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Sample records for iv squamous carcinoma

  1. Cisplatin, Radiation Therapy, and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-16

    Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  2. Depsipeptide in Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-29

    Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  3. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  4. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Squamous cell carcinoma typically develops in sun-damaged skin in fair-skinned patients. Overview Squamous ... skin cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially in light-skinned individuals with ...

  5. Value of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Stage IV Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Dirix, Piet; Nuyts, Sandra

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: To review outcome and toxicity of Stage IVa and IVb head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with concomitant chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) according to a hybrid fractionation schedule. Methods and Materials: Between 2006 and 2008, 42 patients with Stage IV head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma were irradiated according to a hybrid fractionation schedule consisting of 20 fractions of 2 Gy (once daily), followed by 20 fractions of 1.6 Gy (twice daily), to a total dose of 72 Gy. Chemotherapy (cisplatinum, 100mg/m{sup 2}) was administered at the start of Weeks 1 and 4. Treatment outcome and toxicity were retrospectively compared with a previous patient group (n = 55), treated according to the same schedule, but without intensity modulation. Results: Locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival were 81% and 56% after 2 years, respectively. In comparison with the previous cohort, no significant differences were observed regarding either LRC (66%, p = 0.38) or overall survival (73%, p = 0.29). No Grade 4 or 5 toxicity was reported in the IMRT group, either acute or chronic. The use of IMRT significantly reduced the incidence of late Grade 2 or 3 xerostomia (52.9% vs. 90.2%, p < 0.001). No difference was observed regarding late Grade 2 or 3 dysphagia (p = 0.66). Conclusions: Intensity-modulated chemoradiotherapy does not compromise LRC and significantly reduces late toxicity, especially regarding xerostomia.

  6. Rapid and sensitive detection of early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with fluorescence probe targeting dipeptidylpeptidase IV.

    PubMed

    Onoyama, Haruna; Kamiya, Mako; Kuriki, Yugo; Komatsu, Toru; Abe, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Yosuke; Yagi, Koichi; Yamagata, Yukinori; Aikou, Susumu; Nishida, Masato; Mori, Kazuhiko; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Nomura, Sachiyo; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Fukayama, Masashi; Koike, Kazuhiko; Urano, Yasuteru; Seto, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an important prognosticator, but is difficult to achieve by conventional endoscopy. Conventional lugol chromoendoscopy and equipment-based image-enhanced endoscopy, such as narrow-band imaging (NBI), have various practical limitations. Since fluorescence-based visualization is considered a promising approach, we aimed to develop an activatable fluorescence probe to visualize ESCCs. First, based on the fact that various aminopeptidase activities are elevated in cancer, we screened freshly resected specimens from patients with a series of aminopeptidase-activatable fluorescence probes. The results indicated that dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP-IV) is specifically activated in ESCCs, and would be a suitable molecular target for detection of esophageal cancer. Therefore, we designed, synthesized and characterized a series of DPP-IV-activatable fluorescence probes. When the selected probe was topically sprayed onto endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) or surgical specimens, tumors were visualized within 5 min, and when the probe was sprayed on biopsy samples, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy reached 96.9%, 85.7% and 90.5%. We believe that DPP-IV-targeted activatable fluorescence probes are practically translatable as convenient tools for clinical application to enable rapid and accurate diagnosis of early esophageal cancer during endoscopic or surgical procedures. PMID:27245876

  7. Rapid and sensitive detection of early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with fluorescence probe targeting dipeptidylpeptidase IV

    PubMed Central

    Onoyama, Haruna; Kamiya, Mako; Kuriki, Yugo; Komatsu, Toru; Abe, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Yosuke; Yagi, Koichi; Yamagata, Yukinori; Aikou, Susumu; Nishida, Masato; Mori, Kazuhiko; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Nomura, Sachiyo; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Fukayama, Masashi; Koike, Kazuhiko; Urano, Yasuteru; Seto, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an important prognosticator, but is difficult to achieve by conventional endoscopy. Conventional lugol chromoendoscopy and equipment-based image-enhanced endoscopy, such as narrow-band imaging (NBI), have various practical limitations. Since fluorescence-based visualization is considered a promising approach, we aimed to develop an activatable fluorescence probe to visualize ESCCs. First, based on the fact that various aminopeptidase activities are elevated in cancer, we screened freshly resected specimens from patients with a series of aminopeptidase-activatable fluorescence probes. The results indicated that dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP-IV) is specifically activated in ESCCs, and would be a suitable molecular target for detection of esophageal cancer. Therefore, we designed, synthesized and characterized a series of DPP-IV-activatable fluorescence probes. When the selected probe was topically sprayed onto endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) or surgical specimens, tumors were visualized within 5 min, and when the probe was sprayed on biopsy samples, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy reached 96.9%, 85.7% and 90.5%. We believe that DPP-IV-targeted activatable fluorescence probes are practically translatable as convenient tools for clinical application to enable rapid and accurate diagnosis of early esophageal cancer during endoscopic or surgical procedures. PMID:27245876

  8. Erlotinib Hydrochloride and Radiation Therapy in Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-10-30

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  9. Radiation Therapy With or Without Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Who Have Undergone Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-06

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Spindle Cell Variant; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    The hallmarks of squamous cell carcinoma are the differentiation features of the squamous epithelium: keratinization and intercellular bridges. Large central masses of keratin, individual cell keratinization, and/or keratin pearls may form. Necrosis of tumor cell nests and accumulation of acute inflammatory cells are frequent features of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.

  11. Peroxiredoxin IV Protects Cells From Radiation-Induced Apoptosis in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jung Je; Chang, Hyo Won; Jeong, Eun-Jeong; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Jeon, Sea-Yuong; Ko, Gyung Hyuck; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: Human peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are known as a family of thiol-specific antioxidant enzymes, among which Prx-I and -II play an important role in protecting cells from irradiation-induced cell death. It is not known whether Prx-IV also protects cells from ionizing radiation (IR). Methods and Materials: To evaluate the protective role of Prx-IV in IR, we transfected full-length Prx-IV cDNA into AMC-HN3 cells, which weakly express endogenous Prx-IV, and knocked down the expression of Prx-IV with siRNA methods using AMC-HN7 cells, which express high levels of endogenous Prx-IV. Radiosensitivity profiles in these cells were evaluated using clonogenic assay, FACS analysis, cell viability, and TUNEL assay. Results: Three Prx-IV expressing clones were isolated. Prx-IV regulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and made cells more resistant to IR-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the knockdown of Prx-IV with siRNA made cells more sensitive to IR-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: The results of these studies suggest that Prx-IV may play an important role in protecting cells from IR-induced apoptosis in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma.

  12. Sunitinib, Cetuximab, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  13. Entolimod in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer Receiving Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-12-10

    Mucositis; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral

  14. Intratumoral PV701 in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Unresectable Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers can metastasize (spread) and should be removed surgically ...

  17. Sorafenib Tosylate, Cisplatin, and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-27

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  18. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, or Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-08

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  19. Radiation Therapy With Cisplatin, Docetaxel, or Cetuximab After Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-14

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  20. Bortezomib With or Without Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Locally Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-07

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  1. A 55-Year-Old Man with Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Right Groin after External Beam Radiation for Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ibilibor, Christine; Wells, Jeremy; Kavuri, Sravan; Moses, Kelvin A

    2014-01-01

    Treating testicular cancer with adjuvant radiation has been associated with a number of second malignancies affecting the genitourinary tract and retroperitoneal structures; however, there have been few reported cases of cutaneous second malignancies. We report the case of a man who developed stage IV squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of a condyloma after orchiectomy and adjuvant radiation for testicular cancer. We also review relevant literature available to date. A 55-year-old Caucasian man presented to the hospital with a large growth at the right groin which had grown into his right thigh preventing ambulation. His past medical history was significant for right testicular cancer of unknown pathology treated with orchiectomy and adjuvant radiation twenty years ago. Punch biopsy of the lesion revealed superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma. He underwent excision of the growth with subsequent Cisplatin, radiation boost, and Paclitaxel regimens. Despite an aggressive treatment regimen and an initial good response, the patient's cancer progressed requiring palliative care. It is unclear whether or not therapeutic radiation in this case promoted the conversion of the patient's condyloma to a malignant lesion. Further studies are required at this time to clarify the clinical implications of these findings. PMID:25024864

  2. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  3. Feasibility and Efficacy of Induction Docetaxel, Cisplatin, and 5-Fluorouracil Chemotherapy Combined With Cisplatin Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Nonmetastatic Stage IV Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, Robin J.; Oeksuez, Didem Colpan; Dyker, Karen; Coyle, Catherine; Sen, Mehmet

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To report the experience of treating selected fit patients with locally advanced head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma with three cycles of induction TPF (docetaxel 75 mg/m{sup 2}, cisplatin 75 mg/m{sup 2}, 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/m{sup 2}, Days 2-5) followed by concurrent three-weekly bolus cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between March 2006 and February 2010, 66 patients with nonmetastatic Stage IV head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma were treated in a single institution with three cycles of induction TPF, followed by radical radiotherapy with concurrent cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2}. Results: Median age was 54 years (range, 33-69 years). Median follow-up was 21 months (range, 4-55 months). During TPF, Grade 3 toxicity occurred in 18 patients (27%), dose modifications in 10 (15%), delays in 3 (5%), and unplanned admissions in 6 (9%); a clinical tumor response was documented in 60 patients (91%). Median time from the final cycle of TPF to commencing radiotherapy was 22 days. Sixty-two patients (94%) received radical radiotherapy, and all completed treatment with no delays {>=}3 days. One, two, and three cycles of concurrent cisplatin were delivered to 18 patients (29%), 38 patients (61%), and 3 patients (5%), respectively. Ninety-two percent of patients received enteral feeding; median weight loss during treatment was 7%. Forty-two patients (68%) had unplanned admissions with no on-treatment deaths. Three unrelated deaths occurred after treatment. At 1 year after treatment, 21% of patients without disease progression remained gastrostomy dependent. Of 58 assessable patients, 50 (86%) achieved a complete response after treatment. One- and 2-year progression-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival were 88%, 92%, and 86% and 80%, 85%, and 80%, respectively. Conclusion: The combination of induction TPF with concurrent cisplatin chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell

  4. Capecitabine and Lapatinib Ditosylate in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-14

    Head and Neck Cancer; Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  5. Stages III and IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Mouth: Three-Year Experience with Superselective Intraarterial Chemotherapy Using Cisplatin Prior to Definitive Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Toshinori; Korogi, Yukunori; Hamatake, Satoshi; Nishimura, Ryuichi; Baba, Yuji; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Uji, Yasuyoshi; Taen, Akira

    1999-05-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the 3-year experience with superselective intraarterial chemotherapy prior to definitive treatment for stages III and IV squamous cell carcinomas of the mouth. Methods: Twenty-two patients prospectively received superselective intraarterial chemotherapy using relatively low-dose cisplatin via a transfemoral approach. The locations of the tumors were the tongue (n= 12), gingiva (n= 5), buccal mucosa (n= 2), hard palate (n= 1), floor of the mouth (n= 1), and lip (n= 1). After intraarterial chemotherapy, 21 patients underwent surgery (n= 14), radiation therapy (n= 6), or both (n= 1). The survival rate of 25 patients who underwent surgery with/without radiation therapy until 1992 at Kumamoto University Hospital was also evaluated as a historical control. The survival curve was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method, and the statistical difference between survival curves was determined with the generalized Wilcoxon test. Results: The overall response rate was 95% [complete response (tumor completely resolved), 24%; partial response (tumor reduction {>=}50%), 71%]. Fifty-two intraarterial infusions were performed without any catheter-related complications. Mild and transient local toxicity such as edema or mucositis of the infused area was relatively common. One patient died of renal failure from cisplatin. After a median follow-up of 20 months (range 2-41 months), the estimated 3-year survival rate for patients who underwent intraarterial chemotherapy plus surgery was 91%. The survival of the patients who underwent intraarterial chemotherapy plus surgery tended to be longer than that of the historical control. Conclusions: Early tumor reduction without delay of subsequent treatments can be obtained by intraarterial chemotherapy while minimizing complications and possibly improving survival. Further investigations of long-term survival with larger series need to be performed.

  6. Impact of Squamous Differentiation in Breast Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pai, Trupti; Shet, Tanuja; Desai, Sangeeta; Patil, Asawari; Nair, Nita; Parmar, Vani; Gupta, Sudeep; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Sarin, Rajiv; Badwe, Rajendra

    2016-09-01

    This study attempted to review the impact of extent of squamous differentiation in 56 infiltrating duct carcinomas (IDC) with squamous differentiation (metaplastic squamous carcinomas [MSC]). Tumors showing 100% squamous elements were labeled as primary squamous carcinomas (PSC; n = 28) and compared with 28 MSC showing lesser squamous components. A clinicopathological comparison revealed that lymphovascular emboli were never seen in any PSC but were noted in 7/28 of other MSC, while perineural invasion was seen only in PSC and not in MSC. Nodal metastasis was significantly more in other MSC as opposed to PSC. Most MSC presented with 2- to 5-cm sized tumors while PSC were 5 to 10 cm in size. PSC showed cystic change while MSC did not. Disease free survival (DFS) for MSC versus PSC was 64% versus 39.8%, while overall survival (OAS) was 72.7% in MSC versus 66.7% in PSC. Tumor stage affected DFS in MSC while none of the factors affected DFS/OAS in PSC. The extent of squamous differentiation affected DFS with best behavior for metaplastic carcinomas showing <40% squamous elements and worse for those with >90% squamous component (P = .024). PSC of breast is an aggressive disease and show distinct clinicopathological features from other MSC, and though the current definition of MSC does not advocate quantifying the squamous element, clearly this affects prognosis. PMID:27076454

  7. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  8. Phase 2 Study of Docetaxel, Cisplatin, and Concurrent Radiation for Technically Resectable Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Inohara, Hidenori; Takenaka, Yukinori; Yoshii, Tadashi; Nakahara, Susumu; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Tomiyama, Yoichiro; Seo, Yuji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Suzuki, Osamu; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Sumida, Iori; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: We investigated the efficacy and safety of weekly low-dose docetaxel and cisplatin therapy concurrent with conventionally fractionated radiation in patients with technically resectable stage III-IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Between March 2004 and October 2011, we enrolled 117 patients, of whom 116 were analyzable (43 had oropharyngeal cancer, 54 had hypopharyngeal cancer, and 19 had laryngeal cancer), and 85 (73%) had stage IV disease. Radiation consisted of 66 Gy in 33 fractions. Docetaxel, 10 mg/m{sup 2}, followed by cisplatin, 20 mg/m{sup 2}, administered on the same day were given once a week for 6 cycles. The primary endpoint was overall complete response (CR) rate after chemoradiation therapy. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in oropharyngeal cancer was examined by PCR. Results: Of 116 patients, 82 (71%) completed treatment per protocol; 102 (88%) received the full radiation therapy dose; and 90 (78%) and 12 (10%) patients received 6 and 5 chemotherapy cycles, respectively. Overall CR rate was 71%. After median follow-up of 50.9 months (range: 15.6-113.9 months for surviving patients), 2-year and 4-year overall survival rates were 82% and 68%, respectively. Cumulative 2-year and 4-year local failure rates were 27% and 28%, respectively, whereas distant metastasis rates were 15% and 22%, respectively. HPV status in oropharyngeal cancer was not associated with treatment efficacy. Acute toxicity included grade 3 and 4 in-field mucositis in 73% and 5% of patients, respectively, whereas myelosuppression and renal injury were minimal. No patients died of toxicity. Feeding tube dependence in 8% and tracheostomy in 1% of patients were evident at 2 years postchemoradiation therapy in patients who survived without local treatment failure. Conclusions: Local control and survival with this regimen were satisfactory. Although acute toxicity, such as mucositis, was common, late toxicity, such as laryngoesophageal

  9. Alcohol and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Chandran, R; Khammissa, R A G; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol is a risk factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma. It enhances the permeability of the oral epithelium, acts as a solvent for tobacco carcinogens, induces basal-cell proliferation, and generates free radicals and acetaldehyde, which have the capacity to cause DNA damage. Alcohol-associated malnutrition and immune suppression may further promote carcinogenesis. However, acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, is the critical agent by which prolonged and excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages increases the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Alcohol also acts synergistically with the products of tobacco combustion in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23971298

  10. Gefitinib and Radiation Therapy With or Without Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-24

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  11. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Gülçiçek, Osman Bilgin; Solmaz, Ali; Özdoğan, Kamil; Erçetin, Candaş; Yavuz, Erkan; Yiğitbaş, Hakan; Çelebi, Fatih; Altınay, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach accounts for less than 1% of all gastric malignancies. Less than 100 cases were reported in the literature. Therefore, knowledge about management and prognosis of the disease is limited. Surgical approach is the basic form of treatment. In this study we confirmed a case of primary gastric squamous cell carcinoma with the aim of contribution to the literature, which is seen rare, and the diagnosis was confirmed pathologically. PMID:27528817

  12. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to placenta.

    PubMed

    Can, Nhu Thuy T; Robertson, Patricia; Zaloudek, Charles J; Gill, Ryan M

    2013-09-01

    A pregnant 29-year-old gravida 4, para 3 woman with Stage IIB cervical cancer was admitted at 33 weeks and 4 days of gestation and delivered a healthy neonate. Her placenta was small but otherwise grossly unremarkable. Microscopic examination revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. An immunohistochemical stain for p16 was positive in the carcinoma cells, supporting metastasis from the cervical tumor. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to placenta is very rare. We report a case and discuss metastatic cancer during pregnancy with recommendations for infant follow-up. PMID:23896714

  13. Intraglomerular micrometastasis of squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kotaro; Kumar, Sajal; Chenal, Mario E.; Nicosia, Roberto F.

    2012-01-01

    Intraglomerular metastasis is a rare manifestation of disseminated malignancies. We present here a case of intraglomerular metastatic carcinoma diagnosed as an incidental finding on a kidney biopsy in a 62-year-old male presenting with acute renal failure and metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma. A proliferative lesion composed of highly atypical epithelial cells was found within a capillary loop and adjacent urinary space of an isolated glomerulus, which was immunoreactive for markers of squamous cell carcinoma. This case is a reminder that circulating cancer cells can occasionally lodge in glomeruli and appear as micrometastasis in kidney biopsies performed for the evaluation of renal dysfunction. PMID:25874083

  14. Hsp90 Inhibitor AT13387 in Treating Patients With Locoregionally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Receiving Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-24

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  15. [Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma of larynx as an uncommon variant of squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Tiken, Elif Eda; Çolpan Öksüz, Didem; Batur, Şebnem; Uzel, Esengül Koçak; Öz, Büge; Öz, Ferhan; Uzel, Ömer; Turkan, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is an uncommon variant of squamous cell carcinoma. Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma occurs in the sun-exposed areas of the skin and lip. It is rarely observed in the respiratory and digestive tract and may present more aggressively. The incidence of distant metastases of squamous cell head and neck cancers is low and the lungs are the most common metastatic sites. Metastasis to the soft tissue, skin, and adrenal glands from the laryngeal region is very uncommon. In this article, we report a 58-year-old female case who underwent postoperative radiation therapy with the diagnosis of acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and developed metastasis to the soft tissue and adrenal gland at the early period. PMID:27107606

  16. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Stage IV or Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-16

    Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx

  17. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-08

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  18. AZD1775, Docetaxel, and Cisplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Borderline Resectable Stage III-IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-04

    Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  19. Fosaprepitant Dimeglumine, Palonosetron Hydrochloride, and Dexamethasone in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting Caused by Cisplatin in Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Head and Neck Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-07

    Nausea and Vomiting; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  20. A Case of Acantholytic Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji Yeon; Do, Mi Ok; Kim, Seong Hyun; Hahm, Jeong Hee

    2008-01-01

    Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is a well-defined variant of squamous cell cancer in which significant portions of the neoplastic proliferation show a pseudoglandular or tubular microscopic pattern. It usually presents as a nodule with various colors, and it is accompanied by scaling, crusting, and ulceration on the sun-exposed areas of older aged individuals. Histologically, the tumor consists of a nodular, epidermal-derived proliferation that forms island-like structures. At least focally or sometimes extensively, the tumor cells shows a loss of cohesion within the central gland-like or tubular spaces. This tumor resembles the structure of eccrine neoplasms, but it is negative for dPAS, CEA and mucicarmine and it is only positive for EMA and cytokeratins. Herein we report a case of acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma that occurred on the face of an 82-year-old woman. PMID:27303210

  1. Locally Advanced Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Impact of Pre-Radiotherapy Hemoglobin Level and Interruptions During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk Stoehr, Monika; Kazic, Nadja; Hakim, Samer G.; Walz, Annette; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: Stage IV head and neck cancer patients carry a poor prognosis. Clear understanding of prognostic factors can help to optimize care for the individual patient. This study investigated 11 potential prognostic factors including pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level and interruptions during radiotherapy for overall survival (OS), metastases-free survival (MFS), and locoregional control (LC) after radiochemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven factors were investigated in 153 patients receiving radiochemotherapy for Stage IV squamous cell head and neck cancer: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), tumor site, grading, T stage, N stage, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, surgery, chemotherapy type, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. Results: On multivariate analysis, improved OS was associated with KPS 90-100 (relative risk [RR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-4.93; p = .012), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.01-3.53; p = .048), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.15-5.78; p = .021). Improved LC was significantly associated with lower T stage (RR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.16-4.63; p = .013), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.92-9.09; p < .001), surgery (RR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.28-5.88; p = .008), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 3.32; 95% CI, 1.26-8.79; p = .015). Improved MFS was associated with KPS 90-100 (RR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.46-8.85; p = .012). Conclusions: Significant predictors for outcome in Stage IV head and neck cancer were performance status, stage, surgery, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. It appears important to avoid anemia and radiotherapy interruptions to achieve the best treatment results.

  2. Fallacious Carcinoma- Spindle Cell Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Govinda, Girish; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a unique, rare and peculiar biphasic tumour of head and neck which is not frequently observed in the oral cavity. This variant of squamous cell carcinoma although of monophasic epithelial origin, simulates a sarcoma and is an aggressive carcinoma with high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. A correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount importance. Most of the tumours require an Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for confirmation or diagnosis. We report a case of spindle cell carcinoma with varied histopathological morphology and clinical presentation in a middle aged female with a brief review of literature.

  3. [A study on survival rates of oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Chen, G S; Chen, C H

    1996-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is seen predominantly after the fourth decade of life. We have retrospectively reviewed 103 patients (92 males and 11 females) with squamous cell carcinoma, which were confirmed by histopathologic examination and treated by surgical excision at Kaohsiung Medical College Hospital from 1987 to 1991. The age of the patients ranged from 23 to 87 years. 39.8% of cases occurred on the buccal mucosa, 27.2% on the tongue, 15.5% on the gingiva of mandible, 8% on the maxilla, 7.8% on the lower lip and 1% on the floor of the mouth. 23.3% of the patients had stage I disease, 14.6% were stage II, 43.7% were stage III and 18.4% stage IV. Of 103 patients treated with wide excision, about 65% (17/103) of patients treated with wide excision and radical neck dissection or suprahyoid neck dissection, and 41% (42/103) were treated by a combination of radiation and surgery. 96% (99/103) of our cases have completed a minimum follow-up period of 3 years. The sex and age of the patients did not influence survival significantly. The 5-year survival rates were 62% for patients with stage I disease, 80% for patients with stage II disease, 42% for patients with stage III, and 19% for patients with stage IV disease. Stage at initial presentation was an important factor influencing survival. The location of the primary tumor did not significantly influence survival for early stage tumors (stage I & II). In terminal stage tumors (stage III & IV). those with carcinomas of the floor of the mouth, gingiva of the mandible, lip, and maxilla had a 5-year survival of 15%, those with carcinomas of the tongue had a 5-year survival of 47%, and those with carcinomas of the buccal mucosa had a favorable survival rate of 53%. The differences were significant (P = 0.017). PMID:8699569

  4. Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-11

    Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

  5. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab and/or Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Stage IV or Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-01

    Recurrent Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Lung Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IV Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IV Lung Adenocarcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma

  6. Neoadjuvant treatment for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Masayuki; Yoshida, Naoya; Baba, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are types of esophageal cancer, one of the most aggressive malignant diseases. Since both histological types present entirely different diseases with different epidemiology, pathogenesis and tumor biology, separate therapeutic strategies should be developed against each type. While surgical resection remains the dominant therapeutic intervention for patients with operable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), alternative strategies are actively sought to reduce the frequency of post-operative local or distant disease recurrence. Such strategies are particularly sought in the preoperative setting. Currently, the optimal management of resectable ESCC differs widely between Western and Asian countries (such as Japan). While Western countries focus on neoadjuvant or definitive chemoradiotherapy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery is the standard treatment in Japan. Importantly, each country and region has established its own therapeutic strategy from the results of local randomized control trials. This review discusses the current knowledge, available data and information regarding neoadjuvant treatment for operable ESCC. PMID:24834142

  7. Management of High-Risk Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is an increasing public health concern, representing the second most common cancer in the United States. High-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma represents a subgroup of this disease, where patients are at higher risk of metastasis and death. To date, there are no accepted criteria for defining or managing these patients. This review discusses the current state of knowledge of high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and outlines reasonable management strategies based on available data. PMID:20725546

  8. Prediction of treatment outcome by cisplatin-DNA adduct formation in patients with stage III/IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, treated by concurrent cisplatin-radiation (RADPLAT).

    PubMed

    Hoebers, Frank J P; Pluim, Dick; Verheij, Marcel; Balm, Alfons J M; Bartelink, Harry; Schellens, Jan H M; Begg, Adrian C

    2006-08-15

    The purpose of our study was to test the predictive value of cisplatin-DNA adduct levels in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients treated with cisplatin-radiation. Patients with advanced-stage HNSCC were treated within a randomized trial, investigating the optimal route of cisplatin administration, concurrently with radiation. Cisplatin was administered intra-arterially (IA, 150 mg/m2, with systemic rescue by sodium thiosulfate) or intravenously (IV, 100 mg/m2). In a subgroup, adducts were quantified in normal tissue and tumor. 32P-postlabeling was used to quantify intrastrand guanosine-guanosine adducts (GG-adducts) and adenosine-guanosine adducts (AG-adducts). Adduct levels were correlated with treatment outcome. Thirty-five patients were included (21 IV and 14 IA). At median follow-up of 27 months, locoregional (LR) control was 75% at 1 and 70% at 2 years. Adduct levels in tumor were 4-5-fold higher than in white blood cells (WBC) for both IA and IV treatment (p = 0.01). Adduct formation in WBC and buccal cells was higher in IV treated patients compared with IA infusion (p = 0.049 and 0.005 for GG-adducts in WBC and buccal cells, respectively). Adducts in tumors after IA infusion were not statistically different from those after IV. A strong correlation was observed between GG- and AG-adduct formation (r = 0.86, p < 0.001). Patients with higher GG adduct levels (>median) in primary tumor had significantly better disease free survival (DFS) than patients with lower (< or = median) adduct levels (p = 0.02). For overall survival (OS), a nonsignificant trend was observed, again in favor of patients with higher adduct levels (p = 0.06). In conclusion, cisplatin-DNA adduct formation in primary tumor appears to be predictive for DFS in HNSCC. No differences were observed in intratumoral adduct levels between IA and IV treatments, despite selective infusion of high-dose cisplatin with the IA procedure. However, systemic adduct levels (WBC and buccal

  9. Can MMP-9 be a Prognosticator Marker for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Shiva Kumar; Kumar, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Invasion and metastasis of malignant tumours severely endanger the life of cancer patients. Squamous cell carcinoma is one of the commonly found malignancies in the oral cavity and its survival rate has not improved from past few decades. Since an important risk factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma is the presence of epithelial dysplasia, it is necessary to check the presence of a prognosticator marker in both of them. As matrix metalloproteinase’s (MMP’s) are involved in degradation of type IV collagen, which are one of the important components of extracellular matrix components which play a relevant role in several steps of tumour progression such as invasion and metastasis. We have studied MMP-9 expression to evaluate its prognostic potential in oral cancers as well as oral epithelial dysplasia along with tissues of normal oral epithelium. Materials and Methods The expression was examined using immunohistochemistry procedure with MMP-9 in 100 samples including cases of epithelium from normal oral mucosa, oral dysplastic lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma. One set of formalin fixed, paraffin embedded sections of the three categories were stained by haematoxylin and eosin. The sections were then evaluated under microscope. Data was examined for statistical significance using SPSS 13.0 by Mann-Whitney Test and Kruskal-Wallis Test. Results With MMP-9 gain of expression was noted from Control group to oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cytoplasmic staining was seen with MMP-9. Statistically highly significant differences were seen between oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma and statistically significant differences were found between the control group and the oral squamous cell carcinoma group. Conclusion This study suggested that oral squamous cell carcinoma shows higher MMP-9 expression as compared to oral epithelial dysplasia followed by epithelium from normal oral mucosa. However, no correlation was found among the

  10. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Pancreas: Mystery and Facts.

    PubMed

    Raghavapuram, Saikiran; Vaid, Arjun; Rego, Rayburn F

    2015-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas is very rare as pancreas does not have any squamous cells. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature so far. We describe such a case where in the patient presented with painless jaundice. CT and EUS confirmed the pancreatic mass biopsy of which showed squamous cell cancer. PMID:26376556

  11. Anogenital squamous cell carcinoma in neglected patient.

    PubMed

    Svecova, D; Havrankova, M; Weismanova, E; Babal, P

    2012-01-01

    Skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are arguably the second most common carcinoma of the skin and are responsible for the majority of non-melanoma skin cancer deaths. Gynecologist treated a Caucasian 56-years old female patient for genital wart with podophyllotoxin cream. She did not achieve complete response and therefore she has interrupted the therapy and the collaboration with the gynecologist. At the time of evaluation the lesion had a size of man's palm in anogenital region and showed characteristic features of neoplasm. The regional lymph nodes have produced infiltrated painful bubo. PCR analysis for HPV proved negative. Histopathology revealed well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma from the tumor as well as from the regional lymph node packet. Staging computed tomography scans proved negative and pelvis scans disclosed regional lymphadenopathy underlying the tumor. Palliative radiation therapy (by linear accelerator) was administered for the oversized tumor to the total TD 50.0Gy. The patient died 6 months after diagnostic assessment from cardio-respiratory failure. Staging computed tomography before her death did not disclose distinct metastases in her inner organs. Well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma could be growing endophytically affecting the underlying adipose tissue and musculature, with spreading into the regional lymph nodes. The rate of metastases into inner organs seems to vary according to the aggressiveness and metastatic behavior of each SCC. The case report calls for attention to the importance of collaboration among various specialists assisting in the diagnosis and management of skin neoplasm (Fig. 5, Ref. 12). Full Text in PDF www.elis.sk. PMID:22502759

  12. Primary Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ

    PubMed Central

    Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba S.; Hassan, Mohammad J.; Madaan, Garima; Jain, Reena

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the endometrium, whether primary or secondary to cervical cancer, is a rare entity. Primary endometrial squamous cell carcinoma in situ is even more uncommon; it usually occurs in postmenopausal women and has a strong association with pyometra. We report a 60-year-old multiparous postmenopausal woman who presented to the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, New Delhi, India, in May 2014 with a lower abdominal swelling corresponding in size to a pregnancy of 26 gestational weeks and vaginal discharge of one year’s duration. A total abdominal hysterectomy with a bilateral salpingooophorectomy was performed, which revealed an enlarged uterus with pyometra. Histopathology showed that the entire endometrial lining had been replaced with malignant squamous cells without invasion of the myometrium. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumour cells were positive for p63 with a high Ki-67 labelling index. No adjuvant therapy was required and the patient was disease-free at a seven-month follow-up. PMID:26629388

  13. Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Cetuximab, and Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-01

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  14. Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)

    PubMed Central

    HAMANO, Takahisa; TERASAWA, Fumio; TACHIKAWA, Yoshiharu; MURAI, Atsuko; MORI, Takashi; EL-DAKHLY, Khaled; SAKAI, Hiroki; YANAI, Tokuma

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara. PMID:24909968

  15. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  16. Clinical, epidemiological and histopathological prognostic factors in oral squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dragomir, L P; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Searpe, Monica; Dragomir, Manuela

    2010-10-01

    The study that was carried out was comprised of 117 cases of oral squamous carcinomas, selected in two years interval, between 2007-2008. The tumors were diagnosed especially at patients between the ages of 50 and 79 years, 96,6% being over 40 years old. It came out a clear predominance of the male sex in approximatively 90% of the cases. The main localisation was the lower lip and the tongue ( 67,5% ), in approximatively equal proportions ( 35% and 32,5% ). The histopathologically analisys releaved that 37,6% were well differentiated squamous carcinomas, 27,4% were moderately differentiated squamous carcinomas and 35% were poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas. Out of these 3,3% were microcarcinomas, 91,9% were non-metastatic invasive carcinomas and 4,8% were invasive carcinomas with metastatic adenopathy. PMID:24778830

  17. Clinical, Epidemiological And Histopathological Prognostic Factors In Oral Squamous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dragomir, L.P.; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Şearpe, Monica; Dragomir, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    The study that was carried out was comprised of 117 cases of oral squamous carcinomas, selected in two years interval, between 2007-2008. The tumors were diagnosed especially at patients between the ages of 50 and 79 years, 96,6% being over 40 years old. It came out a clear predominance of the male sex in approximatively 90% of the cases. The main localisation was the lower lip and the tongue ( 67,5% ), in approximatively equal proportions ( 35% and 32,5% ). The histopathologically analisys releaved that 37,6% were well differentiated squamous carcinomas, 27,4% were moderately differentiated squamous carcinomas and 35% were poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas. Out of these 3,3% were microcarcinomas, 91,9% were non-metastatic invasive carcinomas and 4,8% were invasive carcinomas with metastatic adenopathy. PMID:24778830

  18. VX-970, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced HPV-Negative Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-05

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  19. Viral Therapy In Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Cancer or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-24

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; HER2/Neu Negative; HER2/Neu Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  20. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Amir, H; Mbonde, M P; Kitinya, J N

    1992-11-01

    The Tanzania Cancer Registry at Muhimbili Medical Centre, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania was reviewed for squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in non-albino African subjects. The data was analysed for age, sex, site and predisposing factors. Our results were then compared with studies previously carried out in Tanzania, elsewhere in Africa and also on Blacks in America. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin was found to be a common malignancy, and the commonest skin cancer. Its peak was in the 40-49 years age group though it could occur in children under five years of age. The most affected site was the lower limb, followed by the head and the neck. The penis in the male and the vulva in the female were the third most affected sites. The scalp and the lip were more affected in females than males. Chronic trauma, chronic ulcers, and scars were the main predisposing risk factors to the lower limb and the scalp, while ultra violet radiation to the head and neck, and smegma of the uncircumcised penis were thought to be predisposing risk factors. PMID:1308840

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Lifeso, R.M.; Bull, C.A.

    1985-06-15

    Between January 1976 and January 1983, 37 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the extremities have been treated at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre by the authors. Each case has arisen in an area of preexisting scar or sinus. Twenty-nine cases were treated by definitive amputation, with 2 local recurrences and 12 nodal metastases. Seven cases had local excision, with three local recurrences and two nodal metastases. Recurrence rate was highest in Grade II and Grade III lesions, and 11 of 15 cases with Grade II disease had metastases to the regional lymph nodes an average of 5 months after surgery. With Grade I disease patients, 4 of 15 had nodal metastases an average of 5 months after surgery. Prophylactic regional nodal irradiation or node dissection was performed in seven cases. None of these cases have shown nodal metastases at an average of 24 months following definitive surgery and radiation. Routine prophylactic regional node irradiation is recommended in all cases of peripheral squamous cell carcinoma.

  2. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma--an overview.

    PubMed

    Kimple, Adam J; Welch, Chris M; Zevallos, Jose P; Patel, Samip N

    2014-09-01

    Inhaled or chewed tobacco is equally addictive and harmful and used daily by over 1 billion people. In addition to increased rates of coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancers, tobacco is the leading preventable cause of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. In addition to tobacco, consumption and abuse of alcohol, and betel nut quid significantly contribute to the burden of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Dental visits are excellent opportunities to identify primary lesions in the oral cavity. This review highlights relevant anatomy, epidemiology, pathogenesis, evaluation and treatment options for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25284574

  3. MANDIBULAR SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A BOBCAT (LYNX RUFUS).

    PubMed

    Sladakovic, Izidora; Burnum, Anne; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Kelly, Lisa S; Garner, Bridget C; Holmes, Shannon P; Divers, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    A 23-yr-old female spayed bobcat (Lynx rufus) presented with a 1-wk history of hypersalivation. On examination, the right mandible was markedly thickened, the right mandibular dental arcade was missing, and the oral mucosa over the right mandible was ulcerated and thickened. Skull radiographs and fine needle aspirate cytology were supportive of squamous cell carcinoma. The bobcat was euthanized as a result of its poor prognosis. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a bobcat. PMID:27010306

  4. TLR8 Agonist VTX-2337 and Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Recurrent, or Metastatic Squamous Cell Cancer of Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-03

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage

  5. Induction therapy with cetuximab plus docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (ETPF) in patients with resectable nonmetastatic stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx. A GERCOR phase II ECHO-07 study

    PubMed Central

    Chibaudel, Benoist; Lacave, Roger; Lefevre, Marine; Soussan, Patrick; Antoine, Martine; Périé, Sophie; Belloc, Jean-Baptiste; Banal, Alain; Albert, Sébastien; Chabolle, Frédéric; Céruse, Philippe; Baril, Philippe; Gatineau, Michel; Housset, Martin; Moukoko, Rachel; Benetkiewicz, Magdalena; de Gramont, Aimery; Bonnetain, Franck; Lacau St Guily, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Induction TPF regimen is a standard treatment option for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx. The efficacy and safety of adding cetuximab to induction TPF (ETPF) therapy was evaluated. Patients with nonmetastatic resectable stage III/IV SCC of the oropharynx were treated with weekly cetuximab followed the same day by docetaxel and cisplatin and by a continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil on days 1-5 (every 3 weeks, 3 cycles). The primary endpoint was clinical and radiological complete response (crCR) of primary tumor at 3 months. Secondary endpoints were crCR rates, overall response, pathological CR, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. Forty-two patients were enrolled, and 41 received ETPF. The all nine planned cetuximab doses and the full three doses of planned chemotherapy were completed in 31 (76%) and 36 (88%) patients, respectively. Twelve (29%) patients required dose reduction. The crCR of primary tumor at the completion of therapy was observed in nine (22%) patients. ETPF was associated with a tumor objective response rate (ORR) of 58%. The most frequent grade 3–4 toxicities were as follows: nonfebrile neutropenia (39%), febrile neutropenia (19%), diarrhea (10%), and stomatitis (12%). Eighteen (44%) patients experienced acne-like skin reactions of any grade. One toxic death occurred secondary to chemotherapy-induced colitis with colonic perforation. This phase II study reports an interesting response rate for ETPF in patients with moderately advanced SCC of the oropharynx. The schedule of ETPF evaluated in this study cannot be recommended at this dosage. PMID:25684313

  6. Induction therapy with cetuximab plus docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (ETPF) in patients with resectable nonmetastatic stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx. A GERCOR phase II ECHO-07 study.

