 responds to potassium limitation by expression of the K+-transporting KdpFABC P-type ATPase and by a decrease in intracellular K+.

    PubMed

    Strahl, Henrik; Greie, Jörg-Christian

    2008-11-01

    Halobacterium species balance high external osmolality by the accumulation of almost equimolar amounts of KCl. Thus, steady K(+) supply is a vital prerequisite for life of these extreme halophiles. So far, K(+) is reported to enter the halobacterial cell only passively by use of potential-driven uniporters. However, the genome of both the extreme halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and H. salinarum R1 comprises one single gene cluster containing the genes kdpFABC coding for homologs of the bacterial ATP-driven K(+) uptake system KdpFABC, together with an additional ORF so far annotated as cat3 in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and as UspA protein in H. salinarum R1 (the ORF is only referred to as cat3 in the following). Deletion of the kdpFABCcat3 genes led to a reduced ability to grow under limiting K(+) concentrations, whereas real-time RT-PCR measurements revealed cat3-dependent high expression rates of the Kdp system in case of external K(+) depletion. Synthesis of the KdpFABC complex enables H. salinarum R1 to grow under extreme potassium-limiting conditions of >20 microM K(+). These results provide the first experimental evidence of an ATP-driven K(+) uptake system in Halobacterium. Moreover, H. salinarum R1 was shown to further adapt to K(+) limitation by a significant decrease of the intracellular K(+) level, which suggests a rather complex mechanism of K(+) homeostasis, in which the adaptation of cellular K(+) concentrations and the concomitant transcriptional regulation of genes coding for a high-affinity ATP-driven K(+) uptake system ensure the essential potassium supply under limiting conditions. PMID:18633573

  15. Electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of n - and p -type SnSe from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutorasinski, K.; Wiendlocha, B.; Kaprzyk, S.; Tobola, J.

    2015-05-01

    We present results of the electronic band structure, Fermi surface, and electron transport property calculations in the orthorhombic n - and p -type SnSe, applying the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method and the Boltzmann transport approach. The analysis accounted for the temperature effect on crystallographic parameters in P n m a structure as well as the phase transition to C m C m structure at Tc˜807 K. Remarkable modifications of the conduction and valence bands were noticed upon varying crystallographic parameters within the structure before Tc, while the phase transition mostly leads to the jump in the band-gap value. The diagonal components of the kinetic parameter tensors (velocity, effective mass) and resulting transport quantity tensors [electrical conductivity σ , thermopower S , and power factor (PF)] were computed for a wide range of temperature (15-900 K) and hole (p -type) and electron (n -type) concentrations (1017-1021cm-3 ). SnSe is shown to have a strong anisotropy of the electron transport properties for both types of charge conductivity, as expected for the layered structure, with the generally heavier p -type effective masses compared to n -type ones. Interestingly, p -type SnSe has strongly nonparabolic dispersion relations, with the "pudding-mold-like" shape of the highest valence band. The analysis of σ ,S , and PF tensors indicates that the interlayer electron transport is beneficial for thermoelectric performance in n -type SnSe, while this direction is blocked in p -type SnSe, where in-plane transport is preferred. Our results predict that n -type SnSe is potentially even better thermoelectric material than p -type SnSe. Theoretical results are compared with the single-crystal p -SnSe measurements, and good agreement is found below 600 K. The discrepancy between the computational and experimental data, appearing at higher temperatures, can be explained assuming an increase of the hole concentration versus T , which is correlated with the

  16. Aluminum regulates oxalate secretion and plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity independently in tomato roots.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian Li; Zhu, Xiao Fang; Peng, You Xiang; Zheng, Cheng; Ming, Feng; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrated that aluminum (Al)-induced oxalate secretion and plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase activity in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum 'Hezuo903') roots were poorly correlated. In addition, vanadate, an inhibitor of PM H(+)-ATPase, had no effect on Al-induced oxalate secretion, but significantly inhibited enzyme activity. An anion channel inhibitor phenylglyoxal inhibited oxalate secretion, but not PM H(+)-ATPase activity. Exposure of tomato roots to 10 μM LaCl(3) also stimulated PM H(+)-ATPase activity; however, La failed to induce oxalate secretion. Furthermore, Al-induced changes of PM H(+)-ATPase activity were not associated with oxalate secretion in two tomato cultivars differing in the ability to secrete oxalate under Al stress. These results indicate that Al independently regulates oxalate secretion and PM H(+)-ATPase activity in tomato roots. Analysis of expression levels of PM H(+)-ATPase genes by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and protein by Western blot and immunodetection revealed that the regulation of PM H(+)-ATPase in response to Al was subjected to transcriptional and posttranscriptional control. However, since neither transcriptional level of genes nor translational level of proteins directly relate to the enzyme activity, posttranslational modification of PM H(+)-ATPase under Al stress likely contributes to changes in activity of this protein. PMID:21424534

  17. Effects of Vanadate on the Plasma Membrane ATPase of Red Beet and Corn 1

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Sharman D.; Spanswick, Roger M.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of vanadate on the plant plasma membrane ATPase were investigated in plasma membrane fractions derived from corn roots (Zea mays L.) and red beets (Beta vulgaris L.). The Ki for vanadate inhibition of the plasma membrane ATPase from corn roots and red beets was between 6 and 15 micromolar vanadate. In both membrane fractions, 80% to 90% of the total ATPase was inhibited at vanadate concentrations below 100 micromolar. Vanadate inhibition was optimal at pH 6.5, enhanced by the presence of K+, and was partially reversed by 1 millimolar EDTA. The Mg:ATP kinetics for the plasma membrane ATPase were hyperbolic in both the absence and presence of vanadate. Vanadate decreased both the Km and Vmax of the red beet plasma membrane ATPase, indicating that vanadate inhibits the ATPase uncompetitively. These results indicate many similarities with respect to vanadate inhibition between the plant plasma membrane ATPase and other major iontranslocating ATPases from fungal and animal cells. The high sensitivity to vanadate reported here, however, differs from other reports of vanadate inhibition of the plant plasma membrane ATPase from corn, beets, and in some instances oats. PMID:16663670

  18. Plasma Membrane ATPase Activity following Reversible and Irreversible Freezing Injury 1

    PubMed Central

    Iswari, S.; Palta, Jiwan P.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma membrane ATPase has been proposed as a site of functional alteration during early stages of freezing injury. To test this, plasma membrane was purified from Solanum leaflets by a single step partitioning of microsomes in a dextran-polyethylene glycol two phase system. Addition of lysolecithin in the ATPase assay produced up to 10-fold increase in ATPase activity. ATPase activity was specific for ATP with a Km around 0.4 millimolar. Presence of the ATPase enzyme was identified by immunoblotting with oat ATPase antibodies. Using the phase partitioning method, plasma membrane was isolated from Solanum commersonii leaflets which had four different degrees of freezing damage, namely, slight (reversible), partial (partially reversible), substantial and total (irreversible). With slight (reversible) damage the plasma membrane ATPase specific activity increased 1.5- to 2-fold and its Km was decreased by about 3-fold, whereas the specific activity of cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome c oxidase in the microsomes were not different from the control. However, with substantial (lethal, irreversible) damage, there was a loss of membrane protein, decrease in plasma membrane ATPase specific activity and decrease in Km, while cytochrome c oxidase and cytochrome c reductase were unaffected. These results support the hypothesis that plasma membrane ATPase is altered by slight freeze-thaw stress. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16666856