    PubMed

    Chibaudel, Benoist; Lacave, Roger; Lefevre, Marine; Soussan, Patrick; Antoine, Martine; Périé, Sophie; Belloc, Jean-Baptiste; Banal, Alain; Albert, Sébastien; Chabolle, Frédéric; Céruse, Philippe; Baril, Philippe; Gatineau, Michel; Housset, Martin; Moukoko, Rachel; Benetkiewicz, Magdalena; de Gramont, Aimery; Bonnetain, Franck; Lacau St Guily, Jean

    2015-05-01

    Induction TPF regimen is a standard treatment option for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx. The efficacy and safety of adding cetuximab to induction TPF (ETPF) therapy was evaluated. Patients with nonmetastatic resectable stage III/IV SCC of the oropharynx were treated with weekly cetuximab followed the same day by docetaxel and cisplatin and by a continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil on days 1-5 (every 3 weeks, 3 cycles). The primary endpoint was clinical and radiological complete response (crCR) of primary tumor at 3 onths. Secondary endpoints were crCR rates, overall response, pathological CR, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. Forty-two patients were enrolled, and 41 received ETPF. The all nine planned cetuximab doses and the full three doses of planned chemotherapy were completed in 31 (76%) and 36 (88%) patients, respectively. Twelve (29%) patients required dose reduction. The crCR of primary tumor at the completion of therapy was observed in nine (22%) patients. ETPF was associated with a tumor objective response rate (ORR) of 58%. The most frequent grade 3-4 toxicities were as follows: nonfebrile neutropenia (39%), febrile neutropenia (19%), diarrhea (10%), and stomatitis (12%). Eighteen (44%) patients experienced acne-like skin reactions of any grade. One toxic death occurred secondary to chemotherapy-induced colitis with colonic perforation. This phase II study reports an interesting response rate for ETPF in patients with moderately advanced SCC of the oropharynx. The schedule of ETPF evaluated in this study cannot be recommended at this dosage. PMID:25684313

  7. Circulating Tumor DNA in Predicting Outcomes in Patients With Stage IV Head and Neck Cancer or Stage III-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-11

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  8. [Thyroid's metastasis of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Scanelli, Giovanni; Aimoni, Claudia; Marchetti, Elisabetta; Geminiani, Matteo; Pastore, Antonio

    2005-09-01

    The authors describe the case of a 58 years old man, affected by squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, who underwent left tonsillectomy with bilateral neck dissection, followed by radiotherapy. After a 6 months period, the patient began to suffer from dysphonia, dysphagia and loss of weight: a painless neoformation was detected at the right lobe of the tyhroid, resulted a metastasis of the tonsillar neoplasm. The search for intranodular thyroglobulin was negative; the patient underwent thyroidectomy which showed a massive infiltration of the right cricothyroid space, cricoid and thyroid wing cartilage necrosis and intralaryngeal tumor infiltration. The authors describe the thyroid metastasis treatment, present an up-to-date review of the literature and suggest a thyroid careful clinical evaluation in every patient with a previous history of oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:16229323

  9. Cetuximab and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-11

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Tongue Cancer

  10. Detection of squamous carcinoma cells using gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wei-Yun; Lee, Sze-tsen; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study is to use gold nanoparticle as a diagnostic agent to detect human squamous carcinoma cells. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized and the gold nanoparticle size was 34.3 ± 6.2 nm. Based on the over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) biomarkers in squamous carcinoma cells, we hypothesized that EGFR could be a feasible biomarker with a target moiety for detection. We further modified polyclonal antibodies of EGFR on the surface of gold nanoparticles. We found selected squamous carcinoma cells can be selectively detected using EGFR antibody-modified gold nanoparticles via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Cell death was also examined to determine the survival status of squamous carcinoma cells with respect to gold nanoparticle treatment and EGFR polyclonal antibody modification.

  11. Soy Isoflavones in Preventing Head and Neck Cancer Recurrence in Patients With Stage I-IV Head and Neck Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-28

    Recurrent Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage I Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage II Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Tongue Carcinoma

  12. Corneal squamous cell carcinoma in a Border Collie.

    PubMed

    Busse, Claudia; Sansom, Jane; Dubielzig, R R; Hayes, Alison

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year-old, female, spayed Border Collie was presented to the Unit of Comparative Ophthalmology at the Animal Health Trust with a 6-month history of a progressive nonpainful opacity of the left cornea. A keratectomy was performed and the tissue submitted for histopathology. The diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma. There has been no recurrence of the neoplasm to date (5 months). Canine corneal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has not been reported previously in the UK. PMID:18190354

  13. "Intercellular bridges" in a case of well differentiated squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Michaela; Mikita, Geoffrey; Hoda, Rana S

    2016-02-01

    Intercellular bridges may aide in definitive identification of malignant cell origin, especially in squamous cell carcinoma. They are difficult to identify in routine cytologic specimens and are especially rare in smear preparations. Herein, we present images of intercellular bridges from a case of well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in a cytologic specimen obtained from FNA of a paraesophageal lymph node. PMID:26681399

  14. PICSAR: Long Noncoding RNA in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yunhai; Morgan, Stefanie L; Wang, Kevin C

    2016-08-01

    It is increasingly evident that long noncoding RNAs may play the roles of both oncogenes and tumor suppressors during cancer development. A new study from Piipponen et al. provides evidence that a long noncoding RNA, PICSAR, promotes cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma development through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling. Because specific inhibition of PICSAR suppresses tumor growth, this long noncoding RNA may serve as a useful diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27450499

  15. A Phase I Study of LJM716 in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck, or HER2+ Breast Cancer or Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-21

    HER2 + Breast Cancer, HER2 + Gastric Cancer, Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck, Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; HER2 + Breast Cancer; HER2 + Gastric Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  16. Primary Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nipple

    PubMed Central

    Pendse, Avani A.; O'Connor, Siobhan M.

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common cutaneous cancers; however, primary squamous cell carcinoma of the nipple is extremely rare. Among the few reported cases, the majority have occurred in older women with rare cases seen in younger women and male patients. Our patient presented with an exophytic mass of the right nipple while pregnant. A superficial biopsy was reviewed at an outside institution and then at our institution and diagnosed as squamous papilloma and then as hyperkeratosis of the nipple, respectively. The subsequent excisional biopsy revealed multiple nests of tumor cells extending into the dermis with associated chronic inflammatory infiltrate, and the lesion was diagnosed as a primary invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the nipple. Following that, a wide local excision of the excision site and sampling of the regional lymph nodes were negative for carcinoma. Due to the rarity of this diagnosis, it is not known whether prognosis and response to therapy differ from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma at other sites. Therefore, risk stratification and therapy have been based on those for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26798535

  17. Pembrolizumab and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Recurrent Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer or Salivary Gland Cancer That Is Metastatic and/or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-14

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasopharynx Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic in the Neck With Occult Primary; Stage III Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  18. Transoral Robotic Surgery in Treating Patients With Benign or Stage I-IV Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-07

    III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  19. In Vivo{sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Lactate in Patients With Stage IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Quynh-Thu Koong, Albert; Lieskovsky, Yee Yie; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Graves, Edward; Pinto, Harlan; Brown, J. Martin; Spielman, Daniel

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate in vivo{sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging of lactate for assessing tumor hypoxia in head and neck cancers and to determine its utility in predicting the response and outcomes. Methods and Materials: Volume-localized lactate-edited {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 1.5 T was performed in vivo on involved neck nodes and control subcutaneous tissues in 36 patients with Stage IV head and neck cancer. The signal intensities (SIs) of lactate, choline, and creatine and the choline/creatine ratio were measured. The tumor partial pressure of oxygen (pO{sub 2}) was obtained in the same lymph node before MRS. Patients were treated with either two cycles of induction chemotherapy (tirapazamine, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil) followed by simultaneous chemoradiotherapy or the same regimen without tirapazamine. The lactate SI and the choline/creatine ratio correlated with the tumor pO{sub 2}, nodal response, and locoregional control. Results: The lactate SI was greater for the involved nodes (median, 0.25) than for the subcutaneous tissue (median, 0.04; p = 0.07). No significant correlation was found between the lactate SI and tumor pO{sub 2} (mean, 0.46 {+-} 0.10 for hypoxic nodes [pO{sub 2} {<=}10 mm Hg, n = 15] vs. 0.36 {+-} 0.07 for nonhypoxic nodes [pO{sub 2} >10 mm Hg, n = 21], p = 0.44). A significant correlation was found between the choline/creatine ratios and tumor pO{sub 2} (mean, 2.74 {+-} 0.34 for hypoxic nodes vs. 1.78 {+-} 0.31 for nonhypoxic nodes, p = 0.02). No correlation was found between the lactate SI and the complete nodal response (p = 0.52) or locoregional control rates. Conclusions: The lactate SI did not correlate with tumor pO{sub 2}, treatment response, or locoregional control. Additional research is needed to refine this technique.

  20. Biventricular metastatic invasion from cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Karan; Evans, Matthew C; Shkullaku, Melsjan; Schillinger, Rachel; White, Charles S; Roque, Dana M

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis to the heart has been previously described with primary lung and breast carcinoma, lymphoma, leukaemia, mesothelioma and melanoma. However, left-ventricular cardiac metastasis from primary cervical squamous cell carcinoma is poorly described. This report describes the clinical presentation of a patient with cardiac metastatic invasion from cervical cancer. PMID:27371746

  1. Digital necrosis with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, Vinod; Ahmad, Ali; Alshatti, Yaqoub; Jafar, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Digital necrosis is a rare phenomenon of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. Since 1965, more than 70 cases have been reported worldwide in the literature. Case report A 54-year-old male smoker presented with Raynaud’s phenomenon, proceeding to frank gangrene of the fingers. Working up the case finally pointed toward carcinoma of the tonsil as the underlying cause – a rare paraneoplastic manifestation. Conclusion No definite etiology has been found to be the cause of Raynaud’s phenomenon in this case of the squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. A brief discussion of the literature is also presented. PMID:27390535

  2. Comparison of Four Cisplatin-Based Radiochemotherapy Regimens for Nonmetastatic Stage III/IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck;Head-and-neck cancer; Cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy; Toxicity; Treatment outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk; Kronemann, Stefanie; Meyners, Thekla; Bohlen, Guenther; Tribius, Silke; Kazic, Nadja; Schroeder, Ursula; Hakim, Samer G.; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To compare the outcomes of four cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy regimens in 311 patients with Stage III/IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Concurrent chemotherapy consisted of three courses of cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} on Day 1 (Group A, n = 74), two courses of cisplatin 20 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 plus 5-fluorouracil 1,000 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 (Group B, n = 49), two courses of cisplatin 20 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 plus 5-fluorouracil 600 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 (Group C, n = 102), or two courses of cisplatin 20 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 (Group D, n = 86). The groups were retrospectively compared for toxicity and outcomes, and 11 additional factors were evaluated for outcomes. Results: No significant difference was observed among the groups regarding radiation-related acute oral mucositis and radiation-related late toxicities. Acute Grade 3 skin toxicity was significantly more frequent in Group B than in the patients of the other three groups (p = .013). The chemotherapy-related Grade 3 nausea/vomiting rate was 24% for Group A, 8% for Group B, 9% for Group C, and 6% for Group D (p = .003). The corresponding Grade 3 nephrotoxicity rates were 8%, 1%, 2%, and 1% (p = .019). The corresponding Grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity rates were 35%, 41%, 19%, and 21% (p = .027). Chemotherapy could be completed in 50%, 59%, 74%, and 83% of the Group A, B, C, and D patients, respectively (p = .002). Toxicity-related radiotherapy breaks occurred in 39%, 43%, 21%, and 15% of Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively (p = .005). The 3-year locoregional control rate was 67%, 72%, 60%, and 59% for Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively (p = .48). The corresponding 3-year metastasis-free survival rates were 67%, 74%, 63%, and 79% (p = .31), and the corresponding 3-year survival rates were 60%, 63%, 50%, and 71% (p = .056). On multivariate analysis, Karnofsky performance status, histologic grade, T/N category, preradiotherapy hemoglobin level

  3. Endoscopic screening for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Roshandel, Gholamreza; Nourouzi, Alireza; Pourshams, Akram; Semnani, Shahryar; Merat, Shahin; Khoshnia, Masoud

    2013-06-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth common cancer and the sixth most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains the most common type of EC in the developing world and an important health problem in high-risk areas. Most of ESCC cases present in late stages, resulting in delayed diagnosis and poor prognosis. Prevention is the most effective strategy to control ESCC. Primary and secondary preventive methods may be considered for ESCC. In primary prevention, we try to avoid known risk factors. The aim of the secondary preventive method (ESCC screening programs) is to detect and eliminate premalignant precursor lesion of ESCC, preventing its progression into advanced stages. Similar to all population-based screening programs, any screening for early detection of ESCC must be cost-effective; otherwise, screening may not be indicated in that population. Endoscopy with iodine staining has been accepted as a population-level ESCC screening program in some high-risk areas including parts of China. This method may be too expensive and invasive in other high-risk communities. Nonendoscopic methods may be more applicable in these populations for population-based screenings. The limitations (questionable validity and costs) of new endoscopic imaging modalities, including narrow-band imaging (NBI), made them inappropriate to be used in population-level ESCC screening programs. Low-cost, less-invasive endoscopic imaging methods with acceptable diagnostic performance may make screening of ESCC in high-risk areas cost-effective. PMID:23725069

  4. Oral squamous cell carcinoma around dental implants.

    PubMed

    Czerninski, Rakefet; Kaplan, Ilana; Almoznino, Galit; Maly, Alexander; Regev, Eran

    2006-10-01

    It is well documented that oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is related to risk factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption as well as premalignant lesions and conditions such as leukoplakia, oral lichen planus (OLP), and previous malignancy of the upper respiratory system and gastrointestinal tract. Osseointegrated dental implants are rarely reported in association with OSCC. This article presents 2 cases of OSCC adjacent to dental implants in patients at risk for oral cancer--1 was a heavy smoker with OLP; the other had a history of previous oral and colon cancer. Six additional cases of malignancy adjacent to dental implants were retrieved from the literature; the majority of cases had at least 1 recognized risk factor for oral cancer. Although such cases are rarely reported, patients at risk for oral cancer, especially those with multiple existing risk factors, that present with failing dental implants should be thoroughly evaluated to rule out the presence of malignancy disguised as peri-implant disease. PMID:17017632

  5. Esophagoscopy in Evaluating Treatment in Patients With Stage I-IV Head and Neck Cancer Who Are Undergoing Radiation Therapy and/or Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-04-09

    Stage I Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  6. Osseointegrated implants: a potential route of entry for squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Schache, Andrew; Thavaraj, Selvam; Kalavrezos, Nicholas

    2008-07-01

    Documented cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma in relation to osseointegrated implants are rare. We present the first case with evidence to suggest that implants provide a route of entry for squamous cell carcinoma to the mandible. PMID:18063453

  7. Distinct perturbations of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients: A quantitative cytomorphometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepti; Sandhu, Simarpreet V; Bansal, Himanta; Gupta, Shruti

    2015-01-01

    Objective Oral cancer constitutes a major health issue in developing countries, representing the leading cause of death. Quantitative assessment by sophisticated diagnostic techniques is becoming increasingly important. Hence, a histochemical staining procedure and morphometric evaluation are used to obtain optimal information on the cellular events. The objective of present study is to assess the variation in cellular area, nuclear area, cellular diameter, nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio respectively in normal subjects, smokeless tobacco users, (smokers, combination and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Methods Total 125 number of subjects were divided into five groups, each comprising 25 subjects of more than 40 years of age. These groups were: a. Normal, b. smokeless tobacco users, c. smokers d. combination and e. oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral smears were obtained, stained with Feulgen stain and the cells were measured cytomorphometrically using Nikon imaging software. Results Our study showed a significant reduction in the cellular diameter, cellular area and increase in the nuclear diameter, nuclear area and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients as compared to tobacco users and normal patients. Significant changes were found in group I, II, III and IV when compared with group V but as such no significant intergroup variation was found in cellular and nuclear dimensions in smokers, smokeless tobacco users, combination and control group. Conclusion Quantitative parameters could be assessed by cytomorphometry. Cytomorphological changes in exfoliated squames could serve as a useful adjunct in the early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:26609293

  8. Chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, Gary D. Wang Lishu; Chen Tong

    2007-11-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is responsible for approximately one-sixth of all cancer-related mortality worldwide. This malignancy has a multifactorial etiology involving several environmental, dietary and genetic factors. Since esophageal cancer has often metastasized at the time of diagnosis, current treatment modalities offer poor survival and cure rates. Chemoprevention offers a viable alternative that could well be effective against the disease. Clinical investigations have shown that primary chemoprevention of this disease is feasible if potent inhibitory agents are identified. The Fischer 344 (F-344) rat model of esophageal SCC has been used extensively to investigate the biology of the disease, and to identify chemopreventive agents that could be useful in human trials. Multiple compounds that inhibit tumor initiation by esophageal carcinogens have been identified using this model. These include several isothiocyanates, diallyl sulfide and polyphenolic compounds. These compounds influence the metabolic activation of esophageal carcinogens resulting in reduced genetic (DNA) damage. Recently, a few agents have been shown to inhibit the progression of preneoplastic lesions in the rat esophagus into tumors. These agents include inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and c-Jun [a component of activator protein-1 (AP-1)]. Using a food-based approach to cancer prevention, we have shown that freeze-dried berry preparations inhibit both the initiation and promotion/progression stages of esophageal SCC in F-344 rats. These observations have led to a clinical trial in China to evaluate the ability of freeze-dried strawberries to influence the progression of esophageal dysplasia to SCC.

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (non-metastatic)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant tumour of keratinocytes arising in the epidermis, with histological evidence of dermal invasion. Incidence varies by country, skin colour, and outdoor behaviour, and is as high as 400/100,000 in Australia. People with fair skin colour who have high sun exposure and sunburn easily with little or no tanning, people with xeroderma pigmentosum, and people who are immunosuppressed are most susceptible to squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: Does the use of sunscreen help prevent cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and actinic (solar) keratosis? What is the optimal margin for primary excision of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (non-metastatic)? Does radiotherapy after surgery affect local recurrence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in people with squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (non-metastatic)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found five studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: sunscreens, primary excision, and radiotherapy after surgery. PMID:25137222

  10. Expression of extracellular matrix proteins in cervical squamous cell carcinoma--a clinicopathological study.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, I; Davidson, B; Lerner-Geva, L; Gotlieb, W H; Ben-Baruch, G; Novikov, I; Kopolovic, J

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the intracellular and peritumoral expression of matrix proteins in squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix using immunohistochemistry. METHODS: 71 squamous cell carcinomas and 10 controls were stained for laminin, fibronectin, and collagen IV. Cytoplasmic staining in tumour cells and peritumoral deposition of matrix proteins were evaluated. The association between staining results and patient age, tumour stage, histological grade, and survival was studied. RESULTS: Positive cytoplasmic staining for laminin, fibronectin, and collagen IV was observed in 17 (23.9%), 27 (38%), and 10 (14.1%) cases, respectively. Staining for laminin was most pronounced in the invasive front of tumour islands, while for fibronectin and collagen IV it appeared to be diffuse. Peritumoral staining for laminin and collagen IV was detected in 12 cases (16.9%). Early stage (Ia1-Ia2) tumours were uniformly negative for all three proteins. Cytoplasmic staining for laminin correlated with positive staining for fibronectin and collagen IV, and with the presence of a peritumoral deposition of collagen IV and laminin. There was no correlation with any of the three markers between staining results and patient age, stage, grade, or survival. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of extracellular matrix proteins in some cervical squamous cell carcinomas might reflect the enhanced ability of these tumours to modify the peritumoral stroma. This ability seems to be absent in early stage tumours. The correlation between intracytoplasmic and peritumoral expression of matrix proteins supports the evidence of their synthesis by tumour cells. However, this property did not correlate with disease outcome in this study. Images PMID:10023343

  11. Ixabepilone in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-26

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  12. Expression of GLUT-1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma in tobacco and non-tobacco users

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Neha; Kumari Maurya, Malti; Kar, Meenakshi; Goel, Madhu Mati; Singh, Ajay Kumar; Sagar, Mala; Mehrotra, Divya; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Background GLUTs are a family of proteins that mediate glucose transport through the membrane, expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. GLUT-1 positivity in malignant cells indicates increased proliferative activity, energy requirements, aggressive behaviour and poor radiation response. Aim To observe the expression of GLUT-1 protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma in tobacco and non-tobacco users and to correlate the expression with histopathological grading and pathological staging. Methods 50 cases (25 tobacco and 25 non-tobacco) of oral squamous cell carcinoma, selected during period of August 2014 to July 2015. Histopathological grading, TNM and staging were done. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using standard protocol for paraffin embedded sections. Analysis was performed on SPSS software (Windows version 17.0). Results Significant association of GLUT-1 expression was found with history of tobacco (p < 0.001), Bryne's grade (p < 0.001), tumour size (p = 0.001), nodal metastasis (p = 0.022) and stage (p < 0.001). Higher GLUT-1 expression in stage II, stage III and stage IV was found as compared to stage I. GLUT-1 immunoexpression also shows progressive switch from membranous to cytoplasmic to combined location correlating with histopathologic grade and pTNM stage. Conclusion GLUT-1 expression correlates significantly with histological grade and pTNM staging of oral squamous cell carcinoma. It also significantly correlates with tobacco addiction. Thus, GLUT-1 expression may serve as a biomarker for patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26937365

  13. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-11

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  14. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Invasion through Ear Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Boisen, Julie; Malone, C. Helen; Kelly, Brent; Wagner, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the ear represents a high-risk tumor location with an increased risk of metastasis and local tissue invasion. However, it is uncommon for these cancers to invade through nearby cartilage. Cartilage invasion is facilitated by matrix metalloproteases, specifically collagenase 3. We present the unusual case of a 76-year-old man with an auricular squamous cell carcinoma that exhibited full-thickness perforation of the scapha cartilage. Permanent sections through the eroded cartilage confirmed tumor invasion extending to the posterior ear skin. PMID:27293916

  15. Anal squamous cell carcinoma: An evolution in disease and management

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Marc C; Maykel, Justin; Johnson, Eric K; Steele, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    Anal cancer represents less than 1% of all new cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. Yet, despite the relative paucity of cases, the incidence of anal cancer has seen a steady about 2% rise each year over the last decade. As such, all healthcare providers need to be cognizant of the evaluation and treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma. While chemoradiation remains the mainstay of therapy for most patients with anal cancer, surgery may still be required in recurrent, recalcitrant and palliative disease. In this manuscript, we will explore the diagnosis and management of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. PMID:25278699

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma of the colon with an elevated serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen responding to combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Copur, S; Ledakis, P; Novinski, D; Mleczko, K L; Frankforter, S; Bolton, M; Fruehling, R M; VanWie, E; Norvell, M; Muhvic, J

    2001-05-01

    Primary squamous cell colorectal carcinomas are uncommon, and their characteristics are not well known. They seem to occur most commonly in the fifth decade of life with a slight predominance for men. The most commonly reported anatomic locations are the rectum and the proximal colon. Clinical features and common diagnostic methods do not easily differentiate squamous cell colorectal carcinomas from adenocarcinomas. Because of their extremely rare occurrence, it is difficult to study their natural course, clinical behavior, and response to therapy. This report presents the case of a pure squamous cell colorectal cancer and provides a brief review of the literature, which includes 60 previously published cases. The case of a patient with T3N2M0 primary squamous cell carcinoma of the rectosigmoid colon, which was initially treated with abdominoperineal resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation, is presented. During the follow-up, an elevated squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC Ag) level led to restaging computed tomography scans, which confirmed recurrent metastatic disease in the liver. Response to chemotherapy with a decrease in tumor size correlated with a decrease in the serum SCC Ag level. Although SCC Ag has been used as a tumor marker for squamous cell cancers of the lung, head and neck, uterine cervix, and esophagus, this is the first reported case of a squamous cell colon carcinoma presenting with an elevated SCC Ag at the time of recurrence. In addition, this patient showed an objective partial response to combination chemotherapy, with a decrease in the serum level of this tumor marker. PMID:12445380

  17. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events. PMID:26850723

  18. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Submandibular Salivary Gland with Sialo-Cutaneous Fistula: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Sanjiv S.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant tumours of the submandibular salivary glands are rare entities. Most common malignant tumour of submandibular gland is mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Histological finding of squamous cell carcinoma is very rare in submandibular salivary gland. Metastasis from distant primary squamous malignancy, direct invasion from cutaneous or mucosal squamous carcinoma, squamous component of mucoepidermoid carcinoma or primary squamous cell carcinoma of salivary origin are some of the possible causes. Of these, the latter is distinctly uncommon. Primary squamous malignancy is diagnosed only after ruling out other possible explanations. A positive mucin stain in the tumour or synchronous/ metachronous squamous carcinoma elsewhere excludes the diagnosis of a primary carcinoma. Primary squamous carcinoma is seen most commonly in parotid gland and rarely in submandibular gland. We present a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of right submandibular salivary gland in a 45-year old-man. This case is presented for the rare entity of primary squamous cell carcinoma in submandibular salivary gland. PMID:26435997

  19. Combined radical radiation therapy and chemotherapy for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    PubMed

    Cummings, B J; Rider, W D; Harwood, A R; Keane, T J; Thomas, G M; Erlichman, C; Fine, S

    1982-03-01

    Radical radiation therapy (5000 rads in 20 fractions in 4 weeks) combined with iv mitomycin (10 mg/m2) and 5-FU (1000 mg/m2/24 hours for 4 days) was used to treat 13 patients with locally advanced but operable squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. All patients achieved local control and retained anal continence, and none developed metastases. The patients were followed from 4 to 34 months (median, 12). Severe acute gastrointestinal toxic effects were seen in three patients; the same patients had significant thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. Treatment with this combined program may allow conservative management of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal and should be considered as an alternative to abdominoperineal resection. PMID:6800654

  20. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Liver

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu-Feng; Du, Zhao-Qing; Liu, Xue-Min; Lv, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of liver is rare, and its prognosis is extremely poor. This study aims at reviewing the clinical data of all pathologically diagnosed liver cancer in our institute, and discussing the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of our cases of SCC and the literatures reported previously. All the patients undergoing liver surgery or biopsy for liver cancers from 2002 to 2013 in our hospital were reviewed, and the liver specimens were examined pathologically. A literature search for case reports of primary SCC of liver published until December 31, 2014, was performed on PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus Elsevier, Cochrane, and Google Scholar. The primitive data of the case reports were all included and analyzed if available. From January 2002 to October 2013, 2210 cases of liver cancer were diagnosed pathologically in our hospital. Among, 4 cases (0.2%) were diagnosed as primary SCC of liver. All were negative for hepatitis B infection, but present with liver cyst and/or hepatolithiasis. One patient underwent radical resection, but died of tumor recurrence 18 months postoperatively. One patient received transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and 1 patient received laparotomy and alcohol injection, but died 9 and 4 months after surgery, respectively. The last patient received only biopsy and supportive treatment, and finally died of tumor metastasis 6 months later. From 1970 to 2014, 31 cases of primary liver SCC have been published in English previously. Thirty one cases and the 4 cases in the present study were included. The average age of the patients were 54 years (range 18–83), with a male to female ratio of 19:16. Twenty patients had liver cysts, 7 had bile duct stones, and 2 cases had both. Patients undergoing radical surgery had better prognosis than those undergoing palliative treatments (median survival 17 vs 5 months, P = 0.005, log-rank test). Patients with liver cysts seemed to have worse

  1. Neoadjuvant Intravesical Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Bladder Carcinoma Who Are Undergoing Cystectomy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-22

    Bladder Adenocarcinoma; Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage I Bladder Cancer; Stage II Bladder Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer

  2. Induction of Human Squamous Cell-Type Carcinomas by Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Victor D.; Becker-Santos, Daiana D.; Vucic, Emily A.; Lam, Stephen; Lam, Wan L.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is a potent human carcinogen. Around one hundred million people worldwide have potentially been exposed to this metalloid at concentrations considered unsafe. Exposure occurs generally through drinking water from natural geological sources, making it difficult to control this contamination. Arsenic biotransformation is suspected to have a role in arsenic-related health effects ranging from acute toxicities to development of malignancies associated with chronic exposure. It has been demonstrated that arsenic exhibits preference for induction of squamous cell carcinomas in the human, especially skin and lung cancer. Interestingly, keratins emerge as a relevant factor in this arsenic-related squamous cell-type preference. Additionally, both genomic and epigenomic alterations have been associated with arsenic-driven neoplastic process. Some of these aberrations, as well as changes in other factors such as keratins, could explain the association between arsenic and squamous cell carcinomas in humans. PMID:22175027

  3. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: new translational therapies.

    PubMed

    Prince, Anthony; Aguirre-Ghizo, Julio; Genden, Eric; Posner, Marshall; Sikora, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma includes cancers of the mouth, throat, larynx, and lymph nodes of the neck. Although early disease is amenable to single-modality treatment with surgery or radiation, patients with advanced disease have a dramatically worse prognosis, despite potentially morbid/toxic treatment regimens involving surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or all 3 modalities. The present review seeks to provide an overview of current understanding and treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma for the nonspecialist clinician or basic/translational researcher, followed by an overview of major translational approaches to the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Translational research topics addressed include targeted molecular therapy, immunotherapy, minimally invasive robotic surgery, and ablation of dormant/residual tumor cells. Despite the many potentially promising avenues of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma research, only 2 new treatment approaches (antiepidermal growth factor receptor therapy and robotic surgery) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in the past 30 years. Focused research programs involving integrated teams of clinicians, basic scientists, and translational clinician-researchers have the potential to accelerate discovery and change treatment paradigms for patients with head and neck cancer. PMID:21105129

  4. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN THE GULF MENHADEN, 'BREVOORTIA PATRONUS' GOODE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The communication reports a case (RTLA 3618) of squamous cell carcinoma from the gulf menhaden, Brevoortia patronus Goode, the first tumor reported from the species. The affected fish was collected in a gill net on 15 January 1986 in the northern Gulf of Mexico near Round Island,...

  5. Identification of somatic gene mutations in penile squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ferrándiz-Pulido, Carla; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Masferrer, Emili; Vivancos, Ana; Somoza, Rosa; Marés, Roso; Valverde, Claudia; Salvador, Carlos; Placer, Jose; Morote, Juan; Pujol, Ramon M; Ramon y Cajal, Santiago; de Torres, Ines; Toll, Agusti; García-Patos, Vicente

    2015-10-01

    There is a lack of studies on somatic gene mutations and cell signaling driving penile carcinogenesis. Our objective was to analyze somatic mutations in genes downstream of EGFR in penile squamous cell carcinomas, especially the mTOR and RAS/MAPK pathways. We retrospectively analyzed somatic mutations in 10 in situ and 65 invasive penile squamous cell carcinomas by using Sequenom's Mass Spectrometry iPlex Technology and Oncocarta v1.0 Panel. The DNA was extracted from FFPE blocks and we identified somatic missense mutations in three in situ tumors and in 19 invasive tumors, mostly in PIK3CA, KRAS, HRAS, NRAS, and PDGFA genes. Somatic mutations in the PIK3CA gene or RAS family genes were neither associated with tumor grade, stage or outcome, and were equally often identified in hrHPV positive and in hrHPV negative tumors that showed no p53 expression. Mutations in PIK3CA, KRAS, and HRAS are frequent in penile squamous cell carcinoma and likely play a role in the development of p53-negative tumors. Although the presence of these mutations does not seem to correlate with tumoral behavior or outcome, they could be biomarkers of treatment failure with anti-EGFR mAb in patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26216163

  6. Chromoblastomycosis associated with a lethal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Torres, Edoardo; Beristain, Javier Gil; Lievanos, Zahide; Arenas, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by the dermatophytic fungi Fonsecaea, Phialophora and Cladophialophora. Usual complications include secondary infection, lymphedema and elephantiasis. Associated malignancies have been found in chronic cases. This case report describes a 72 year-old male with a 30 year history of chromoblastomycosis in the gluteal region, who went on to develop a squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:20520950

  7. Male pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin.

    PubMed

    Chiec, Lauren; Verma, Sadhna; Kendler, Ady; Abdel Karim, Nagla

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin has been described in several case reports of female patients. However, there have been no published reports describing male patients with pelvic squamous cell cancer of unknown primary origin. Our case describes a 52-year-old man who presented with right buttock pain, rectal urgency, and constipation. His physical examination demonstrated tenderness to palpation around his gluteal folds. Computed tomography scan of his abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a large mass in his retroperitoneum. The mass was determined to be squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin. Additionally, the patient had small nodules in his right lower lung lobe and right hepatic lobe. The patient was treated with concomitant chemoradiation, including cisplatin and intensity-modulated radiation therapy, followed by carboplatin and paclitaxel. The patient achieved partial remission, in which he remained one year after his presentation. Our case is consistent with the literature which suggests that squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin occurring outside of the head and neck region may have a more favorable prognosis than other carcinomas of unknown primary origin. Further studies are necessary to determine the most appropriate work-up, diagnosis, and optimal treatment strategies. PMID:25478265

  8. Tracheal Resection With Carinal Reconstruction for Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Timothy S; Krantz, Seth B; Patterson, G Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for primary malignancies of the trachea. We present here the rare case of a lifelong nonsmoker with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea, requiring tracheal resection and anterior carinal reconstruction. Patient preparation, surgical technique, and considerations to avoid airway anastomotic complications are discussed. PMID:27343542

  9. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA in periungual squamous cell carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Moy, R.L.; Eliezri, Y.D.; Bennett, R.G. ); Nuovo, G.J.; Siverstein, S. Columbia Univ., New York, NY ); Zitelli, J.A. )

    1989-05-12

    Ten squamous cell carcinomas (in situ or invasive) of the fingernail region were analyzed for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to human papilloma-virus (HPV) by dot blot hybridization. In most patients, the lesions were verrucae of long-term duration that were refractory to conventional treatment methods. Eight of the lesions contained HPV DNA sequences, and in six of these the sequences were related to HPV 16 as deduced from low-stringency nucleic acid hybridization followed by low- and high-stringency washes. Furthermore, the restriction endonuclease digestion pattern of DNA isolated from four of these lesions was diagnostic of episomal HPV 16. The high-frequency association of HPV 16 with periungual squamous cell carcinoma is similar to that reported for HPV 16 with squamous cell carcinomas on mucous membranes at other sites, notably the genital tract. The findings suggest that HPV 16 may play an important role in the development of squamous cell carcinomas of the finger, most notably those lesions that are chronic and located in the periungual area.

  10. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin Before Radiation Therapy With Paclitaxel in Treating HPV-Positive Patients With Stage III-IV Oropharynx, Hypopharynx, or Larynx Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-07

    Human Papilloma Virus Infection; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx

  11. Talactoferrin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-30

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral

  12. [Malignant cystosarcoma phylloides and squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. A rare tumor combination].

    PubMed

    Hunger, E; Türk, R; Wurster, K

    1984-10-01

    A case of squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the stroma of cystosarcoma phylloides malignum is reported. A short review of prognosis and therapy is given on comparable cases. It is not uncommon to find squamous cell metaplasias in the dilated ducts of cystosarcoma phylloides. The combination of squamous cell carcinoma with this tumour, however, is a rarity. PMID:6097500

  13. Phase I/II Study of Postoperative Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Advanced-Stage Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (cSCCHN)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-17

    Recurrent Skin Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity

  14. TERT Promoter Mutations Are Frequent in Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Griewank, Klaus G.; Murali, Rajmohan; Schilling, Bastian; Schimming, Tobias; Möller, Inga; Moll, Iris; Schwamborn, Marion; Sucker, Antje; Zimmer, Lisa; Schadendorf, Dirk; Hillen, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Activating mutations in the TERT promoter were recently identified in up to 71% of cutaneous melanoma. Subsequent studies found TERT promoter mutations in a wide array of other major human cancers. TERT promoter mutations lead to increased expression of telomerase, which maintains telomere length and genomic stability, thereby allowing cancer cells to continuously divide, avoiding senescence or apoptosis. TERT promoter mutations in cutaneous melanoma often show UV-signatures. Non-melanoma skin cancer, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are very frequent malignancies in individuals of European descent. We investigated the presence of TERT promoter mutations in 32 basal cell carcinomas and 34 cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas using conventional Sanger sequencing. TERT promoter mutations were identified in 18 (56%) basal cell carcinomas and in 17 (50%) cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. The recurrent mutations identified in our cohort were identical to those previously described in cutaneous melanoma, and showed a UV-signature (C>T or CC>TT) in line with a causative role for UV exposure in these common cutaneous malignancies. Our study shows that TERT promoter mutations with UV-signatures are frequent in non-melanoma skin cancer, being present in around 50% of basal and squamous cell carcinomas and suggests that increased expression of telomerase plays an important role in the pathogenesis of these tumors. PMID:24260374

  15. Introducing Cytology-Based Theranostics in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Pilot Program.

    PubMed

    Patrikidou, Anna; Valeri, Rosalia Maria; Kitikidou, Kyriaki; Destouni, Charikleia; Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of brush cytology in the biomarker expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas within the concept of theranostics, and to correlate this biomarker profile with patient measurable outcomes. Markers representative of prognostic gene expression changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma was selected. These markers were also selected to involve pathways for which commercially available or investigational agents exist for clinical application. A set of 7 markers were analysed by immunocytochemistry on the archival primary tumour material of 99 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. We confirmed the feasibility of the technique for the expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Furthermore, our results affirm the prognostic significance of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family and the angiogenic pathway in oral squamous cell carcinoma, confirming their interest for targeted therapy. Brush cytology appears feasible and applicable for the expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinoma within the concept of theranostics, according to sample availability. PMID:26581612

  16. A Phase Ib/II Study of BYL719 and Cetuximab in Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (RM HNSCC) Patients Who Are Resistant or Ineligible/Intolerant to Platinum-based Chemotherapy.; Recurrent Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  17. Combined salivary duct carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suspected of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Enokida, Tomohiro; Fujii, Satoshi; Kuno, Hirofumi; Mukaigawa, Takashi; Tahara, Makoto; Sakuraba, Minoru; Hayashi, Ryuichi

    2016-08-01

    A 76-year-old Japanese woman had noticed an asymptomatic and palpable mass in her left parotid gland region for 20 years. The tumor had showed rapid growth during the last two months. Therefore, the tumor was clinically suspected of being a malignant tumor and was surgically resected. A histopathological examination revealed that the tumor consisted of two different histopathological neoplastic components accompanied by hyalinized fibrosis at the center of the tumor. The two-neoplastic components were squamous cell carcinoma and salivary duct carcinoma. The tumor was suspected to be a carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma after considering the clinical course and the histopathological findings, such as hyalinized fibrosis at the center of the tumor. There was no evidence of recurrence at 30 months after the surgical resection. PMID:27435055

  18. Bupropion Hydrochloride or Patient's Choice for Smoking Cessation in Patients With Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy With or Without Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-27

    Current Smoker; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  19. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Gurudutt, Vivek V.; Genden, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is an epidemic that reaches all parts of the world. Making the diagnosis relies on the acumen of the clinician and pathologist. Various pathologic subtypes exist and differ in histology and prognosis. High-risk tumors need aggressive treatment and vigilant surveillance to monitor for recurrence. Large tumors, deep tissue invasion, perineural involvement, recurrence, location in high-risk areas, and immunosuppression are implicated in worsening prognosis. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with adjuvant radiation therapy as needed for aggressive tumors; however, other modalities are potentially useful for low-risk lesions. The use of Mohs surgery has become increasingly useful and has shown high success rates. Involvement of parotid and neck lymph nodes significantly affects outcomes and the physician should be comfortable with management of this complex disease. This paper examines the diagnosis, pathology, clinical course, and treatment options for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. PMID:21461387

  20. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Gurudutt, Vivek V; Genden, Eric M

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is an epidemic that reaches all parts of the world. Making the diagnosis relies on the acumen of the clinician and pathologist. Various pathologic subtypes exist and differ in histology and prognosis. High-risk tumors need aggressive treatment and vigilant surveillance to monitor for recurrence. Large tumors, deep tissue invasion, perineural involvement, recurrence, location in high-risk areas, and immunosuppression are implicated in worsening prognosis. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with adjuvant radiation therapy as needed for aggressive tumors; however, other modalities are potentially useful for low-risk lesions. The use of Mohs surgery has become increasingly useful and has shown high success rates. Involvement of parotid and neck lymph nodes significantly affects outcomes and the physician should be comfortable with management of this complex disease. This paper examines the diagnosis, pathology, clinical course, and treatment options for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. PMID:21461387

  1. Personalized targeted therapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiaozheng; Chen, Keneng; Li, Yicheng; Li, Jianying; D'Amico, Thomas A; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2015-07-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma continues to heavily burden clinicians worldwide. Researchers have discovered the genomic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, which holds promise for an era of personalized oncology care. One of the most pressing problems facing this issue is to improve the understanding of the newly available genomic data, and identify the driver-gene mutations, pathways, and networks. The emergence of a legion of novel targeted agents has generated much hope and hype regarding more potent treatment regimens, but the accuracy of drug selection is still arguable. Other problems, such as cancer heterogeneity, drug resistance, exceptional responders, and side effects, have to be surmounted. Evolving topics in personalized oncology, such as interpretation of genomics data, issues in targeted therapy, research approaches for targeted therapy, and future perspectives, will be discussed in this editorial. PMID:26167067

  2. Penis keratoacanthoma transforming into squamous cell carcinoma: a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Fei; Liu, Xuemei; Zhou, Yihong; Liu, Jianye; Tang, Yuxin; Tang, Jin; Yao, Kun; Xia, Bing; Dai, Yingbo

    2015-01-01

    Keratoacanthoma is variously regarded as a benign epithelial tumor, characterized by a rapid-growing and solitary flesh-colored nodule with a central keratin plug on the sun-exposed skin. Under certain circumstances, it can transform into squamous cell carcinoma. In this paper, we present a case of a 50-year-old man with a 2.5 × 3 × 2.2 cm mass on his penis stub-end. The patient was treat with a partial penectomy after further expert discussions and histopathology the lesion demonstrated penis keratoacanthoma. He received a partial penectomy again and the pathological result revealed squamous cell carcinoma this time. This case indicates that undergoing a partial penectomy on initial diagnosis of a penile tumor secondary to penile keratoacanthoma should be considered because of its high malignant potency. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to describe the malignant conversion of penis keratoacanthoma. PMID:26885065

  3. Eccrine syringofibroadenoma associated with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kacerovska, Denisa; Nemcova, Jana; Michal, Michal; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2008-12-01

    We report a case of an eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA) associated with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was an 85-year-old man, who had a 2.5x2.5-cm, brown-colored ulcerated nodule, with a fragile, flesh-colored bleeding surface located beyond the metacarpophalangeal joint of the second finger of his left hand. Histopathologically, there were areas of a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, alternating with the typical area of ESFA characterized by anastomosing cords, strands, and columns of epithelial cells extending from the crusted epidermis into a thickened, edematous, myxoid vascular-rich dermis. Immunohistochemically, the areas with dysplastic epithelium were positive for p16, whereas the benign ESFA parts tested negative. Human papillomavirus was detected in the lesional tissue by polymerase chain reaction, and the subsequent sequencing analysis demonstrated that the virus was close to human papillomavirus type 107. PMID:19033931

  4. Animal models of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Supsavhad, Wachiraphan; Dirksen, Wessel P; Martin, Chelsea K; Rosol, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the most common oral cancer worldwide. Local bone invasion into the maxilla or mandible and metastasis to regional lymph nodes often result in a poor prognosis, decreased quality of life and shortened survival time for HNSCC patients. Poor response to treatment and clinical outcomes are the major concerns in this aggressive cancer. Multiple animal models have been developed to replicate spontaneous HNSCC and investigate genetic alterations and novel therapeutic targets. This review provides an overview of HNSCC as well as the traditional animal models used in HNSCC preclinical research. The value and challenges of each in vivo model are discussed. Similarity between HNSCC in humans and cats and the possibility of using spontaneous feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) as a model for HNSCC in translational research are highlighted. PMID:26965084

  5. Personalized targeted therapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Xiaozheng; Chen, Keneng; Li, Yicheng; Li, Jianying; D'Amico, Thomas A; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma continues to heavily burden clinicians worldwide. Researchers have discovered the genomic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, which holds promise for an era of personalized oncology care. One of the most pressing problems facing this issue is to improve the understanding of the newly available genomic data, and identify the driver-gene mutations, pathways, and networks. The emergence of a legion of novel targeted agents has generated much hope and hype regarding more potent treatment regimens, but the accuracy of drug selection is still arguable. Other problems, such as cancer heterogeneity, drug resistance, exceptional responders, and side effects, have to be surmounted. Evolving topics in personalized oncology, such as interpretation of genomics data, issues in targeted therapy, research approaches for targeted therapy, and future perspectives, will be discussed in this editorial. PMID:26167067

  6. Review of paraneoplastic syndromes associated with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Deepu George; Rooban, T; Janani, V; Joshua, E; Rao, UK; Ranganathan, K

    2010-01-01

    Malignancies are usually preceded by the presence of various paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS), which could be the indirect and/or remote effects of the metabolites produced by neoplastic cells. PNS manifested by oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas, which is the most common head and neck malignancy, are highlighted in this review. Knowledge of the clinical spectrum of these syndromes will equip the oral physician for early diagnosis and management of these hidden malignancies, especially of the pharyngeal region. PMID:21731261

  7. Squamous cell carcinoma of the gingiva: A diagnostic enigma

    PubMed Central

    Bharanidharan, R; Dineshkumar, T; Raghavendhar, Karthik; Kumar, A Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common epithelial malignant neoplasm affecting the oral cavity; early detection is an important criterion for achieving high cure rate. Occasionally, it may be misdiagnosed because of its variable and innocuous clinical appearance. Carcinomas of the gingiva are a unique subset of OSCC, constituting approximately 10% of OSCCs and can mimic a multitude of oral lesions especially those of inflammatory origin with benign features, often leading to delay in the diagnosis and hence delayed treatment. This article reports a rare case of gingival OSCC in a 62-year-old female patient mimicking an inflammatory gingival mass. PMID:26604512

  8. Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    McCaw, D L; Pope, E R; Payne, J T; West, M K; Tompson, R V; Tate, D

    2000-01-01

    Eleven dogs with naturally occurring oral squamous cell carcinomas were treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) using Photochlor (HPPH) as the photosensitizer. The largest length of the tumours measured in a two-dimensional plane ranged from 0.9 to 6.8 cm. Seven of the tumours invaded underlying bone as determined by radiograph appearance. Photochlor was injected intravenously at a dose of 0.3 mg kg–1. Forty-eight hours later the tumours were treated. Tumours with a surface to base depth of greater than 1 cm were surgically reduced to less than 1 cm. Irradiation with 665 nm light with an energy density of 100 J cm–2was administered. Eight dogs were considered cured with no tumour recurrence for at least 17 months after treatment. Local treatment of oral squamous cell carcinomas with PDT appears to give results similar to those obtained with surgical removal of large portions of the mandible or maxilla. The cosmetic results with PDT are superior to those of radical surgical removal. The new sensitizer, Photochlor, appears effective for oral squamous carcinomas with results similar to those reported for other sensitizers. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10755404

  9. Touch imprint cytology: a rapid diagnostic tool for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Geetha, L; Astekar, M; Ashok, K N; Sowmya, G V

    2015-07-01

    Techniques for intraoperative pathologic examination of oral squamous cell carcinoma are rare in the literature. We evaluated the advantages and limitations of touch imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We used 30 incisional biopsies of clinically diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma and compared touch imprint cytology to histopathological sections. Touch imprint cytology showed 24 specimens positive for malignancy, two suspicious for malignancy and four inadequate specimens. The accuracy of the test was 93.2%. Touch imprint cytology is an accurate, simple, rapid and cost-effective method that aids diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma during operation, but it does not replace incisional biopsy. PMID:25801179

  10. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid. PMID:26589365

  11. Effects of two genes coding squamous cell carcinoma antigen on the diagnosis and treatment of cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Qi’nan; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Chenchen; Liu, Yanjuan; Chen, Zhuo; Lu, Fuer; Huang, Guangying

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of expressions of SCCA1 and SCCA2 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma on its diagnosis, treatment evaluation and prognosis analysis. M ethod s : Seventy-six cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients enrolled in our hospital from October 2011 to April 2013 were selected, and another 76 healthy females (without cervical tissue lesions) were enrolled as the control. SCCA1 and SCCA2 expressions in the two groups were compared by RT-PCR. The serodiagnosis results before and after chemotherapy were compared to clarify the effects of SCCA2 expression. Results: The two groups had similar relative SCCA1 expression rates that were not significantly correlated with pathological factors. Before chemotherapy, the relative expression rates of SCCA2 were significantly higher in the patients with later stage (t=6.018, P=0.00082<0.05) and lymphatic metastasis (t=6.281, P=0.00192<0.05). After treatment, relative SCCA2 expression rate was decreased more significantly in the effective group than that in the ineffective group (t=10.27893, P=0.02815<0.05). Conclusion: The expression of SCCA1 failed to indicate the onset, diagnosis and prevention of cervical squamous cell carcinoma, whereas that of SCCA2 worked as one of the tumor markers. PMID:24772127

  12. The Mutational Landscape of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Stransky, Nicolas; Egloff, Ann Marie; Tward, Aaron D.; Kostic, Aleksandar D.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sivachenko, Andrey; Kryukov, Gregory V.; Lawrence, Michael; Sougnez, Carrie; McKenna, Aaron; Shefler, Erica; Ramos, Alex H.; Stojanov, Petar; Carter, Scott L.; Voet, Douglas; Cortés, Maria L; Auclair, Daniel; Berger, Michael F.; Saksena, Gordon; Guiducci, Candace; Onofrio, Robert; Parkin, Melissa; Romkes, Marjorie; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Seethala, Raja R.; Wang, Lin; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Winckler, Wendy; Ardlie, Kristin; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Meyerson, Matthew; Lander, Eric S.; Getz, Gad; Golub, Todd R.; Garraway, Levi A.; Grandis, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a common, morbid, and frequently lethal malignancy. To uncover its mutational spectrum, we analyzed whole-exome sequencing data from 74 tumor-normal pairs. The majority exhibited a mutational profile consistent with tobacco exposure; human papilloma virus was detectable by sequencing of DNA from infected tumors. In addition to identifying previously known HNSCC genes (TP53, CDKN2A, PTEN, PIK3CA, and HRAS), the analysis revealed many genes not previously implicated in this malignancy. At least 30% of cases harbored mutations in genes that regulate squamous differentiation (e.g., NOTCH1, IRF6, and TP63), implicating its dysregulation as a major driver of HNSCC carcinogenesis. More generally, the results indicate the ability of large-scale sequencing to reveal fundamental tumorigenic mechanisms. PMID:21798893

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ lining the uterine cavity.

    PubMed

    Anthuenis, J; Baekelandt, J; Bourgain, C; De Rop, C

    2016-01-01

    Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia is a very common and well-known pathology. However superficial spreading of this lesion is very rare. The authors present a case of a 72-year-old woman with an abdominal mass, who had previously undergone a cervical conisation for a high-grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. Anatomo-pathological examination of the mass showed a large distended fluid-filled uterus with the entire endometrium replaced by a high-grade squamous cell lesion. There were only micro-invasive foci found. The authors performed a literature search in PubMed with the following MeSH-terms: "squamous cell carcinoma" and "endometrium". Other articles were selected out of the references of previously found articles. Only 31 similar cases were found. The presentation of the cases is varies extremely and a long-term prognosis is not yet known. PMID:27048127

  14. Modeling Cutaneous Squamous Carcinoma Development in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Phillips Y.; Balmain, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the most common cancers in Caucasian populations and is associated with a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. The classic mouse model for studying SCC involves two-stage chemical carcinogenesis, which has been instrumental in the evolution of the concept of multistage carcinogenesis, as widely applied to both human and mouse cancers. Much is now known about the sequence of biological and genetic events that occur in this skin carcinogenesis model and the factors that can influence the course of tumor development, such as perturbations in the oncogene/tumor-suppressor signaling pathways involved, the nature of the target cell that acquires the first genetic hit, and the role of inflammation. Increasingly, studies of tumor-initiating cells, malignant progression, and metastasis in mouse skin cancer models will have the potential to inform future approaches to treatment and chemoprevention of human squamous malignancies. PMID:25183851

  15. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Couture, Émilie L; Langlois, Isabelle; Santamaria-Bouvier, Ariane; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile

    2015-12-01

    A cutaneous mass was surgically excised in a 4-year-old African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). A squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed based on histopathological examination and local recurrence following excision is strongly suspected. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first well-documented report of a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in this species. PMID:26663924

  16. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris)

    PubMed Central

    Couture, Émilie L.; Langlois, Isabelle; Santamaria-Bouvier, Ariane; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile

    2015-01-01

    A cutaneous mass was surgically excised in a 4-year-old African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). A squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed based on histopathological examination and local recurrence following excision is strongly suspected. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first well-documented report of a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in this species. PMID:26663924

  17. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell; NMSC - squamous cell; Squamous cell skin cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin ... squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type does not spread to ...

  18. Deciphering Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using Multidimensional Genomic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Gibb, Ewan A.; Enfield, Katey S. S.; Tsui, Ivy F. L.; Chari, Raj; Lam, Stephen; Alvarez, Carlos E.; Lam, Wan L.

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SqCCs) arise in a wide range of tissues including skin, lung, and oral mucosa. Although all SqCCs are epithelial in origin and share common nomenclature, these cancers differ greatly with respect to incidence, prognosis, and treatment. Current knowledge of genetic similarities and differences between SqCCs is insufficient to describe the biology of these cancers, which arise from diverse tissue origins. In this paper we provide a general overview of whole genome approaches for gene and pathway discovery and highlight the advancement of integrative genomics as a state-of-the-art technology in the study of SqCC genetics. PMID:21234096

  19. Labeling index in squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Balzi, M.; Ninu, B.M.; Becciolini, A.; Scubla, E.; Boanini, P.; Gallina, E.; Gallo, O.; Fini-Storchi, O.; Bondi, R. )

    1991-07-01

    Two cell kinetic parameters, the 3H-thymidine labeling index (TLI) and the mitotic index (MI), were studied in vitro on fragments of squamous cell carcinoma tissue of the larynx. They were evaluated to identify those elements able to characterize the growth of these solid tumors. The values of these parameters were analyzed as a function of the clinical stage and the involvement of the regional lymph nodes. Results showed a statistically significant increase in the TLI from stage T1 to T3. No statistically significant differences in the TLI values were observed between the patients with positive and negative lymph nodes.

  20. Extensive Presentation of Penile Carcinoma Cuniculatum a Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma With Low Malignant Potential.

    PubMed

    Vinson, Mohabe A; Okorji, Onyinyechukwu; Gagucas, Raul

    2016-09-01

    Carcinoma cuniculatum is an uncommon variation of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has been documented in a few cases at various locations of the body such as penis, foot, jaw, oropharynx and esophagus. In this case, a 79-year-old male presents with a penile mass, which he underwent a total penectomy. Histology of the mass was defined as carcinoma cuniculatum with negative margins and no lymphovascular invasion. This variant of SCC rarely metastasizes. A joint decision was made to observe lymph nodes. It is important to differentiate the different SCC because patient care can be guided based on the pathology. PMID:27313988

  1. Improvement in the Results of Surgical Treatment of Advanced Squamous Esophageal Carcinoma During 15 Consecutive Years

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Nobutoshi; Ozawa, Soji; Kitagawa, Yuko; Shinozawa, Yotaro; Kitajima, Masaki

    2000-01-01

    Objective To document the clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of patients undergoing esophagectomy for squamous carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus, and to examine the factors contributing to improvements in outcome noted in patients with advanced carcinoma. Summary Background Data Japanese and some Western surgeons recently have reported that radical esophagectomy with extensive lymphadenectomy conferred a survival advantage to patients with esophageal carcinoma. The factors contributing to this improvement in results have not been well defined. Methods From 1981 to 1995, 419 patients with carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus underwent esophagectomy at the Keio University Hospital. The clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of patients treated between 1981 and 1987 were compared with those of patients treated between 1988 and 1995. Multivariate analysis using the Cox regression model was carried out to evaluate the impact of 15 variables on survival of patients with p stage IIa to IV disease. Several variables related to prognosis were examined to identify differences between the two time periods. Results The 5-year survival rate for all patients was 40.0%. The 5-year survival rate was 17.7% for p stage IIa to IV patients treated during the earlier period and 37.6% for those treated during the latter period. The Cox regression model revealed seven variables to be important prognostic factors. Of these seven, three (severity of postoperative complications, degree of residual tumor, and number of dissected mediastinal nodes) were found to be significantly different between the earlier and latter periods. Conclusions The survival of patients undergoing surgery for advanced carcinoma (p stage IIa to IV) of the thoracic esophagus has improved during the past 15 years. The authors’ data suggest that this improvement is due mainly to advances in surgical technique and perioperative management. PMID:10903602

  2. Multimodal confocal mosaicing microscopy: an emphasis on squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nathaniel W.; Sensibaugh, Jordan; Ardeshiri, Ardaland; Blanchard, Adam; Jacques, Steven; Gareau, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Our previous study reported a sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 89.2% in rapidly detecting Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCCs) when nuclei were stained with acridine orange. Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCCs) and infiltrative BCCs remain difficult to detect. More complete screening can be achieved utilizing both acridine orange for nuclei staining and eosin for cytoplasmic contrast, using two lasers to excite the two stains independently. Nuclear fluorescence is achieved by staining with acridine orange (0.5mM, 60 s), and cytoplasmic fluorescence is achieved by staining with eosin working solution (30 s). This work shows good morphological contrast of SCC and infiltrative BCC with eosin, acridine orange, and reflectance, and presents a means for rapid SCC and infiltrative BCC detection in fresh skin excisions using multimodal confocal microscopy. In addition, digital staining is shown to effectively simulate hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histology with confocal mosaics.

  3. Verrucous carcinoma and squamous cell papilloma of the oral cavity: Report of two cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Alan, Hilal; Agacayak, Serkan; Kavak, Gulten; Ozcan, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) of oral cavity is a rare variant of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and squamous papilloma is a benign proliferation of the stratified squamous epithelium, which results in a papillary or verrucous exophytic mass. There is a certain clinical similarity between squamous cell papilloma and VC. We presented a report of two cases which are VC and squamous cell papilloma that are showed the same clinical appearance but different pathological appearance, with a review of the literature. PMID:26430380

  4. Metastasis suppressor proteins in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bozdogan, Onder; Vargel, Ibrahim; Cavusoglu, Tarik; Karabulut, Ayse A; Karahan, Gurbet; Sayar, Nilufer; Atasoy, Pınar; Yulug, Isik G

    2016-07-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) are common human carcinomas. Despite having metastasizing capacities, they usually show less aggressive progression compared to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of other organs. Metastasis suppressor proteins (MSPs) are a group of proteins that control and slow-down the metastatic process. In this study, we established the importance of seven well-defined MSPs including NDRG1, NM23-H1, RhoGDI2, E-cadherin, CD82/KAI1, MKK4, and AKAP12 in cSCCs. Protein expression levels of the selected MSPs were detected in 32 cSCCs, 6 in situ SCCs, and two skin cell lines (HaCaT, A-431) by immunohistochemistry. The results were evaluated semi-quantitatively using the HSCORE system. In addition, mRNA expression levels were detected by qRT-PCR in the cell lines. The HSCOREs of NM23-H1 were similar in cSCCs and normal skin tissues, while RGHOGDI2, E-cadherin and AKAP12 were significantly downregulated in cSCCs compared to normal skin. The levels of MKK4, NDRG1 and CD82 were partially conserved in cSCCs. In stage I SCCs, nuclear staining of NM23-H1 (NM23-H1nuc) was significantly lower than in stage II/III SCCs. Only nuclear staining of MKK4 (MKK4nuc) showed significantly higher scores in in situ carcinomas compared to invasive SCCs. In conclusion, similar to other human tumors, we have demonstrated complex differential expression patterns for the MSPs in in-situ and invasive cSCCs. This complex MSP signature warrants further biological and experimental pathway research. PMID:27215390

  5. Epithelial lesions associated with invasive penile squamous cell carcinoma: a pathologic study of 288 cases.

    PubMed

    Cubilla, Antonio L; Velazquez, Elsa F; Young, Robert H

    2004-10-01

    A heterogeneous spectrum of epithelial alterations and atypical lesions affect the squamous epithelium of penile mucosal anatomical compartments. Analogous to other genital sites, the terminology utilized to define the lesions is variable. The few pathologic studies of penile precancerous lesions are mostly related to carcinoma in situ and human papilloma virus (HPV), and the information on low-grade atypical lesions is limited. The objective of this study was to comprehensively describe the morphologic features of all epithelial alterations, benign and atypical, low grade and high grade, associated with invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis and to investigate their relation with each other and with subtypes of invasive carcinoma. We also propose herein a simple and reproducible nomenclature for penile precancerous abnormalities until more biological, molecular, or epidemiologic information on the lesions is available. Two hundred and eighty-eight penectomy and circumcision specimens with invasive squamous cell carcinoma were pathologically evaluated. Carcinomas were classified as usual, verrucous, papillary not otherwise specified, warty (condylomatous), basaloid, and mixed. Associated lesions were classified as squamous hyperplasia and squamous intraepithelial lesions of low and high grade (LGSIL and HGSIL). In LGSIL, atypia was confined to the lower third, and in HGSIL, atypical cells affected at least two thirds of the squamous epithelium. Subtypes of SIL were squamous, warty, basaloid, warty-basaloid, and papillary. Squamous hyperplasia, the most common lesion, was found in 83% of the cases, followed by LGSIL (59%) and HGSIL (44%). In 62% of the cases more than 1 associated lesion was present per specimen. A sequence from squamous hyperplasia to low-grade to high-grade SIL was seen frequently. Squamous hyperplasia was more commonly associated with usual squamous, papillary, and verrucous than with warty and basaloid invasive carcinomas. LGSIL was

  6. Mutational landscape of aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Curtis R.; Zhou, Jane H.; Lee, J. Jack; Drummond, Jennifer A.; Peng, S. Andrew; Saade, Rami E.; Tsai, Kenneth Y.; Curry, Jonathan L.; Tetzlaff, Michael T.; Lai, Stephen Y; Yu, Jun; Muzny, Donna M.; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Shinbrot, Eve; Covington, Kyle R.; Zhang, Jianhua; Seth, Sahil; Caulin, Carlos; Clayman, Gary L.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Weber, Randal S.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Wheeler, David A.; Frederick, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is often a disfiguring and lethal disease. Very little is currently known about the mutations that drive aggressive cSCC. Experimental Design Whole exome sequencing was performed on 39 cases of aggressive cSCC to identify driver genes and novel therapeutic targets. Significantly mutated genes were identified with MutSig or complementary methods developed to specifically identify candidate tumor suppressors based upon their inactivating mutation bias. Results Despite the very high mutational background caused by UV exposure, 23 candidate drivers were identified including the well-known cancer-associated genes TP53, CDKN2A, NOTCH1, AJUBA, HRAS, CASP8, FAT1, and KMT2C (MLL3). Three novel candidate tumor suppressors with putative links to cancer or differentiation, NOTCH2, PARD3 and RASA1, were also identified as possible drivers in cSCC. KMT2C mutations were associated with poor outcome and increased bone invasion. Conclusions The mutational spectrum of cSCC is similar to that of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and dominated by tumor suppressor genes. These results improve the foundation for understanding this disease and should aid in identifying and treating aggressive cSCC. PMID:25303977

  7. Comprehensive multiplatform biomarker analysis of 199 anal squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Smaglo, Brandon G.; Tesfaye, Anteneh; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R.; Meyer, Joshua E.; Wang, Jue; Gatalica, Zoran; Reddy, Sandeep; Arguello, David; Boland, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is a rare, HPV-associated malignancy typically diagnosed in early stages and definitively treated with chemoradiation. In situations where patients exhibit metastatic or recurrent disease, treatment options are severely limited. In this study, molecular alterations were identified that could be used to aid in therapeutic decisions for patients with metastatic or recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma. Specimens from patients with this cancer were tested via a multiplatform profiling service (Caris Life Sciences, Phoenix, AZ) consisting of gene sequencing, protein expression by immunohistochemistry, and gene amplification with in situ hybridization. Utilizing these techniques, novel treatment strategies that could be explored were identified, including potential benefit with anti-EGFR therapies, immune checkpoint inhibitors, topoisomerase inhibitors, and taxanes. The frequency of overexpression of proteins that mark resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, such as MRP1 (chemotherapy efflux pump), ERCC1 (resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy), and thymidylate synthase (resistance to fluoropyrimidines) were also identified, suggesting a lack of benefit. This multiplatform strategy could be explored for its potential to generate a personalized treatment selection for patients with advanced ASCC, provide a guide for future therapeutic development for this cancer, and be extended to other rare cancer types as well. PMID:26498363

  8. Significance of Parafibromin Expression in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Inju; Lee, Mija; Lim, Sharon; Hong, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parafibromin is a product of the tumor suppressor gene that has been studied as a potential indicator of tumor aggressiveness in the parathyroid, breast, colorectum, and stomach. However, the clinical significance and potential function of parafibromin expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of parafibromin in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and to verify its potential as a biomarker of tumor behavior. Methods: Parafibromin expression was evaluated in 30 cases of LSCC using immunohistochemistry. The correlations between parafibromin expression and clinicopathologic parameters were investigated. Results: Parafibromin expression was positive in 15 cases (50%) and negative in 15 cases (50%). Tumor size and T stage showed a statistically significant inverse relationship with parafibromin expression (p=.028 and p<.001, respectively). Parafibromin expression was not associated with age, sex, lymph node metastasis, tumor differentiation, or tumor location. There was no statistically significant relationship between parafibromin expression and progression-free survival in the patients (p>.05). Conclusions: Our results indicate that the downregulation or loss of parafibromin expression can be employed as a novel marker of tumor progression or aggressiveness in LSCC. PMID:27334641

  9. Fluorescence detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma using Hyperflav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, Ivan S.; Dets, Sergiy M.; Rawicz, Andrew H.; Zhang, Lewei

    2000-05-01

    A novel hypericin-based drug HyperflavTM has been evaluated for light-induced fluorescence detection of oral cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma was induced with carcinogenic agent in right pouches of forty hamsters (20/20 males/females). Solution of HyperflavTM was sprinkled into stomach with a single dose 0.2 - 4 mg of pure hypericin per kg b.w. and 4 - 8 hours before fluorescence analysis. In two animal groups with cancer symptoms the autofluorescence and hypericin-induced fluorescence were taken under 442 nm excitation. The buccal mucosa and adjacent areas were measured fiberoptically in-vivo and in-vitro using orange/green ratio (610/540). The in-vivo fluorescence imaging of malignant areas was conducted to assist the biopsy guidance and to compare with white-light images. Histological and morphological analyses were performed from biopsies. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in its early stage demonstrated specific higher 610/540 ratio for 37 tested hamsters. Advanced state involved another higher fluorescence maximum around 640 nm that in our opinion caused by strong porphyrin-induced native fluorescence. Such deformation of fluorescence spectra may lead to inadequate perception of diseased tissue area. To avoid this problem the autofluorescence spectra & images were added. HyperflavTM application is promising for demarcation of early oral cancer when combined with autofluorescence measurements.

  10. [Chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma--clinical trials].

    PubMed

    Szumiło, Justyna

    2008-09-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most lethal malignances of digestive tract. Epidemiological data confirmed influence of the diet especially Mediterranean one that decreases the risk of cancer. High consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, mainly citrus and tea drinking, also has a beneficial effect on decreasing incidence of the cancer. High intake of various antioxidants and natural fibers found in the plant diet as well as prolonged administration of cyclooxygenase-inhibitors, especially aspirin, plays also a protective role. Results of sparse, prospective, randomized trials on chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma are not so unequivocal. Supplementation of six traditional Chinese herbs, retinamide and riboflavin provided the most promising effects, but intake of multiple vitamins and minerals, including calcium and decaffeinated green tea, was ineffective. However, the studies were performed on small populations inhabiting select Chinese provinces known for their high esophageal cancer incidence. Due to a number of limitations, the collected data cannot be compared directly to other populations who are exposed to different environmental factors and with different genetic predispositions. PMID:19112850

  11. Comprehensive multiplatform biomarker analysis of 199 anal squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Smaglo, Brandon G; Tesfaye, Anteneh; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R; Meyer, Joshua E; Wang, Jue; Gatalica, Zoran; Reddy, Sandeep; Arguello, David; Boland, Patrick M

    2015-12-22

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is a rare, HPV-associated malignancy typically diagnosed in early stages and definitively treated with chemoradiation. In situations where patients exhibit metastatic or recurrent disease, treatment options are severely limited. In this study, molecular alterations were identified that could be used to aid in therapeutic decisions for patients with metastatic or recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma. Specimens from patients with this cancer were tested via a multiplatform profiling service (Caris Life Sciences, Phoenix, AZ) consisting of gene sequencing, protein expression by immunohistochemistry, and gene amplification with in situ hybridization. Utilizing these techniques, novel treatment strategies that could be explored were identified, including potential benefit with anti-EGFR therapies, immune checkpoint inhibitors, topoisomerase inhibitors, and taxanes. The frequency of overexpression of proteins that mark resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, such as MRP1 (chemotherapy efflux pump), ERCC1 (resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy), and thymidylate synthase (resistance to fluoropyrimidines) were also identified, suggesting a lack of benefit. This multiplatform strategy could be explored for its potential to generate a personalized treatment selection for patients with advanced ASCC, provide a guide for future therapeutic development for this cancer, and be extended to other rare cancer types as well. PMID:26498363

  12. Metastatic metaplastic breast carcinoma mimicking pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma on fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Doreen N; Kawamoto, Satomi; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Illei, Peter B; Rosenthal, Dorothy L; VandenBussche, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Metaplastic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the breast is a rare type of breast cancer. Metastases to the lung, which can be a major site of second primary tumor development among breast cancer patients, are difficult to distinguish from primary SCC of the lung and present a unique challenge for pathologists. There are few available discriminating immunohistochemical markers as squamous differentiation typically leads to loss of expression of characteristic primary epithelial cell markers of both breast and lung origin. GATA protein binding 3 (GATA-3) is a useful marker of breast origin in metastatic ductal and lobular carcinomas including poorly differentiated triple-negative carcinomas and some metaplastic carcinomas. Here, we present a case of metastatic SCC presenting as a solitary lung mass with regional lymph node metastases and a single satellite lesion in a patient with a history of metaplastic SCC of the breast. In addition to the routine markers of squamous differentiation, the metastases were also positive for estrogen receptor (ER) and GATA-3 on cytologic material obtained by transbronchial FNA. This suggests that immunoreactivity for ER and GATA-3 may support a diagnosis of metastatic SCC in the context of a prior metaplastic SCC of the breast. PMID:26238413

  13. Immunocompromised and immunocompetent mouse models for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Zhen-ge; Ren, Xiao-hua; Wang, Sha-sha; Liang, Xin-hua; Tang, Ya-ling

    2016-01-01

    Mouse models can closely mimic human oral squamous epithelial carcinogenesis, greatly expand the in vivo research possibilities, and play a critical role in the development of diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. With the development of the recent research on the contribution of immunity/inflammation to cancer initiation and progression, mouse models have been divided into two categories, namely, immunocompromised and immunocompetent mouse models. And thus, this paper will review these two kinds of models applied in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma to provide a platform to understand the complicated histological, molecular, and genetic changes of oral squamous epithelial tumorigenesis. PMID:26869799

  14. Gold Nanoparticles Enhance the Radiation Therapy of a Murine Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hainfeld, J.F.; Zhong, Z.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Slatkin, D.N.; Kalef-Ezra, J.A.; Smilowitz, H.

    2010-05-12

    The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that gold nanoparticle (AuNP, nanogold)-enhanced radiation therapy (nanogold radiation therapy, NRT) is efficacious when treating the radiation resistant and highly aggressive mouse head and neck squamous cell carcinoma model, SCCVII, and to identify parameters influencing the efficacy of NRT. Subcutaneous (sc) SCCVII leg tumors in mice were irradiated with x-rays at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) with and without prior intravenous (iv) administration of AuNPs. Variables studied included radiation dose, beam energy, temporal fractionation and hyperthermia. AuNP-mediated NRT was shown to be effective for the sc SCCVII model. AuNPs were more effective at 42 Gy than at 30 Gy (both at 68 keV median beam energy) compared to controls without gold. Similarly, at 157 keV median beam energy, 50.6 Gy NRT was more effective than 44 Gy NRT. At the same radiation dose (42 Gy), 68 keV was more effective than 157 keV. Hyperthermia and radiation therapy (RT) were synergistic and AuNPs enhanced this synergy, thereby further reducing TCD50 s (tumor control dose 50%) and increasing long-term survivals. It is concluded that gold nanoparticles enhance the radiation therapy of a radioresistant mouse squamous cell carcinoma. The data show that radiation dose, energy and hyperthermia influence efficacy and better define the potential utility of gold nanoparticles for cancer x-ray therapy.

  15. Gold nanoparticles enhance the radiation therapy of a murine squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainfeld, James F.; Avraham Dilmanian, F.; Zhong, Zhong; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Kalef-Ezra, John A.; Smilowitz, Henry M.

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that gold nanoparticle (AuNP, nanogold)-enhanced radiation therapy (nanogold radiation therapy, NRT) is efficacious when treating the radiation resistant and highly aggressive mouse head and neck squamous cell carcinoma model, SCCVII, and to identify parameters influencing the efficacy of NRT. Subcutaneous (sc) SCCVII leg tumors in mice were irradiated with x-rays at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) with and without prior intravenous (iv) administration of AuNPs. Variables studied included radiation dose, beam energy, temporal fractionation and hyperthermia. AuNP-mediated NRT was shown to be effective for the sc SCCVII model. AuNPs were more effective at 42 Gy than at 30 Gy (both at 68 keV median beam energy) compared to controls without gold. Similarly, at 157 keV median beam energy, 50.6 Gy NRT was more effective than 44 Gy NRT. At the same radiation dose (~42 Gy), 68 keV was more effective than 157 keV. Hyperthermia and radiation therapy (RT) were synergistic and AuNPs enhanced this synergy, thereby further reducing TCD50 s (tumor control dose 50%) and increasing long-term survivals. It is concluded that gold nanoparticles enhance the radiation therapy of a radioresistant mouse squamous cell carcinoma. The data show that radiation dose, energy and hyperthermia influence efficacy and better define the potential utility of gold nanoparticles for cancer x-ray therapy.

  16. Effect of bleomycin-radiotherapy combination in management of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, P.M.; Shukla, S.N.; Patel, K.M.; Patel, N.L.; Baboo, H.A.; Patel, D.D.

    1981-09-01

    Twenty-five patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma were treated with bleomycin-radiotherapy protocol, 15 mg bleomycin I.V. on alternate days followed by radiation within half an hour. The average total dose of bleomycin was 150 mg. Radiotherapy was given daily. Two patients were lost to follow-up very early in the course of the treatment and were removed from the study for statistical purposes. Thirty-six patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma who were treated with radiotherapy alone during the same period were used as controls. The patients were followed for two years. The incidence of response rate did not differ significantly between regimens; however, the incidence of side effects with bleomycin-radiotherapy, 82.61%, is significantly more than that of radiotherapy alone (52.78%). Median survial time (MST) of those responding to bleomycin-radiotherapy protocol was seven months and 12 days and for radiotherapy responders was six months. Neither the response rate nor the MST improve significantly after pretreatment with bleomycin. On the contrary, the incidence of side effects increased significantly.

  17. Trefoil factor 3 as a novel biomarker to distinguish between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Nan; Wang, Shu-Jing; Pandey, Vijay; Chen, Ping; Li, Qing; Wu, Zheng-Sheng; Wu, Qiang; Lobie, Peter E

    2015-05-01

    In carcinoma, such as of the lung, the histological subtype is important to select an appropriate therapeutic strategy for patients. However, carcinomas with poor differentiation cannot always be distinguished on the basis of morphology alone nor on clinical findings. Hence, delineation of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the 2 most common epithelial-origin carcinomas, is pivotal for selection of optimum therapy. Herein, we explored the potential utility of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) as a biomarker for primary lung adenocarcinoma and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas derived from different organs. We observed that 90.9% of lung adenocarcinomas were TFF3-positive, whereas no expression of TFF3 was observed in squamous cell carcinomas. The subtype of lung carcinoma was confirmed by four established biomarkers, cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor 1 for adenocarcinoma and P63 and cytokeratin 5/6 for squamous cell carcinoma. Furthermore, expression of TFF3 mRNA was observed by quantitative PCR in all of 11 human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and highly correlated with markers of the adenocarcinomatous lineage. In contrast, little or no expression of TFF3 was observed in 4 lung squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. By use of forced expression, or siRNA-mediated depletion of TFF3, we determined that TFF3 appeared to maintain rather than promote glandular differentiation of lung carcinoma cells. In addition, TFF3 expression was also determined in adenocarcinomas from colorectum, stomach, cervix, esophagus, and larynx. Among all these extrapulmonary carcinomas, 93.7% of adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 2.9% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. Totally, 92.9% of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 1.5% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. In conclusion, TFF3 is preferentially expressed in adenocarcinoma and may function as an additional

  18. Antitumor effect of temsirolimus against oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with bone destruction.