  19. Thyroid hormone stimulation in vitro of red blood cell Ca2+-ATPase activity: interspecies variation.

    PubMed

    Davis, F B; Kite, J H; Davis, P J; Blas, S D

    1982-01-01

    In vitro susceptibility to thyroid hormone stimulation of membrane-associated Ca2+-ATPase activity has been examined in red blood cells from rat, rabbit, dog, monkey, and man. Monkey and human red cell Ca2+-ATPase activities responded comparably to 10(-10)M T4 or T3. Basal and thyroid hormone-stimulated Ca2+-ATPase activity in rabbit erythrocytes was four-fold higher than in primate red cells. Rat and dog red cell Ca2+-ATPase did not respond to iodothyronines in vitro. PMID:6459228

  20. Sub-chronic effect of neem based pesticide (Vepacide) on acetylcholinesterase and ATPases in rat.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M F; Siddiqui, M K; Jamil, K

    1999-09-01

    Acetylcholinesterases (AChE), Na(+)-K+, Mg2+ and Ca(2+)-ATPases were monitored in rat brain when treated orally with 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg of Vepacide, an active ingredient from neem seed oil, daily for 90 days. Brain AChE, Na(+)-K+ and Ca(2+)-ATPases were inhibited whereas Mg(2+)-ATPase levels were enhanced in both the sexes after 45 and 90 days of treatment. The relative sensitivities of these ATPases to Vepacide indicated that Ca(2+)-ATPase being more sensitive than Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in both the sexes. The magnitude of Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibited by this compound was higher than that of brain AChE. It appears to be sexual dimorphism in the alterations of brain AChE, Na(+)-K+ and Mg(2+)-ATPases by Vepacide with females being significant when compared with males. After 28 days of post treatment the alterations observed were approached to those of controls both in male and female rats showing reversal of the toxicity. These results indicated that the ATPases were potently inhibited by Vepacide and seemed to be its precise target among the enzyme studied. This can be used as biochemical marker of exposure to this neem derived product. PMID:10466107

  1. Marked reduction of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and creatine kinase activities induced by acute lysine administration in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Cecatto, Cristiane; Seminotti, Bianca; Zanatta, Ângela; Fernandes, Carolina Gonçalves; Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Braga, Luisa Macedo; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; de Souza, Diogo Onofre Gomes; Woontner, Michael; Koeller, David M; Goodman, Stephen; Wajner, Moacir

    2012-09-01

    Glutaric acidemia type I (GA I) is an inherited neurometabolic disorder caused by a severe deficiency of the mitochondrial glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity leading to accumulation of predominantly glutaric (GA) and 3-hydroxyglutaric (3HGA) acids in the brain and other tissues. Affected patients usually present with hypotonia and brain damage and acute encephalopathic episodes whose pathophysiology is not yet fully established. In this study we investigated important parameters of cellular bioenergetics in brain, heart and skeletal muscle from 15-day-old glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficient mice (Gcdh(-/-)) submitted to a single intra-peritoneal injection of saline (Sal) or lysine (Lys - 8 μmol/g) as compared to wild type (WT) mice. We evaluated the activities of the respiratory chain complexes II, II-III and IV, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (α-KGDH), creatine kinase (CK) and synaptic Na(+), K(+)-ATPase. No differences of all evaluated parameters were detected in the Gcdh(-/-) relatively to the WT mice injected at baseline (Sal). Furthermore, mild increases of the activities of some respiratory chain complexes (II-III and IV) were observed in heart and skeletal muscle of Gcdh(-/-) and WT mice after Lys administration. However, the most marked effects provoked by Lys administration were marked decreases of the activities of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in brain and CK in brain and skeletal muscle of Gcdh(-/-) mice. In contrast, brain α-KGDH activity was not altered in WT and Gcdh(-/-) injected with Sal or Lys. Our results demonstrate that reduction of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and CK activities may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the neurodegenerative changes in GA I. PMID:22578804

  2. Evolution of the α-Subunit of Na/K-ATPase from Paramecium to Homo sapiens: Invariance of Transmembrane Helix Topology.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Gene A; Kostellow, Adele B; Liu, Lijun; Gupta, Raj K; Askari, Amir

    2016-05-01

    Na/K-ATPase is a key plasma membrane enzyme involved in cell signaling, volume regulation, and maintenance of electrochemical gradients. The α-subunit, central to these functions, belongs to a large family of P-type ATPases. Differences in transmembrane (TM) helix topology, sequence homology, helix-helix contacts, cell signaling, and protein domains of Na/K-ATPase α-subunit were compared in fungi (Beauveria), unicellular organisms (Paramecia), primitive multicellular organisms (Hydra), and vertebrates (Xenopus, Homo sapiens), and correlated with evolution of physiological functions in the α-subunit. All α-subunits are of similar length, with groupings of four and six helices in the N- and C-terminal regions, respectively. Minimal homology was seen for protein domain patterns in Paramecium and Hydra, with high correlation between Hydra and vertebrates. Paramecium α-subunits display extensive disorder, with minimal helix contacts. Increases in helix contacts in Hydra approached vertebrates. Protein motifs known to be associated with membrane lipid rafts and cell signaling reveal significant positional shifts between Paramecium and Hydra vulgaris, indicating that regional membrane fluidity changes occur during evolution. Putative steroid binding sites overlapping TM-3 occurred in all species. Sites associated with G-protein-receptor stimulation occur both in vertebrates and amphibia but not in Hydra or Paramecia. The C-terminus moiety "KETYY," necessary for the Na(+) activation of pump phosphorylation, is not present in unicellular species indicating the absence of classical Na(+)/K(+)-pumps. The basic protein topology evolved earliest, followed by increases in protein domains and ordered helical arrays, correlated with appearance of α-subunit regions known to involve cell signaling, membrane recycling, and ion channel formation. PMID:26961431

  3. Increased Photoconductivity Lifetime in GaAs Nanowires by Controlled n-Type and p-Type Doping.

    PubMed

    Boland, Jessica L; Casadei, Alberto; Tütüncüoglu, Gözde; Matteini, Federico; Davies, Christopher L; Jabeen, Fauzia; Joyce, Hannah J; Herz, Laura M; Fontcuberta I Morral, Anna; Johnston, Michael B

    2016-04-26

    Controlled doping of GaAs nanowires is crucial for the development of nanowire-based electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, we present a noncontact method based on time-resolved terahertz photoconductivity for assessing n- and p-type doping efficiency in nanowires. Using this technique, we measure extrinsic electron and hole concentrations in excess of 10(18) cm(-3) for GaAs nanowires with n-type and p-type doped shells. Furthermore, we show that controlled doping can significantly increase the photoconductivity lifetime of GaAs nanowires by over an order of magnitude: from 0.13 ns in undoped nanowires to 3.8 and 2.5 ns in n-doped and p-doped nanowires, respectively. Thus, controlled doping can be used to reduce the effects of parasitic surface recombination in optoelectronic nanowire devices, which is promising for nanowire devices, such as solar cells and nanowire lasers. PMID:26959350

  4. Influence of hydrogen impurities on p-type resistivity in Mg-doped GaN films

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jing; Zhao, Degang Jiang, Desheng; Chen, Ping; Zhu, Jianjun; Liu, Zongshun; Le, Lingcong; He, Xiaoguang; Li, Xiaojing; Zhang, Y. T.; Du, G. T.