    PubMed

    Okui, Tatsuo; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Fukazawa, Takuya; Kurio, Naito; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Honami, Tatsuki; Takaoka, Munenori; Naomoto, Yoshio; Sasaki, Akira

    2010-11-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is engaged in the molecular pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma, which frequently invades the maxilla or the mandible. However, the effects of a mTOR inhibitor on bone destruction associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of temsirolimus-mediated mTOR inhibition against advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma. Temsirolimus inhibited the proliferation and migration of HSC-2 oral squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro and suppressed the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in vivo. Significantly, we clearly show that temsirolimus inhibited osteoclast formation both in vitro and in vivo. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis showed that temsirolimus decreased the mRNA expression of receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand, known as an osteoclast differentiation factor in bone stromal ST2 cells. Moreover, temsirolimus normalized blood-free calcium concentration in mouse models for humoral hypercalcemia. These findings suggest that mTOR signaling is a potential target of oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with bone destruction, and hence we describe the efficacy of temsirolimus for the treatment of advanced oral squamous carcinoma. PMID:20858724

  19. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis as a Result of Long-Standing Staghorn Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Jongyotha, Kamonchanok; Sriphrapradang, Chutintorn

    2015-01-01

    We report on a 79-year-old woman with staghorn calculi who presented with severe hypercalcemia. She was later found to have humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy caused by a rare tumor, squamous cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. Chronic irritation, infection and inflammation from staghorn stones cause squamous metaplasia, leading to squamous cell carcinoma of the renal collecting system. The prognosis is very poor, with a 5-year survival rate of <10%. This case highlights the importance of awareness of a very rare and aggressive carcinoma in a patient with long-standing nephrolithiasis. PMID:26557077

  20. A case of simultaneous esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and Barrett's adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Tomoo; Iwaya, Yugo; Iwaya, Mai; Watanabe, Takayuki; Seki, Ayako; Ochi, Yasuhide; Hara, Etsuo; Sekiguchi, Tomohiro; Hosaka, Noriko; Arakura, Norikazu; Tanaka, Eiji; Hasebe, Osamu

    2016-08-01

    A 77-year-old male with a long history of alcohol consumption and smoking was admitted for hoarseness and dysphagia. Computed tomography revealed thickening of the middle intrathoracic esophageal wall and multiple mediastinal lymph node swellings. Esophagogastroduodenoscopic examination disclosed an advanced-stage squamous cell carcinoma lesion in the middle intrathoracic esophagus with synchronous early stage Barrett's adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection for the adenocarcinoma followed by chemoradiation therapy for the squamous cell carcinoma. In spite of their common risk factors, the simultaneous manifestation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and Barrett's adenocarcinoma is extremely rare and requires further study. PMID:27220657

  1. Phase II Sequential and Concurrent Chemoradiation for Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-20

    Stage II Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx

  2. Ten human carcinoma cell lines derived from squamous carcinomas of the head and neck.

    PubMed Central

    Easty, D. M.; Easty, G. C.; Carter, R. L.; Monaghan, P.; Butler, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    Ten cell lines of human squamous carcinomas of the tongue and larynx have been established from surgical specimens removed from 36 unselected patients, in order to provide systems for investigating the invasive and tissue-destructive capacity of squamous carcinomas of the head and neck. The morphology, ultrastructure and growth characteristics of the 10 lines are described. Detailed cytogenetic analysis of the first 4 lines indicates that each is karyotypically unique, with no evidence of cross-contamination. Nine of the 10 cell lines secrete immunoreactive beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) in the culture medium. No correlation was demonstrated between the ability of the cell lines to secrete plasminogen activator and their capacity to grow in soft agar or as xenografts in immune-deficient mice. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7195729

  3. Cutaneous squamous and neuroendocrine carcinoma: genetically and immunohistochemically different from Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pulitzer, Melissa P; Brannon, A Rose; Berger, Michael F; Louis, Peter; Scott, Sasinya N; Jungbluth, Achim A; Coit, Daniel G; Brownell, Isaac; Busam, Klaus J

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma most often arises de novo in the background of a clonally integrated virus, the Merkel cell polyomavirus, and is notable for positive expression of retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) protein and low expression of p53 compared with the rare Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative Merkel cell carcinomas. Combined squamous and Merkel cell tumors are consistently negative for Merkel cell polyomavirus. Little is known about their immunophenotypic or molecular profile. Herein, we studied 10 combined cutaneous squamous cell and neuroendocrine carcinomas for immunohistochemical expression of p53, retinoblastoma 1 protein, neurofilament, p63, and cytokeratin 20 (CK20). We compared mutation profiles of five combined Merkel cell carcinomas and seven ‘pure’ Merkel cell carcinomas using targeted next-generation sequencing. Combined tumors were from the head, trunk, and leg of Caucasian males and one female aged 52–89. All cases were highly p53- and p63-positive and neurofilament-negative in the squamous component, whereas RB1-negative in both components. Eight out of 10 were p53-positive, 3/10 p63-positive, and 3/10 focally neurofilament-positive in the neuroendocrine component. Six out of 10 were CK20-positive in any part. By next-generation sequencing, combined tumors were highly mutated, with an average of 48 mutations per megabase compared with pure tumors, which showed 1.25 mutations per megabase. RB1 and p53 mutations were identified in all five combined tumors. Combined tumors represent an immunophenotypically and genetically distinct variant of primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinomas, notable for a highly mutated genetic profile, significant p53 expression and/or mutation, absent RB1 expression in the context of increased RB1 mutation, and minimal neurofilament expression. PMID:26022453

  4. Ipsilateral radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, William R; Herman, Michael P; Deraniyagala, Rohan L; Amdur, Robert J; Werning, John W; Dziegielewski, Peter T; Morris, Christopher G; Mendenhall, William M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to update our institution's experience with ipsilateral radiation therapy (RT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar area. Outcome study of 76 patients treated between 1984 and 2012 with ipsilateral RT for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. Patients had either cT1 (n = 41, 54 %) or cT2 (n = 35, 46 %) primaries and cN0 (n = 27, 36 %), cN1 (n = 15, 20 %), cN2a (n = 8, 11 %), or cN2b (n = 26, 34 %) nodal disease. Of these, 32 (42 %) patients underwent a planned neck dissection and 21 (28 %) patients received concomitant chemotherapy. Median follow-up for all patients was 7.1 years (range 0.1-27.2) and 7.8 years (range 2.1-27.2 years) for living patients. The 2- and 5-year control and survival rates were as follows: local control, 98.6 and 96.9 %; local-regional control 95.8 and 92.6 %; cause-specific survival 95.9 and 93.1 %; and overall survival, 92.1 and 83.8 %. One patient failed in the contralateral, non-radiated neck 3 years after primary treatment. Univariate analysis revealed that overall survival was significantly influenced by whether the patient had a primary tumor in the anterior tonsillar pillar versus the tonsillar fossa with the latter performing better. The incidence of severe late complications was 16 %. Ipsilateral RT for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior tonsillar pillar or tonsillar fossa with no base of tongue or soft palate extension is an efficacious treatment that provides excellent control rates with a relatively low incidence of late complications. PMID:26223350

  5. Definitive radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Steven J.; Jhingran, Anuja; Levenback, Charles; Eifel, Patricia J. . E-mail: peifel@mdanderson.org

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcome and describe clinical treatment guidelines for patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina treated with definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1970 and 2000, a total of 193 patients were treated with definitive radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The patients' medical records were reviewed to obtain information about patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics, as well as outcome and patterns of recurrence. Surviving patients were followed for a median of 137 months. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with differences assessed using log-rank tests. Results: Disease-specific survival (DSS) and pelvic disease control rates correlated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and tumor size. At 5 years, DSS rates were 85% for the 50 patients with Stage I, 78% for the 97 patients with Stage II, and 58% for the 46 patients with Stage III-IVA disease (p = 0.0013). Five-year DSS rates were 82% and 60% for patients with tumors {<=}4 cm or >4 cm, respectively (p = 0.0001). At 5 years, pelvic disease control rates were 86% for Stage I, 84% for Stage II, and 71% for Stage III-IVA (p = 0.027). The predominant mode of relapse after definitive radiation therapy was local-regional (68% and 83%, respectively, for patients with stages I-II or III-IVA disease). The incidence of major complications was correlated with FIGO stage; at 5 years, the rates of major complications were 4% for Stage I, 9% for Stage II, and 21% for Stage III-IVA (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Excellent outcomes can be achieved with definitive radiation therapy for invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina. However, to achieve these results, treatment must be individualized according to the site and size of the tumor at presentation and the response to initial external-beam radiation therapy. Brachytherapy

  6. Variations of gastric corpus microbiota are associated with early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and squamous dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Malekzadeh, Reza; Ploner, Alexander; Shakeri, Ramin; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Fahimi, Saman; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Kamangar, Farin; Abnet, Christian C.; Winckler, Björn; Islami, Farhad; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Ye, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies revealed a relationship between changes in gastric mucosa and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) which suggested a possible role for gastric microbiota in ESCC carcinogenesis. In this study we aimed to compare pattern of gastric corpus microbiota in ESCC with normal esophagus. Cases were included subjects with early ESCC (stage I–II) and esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD) as the cancer precursor. Control groups included age and sex-matched subjects with mid-esophagus esophagitis (diseased-control), and histologically normal esophagus (healthy-control). DNA was extracted from snap-frozen gastric corpus tissues and 16S rRNA was sequenced on GS-FLX Titanium. After noise removal, an average of 3004 reads per sample was obtained from 93 subjects. We applied principal coordinate analysis to ordinate distances from beta diversity data. Pattern of gastric microbiota using Unifrac (p = 0.004) and weighted Unifrac distances (p = 0.018) statistically varied between cases and healthy controls. Sequences were aligned to SILVA database and Clostridiales and Erysipelotrichales orders were more abundant among cases after controling for multiple testing (p = 0.011). No such difference was observed between mid-esophagitis and healthy controls. This study is the first to show that composition of gastric corpus mucosal microbiota differs in early ESCC and ESD from healthy esophagus. PMID:25743945

  7. Genetic polymorphisms and HPV infection in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Limei; Song, Xicheng; Li, Guojun

    2015-10-01

    Despite declining smoking rates in the United States, the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC, including oral cavity and oropharynx) is rising in young adults. The reasons have been attributed to changes in sexual behaviors and the increasingly prevalent infection of oncogenic subtypes of human papillomavirus (HPV), principally type16 and occasionally type18. However, only small proportion of individuals who have contracted HPV infection will develop OSCC, suggesting that there is an inter-individual variation in susceptibility to HPV infection and related OSCC. Identification of susceptible biomarkers for HPV status would be useful to identify those individuals who are susceptible to HPV infection, to refine the prognostication of HPV associated OSCC, and ultimately to improve prevention efforts for OSCC and potentially other HPV-associated diseases. Our public health OSCC prevention paradigm will need to expand beyond tobacco and alcohol control. PMID:26057719

  8. Genetic Susceptibility to Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lacko, Martin; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J.M.; Sturgis, Erich M.; Boedeker, Carsten C.; Suárez, Carlos; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio; Takes, Robert P.

    2014-05-01

    Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and its incidence is growing. Although environmental carcinogens and carcinogenic viruses are the main etiologic factors, genetic predisposition obviously plays a risk-modulating role, given that not all individuals exposed to these carcinogens experience the disease. This review highlights some aspects of genetic susceptibility to HNSCC: among others, genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes, DNA repair pathway, apoptotic pathway, human papillomavirus-related pathways, mitochondrial polymorphisms, and polymorphism related to the bilirubin-metabolized pathway. Furthermore, epigenetic variations, familial forms of HNSCC, functional assays for HNSCC risk assessment, and the implications and perspectives of research on genetic susceptibility in HNSCC are discussed.

  9. Evaluation of preoperative staging for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lin-Na; He, Long-Jun; Gao, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Xin-Xin; Shan, Hong-Bo; Luo, Guang-Yu; Li, Yin; Lin, Shi-Yong; Wang, Guo-Bao; Zhang, Rong; Xu, Guo-Liang; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is known for its rapid progression and poor outcomes. China has the highest incidence and mortality in the world. Diagnoses made at early stages and accurate staging are associated with better outcomes, all of which can play a significant role in the selection of treatment protocols. ESCC is staged according to the widely accepted TNM system. Common imaging modalities used in staging ESCC before treatment include endoscopy, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Endoscopic ultrasound is useful for staging tumor depth and nodal status. Narrow band imaging is valuable for early stage disease assessment. CT and PET provide additional valuable information regarding node and metastasis staging. The ability of MRI to delineate ESCC is continuously being improved and adds information regarding locoregional status to routine examinations. PMID:27547011

  10. Human papillomavirus tumor infection in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ludmir, Ethan B.; Stephens, Sarah J.; Palta, Manisha; Willett, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has been recognized for over three decades. Recently, multiple meta-analyses have drawn upon existing literature to assess the strength of the HPV-ESCC linkage. Here, we review these analyses and attempt to provide a clinically-relevant overview of HPV infection in ESCC. HPV-ESCC detection rates are highly variable across studies. Geographic location likely accounts for a majority of the variation in HPV prevalence, with high-incidence regions including Asia reporting significantly higher HPV-ESCC infection rates compared with low-incidence regions such as Europe, North America, and Oceania. Based on our examination of existing data, the current literature does not support the notion that HPV is a prominent carcinogen in ESCC. We conclude that there is no basis to change the current clinical approach to ESCC patients with respect to tumor HPV status. PMID:26029456

  11. Descriptive epidemiology of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Celić, Dijana; Lipozencić, Jasna; Toncić, Ruzica Jurakić; Pasić, Aida; Rados, Jaka; Puizina-Ivić, Neira

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) incidence in Croatia in the 2003-2005 period. The cases of SCC were retrospectively studied. Data were collected from University Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Zagreb University Hospital Center and National Cancer Registry. In the study period, there were 1,860 cases of SCC (934 men and 926 women). The crude incidence rate for the Croatian population of 100,000 was 14.6 for men and 13.4 for women. The age-standardized incidence rate (adjusted for the world standard population) was 8.9 for men and 5.2 for women. The head was almost exclusive localization of SCC in both sexes. The highest SCC incidence was recorded in Zadar County. These results will serve for the SCC trend monitoring in Croatia and Europe in the forthcoming years. PMID:22816210

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma on a syphilitic gumma: A unique presentation

    PubMed Central

    Rahima, S.; Riyaz, Najeeba; Latheef, E.N. Abdul; Shyni, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Gumma is a characteristic lesion of tertiary syphilis that is rare nowadays, but still rarer is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from it. A 74-year-old male presented with throat pain and nasal twang with a past history of genital ulcer. Examination revealed a well-defined ulcer with a perforation of 1.5 cm over the hard palate with induration and nodularity at the margins. This patient also had leukoplakia over the ventral aspect of the tongue. His treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay was positive, and biopsy revealed well-differentiated SCC from the lesion over the palate and leukoplakia with dysplasia from the lesion over the tongue. Patient is on treatment from radiotherapy. To conclude, this is a unique presentation of syphilitic gumma with palatal perforation with SCC and syphilitic leukoplakia with Ca in situ over tongue. Thus, serology for syphilis should be done in all patients with SCC of the oral cavity. PMID:26392665

  13. Free posterior tibial flap reconstruction for hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this article was to determine outcomes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx (SCCHP) in whom the free posterior tibial flap was used for primary reconstruction of hypopharynx defects after cancer resection. Subjects and methods Between August 2009 and February 2012, 10 patients with SCCHP underwent posterior tibial flap reconstruction for hypopharynx defects. The corresponding clinical data were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results Despite the multistep and time-consuming procedure, the posterior tibial flap survival rate was 100%. Operation-induced complications did not occur in four patients. Six patients developed postoperative hypoproteinemia, four patients developed postoperative pulmonary infections, and four patients developed pharyngeal fistula. The pharyngeal and laryngeal functions of all patients were preserved. Conclusion Our experience demonstrates that the posterior tibial flap is a safe and reliable choice for the reconstruction of hypopharynx defects. PMID:24884631

  14. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the liver: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae Kyung; Kim, Byung Ik; Han, Eun Na; Kim, Dong Hyung; Yoo, Jung Hee; Lee, Seung Jae; Cho, Yong Kyun; Kim, Hong Joo

    2016-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the liver is very rare, and few cases have been reported in Korea. Primary SCC of the liver is known to be associated with hepatic cysts and intrahepatic stones. A 71-year-old male was admitted to our hospital, and a abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a 10 × 6 cm mass in the liver. Analysis of a biopsy sample suggested SCC, and so our team performed a thorough workup to find the primary lesion, which was revealed hepatoma as a pure primary SCC of the liver with multiple distant metastases. The patient was treated with one cycle of radiotherapy, transferred to another hospital for hospice care, and then died 1 month after discharge. PMID:27044770

  15. Human Papilloma Virus and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anus

    PubMed Central

    Gami, Bhavna; Kubba, Faris; Ziprin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of anal cancer is increasing. In the UK, the incidence is estimated at approximately 1.5 per 100,000. Most of this increase is attributed to certain at-risk populations. Persons who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive and men who have sex with men (MSM), Organ transplant recipients, women with a history of cervical cancer, human papilloma virus (HPV), or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) are known to have a greater risk for anal cancer. This paper will focus on HPV as a risk factor for anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and discusses the etiology, anatomy, pathogenesis, management of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anus. PMID:25288893

  16. Adjuvant radiotherapy after transoral laser microsurgery for advanced squamous carcinoma of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Pradier, Olivier . E-mail: opradier@gwdg.de; Christiansen, Hans; Schmidberger, Heinz; Martin, Alexios; Jaeckel, Martin C.; Steiner, Wolfgang; Ambrosch, Petra; Kahler, Elke; Hess, Clemens F.

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of an adjuvant radiotherapy after transoral laser microsurgery for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and to show that a less invasive surgery with organ preservation in combination with radiotherapy is an alternative to a radical treatment. Patients and Methods: Between 1987 and 2000, 208 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were treated with postoperative radiotherapy after surgical CO{sub 2} laser resection. Primary sites included oral cavity, 38; oropharynx, 88; larynx, 36; hypopharynx, 46. Disease stages were as follows: Stage III, 40 patients; Stage IV, 168 patients. Before 1994, the treatment consisted of a split-course radiotherapy with carboplatinum (Treatment A). After 1994, the patients received a conventional radiotherapy (Treatment B). Results: Patients had 5-year locoregional control and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates of 68% and 48%, respectively. The 5-year DSS was 70% and 44% for Stages III and IV, respectively (p = 0.00127). Patients treated with a hemoglobin level greater or equal to 13.5 g/dL before radiotherapy had a 5-year DSS of 55% as compared with 39% for patients treated with a hemoglobin level greater than 13.5 g/dL (p = 0.0054). Conclusion: In this series of patients with advanced head-and-neck tumors, transoral laser surgery in combination with adjuvant radiotherapy resulted in locoregional control and DSS rates similar to those reported for radical surgery followed by radiotherapy. Treatment B has clearly been superior to Treatment A. A further improvement of our treatment regimen might be expected by the combination of adjuvant radiotherapy with concomitant platinum-based chemotherapy.

  17. Recurrent CDK1 overexpression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bednarek, K; Kiwerska, K; Szaumkessel, M; Bodnar, M; Kostrzewska-Poczekaj, M; Marszalek, A; Janiszewska, J; Bartochowska, A; Jackowska, J; Wierzbicka, M; Grenman, R; Szyfter, K; Giefing, M; Jarmuz-Szymczak, M

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the expression profile of four genes (CCNA2, CCNB1, CCNB2, and CDK1) in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) cell lines and tumor samples. With the application of microarray platform, we have shown the overexpression of these genes in all analyzed LSCC samples in comparison to non-cancer controls from head and neck region. We have selected CDK1 for further analysis, due to its leading role in cell cycle regulation. It is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family of proven oncogenic properties. The results obtained for CDK1 were further confirmed with the application of reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) technique, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The observed upregulation of CDK1 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma has encouraged us to analyze for genetic mechanisms that can be responsible this phenomenon. Therefore, with the application of array-CGH, sequencing analysis and two methods for epigenetic regulation analysis (DNA methylation and miRNA expression), we tried to identify such potential mechanisms. Our attempts to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for observed changes failed as we did not observe significant alterations neither in the DNA sequence nor in the gene copy number that could underline CDK1 upregulation. Similarly, the pyrosequencing and miRNA expression analyses did not reveal any differences in methylation level and miRNA expression, respectively; thus, these mechanisms probably do not contribute to elevation of CDK1 expression in LSCC. However, our results suggest that alteration of CDK1 expression on both mRNA and protein level probably appears on the very early step of carcinogenesis. PMID:26912061

  18. Chemoprevention of lung squamous cell carcinoma by ginseng.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Zhang, Qi; Li, Kezhen; Liu, Qian; Wang, Yian; You, Ming

    2013-06-01

    Ginseng has been used as a medicinal herb to maintain physical vitality for thousands of years, and it has also been shown to be a nonorgan-specific cancer preventive agent by several epidemiologic studies. However, the chemopreventive effects of Korea white ginseng (KWG) in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) have not been tested. In this study, we investigated the chemopreventive activity of KWG in a mouse lung SCC model. N-nitroso-trischloroethylurea (NTCU) was used to induce lung tumors in female Swiss mice, and KWG was given orally. KWG significantly reduced the percentage of lung SCCs from 26.5% in the control group to 9.1% in the KWG group and in the meantime, increased the percentage of normal bronchial and hyperplasia. KWG was also found to greatly reduce squamous cell lung tumor area from an average of 9.4% in control group to 1.5% in the KWG group. Treatment with KWG decreased Ki-67 staining, suggesting that the lung tumor inhibitory effects of KWG were partly through inhibition of proliferation. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry identified 10 ginsenosides from KWG extracts, Rb1 and Rd being the most abundant as detected in mouse blood and lung tissue. The tumor inhibitory effects of KWG are mediated by inhibition of activator protein (AP-1), as showed by in vitro study conducted on AP-1/NF-κB-dependent mouse non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines. Western blotting of lung tissues also indicated that NTCU upregulated AP-1 through phosphorylation of c-jun-NH2-kinase, which was downregulated by KWG in concurrence with its chemoprevention function. These results suggest that KWG could be a potential chemopreventive agent for lung SCC. PMID:23550152

  19. Unresectable Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung: An Outcomes Study

    SciTech Connect

    Newlin, Heather E.; Iyengar, Meera; Morris, Christopher G.; Olivier, Kenneth

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: To report survival and control rates in patients with inoperable squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods and Materials: Two hundred seventy-five patients with inoperable squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (Stages I-IIIB) who received radiotherapy alone or combined with chemotherapy given with curative intent at University of Florida between 1963 and 2006 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Overall survival (OS) at 5 years for Stages I, II, and III was 10%, 14%, and 7% (p = 0.0034); local-regional control at 5 years was 51%, 38%, and 29% (p = 0.0003); and freedom from metastases at 5 years was 81%, 60%, and 65% (p = 0.0689), respectively. Patients who received doses {>=} 65 Gy had improved cause-specific survival (CSS), OS, and metastasis-free survival at 5 years compared with those who received doses < 65 Gy. Five-year regional control was significantly improved with twice-daily vs. once-daily treatment (37% vs. 14%, p = 0.02). Chemotherapy significantly improved 5-year regional control (36% for patients who received chemotherapy vs. 13% for those who did not; p = 0.01). Conclusions: Dose escalation, accelerated fractionation, and combined modality therapies improve outcomes in SCC of the lung. Our review of the literature highlights the different natural history for SCC vs. other non-small cell lung cancers and emphasizes the importance of tailoring treatment strategies to individual patients. At University of Florida, we have begun treating unresectable Stage III patients with SCC of the lung using 69.6 Gy twice daily with concurrent chemotherapy.

  20. Concomitant Aspergillus Species Infection and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Diagnosed on Pap Smear.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prajwala; Goyal, Snigdha; Kaushal, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Concomitant infection with Aspergillus species and cervical squamous cell carcinoma in the female genital tract is a rare occurrence and attributed to the opportunistic nature of infection in the immunocompromised state due to the underlying malignancy. The contamination of smears with Aspergillus species should be excluded. The diagnosis of Aspergillus species infection along with squamous cell carcinoma was established on cervicovaginal pap smears in a 62-year-old female presented to gynecological clinic with complaints of stress urinary incontinence. Speculum examination revealed first-degree cervical descent. Smears showed features of squamous cell carcinoma along with fungal spores and fruiting body with hyphae of Aspergillus species. The presence of fruiting bodies and hyphae of Aspergillus species with coexisting squamous cell carcinoma is rare in routine pap smears. True infection needs to be distinguished from contamination by Aspergillus species. Early diagnosis can be established on routine cervicovaginal Pap smear examination. PMID:24272933

  1. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the duodenum effectively treated with TS-1: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Toshihiro; Nasu, Yuichiro; Hamamoto, Hitomi; Miyata, Fumiko; Oshige, Akihiko; Shigenobu, Shuho; Kanmura, Shuji; Numata, Masatsugu; Aozaki, Shinichiro; Ido, Akio

    2014-12-01

    An 89-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for thorough investigation of refractory diabetes mellitus, which revealed primary squamous cell carcinoma of the duodenum. After two courses of chemotherapy, follow-up esophagoduodenogastroscopy and duodenal biopsy showed no evidence of tumor. No findings were suggestive of recurrence of the primary lesion 19 months after starting chemotherapy. This case suggests that chemotherapy including TS-1 may be effective for treating unresectable primary squamous cell carcinoma of the duodenum. PMID:25482907

  2. An overview on "cellular cannibalism" with special reference to oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jain, M

    2015-12-01

    Cellular cannibalism has been defined as a large cell engulfing a slightly smaller one within its cytoplasm. It has been described in various cancers like bladder cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cellular cannibalism has been well correlated with anaplasia, tumor aggressiveness, grading and metastatic potential. Present review focuses on significance of cannibalism in relation to cancer with special emphasis on oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26710834

  3. High prevalence of TERT promoter mutations in primary squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Morgan; Springer, Simeon; Nguyen, Doreen; Taheri, Diana; Guner, Gunes; Rodriguez, Maria Angelica Mendoza; Wang, Yuxuan; Kinde, Isaac; VandenBussche, Christopher J; Olson, Matthew T; Cunha, Isabela; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Ertoy, Dilek; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Kinzler, Kenneth; Vogelstein, Bert; Netto, George J; Papadopoulos, Nickolas

    2016-05-01

    TERT promoter mutations (TERT-mut) are detectable in the majority of urothelial carcinomas. The detection of TERT-mut in urine is under investigation as a potential urine-based molecular-screening assay for bladder cancer. A small but significant number of bladder carcinomas are pure squamous cell carcinoma. We sought to assess the incidence of TERT-mut in squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. A retrospective search of the institutional pathology archives yielded 15 cystectomy specimens performed for squamous cell carcinoma (2000-2014). Histologic slides were reviewed by a senior urologic pathologist to confirm the diagnosis and select a representative formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue block for mutational analysis. All cases yielded adequate material for DNA analysis. Sequencing for TERT-mut was performed using previously described SafeSeq technique. We detected TERT-mut in 12/15 (80%) of bladder squamous cell carcinomas. TERT promoter mutations, commonly found in conventional urothelial carcinoma, are also highly prevalent in urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma suggesting a common tumorigenesis and potential utility as a molecular urine-based-screening assay. PMID:26965579

  4. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen in Premalignancy and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poosarla, Chandrashekar; Ramesh, K.; Gudiseva, Swetha; Bala, Sekar; Sundar, Murali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cancer has multifactorial aetiology and is a multistep process involving initiation, promotion and tumour progression. Cellular proliferation is one of the important indicators for the biologic aggressiveness of a malignant lesion. The dysregulated proliferation may be a significant change to determine the potential prognosis of various malignant tumours. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as an indicator for clinical aggressiveness in oral premalignancy and squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods A total of 50 blocks were taken from the Department of Oral Pathology which was diagnosed previously histopathologically. It comprised of normal oral mucosa (10), dysplasia (10) and grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (30) of patients between the age group of 40–60 years. From each block, sections of 4 micro metre thicknesses were prepared and placed on poly- L lysine coated slides. These sections were immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal proliferating cell antibody (PC10). The stained slides were evaluated by a single examiner for cell count. Results A comparison between study groups and controls showed a probability value (p-value) < 0.05. Significant increase in the proliferative index from the normal to oral squamous cell carcinoma was noticed. Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma showed maximum proliferative index followed by moderately differentiated, well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, dysplasia and normal mucosa. Conclusion Present study concluded that PCNA index can be used to assess the proliferation and aggressiveness in dysplasia and different grades oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26266215

  5. Photodynamic therapy in early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Pasquale; Dal Fante, Marco; Mancini, Andrea; Massetti, Renato; Meroni, Emmanuele

    1995-03-01

    From 1/1985 to 7/1993, 18 patients underwent endoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT) for early stage esophageal squamous cell carcinoma -- as two patients had two synchronous esophageal cancers, 20 lesions were treated. Tumors were staged as Tis in 7 cases and T1 in 13. The average light energy delivered was 50 J/cm2 and 70 J/cm2 for the treatment of Tis and T1, respectively. To obtain a more uniform distribution of laser light in 12 cases the irradiation was performed through the wall of a transparent tube previously placed over the endoscope and advanced into the stomach. The overall results show a complete response in 14/20 (70%) tumors. Three patients developed a local recurrence, 6, 12, and 14 months after therapy. After a follow-up of 5 to 75 months, there was no evidence of disease in 10/18 patients (56%). The actuarial survival rate was 95%, 79%, and 26% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Complications were skin reaction in one patient and esophageal stenosis at the treatment site, that gradually responded to endoscopic bougienage, in 2 patients. Endoscopic PDT proved to be safe and effective in the treatment of superficial carcinoma of the esophagus.

  6. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma mimicking as a desquamative lesion

    PubMed Central

    Keshava, Abbayya; Gugwad, Sushma; Baad, Rajendra; Patel, Rufi

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most frequently encountered neoplasm in the oral cavity, which accounts for more than 90% of all cancers. Except for carcinoma of the lip vermilion, the most common sites of oral SCC are the tongue and floor of mouth, followed at a lower frequency by the soft palate, gingiva, and buccal mucosa. Clinically, it may be misdiagnosed because of its variable appearances. This case report presents a case of well-differentiated SCC of gingiva. A 48-year-old male patient reported to the Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Sciences, Karad, with a 1-year history of burning sensation and painful lesion on the gingiva from 35 to 37 (mandibular) regions. On clinical examination, desquamated gingival lesion was seen with no purulent exudation. Clinical characteristics and differential diagnosis indicated the lesion for an excisional biopsy. Histopathological examination confirmed the lesion to be a well-differentiated SCC. The patient was referred for the treatment consisting of surgical excision of the lesion. Since an early diagnosis and treatment was possible in this case, it resulted in a good prognosis. In these instances, dentist plays an important role in early detection of gingival SCC. PMID:27041843

  7. Epithelial dysplasia immediately adjacent to oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wright, A; Shear, M

    1985-08-01

    A number of workers have attempted to identify dysplastic features which may be predictors of malignant change, by prospective studies of dysplastic lesions. In the present study we have looked at dysplastic changes immediately adjacent to established squamous carcinomas in an attempt to determine whether any predictors can be identified in this way. Eighty cases were included in the study for whom information on tobacco usage was known. Clinical details were recorded. Histological features in epithelium immediately adjacent to the carcinoma were studied in representative sections. Eighteen specific histological characteristics were noted as present or absent. Data were transferred by Conversational Monitoring System (CMS) terminal, processed and analyzed by the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Computer package. Only 8 patients were non-smokers (10%). Dysplastic changes in adjacent epithelium were frequently multicentric. Changes appear to occur first in the basal layer in the form of disturbance of polarity or basal cell hyperplasia, while other dysplastic features are absent. The feature referred to as basal cell hyperplasia appears, in fact, to represent disturbed epithelial maturation. In 80% of cases increased nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio appears to result from a decrease in cytoplasmic volume rather than increased nuclear size. A defect in RNA synthesis may be a factor. A sharp decrease in inflammatory cells in the lamina propria of adjacent epithelium, compared with that of the carcinoma, was observed. Russell bodies were noted in 5 of the 8 lesions in non-smokers (63%) and in 16 of 72 lesions in smokers (22%) (p less than 0.001; Chi2 17.65). PMID:3928850

  8. [Inveterate squamous cell carcinoma of the upper eyelid: a case report].

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, S; Marcasciano, M; Pacitti, F; Toscani, M; Tarallo, M; Fino, P; Scuderi, G L

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a malignant tumor of epithelium that shows squamous cell differentiation. It is the second most common cancer of the skin and usually occurs in areas exposed to the sun but it can rarely arise within the conjunctival epithelium with a deep component. We describe a woman with a history of chronic blepharoconjunctivitis unresponsive to topical medications. Examination disclosed a hyperaemic translucent patch with blurred margins of the upper palpebral conjunctiva. Tarsoconjunctival biopsy revealed intraepithelial squamous cell carcinoma. Management consisted of complete tumor excision with removal of the entire posterior lamella of the left upper eyelid and reconstruction. Histopathologic analysis confirmed primary squamous cell carcinoma arising from conjunctival epithelium, involving the underlying tarsus. Patients with unexplained chronic unilateral blepharoconjunctivitis or papillary hypertrophy of the palpebral conjunctiva should be considered for biopsy to rule out neoplasia, even when there is no sign of an evident mass. PMID:23868639

  9. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Seddik, Youssef; Brahmi, Sami Aziz; Afqir, Said

    2015-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma is a well known malignancy of the skin and other organs composed of squamous cells, which are normally not found inside the breast. Therefore, a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast is an exceedingly uncommon phenomen and the management of this type of disease is still unclear. We report the case of a 43-year-old Moroccan woman, without significant medical history, presented an infected mass of 9 cm in the left breast associated with ipsilateral axillary lymphadenopathy. The mass's surgical biopsy revealed a triple negative primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. She underwent a neoadjuvant chemotherapy using 5 Fluoro-Uracil and platinum. After three courses, she presented a contralateral breast progression and apparition of metastasis at D10. She received one course of a palliative chemotherapy based on weekly paclitaxel stopped because of her peformans status deterioration. She died 7 months after her admission.

  10. Small cell carcinoma of the anus in the setting of prior squamous dysplasia and carcinoma in situ

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Mark A.; Hawk, Natalyn N.; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Stapleford, Liza J.

    2013-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the anus is a rare tumor that has been infrequently described in the literature. In contrast to squamous cell carcinoma, which is known to be associated with high-risk subtypes of human papillomavirus (HPV), the etiology of small cell carcinoma of the anal canal is not established. We present a case of a patient with small cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the setting of prior squamous dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. In conjunction with recently published data demonstrating the presence of HPV in tumor specimens from patients with small cell carcinoma of the anal canal, our patient’s clinical course suggests a possible link between HPV and this rare malignancy. PMID:23730521

  11. Perineural Infiltration of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma Without Clinical Features

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Charles; Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui; Poulsen, Michael; Martin, Jarad; Jackson, James; Dickie, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To review the factors that influence outcome and patterns of relapse in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with perineural infiltration (PNI) without clinical or radiologic features, treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 222 patients with SCC or BCC with PNI on pathologic examination but without clinical or radiologic PNI features were identified. Charts were reviewed retrospectively and relevant data collected. All patients were treated with curative intent; all had radiotherapy, and most had surgery. The primary endpoint was 5-year relapse-free survival from the time of diagnosis. Results: Patients with SCC did significantly worse than those with BCC (5-year relapse-free survival, 78% vs. 91%; p < 0.01). Squamous cell carcinoma with PNI at recurrence did significantly worse than de novo in terms of 5-year local failure (40% vs. 19%; p < 0.01) and regional relapse (29% vs. 5%; p < 0.01). Depth of invasion was also a significant factor. Of the PNI-specific factors for SCC, focal PNI did significantly better than more-extensive PNI, but involved nerve diameter or presence of PNI at the periphery of the tumor were not significant factors. Conclusions: Radiotherapy in conjunction with surgery offers an acceptable outcome for cutaneous SCC and BCC with PNI. This study suggests that focal PNI is not an adverse feature.

  12. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma presenting as periodontal lesion in the mandibular posterior region

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Renu; Debnath, Nitai; Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Khandelwal, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Gingival squamous cell carcinoma (GSCC) is a relatively rare malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity. It represents less than 10% of diagnosed intraoral carcinoma. Because of its close proximity to the teeth and periodontium, the tumour can mimic tooth-related benign inflammatory conditions. This case report describes a patient diagnosed with GSCC presenting as localised periodontitis. PMID:25139914

  13. Non-invasive diagnostic techniques in the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Warszawik-Hendzel, Olga; Olszewska, Małgorzata; Maj, Małgorzata; Rakowska, Adriana; Czuwara, Joanna; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2015-12-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common cutaneous malignancy after basal cell carcinoma. Although the gold standard of diagnosis for squamous cell carcinoma is biopsy followed by histopathology evaluation, optical non-invasive diagnostic tools have obtained increased attention. Dermoscopy has become one of the basic diagnostic methods in clinical practice. The most common dermoscopic features of squamous cell carcinoma include clustered vascular pattern, glomerular vessels and hyperkeratosis. Under reflectance confocal microscopy, squamous cell carcinoma shows an atypical honeycomb or disarranged pattern of the spinous-granular layer of the epidermis, round nucleated bright cells in the epidermis and round vessels in the dermis. High frequency ultrasound and optical coherence tomography may be helpful in predominantly in pre-surgical evaluation of tumor size. Emerging non-invasive or minimal invasive techniques with possible application in the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, lip, oral mucosa, vulva or other tissues include high-definition optical coherence tomography, in vivo multiphoton tomography, direct oral microscopy, electrical impedance spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elastic scattering spectroscopy, differential path-length spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and angle-resolved low coherence interferometry. PMID:26848316

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma developing in the scar of Fournier's gangrene – Case report

    PubMed Central

    Chintamani; Shankar, Manu; Singhal, Vinay; Singh, JP; Bansal, Anju; Saxena, Sunita

    2004-01-01

    Background Squamous cell carcinoma of the scrotum is rare and its development in the scar of Fournier's gangrene is still rarer. Case presentation A 65-year-old gentleman presented with a small non-healing ulcer developing on right hemi-scrotum two years after the treatment for Fournier's gangrene. On histological examination it was found to be squamous cell carcinoma. He was successfully managed by surgery in the form of wide local excision and ilio-inguinal lymph node dissection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Conclusions Squamous cell carcinoma can develop in the scar of Fournier's gangrene after a long delay, which differentiates it from other scar carcinomas or Marjolin's ulcer. PMID:15113443

  15. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Testicular Teratoma and Presenting as Sister Mary Joseph Nodule

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Kalyan; Bagchi, Dibakar

    2011-01-01

    The most common somatic type malignancy arising in patients with testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) is sarcoma. Development of carcinomas, especially squamous cell carcinoma is an extremely rare event. Most cases of metastatic umbilical nodules (Sister Mary Joseph nodule) develop from adenocarcinomas. Fifteen percent of such cases have unknown origin; but development from a testicular squamous cell carcinoma has not yet been reported in the literature. We report a rare case of somatic type squamous cell carcinoma arising in a testicular teratoma. It is also possibly the first reported case of its kind which presented with a metastatic umbilical nodule. This possibility should be kept in mind while evaluating metastatic umbilical nodules in young male patients. PMID:22413055

  16. Laryngeal sarcocystosis accompanying laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Larbcharoensub, Noppadol; Cheewaruangroj, Wichit; Nitiyanant, Prawat

    2011-09-01

    Laryngeal sarcocystosis is an uncommon zoonotic coccidian protozoal infestation of human beings. The authors reviewed the pathology of 1,063 laryngeal biopsies over the past 10 years (2000 to 2009). Only one case of laryngeal sarcocystosis accompanying laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma was identified. The overall prevalence of laryngeal sarcocystosis was 0.094%. The case was a 66-year-old man who presented with voice hoarseness for six months. Physical examination and computed tomography revealed an ulcerative exophytic mass on the right true vocal cord, suggestive of laryngeal carcinoma. He underwent a right frontolateral partial laryngectomy. Histopathology showed a nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma with Sarcocystis spp in the vocalis muscle. He was followed up and enrolled in speech therapy. The authors briefly review the clinicopathologic features and pathogenesis of muscular sarcocystosis and concurrent laryngeal sarcocystosis and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:22299431

  17. Comprehensive genomic characterization of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    2015-01-29

    The Cancer Genome Atlas profiled 279 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) to provide a comprehensive landscape of somatic genomic alterations. Here we show that human-papillomavirus-associated tumours are dominated by helical domain mutations of the oncogene PIK3CA, novel alterations involving loss of TRAF3, and amplification of the cell cycle gene E2F1. Smoking-related HNSCCs demonstrate near universal loss-of-function TP53 mutations and CDKN2A inactivation with frequent copy number alterations including amplification of 3q26/28 and 11q13/22. A subgroup of oral cavity tumours with favourable clinical outcomes displayed infrequent copy number alterations in conjunction with activating mutations of HRAS or PIK3CA, coupled with inactivating mutations of CASP8, NOTCH1 and TP53. Other distinct subgroups contained loss-of-function alterations of the chromatin modifier NSD1, WNT pathway genes AJUBA and FAT1, and activation of oxidative stress factor NFE2L2, mainly in laryngeal tumours. Therapeutic candidate alterations were identified in most HNSCCs. PMID:25631445

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Roshandel, Gholamreza; Semnani, Shahryar; Malekzadeh, Reza; Dawsey, Sanford M

    2012-11-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is the 8th most common cancer and the 6th most frequent cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common type of EC. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been suggested as a risk factor for developing ESCC. In this paper we will review different aspects of the relationship between PAH exposure and ESCC. PAHs are a group of compounds that are formed by incomplete combustion of organic matter. Studies in humans have shown an association between PAH exposure and development of ESCC in many populations. The results of a recent case-control study in a high risk population in northeastern Iran showed a dramatic dose-response relationship between PAH content in non-tumor esophageal tissue (the target tissue for esophageal carcinogenesis) and ESCC case status, consistent with a causal role for PAH exposure in the pathogenesis of ESCC.  Identifying the main sources of exposure to PAHs may be the first and most important step in designing appropriate PAH-reduction interventions for controlling ESCC, especially in high risk areas. Coal smoke and drinking mate have been suggested as important modifiable sources of PAH exposure in China and Brazil, respectively. But the primary source of exposure to PAHs in other high risk areas for ESCC, such as northeastern Iran, has not yet been identified. Thus, environmental studies to determining important sources of PAH exposure should be considered as a high priority in future research projects in these areas. PMID:23102250

  19. Genomic and molecular characterization of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, De-Chen; Hao, Jia-Jie; Nagata, Yasunobu; Xu, Liang; Shang, Li; Meng, Xuan; Sato, Yusuke; Okuno, Yusuke; Varela, Ana Maria; Ding, Ling-Wen; Garg, Manoj; Liu, Li-Zhen; Yang, Henry; Yin, Dong; Shi, Zhi-Zhou; Jiang, Yan-Yi; Gu, Wen-Yue; Gong, Ting; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Xin; Kalid, Ori; Shacham, Sharon; Ogawa, Seishi; Wang, Ming-Rong; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2014-05-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is prevalent worldwide and particularly common in certain regions of Asia. Here we report the whole-exome or targeted deep sequencing of 139 paired ESCC cases, and analysis of somatic copy number variations (SCNV) of over 180 ESCCs. We identified previously uncharacterized mutated genes such as FAT1, FAT2, ZNF750 and KMT2D, in addition to those already known (TP53, PIK3CA and NOTCH1). Further SCNV evaluation, immunohistochemistry and biological analysis suggested their functional relevance in ESCC. Notably, RTK-MAPK-PI3K pathways, cell cycle and epigenetic regulation are frequently dysregulated by multiple molecular mechanisms in this cancer. Our approaches also uncovered many druggable candidates, and XPO1 was further explored as a therapeutic target because it showed both gene mutation and protein overexpression. Our integrated study unmasks a number of novel genetic lesions in ESCC and provides an important molecular foundation for understanding esophageal tumors and developing therapeutic targets. PMID:24686850

  20. Inferring RBP-Mediated Regulation in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lafzi, Atefeh; Kazan, Hilal

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play key roles in post-transcriptional regulation of mRNAs. Dysregulations in RBP-mediated mechanisms have been found to be associated with many steps of cancer initiation and progression. Despite this, previous studies of gene expression in cancer have ignored the effect of RBPs. To this end, we developed a lasso regression model that predicts gene expression in cancer by incorporating RBP-mediated regulation as well as the effects of other well-studied factors such as copy-number variation, DNA methylation, TFs and miRNAs. As a case study, we applied our model to Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) data as we found that there are several RBPs differentially expressed in LUSC. Including RBP-mediated regulatory effects in addition to the other features significantly increased the Spearman rank correlation between predicted and measured expression of held-out genes. Using a feature selection procedure that accounts for the adaptive search employed by lasso regularization, we identified the candidate regulators in LUSC. Remarkably, several of these candidate regulators are RBPs. Furthermore, majority of the candidate regulators have been previously found to be associated with lung cancer. To investigate the mechanisms that are controlled by these regulators, we predicted their target gene sets based on our model. We validated the target gene sets by comparing against experimentally verified targets. Our results suggest that the future studies of gene expression in cancer must consider the effect of RBP-mediated regulation. PMID:27186987

  1. Primary radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the pyriform sinus.

    PubMed

    Mendenhall, William M; Amdur, Robert J; Morris, Christopher G; Kirwan, Jessica; Dziegielewski, Peter T; Werning, John W