    2015-03-15

    The effects of hydrogen impurities on p-type resistivity in Mg-doped GaN films were investigated. It was found that hydrogen impurities may have the dual role of passivating Mg{sub Ga} acceptors and passivating donor defects. A decrease in p-type resistivity when O{sub 2} is introduced during the postannealing process is attributed to the fact that annealing in an O{sub 2}-containing environment can enhance the dissociation of Mg{sub Ga}-H complexes as well as the outdiffusion of H atoms from p-GaN films. However, low H concentrations are not necessarily beneficial in Mg-doped GaN films, as H atoms may also be bound at donor species and passivate them, leading to the positive effect of reduced compensation.

  5. Determination of phonon decay rate in p-type silicon under Fano resonance by measurement of coherent phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Keiko; Oguri, Katsuya; Sanada, Haruki; Tawara, Takehiko; Sogawa, Tetsuomi; Gotoh, Hideki

    2015-09-01

    We determine phonon decay rate by measuring the temperature dependence of coherent phonons in p-type Si under Fano resonance, where there is interference between the continuum and discrete states. As the temperature decreases, the decay rate of coherent phonons decreases, whereas that evaluated from the Raman linewidth increases. The former follows the anharmonic decay model, whereas the latter does not. The different temperature dependences of the phonon decay rate of the two methods originate from the way that the continuum state, which originates from the Fano resonance, modifies the time- and frequency-domain spectra. The observation of coherent phonons is useful for evaluating the phonon decay rate free from the interaction with the continuum state and clarifies that the anharmonic decay is dominant in p-type Si even under Fano resonance.

  6. Facile Surfactant-Free Synthesis of p-Type SnSe Nanoplates with Exceptional Thermoelectric Power Factors.

    PubMed

    Han, Guang; Popuri, Srinivas R; Greer, Heather F; Bos, Jan-Willem G; Zhou, Wuzong; Knox, Andrew R; Montecucco, Andrea; Siviter, Jonathan; Man, Elena A; Macauley, Martin; Paul, Douglas J; Li, Wen-Guang; Paul, Manosh C; Gao, Min; Sweet, Tracy; Freer, Robert; Azough, Feridoon; Baig, Hasan; Sellami, Nazmi; Mallick, Tapas K; Gregory, Duncan H

    2016-05-23

    A surfactant-free solution methodology, simply using water as a solvent, has been developed for the straightforward synthesis of single-phase orthorhombic SnSe nanoplates in gram quantities. Individual nanoplates are composed of {100} surfaces with {011} edge facets. Hot-pressed nanostructured compacts (Eg ≈0.85 eV) exhibit excellent electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power factors (S(2) σ) at 550 K. S(2) σ values are 8-fold higher than equivalent materials prepared using citric acid as a structure-directing agent, and electrical properties are comparable to the best-performing, extrinsically doped p-type polycrystalline tin selenides. The method offers an energy-efficient, rapid route to p-type SnSe nanostructures. PMID:27094703

  7. Perovskite Sr-doped LaCrO3 as a new p-type transparent conducting oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongliang; Du, Yingge; Papadogianni, Alexandra; Bierwagen, Oliver; Sallis, Shawn; Piper, Louis F. J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Shutthanandan, V.; Sushko, Petr; Chambers, Scott A.

    2015-09-16

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) constitute a unique class of materials which combine the seemingly mutually exclusive properties of electrical conductivity and optical transparency in a single material. TCOs are useful for a wide range of applications including solar cells, displays, light emitting diodes and transparent electronics. Simple post-transition metal oxides such as ZnO, In2O3 and SnO2 are wide gap insulators in which the ionic character generates an oxygen 2p-derived valence band (VB) and a metal s-derived conduction band (CB), resulting in large optical band gaps (>3.0 eV) and excellent n-type conductivity when donor doped. In contrast, the development of efficient p-type TCOs remains a global materials challenge. Converting n-type oxides to p-type analogs by acceptor doping is extremely difficult and these materials display poor conductivity.

  8. Formation of a self-consistent double quantum well in a wide p-type quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshanskiǐ, G. A.; Yakunin, M. V.

    2004-11-01

    The process of formation of self-consistent double quantum wells (DQWs) in a wide p-type quantum well in the presence of uniaxial strain is investigated. A feature of p-type systems is the structure of the valence band, which consists of two branches of energy dispersion—light and heavy holes. It is shown that this feature leads to significant splitting of the subbands of symmetric and antisymmetric states, as a result of which it is difficult to form states of the DQW with a vanishingly small tunneling gap; a uniaxial strain, by lifting the degeneracy of the band, suppresses this property, so that the two ground subbands of the size quantization of the DQW remain degenerate to high energies.

  9. Strong compensation hinders the p-type doping of ZnO: a glance over surface defect levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, B.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a surface doping model of ZnO to elucidate the p-type doping and compensations in ZnO nanomaterials. With an N-dopant, the effects of N on the ZnO surface demonstrate a relatively shallow acceptor level in the band gap. As the dimension of the ZnO materials decreases, the quantum confinement effects will increase and render the charge transfer on surface to influence the shifting of Fermi level, by evidence of transition level changes of the N-dopant. We report that this can overwhelm the intrinsic p-type conductivity and transport of the ZnO bulk system. This may provide a possible route of using surface doping to modify the electronic transport and conductivity of ZnO nanomaterials.

  10. Fabrication and reducing gas detection characterization of highly-crystalline p-type zinc chromite oxide thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yuan-Chang; Cheng, Yu-Ru; Hsia, Hao-Yuan; Chung, Cheng-Chia

    2016-02-01

    A p-type ternary ZnCr2O4 (ZCO) thin film was fabricated using rf sputtering on a sapphire substrate. Microstructural analyses revealed that the ZCO thin film had a high crystalline quality. Surface morphology investigations showed that the ZCO film had a rugged surface because of a distinct columnar grain feature. A gas sensor composed of the ZCO thin film exhibited marked acetone and NH3 gas-sensing responses. These acetone and NH3 gas-sensing responses reached an optimal value at operating temperatures of 250 °C and 300 °C, respectively. The ZCO sensor showed satisfactory repeatability when operated under dynamic conditions. The stable gas-sensing behavior of the p-type ZCO thin film to acetone and NH3 gases broadens the design of oxide gas sensors incorporated with this ternary oxide.

  11. Analysis of Photoluminescence Thermal Quenching: Guidance for the Design of Highly Effective p-type Doping of Nitrides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiqiang; Huang, Yang; Yi, Xiaoyan; Fu, Binglei; Yuan, Guodong; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    A contact-free diagnostic technique for examining position of the impurity energy level of p-type dopants in nitride semiconductors was proposed based on photoluminescence thermal quenching. The Mg ionization energy was extracted by the phenomenological rate-equation model we developed. The diagnostic technique and analysis model reported here are priorities for the design of highly effective p-doping of nitrides and could also be used to explain the abnormal and seldom analyzed low characteristic temperature T0 (about 100 K) of thermal quenching in p-type nitrides systems. An In-Mg co-doped GaN system is given as an example to prove the validity of our methods. Furthermore, a hole concentration as high as 1.94 × 1018 cm−3 was achieved through In-Mg co-doping, which is nearly one order of magnitude higher than typically obtained in our lab. PMID:27550805

  12. Improved efficiency of near-ultraviolet LEDs using a novel p-type AlGaN hole injection layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingsheng; Zhou, Quanbin; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Xichun

    2016-06-01

    We investigate a novel near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode (NUV-LED) with a p-type AlGaN (pAlGaN) hole injection layer to replace the conventional p-type GaN layer. The optical properties are studied numerically with simulations. Our calculated results indicate that a pAlGaN layer can significantly improve both light output power and internal quantum efficiency of a NUV-LED. The light power of NUV-LED with constant and gradually increasing Al content of the pAlGaN layer increases by 215% and 266% compared to a conventional LED. We also find that the elimination of the interface barrier and suppression of the polarization field are the key factors that lead to the improved NUV-LED performance.