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to report the long-term outcomes of primary radiotherapy (RT) for patients with T1-T2 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the pyriform sinus. Between November 1964 and March 2008, 135 patients with T1-T2 pyriform sinus SCC were treated with primary RT at the University of Florida. Adjuvant chemotherapy was employed in 21 patients (16 %) and 62 patients (46 %) underwent a planned neck dissection. Median follow-up was 3.5 years (range 0.2-24.7 years); median follow-up on living patients was 8.3 years (range 3.8-24.0 years). The 5-year outcomes were as follows: local control, 85 %; regional control, 81 %; local-regional control, 71 %; distant metastasis-free survival, 76 %; cause-specific survival, 62 %; and overall survival, 38 %. The 5-year local control rate was 88 % for T1 cancers and 84 % for those with T2 SCCs (p = 0.5429). Sixteen patients (12 %) experienced severe late complications. Primary RT results in a high probability of cure with a relatively modest risk of severe late complications for patients with T1-T2 SCCs of the pyriform sinus. PMID:26071621

  2. Evidences Suggesting Involvement of Viruses in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kanupriya; Metgud, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers and it constitutes a major health problem particularly in developing countries. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents the most frequent of all oral neoplasms. Several risk factors have been well characterized to be associated with OSCC with substantial evidences. The etiology of OSCC is complex and involves many factors. The most clearly defined potential factors are smoking and alcohol, which substantially increase the risk of OSCC. However, despite this clear association, a substantial proportion of patients develop OSCC without exposure to them, emphasizing the role of other risk factors such as genetic susceptibility and oncogenic viruses. Some viruses are strongly associated with OSCC while the association of others is less frequent and may depend on cofactors for their carcinogenic effects. Therefore, the exact role of viruses must be evaluated with care in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of OSCC. Although a viral association within a subset of OSCC has been shown, the molecular and histopathological characteristics of these tumors have yet to be clearly defined. PMID:24455418

  3. Chemotherapy in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Bishal; Shimokata, Tomoya; Honda, Kazunori; Ando, Yuichi

    2016-03-01

    Chemotherapy, in combination with a local treatment, has a role in nearly all the settings of locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LAHNSCC) treatment: as definitive, adjuvant or induction therapy. However, despite many years of trials, controversies still exist regarding the best approach to using chemotherapy in the multi-modal treatment of LAHNSCC. Opinions are divided on sequential versus concurrent use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for unresectable LAHNSCC. More debate exists on whether the addition of induction chemotherapy to concomitant chemoradiotherapy is clinically meaningful. After the approval of cetuximab in combination with radiotherapy for this disease, making treatment choices have become further complicated. Although new data from trials are arriving every year, the results have been inconclusive. In this review, we provide the readers with the latest information on various strategies of using chemotherapy and cetuximab that will help to make an evidence-based decision in the treatment of LAHNSCC, including the approach to larynx preservation. We conclude that with the available information, concurrent chemoradiotherapy should be preferred over induction chemotherapy, except in the setting of larynx preservation. Furthermore, given the paucity of positive data and severe financial toxicity associated with cetuximab, concurrent chemoradiotherapy should be the preferred choice over cetuximab-radiotherapy. Future trials in head and neck cancer should be properly planned to address these controversies and provide clear solutions. PMID:26924194

  4. FHIT gene alterations in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Virgilio, L; Shuster, M; Gollin, S M; Veronese, M L; Ohta, M; Huebner, K; Croce, C M

    1996-01-01

    To determine whether the FHIT gene at 3p14.2 is altered in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), we examined 26 HNSCC cell lines for deletions within the FHIT locus by Southern analysis, for allelic losses of specific exons FHIT by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and for integrity of FHIT transcripts. Three cell lines exhibited homozygous deletions within the FHIT gene, 55% (15/25) showed the presence of aberrant transcripts, and 65% (13/20) showed the presence of multiple cell populations with losses of different portions of FHIT alleles by FISH of FHIT genomic clones to interphase nuclei. When the data obtained by FISH and by reverse transcriptase-PCR analyses are combined, 22 of 26 cell lines showed alterations of at least one allele of the FHIT gene. Our data indicate that the FHIT gene is disrupted in HNSCCs and hence, loss of FHIT function may be important in the development and/or progression of head and neck cancers. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8790406

  5. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma - precursor lesions and early diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Antonio Barros; Fagundes, Renato Borges

    2012-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCCE) carries a poor prognosis due to late diagnosis. Early detection is highly desirable, since surgical and endoscopic resection offers the only possible cure for esophageal cancer. Population screening should be undertaken in high risk areas, and in low or moderate risk areas for people with risk factors (alcoholics, smokers, mate drinkers, history of head and neck cancer, achalasia and lye stricture of the esophagus). Esophageal balloon cytology is an easy and inexpensive sampling technique, but the current methods are insufficient for primary screening due to sampling errors. Conventional endoscopy with biopsy remains the standard procedure for the identification of pre-malignant and early malignant changes in esophageal mucosa and endoscopic detection. It may be enhanced by several techniques such as dye and optic chromoendoscopy, magnifying endoscopy, and optical-based spectroscopic and imaging modalities. Since more than 80% of SCCE deaths occur in developing countries, where expensive techniques such as narrow band imaging (NBI) and autofluorescence imaging are unavailable, the most cost-effective tool for targeting biopsies may be Lugol dye chromoendoscopy, since it is easy, accurate, inexpensive and available worldwide. In ideal conditions, or in developed countries, is it reasonable to think that optimal detection will require a combination of techniques, such as the combination of Lugol’s chromoendoscopy and NBI to identify esophageal areas that require further characterization by a high resolution technique. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness will determine whether these modalities will become part of standard endoscopy practice. PMID:22267978

  6. Comprehensive genomic characterization of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas profiled 279 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) to provide a comprehensive landscape of somatic genomic alterations. We find that human papillomavirus-associated (HPV) tumors are dominated by helicase domain mutations of the oncogene PIK3CA, novel alterations involving loss of TRAF3, and amplification of the cell cycle gene E2F1. Smoking-related HNSCCs demonstrate near universal loss of TP53 mutations and CDKN2A with frequent copy number alterations including a novel amplification of 11q22. A subgroup of oral cavity tumors with favorable clinical outcomes displayed infrequent CNAs in conjunction with activating mutations of HRAS or PIK3CA, coupled with inactivating mutations of CASP8, NOTCH1 and wild-type TP53. Other distinct subgroups harbored novel loss of function alterations of the chromatin modifier NSD1, Wnt pathway genes AJUBA and FAT1, and activation of oxidative stress factor NFE2L2, mainly in laryngeal tumors. Therapeutic candidate alterations were identified in the majority of HNSCC's. PMID:25631445

  7. [Initial surgical management of squamous carcinoma of the vulva].

    PubMed

    Salazar-Báez, Israel; Salazar-Campos, Jessica E; López-Arias, Alhely; Villavicencio-Valencia, Verónica; Coronel-Martínez, Jaime; Candelaria-Hernández, Myrna; Pérez-Montiel, Delia; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Rojas-García, Aurora Elizabeth; Cantú de León, David

    2016-01-01

    Vulvar cancer accounts for approximately 4% of gynecological malignancies. At the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia in Mexico it occupies the fourth place. The purpose of this study is to assess the management of squamous carcinoma of the vulva with initial surgical treatment. It is a descriptive retrospective, observational study, from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2012. Twenty-seven patients, clinical stages I, II, or III, initial surgical management, with at least one year of follow-up were included. In 51.85% a partial vulvectomy was performed and in 40.74% a wide excision; 66.66% underwent inguinofemoral dissection. Recurrence occurred in 25.91% of cases and the overall survival at 10 years was 63%. It is concluded that with invasion of up to 1 mm of lymph node, affection is 0%; with invasion of 1 mm and up to 5 mm this increases to 25%; an invasion of more than 5 mm implies up to 45%. Recurrence in our study was primarily distant, necessitating long-term monitoring with emphasis on symptoms to request imaging studies when suspected. Adjuvant therapy should be offered to patients with positive nodes, close or positive margins, and tumors larger than 4 cm. PMID:27335183

  8. Tie2 Regulates Tumor Metastasis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Daisuke; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Nakashima, Dai; Miyamoto, Isao; Kimura, Yasushi; Saito, Tomoaki; Suzuki, Takane; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial-specific receptor, tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like loops and epidermal growth factor homology domains-2 (Tie2) is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and is ubiquitous in normal tissues; however, little is known about the mechanisms and roles of Tie2 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). In the current study, we investigated the expression status of Tie2 in OSCCs by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry and the functional mechanisms of Tie2 using its overexpressed OSCC (oeTie2) cells and Tie2 blocking by its antibody. We found that Tie2 expression was down-regulated significantly (p < 0.05) in OSCCs compared with normal counterparts in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, oeTie2 cells showed higher cellular adhesion (p < 0.05) and lower cellular invasion (p < 0.05) compared with control cells; whereas there was similar cellular proliferation in both transfectants. Furthermore, cellular adhesion was inhibited and invasion was activated by Tie2 function-blocking antibody (p < 0.05), indicating that Tie2 directly regulates cellular adhesion and invasion. As expected, among the clinical variables analyzed, Tie2-positivity in patients with OSCC was correlated closely with negative lymph node metastasis. These results suggested for the first time that Tie2 plays an important role in tumor metastasis and may be a potential biomarker for OSCC metastasis. PMID:27053959

  9. Genomic and molecular characterization of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, De-Chen; Hao, Jia-Jie; Nagata, Yasunobu; Xu, Liang; Shang, Li; Meng, Xuan; Sato, Yusuke; Okuno, Yusuke; Varela, Ana Maria; Ding, Ling-Wen; Garg, Manoj; Liu, Li-Zhen; Yang, Henry; Yin, Dong; Shi, Zhi-Zhou; Jiang, Yan-Yi; Gu, Wen-Yue; Gong, Ting; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Xin; Kalid, Ori; Shacham, Sharon; Ogawa, Seishi; Wang, Ming-Rong; Koeffler, H. Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a world-wide prevalent cancer, which is particularly common in certain regions of Asia. Here we report the whole-exome or targeted deep sequencing of 139 paired ESCC cases, and analysis of somatic copy number variations (SCNV) of over 180 ESCCs. We identified novel significantly mutated genes such as FAT1, FAT2, ZNF750 and KMT2D, in addition to previously discovered ones (TP53, PIK3CA and NOTCH1). Further SCNV evaluation, immunohistochemistry and biological analysis suggested their functional relevance in ESCC. Notably, RTK-MAPK-PI3K pathways, cell cycle and epigenetic regulation are frequently dysregulated by multiple molecular mechanisms in this cancer. Moreover, our approaches uncovered many novel druggable candidates, and XPO1 was further explored as a therapeutic target because of its mutation and protein overexpression. Together, our integrated study unmasks a number of novel genetic lesions in ESCC and provides an important molecular foundation for understanding esophageal tumors and developing therapeutic targets. PMID:24686850

  10. Prognostic significance of phosphorylated RON in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hui, Marco K C; Lai, Kenneth K Y; Chan, Kwok Wah; Luk, John M; Lee, Nikki P; Chung, Yvonne; Cheung, Leo C; Srivastava, Gopesh; Tsao, Sai Wah; Tang, Johnny C; Law, Simon

    2012-09-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common type of esophageal cancer. RON is a transmembrane receptor overexpressed in various cancers; however, the clinical significance of its phosphorylated form (pRON) is not fully deciphered. This report is the first to investigate the expression and clinical significance of pRON in human ESCC. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed an up-regulation of RON mRNA in 70% (7/10) of ESCC tissues when compared to the adjacent nontumor tissues. An overexpression of pRON protein was found in most of the ESCC cell lines studied (4/5) when compared to two non-neoplastic esophageal epithelial cells using immunoblot. In 64 ESCC tissues, pRON was localized at the cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus in 15 (23.4%), 63 (98.4%) and 61 (95.3%) cases using immunohistochemistry. Patients having high expression of cytoplasmic pRON significantly associated with shorter median survival when compared to those with low expression (25.41 months vs. 14.43 months), suggesting cytoplasmic pRON as a potential marker for poor prognosis in ESCC patients. PMID:22086736

  11. Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma: pathological study of nine cases with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Sajin, Maria; Hodorogea Prisăcaru, Alina; Luchian, Mihaela Cristina; Pătraşcu, Oana Maria; Dumitru, Adrian; Costache, Diana; Dumitrescu, Doina; Vrînceanu, Daniela; Voinea, Liliana Mary; Simionescu, Olga; Costache, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is classified in many subtypes or forms; one of them is the acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma, also called pseudoglandular, adenoid, epithelioma dyskeratoticum segregans, or adenoacanthoma. Researching and analyzing nine cases of acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma, we intend to verify if the data provided by the cases studied can be validated by the scientific literature. All the cases presented lesions found on the head and neck skin, with two exceptions - one on the larynx and the other one on the tonsil, all of them ulcerated lesions. In two cases, the tumors developed on the skin, in preneoplasic lesions (actinic keratosis). The tumors had dimensions between 4/3/4 mm and 100/90/36 mm. During one year, two of the cases studied presented multiple recurrences. We also found two cases of metatypical carcinoma accompanied the acantholytic variant of squamous cell carcinoma. None of the analyzed cases presented distant metastasis. The histopathological criteria for selection were: keratinised squamous tumor cell type, adenoid structures with round spaces with a defined wall of at least one cell width, spaces with isolated or grouped dyskeratotic acantholytic cells. PMID:24969975

  12. Novel Midkine Inhibitor iMDK Inhibits Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Masui, Masanori; Okui, Tatsuo; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Takabatake, Kiyofumi; Fukazawa, Takuya; Matsumoto, Kenichi; Kurio, Naito; Ibaragi, Soichiro; Naomoto, Yoshio; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Midkine is a heparin-binding growth factor highly expressed in various human malignant tumors. However, its role in the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma is not well understood. In this study, we analyzed the antitumor effect of a novel midkine inhibitor (iMDK) against oral squamous cell carcinoma. Administration of iMDK induced a robust antitumor response and suppressed cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2 cells and SAS cells xenograft models. iMDK inhibited the proliferation of these cells dose-dependently, as well as the expression of midkine and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase in HSC-2 and SAS cells. Moreover, iMDK significantly inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor and induced tube growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a dose-dependent fashion. These findings suggest that midkine is critically involved in oral squamous cell carcinoma and iMDK can be effectively used for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27272788

  13. [Cell oncogene expression in normal, metaplastic, dysplastic epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix].

    PubMed

    Petrov, S V; Mazurenko, N N; Sukhova, N M; Moroz, I P; Katsenel'son, V M; Raĭkhlin, N T; Kiselev, F L

    1994-01-01

    Immunohistochemical analysis of the protein expression c-myc, ets 1, ets 2, TPR-met, c-fos, c-jun, c-ras-pan, p53, yes, src in 79 samples of normal, metaplastic squamous epithelium, intraepithelial and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix was performed using polyclonal rabbit antibodies to the synthetic peptides homologous active areas of corresponding oncoproteins. Higher content of myc, fos, ets2, p53, ras is noted in metaplasia, dysplasia and in tumours as compared to the normal tissues. Protein myc is revealed in the cytoplasm at a grave dysplasia and in the nucleus in the intraepithelial carcinoma: this may serve as a criterion at a differential diagnosis of these conditions. Expression of the oncoproteins fos, ets2, p53, src in the metaplastic squamous cell carcinoma was higher than in the true squamous cell (ectocervical) carcinoma. When compared to the advanced carcinomas, increase of ets2, p53, and at some degree that of myc, the increase is noted in the latter. Invasive carcinoma with a high level of oncoproteins showed a tendency to the synchronization of myc and ras expression. Poor prognosis was associated with a low level (before treatment) of the expression of the majority of the oncoproteins studied. PMID:7848100

  14. Assessment of cervical lymph node metastasis for therapeutic decision-making in squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa: a prospective clinical analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical metastasis has a tremendous impact on the prognosis in patients with carcinomas of the head and neck and the frequency of such spread is greater than 20% for most squamous cell carcinomas. With emerging evidence, focus is shifting to conservative neck procedures aimed at achieving good shoulder function without compromising oncologic safety. The purpose of this study was to analyze the pattern of nodal metastasis in patients presenting with squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa. Materials and methods This was a prospective clinical analysis of patients who were histologically diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal cavity and clinically N1 and had not received treatment anywhere else. Patients were analyzed for age and sex distribution, tumor staging, location, and metastasis. Results The incidence of metastatic lymph node in T4 (n=44) was the highest, that is, level I was 100% (44/44), level II was 43.18% (19/44), level III was 15.90% (7/44), and level IV was 4.5% (2/44). Level V was free of metastasis. Among T3 (n=10) lesions, incidence of metastasis in level I was 100% (10/10), level II was 20% (2/10), and level III, IV, and V were free of metastasis. Among T2 (n=6) lesions, incidence of lymph node metastasis in level I was 100% (6/6) and all other levels of lymph nodes were found free of metastasis. Conclusion Lymphatic spread from carcinoma of the buccal mucosa is low. Involvement of level IV is seen in only 3% of patients. A more conservative approach to the neck in patients with carcinoma of the buccal mucosa is recommended. PMID:23173732

  15. NUPTIAL PAD AMPUTATION IN AN AMERICAN BULLFROG (LITHOBATES CATESBEIANUS) WITH SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA.

    PubMed

    Latney, La'Toya V; Miller, Erica; Pessier, Allan P

    2015-12-01

    A 7-yr-old male captive American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) presented with a 2-wk history of an enlarged, ulcerated nuptial pad on the mediopalmar surface of the first digit of the left carpus. A 3-mm wedge biopsy of the mass was not diagnostic and differentials included an epidermal inclusion cyst or squamous cell carcinoma. No fungal or acid-fast organisms were cultured or noted on impression smear. Wide surgical resection of the mass and associated first digit were performed. Histopathology confirmed squamous cell carcinoma associated with the dermal nuptial gland with neoplastic cells extending close to deep surgical margins. Two months after surgery, no recurrence was noted. Although experimental tumor studies in amphibians are well documented, clinical reports of cutaneous neoplasia management in captive amphibians are scarce. Squamous cell carcinoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis when male anurans present with nuptial gland enlargement. PMID:26667557

  16. Human Papilloma Virus in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma - The Enigma Unravelled.

    PubMed

    Khot, Komal P; Deshmane, Swati; Choudhari, Sheetal

    2016-03-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) has long been regarded as a disease entity having a remarkable incidence worldwide and a fairly onerous prognosis; thus encouraging further research on factors that might modify disease outcome. Squamous cell carcinomas encompass at least 90% of all oral malignancies. Several factors like tobacco and tobacco-related products, alcohol, genetic predisposition and hormonal factors are suspected as possible causative factors. Human papilloma virus (HPV), the causal agent of cervical cancer also appears to be involved in the aetiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer. HPVpositive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) seems to differ from HPV-negative SCC. Many questions about the natural history of oral HPV infection remain under investigation. The aim of this review is to highlight the current understanding of HPV-associated oral cancer with an emphasis on its prognosis, detection and management. PMID:26981603

  17. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Boamah, Harry; Knight, Glenn; Taylor, Joseph; Palka, Kevin; Ballard, Billy

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the temporal bone and external auditory canal is a rare tumor with a reported incidence of between 1 to 6 cases per million population per year. Because squamous cell carcinoma of the temporal bone and auditory canal is so rare, developing an adequate tumor staging system and treatment has been difficult. We present a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal in 65-year-old Hispanic female who presented with a 6-month history of right ear pain, 3-month history of serosanguineous right ear drainage, and symptoms of facial paralysis. Due to the extensive spread of her tumor into the middle ear at the time of diagnosis, her tumor was deemed unresectable and she received palliative chemotherapy and radiation therapy and was sent to Alice Hospice and died several weeks later. PMID:22937370

  18. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: an atypical presentation mimicking temporomandibular joint disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Andrea; Nolet, Paul S; Diwan, Murtaza A

    2004-01-01

    A 50-year-old female presented to a chiropractic clinic with left jaw pain consistent with temporomandibular joint disorder. Examination revealed a large ulcerated mass on the posterolateral margin of the tongue which was later diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common of the oral cancers. These cancers are often detected late making treatment more complicated and reducing the chance of survival. In the early stages squamous cell carcinoma can be asymptomatic. Symptoms can be similar to that of temporomandibular joint disorder making examination of the patient’s mouth important to rule out oral cancers. Oral cancers should be considered when patients present to a chiropractor with pain in the area of the temporomandibular joint. Risk factors such as chronic tobacco and alcohol use should raise concern in these patients. Suspicious lesions should be referred immediately for further investigation. PMID:17549104

  19. Purification of a protein associated with human bronchogenic squamous-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kelly, B S; Levy, J G

    1979-03-01

    A heteroantiserum raised in rabbits to extracts of human squamous-cell carcinoma of the lung which exhibited marked tumour specificity was used to monitor the fractionation and isolation of a tumour-associated component of the extract. KC1 extracts of pools of both normal lung and bronchogenic squamous-cell carcinoma were subjected to a series of purification steps involving acid precipitation, salting out, DEAE chromatography and preparative polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. At each stage, fractions were tested for their ability to react in the complement-fixation assay with the antiserum. A protein was ultimately isolated which did not appear to be present at detectable levels in an equivalent fraction of normal lung extract, reacted with the heteroantiserum, and appeared to be present in all extracts of squamous-cell carcinoma. PMID:465295

  20. A novel gammaherpesvirus found in oral squamous cell carcinomas in sun bears (Helarctos malayanus).

    PubMed

    Lam, Lydia; Garner, Michael M; Miller, Christine L; Milne, Victoria E; Cook, Kimberly A; Riggs, Gary; Grillo, James F; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2013-01-01

    A novel herpesvirus was detected in sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Five captive sun bears from 4 institutions in the United States presented with oral lesions ranging from erythema and mild erosions to nodular, ulcerated masses. All 5 were diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma. The tumors were treated with surgical resection but recurrence, local extension, or appearance of new lesions was noted in all cases. Intralesional chemotherapy was administered in 2 cases, and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug piroxicam was administered in 3 cases. Virus was detected in 4 of the 5 bears' tissue samples using a consensus herpesvirus polymerase chain reaction. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that this herpesvirus is in the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae and distinct from other known herpesviruses. The association between the herpesvirus and squamous cell carcinoma is unknown. The current study presents a novel gammaherpesvirus within the order Ursidae, with the name Ursid herpesvirus 1 proposed. PMID:23345273

  1. Concurrent Human Papillomavirus-Positive Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx in a Married Couple

    PubMed Central

    García, Joaquín J.; Price, Katharine A.; Gao, Ge; Smith, David I.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although alcohol and tobacco use are known risk factors for development of squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck, human papillomavirus (HPV) has been increasingly associated with this group of cancers. We describe the case of a married couple who presented with HPV-positive oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma within two months of each other. Methods. Tumor biopsies were positive for p16 and high-risk HPV in both patients. Sanger sequencing showed a nearly identical HPV16 strain in both patients. Both patients received chemoradiation, and one patient also underwent transoral robotic tongue base resection with bilateral neck dissection. Results. Both patients showed no evidence of recurrent disease on follow-up PET imaging. Conclusions. New head and neck symptoms should be promptly evaluated in the partner of a patient with known HPV-positive oropharynx cancer. This case expands the limited current literature on concurrent presentation of HPV-positive oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma in couples. PMID:27418994

  2. Coexistence of squamous cell tracheal papilloma and carcinoma treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Paliouras, Dimitrios; Gogakos, Apostolos; Rallis, Thomas; Chatzinikolaou, Fotios; Asteriou, Christos; Tagarakis, Georgios; Organtzis, John; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Tsavlis, Drosos; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Barbetakis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Background Papillomatosis presents, most frequently, as multiple lesions of the respiratory tract, which are usually considered benign. Malignant degeneration into squamous cell carcinoma is quite common, although curative approaches vary a lot in modern literature. Case report We report a case of a 66-year-old male patient with the coexistence of multiple squamous cell papilloma and carcinoma in the upper trachea with severe airway obstruction that was diagnosed through bronchoscopy and treated by performing an urgent tracheostomy, followed by concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There was no evidence of recurrence after a 12-month follow-up period. Conclusion This study underlines the diagnostic and therapeutic value of bronchoscopy as well as multimodality palliative treatment in such cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to describe an immediate treatment protocol with tracheostomy and concurrent chemotherapy/radiotherapy in a patient with squamous cell tracheal papilloma and carcinoma. PMID:26730195

  3. Unusual Presentation of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Young Woman

    PubMed Central

    França, Diurianne CC; Monti, Lira M; de Castro, Alvimar L; Soubhia, Ana MP; Volpato, Luiz ER; de Aguiar, Sandra MHC Á; Goiato, Marcelo C

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common oral malignant neoplasm, mainly affecting individuals over 50 years old with a history of tobacco and alcohol use. The occurrence of this oral cancer in individuals under 40 years old is unusual and, when it does occur, shows a weaker relation to those risk factors and a more aggressive clinical course. Due to the paucity of reports in this population, it is difficult to prove its increasing trend. A case of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a 39-year-old woman with no history of tobacco or alcohol use is reported. Clinical and histopathological findings, aetiology, and treatment are discussed. The increasing trend of oral squamous cell carcinoma in young women without known risk factors highlights the need for clinicians to be prepared to diagnose this lesion quickly and precisely, providing a better prognosis, chance of survival, and quality of life for the patient. PMID:22548144

  4. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: A case report

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, YOKO; KODAMA, KEN; MANIWA, TOMOHIRO; TAKEDA, MASASHI; KISHIMA, HIROKI

    2016-01-01

    It is widely known that echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) rearrangement mostly occurs in the adenocarcinoma subtype of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with squamous cell carcinoma harboring the ALK rearrangement are extremely rare. This is a case report of a squamous cell carcinoma patient with EML4-ALK rearrangement. An elderly man with a heavy smoking history presented with a mass lesion in the right main bronchus. Bronchoscopic biopsy of the tumor confirmed a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma, and it was proven to harbor ALK rearrangement, based on fluorescence in situ hybridization, but not epidermal growth factor receptor mutations. The patient underwent radiation therapy, with a markedly favorable response. ALK-targeted treatment may be a viable option if disease progression occurs in such a case in the future. PMID:27330767

  5. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in six harbor seals (Phoca vitulina spp.).

    PubMed

    Flower, Jennifer E; Gamble, Kathryn C; Stone, Michael; Lyons, Jeremiah A; Maganti, Rajanikanth J; Tuomi, Pamela A; Olds, June E; Sims, Michele A; Gauger, Phillip; Tuttle, Allison D

    2014-09-01

    Six cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were identified in six captive adult Pacific (Phoca vitulina richardsii; n = 2) and Atlantic (Phoca vitulina concolor; n = 4) harbor seals. These seals presented with intermittent dysphagia, regurgitation, inappetence, and abnormal posturing. Common clinical pathology findings in these seals included azotemia, hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, and leukocytosis. Gastrointestinal endoscopy commonly revealed an ulcerated mass near the gastroesophageal junction. Each seal was euthanized (n = 3) due to poor prognosis, subsequently died while undergoing an anesthetic procedure (n = 2), or found dead (n = 1). The diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was confirmed via biopsy of esophageal mucosa during endoscopy or histopathologic examination of affected tissues after necropsy. On the basis of clinical and postmortem findings, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in aged harbor seals exhibiting clinical signs of regurgitation, decreased appetite or anorexia, vomiting, and/or abnormal posturing. PMID:25314830

  6. Inhibitory effects of cucurbitacin B on laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingyan; Zhang, Meixia; Zhang, Hongliang; Sun, Chunyan; Deng, Yihui

    2008-10-01

    Cucurbitacins are compounds isolated from various plant families, which have been used as folk medicines for centuries in countries such as India and China because of their wide spectrum of pharmacological activities such as cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. Accumulated evidences have shown that cucurbitacin B inhibits the growth of numerous human cancer cell lines and tumor xenografts. To determine whether cucurbitacin B can inhibit the growth of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, in the present study we investigated the antitumor effect of cucurbitacin B on Hep-2 cells. Hep-2 cells were treated with different concentrations of cucurbitacin B for different time. Cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and cell apoptosis were evaluated using MTT assay, flow cytometry, and fluorescent microscopy. It was found that cucurbitacin B exhibited significant efficacy in growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, and apoptosis induction in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Measuring the modulation of regulators in the cell cycle, apoptosis and signal transductions by Western blot analysis showed that the effect of cucurbitacin B was due to suppression of the expression of p-STAT3, Bcl-2, and cyclin B1. Moreover, in vivo studies were performed in a mouse xenograft model, where cucurbitacin B inhibited tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the antitumor effect of cucurbitacin B on Hep-2 cells was due to the induction of cell cycle arrest as well as apoptosis. The possible mechanisms underlying the action might be attributed to the suppression of STAT3 phosphorylation. This investigation suggests a potential clinical application of cucurbitacin B for the treatment of laryngeal cancer patients. PMID:18309509

  7. ARNT2 Regulates Tumoral Growth in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yasushi; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Nakashima, Dai; Yamatoji, Masanobu; Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Koike, Kazuyuki; Fushimi, Kazuaki; Higo, Morihiro; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) 2 is a transcriptional factor related to adaptive responses against cellular stress from a xenobiotic substance. Recent evidence indicates ARNT is involved in carcinogenesis and cancer progression; however, little is known about the relevance of ARNT2 in the behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In the current study, we evaluated the ARNT2 mRNA and protein expression levels in OSCC in vitro and in vivo and the clinical relationship between ARNT2 expression levels in primary OSCCs and their clinicopathologic status by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. Using ARNT2 overexpression models, we performed functional analyses to investigate the critical roles of ARNT2 in OSCC. ARNT2 mRNA and protein were down-regulated significantly (P < 0.05 for both comparisons) in nine OSCC-derived cells and primary OSCC (n=100 patients) compared with normal counterparts. In addition to the data from exogenous experiments that ARNT2-overexpressed cells showed decreased cellular proliferation, ARNT2-positive OSCC cases were correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with tumoral size. Since von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, a negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1)-α, is a downstream molecule of ARNT2, we speculated that HIF1-α and its downstream molecules would have key functions in cellular growth. Consistent with our hypothesis, overexpressed ARNT2 cells showed down-regulation of HIF1-α, which causes hypofunctioning of glucose transporter 1, leading to decreased cellular growth. Our results proposed for the first time that the ARNT2 level is an indicator of cellular proliferation in OSCCs. Therefore, ARNT2 may be a potential therapeutic target against progression of OSCCs. PMID:27076852

  8. Keratoacanthoma and Keratoacanthoma-Like Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Isabela C.; Magalhães, Renata F.; de Moraes, Aparecida M.; Stelini, Rafael F.; Cintra, Geórgia F.; Metze, Konradin; Cintra, Maria L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Differential diagnosis between keratoacanthoma (KA) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is difficult due to their similarities. The mechanisms that drive their distinct biological behavior are poorly understood. To investigate whether the assessment of microvessel density (MVD) could be helpful in KA and SCC differential diagnosis and to gain insight into the pathogenesis of KA-like neoplasms, we compared the density of CD105- and CD34-stained vessels in KAs and SCCs and their relation to the expression of the p53 oncoprotein and proliferation marker Ki67. This is an observational retrospective cohort study. Forty lesions with clinical appearance of KAs (29 KAs and 11 SCCs) entered the study. A biopsy was taken from each lesion at presentation and the natural clinical course was monitored for at least 1 month. Growing or minimally regressing lesions were submitted to complete surgical excision. The diagnoses were established on combined clinical, histological, and follow-up evaluations. The MVD and p53 or Ki67 expression in neoplastic cells were assessed through morphometry. The MVD did not show discriminating power between KAs and SCCs. The Ki67 proliferation rate was significantly higher in SCCs. Although neoangiogenesis (CD105-MVD) in KAs was associated with cell proliferation, in SCCs it was not. There was significant correlation between p53 expression and neoplasia size in SCCs but not in KAs. From our results, we may conclude that KA and SCC have similarities, as CD105- and CD34-MVD. However, the low Ki67 proliferation index and the positive correlation between Ki-67 index and neovascularization in KA suggest a dependence in neovascularization to grow in KA, pointing to involvement of distinct pathogenesis. PMID:26061320

  9. Osteopontin Facilitates Ultraviolet B-induced Squamous Cell Carcinoma Development

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pi-Ling; Hsieh, Yu-Hua; Wang, Chao-Cheng; Juliana, M. Margaret; Tsuruta, Yuko; Timares, Laura; Elmets, Craig; Ho, Kang-Jey

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteopontin (OPN) is a matricellular glycoprotein that is markedly expressed in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) and in actinic keratoses implicating its role in photocarcinogenesis. Objective To determine whether OPN facilitates the development of cSCC and its function. Methods cSCCs development was compared between wild-type (WT) and OPN-null mice subjected to UVB irradiation for 43 weeks. UVB-induced OPN expression was determined by Western blot, immunoprecipitation, ELISA, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Epidermal layer and TUNEL analyses assessed if OPN mediates UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia or suppresses UVB-induced apoptosis of basal keratinocytes, respectively. In vitro experiments determined whether OPN enhances cell survival of UVB-induced apoptosis and its potential mechanisms. Immunohistochemical analyses of epidermis assessed the expression of CD44 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), molecules that mediate OPN survival function. Results Compared to female WT mice, OPN-null mice did not develop cSCCs. UVB irradiation stimulated OPN protein expression in the dorsal skin by 11 h and remains high at 24 to 48h.OPN did not mediate UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia; instead, it protected basal keratinocytes from undergoing apoptosis upon UVB exposure. Likewise, the addition of OPN suppressed UVB-induced OPN-null cSCC cell apoptosis, the activation of caspase-9 activity, and increased phosphorylation of FAK at Y397. Furthermore, the expression of CD44 and FAK in WT mice epidermis was greater than that of OPN-null mice prior to and during early acute UVB exposure. Conclusion These data support the hypothesis that chronic UVB-induced OPN expression protects the survival of initiated basal keratinocytes and, consequently, facilitates cSCC develop. PMID:24888687

  10. Osteoactivin Promotes Migration of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Arosarena, Oneida A; Dela Cadena, Raul A; Denny, Michael F; Bryant, Evan; Barr, Eric W; Thorpe, Ryan; Safadi, Fayez F

    2016-08-01

    Nearly 50% of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) die of metastases or locoregional recurrence. Metastasis is mediated by cancer cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Osteoactivin (OA) overexpression plays a role in metastases in several malignancies. The aims were to determine how integrin interactions modulate OA-induced OSCC cell migration; and to investigate OA effects on cell survival and proliferation. We confirmed OA mRNA and protein overexpression in OSCC cell lines. We assessed OA's interactions with integrins using adhesion inhibition assays, fluorescent immunocytochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation. We investigated OA-mediated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and cell survival. Integrin inhibition effects on OA-mediated cell migration were determined. We assessed effects of OA knock-down on cell migration and proliferation. OA is overexpressed in OSCC cell lines, and serves as a migration-promoting adhesion molecule. OA co-localized with integrin subunits, and co-immunoprecipitated with the subunits. Integrin blocking antibodies, especially those directed against the β1 subunit, inhibited cell adhesion (P = 0.03 for SCC15 cells). Adhesion to OA activated MAPKs in UMSCC14a cells and OA treatment promoted survival of SCC15 cells. Integrin-neutralizing antibodies enhanced cell migration with OA in the extracellular matrix. OA knock-down resulted in decreased proliferation of SCC15 and SCC25 cells, but did not inhibit cell migration. OA in the extracellular matrix promotes OSCC cell adhesion and migration, and may be a novel target in the prevention of HNSCC spread. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1761-1770, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26636434

  11. PIKE mediates EGFR proliferative signaling in squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Z; Jiang, Y; Liao, E-Y; Chen, Y; Pennypacker, S D; Peng, J; Chang, S M

    2012-12-01

    One of the key drivers for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) proliferation is activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a known proto-oncogene. However, the mechanism of EGFR-dependent SCC proliferation remains unclear. Our previous studies indicate that epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced SCC cell proliferation requires the SH3 domain of phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1), but not its catalytic activity. The SH3 domain of PLC-γ1 is known to activate the short form of nuclear phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) that enhances the activity of nuclear class Ia phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) required for proliferation. However, PIKE has been described for more than a decade to be present exclusively in neuronal cells. In the present study, we found that PIKE was highly expressed in malignant human keratinocytes (SCC4 and SCC12B2) but had low expression in normal human keratinocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis showed strong nuclear staining of PIKE in human epidermal and tongue SCC specimens but little staining in the adjacent non-cancerous epithelium. Treatment of SCC4 cells with EGF-induced translocation of PLC-γ1 to the nucleus and binding of PLC-γ1 to the nuclear PIKE. Knockdown of PLC-γ1 or PIKE blocked EGF-induced activation of class Ia PI3K and protein kinase C-ζ and phosphorylation of nucleolin in the nucleus as well as EGF-induced SCC cell proliferation. However, inhibition of the catalytic activity of PLC-γ1 had little effect. These data suggest that PIKE has a critical role in EGF-induced SCC cell proliferation and may function as a proto-oncogene in SCC. PMID:22349826

  12. The landscape of alternative splicing in cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Peng; Wang, Dan; Wu, Jun; Yang, Junjun; Ren, Tong; Zhu, Baoli; Xiang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background Alternative splicing (AS) is a key regulatory mechanism in protein synthesis and proteome diversity. In this study, we identified alternative splicing events in four pairs of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) and adjacent nontumor tissues using RNA sequencing. Methods The transcripts of the four paired samples were thoroughly analyzed by RNA sequencing. SpliceMap software was used to detect the splicing junctions. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis was conducted to detect the alternative spliced genes-related signal pathways. The alternative spliced genes were validated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results There were 35 common alternative spliced genes in the four CSCC samples; they were novel and CSCC specific. Sixteen pathways were significantly enriched (P<0.05). One novel 5′AS site in the KLHDC7B gene, encoding kelch domain-containing 7B, and an exon-skipping site in the SYCP2 gene, encoding synaptonemal complex 2, were validated by RT-PCR. The KLHDC7B gene with 5′AS was found in 67.5% (27/40) of CSCC samples and was significantly related with cellular differentiation and tumor size. The exon-skipping site of the SYCP2 gene was found in 35.0% (14/40) of CSCC samples and was significantly related with depth of cervical invasion. Conclusion The KLHDC7B and the SYCP2 genes with alternative spliced events might be involved in the development and progression of CSCC and could be used as biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of CSCC. PMID:25565867

  13. ARNT2 Regulates Tumoral Growth in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yasushi; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Nakashima, Dai; Yamatoji, Masanobu; Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Koike, Kazuyuki; Fushimi, Kazuaki; Higo, Morihiro; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) 2 is a transcriptional factor related to adaptive responses against cellular stress from a xenobiotic substance. Recent evidence indicates ARNT is involved in carcinogenesis and cancer progression; however, little is known about the relevance of ARNT2 in the behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In the current study, we evaluated the ARNT2 mRNA and protein expression levels in OSCC in vitro and in vivo and the clinical relationship between ARNT2 expression levels in primary OSCCs and their clinicopathologic status by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. Using ARNT2 overexpression models, we performed functional analyses to investigate the critical roles of ARNT2 in OSCC. ARNT2 mRNA and protein were down-regulated significantly (P < 0.05 for both comparisons) in nine OSCC-derived cells and primary OSCC (n=100 patients) compared with normal counterparts. In addition to the data from exogenous experiments that ARNT2-overexpressed cells showed decreased cellular proliferation, ARNT2-positive OSCC cases were correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with tumoral size. Since von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, a negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1)-α, is a downstream molecule of ARNT2, we speculated that HIF1-α and its downstream molecules would have key functions in cellular growth. Consistent with our hypothesis, overexpressed ARNT2 cells showed down-regulation of HIF1-α, which causes hypofunctioning of glucose transporter 1, leading to decreased cellular growth. Our results proposed for the first time that the ARNT2 level is an indicator of cellular proliferation in OSCCs. Therefore, ARNT2 may be a potential therapeutic target against progression of OSCCs. PMID:27076852

  14. Autofluorescence imaging in recurrent oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Martin; Fuss, Juliana; Derman, Mehmet Ali; Kreppel, Matthias; Neugebauer, Jörg; Rothamel, Daniel; Drebber, Uta; Zoeller, Joachim E