  13. Comparison of ferromagnetism in n- and p-type magnetic semiconductor thin films of ZnCoO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Lee, J. C.; Min, J. F.; Su, C. W.

    2011-07-01

    Both n- and p-type diluted magnetic semiconductor ZnCoO are made by magnetron co-sputtering with, respectively, dopants of Al and dual dopants of Al and N. The two sputtering targets are compound ZnCoO with 5% weight of Co and pure metal Al. Sputtering gases for n- and p-type films are pure Ar and N 2, respectively. These films are magnetic at room temperature and possess free electron- and hole-concentration of 5.34×10 20 and 5.27×10 13 cm -3. Only the n-type film exhibits anomalous Hall-effect signals. Magnetic properties of these two types of films are compared and discussed based on measurements of microstructure and magneto-transport properties.

  14. Enhanced photoluminescence of nonpolar p-type ZnO film by surface plasmon resonance and electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanshan; Pan, Xinhua; He, Haiping; Chen, Wei; Chen, Cong; Dai, Wen; Zhang, Honghai; Ding, Ping; Huang, Jingyun; Lu, Bin; Ye, Zhizhen

    2015-02-15

    Nonpolar oriented Na-doped ZnO films were grown on m-plane sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The films show repeatable p-type conductivity with a hole concentration of about 3.0×10(16) cm(-3) as identified by the Hall-effect measurements. 10-fold enhancement in the near-band-edge (NBE) emission of the nonpolar p-type ZnO by employing Pt nanoparticle surface plasmons has been observed. In addition, the deep level emission has been entirely suppressed. The underlying mechanism behind the enhancement of NBE emission and the quenching of defect emission is a combination of the electron transfer and the resonant coupling between NBE emission and Pt nanoparticle surface plasmons. PMID:25680172

  15. PMD IVS Analysis Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tornatore, Vincenza

    2013-01-01

    The main activities carried out at the PMD (Politecnico di Milano DIIAR) IVS Analysis Center during 2012 are briefly higlighted, and future plans for 2013 are sketched out. We principally continued to process European VLBI sessions using different approaches to evaluate possible differences due to various processing choices. Then VLBI solutions were also compared to the GPS ones as well as the ones calculated at co-located sites. Concerning the observational aspect, several tests were performed to identify the most suitable method to achieve the highest possible accuracy in the determination of GNSS (GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM) satellite positions using the VLBI technique.

  16. P4-ATPase Requirement for AP-1/Clathrin Function in Protein Transport from the trans-Golgi Network and Early Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Surendhran, Kavitha; Nothwehr, Steven F.

    2008-01-01

    Drs2p is a resident type 4 P-type ATPase (P4-ATPase) and potential phospholipid translocase of the trans-Golgi network (TGN) where it has been implicated in clathrin function. However, precise protein transport pathways requiring Drs2p and how it contributes to clathrin-coated vesicle budding remain unclear. Here we show a functional codependence between Drs2p and the AP-1 clathrin adaptor in protein sorting at the TGN and early endosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetic criteria indicate that Drs2p and AP-1 operate in the same pathway and that AP-1 requires Drs2p for function. In addition, we show that loss of AP-1 markedly increases Drs2p trafficking to the plasma membrane, but does not perturb retrieval of Drs2p from the early endosome back to the TGN. Thus AP-1 is required at the TGN to sort Drs2p out of the exocytic pathway, presumably for delivery to the early endosome. Moreover, a conditional allele that inactivates Drs2p phospholipid translocase (flippase) activity disrupts its own transport in this AP-1 pathway. Drs2p physically interacts with AP-1; however, AP-1 and clathrin are both recruited normally to the TGN in drs2Δ cells. These results imply that Drs2p acts independently of coat recruitment to facilitate AP-1/clathrin-coated vesicle budding from the TGN. PMID:18508916

  17. G-protein-independent modulation of P-type calcium channels by μ-opioids in Purkinje neurons of rat

    PubMed Central

    Iegorova, Olena; Fisyunov, Alexander; Krishtal, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    P-type calcium channels play a key role in the synaptic transmission between mammalian central neurons since a major part of calcium entering pre-synaptic terminals is delivered via these channels. Using conventional whole-cell patch clamp techniques we have studied the effect of μ-opioids on P-type calcium channels in acutely isolated Purkinje neurons from rat cerebellum. The selective μ-opioid agonist DAMGO (10 nM) produced a small, but consistent facilitation of current through P-type calcium channels (10±1%, n=27, p<0.001). The effect of DAMGO was rapid (less than 10 sec) and fully reversible. This effect was both concentration and voltage-dependent. The EC50 for the effect of DAMGO was 1.3±0.4 nM and the saturating concentration was 100 nM. The endogenous selective agonist of μ-opioid receptors, endomorphin-1 demonstrated similar action. Intracellular perfusion of Purkinje neurons with GTPγS (0.5 mM) or GDPβS (0.5 mM), as well as strong depolarizing pre-pulses (+50 mV), did not eliminate facilitatory action of DAMGO on P-channels indicating that this effect is not mediated by G-proteins. Furthermore, the effect of DAMGO was preserved in the presence of a non-specific inhibitor of PKA and PKC, (H7, 10 μM) inside the cell. DAMGO–induced facilitation of P-current was almost completely abolished by the selective μ-opioid antagonist CTOP (100 nM). These observations indicate that μ-type opioid receptors modulate P-type calcium channels in Purkinje neurons via G-protein-independent mechanism. PMID:20541588

  18. Optical characteristics of p-type GaAs-based semiconductors towards applications in photoemission infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, Y. F.; Perera, A. G. U.; Wang, H. L.; Zhao, J. H.; Jin, Y. J.; Zhang, D. H.

    2016-03-01

    Free-carrier effects in a p-type semiconductor including the intra-valence-band and inter-valence-band optical transitions are primarily responsible for its optical characteristics in infrared. Attention has been paid to the inter-valence-band transitions for the development of internal photoemission (IPE) mid-wave infrared (MWIR) photodetectors. The hole transition from the heavy-hole (HH) band to the spin-orbit split-off (SO) band has demonstrated potential applications for 3-5 μm detection without the need of cooling. However, the forbidden SO-HH transition at the Γ point (corresponding to a transition energy Δ0, which is the split-off gap between the HH and SO bands) creates a sharp drop around 3.6 μm in the spectral response of p-type GaAs/AlGaAs detectors. Here, we report a study on the optical characteristics of p-type GaAs-based semiconductors, including compressively strained InGaAs and GaAsSb, and a dilute magnetic semiconductor, GaMnAs. A model-independent fitting algorithm was used to derive the dielectric function from experimental reflection and transmission spectra. Results show that distinct absorption dip at Δ0 is observable in p-type InGaAs and GaAsSb, while GaMnAs displays enhanced absorption without degradation around Δ0. This implies the promise of using GaMnAs to develop MWIR IPE detectors. Discussions on the optical characteristics correlating with the valence-band structure and free-hole effects are presented.

  19. The origin of p-type conductivity in ZnM2O4 (M = Co, Rh, Ir) spinels.

    PubMed

    Amini, M N; Dixit, H; Saniz, R; Lamoen, D; Partoens, B

    2014-02-14

    ZnM2O4 (M = Co, Rh, Ir) spinels are considered as a class of potential p-type transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). We report the formation energy of acceptor-like defects using first principles calculations with an advanced hybrid exchange-correlation functional (HSE06) within density functional theory (DFT). Due to the discrepancies between the theoretically obtained band gaps with this hybrid functional and the - scattered - experimental results, we also perform GW calculations to support the validity of the description of these spinels with the HSE06 functional. The considered defects are the cation vacancy and antisite defects, which are supposed to be the leading source of disorder in the spinel structures. We also discuss the band alignments in these spinels. The calculated formation energies indicate that the antisite defects ZnM (Zn replacing M, M = Co, Rh, Ir) and VZn act as shallow acceptors in ZnCo2O4, ZnRh2O4 and ZnIr2O4, which explains the experimentally observed p-type conductivity in those systems. Moreover, our systematic study indicates that the ZnIr antisite defect has the lowest formation energy in the group and it corroborates the highest p-type conductivity reported for ZnIr2O4 among the group of ZnM2O4 spinels. To gain further insight into factors affecting the p-type conductivity, we have also investigated the formation of localized small polarons by calculating the self-trapping energy of the holes. PMID:24382577

  20. S-TYPE AND P-TYPE HABITABILITY IN STELLAR BINARY SYSTEMS: A COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH. II. ELLIPTICAL ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Cuntz, M.

    2015-01-10

    In the first paper of this series, a comprehensive approach has been provided for the study of S-type and P-type habitable regions in stellar binary systems, which was, however, restricted to circular orbits of the stellar components. Fortunately, a modest modification of the method also allows for the consideration of elliptical orbits, which of course entails a much broader range of applicability. This augmented method is presented here, and numerous applications are conveyed. In alignment with Paper I, the selected approach considers a variety of aspects, which comprise the consideration of a joint constraint including orbital stability and a habitable region for a possible system planet through the stellar radiative energy fluxes ({sup r}adiative habitable zone{sup ;} RHZ). The devised method is based on a combined formalism for the assessment of both S-type and P-type habitability; in particular, mathematical criteria are deduced for which kinds of systems S-type and P-type habitable zones are realized. If the RHZs are truncated by the additional constraint of orbital stability, the notation of ST-type and PT-type habitability applies. In comparison to the circular case, it is found that in systems of higher eccentricity, the range of the RHZs is significantly reduced. Moreover, for a considerable number of models, the orbital stability constraint also reduces the range of S-type and P-type habitability. Nonetheless, S-, P-, ST-, and PT-type habitability is identified for a considerable set of system parameters. The method as presented is utilized for BinHab, an online code available at The University of Texas at Arlington.

  1. Identification and molecular characterization of a novel DyP-type peroxidase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PKE117.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Liu, Chen; Li, Baozhen; Yuan, Hongli; Yang, Jinshui; Zheng, Beiwen

    2012-02-01

    A new DyP-type peroxidase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PKE117 was identified and characterized. The dypPa was first identified via sequence analysis and then cloned in Escherichia coli. Subsequently, the recombinant protein DyPPa was expressed and purified. Its DNA sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 897 bp, encoding a protein monomer of 299 amino acid residues with isoelectric point 4.62. According to SDS-PAGE analysis and FPLC result, DyPPa mainly existed as homodimer (64 kDa). DyPPa displayed typical heme absorbance of Soret band, with an Rz value of 1.18. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic absorption spectrum data also indicated DyPPa contained iron. Multiple amino acid sequence alignment of DyPPa with other members of the DyP-type peroxidases family showed the presence of conserved D139, H210, and R227 amino acids and GXXDG motifs, which were commonly shared by the DyP-type peroxidase family. Although the primary structure homology between DyPPa and other family members was very low, their secondary and tertiary structure displayed high homology, which explained the high decolorizing activity of DyPPa. Specifically, DyPPa displayed a good thermal stability and maximal activity on Reactive blue 5 under pH 3.5. Therefore, it was proposed that DyPPa, with a wide range of substrate specificity, was a novel member of the DyP-type peroxidases family. PMID:22161141

  2. Piezoresistive effect in p-type 3C-SiC at high temperatures characterized using Joule heating

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Hoang-Phuong; Dinh, Toan; Kozeki, Takahiro; Qamar, Afzaal; Namazu, Takahiro; Dimitrijev, Sima; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Dao, Dzung Viet

    2016-01-01

    Cubic silicon carbide is a promising material for Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) applications in harsh environ-ments and bioapplications thanks to its large band gap, chemical inertness, excellent corrosion tolerance and capability of growth on a Si substrate. This paper reports the piezoresistive effect of p-type single crystalline 3C-SiC characterized at high temperatures, using an in situ measurement method. The experimental results show that the highly doped p-type 3C-SiC possesses a relatively stable gauge factor of approximately 25 to 28 at temperatures varying from 300 K to 573 K. The in situ method proposed in this study also demonstrated that, the combination of the piezoresistive and thermoresistive effects can increase the gauge factor of p-type 3C-SiC to approximately 20% at 573 K. The increase in gauge factor based on the combination of these phenomena could enhance the sensitivity of SiC based MEMS mechanical sensors. PMID:27349378

  3. Thermoelectric properties of p-type PbTe/Ag{sub 2}Te bulk composites by extrinsic phase mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Min Ho; Rhyee, Jong-Soo

    2015-12-15

    We investigated the thermoelectric properties of PbTe/Ag{sub 2}Te bulk composites, synthesized by hand milling, mixing, and hot press sintering. From x-ray diffraction and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy measurements, we observed Ag{sub 2}Te phase separation in the PbTe matrix without Ag atom diffusion. In comparison with previously reported pseudo-binary (PbTe){sub 1−x}(Ag{sub 2}Te){sub x} composites, synthesized by high temperature phase separation, the PbTe/Ag{sub 2}Te bulk composites fabricated with a low temperature phase mixing process give rise to p-type conduction of carriers with significantly decreased electrical conductivity. This indicates that Ag atom diffusion in the PbTe matrix changes the sign of the Seebeck coefficient to n-type and also increases the carrier concentration. Effective p-type doping with low temperature phase separation by mixing and hot press sintering can enhance the thermoelectric performance of PbTe/Ag{sub 2}Te bulk composites, which can be used as a p-type counterpart of n-type (PbTe){sub 1−x}(Ag{sub 2}Te){sub x} bulk composites.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of p+-i-p+ type organic thin film transistors with electrodes of highly doped polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadaki, Daisuke; Ma, Teng; Zhang, Jinyu; Iino, Shohei; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Kimura, Yasuo; Rosenberg, Richard A.; Niwano, Michio

    2016-04-01

    Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) have been explored because of their advantageous features such as light-weight, flexible, and large-area. For more practical application of organic electronic devices, it is very important to realize OTFTs that are composed only of organic materials. In this paper, we have fabricated p+-i-p+ type of OTFTs in which an intrinsic (i) regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) layer is used as the active layer and highly doped p-type (p+) P3HT is used as the source and drain electrodes. The 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) was used as the p-type dopant. A fabricating method of p+-i-p+ OTFTs has been developed by using SiO2 and aluminum films as capping layers for micro-scaled patterning of the p+-P3HT electrodes. The characteristics of the OTFTs were examined using the photoelectron spectroscopy and electrical measurements. We demonstrated that the fabricated p+-i-p+ OTFTs work with carrier injection through a built-in potential at p+/i interfaces. We found that the p+-i-p+ OTFTs exhibit better FET characteristics than the conventional P3HT-OTFT with metal (Au) electrodes, indicating that the influence of a carrier injection barrier at the interface between the electrode and the active layer was suppressed by replacing the metal electrodes with p+-P3HT layers.