    2016-03-01

    The survival of patients with oral cancer is decreased by locoregional recurrence after an initial multimodal treatment. In order to identify lesions in the oral cavity for a possible recurrence, clinical evaluation as well as MRI or CT scanning is advised. The evaluation of mucosa lesions is hampered by changes related to radio- and chemotherapy as well as reconstruction with tissue flaps. Several techniques for easier identification of tissue abnormalities in the oral cavity have been advocated as adjuncts in order to facilitate identification. Especially methods using altered tissue fluorescence have gained much interest during the last decade. The aim of our prospective study was to evaluate fluorescence properties of undiagnosed mucosa lesions with the VELscope device in patients with multimodal treated oral cancer prior to histological confirmation. In total, 41 patients with a history of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) (19 females and 22 males) with undiagnosed mucosa lesions where included in the study. After clinical evaluation, examination and documentation using the VELscope® device were performed. Then, an incisional biopsy was performed. An autofluorescence loss indicating a malignant or dysplastic mucosa condition could be detected in six patients (14.6 %); however, only one OSCC and one SIN revealed a complete autofluorescence loss. In four patients, OSCC was present in lesions with retained autofluorescence. Sensitivity and specificity for the VELscope® examination to identify malignant oral lesions by autofluorescence were 33.3 and 88.6 %, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 33.3 and 88.6 %, respectively. No statistical correlation between gender and lesion appearance versus autofluorescence loss could be detected. In contrast to mucosa lesions in patients with no prior treatment, the autofluorescence evaluation with the VELscope reveals no additional information in our analysis. Accordingly, invasive biopsies

  15. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 protein is overexpressed in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Koole, Koos; van Kempen, Pauline M W; Swartz, Justin E; Peeters, Ton; van Diest, Paul J; Koole, Ron; van Es, Robert J J; Willems, Stefan M

    2016-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase family. It has been identified as a promising therapeutic target in multiple types of cancer. We have investigated FGFR3 protein expression and FGFR3 gene copy-numbers in a single well-documented cohort of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Tissue microarray sets containing 452 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues were immunohistochemically stained with an anti-FGFR3 antibody and hybridized with a FGFR3 fluorescence in situ hybridization probe. FGFR3 protein expression was correlated with clinicopathological and survival data, which were retrieved from electronic medical records. FGFR3 mRNA data of 522 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) protein was overexpressed in 48% (89/185) of oral and 59% (124/211) of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Overexpression of FGFR3 protein was not related to overall survival or disease-free survival in oral (HR[hazard ratio]: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.64-1.39; P = 0.77, HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.65-1.36; P = 0.75) and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 0.81-1.80; P = 0.36, HR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.79-1.77; P = 0.42). FGFR3 mRNA was upregulated in 3% (18/522) of HNSCC from the TCGA. The FGFR3 gene was gained in 0.6% (1/179) of oral squamous cell carcinoma but no amplification was found in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. In conclusion, FGFR3 protein is frequently overexpressed in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, it may serve as a potential therapeutic target for FGFR3-directed therapies in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26711175

  16. Prognostic Significance of Invasive Tumor Front in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shankargouda; Augustine, Dominic; Rao, Roopa S

    2016-01-01

    Tumor, Node, and Metastasis (TNM) classification dictates treatment planning for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This system stages tumor on the principle that smaller size tumors have a better prognosis than larger tumors with local or distant spread. It has been brought to light that many tumors with similar clinical staging show different clinical behavior and growth patterns. This results in difficulty in predicting the prognosis for patients with OSCC on the basis of clinical staging alone.(1) How to cite this article: Patil S, Augustine D, Rao RS. Prognostic Significance of Invasive Tumor Front in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(1):1-2. PMID:27084854

  17. Squamous cell carcinoma presenting as peri-implantitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Aakshay; Puthussery, Francy J; Downie, Ian P; Flood, Timothy R

    2009-10-01

    Dental implants have proved to be a useful adjunct in the rehabilitation of oral cancer patients. We describe the case of a 62-year-old woman who presented with a white patch in the oral cavity, diagnosed to be a squamous cell carcinoma. She underwent extensive surgery including microvascular reconstruction, followed by implant rehabilitation. Unfortunately, she suffered from multiple episodes of peri-implantitis and later on went on to develop oral squamous cell carcinoma around two of the dental implants. Here, we highlight the importance of regular follow-up and maintaining a high index of suspicion in high-risk patients. PMID:19833011

  18. Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Mardi, Kavita; Singh, Narbir

    2014-09-01

    Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is an uncommon but well-recognized variant of squamous cell carcinoma that was first described by Lever in 1947. ASCC has been reported to originate in the sun-exposed skin of the head and neck and in other sites. However ASCC located in the oral cavity is extremely rare. The patient was a 50-year-old man who presented with an ulcer on the right maxillary alveolar mucosa. The biopsy was diagnosed as ASCC. Tumor resection was therefore performed. Histologically, acantholytic pattern was seen throughout the tumor. PMID:25364162

  19. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to central compartment (level 6) lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Likhterov, Ilya; Rowe, Meghan E; Khorsandi, Azita S; Urken, Mark L

    2016-08-01

    Alterations to drainage pathways in the head and neck as a result of surgical manipulation are not well understood. We present two unusual cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the level 6 nodal compartment following extensive treatment. Both oral squamous cell carcinoma cases exhibited metastases to the central neck compartment following extensive surgery and radiation. Each patient had prior history of multifocal oral cavity disease and recurrent neck metastases requiring salvage lymphadenectomy. Surgical interventions may alter the usual lymphatic drainage patterns. In cases of extensive treatment, all levels of the neck should be monitored for lymph node recurrence. Laryngoscope, 126:1803-1805, 2016. PMID:26490846

  20. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Suprapubic Cystostomy Tract With Bladder Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Min; Oh, Jeong Hyun; Kang, Su Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Herein we report a case of a squamous cell carcinoma of a well-healed suprapubic cystostomy tract scar involving the bladder mucosa in a 56-year-old man. He presented with a spontaneous suprapubic urinary leak from a suprapubic cystostomy tract scar. He had a history of urethral stricture and failed urethroplasty. Preoperative cystoscopy suggested a bladder mass. Transurethral biopsy of the bladder mass revealed a squamous cell carcinoma confined to the suprapubic cystostomy tract involving the bladder mucosa. The patient died 6 months after the start of radiation therapy after lung metastasis and pneumonia. PMID:24044100

  1. Significance of the expression of integrin β1, VEGF and MVD in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hong, Y M; Gan, W G; Xu, Z H

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the expression of integrin β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and microvascular density (MVD) by CD105 staining in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma to determine their association with clinicopathologic characteristics, and to determine their role and the effects of their interactions in the development and progression of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The expression of integrin β1 and VEGF and MVD in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas and normal hypopharyngeal tissues were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. The Image-Pro Plus software was used to determine the mean optical density of the immunohistochemical images. Integrin β1 expression was significantly higher in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma tissues (78.00%) than in normal hypopharyngeal tissues (35.00%; P = 0.001) and significantly differed across pathologic grades and different T stages, and regarding the presence of cervical lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). VEGF expression was significantly higher in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma tissues (74.00%) than in normal hypopharyngeal tissues (30.00%; P = 0.002), VEGF overexpression differed significantly across different pathologic grades and different T stages, and regarding the presence of cervical lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). The MVD count was significantly higher in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma tissues (37.10 ± 5.95) than in normal hypopharyngeal tissues (8.70 ± 3.34; P = 0.000). MVD differed significantly across different pathologic grades and different T stages, and regarding the presence of cervical lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). The expression of integrin β1 and VEGF and the MVD count exhibited no significant differences in terms of age, gender, history of smoking, and clinical stages (P > 0.05). VEGF expression was positively associated with the MVD count of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (r = 0.582, P = 0.000); however, integrin β1 was

  2. A rare case of renal metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Maithili Mandar; Khandeparkar, Siddhi Gaurish Sinai; Joshi, Avinash R; Kothikar, Vishakha

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in women in many developing countries. Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix spreads principally by lymphatics and less commonly through blood vessels. The most frequent sites for those who develop distant metastasis include lungs (21%), lumbar and thoracic spine (16%), and para-aortic lymph nodes (7%). Metastasis to the kidney is extremely rare with <10 previously reported cases. We report a case of renal metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix detected in end-stage kidney due to hydronephrosis. PMID:27499599

  3. Unraveling the chromosomal aberrations of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a review.

    PubMed

    Patmore, Harriet S; Cawkwell, Lynn; Stafford, Nicholas D; Greenman, John

    2005-10-01

    Information from the genetic analysis of head and neck cancer has grown enormously in the last 20 years. The advent of high-resolution genetic analysis techniques such as microarray technology will further expand this field in the future. Here we review the data on chromosomal aberrations of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, focusing on the data generated by comparative genomic hybridization analysis, and suggest how such findings will be taken forward over the next decade. With the search engine PUBMED, the key words "comparative genomic hybridisation," "head and neck," "oral," "hypopharyngeal," "laryngeal," and "squamous cell carcinoma" were used. Publications unavailable in English were excluded. PMID:16132373

  4. Identification of proteomic differences between squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and bronchial epithelium.

    PubMed

    Poschmann, Gereon; Sitek, Barbara; Sipos, Bence; Ulrich, Anna; Wiese, Sebastian; Stephan, Christian; Warscheid, Bettina; Klöppel, Günter; Vander Borght, Ann; Ramaekers, Frans C S; Meyer, Helmut E; Stühler, Kai

    2009-05-01

    Proteins that exhibit different expression levels in normal and malignant lung cells are good candidate biomarkers to improve early diagnosis and intervention. We used a quantitative approach and compared the proteome of microdissected cells from normal human bronchial epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma tumors of histopathological grades G2 and G3. DIGE analysis and subsequent MS-based protein identification revealed that 32 non-redundant proteins were differentially regulated between the respective tissue types. These proteins are mainly involved in energy pathways, cell growth or maintenance mechanisms, protein metabolism, and the regulation of DNA and RNA metabolism. The expression of some of these proteins was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays containing tissue specimen of 55 patients, including normal bronchial epithelium, squamous cell carcinomas, adenocarcinomas, and large cell carcinomas. The results of the immunohistochemical studies correlated with the proteome study data and revealed that particularly HSP47 and a group of cytokeratins (i.e. cytokeratins 6a, 16, and 17) are significantly co-regulated in squamous cell carcinoma. Furthermore cytokeratin 17 showed significantly higher abundance in G2 grade compared with G3 grade squamous cell carcinomas in both the gel-based and the immunohistochemical analysis. Therefore this protein might be used as a marker for stratification between different tumor grades. PMID:19176476

  5. Human papillomavirus-related squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal with papillary features

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Marino E; Shamekh, Rania; Coppola, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) related squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) involving the anal canal is a well-known carcinoma associated with high-risk types of HPV. HPV-related SCC with papillary morphology (papillary SCC) has been described in the oropharynx. We describe, for the first time, a case of anal HPV-related squamous carcinoma with papillary morphology. The tumor arose from the anal mucosa. The biopsies revealed a superficially invasive SCC with prominent papillary features and associated in situ carcinoma. The tumor cells were positive for p16 and were also positive for high-risk types of HPV using chromogenic in situ hybridization. The findings are consistent with a HPV-related SCC of the anal canal with papillary features. This tumor shows histologic features similar to a papillary HPV-related SCC of the oropharynx. Additional studies are needed to characterize these lesions. PMID:25717259

  6. Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast: Report of a Case.

    PubMed

    Arafah, Maria; Ginter, Paula S; Taylor, David C; Hoda, Syed A

    2016-09-01

    We present the case of a 73-year-old woman with pure squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the left breast. This non-invasive malignancy exhibited pure squamous type of architectural and cytologic features without any evidence of glandular differentiation either in the initial needle core biopsy or in the subsequently performed excisional biopsy and simple mastectomy. The tumor spanned 1.6 cm, involved numerous ducts and terminal ducts and extended into lobules, and was characterized by keratinizing squamous cells with intermediate-grade nuclei. Intercellular bridges extended between the malignant squamous cells. Keratinous debris with "pearl" formation was evident in most involved glands. No invasive carcinoma was identified. There was no evidence of metastatic disease in the ipsilateral sentinel lymph nodes. Thus far, only three cases of squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the breast have been reported in one series-none of which showed any evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease at last follow-up. In our case, treated exclusively by surgery, there was no evidence of disease 11 years after diagnosis. PMID:27279634

  7. Expression of Cofilin-1 and Transgelin in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Liao, Ruyi; Li, Hui; Liu, Ling; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Hongming

    2015-01-01

    Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has attracted much research attention around the world, and the number of ESCC cases has increased gradually in recent years. Identifying the specific biomarkers of ESCC is an effective approach for the early diagnosis of tumors. Material/Methods Immunohistochemical streptavidin-peroxidase method was used to determine the expressions of Cofilin-1 and transgelin in 68 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and 48 individuals with normal esophageal tissues. In addition to the relationships between the expression of Cofilin-1 and transgelin, the clinicopathologic features of ESCC were also discussed. The correlation between Cofilin-1 and transgelin protein expression in ESCC was analyzed. Results (1) The positive expression rates of Cofilin-1 and transgelin were 60.3% (41/68) and 54.4% (37/68) in esophageal carcinoma tissue, respectively. The positive expression rates of Cofilin-1 and transgelin in normal esophageal tissue were 27.1% (13/48) and 29.1% (14/48), respectively. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). (2) The positive expression rate of Cofilin-1 did not differ significantly (P>0.05) with sex, age, ethnicity, tumor size, or infiltration depth; but did have a statistically significant (P<0.05) difference with various degrees of tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stages. (3) The positive expression rate of transgelin did not differ significantly (P>0.05) with sex, age, ethnicity, tumor size, infiltration depth, and clinical stage, but did significantly (P<0.05) differ with degree of tumor differentiation and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions Cofilin-1 and transgelin may play roles in the carcinogenesis and development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cofilin-1 may be useful as an important biomarker for indicating the degree of malignancy of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and the detection of transgelin is valuable in early diagnosis of

  8. Hyperfractionated radiotherapy in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.D.; Panis, X.; Legros, M.; Froissart, D.

    1983-03-01

    From January, 1976 to January, 1980, 141 patients (135 males and 6 females) with Stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck received a split course of hyperfractionated radiotherapy (HFR). In the first group, involving 91 patients, the therapeutic schedule was as follows: first and fourth week, 7.2 Gy per day in 8 sessions of .9 Gy from Monday to Friday, the second and third week no irradiation was given. Thus, patients were given 72 Gy total dose, fractionated into 80 sessions. Mucosal necrosis and severe hemorrhage were responsible for the death of 26 patients (28%). Therefore the therapeutic protocol was altered for the 50 patients of the second group: during the first and sixth week 6.6 Gy per day in 6 sessions of 1.1 Gy from Monday to Friday. The total dose was thus reduced to 66 Gy fractionated into 60 sessions, resulting in the decrease of toxicity. Regardless of the therapeutic protocol and site of primary, 114 patients (80%) achieved a complete remission and 8 showed a partial remission (>50%), whereas no change was seen for the 19 remainders. Local recurrence appeared in 60 patients (48%). Acute mucositis and laryngeal edema regularly occurred a week after every course of HFR and were considered severe in 40 patients. In spite of toxicity, the median survival is 14 months and 22 patients are still alive in November 1981: 19 without disease, and 8 of these patients have a survival time of at least 3 years.

  9. Survival Outcome of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising from Sinonasal Inverted Papilloma

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Qing-Zhuang; Li, De-Zhi; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Huang, Hui; Xu, Zhen-Gang; Wu, Yue-Huang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sinonasal inverted papilloma (IP) is a rare benign tumor of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses. It is destructive or bone-remodeling, tends to recur after surgical resection, and has a significant malignant potential. The present study aimed to perform a retrospective analysis of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from IP, including characteristics, survival outcome, and predictors of associated malignancy. Methods: The medical records of 213 patients diagnosed with IP from January 1970 to January 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Eighty-seven patients were diagnosed with SCC/IP; their clinical characteristics, treatments, and survival outcomes were analyzed. Results: Of the 87 patients with SCC/IP, the 5- and 10-year overall survival outcomes were 39.6% and 31.8%, respectively. Twenty-nine of these patients received surgery and 58 received combined surgery and radiation. Of the patients with stages III–IV, the 5-year survival rate was 30.7% for those treated with surgery only and 39.9% for those given the combination treatment (P = 0.849). Factors associated with significantly poor prognosis were advanced-stage, metachronous tumors, or with cranial base and orbit invasion. Age, synchronous or metachronous tumors, and pathological stage were independent risk factors for mortality, shown by multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Patients with SCC/IP had low overall survival outcomes. Advanced age, stage, and metachronous tumors are the main factors affecting prognosis. Treatment planning should consider high-risk factors to improve survival outcome. PMID:26365962

  10. Quercetin suppresses cellular migration and invasion in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).

    PubMed

    Chan, Chien-Yi; Lien, Chia-Hsien; Lee, Ming-Fen; Huang, Chun-Yin

    2016-06-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is often associated with a poor prognosis and a low survival rate. Hence, efficient inhibition of the EGFR signaling-mediated malignancy would improve survival rate. In a previous study, we demonstrated that quercetin appears to be a potent anti-tumorigenic agent through its inhibition of the EGFR/Akt pathway in oral cancer, but its anti-metastatic potential in HNSCC remains unclear [1]. Here, we have hypothesized that quercetin might be effective in metastatic inhibition in EGFR-overexpressing HNSCC cells. Quercetin treatment with 10 μM (half concentration of IC50) suppressed cell migration and invasion in EGFR-overexpressing HSC-3 and FaDu HNSCC cells. Quercetin also inhibited the colony growth of HSC-3 cells embedded in a Matrigel matrix. Among matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the secreted gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 are responsible for the degradation of gelatin in the extracellular matrix and type IV collagen in the basement membrane; and this degradation event is crucial for the migration from the origin and the invasion into the bone in HNSCC. Quercetin (10 μM) treatment also suppressed the expression and proteolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Taken together, our data indicate that quercetin is an effective anti-cancer agent against MMP-2- and MMP-9-mediated metastasis in EGFR-overexpressing HNSCC. PMID:27510965

  11. Comparison of Immunohistochemical Expression of Antiapoptotic Protein Survivin in Normal Oral Mucosa, Oral Leukoplakia, and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Amita; Puri, Abhiney; Gupta, Rakhi; Nangia, Rajat; Sachdeva, Alisha; Mittal, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Background. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most frequent malignant tumor worldwide and the third most common cancers in developing countries. Oral leukoplakia is the best-known precursor lesion of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of the present study was to compare immunohistochemical expression of antiapoptotic protein survivin in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Method. Total 45 specimens of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks, 15 in each of the following: normal oral mucosa, leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma were used for the study. Immunohistochemical reaction for survivin protein was performed for the 4 µm thick histological sections taken on positively charged slides. Results. 20% normal mucosa cases, 53.33% cases of leukoplakia, and 80% of oral squamous cell carcinoma were found out to be survivin positive. One way ANOVA test indicated statistically significant difference of survivin expression between the three different groups (p < 0.001). Conclusion. A high incidence of survivin protein expression in oral epithelial dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma samples indicate that survivin protein expression may be an early event in initiation and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26457223

  12. Genesis of squamous cell lung carcinoma. Sequential changes of proliferation, DNA ploidy, and p53 expression.

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, T.; Franzén, B.; Kato, H.; Ebihara, Y.; Auer, G.

    1994-01-01

    Squamous cell lung carcinomas (SCCs) represent a highly malignant group of tumors, and effective treatment is greatly dependent upon early diagnosis. However, objective diagnosis of atypia is difficult and useful markers need to be defined. In this study, genomic instability, cell proliferation, and cellular accumulation of mutant p53, as reflected by DNA aneuploidy, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and p53 immunoreactivity, respectively, were evaluated in bronchial squamous metaplasia without atypia (n = 4), bronchial squamous metaplasia with low-grade atypia (n = 12), bronchial squamous metaplasia with high-grade atypia (n = 15), early-stage SCC (n = 15), and advanced-stage SCC (n = 33). Our results suggest that hyperproliferation is an early event followed by DNA aneuploidy, which in turn precedes p53 immunoreactivity in the genesis of SCC. We conclude that routine assessment of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, DNA ploidy, and p53 may be valuable for the early diagnosis of SCC. Images Figure 2 PMID:7906095

  13. Management of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in patients with epidermolysis bullosa: best clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Mellerio, J E; Robertson, S J; Bernardis, C; Diem, A; Fine, J D; George, R; Goldberg, D; Halmos, G B; Harries, M; Jonkman, M F; Lucky, A; Martinez, A E; Maubec, E; Morris, S; Murrell, D F; Palisson, F; Pillay, E I; Robson, A; Salas-Alanis, J C; McGrath, J A

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes recommendations reached following a systematic literature review and expert consensus on the diagnosis and management of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in people with epidermolysis bullosa. The guidelines are intended to help inform decision making by clinicians dealing with this complex complication of a devastating disease. PMID:26302137

  14. Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Combination with a Symbrachydactyly: Initial Management and Long-Term Followup

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Tomas; Walder, Daniel; Esenwein, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    A 68-year-old female patient presented with a rapidly growing, exulcerating tumor of the left hand in the area of a congenital symbrachydactyly at the digiti II and III. A biopsy of the tumor showed a squamous cell carcinoma. Further workup showed two suspicious axillar enhancements with no evidence of bony infiltration and no further metastasis. An amputation of the second and third ray of the left hand at the metacarpal level and additionally an axillar revision and lymph node dissection were performed and confirmed the suspicion of a squamous cell carcinoma, fortunately without affection of any lymph nodes. After 9 years the patient showed an excellent function of the left hand. Symbrachydactyly malformations and squamous cell carcinoma of the hand are both rare conditions. We could not find a reference that shows a common genetic condition to both and so far this is the first description of a squamous cell carcinoma in the region of a symbrachydactyly. It remains unclear whether our case is a coincidence of two rare independent diseases or there is a pathogenetic link between the malformation and the tumor on a genetic level. PMID:25024859

  15. Active matrix metalloproteinase-7 is associated with invasion in buccal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hui-Ching; Su, Chih-Ying; Huang, Hsuang-Ying; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Chien, Chih-Yen; Du, Yung-Ying; Chuang, Jiin-Haur

    2008-12-01

    Protein microarrays have shown that matrix metalloproteinase-7 is upregulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, but its role in local tissue invasion is still uncertain. We investigated the expression of active matrix metalloproteinase-7, using tissue microarray, immunohistochemistry, and western blotting, in oral tissues from 24 patients with buccal squamous cell carcinoma, and correlated the findings with clinicopathological features. Normal buccal tissue samples from the same patients, obtained at sites at least 1 cm from tumor tissue, served as normal controls. Total matrix metalloproteinase-7 was detected on western blots in 9 of 15 (60%) tumor tissue samples and in 2 of 15 (13%) normal mucosal samples; this difference was significant (P=0.008). Moreover, the active matrix metalloproteinase-7 was expressed only in eight of the nine (89%) tumor samples that expressed matrix metalloproteinase-7, and in none of the normal tissue samples, regardless of the expression status of the pro-matrix metalloproteinase-7. Immunostaining of matrix metalloproteinase-7 was observed histologically in both tumor and nonneoplastic epithelium, but immunostaining of active matrix metalloproteinase-7 was present only in tumor nests. Expression of active matrix metalloproteinase-7 was associated with larger tumor size (P=0.022) and was significantly higher in buccal squamous cell carcinoma with adjacent skin or bone invasion (P=0.036). In conclusion, active matrix metalloproteinase-7 expression was associated with more aggressive buccal squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:18931651

  16. Genome-wide association study identifies novel susceptibility loci for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chahal, Harvind S.; Lin, Yuan; Ransohoff, Katherine J.; Hinds, David A.; Wu, Wenting; Dai, Hong-Ji; Qureshi, Abrar A.; Li, Wen-Qing; Kraft, Peter; Tang, Jean Y.; Han, Jiali; Sarin, Kavita Y.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma represents the second most common cutaneous malignancy, affecting 7–11% of Caucasians in the United States. The genetic determinants of susceptibility to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma remain largely unknown. Here we report the results of a two-stage genome-wide association study of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, totalling 7,404 cases and 292,076 controls. Eleven loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8) including seven previously confirmed pigmentation-related loci: MC1R, ASIP, TYR, SLC45A2, OCA2, IRF4 and BNC2. We identify an additional four susceptibility loci: 11q23.3 CADM1, a metastasis suppressor gene involved in modifying tumour interaction with cell-mediated immunity; 2p22.3; 7p21.1 AHR, the dioxin receptor involved in anti-apoptotic pathways and melanoma progression; and 9q34.3 SEC16A, a putative oncogene with roles in secretion and cellular proliferation. These susceptibility loci provide deeper insight into the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27424798

  17. Progression of Intravesical Condyloma Acuminata to Locally Advanced Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Khambati, A; Bhanji, Y; Oberlin, D T; Yang, X J; Nadler, R B; Perry, K T; Kundu, S D

    2016-07-01

    Condyloma acuminata (CA) is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection. CA of the bladder, however, is an exceedingly rare lesion. We present a rare case of poorly differentiated locally invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from recurrent CA of the bladder in an immunocompetent patient and discuss pathophysiology and management of this unusual condition. PMID:27335797

  18. Dental implants and squamous cell carcinoma in the at risk patient--report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Kwok, J; Eyeson, J; Thompson, I; McGurk, M

    2008-11-22

    Osseointegrated dental implants are increasingly used in the rehabilitation of the dental patient. They have a particular role in dental rehabilitation following treatment for oral cancer. Data is presented that suggests that, in the at risk patient, squamous cell carcinoma may develop in association with dental implants. PMID:19023308

  19. Cervical metastases of squamous cell carcinoma of the maxilla: a retrospective study of 9 years

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Astrid LD; Grätz, Klaus W

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Metastases of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and the mouth floor have been well studied. Concerning maxilla squamous cell carcinomas, however, only a few studies have been performed. The question is whether a prophylactic neck dissection should be performed in these tumors. Patients and Material In the Department of Craniomaxillofacial Surgery at the University Hospital of Zurich, 30 patients who had been treated for squamous cell carcinonoma of the maxilla were examined retrospectively. Special attention was paid to direct and late metastasis, survival rate, and treatment. Results Of the 59 patients with upper jaw carcinomas over a 9-year period, only about half (30 patients) had a squamous cell carcinoma of the upper jaw. Of those patients, 27% had an upper lesion on the right side, 33% on the left. Of the 11 patients (36.7%) presenting positive lymph nodes, 4 patients had direct positive lymph nodes while 7 patients had later positive lymph nodes; and 71.4% of the late metastasis appeared during the first year. Conclusion Because of the 36.7% of patients presenting metastases in the cervical lymph nodes, elective neck treatment should be considered in cases even with a negative clinical examination. PMID:19619329

  20. Chromoblastomycosis by Cladophialophora carrionii associated with squamous cell carcinoma and review of published reports.

    PubMed

    Rojas, O Carolina; González, Gloria M; Moreno-Treviño, María; Salas-Alanis, Julio

    2015-02-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a subcutaneous, chronic, granulomatous mycosis that occurs more frequently in tropical and subtropical countries. We describe a case of a 63-year-old male patient with diagnosis of chromoblastomycosis by Cladophialophora carrionii with an 18-year evolution who developed a lethal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25344197

  1. Adamantinoma--histogenesis and differentiation from the periodontal fibromatous epulis and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mills, J H; Lewis, R J

    1981-05-01

    Six cases of oral adamantinoma, four in dogs, two in cats, are described. This is a rare tumor which arises from vestigial layers of the dental laminae in the gingiva, particularly of the mandible. Care must be exercised in not confusing this locally aggressive lesion with the much more common squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:7248887

  2. Barrett's esophagus and squamous cell carcinoma in a patient with psychogenic vomiting.

    PubMed

    Dessureault, Sophie; Coppola, Domenico; Weitzner, Michael; Powers, Pauline; Karl, Richard C

    2002-01-01

    We report the association of Barrett's esophagus and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the distal esophagus in a young 31-yr-old woman with a history of self-induced psychogenic vomiting. The development of intestinalized columnar mucosa and esophageal cancer in this young patient illustrates the complicated associations between human behavior and pathogenetic mechanisms involved in esophageal carcinogenesis. PMID:12630772

  3. Squamous-cell carcinoma of the tongue following therapy of rheumatoid arthritis with abatacept

    PubMed Central

    Deidda, Arianna; Pisanu, Claudia; Garau, Donatella; Longu, Maria Giovanna; Moretti, Mario Domenico Luigi; Sanna, Maria Elena; Moretti, Grazia Maria Rita; Stochino, Maria Erminia

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A patient affected by rheumatoid arthritis developed a squamous-cell carcinoma probably due to abatacept, according to Naranjo algorithm. The case describes this adverse reaction for the first time and highlights the need for additional studies to establish the long-term risk profile of abatacept. PMID:25356250

  4. Size of anal squamous cell carcinomas at diagnosis: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Read, T R H; Huson, K L; Millar, J L; Haydon, A; Porter, I W T; Grulich, A E; Hocking, J S; Chen, M Y; Bradshaw, C S; Fairley, C K

    2013-11-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is more common in HIV-positive homosexual men than in the general population and prognosis worsens with increasing tumour size. To identify opportunities for earlier diagnosis, we aimed to determine size and visibility of anal squamous cell carcinoma at diagnosis. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records between 1992 and 2010 from one hospital radiotherapy centre, a major centre for HIV care, in Melbourne, Australia. Of 128 cases of anal squamous cell carcinoma, 24 (19%) were in HIV-positive men. At diagnosis, half (52%) of the tumours were externally visible and mean estimated tumour size was 36 mm (29 mm in HIV-positive and 38 mm in HIV-negative patients; p = 0.04) and 114/121 (94%) tumours were 1 cm or larger. The most frequent symptoms were bleeding (43%) and pain (36%) and mean duration of symptoms was 22 weeks. This suggests most anal squamous cell carcinoma were visible or palpable for some time before diagnosis, meaning that screening high-risk groups by anal inspection and palpation is plausible. PMID:23970608

  5. Maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma with concurrent prolonged foreign body impaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ha; Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Kwang Jae; Kim, Joohwan

    2012-03-01

    Several elements in the maxillary sinus are reported to be carcinogenic. Also, foreign body reaction can cause cancer in any part of the body. We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma at the site in the maxillary sinus where a bullet splinter, analyzed as iron afterward, was inserted during the Korean War, approximately 60 years earlier. PMID:22446444

  6. Genome-wide association study identifies novel susceptibility loci for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Harvind S; Lin, Yuan; Ransohoff, Katherine J; Hinds, David A; Wu, Wenting; Dai, Hong-Ji; Qureshi, Abrar A; Li, Wen-Qing; Kraft, Peter; Tang, Jean Y; Han, Jiali; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma represents the second most common cutaneous malignancy, affecting 7-11% of Caucasians in the United States. The genetic determinants of susceptibility to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma remain largely unknown. Here we report the results of a two-stage genome-wide association study of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, totalling 7,404 cases and 292,076 controls. Eleven loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)) including seven previously confirmed pigmentation-related loci: MC1R, ASIP, TYR, SLC45A2, OCA2, IRF4 and BNC2. We identify an additional four susceptibility loci: 11q23.3 CADM1, a metastasis suppressor gene involved in modifying tumour interaction with cell-mediated immunity; 2p22.3; 7p21.1 AHR, the dioxin receptor involved in anti-apoptotic pathways and melanoma progression; and 9q34.3 SEC16A, a putative oncogene with roles in secretion and cellular proliferation. These susceptibility loci provide deeper insight into the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27424798

  7. Rapid hyperfractionated radiotherapy. Clinical results in 178 advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.D.; Demange, L.; Froissart, D.; Panis, X.; Loirette, M.

    1985-07-01

    The authors present a series of 178 patients with Stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck treated by rapid irradiation using multiple and small fractions per day. An initial group of 91 patients (G1) received a total dose of 72 Gy in 80 sessions and 10 days, according to the following split course schedule: J1 to J5, 36 Gy in 40 sessions, eight daily fractions of .9 Gy separated by 2 hours; J6 to J20, rest period; J21 to J25, same as in J1 except that the spinal cord was shielded. This protocol was altered for the following 87 patients (G2) by lessening the total dose to 60 to 66 Gy and the number of fractions to 60. The rest period was lengthened to 4 weeks. All patients but five completed the whole program and the minimal follow-up period was 24 months. At the end of irradiation, 121 patients achieved a total remission, but local recurrences occurred in 56%. Moreover, acute intolerance was considered as severe in 34% of G1 patients, and included extensive mucosal necrosis and bleeding. Although this rate was significantly reduced in G2 patients, late complications were observed in 20 of the 25 survivors, and included trismus, cervical sclerosis, and recurrent laryngeal edema. The crude survival rate is 13% at 2 years. Although this study was not randomized, this particular type of accelerated and hyperfractionated combination of irradiation did not really improve the clinical results in advanced carcinoma of the head and neck. Other schedules and probably other tumors, less extended, should be tested.

  8. Expression of squamous cell carcinoma markers and adenocarcinoma markers in primary pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Masai, Kyohei; Tsuta, Koji; Kawago, Mitsumasa; Tatsumori, Takahiro; Kinno, Tomoaki; Taniyama, Tomoko; Yoshida, Akihiko; Asamura, Hisao; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2013-07-01

    Recent clinical trials have revealed that accurate histologic typing of non-small cell lung cancer is essential. Until now, squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) and adenocarcinoma (ADC) markers have not been thoroughly analyzed for pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs). We analyzed the expression of 8 markers [p63, cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, SOX2, CK7, desmocollin 3, thyroid transcription factor-1 (8G7G3/1 and SPT24), and napsin A] in 224 NECs. SOX2 (76.2%) had the greatest expression for NECs. CK5/6 (1.4%), desmocollin 3 (0.5%), and napsin A (0%) were expressed less or not at all in NECs. Although our investigated markers have been reported useful for differentiating between SQC and ADC, some of them were also present in a portion of pulmonary NECs. In our study, CK5/6 and desmocollin 3 were highly specific markers for SQC, and napsin A was highly specific for ADC. These markers are recommended for diagnosis of poorly differentiated non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:23060301

  9. Gene profiling analysis for patients with oral verrucous carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Hong; Tian, Xin; Liu, Ou-Sheng; Fang, Xiao-Dan; Quan, Hong-Zhi; Xie, Shang; Gao, Shan; Tang, Zhan-Gui

    2014-01-01

    Oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) is one malignant tumor which was carved out from the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the clinical and pathological features as well as the treatment strategies of OVC are different from OSCC. Here, global transcript abundance of tumor tissues from five patients with primary OVC and six patients with primary OSCC including their matched adjacently normal oral mucosa were profiled using the Affymetrix HGU133 Plus 2.0. Ingenuity Systems IPA software was used to analyse the gene function and biological pathways. There were 109 differentially expressed genes (more than 2-fold) between OVC and the adjacently normal tissue, among them 66 were up-regulated and 43 were down-regulated; 1172 differentially expressed genes (more than 2-fold) between OSCC and the adjacently normal tissue, among them 608 were up-regulated and 564 were down-regulated. There were 39 common differentially expressed genes in OVC and OSCC compared with their matched normal oral mucosa, among them 22 up-regulated and 17 down-regulated, and 8 of them different between OVC and OSCC. In addition, the gene expression profile was further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-RT-PCR) analysis for four of those 39 selected genes. PMID:25126189

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma of the respiratory tract following laryngeal papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Lie, E S; Engh, V; Boysen, M; Clausen, O P; Kvernvold, H; Stenersen, T C; Winther, F O

    1994-03-01

    With the object to disclose an association between laryngeal papillomatosis and laryngeal carcinoma, we reviewed 102 patients with laryngeal papillomatosis treated between 1950 and 1979. Seven cases of laryngeal carcinomas were recorded and 1 patient with spread of papilloma to the bronchial tree developed a bronchial carcinoma. The time between onset of papilloma and diagnosis of carcinoma was 4-55 years (mean 24 years). For laryngeal carcinoma the ratio of observed to expected cases was 88. Of the 8 patients developing respiratory tract carcinoma, 2 had received treatment with radiation and 2 had been treated with Bleomycin. Four of these 8 patients were known smokers. This study shows that papillomatosis is more often associated with laryngeal carcinoma than previously reported. It appears, however, that laryngeal papillomas alone seldom induce carcinomas. Apart from irradiation and smoking, Bleomycin could be an important co-factor. PMID:7515551

  11. Associations of ATM Polymorphisms With Survival in Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Zhongli; Zhang, Wencheng; Zhou, Yuling; Yu, Dianke; Chen, Xiabin; Chang, Jiang; Qiao, Yan; Zhang, Meng; Huang, Ying; Wu, Chen; Xiao, Zefen; Tan, Wen; and others

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene are associated with survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy or surgery only. Methods and Materials: Four tagSNPs of ATM were genotyped in 412 individuals with clinical stage III or IV ESCC receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy, and in 388 individuals with stage I, II, or III ESCC treated with surgery only. Overall survival time of ESCC among different genotypes was estimated by Kaplan-Meier plot, and the significance was examined by log-rank test. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for death from ESCC among different genotypes were computed by a Cox proportional regression model. Results: We found 2 SNPs, rs664143 and rs664677, associated with survival time of ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy. Individuals with the rs664143A allele had poorer median survival time compared with the rs664143G allele (14.0 vs 20.0 months), with the HR for death being 1.45 (95% CI 1.12-1.89). Individuals with the rs664677C allele also had worse median survival time than those with the rs664677T allele (14.0 vs 23.5 months), with the HR of 1.57 (95% CI 1.18-2.08). Stratified analysis showed that these associations were present in both stage III and IV cancer and different radiation therapy techniques. Significant associations were also found between the SNPs and locosregional progression or progression-free survival. No association between these SNPs and survival time was detected in ESCC patients treated with surgery only. Conclusion: These results suggest that the ATM polymorphisms might serve as independent biomarkers for predicting prognosis in ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy.

  12. p16/CDKN2 alterations and pRb expression in oesophageal squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Busatto, G; Shiao, Y H; Parenti, A R; Baffa, R; Ruol, A; Plebani, M; Rugge, M

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Upregulation of the cell cycle associated genes, p16/CDKN2 and the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (Rb), is commonly seen during the proliferation of normal cells. An inverse relation between the expression of p16/CDKN2 and Rb has been noted in many tumours, but has not yet been determined in oesophageal squamous carcinoma. AIMS: To investigate p16/CDKN2 genetic alterations and both the p16/CDKN2 and the Rb protein (pRb) immunophenotypes in oesophageal squamous carcinoma. METHODS: Twenty primary oesophageal squamous carcinomas were examined for mutations in p16/CDKN2 by the polymerase chain reaction, single stranded conformational polymorphism, and DNA sequencing. Synthesis of p16/CDKN2 and pRb proteins was determined by immunohistochemistry in 19 specimens of formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissues. RESULTS: Mutations of p16/CDKN2 were not detected in exons 1 and 2. In only one case, G to C and C to T base changes were detected in a non-coding region of exon 3. Expression of p16/CDKN2 and Rb was observed in both normal and neoplastic areas of tissue sections, indicating neither consistent homozygous deletion nor consistent hypermethylation of the genes in tumours. Fourteen tumours showed an inverse expression of p16/CDKN2 and Rb. An increased percentage of cells that immunostained positively for p16/CDKN2 but not for pRb was observed in eight tumours, five of which had no detectable pRb, suggesting defective Rb expression in these oesophageal squamous carcinomas. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that p16/CDKN2 mutations occur infrequently in oesophageal squamous carcinoma. The alteration of the Rb gene is suggested as an important step in the development of these tumours. PMID:9713590

  13. Evaluation of prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus by endoscopic ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Shinkai, M; Niwa, Y; Arisawa, T; Ohmiya, N; Goto, H; Hayakawa, T

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—For pretherapeutic staging of squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is considered the most profitable modality because it can provide cross sectional imaging of the tumour. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between prognosis and EUS findings, especially tumour area, in squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus.
PATIENTS/METHODS—A total of 113 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus underwent EUS for pretherapeutic examination at Nagoya University Hospital. We compared EUS findings, histological results, and outcome. In addition, we measured the area of the tumour on EUS images (n=113) and evaluated if EUS area correlated with volume of the tumour on histological findings (n=50).
RESULTS—The overall accuracy rate of EUS was 83.2% (94/113) for depth of tumour invasion and 67.6% (69/102) for perioesophageal lymph node metastasis. The EUS area increased in proportion to the development of tumour infiltration, and patients with lymph node metastasis had a larger EUS area than patients without lymph node metastasis. There was a close correlation between EUS area and volume of the tumour on histological findings. If EUS area of the tumour was less than 50 mm2, the five year survival rate was 100%. As EUS area increased, the survival rate decreased.
CONCLUSIONS—Measurement of EUS area of the tumour is reliable for quantification of the tumour and prediction of prognosis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus.