  5. Influence of a new surface treatment method on ohmic contact resistivity of p-type GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yingwen; Li, Xue; Kang, Yong; Li, Xiangyang; Gong, Haimei

    2005-01-01

    The contact resistivity of Ni/Au contact on p-type GaN was drastically decreased through the surface treatments in sequence using alcohol-based HCl and KOH solution. The surface oxide on p-type GaN formed during epitaxial growth was removed in the alcohol-based HCl and KOH solution, The O 1s and C 1s core-level peaks in the x-ray photoemission spectra showed that the alcohol-based HCl treatment was more effective in removing of the surface oxide layer. Compared to the KOH solution treated sample, the alcohol-based HCl-treated sample showed a Ga 2p core-level peak which was shifted toward the valence-band edge by 0.3 eV, indicating that the surface Fermi level was shifted toward the valence-band edge. These results suggest that the surface barrier height for hole injection from Ni/Au metal to p-type GaN be lowered by the surface treatment, which results in a drastic reduction in specific contact resistance.

  6. Characterization and modeling of P-type electrosensory afferent responses to amplitude modulations in a wave-type electric fish.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M E; Xu, Z; Payne, J R

    1997-11-01

    The first stage of information processing in the electrosensory system involves the encoding of local changes in transdermal potential into trains of action potentials in primary electrosensory afferent nerve fibers. To develop a quantitative model of this encoding process for P-type (probability-coding) afferent fibers in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus, we recorded single unit activity from electrosensory afferent axons in the posterior branch of the anterior lateral line nerve and analyzed responses to electronically generated sinusoidal amplitude modulations of the local transdermal potential. Over a range of AM frequencies from 0.1 to 200 Hz, the modulation transfer function of P-type afferents is high-pass in character, with a gain that increases monotonically up to AM frequencies of 100 Hz where it begins to roll off, and a phase advance with a range of 15-60 degrees. Based on quantitative analysis of the observed gain and phase characteristics, we present a computationally efficient model of P-type afferent response dynamics which accurately characterizes changes in afferent firing rate in response to amplitude modulations of the fish's own electric organ discharge over a wide range of AM frequencies relevant to active electrolocation. PMID:9373958

  7. Piezoresistive effect in p-type 3C-SiC at high temperatures characterized using Joule heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Hoang-Phuong; Dinh, Toan; Kozeki, Takahiro; Qamar, Afzaal; Namazu, Takahiro; Dimitrijev, Sima; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Dao, Dzung Viet

    2016-06-01

    Cubic silicon carbide is a promising material for Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) applications in harsh environ-ments and bioapplications thanks to its large band gap, chemical inertness, excellent corrosion tolerance and capability of growth on a Si substrate. This paper reports the piezoresistive effect of p-type single crystalline 3C-SiC characterized at high temperatures, using an in situ measurement method. The experimental results show that the highly doped p-type 3C-SiC possesses a relatively stable gauge factor of approximately 25 to 28 at temperatures varying from 300 K to 573 K. The in situ method proposed in this study also demonstrated that, the combination of the piezoresistive and thermoresistive effects can increase the gauge factor of p-type 3C-SiC to approximately 20% at 573 K. The increase in gauge factor based on the combination of these phenomena could enhance the sensitivity of SiC based MEMS mechanical sensors.

  8. Piezoresistive effect in p-type 3C-SiC at high temperatures characterized using Joule heating.

    PubMed

    Phan, Hoang-Phuong; Dinh, Toan; Kozeki, Takahiro; Qamar, Afzaal; Namazu, Takahiro; Dimitrijev, Sima; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Dao, Dzung Viet

    2016-01-01

    Cubic silicon carbide is a promising material for Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) applications in harsh environ-ments and bioapplications thanks to its large band gap, chemical inertness, excellent corrosion tolerance and capability of growth on a Si substrate. This paper reports the piezoresistive effect of p-type single crystalline 3C-SiC characterized at high temperatures, using an in situ measurement method. The experimental results show that the highly doped p-type 3C-SiC possesses a relatively stable gauge factor of approximately 25 to 28 at temperatures varying from 300 K to 573 K. The in situ method proposed in this study also demonstrated that, the combination of the piezoresistive and thermoresistive effects can increase the gauge factor of p-type 3C-SiC to approximately 20% at 573 K. The increase in gauge factor based on the combination of these phenomena could enhance the sensitivity of SiC based MEMS mechanical sensors. PMID:27349378

  9. Structural and Luminescence Features of Lithium-Doped p-Type Film-Like ZnO Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Ko, Wonbae; Lee, Sanghyo; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-11-01

    We report the structural and optical characteristics of p-type lithium (Li)-doped ZnO film-like nano-structures prepared by utilizing a simple hydro-thermal method in an aqueous solution at a low temperature (< 90 degrees C). The diameters and densities of the Li-doped ZnO nanostructures were controlled by adjusting the molar concentration. A relatively high molar concentration resulted in hexagonal and flat surface-shaped ZnO nanostructures. In addition, a post-annealing process in the range of 400 to 600 degrees C effectively leads to the incorporation of lithium dopant as an acceptor, resulting in optical p-type behavior. The p-type features of synthesized Li-doped ZnO nanostructures were analyzed using a photoluminescence measurement using a He-Cd laser as an excitation source at 10 K. Closer investigation of the fine donor- and acceptor-bound exciton emission peaks from the low temperature PL spectra revealed the occurrence of several peaks related to free excitons (FX), excitons bound to acceptor (A(0)X), free electron to the acceptor transition peak (FA), and its LO phonon replicas. PMID:26726574

  10. Grown-in defects limiting the bulk lifetime of p-type float-zone silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, N. E.; Rougieux, F. E.; Macdonald, D.; Bullock, J.; Wan, Y.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate a recombination active grown-in defect limiting the bulk lifetime (τbulk) of high quality float-zone (FZ) p-type silicon wafers. After annealing the samples at temperatures between 80 °C and 400 °C, τbulk was found to increase from ˜500 μs to ˜1.5 ms. By isochronal annealing the p-type samples between 80 °C and 400 °C for 30 min, the annihilation energy (Eann) of the defect was determined to be 0.3 < Eann < 0.7 eV. When the annihilated samples were phosphorus gettered at 880 °C or subject to 0.2 sun illumination for 24 h, τbulk was found to degrade. However, when the samples were subsequently annealed at temperatures between 250 and 400 °C, the defect could be re-annihilated. The experimental results suggest that the defect limiting the lifetime in the p-type FZ silicon is not related to fast diffusing metallic impurities but rather to a lattice-impurity or an impurity-impurity metastable defect.

  11. 78 FR 2390 - CSOLAR IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC, CSOLAR IV North, LLC v...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission CSOLAR IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC, CSOLAR IV North, LLC v. California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of Complaint Take notice... IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC and CSOLAR IV North, LLC...

  12. Vacuolar ATPase regulates surfactant secretion in rat alveolar type II cells by modulating lamellar body calcium.

    PubMed

    Chintagari, Narendranath Reddy; Mishra, Amarjit; Su, Lijing; Wang, Yang; Ayalew, Sahlu; Hartson, Steven D; Liu, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Lung surfactant reduces surface tension and maintains the stability of alveoli. How surfactant is released from alveolar epithelial type II cells is not fully understood. Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is the enzyme responsible for pumping H(+) into lamellar bodies and is required for the processing of surfactant proteins and the packaging of surfactant lipids. However, its role in lung surfactant secretion is unknown. Proteomic analysis revealed that vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) dominated the alveolar type II cell lipid raft proteome. Western blotting confirmed the association of V-ATPase a1 and B1/2 subunits with lipid rafts and their enrichment in lamellar bodies. The dissipation of lamellar body pH gradient by Bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1), an inhibitor of V-ATPase, increased surfactant secretion. Baf A1-stimulated secretion was blocked by the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, BAPTA-AM, the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, staurosporine, and the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), KN-62. Baf A1 induced Ca(2+) release from isolated lamellar bodies. Thapsigargin reduced the Baf A1-induced secretion, indicating cross-talk between lamellar body and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pools. Stimulation of type II cells with surfactant secretagogues dissipated the pH gradient across lamellar bodies and disassembled the V-ATPase complex, indicating the physiological relevance of the V-ATPase-mediated surfactant secretion. Finally, silencing of V-ATPase a1 and B2 subunits decreased stimulated surfactant secretion, indicating that these subunits were crucial for surfactant secretion. We conclude that V-ATPase regulates surfactant secretion via an increased Ca(2+) mobilization from lamellar bodies and endoplasmic reticulum, and the activation of PKC and CaMKII. Our finding revealed a previously unrealized role of V-ATPase in surfactant secretion. PMID:20169059

  13. Structure, mechanism and regulation of the clathrin-coated vesicle and yeast vacuolar H(+)-ATPases.

    PubMed

    Forgac, M

    2000-01-01

    The vacuolar H(+)-ATPases (or V-ATPases) are a family of ATP-dependent proton pumps that carry out acidification of intracellular compartments in eukaryotic cells. This review is focused on our work on the V-ATPases of clathrin-coated vesicles and yeast vacuoles. The coated-vesicle V-ATPase undergoes trafficking to endosomes and synaptic vesicles, where it functions in receptor recycling and neurotransmitter uptake, respectively. The yeast V-ATPase functions to acidify the central vacuole and is necessary both for protein degradation and for coupled transport processes across the vacuolar membrane. The V-ATPases are multisubunit complexes composed of two functional domains. The V(1) domain is a 570 kDa peripheral complex composed of eight subunits of molecular mass 73-14 kDa (subunits A-H) that is responsible for ATP hydrolysis. The V(o) domain is a 260 kDa integral complex composed of five subunits of molecular mass 100-17 kDa (subunits a, d, c, c' and c") that is responsible for proton translocation. To explore the function of individual subunits in the V-ATPase complex as well as to identify residues important in proton transport and ATP hydrolysis, we have employed a combination of chemical modification, site-directed mutagenesis and in vitro reassembly. A central question concerns the mechanism by which vacuolar acidification is controlled in eukaryotic cells. We have proposed that disulfide bond formation between conserved cysteine residues at the catalytic site of the V-ATPase plays an important role in regulating V-ATPase activity in vivo. Other regulatory mechanisms that are discussed include reversible dissociation and reassembly of the V-ATPase complex, changes in the tightness of coupling between proton transport and ATP hydrolysis, differential targeting of V-ATPases within the cell and control of the Cl(-) conductance that is necessary for vacuolar acidification. PMID:10600675

  14. Rapid activation of gill Na+,K+-ATPase in the euryhaline teleost Fundulus heteroclitus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mancera, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    The rapid activation of gill Na+,K+-ATPase was analyzed in the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) transferred from low salinity (0.1 ppt) to high salinity (25-35 ppt). In parr and presmolt, Salmo salar gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity started to increase 3 days after transfer. Exposure of Fundulus heteroclitus to 35 ppt seawater (SW) induced a rise in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity 3 hr after transfer. After 12 hr, the values dropped to initial levels but showed a second significant increase 3 days after transfer. The absence of detergent in the enzyme assay resulted in lower values of gill Na+,K+-ATPase, and the rapid increase after transfer to SW was not observed. Na+,K+-ATPase activity of gill filaments in vitro for 3 hr increased proportionally to the osmolality of the culture medium (600 mosm/kg > 500 mosm/kg > 300 mosm/kg). Osmolality of 800 mosm/kg resulted in lower gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity relative to 600 mosm/kg. Increasing medium osmolality to 600 mosm/kg with mannitol also increased gill Na+,K+-ATPase. Cycloheximide inhibited the increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity observed in hyperosmotic medium in a dose-dependent manner (10-4 M > 10-5 M > 10-6 M). Actinomycin D or bumetanide in the culture (doses of 10-4 M, 10-5 M, and 10-6 M) did not affect gill Na+,K+-ATPase. Injection of fish with actinomycin D prior to gill organ culture, however, prevented the increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity in hyperosmotic media. The results show a very rapid and transitory increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the first hours after the transfer of Fundulus heteroclitus to SW that is dependent on translational and transcriptional processes. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Response of tonoplast H sup + -pump and ATPase to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Salt, D.E.; Lin Wang; Wagner, G.J. )

    1991-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that Cd{sup 2+} accumulates in vacuoles of tobacco leaves exposed to 20 {mu}M Cd{sup 2+}, after 4 days of growth in Hoaglands medium. The accumulation of Cd{sup 2+} is also associated with the accumulation of Cd{sup 2+}-peptide (phytocelatin) in the vacuole. The transport of Cd{sup 2+} and/or Cd{sup 2+}-peptide across the tonoplast membrane may be energized by the H{sup +} electrochemical gradient that exists across this membrane and which is generated by an H{sup +}-pumping ATPase. In vitro 2 {mu}M Cd{sup 2+} inhibits oat root tonoplast H{sup +}-pumping ATPase by 50% with a Ki of approximately 4.0 {mu}M. However, exposure to 2- {mu}M Cd{sup 2+} for 4 days during germination and growth of oat seedlings causes a 100% increase in tonoplast H{sup +}-pumping ATPase activity. This increase on exposure to Cd{sup 2+} during growth may represent part of the physiological mechanism whereby plants accumulate Cd{sup 2+} and/or Cd{sup 2+}-peptide within the vacuole. This could also represent an acclimation of H{sup +}-pumping activity to Cd{sup 2+}. Current studies are testing the effects of Cd{sup 2+}-peptide, organic acids and other ligands on H{sup +}-pumping activity and Cd{sup 2+} transport in root derived tonoplast vesicles of oat and tobacco.

  16. Epidermal Growth Factor-induced Vacuolar (H+)-ATPase Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanqing; Parmar, Amanda; Roux, Emmanuelle; Balbis, Alejandro; Dumas, Victor; Chevalier, Stephanie; Posner, Barry I.