Keywords: squamous cell carcinoma; oesophagus; endoscopic ultrasonography; prognosis; preoperative staging PMID:10861273

  14. Absorption spectra of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cervical tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashko, Pavlo; Peresunko, Olexander; Zelinska, Natalia; Alonova, Marina

    2014-08-01

    We studied a methods of assessment of a connective tissue of cervix in terms of specific volume of fibrous component and an optical density of staining of connective tissue fibers in the stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma. An absorption spectra of blood plasma of the patients suffering from squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma both before the surgery and in postsurgical periods were obtained. Linear dichroism measurements transmittance in polarized light at different orientations of the polarization plane relative to the direction of the dominant orientation in the structure of the sample of biotissues of stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma were carried. Results of the investigation of the tumor tissues showed that the magnitude of the linear dichroism Δ is insignificant in the researched spectral range λ=280-840 nm and specific regularities in its change observed short-wave ranges.

  15. Human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: what the clinician should know.

    PubMed

    Genden, Eric M; Sambur, Ian M; de Almeida, John R; Posner, Marshall; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Rodrigo, Juan P; Strojan, Primož; Takes, Robert P; Ferlito, Alfio

    2013-02-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is rising in contrast to the decreasing incidence of carcinomas arising in other subsites of the head and neck. The human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has played an increasing role in these epidemiological changes and as the etiology for a significant fraction of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, OPSCC in particular. Most importantly, many retrospective studies have shown that the prognosis differs significantly between patients with HPV-associated tumors and non-HPV associated tumors. Thus, questions arise on the choices of treatment for patients based on HPV status and the consequences of therapy. Given the recognized relevance of HPV status in OPSCC, many new questions concerning the biology, treatment, and prevention of HPV infection arise. This review is intended to highlight some of the major issues and frequently asked questions relevant for the clinician dealing with patients with OPSCC. PMID:22752642

  16. Squamous-cell carcinoma arising in a non-irradiated child with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Simma, B; Burger, R; Uehlinger, J; Ghelfi, D; Hof, E; Dangel, P; Briner, J; Fanconi, S

    1993-09-01

    We describe a patient with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) associated with human papilloma virus (HPV), who developed a fatal squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. At the age of 1 year he presented with hoarseness, dyspnoea and inspiratory stridor but the diagnosis of RRP was made only 1 year later. At the age of 4 years he was tracheostomized because of upper airway obstruction. In spite of multiple surgical excisions and topic treatment with 5-fluorouracil the papillomata extended to the lung parenchyma. At the age of 16 years he developed a squamous-cell carcinoma of the lung and died 4 months later. Transformation to pulmonary carcinoma is a rare complication in non-irradiated patients with lung papillomatosis. We found only 11 similar cases in the literature. PMID:8223815

  17. Human Papilloma Virus Associated Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Ajila, Vidya; Shetty, Harish; Babu, Subhas; Shetty, Veena; Hegde, Shruthi

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the commonest causes for mortality and morbidity with squamous cell carcinoma being the sixth most frequent malignant tumour worldwide. In addition to tobacco and alcohol, human papilloma virus (HPV) is associated with a proportion of head and neck cancers. As in cervical cancers, HPV types 16 and 18 are the cause of malignant transformation. HPV-positive cancers of head and neck have unique characteristics such as occurrence in a younger age group, distinct clinical and molecular features, and better prognosis as compared to HPV-negative carcinomas. They also possess the potential for prevention by using vaccination. The present review describes in detail the salient features of HPV associated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), its differences from HPV-negative OSCC, diagnostic features, and recent strategies in prevention and management. PMID:26483987

  18. CMTM5 exhibits tumor suppressor activity through promoter methylation in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Heyu; Nan, Xu; Li, Xuefen; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jianyun; Sun, Lisha; Han, Wenlin; Li, Tiejun

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Down-regulation of CMTM5 expression in OSCC tissues was found. • The promoter methylation status of CMTM5 was measured. • CMTM5-v1 inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis. • CMTM5 might act as a putative tumor suppressor gene in OSCC. - Abstract: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common types of malignancies in the head and neck region. CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing member 5 (CMTM5) has been recently implicated as a tumor suppressor gene in several cancer types. Herein, we examined the expression and function of CMTM5 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CMTM5 was down-regulated in oral squamous cell lines and tumor samples from patients with promoter methylation. Treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine restored CMTM5 expression. In the OSCC cell lines CAL27 and GNM, the ectopic expression of CMTM5-v1 strongly inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis. In addition, CMTM5-v1 inhibited tumor formation in vivo. Therefore, CMTM5 might act as a putative tumor suppressor gene through promoter methylation in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  19. High incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma independent of HPV infection after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, M H; Chang, P M; Li, W Y; Hsiao, L T; Hong, Y C; Liu, C Y; Gau, J P; Liu, J H; Chen, P M; Chiou, T J; Tzeng, C H

    2011-04-01

    Hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) is a well-recognized therapeutic procedure to prolong life and cure patients with life-threatening hematological malignancies; however, the risk of developing secondary carcinoma may increase in long-term survivors. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for secondary squamous carcinoma after HSCT. Between 1984 and 2004, 170 allogeneic HSCT recipients aged >15 years, who had survived for >5 years were enrolled. Demographic data and the characteristics of secondary carcinoma were collected and analyzed for the determination of the incidence and risk of developing secondary carcinoma. Eight patients developed secondary carcinoma, including five oral squamous cell carcinomas, one esophageal, one gastric and one ovarian carcinoma, but no cutaneous carcinomas were detected at a median follow-up of 14.1 years (range, 5.1-23.3 years) after HSCT. The accrual 10-year cumulative incidence of secondary carcinoma was 2.89%. In univariate and multivariate analyses, chronic GVHD and age >40 years at the time of HSCT were both significant risk factors independently associated with the development of secondary carcinoma. Thus, the occurrence of secondary carcinoma is one of the late complications in patients undergoing HSCT. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was more common in our patients after HSCT, indicating the need for lifelong surveillance of the oral cavity. Moreover, because of the relatively long latency in developing secondary carcinoma, extended follow-up is required for a thorough understanding of the incidence and characteristics of secondary carcinoma after HSCT. PMID:20622906

  20. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx and Esophagus with Pulmonary Metastasis in a Backyard Laying Hen.

    PubMed

    Laura, Nordio; Marta, Vascellari; Giacomo, Berto; Luca, Bano

    2016-09-01

    A backyard laying hen exhibiting muscular atrophy, dyspnea, and absence of egg production was analyzed for diagnostic insights. Gross findings revealed the presence of a large ulcerated mass with irregular edges involving the caudal part of the oropharynx and the cranial part of the esophagus, occluding the lumen of the esophagus and compressing the trachea. Small nodular lesions were detected also in the lungs. Histologically, both esophageal and pulmonary masses were characterized by nests of pleomorphic epithelial cells with squamous differentiation. The diagnosis was of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus with the uncommon feature of pulmonary metastasis. PMID:27610733

  1. Therapeutic insights from genomic studies of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Hammerman, Peter S.; Hayes, D. Neil; Grandis, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    Large and comprehensive genomic surveys of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas are now greatly increasing our understanding of the diversity of this disease and the key genomic changes, which drive these tumors. The results from these studies are beginning to inform the introduction of novel therapies for patients with head and neck squamous cell cancers. Here, we review some of the key findings from recent genomic studies of head and neck cancers including the most comprehensive study to date from The Cancer Genome Atlas Network. PMID:25643909

  2. The role of miR-21 in proliferation and invasion capacity of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yin; Zhu, Yu; Lv, Pin; Li, Longjiang

    2015-01-01

    Tongue squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common cancers, which has the highest incidence in oral maxillofacial malignant tumors. MiR-21 may promote tumorigeness by down-regulating tumor suppressing genes and/or controlling the genes for cell differentiation and apoptosis, and it has been identified as the most expressive and unusual in a number of profiling experiments. The study shows there are high expressions of miR-21 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (Tca8113 and its high metastatic lines), especially in high metastatic lines. miR-21 silencing could suppress the capacity of proliferation, migration and invasion, arrest the cell cycle and induce apoptosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (Tca8113 and its high metastatic lines). All the results indicate that miR-21 will probably open a new path to the gene therapy for oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26191145

  3. Role of the MIR146A polymorphism in the origin and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Annalisa; Carinci, Francesco; Martinelli, Marcella; Pezzetti, Furio; Girardi, Ambra; Cura, Francesca; Rubini, Corrado; Scapoli, Luca

    2014-06-01

    Gene expression and cell behavior are regulated by several factors, including small non-coding RNAs. MicroRNAs affecting cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis are thought to play an important role in tumorigenesis. The levels of miR-146 appear to be associated with cancer development and progression, including that of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of this investigation was to ascertain whether the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs2910164, mapping in the MIR146A gene, has a role in oral squamous cell carcinoma progression. A genetic association study was performed with a sample set of 346 oral squamous cell carcinomas collected in Italy. Our data indicate that the rs2910164 polymorphism is not associated with tumor development. However, a slight increase in the frequency of the variant allele was observed in Stage II tumors. Further investigations are needed to verify a possible role of the variant allele or rs2910164 in oral squamous cell carcinoma progression. PMID:24612133

  4. Unusual presentation of squamous cell carcinoma in young female patient: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasbir; Singh, Anantpreet; Chopra, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common “malignant neoplasm” of epithelial origin usually affecting individuals over 50 years of age. It is rare in patients aged <40 years old. This report describes a case of squamous cell carcinoma involving anterior mandibular alveolar region in a 17-year-old female patient, with no history of deleterious habits. This report focuses on etiological factors, diagnosis and prognosis related to the case. PMID:27194884

  5. Unusual presentation of squamous cell carcinoma in young female patient: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasbir; Singh, Anantpreet; Chopra, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common "malignant neoplasm" of epithelial origin usually affecting individuals over 50 years of age. It is rare in patients aged <40 years old. This report describes a case of squamous cell carcinoma involving anterior mandibular alveolar region in a 17-year-old female patient, with no history of deleterious habits. This report focuses on etiological factors, diagnosis and prognosis related to the case. PMID:27194884

  6. Squamous cell carcinoma developing in a long-standing case of tuberous xanthoma: An incident unreported hitherto

    PubMed Central

    Sancheti, Karan; Das, Anupam; Podder, Indrashis; Mohanty, Swosti; Gharami, Ramesh C.; Jash, Prabir K.

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, characterized by malignant transformation of normal epidermal keratinocyte is the second most common nonmelanoma skin cancer that has many predisposing factors. Tuberous xanthomas have not yet been reported as a predisposing factor. We report here the case of long-standing tuberous xanthoma in a middle-aged gentleman complicated by cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, probably the first such report in the Indian literature. PMID:26904452

  7. Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis and scrotum in a patient with chronic scrotal and penile lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Abhyankar, Suhas V; Kulkarni, Ananta; Kulkarni, Madhuri; Agarwal, Naveen Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma arising from tissue affected by chronic lymphedema is rare, though it is recognized that a variety of malignant tumors can arise in chronic congenital or acquired lymphedema. We describe, a case of scrotal and penile squamous cell carcinoma arising in a patient with a history of chronic scrotal and penile lymphedema of filarial origin. We here discuss the management and possible etiology of this unusual case. PMID:21430898

  8. Human Papillomavirus in Oral Leukoplakia, Verrucous Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Normal Mucous Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Ghazi, Narges; Meshkat, Zahra; Mohtasham, Nooshin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common oral malignancy, and verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a less invasive type of SCC. Leukoplakia (LP) is the most frequent premalignant lesion in the oral cavity. The human papillomavirus (HPV) has been recognized as one of the etiologic factors of these conditions. The association of anogenital and cervical cancers with HPV particularly its high-risk subtypes (HPV HR) has been demonstrated. The purpose of our study was to investigate the hypothetical association between HPV and the mentioned oral cavity lesions. Methods One hundred and seventy-three samples (114 SCCs, 21 VCs, 20 LPs) and 18 normal mucosa samples (as a control group) were retrieved from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology of Mashhad Dental School, Iran. The association of HPV genotypes in LP, VC, and SCC was compared to normal oral mucosa using the polymerase chain reaction. Results The results showed the absence of HPV in normal mucosa and LP lesions. In three samples of VC (14.3%), we observed the presence of HPV HR (types 16 and 18). All VCs were present in the mandibular ridge of females aged over 65 years old. No statistically significant correlation between HPV and VC was observed (p=0.230). Additionally, 15 (13.1%) SCCs showed HPV positivity, but this was not significant (p=0.830). The prevalence of SCC was higher on the tongue with the dominant presence of less carcinogenic species of HPV (types 6 and 11). A statistically significant association was not observed between HPV and SCC or VC in the oral cavity. Conclusion More studies are necessary to better understand the relationship between HPV and malignant/premalignant oral cavity lesions. PMID:26674929

  9. Citrus consumption and risk of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Cho, Eunyoung; Feskanich, Diane; Li, Wen-Qing; Sun, Qi; Han, Jiali; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2015-10-01

    Animal experiments have demonstrated the photocarcinogenic properties of furocoumarins, a group of naturally occurring chemicals that are rich in citrus products. We conducted a prospective study for citrus consumption and risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin based on data from 41530 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010) and 63759 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010) who were free of cancers at baseline. Over 24-26 years of follow-up, we documented 20840 incident BCCs and 3544 incident SCCs. Compared to those who consumed citrus products less than twice per week, the pooled multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 1.03 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.99-1.08] for BCC and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.00-1.30) for SCC for those who consumed two to four times per week, 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01-1.11) for BCC and 1.15 (95% CI: 1.02-1.28) for SCC for five to six times per week, 1.11 (95% CI: 1.06-1.16) for BCC and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.08-1.37) for SCC for once to 1.4 times per day and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.09-1.23) for BCC and 1.21 (95% Cl: 1.06-1.38) for SCC for 1.5 times per day or more (P trend = 0.001 for BCC and 0.04 for SCC). In contrast, consumption of non-citrus fruit and juice appeared to be inversely associated with risk of BCC and SCC. Our findings support positive associations between citrus consumption and risk of cutaneous BCC and SCC in two cohorts of men and women, and call for further investigations to better understand the potential photocarcinogenesis associated with dietary intakes. PMID:26224304

  10. The development of squamous cell carcinoma in a patient after kidney transplantation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowska, Małgorzata; Szychta, Paweł; Sporny, Stanisław; Rykała, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In patients with organ transplantation as compared to the general population the risk of cancer is significantly increased. The most common changes are malignant tumors of the skin, constituting 30-65% of malignant tumors found in recipients. Potential risk factors for skin cancer after a transplant operation are: solar radiation, immunosuppressive therapy, genetic factors, infection with HPV and skin cancer transmission before transplantation. In contrast to the immunocompetent population, skin cancers in transplant recipients are dominated by squamous cell carcinoma, followed by basal cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma in patients after transplantation is characterized by a strong tendency to give local recurrences and distant metastases. Due to the high risk of developing skin cancer in transplant recipients, preventive oncology plays an important role in the long-term care of patients after transplantation. This includes: sun protection, education, and early treatment of patients with precancerous lesions. It is also stressed that systematic dermatologic studies need to be carried out in patients after transplantation surgery. The paper contains basic information about skin cancers in organ transplant recipients: epidemiology, potential risk factors, treatment and prognosis. The paper presents also a case of patient who developed squamous cell carcinoma of the skin 3 years after renal transplantation. PMID:24278050

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate: long-term survival after combined chemo-radiation

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, Fernando; Franco, Pierfrancesco; Ciammella, Patrizia; Clerico, Mario; Giudici, Mauro; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Ricardi, Umberto

    2007-01-01

    Background Carcinoma of the prostate gland is the most frequent malignant tumour affecting male population. While the large majority of tumours is represented by adenocarcinoma, pure squamous cell carcinoma comprises only 0,5–1% of all prostate neoplastic lesions. It is characterised by a high degree of malignancy, commonly metastasising to the bone (mainly with osteolytic lesions), liver and lungs with a median survival time of 14 months. Several therapeutic approaches have been employed in the effort to treat prostate pure squamous cell carcinoma, including radical surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. All of them mostly failed to gain a significant survival benefit. Case report We herein report on a case of pure squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate approached with combined-modality treatment, with the administration of 3 courses of cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 1 and continous infusion 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/m2 on day 1 to 5 and, subsequently, radiotherapy, with the delivery of a total dose of 46 Gy to the whole pelvis, with additional boost doses of 20 Gy to the prostatic bed and adjunctive 6 Gy to the prostate gland (72 Gy in total). The patient remained free of disease for 5 years, finally experiencing local relapse and, subsequently, dying of acute renal failure due to bilateral uretero-hydro-nephrosis. In addition, we provide a complete overview of all reported cases available within the medical literature. Conclusion Since it remains questionable which should be the most appropriate therapeutic approach towards prostate pure squamous cell carcinoma, our report demonstrates that a prolonged disease control, with a consistent survival time, may be achieved by the combination of an effective local treatment such as radiotherapy with systemic infusion of chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:17407588

  12. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in the nasal cavity treated with proton beam therapy concurrent with cisplatin: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is a rare and aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is mostly seen in the upper aerodigestive tract and has a propensity for lymph node spread and systemic metastases. Various treatment modalities have been reported, including surgical excision supplemented with radiotherapy/adjuvant chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, treatment of nasal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma with proton beam therapy and cisplatin has not been described in the literature. Case presentation We report the case of a 56-year-old Japanese man with locally invasive basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in his right nasal cavity with invasion of the orbit, paranasal sinus, and buccal subcutaneous tissue. He underwent proton beam therapy concurrent with cisplatin. Acute and late side effects did not exceed grade 3. At 24-month follow up, he remains in complete remission. Conclusion Proton beam therapy concurrent with cisplatin may be one choice for locally invasive basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24716457

  13. Treatment of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: a review

    PubMed Central

    Mileham, Kathryn F.; Bonomi, Philip D.; Batus, Marta; Fidler, Mary J.

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the single deadliest cancer both in the US and worldwide. The great majority of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is attributed to cigarette smoking, which fortunately is declining alongside cancer incidence. While we have been at a therapeutic plateau for advanced squamous cell lung cancer patients for several decades, recent observations suggest that we are on the verge of seeing incremental survival improvements for this relatively large group of patients. Current studies have confirmed an expanding role for immunotherapy [including programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) inhibition], a potential opportunity for VEGFR inhibition, and even future targets in fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and PI3K-AKT that collectively should improve survival as well as quality of life for those affected by squamous cell lung cancer over the next decade. PMID:26629421

  14. Spontaneous regression in advanced squamous cell lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yeon Hee; Park, Bo Mi; Park, Se Yeon; Choi, Jae Woo; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Ju Ock; Jung, Sung Soo; Park, Hee Sun; Moon, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous regression of malignant tumors is rare especially of lung tumor and biological mechanism of such remission has not been addressed. We report the case of a 79-year-old Korean patient with non-small cell lung cancer, squamous cell cancer with a right hilar tumor and multiple lymph nodes, lung to lung metastasis that spontaneously regressed without any therapies. He has sustained partial remission state for one year and eight months after the first histological diagnosis. PMID:27076978

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen and squamous cell carcinoma antigen-immunoglobulin M for hepatocellular carcinoma: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JIAN; SHAO, CHUXIAO; ZHOU, QINGYUN; ZHU, YIMIN; ZHU, JINDE; TU, CHAOYONG

    2015-01-01

    A number of individual studies have evaluated the diagnostic efficiency of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) and SCCA-immunoglobulin (IgM) for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the results have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of serum SCCA and SCCA-IgM for HCC. A systematic review of related studies was conducted and relevant data on the accuracy of serum SCCA and SCCA-IgM in the diagnosis of HCC were pooled using random-effects models. Summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) analysis was used to summarize the overall test performance. A total of 12 studies were included in our meta-analysis. The summary estimates for serum SCCA and SCCA-IgM for HCC diagnosis in the included studies were as follows: Sensitivity = 0.59 (95% CI: 0.56–0.62) vs. 0.60 (95% CI: 0.56–0.63); specificity = 0.76 (95% CI: 0.73–0.79) vs. 0.70 (95% CI: 0.67–0.73); diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) = 6.68 (95% CI: 3.71–12.03) vs. 7.32 (95% CI: 3.31–16.15); and area under the SROC curve = 0.7826 vs. 0.7955. Therefore, SCCA and SCCA-IgM exhibited moderate diagnostic accuracy for HCC. Due to the design limitations, the results of published studies should be interpreted with caution. In addition, well-designed studies including larger sample sizes should be conducted to rigorously evaluate the diagnostic value of SCCA and SCCA-IgM. PMID:26623071

  16. Clinical Impact of Prolonged Diagnosis to Treatment Interval (DTI) Among Patients with Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sonam; Bekelman, Justin; Lin, Alexander; Lukens, J. Nicholas; Roman, Benjamin R.; Mitra, Nandita; Swisher-McClure, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s) We examined practice patterns using the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to determine risk factors for prolonged diagnosis to treatment interval (DTI) and survival outcomes in patients receiving chemoradiation for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Methods and Materials We identified 6,606 NCDB patients with Stage III-IV OPSCC receiving chemoradiation from 2003-2006. We determined risk factors for prolonged DTI (>30 days) using univariate and multivariable logistic regression models. We examined overall survival (OS) using Kaplan Meier and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Results 3,586 (54.3%) patients had prolonged DTI. Race, IMRT, insurance status, and high volume facilities were significant risk factors for prolonged DTI. Patients with prolonged DTI had inferior OS compared to DTI ≤ 30 days (Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.12, 95% CI 1.04-1.20, p=0.005). For every week increase in DTI there was a 2.2% (95% CI 1.1%-3.3%, p<0.001) increase in risk of death. Patients receiving IMRT, treatment at academic, or high-volume facilities were more likely to experience prolonged DTI (High vs. Low volume: 61.5% vs. 51.8%, adjusted OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.21-1.58; Academic vs. Community: 59.5% vs. 50.6%, adjusted OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.13-1.42; non-IMRT vs. IMRT: 53.4% vs. 56.5%; adjusted OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.31). Conclusions Our results suggest that prolonged DTI has a significant impact on survival outcomes. We observed disparities in DTI by socioeconomic factors. However, facility level factors such as academic affiliation, high volume, and IMRT also increased risk of DTI. These findings should be considered in developing efficient pathways to mitigate adverse effects of prolonged DTI. PMID:27086482

  17. Combined-modality treatment for advanced oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, K.-H.; Lin, C.-Y. |; Kang, C.-J.; Huang, S.-F.; Chen, I.-H.; Liao, C.-T. |; Wang, H.-M. |; Cheng, A.-J. |; Chang, J.T.-C. ||. E-mail: jtchang@adm.cgmh.org.tw

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate prognostic factors in advanced-stage oral tongue cancer treated with postoperative adjuvant therapy and to identify indications for adjuvant concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 201 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue managed between January 1995 and November 2002. All had undergone wide excision and neck dissection plus adjuvant radiotherapy or CCRT. Based on postoperative staging, 123 (61.2%) patients had Stage IV and 78 (38.8%) had Stage III disease. All patients were followed for at least 18 months after completion of radiotherapy or until death. The median follow-up was 40.4 months for surviving patients. The median dose of radiotherapy was 64.8 Gy (range, 58.8-72.8 Gy). Cisplatin-based regimens were used for chemotherapy. Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 48% and 50.8%, respectively. Stage, multiple nodal metastases, differentiation, and extracapsular spread (ECS) significantly affected disease-specific survival on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, multiple nodal metastases, differentiation, ECS, and CCRT were independent prognostic factors. If ECS was present, only CCRT significantly improved survival (3-year RFS with ECS and with CCRT = 48.2% vs. without CCRT = 15%, p = 0.038). In the presence of other poor prognostic factors, results of the two treatment strategies did not significantly differ. Conclusions: Based on this study, ECS appears to be an absolute indication for adjuvant CCRT. CCRT can not be shown to be statistically better than radiotherapy alone in this retrospective series when ECS is not present.

  18. Predicting the molecular role of MEIS1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rad, Abolfazl; Farshchian, Moein; Forghanifard, Mohammad Mahdi; Matin, Maryam M; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Geerts, Dirk; A'rabi, Azadeh; Memar, Bahram; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza

    2016-02-01

    The three amino acid loop extension (TALE) class myeloid ecotropic viral integration site 1 (MEIS1) homeobox gene is known to play a crucial role in normal and tumor development. In contrast with its well-described cancer stemness properties in hematopoietic cancers, little is known about its role in solid tumors like esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Here, we analyzed MEIS1 expression and its clinical relevance in ESCC patients and also investigated its correlation with the SOX2 self-renewal master transcription factor in the ESCC samples and in the KYSE-30 ESCC cell line. MEIS1 mRNA and protein expression were significantly decreased in ESCC disease (P < 0.05). The inverse correlation between MEIS1 mRNA expression and tumor cell metastasis to the lymph nodes (P = 0.004) was significant. Also, MEIS1 protein levels inversely correlated to lymph node involvement (P = 0.048) and high tumor stage (stages III/IV, P = 0.030). The low levels of DNA methylation in the MEIS1 promoter showed that this suppression does not depend on methylation. We showed that downregulation of EZH2 restored MEIS1 expression significantly. Also, we investigated that MEIS1 downregulation is concomitant with increased SOX2 expression. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the MEIS1 gene in ESCC. The inverse correlation of MEIS1 with metastasis, tumor staging, and the role of EZH2 in methylation, together with its correlation with stemness factor SOX2 expression, led us to predict cancer stemness properties for MEIS1 in ESCC. PMID:26314854

  19. Prognostic factors for salvage endoscopic resection for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Shinya; Tajika, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kodaira, Takeshi; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Hara, Kazuo; Hijioka, Susumu; Imaoka, Hiroshi; Goto, Hidemi; Yamao, Kenji; Niwa, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic resection is one treatment option for residual or locally recurrent esophageal cancer after definitive chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. However, little is known about the clinical benefit of salvage endoscopic resection for these lesions. Therefore, the effectiveness and prognostic factors of salvage endoscopic resection were investigated. Patients and methods: A total of 37 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) who underwent salvage endoscopic resection after definitive chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone were reviewed. The method of salvage endoscopic resection was endoscopic mucosal resection using a cap (EMR-C), strip biopsy, or endoscopic submucosal dissection. The effectiveness and prognostic factors of salvage endoscopic resection were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 37 patients with 49 lesions underwent salvage endoscopic resection. Baseline clinical stages were I in 23 patients, II in 3 patients, III in 9 patients, and IV in 2 patients. The number of locoregional recurrences and residual lesions were 35 and 14, respectively. The curative en bloc resection rate was 53.1 % (26/49). The total incidence of complications was 18.9 % (7/37); all were successfully managed conservatively. The 3-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 72.9 % and 53.3 %, respectively, with a median follow-up period of 54 months. Baseline clinical T1 – 2 and N0 were significant factors for good prognosis in terms of overall survival on univariate analysis. Conclusions: Salvage endoscopic resection, especially EMR-C, is a safe and feasible procedure to control residual or recurrent superficial esophageal SCC after definitive chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. The present results showed that baseline clinical T1 – 2 and N0 before chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy were significant prognostic factors. PMID:27540571

  20. Concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy of selected head and neck squamous cell carcinomas using bleomycin and hydroxyurea: a Southwest Oncology Group study

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, A.B. Jr.; Perkins, M.; Aust, J.B.

    1982-08-01

    Forty-three patients with Stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were treated with simultaneous hydroxyurea and bleomycin in four treatment levels and with full-dose radiotherapy. Complete responses ranged from 28 to 50% (P = .47), and complete plus partial responses ranged from 57 to 84% (P = .50), in a total of 33 patients. The primary toxicity was moderate to severe mucositis and minimal leukopenia. Despite good initial response, long-term survival duration was not greater than was that for historical controls.

  1. Rare Co-existence of Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Infiltration of Renal Vein and Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Vanikar, A.V.; Patel, R.D.; Nigam, L. K.; Trivedi, H. L.

    2015-01-01

    Primary renal squamous cell carcinoma is a very rare malignancy of the upper urinary tract. Most patients have history of chronic urolithiasis, analgesics abuse, radiotherapy or infection. Co-existence of SCC with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is exceedingly rare with only few reports in the literature. We report a case of a 60-year-old male presented with right flank pain and mild tenderness of abdomen. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed gross hydronephrosis with parenchymal thinning and irregular thick enhancing wall of pelvicalyceal system with multiple calculi in right kidney. Right renal vein appeared distended, filled with hypo dense material. Right nephrectomy was performed and sent for pathological examination. Histological evaluation revealed keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma with infiltration of renal vein and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. PMID:26816904

  2. Management of thyroid gland invasion in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Arslanoğlu, Seçil; Eren, Erdem; Özkul, Yılmaz; Ciğer, Ejder; Kopar, Aylin; Önal, Kazım; Etit, Demet; Tütüncü, G Yazgı

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of thyroid gland invasion in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma; and the association between clinicopathological parameters and thyroid gland invasion. Medical records of 75 patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent total laryngectomy with thyroidectomy were reviewed, retrospectively. Preoperative computed tomography scans, clinical and operative findings, and histopathological data of the specimens were evaluated. There were 73 male and two female patients with an age range of 41-88 years (mean 60.4 years). Hemithyroidectomy was performed in 62 (82.7 %) and total thyroidectomy was performed in 13 patients (17.3 %). Four patients had histopathologically proven thyroid gland invasion (5.3 %). In three patients, thyroid gland involvement was by means of direct invasion. Thyroid gland invasion was significantly correlated with thyroid cartilage invasion. Therefore, prophylactic thyroidectomy should not be a part of the treatment policy for these tumors. PMID:26547312

  3. CD166-mediated epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation promotes the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guodong; Wang, Xu; Yan, Ming; Chen, Wantao; Zhang, Ping

    2016-08-01

    CD166 has been considered a relatively specific marker of stem cells and cancer stem cells, and the altered expression of CD166 has also been reported as a prognostic marker of several other types of cancer. However, the molecular functions of CD166 in these cancer cells are largely unknown. In this study, we found that CD166 significantly enhanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation and prolonged epidermal growth factor (EGF)/EGFR signalling activation. In addition, EGF stimulation in CD166-overexpressing oral squamous carcinoma cells led to enhanced colony formation, invasion capacity and cytoskeletal re-organization in vitro and elevated tumourigenesis in vivo. Taken together, the results of our study identify CD166 as an intriguing therapeutic target for patients suffering from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). PMID:27424177

  4. Exploiting Mouse Models to Study Ras-Induced Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lowry, William E; Flores, Aimee; White, Andrew C

    2016-08-01

    Recently developed methods have allowed for the delivery of cancer-causing genetic mutations to particular cell types in the epidermis in an inducible fashion. These methods have allowed for sophisticated explorations on the cellular and molecular origins of squamous cell carcinoma due to oncogenic mutations in Ras. These experiments have provided insights into whether cancer is initiated by stem or more specified cells under various conditions, and have highlighted the ability of particular genetic hits to serve as tumor initiators or promoters. Here we provide a summary of data from our lab and others that demonstrate the ability of hair follicle stem cells to serve as cancer cells of origin, and the ability of various molecular players to drive heterogeneity of tumor cell types. A synthesis of these studies potentially could provide unique insights into the process by which Ras can initiate squamous cell carcinoma in human patients and could eventually inform treatment strategies. PMID:27160068

  5. Oral squamous cell carcinoma misdiagnosed as a denture-related traumatic ulcer: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Valente, Vitor Bonetti; Takamiya, Aline Satie; Ferreira, Lígia Lavezo; Felipini, Renata Callestini; Biasoli, Éder Ricardo; Miyahara, Glauco Issamu; Bernabé, Daniel Galera

    2016-03-01

    A 65-year-old woman presented with an ulcerated lesion in the alveolar ridge mucosa, which appeared after new dentures had been inserted. Despite many treatment attempts, the lesion did not recede, even with the interruption of denture wearing. A biopsy was performed, and histopathologic examination revealed an ulcerated, invasive, poorly differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma. The time from the patient's first contact with the prosthodontist because of the lesion until the appropriate diagnosis was established was approximately 6 months. This clinical report documents a significant delay in the oral squamous cell carcinoma diagnosis and treatment because of a clinical misdiagnosis of a traumatic ulcer resulting from complete dentures. Prosthodontists should be aware of the importance of early diagnosis of oral cancer among elderly prosthesis wearers. PMID:26581660

  6. Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis in a Male with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Sauri, Tamara; Izquierdo, Àngel; Ramió-Torrentà, LLuis; Sanchez-Montañez, Àngel; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    Background Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PLE) is a rare syndrome characterized by memory impairment, symptoms of hypothalamic dysfunction, and seizures. It commonly precedes the diagnosis of cancer. Small-cell lung cancer is the neoplasm that is most frequently reported as the etiology underlying PLE. Case Report This report describes a male patient who presented with neurologic symptoms consistent with anterograde amnesia, apathy, and disorientation. MRI revealed diffuse hyperintensities located predominantly in the medial bitemporal lobes, basal ganglia, frontal lobes, and leptomeninges on fluid attenuated inversion recovery images, suggesting PLE. Study of the primary tumor revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The patient was treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, which resulted in his neurologic symptoms gradually improving. Conclusions PLE might be a rare debut of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Treatment of the primary tumor may improve the neurologic symptoms. PMID:25628742

  7. Primary oral squamous cell carcinoma arising around dental osseointegrated implants mimicking peri-implantitis.

    PubMed

    Eguia del Valle, Asier; Martínez-Conde Llamosas, Rafael; López Vicente, José; Uribarri Etxebarria, Agurne; Aguirre Urizar, José Manuel

    2008-08-01

    Prosthodontic rehabilitation using dental implants has become a common practice in dentistry at the present time. The number of complications related to dental osseointegrated implants has increased according to the generalization of its use along the last decade. Among the most common of these complications are chronic inflammatory conditions affecting both hard and soft tissues around dental implants. Although severe complications are uncommon, in recent years several cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma adjacent to dental implants have been published. In this paper we present a new unusual case of primary oral squamous cell carcinoma arising around a dental fixed prosthesis over osseointegrated implants in a 76 male patient with no previous history of malignance and no risk factors related to oral cancer. PMID:18667981

  8. The pluripotency factor NANOG promotes the formation of squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Palla, Adelaida R.; Piazzolla, Daniela; Alcazar, Noelia; Cañamero, Marta; Graña, Osvaldo; Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Dominguez, Orlando; Dueñas, Marta; Paramio, Jesús M.; Serrano, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    NANOG is a key pluripotency factor in embryonic stem cells that is frequently expressed in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). However, a direct link between NANOG and SCCs remains to be established. Here, we show that inducible overexpression of NANOG in mouse skin epithelia favours the malignant conversion of skin papillomas induced by chemical carcinogenesis, leading to increased SCC formation. Gene expression analyses in pre-malignant skin indicate that NANOG induces genes associated to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Some of these genes are directly activated by NANOG, including EMT-associated genes Zeb1, Zeb2, Twist1, Prrx1 and miR-21. Finally, endogenous NANOG binds to the promoters of theses genes in human SCC cells and, moreover, NANOG induces EMT features in primary keratinocytes. These results provide in vivo evidence for the oncogenic role of NANOG in squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:25988972

  9. [A diagnosed follicular cyst turned out to be a squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Mizbah, K; Dings, J P J; Gonesh, S J; Merkx, M A W

    2013-01-01

    A 50-year-old man had undergone a complicated removal of tooth 48 which initially seemed related to a follicular cyst. Subsequently, it turned out that a squamous cell carcinoma had probably developed from the follicular cyst. The patient underwent excision of the tumour, hemimandibulectomy, a neck dissection, and reconstruction of the mandibula using a metal plate, followed by postoperative local radiotherapy. This type of development of a squamous cell carcinoma presents very rarely. From the literature, it can be concluded that the prognosis is unfavourable and that the tumour tends to grow aggressively. In case of abnormal wound healing after the removal of a tooth (with a follicular cyst), it is recommended to examine representative tissue histologically. PMID:23413586

  10. Expression of membrane glycoproteins in normal keratinocytes and squamous carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Rayter, Z. ); McIlhinney, R. ); Gusterson, B. )

    1989-08-01

    Con A acceptor glycoproteins were analyzed by 2D-PAGE and {sup 125}I-Con A overlay in three squamous carcinoma cell lines and compared with those in the simian virus (SV40)-transformed keratinocyte cell line SVK-14 and in normal keratinocytes. The majority of the glycoproteins identified by this technique were expressed at similar levels in all of the cells examined, independent of the culture conditions used. A cell surface glycoprotein gp34 was increased in the tumor cells compared with normal keratinocytes and expression varied with the culture density. Another glycoprotein, gp21, was found to be increased in expression in normal keratinocytes and stratified hyperconfluent cultures of squamous carcinoma cell lines. This paper describes the potential of this technique to identify membrane glycoproteins which may be expressed as a function of proliferation or differentiation.

  11. [Transition to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in 2 patients with bowenoid papulomatosis].

    PubMed

    Bonnekoh, B; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K

    1987-05-15

    We report on two female patients (30 and 33-year-old) suffering from bowenoid papulosis (BP) which showed HPV-16-DNA (E.-M. de Villiers, DKFZ, Heidelberg). Both patients developed cutaneous invasive squamous cell carcinoma in the perineal and vulvar region, resp. In the first patient, the microinvasive part of the tumor was excised. Subsequent therapy with interferon-gamma resulted in complete clinical and histological remission of the BP within 4 months; 6 months after discontinuation of the therapy with interferon, however, we observed a relapse of BP. In the second case, which showed more prominent BP alterations and deeper tumor invasion, interferon-gamma did not bring on any improvement within 3 weeks of therapy; thus radical operation was performed. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the transition of BP of the outer ano-genital region into invasive squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:3039749

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma and dental implants: A systematic review of case reports.