    2012-01-01

    Using proteomics and immunofluorescence, we demonstrated epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced recruitment of extrinsic V1 subunits of the vacuolar (H+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) to rat liver endosomes. This was accompanied by reduced vacuolar pH. Bafilomycin, an inhibitor of V-ATPase, inhibited EGF-stimulated DNA synthesis and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation as indicated by a decrease in eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding 1 (4E-BP1) phosphorylation and p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase (p70S6K) phosphorylation and kinase activity. There was no corresponding inhibition of EGF-induced Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation. Chloroquine, a neutralizer of vacuolar pH, mimicked bafilomycin effects. Bafilomycin did not inhibit the association of mTORC1 with Raptor nor did it affect AMP-activated protein kinase activity. Rather, the intracellular concentrations of essential but not non-essential amino acids were decreased by bafilomycin in EGF-treated primary rat hepatocytes. Cycloheximide, a translation elongation inhibitor known to augment intracellular amino acid levels, prevented the effect of bafilomycin on amino acids levels and completely reversed its inhibition of EGF-induced mTORC1 activation. In vivo administration of EGF stimulated the recruitment of Ras homologue enriched in brain (Rheb) but not mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) to endosomes and lysosomes. This was inhibited by chloroquine treatment. Our results suggest a role for vacuolar acidification in EGF signaling to mTORC1. PMID:22689575

  17. Torsional elasticity and energetics of F1-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Czub, Jacek; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2011-05-01

    F(o)F(1)-ATPase is a rotary motor protein synthesizing ATP from ADP driven by a cross-membrane proton gradient. The proton flow through the membrane-embedded F(o) generates the rotary torque that drives the rotation of the asymmetric shaft of F(1). Mechanical energy of the rotating shaft is used by the F(1) catalytic subunit to synthesize ATP. It was suggested that elastic power transmission with transient storage of energy in some compliant part of the shaft is required for the observed high turnover rate. We used atomistic simulations to study the spatial distribution and structural determinants of the F(1) torsional elasticity at the molecular level and to comprehensively characterize the elastic properties of F(1)-ATPase. Our fluctuation analysis revealed an unexpected heterogeneity of the F(1) shaft elasticity. Further, we found that the measured overall torsional moduli of the shaft arise from two distinct contributions, the intrinsic elasticity and the effective potential imposed on the shaft by the catalytic subunit. Separation of these two contributions provided a quantitative description of the coupling between the rotor and the catalytic subunit. This description enabled us to propose a minimal quantitative model of the F(1) energetics along the rotary degrees of freedom near the resting state observed in the crystal structures. As opposed to the usually employed models where the motor mechanical progression is described by a single angular variable, our multidimensional treatment incorporates the spatially inhomogeneous nature of the shaft and its interactions with the stator and offers new insight into the mechanoenzymatics of F(1)-ATPase. PMID:21502534

  18. Acid tolerance, proton permeabilities, and membrane ATPases of oral streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Bender, G R; Sutton, S V; Marquis, R E

    1986-01-01

    Differences in acid tolerance among representative oral streptococci were found to be related more closely to the dynamic permeabilities of the bacteria to protons than to differences in the sensitivities of cell membranes to gross damage caused by environmental acidification. For Streptococcus mutans GS-5, Streptococcus sanguis NCTC 10904, and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419, gross membrane damage, indicated by the release of magnesium from whole cells, occurred at pH values below about 4 and was rapid and extensive at pH values of about 3 or less. A more aciduric, lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus casei ATCC 4646, was more resistant to environmental acidification, and gross membrane damage was evident only at pH values below 3. Assessments of the movements of protons into S. mutans cells after an acid pulse at various pH values indicated that permeability to protons was minimal at a pH value of about 5, at which the average half time for pH equilibration across the cell membrane was about 12 min. The corresponding values for the less aciduric organism S. sanguis were pH 7 and 8.2 min, and the values for the intermediate organism S. salivarius were pH 6 and 6.6 min. The ATPase inhibitor dicyclohexylcarbodiimide acted to increase markedly the permeability of each organism to protons, and this action indicated that permeability involved not only the passive inflow of protons but also active outflow through the proton-translocating membrane ATPase. Membranes were isolated from each of the bacteria, and pH profiles for ATPase activities indicated pH optima of about 7.5, 7.0, 6.0, and 5.0 for S. sanguis, S. salivarius, S. mutans, and L. casei, respectively. Thus, the pH profiles for the enzymes reflected the acid tolerances of the bacteria and the permeabilities of whole cells to protons. PMID:3015800

  19. Torsional elasticity and energetics of F1-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Czub, Jacek; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    FoF1-ATPase is a rotary motor protein synthesizing ATP from ADP driven by a cross-membrane proton gradient. The proton flow through the membrane-embedded Fo generates the rotary torque that drives the rotation of the asymmetric shaft of F1. Mechanical energy of the rotating shaft is used by the F1 catalytic subunit to synthesize ATP. It was suggested that elastic power transmission with transient storage of energy in some compliant part of the shaft is required for the observed high turnover rate. We used atomistic simulations to study the spatial distribution and structural determinants of the F1 torsional elasticity at the molecular level and to comprehensively characterize the elastic properties of F1-ATPase. Our fluctuation analysis revealed an unexpected heterogeneity of the F1 shaft elasticity. Further, we found that the measured overall torsional moduli of the shaft arise from two distinct contributions, the intrinsic elasticity and the effective potential imposed on the shaft by the catalytic subunit. Separation of these two contributions provided a quantitative description of the coupling between the rotor and the catalytic subunit. This description enabled us to propose a minimal quantitative model of the F1 energetics along the rotary degrees of freedom near the resting state observed in the crystal structures. As opposed to the usually employed models where the motor mechanical progression is described by a single angular variable, our multidimensional treatment incorporates the spatially inhomogeneous nature of the shaft and its interactions with the stator and offers new insight into the mechanoenzymatics of F1-ATPase. PMID:21502534

  20. The Gastric H,K ATPase as a Drug Target

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, George; Shin, Jai Moo; Vagin, Olga; Lambrecht, Nils; Yakubov, Iskandar; Munson, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The recent progress in therapy if acid disease has relied heavily on the performance of drugs targeted against the H,K ATPase of the stomach and the H2 receptor antagonists. It has become apparent in the last decade that the proton pump is the target that has the likelihood of being the most sustainable area of therapeutic application in the regulation of acid suppression. The process of activation of acid secretion requires a change in location of the ATPase from cytoplasmic tubules into the microvilli of the secretory canaliculus of the parietal cell. Stimulation of the resting parietal cell, with involvement of F-actin and ezrin does not use significant numbers of SNARE proteins, because their message is depleted in the pure parietal cell transcriptome. The cell morphology and gene expression suggest a tubule fusion-eversion event. As the active H,K ATPase requires efflux of KCl for activity we have, using the transcriptome derived from 99% pure parietal cells and immunocytochemistry, provided evidence that the KCl pathway is mediated by a KCQ1/KCNE2 complex for supplying K+ and CLIC6 for supplying the accompanying Cl−. The pump has been modeled on the basis of the structures of different conformations of the sr Ca ATPase related to the catalytic cycle. These models use the effects of site directed mutations and identification of the binding domain of the K competitive acid pump antagonists or the defined site of binding for the covalent class of proton pump inhibitors. The pump undergoes conformational changes associated with phosphorylation to allow the ion binding site to change exposure from cytoplasmic to luminal exposure. We have been able to postulate that the very low gastric pH is achieved by lysine 791 motion extruding the hydronium ion bound to carboxylates in the middle of the membrane domain. These models also allow description of the K+ entry to form the K+ liganded form of the enzyme and the reformation of the ion site inward conformation thus