    PubMed

    Jeelani, S; Rajkumar, E; Mary, G Geena; Khan, Parvez Ahmad; Gopal, Harish; Roy, Soumya; Maheswaran, T; Anand, B

    2015-08-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death world-wide. Apart from the most common etiopathological factors related to cancer, at times very rare causes such as irritant or foreign body induced carcinogenesis is not to be overlooked. To systematically review case reports concerned with the association between dental implants and oral squamous cell carcinoma. A Medline (PubMed), Cochrane database, and Google Scholar search was conducted of dental article published in English related to case reports concerned with oral squamous cell carcinoma occurring around dental implants from 2000 to 2014. Twenty articles were retrieved, which included 20 rare case reports which were systematically reviewed and the results were obtained pertaining to age, clinical symptoms, habits, previous history of cancer, potentially malignant disorders, systemic illness, and local factors. It is imperative to identify promptly persisting inflammation associated with implants. Since malignancy may disguise as periimplantitis, especially in patients who are at risk with contributing prominent predisposing factors. PMID:26538881

  13. Questionable Necessity for Removing Submandibular Gland in Neck Dissection in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Gaurav; Nagpure, Prakash S; Chavan, Sushil S

    2016-09-01

    To assess whether submandibular gland is involved by metastasis in cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas. It was a retrospective study, where we reviewed the records of the patients who underwent neck dissections for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the oral cavity. It included 112 patients who had undergone 115 neck dissections (three patients had undergone bilateral neck dissection), either therapeutic or prophylactic. No pathologic evidence of metastasis to submandibular gland was seen in any of the case. Preservation of submandibular glands can be a good technique for reducing future complications in a patient undergoing Neck Dissection wherever feasible. Therefore, if there is no need to expose large oral cavity tumors through the submandibular triangle, or when there is no direct extension of the primary and/or regional lymph nodes into the submandibular gland, it may be safe to preserve the submandibular gland. PMID:27508132

  14. Rare Co-existence of Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Infiltration of Renal Vein and Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Kanodia, K V; Vanikar, A V; Patel, R D; Nigam, L K; Trivedi, H L

    2015-12-01

    Primary renal squamous cell carcinoma is a very rare malignancy of the upper urinary tract. Most patients have history of chronic urolithiasis, analgesics abuse, radiotherapy or infection. Co-existence of SCC with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is exceedingly rare with only few reports in the literature. We report a case of a 60-year-old male presented with right flank pain and mild tenderness of abdomen. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed gross hydronephrosis with parenchymal thinning and irregular thick enhancing wall of pelvicalyceal system with multiple calculi in right kidney. Right renal vein appeared distended, filled with hypo dense material. Right nephrectomy was performed and sent for pathological examination. Histological evaluation revealed keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma with infiltration of renal vein and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. PMID:26816904

  15. The prognostic importance of parotid involvement by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Bruna Melhoranse; Barbosa, Maria Helena de Magalhães; Carneiro, Leonardo Hoehl; Hadj, Luzia Abrao El; Fernandes, Nurimar Conceição

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second-most common malignant cutaneous cancer, with 60% occurring in the head and neck region. Metastases are uncommon and imply a more conservative prognosis. This report describes a case of parotid-invasive, facial squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting the importance of its prognostic and therapeutic management. The patient is an 81-year-old female, exhibiting extensive tumoral lesions in the pre-auricular region, affecting the parotid parenchyma and implying the metastatic involvement of the intra-parotid lymph node. Parotid involvement caused by SCC in specificity tumors is discussed herein. Parotid invasion is currently recognized as an isolated variable. It affects survival rates and determines certain changes in case management, such as the broadening of resection areas and adjuvant radiotherapy. PMID:27438204

  16. Primary kidney parenchyma squamous cell carcinoma mimicking xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WANG, ZHAO; YAN, BIN; WEI, YONG-BAO; HU, NA; SHEN, QIN; LI, DUO; YANG, JIN-RUI; YANG, XIN

    2016-01-01

    Primary kidney parenchyma squamous cell carcinoma is extremely rare, and this is the forth case to be reported. In the present study, a case of a 61-year old man is discussed. The man presented with recurrent lumbago, gross hematuria for nearly 2 months, and suspicious inflammatory kidney diseases on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and fludeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/CT, but a tumor can not be excluded completely prior to surgery. Finally, radical nephrectomy was performed, and histological analysis determined that the diagnosis was kidney parenchyma squamous cell carcinoma with inflammation invasion. The present case highlights the potential confusion of preoperative diagnosis of renal tumor with inflammation, and introduces the potential role of FDG-PET in its diagnosis and survival evaluation in renal malignancies. PMID:26998145

  17. Fingertips squamous cell carcinoma: Treatment outcomes with surgical excision and full thickness skin graft.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, I; Robert, N; Revol, M

    2016-02-01

    Fingertips squamous cell carcinoma is a rare disease. An often missed or delayed diagnosis, the affected finger could result in an amputation. Our aim is to focus on the results of surgical excision of fingertips squamous cell carcinoma. Between 2005 and 2011, eighteen fingers on eight patients with a mean age of 62.5 years underwent surgery. The surgical excision margin was 5mm and the defect was covered by a full thickness skin graft. Three fingers were revised for having a non-secure margin with an enlarged excision and two fingers were amputated at the distal phalange. The diagnosis is often missed or delayed, resulting in an amputation of the affected finger. Aesthetic outcomes range from very good to good satisfaction except for one, which was bad. PMID:25301287

  18. Recent advances in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma--a review.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Yaghoub; Khalili, Masoumeh; Farajnia, Safar; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Yazdani, Yaghoub; Sadeghi, Mahnaz

    2014-09-01

    The current review presents the results of the most recent studies performed on different aspects of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, including radiosensitivity induction, efficiency improvement of monoclonal antibodies using low-intensity ultrasound, chemical compounds such as toll-like receptor (TLC) agonists, dasatinib, resveratrol and niclosamide, nuclear inhibition of cancer using STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide, efficiency of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in detection of head and neck cancers and other related issues. PMID:24912050

  19. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Neil; Ahmad, Sumair; Bhuiyan, Khaled; Catalano, Carmine; Alkhawam, Hassan; Sogomonian, Robert; Nguyen, James; Walfish, Aaron; Aron, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the rectum is a rare occurrence with an incidence rate of 0.1–0.25% per 1,000 cases. Herein, we report a case of a 52-year-old female who presented with a 2-month history of diffuse lower abdominal pain and hematochezia. Abdominal CT scan revealed a 7-cm irregular rectal mass, and the biopsy showed SCC. PMID:27406458

  20. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach presenting as a huge retroperitoneal tumor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xu-Dong; Zhou, Yong; Fan, Ren-Gen; Zhou, Bin; Shi, Quan; Jia, Jing

    2016-05-01

    A man complained of upper abdominal pain and early satiety for one month. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed nothing specia. A CT scan of the abdomen was perfromed, which demonstrated a huge heterogeneous retroperitoneal mass close to the dorsal wall of the stomach and surrounding the abdominal aortic and celiac trunk. The resected specimen suggested that an un-regular tumor invaded to the dorsal wall of the stomach. Postoperative histological examination confirmed that it was a gastric squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26181433

  1. Renal squamous cell carcinoma mimicking xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hau Wei; Lee, Chau Hung

    2016-06-01

    Primary renal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare primary malignancy of the kidney. Diagnosis is usually delayed because of its lack of characteristic clinical and imaging features and inherent aggressive nature. We present a case of primary renal SCC in a 66-year-old woman with bilateral renal calculi and a complex right lower pole renal mass. The diagnosis of primary renal SCC was established based on the histopathology after right nephrectomy. PMID:27257454

  2. Locally extensive angio-invasive Scedosporium prolificans infection following resection for squamous cell lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Natasha E.; Trevillyan, Janine M.; Kidd, Sarah E.; Leong, Trishe Y.-M.

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of Scedosporium prolificans infection in a patient following surgery for squamous cell lung carcinoma. Combination therapy with voriconazole and terbinafine was commenced for intrathoracic infection and mycotic vasculitis. In spite of antifungal treatment, he developed culture-positive sternal and rib osteomyelitis four months later. Scedosporiosis is not commonly reported in patients with solid organ malignancies, and this case highlights its aggressive nature and propensity for direct local invasion. PMID:24432228

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of Cetuximab for Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Marco J.; Polinder, Suzanne; Lorenzen, Sylvie; Lordick, Florian; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spaander, Manon C. W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Costly biologicals in palliative oncology are emerging at a rapid pace. For example, in patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma addition of cetuximab to a palliative chemotherapy regimen appears to improve survival. However, it simultaneously results in higher costs. We aimed to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of adding cetuximab to first-line chemotherapeutic treatment of patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, based on data from a randomized controlled phase II trial. Methods A cost effectiveness analysis model was applied based on individual patient data. It included only direct medical costs from the health-care perspective. Quality-adjusted life-years and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated. Sensitivity analysis was performed by a Monte Carlo analysis. Results Adding cetuximab to a cisplatin-5-fluorouracil first-line regimen for advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma resulted in an the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €252,203 per quality-adjusted life-year. Sensitivity analysis shows that there is a chance of less than 0.001 that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio will be less than a maximum willingness to pay threshold of €40,000 per quality-adjusted life-year, which is representative for the threshold used in The Netherlands and other developed countries. Conclusions Addition of cetuximab to a cisplatin-5-fluorouracil first-line regimen for advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is not cost-effective when appraised according to currently accepted criteria. Cost-effectiveness analyses using outcome data from early clinical trials (i.c. a phase II trial) enable pharmaceutical companies and policy makers to gain early insight into whether a new drug meets the current eligibility standards for reimbursement and thereby potential admittance for use in regular clinical practice. PMID:27100871

  4. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma urinary bladder coexisting with tuberculosis in pelvic lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; Manikandan, Ramanitharan; Jacob, Sajini Elizabeth; Murugan, P Puvai

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the urinary bladder is usually associated with Schistosoma haematobium and chronic bladder irritation. We report a case of coexistent metastatic SCC and tuberculosis in obturator lymph nodes in radical cystoprostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy specimens. Though tubercular iliac lymphadenitis and metastatic transitional carcinoma following intravesical BCG has been reported, the concurrent presence of non-transitional cell cancer and primary lymph nodal tuberculosis in regional lymph nodes is rare. This case is reported to highlight the paucity of management guidelines available presently in the treatment of such patients who require systemic chemotherapy and antitubercular therapy. PMID:24296773

  5. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma in odontogenic keratocyst: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Chitrapriya; Aggarwal, Pooja; Wadhwan, Vijay; Bansal, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from the wall of an odontogenic cyst (also known as primary intraosseous carcinoma) is a rare tumor which occurs only in jaw bones. This tumor was first described by Loos in 1913 as a central epidermoid carcinoma of the jaw. Primary intraosseous carcinomas (PIOC) may theoretically arise from the lining of an odontogenic cyst or de novo from presumed odontogenic cell rests. According to the new histological classification of tumors of the World Health Organization, odontogenic keratocyst is nowadays considered a specific odontogenic tumor and the PIOC derived from it is considered as a specific entity which is different from other PIOCs derived from the odontogenic cysts. The following report describes a case of such extremely rare entity that is primary intraosseous SCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 60-year-old male patient with brief review of literature. PMID:26980976

  6. A recurrent pattern of chromosomal aberrations and immunophenotypic appearance defines anal squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Heselmeyer, K.; du Manoir, S.; Blegen, H.; Friberg, B.; Svensson, C.; Schröck, E.; Veldman, T.; Shah, K.; Auer, G.; Ried, T.

    1997-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas of the anus are rare neoplasias that account for about 3% of large bowel tumours. Infections with human papillomaviruses are frequently detected in these cancers, suggesting that pathogenic pathways in anal carcinomas and in carcinomas of the uterine cervix are similar. Little is known regarding recurrent chromosomal aberrations in this subgroup of squamous cell carcinomas. We have applied comparative genomic hybridization to identify chromosomal gains and losses in 23 cases of anal carcinomas. A non-random copy number increase of chromosomes 17 and 19, and chromosome arm 3q was observed. Consistent losses were mapped to chromosome arms 4p, 11q, 13q and 18q. A majority of the tumours were aneuploid, and most of them showed increased proliferative activity as determined by staining for Ki-67 antigen. p53 expression was low or undetectable, and expression of p21/WAF-1 was increased in most tumours. Sixteen cancers were satisfactorily tested for the presence of HPV by consensus L1-primer polymerase chain reaction; nine were HPV positive, of which eight were positive for HPV 16. Images Figure 2 PMID:9374370

  7. Incidence of Etiologic Factors in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck in Ahvaz

    PubMed Central

    Nikakhlagh, Soheila; Saki, Nader; shoar, Mahmood Hekmat; Sartipipor, Amin; Saki, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common head and neck malignancy. Smoking, alcohol consumption, viral infections, exposure, oral hygiene, and dietary, genetic, and occupational factors are the most important etiologic factors. The aim of this study was determining the incidence of etiologic factors in head and neck SCC. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey study for the determination of the etiologic factors of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma over a five-year period in the Otolaryngology Department of the Imam Khomeini & Golestan hospitals in Ahwaz. Results: 176 patients, comprising 151(85.8%) men and 25(14.2%) women, were studied. Overall mean age was 67.2 years. 148 (84.1%) patients were smokers. prolong exposure to chemical fertilizer in 101 (57.4%) patients, Sun exposure in 21 (11.9%) patients, Low socioeconomic status in 124 (70.5%) patients, poor oral hygiene in 128 (72.7%) patients, high intake of hot tea drinking in 84 (47.7%) patients and malignancies in family in 12 (6.8%) patients were the most frequent risk factors. 17 (9.6%) patients have had opioid addiction and HPV was positive in 7 (3.9%) patients by PCR. Conclusion: According to this study, tobacco smoking was the most important etiologic factor and had a strong effect on risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Other factors are also important and need more research study. PMID:24303391

  8. ADAM8 in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAMs) have been associated with multiple malignancies. ADAMs are involved in cell fusion, cell migration, membrane protein shedding and proteolysis. ADAM8 has been found to be overexpressed in squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. A new study showed that ADAM8 is significantly overexpressed in metastasis of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC). Methods We determined ADAM8 levels in the serum of 79 HNSCC patients at the time of diagnosis, in 35 patients 3 months after treatment and in 10 patients 1 year after therapy and compared the results to the sera of 31 healthy volunteers. We also constructed tissue microarrays to detect ADAM8 immunohistochemically in 100 patients. The results were correlated with the survival data of the patients to determine the diagnostic and prognostic value. Results The data demonstrated that patients with high ADAM8 expression in the tumor have worse survival rates. We found that high ADAM8 serum levels correlated with high ADAM8 expression in tumor samples. Soluble ADAM8 levels did not show any prognostic or diagnostic properties. Conclusion In summary ADAM8 expression is a prognostic factor for survival of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:22369429

  9. Slug inhibition increases radiosensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by upregulating PUMA.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fangfang; Zhou, Lijie; Wei, Changbo; Zhao, Wei; Yu, Dongsheng

    2016-08-01

    As a new strategy, radio-gene therapy was widely used for the treatment of cancer patients in recent few years. Slug was involved in the radioresistance of various cancers and has been found to have an anti-apoptotic effect. This study aims to investigate whether the modulation of Slug expression by siRNA affects oral squamous cell carcinoma sensitivity to X-ray irradiation through upregulating PUMA. Two oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (HSC3 and HSC6) were transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Slug and subjected to radiotherapy in vitro. After transfection with Slug siRNA, both HSC3 and HSC6 cells showed relatively lower expression of Slug and higher expression of PUMA. The Slug siRNA transfected cells showed decreased survival and proliferation rates, an increased apoptosis rate and enhanced radiosensitivity to X-ray irradiation. Our results revealed that Slug siRNA transfection in combination with radiation increased the expression of PUMA, which contributed to radiosensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Thus, controlling the expression of Slug might contribute to enhance sensitivity of HSC3 and HSC6 cells toward X-ray irradiation in vitro by upregulating PUMA. PMID:27277529

  10. Photosensitizing effects of hypericin on head neck squamous cell carcinoma in vitro.

    PubMed

    Laffers, Wiebke; Busse, Ann-Christin; Mahrt, Jens; Nguyen, Phuc; Gerstner, Andreas O H; Bootz, Friedrich; Wessels, Johannes T

    2015-03-01

    Clinical outcome of patients suffering from head neck squamous cell carcinomas is still poor due to recurrent disease and surgical limitations. There is still a demand for multimodality approaches and new therapeutic options. Hypericin is a promising phototoxic drug which was investigated for its effects on head neck squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro. FaDu cells incubated with or without hypericin were illuminated (450-700 nm, 50,000 lx) for different time periods. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide- and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay were used to score metabolic and apoptotic activity. Even after the shortest illumination FaDu cells incubated with hypericin showed massive reduction of metabolism and excessive apoptosis. This was present even with the lowest hypericin concentration. Cells without hypericin or without illumination were not affected. These photosensitizing effects of hypericin could be suitable for clinical application and could lead to the development of an intraoperative photodynamic therapy of head neck squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:24687800

  11. Th17 expression and IL-17 levels in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Fu-Jun; Cai, Zhi-Jian; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Shou-De; Chen, Ming

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion The Th17 cell frequency in peripheral blood and levels of IL-17 showed significant differences between patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and those with vocal cords polyps. Serum levels of IL-17 were correlated with laryngocarcinoma staging. Objectives To investigate associations among the frequency of Th17 cells, levels of IL-17, and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Method Eighty in-patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and 114 in-patients with polypus of the vocal cord were enrolled. Th17 cell frequencies in peripheral blood and serum levels of IL-17 were measured by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The tissue expression levels of IL-17 mRNA transcripts and protein were measured using quantitative RT-PCR or immunohistochemical detection, respectively. Results Th17 cell frequencies in peripheral blood and serum concentrations of IL-17 were significantly higher in patients with laryngocarcinoma compared with those in patients with polyps (p < 0.01 for both Th17 cells and IL-17 levels). Serum concentrations of IL-17 were significantly higher in patients with advanced laryngocarcinoma than in patients with early laryngocarcinoma (p < 0.01). The mRNA and protein levels of IL-17 were significantly higher in laryngocarcinoma tissues than in adjacent normal tissues (p < 0.01 for mRNA levels, p < 0.05 for protein levels). PMID:27052965

  12. Phase 1 Study of Erlotinib Plus Radiation Therapy in Patients With Advanced Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, C. Hope; Deep, Nicholas L.; Nabell, Lisle; Carroll, William R.; Desmond, Renee; Clemons, Lisa; Spencer, Sharon; Magnuson, J. Scott; Rosenthal, Eben L.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the toxicity profile of erlotinib therapy combined with postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy in patients with advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: This was a single-arm, prospective, phase 1 open-label study of erlotinib with radiation therapy to treat 15 patients with advanced cutaneous head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma. Toxicity data were summarized, and survival was analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The majority of patients were male (87%) and presented with T4 disease (93%). The most common toxicity attributed to erlotinib was a grade 2-3 dermatologic reaction occurring in 100% of the patients, followed by mucositis (87%). Diarrhea occurred in 20% of the patients. The 2-year recurrence rate was 26.7%, and mean time to cancer recurrence was 10.5 months. Two-year overall survival was 65%, and disease-free survival was 60%. Conclusions: Erlotinib and radiation therapy had an acceptable toxicity profile in patients with advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. The disease-free survival in this cohort was comparable to that in historical controls.

  13. Sonic hedgehog signaling promotes growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells associated with bone destruction.

    PubMed

    Honami, Tatsuki; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Okui, Tatsuo; Kurio, Naito; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Sasaki, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and its signaling have been identified in several human cancers, and increased levels of its expression appear to correlate with disease progression and metastasis. However, the role of Shh in bone destruction associated with oral squamous cell carcinomas, which frequently invade the maxilla or the mandible, is still unclear. In this study we show that the use of siRNA for Shh to block SHH secreted by SAS oral squamous cell carcinoma cells suppressed the tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis of subcutaneous SAS xenografts in vivo. Moreover, blockade of Shh in SAS cells decreased tumor growth and osteoclast number in a tibial metaphysis mouse model. Significantly, we clearly show that SHH stimulated osteoclast formation in a co-culture system consisting of murine bone stromal ST2 cells and murine CD11b(+) bone marrow cells. These findings suggest that Shh signaling is a potential target for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with bone destruction. PMID:21945071

  14. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid masquerading as a chalazion.

    PubMed

    Vrcek, Ivan; Hogan, R N; Mancini, Ronald

    2015-02-01

    Chalazia are among the most common eyelid lesions presenting to eye care providers. Often successfully managed conservatively, some require more invasive intervention such as incision and drainage or steroid injection. Lesions that recur, do not respond to treatment, or are atypical in appearance or natural history should prompt more thorough analysis, often with biopsy and subsequent microscopic analysis. Not uncommonly, such atypical chalazia may be masking a more serious diagnosis. Eyelid cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma masquerading as a chalazion is exceedingly rare. We present a case report of an atypical chalazion that was refractory to incision and drainage as well as intralesional steroid injection. Incisional biopsy revealed the lesion to be a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma requiring full-thickness excision and subsequent reconstruction. The patient provided written informed consent, and the contents herein are acceptable under the provisions of the institutional review board. Following Mohs excision and oculoplastic reconstruction with a Hughes flap, the patient has had a good outcome and is currently free of recurrence. Recurrent chalazia that are defiant to surgical and medical interventions should prompt biopsy and evaluation by pathology. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis as early intervention can save a patient's eye and, not infrequently, their life. PMID:25479697

  15. Prognostic significance of NDRG1 expression in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Marcelo; da Cunha Mercante, Ana Maria; Nunes, Fábio Daumas; Leopoldino, Andréia Machado; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; Gazito, Diana; López, Rossana Verónica Mendoza; Chiappini, Paula Blandina Olga; de Carvalho Neto, Paulo Bentes; Fukuyama, Erica Erina; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Louro, Iúri Drumond; da Silva, Adriana Madeira Álvares

    2012-12-01

    Human N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a metastasis suppressor gene with several potential functions, including cell differentiation, cell cycle regulation and response to hormones, nickel and stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunoexpression of NDRG1 in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas searching for its role in the clinical course of these tumors. We investigated immunohistochemical expression of NDRG1 protein in 412 tissue microarray cores of tumor samples from 103 patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas and in 110 paraffin-embedded surgical margin sections. The results showed NDRG1 up-regulation in 101/103 (98.1 %) tumor samples, but no expression in any normal tissue sample. Western blot assays confirmed the immunohistochemical findings, suggesting that lower levels of NDRG1 are associated with a high mortality rate. NDRG1 overexpression was related to long-term specific survival (HR = 0.38; p = 0.009), whereas the presence of lymph-node metastasis showed the opposite association with survival (HR = 2.45; p = 0.013). Our findings reinforce the idea that NDRG1 plays a metastasis suppressor role in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas and may be a useful marker for these tumors. PMID:22972152

  16. Clinical relevance of copy number profiling in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Pauline M W; Noorlag, Rob; Braunius, Weibel W; Moelans, Cathy B; Rifi, Widad; Savola, Suvi; Koole, Ronald; Grolman, Wilko; van Es, Robert J J; Willems, Stefan M

    2015-10-01

    Current conventional treatment modalities in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are nonselective and have shown to cause serious side effects. Unraveling the molecular profiles of head and neck cancer may enable promising clinical applications that pave the road for personalized cancer treatment. We examined copy number status in 36 common oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in a cohort of 191 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) and 164 oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) using multiplex ligation probe amplification. Copy number status was correlated with human papillomavirus (HPV) status in OPSCC, with occult lymph node status in OSCC and with patient survival. The 11q13 region showed gain or amplifications in 59% of HPV-negative OPSCC, whereas this amplification was almost absent in HPV-positive OPSCC. Additionally, in clinically lymph node-negative OSCC (Stage I-II), gain of the 11q13 region was significantly correlated with occult lymph node metastases with a negative predictive value of 81%. Multivariate survival analysis revealed a significantly decreased disease-free survival in both HPV-negative and HPV-positive OPSCC with a gain of Wnt-induced secreted protein-1. Gain of CCND1 showed to be an independent predictor for worse survival in OSCC. These results show that copy number aberrations, mainly of the 11q13 region, may be important predictors and prognosticators which allow for stratifying patients for personalized treatment of HNSCC. PMID:26194878

  17. The prognostic value of immunohistochemical markers for oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hwa, Jeong Seok; Kwon, Oh Jin; Park, Jung Je; Woo, Seung Hoon; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Ko, Gyung Hyuck; Seo, Ji Hyun; Kim, Rock Bum

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the prognostic value of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA-IX), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Ki-67, and erythropoietin receptor in patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis of marker expression was performed on tissue samples from 25 patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma. The Kaplan-Meier method, univariate and multivariate analyses, and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to examine associations between patient and tumor characteristics, and the immunohistochemical results and disease-specific survival. There was no association between the expression of the five markers and disease-specific survival, and there was no statistically significant difference in the hazards ratio according to postoperative radiotherapy. There was no correlation between marker expression and prognosis. There was no association between marker expression and radioresistance or disease-specific survival. Therefore, HIF-1α, CA-IX, COX-2, Ki-67, and erythropoietin receptor are not suitable prognostic markers for tongue squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25169079

  18. Metastatic Collision Tumour (Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma) in Cervical Lymph Nodes: An Immunohistochemical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Alhanafy, Alshimaa Mahmoud; Al-Sharaky, Dalia; Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Abdallah, Rania Abdallah

    2016-02-01

    Collision tumours are a rare entity, in this report, we describe a case of 73-year-old woman presented with a rapid enlargement of left upper cervical lymph node (LN) associated with right thyroid nodular goiter. The histopathological examination of the excised LN showed definite areas of papillary thyroid carcinoma admixed with moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Thyroglobulin immunostaining was positive in papillary carcinomatous areas confirming thyroid gland as a source of metastasis. Then the patient underwent total thyroidectomy and neck dissection, which revealed multicentric classic papillary thyroid carcinoma with an absence of squamous differentiation on extensive sampling. The patient received adjuvant radioactive iodine, but the neck swelling was rapidly progressing, ulcerated and infected. Computed tomography (CT) revealed left large cervical amalgamated LN and two metastatic lung nodules, the patient received 2 cycles of chemotherapy and was planned for external beam radiotherapy but she died within 7 months of first presentation. Collision tumours pose a diagnostic as well as therapeutic challenge and carry a rapidly progressive course and a fatal outcome. SCC is considered as a dedifferentiation of papillary thyroid carcinoma, which may appear in metastatic site rather than the primary site. PMID:27042475

  19. The Discovery and Validation of Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Dysplasia and Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Couch, George; Redman, James E; Wernisch, Lorenz; Newton, Richard; Malhotra, Shalini; Dawsey, Sanford M; Lao-Sirieix, Pierre; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C

    2016-07-01

    The 5-year survival rate of esophageal cancer is less than 10% in developing countries, where more than 90% of these cancers are esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC). Endoscopic screening is undertaken in high incidence areas. Biomarker analysis could reduce the subjectivity associated with histologic assessment of dysplasia and thus improve diagnostic accuracy. The aims of this study were therefore to identify biomarkers for esophageal squamous dysplasia and carcinoma. A publicly available dataset was used to identify genes with differential expression in ESCC compared with normal esophagus. Each gene was ranked by a support vector machine separation score. Expression profiles were examined, before validation by qPCR and IHC. We found that 800 genes were overexpressed in ESCC compared with normal esophagus (P < 10(-5)). Of the top 50 genes, 33 were expressed in ESCC epithelium and not in normal esophagus epithelium or stroma using the Protein Atlas website. These were taken to qPCR validation, and 20 genes were significantly overexpressed in ESCC compared with normal esophagus (P < 0.05). TNFAIP3 and CHN1 showed differential expression with IHC. TNFAIP3 expression increased gradually through normal esophagus, mild, moderate and severe dysplasia, and SCC (P < 0.0001). CHN1 staining was rarely present in the top third of normal esophagus epithelium and extended progressively towards the surface in mild, moderate, and severe dysplasia, and SCC (P < 0.0001). Two novel promising biomarkers for ESCC were identified, TNFAIP3 and CHN1. CHN1 and TNFAIP3 may improve diagnostic accuracy of screening methods for ESCC. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 558-66. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27072986

  20. Primary mixed squamous carcinoma and osteosarcoma (carcinosarcomas) of the lung have a CGH mapping similar to primitive squamous carcinomas and osteosarcomas.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Javier; Aisa, Gregorio; de Alava, Enrique; Sola, Jesús J; Panizo, Angel; Rodríguez-Spiteri, Natalia; García, Juan L; Torre, Wenceslao

    2008-09-01

    Carcinosarcomas are malignant tumors with a mixture of carcinomatous and differentiated sarcomatous elements. We investigate the morphology, immunohistochemistry, and comparative genomic hybridization analysis of 3 mixed squamous carcinoma and osteosarcoma of the lung. All patients were male and their ages were 72, 43, and 58 years. The sizes of the neoplasms were 7, 5, and 5 cm in maximum diameter, respectively. Two patients died of the disease 9 and 14 months after surgery; and one is alive 6 months later. By light microscopy, all cases had both squamous and osteosarcomatous structures. Immunohistochemistry was positive for AE3AE1, p63, 34 E12, CAM 5.2 (2/3 cases), CK-7 (2/3 cases), epithelial membrane antigen, E-cadherin, p53, and carcinogenic embryonic antigen in carcinomatous areas, and for vimentin and CD-68 in sarcomatous component. Areas of transition positive for both cytokeratins and vimentin were seen in all cases. A total of 55 copy number changes were detected with a median of 18 abnormalities per case: 48 gains, 6 losses, and 1 high-level amplification. Chromosome alterations in osteosarcomatous areas were similar to those found in lung metastatic osteosarcoma, comparable to those found in carcinomatous areas and to lung squamous carcinomas. Coincidences between carcinomatous areas and osteosarcomatous zones were found as gains in chromosomes 1q, 3q, 5p, 8q, and 12p. These findings provide arguments that favor a common origin for both types of cells, supported by the mixture of cells, the existence of undifferentiated cells positive to both cytokeratin and vimentin markers, and the CGH overlaps of chromosomal gains between carcinomatous and sarcomatous areas. PMID:18382357

  1. Squamous-cell Carcinoma of the Anus and Anal Canal: An Analysis of 55 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, W. B.

    1941-01-01

    The analysis is of 55 cases admitted into St. Mark's Hospital from 1922 to 1940. The incidence was 3.35% of all cases of cancer of the rectum, anal canal and anus admitted during this period. Sex distribution—27 males and 28 females. The average age (61.7 years) is higher than that of columnar-cell carcinoma of the rectum (57.4 years). Histology.—The cases have been graded into three grades of malignancy—low grade, medium grade, and high grade. Low grade squamous carcinoma is twice as frequent in men as in women, and generally originates at the anal margin. Medium grade squamous carcinoma is equally distributed between men and women; it may arise at the anus or in the anal canal. High grade squamous carcinoma is much more common in the female sex and is almost entirely limited to the anal canal. Quadrant affected—about one-third of the anal margin growths and one-half of the anal canal growths were situated anteriorly. Differential diagnosis from simple papilloma, simple ulcer, chronic inflammation, tuberculous ulcer, tuberculide, primary chancre, amœbic ulcer, basal-cell carcinoma, columnar-cell carcinoma. Biopsy and grading essential before treatment is decided upon. The results of treatment in the three grades of malignancy are described. The best results were obtained in the early low-grade cases treated by interstitial radium needling. In the medium and high grades only three five-year survivals can be reported and these followed excision of the rectum. The management of the inguinal glands is discussed and the importance of a very close post-operative supervision emphasized. Squamous carcinoma of the anal canal may cause lymphatic metastases in the superior hæmorrhoidal glands; there have been four such cases in this series. Diathermy perineal excision is indicated in these cases. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 6aFig. 6bFig. 7Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:19992316

  2. The limited difference between keratin patterns of squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas is explicable by both cell lineage and state of differentiation of tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    van Dorst, E B; van Muijen, G N; Litvinov, S V; Fleuren, G J

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To study the differentiation of epithelial tissues within their histological context, and to identify hypothetically, on the basis of keratin pattern, the putative tissue origin of a (metastatic) carcinoma. METHODS: Using well characterised monoclonal antibodies against individual keratins 7, 8, 18, and 19, which are predominantly found in columnar epithelia, and keratins 4, 10, 13, and 14, predominantly expressed in (non)-keratinising squamous epithelia, the keratin patterns for a series of 45 squamous cell carcinomas and 44 adenocarcinomas originating from various epithelial tissues were characterised. RESULTS: The predominant keratins in all adenocarcinomas proved to be 8, 18, and 19. In addition, these keratins were also abundantly present in squamous cell carcinomas of the lung, cervix, and rectum and, to a lesser extent, of the larynx, oesophagus, and tongue, but not in those of the vulva and skin. Keratins 4, 10, 13, and 14 were present in almost all squamous cell carcinomas, but also focally in some of the adenocarcinomas studied. CONCLUSIONS: There is a limited differential expression of distinctive keratin filaments between squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. Apparently, squamous cell carcinomas that originate from columnar epithelium by squamous metaplasia gain the keratins of squamous cells but retain the keratins of columnar epithelial cells. However, the simultaneous expression of two of three squamous keratins (4, 10, and 13) identifies a squamous cell carcinoma, and thus might be useful in solving differential diagnostic problems. Images PMID:9930073

  3. Papillary urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation in association with human papilloma virus: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Guma, Sergei; Maglantay, Remegio; Lau, Ryan; Wieczorek, Rosemary; Melamed, Jonathan; Deng, Fang-Ming; Zhou, Ming; Makarov, Danil; Lee, Peng; Pincus, Matthew R; Pei, Zhi-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Background: The human papilloma virus (HPV) is a carcinogen known for its strong association with cervical cancers and cervical lesions. It is also known to be associated with a variety of squamous cell carcinomas in other areas, such as the penis, vulva, anus and head and neck. However, the association with urothelial carcinoma remains controversial. Here, we report a case of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation associated with HPV-6/HPV-11. Case presentation: This is a case of a 70 year old man who presented with nocturia and pressure during urination. During the TURP procedure for what was clinically thought to be benign prostate hyperplasia with pathologic diagnosis as prostate carcinoma, a 2 cm papillary mass was found in the distal penile urethra. The papillary mass was found to be a high grade urothelial carcinoma positive for GATA 3 expression, with focal areas of squamous differentiation. The areas with squamous differentiation demonstrated koilocytic differentiation, which were positive for strong p16 expression. The tumor was found to harbor low risk HPV 6/11 by in situ hybridization. Conclusions: This study case demonstrates HPV infection with a low risk subtype (HPV 6/11) associated with an urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation and condylomatous features. PMID:27069958

  4. Conventional clinical and prognostic variables in 150 oral squamous cell carcinoma cases from the indigenous population of Karachi

    PubMed Central

    Alamgir, Muhammad Mohiuddin; Jamal, Qamar; Mirza, Talat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze clinical and prognostic variables of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) cases from the indigenous population of Karachi and to correlate with the common risk factor of tobacco habit. Methods: The study was conducted at Ziauddin University, Karachi. One hundred fifty OSCC cases were collected from the Oncology Department of Ziauddin University Hospital, North Nazimabad, Karachi and Otolaryngology ward of Civil Hospital, Karachi, during 2011 and 2015. The reporting included demographic details and variables like intra-oral subsites, clinical stage and histological grade. Recurrence of tumor after initial resection was also documented. Results: The patient’s population comprised of 98 males and 52 females. The mean age was 47.1± 12.22 (range:20-78 years). Maximum numbers were seen in the 41–50 years age group. Urdu-speaking community was the most affected ethnic group (n=75). Clinico-pathological analysis revealed that majority of cases were moderately differentiated (59%) and were either clinical stage II (35%) or IV (29%) tumors. The most common intra-oral subsite came out to be buccal mucosa of cheeks (56%) followed by lateral borders of tongue (21%), lips (13%), alveolar (6%), palate (2.6%) floor of mouth (1.3%), etc. Recurrence was observed in 08 out of 150 cases. All patients underwent primary resection±neck dissection and reconstruction where possible. Conclusions: Overall experience with oral squamous cell carcinoma shows that it has a high tendency for local invasion as well as dissemination to regional lymph nodes, i.e. cervical lymph nodes, both are associated with a poor prognosis. Preventable risk factor of tobacco chewing has been observed in majority of these cases. PMID:27375712

  5. Lysyl oxidase like-4 monoclonal antibody demonstrates therapeutic effect against head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells and xenografts.

    PubMed

    Görögh, Tibor; Quabius, Elgar S; Heidebrecht, Hans; Nagy, Andreas; Muffels, Till; Haag, Jochen; Ambrosch, Petra; Hoffmann, Markus

    2016-05-15

    A new member of the lysyl oxidase (LOX) family, lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4), is overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) compared to normal squamous epithelium. A monoclonal antibody (mAb) derived from fusion of Balb/c mouse splenocytes immunized with LOXL4 specific peptide was used to evaluate its therapeutic efficacy in 15 HNSCC cell lines associated with LOXL4 overexpression. For xenograft experiments 41 severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice were used to analyze LOXL4-mAb mediated tumor regression. Cell viability was analyzed using cytotoxicity-, and clonogenic-assays. Significant suppression of tumor cell growth was observed in 12 out of 15 (80%) tumor cell lines after 48 hr exposure to the mAb (LD50 of 15 µg/ml to 45 µg/ml). The effect induced by the antibody could be blocked by pre-incubation of the antibody with the peptide used for immunization of the mice and antibody generation, indicating that the effect of the antibody is specific. In mice inoculated with HNSCC cells, i.v. injections of the LOXL4-mAb resulted within 70 days in extensive tumor destruction in all treated animals whereas no tumor regression occurred in control animals. In mice pre-immunized i.v. with LOXL4-mAb and subsequently injected with HNSCC cells, tumor development was considerably delayed in contrast to non LOXL4-mAb pre-immunized animals. These results demonstrate that the LOXL4-mAb has potent antitumor activity and suggest its suitability as a therapeutic immune agent applicable to HNSCC exhibiting tumor specific upregulation of LOXL4. PMID:26756583

  6. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage IV Melanoma That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery or Gynecological Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-09

    Cervical Adenosarcoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Carcinosarcoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Mixed Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Fallopian Tube Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Peritoneal Neoplasm; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma; Uterine Corpus Carcinosarcoma

  7. Obstructive Jaundice from Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung.

    PubMed

    Seth, Abhishek; Palmer, Thomas R; Campbell, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive jaundice from metastatic lung cancer is extremely rare. Most reported cases have had small cell cancer of lung or adenocarcinoma of lung as primary malignancy metastasizing to the biliary system. We report the case of a patient presenting with symptoms of obstructive jaundice found to have metastatic involvement of hepatobiliary system from squamous cell cancer (SCC) of lung. ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) with biliary stenting is the procedure of choice in such patients. Our case is made unique by the fact that technical difficulties made it difficult for the anesthesiologists to intubate the patient for an ERCP. As a result percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram (PTC) with internal-external biliary drainage was performed. PMID:27389381

  8. Pulmonary hypertension due to isolated metastatic squamous cell carcinoma thromboemboli.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael K; Granger, Emily K; Preda, Veronica A

    2006-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension as the initial presentation of occult malignancy is extremely rare. The differential diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension due to arterial tumour embolism is often overlooked and deserves contemplation. Our case report details the presentation of cardiorespiratory decompensation from an assumed classic saddle pulmonary embolus in a previously fit, well 80-year-old gentleman. The patient underwent successful pulmonary thromboendarterectomy, however, intraoperatively the specimen was noted to be atypical. This resulted in the surprising definitive diagnosis of thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension secondary to laminated thrombi of metastatic squamous cell tumour emboli. The site of tumour origin was however not histologically apparent and was unable to be elucidated on extensive further investigation. Post-operatively the patient had considerable subjective and functional improvement returning to activities of daily living. He however passed away some 9 months later. PMID:16412689

  9. Relationship between angiogenic squamous dysplasia and bronchogenic carcinoma in patients undergoing white light bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Shirin; Mohammadi, Forouzan; Khodadad, Kian; Sadr, Makan; Seyfollahi, Leila; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To better understand the characteristic morphology of angiogenic squamous dysplasia (ASD) and its association with different types of common bronchogenic carcinomas using routine white light bronchoscopy. METHODS: Using a case-control design, 186 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks of bronchial tissue (136 cases, 50 controls) obtained from patients who underwent routine nonfluorescence bronchoscopy between 2004 and 2005 were studied. RESULTS: ASD occurred at a higher frequency in patients with neoplastic lesions compared with those without neoplastic lesions (28 of 136 versus one of 50). ASD was also more prevalent in patients with squamous cell carcinoma compared with other neoplasms. Seventy six per cent of the ASD patients (22 of 29) smoked cigarettes. The morphology of ASD on hematoxylin and eosin- and CD31-stained sections was characterized by prominent microvasculature and capillary projections closely juxtaposed to variable degrees of dysplasia in all of the bronchogenic carcinoma specimens, and to metaplasia in one case in the control group. CONCLUSION: ASD is a unique morphological entity that should be considered by pathologists even on bronchoscopic biopsies from patients who undergo white light bronchoscopy. The presence of ASD may represent a risk biomarker of bronchogenic carcinoma in screening programs and in chemoprevention of lung cancer. PMID:22679613

  10. Nuclear fractal dimension as a prognostic factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Goutzanis, L; Papadogeorgakis, N; Pavlopoulos, P M; Katti, K; Petsinis, V; Plochoras, I; Pantelidaki, C; Kavantzas, N; Patsouris, E; Alexandridis, C

    2008-04-01

    Strong theoretical reasons exist for using fractal geometry in measurements of natural objects, including most objects studied in pathology. Indeed, fractal dimension provides a more precise and theoretically more appropriate approximation of their structure properties and especially their shape complexity. The aim of our study was to evaluate the nuclear fractal dimension (FD) in tissue specimens from patients with oral cavity carcinomas in order to assess its potential value as prognostic factor. Relationships between FD and other factors including clinicopathologic characteristics were also investigated. Histological sections from 48 oral squamous cell carcinomas as well as from 17 non-malignant mucosa specimens were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin for pathological examination and with Feulgen for nuclear complexity evaluation. The sections were evaluated by image analysis using fractal analysis software to quantify nuclear FD by the box-counting method. Carcinomas presented higher mean values of FD compared to normal mucosa. Well differentiated neoplasms had lower FD values than poorly differentiated ones. FD was significantly correlated with the nuclear size. Patients with FD lower than the median value of the sample had statistically significant higher survival rates. Within the sample of patients studied, FD was proved to be an independent prognostic factor of survival in oral cancer patients. In addition this study provides evidence that there are several statistically significant correlations between FD and other morphometric characteristics or clinicopathologic factors in oral squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:17692559

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the external auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Shu, Min-Tsan; Lin, Hung-Ching; Yang, Cheng-Chien; Chang, Kuo-Ming

    2006-08-01

    We report two cases of carcinoma in situ in the external auditory canal (EAC), presenting with symptoms such as pain, long-term itching of the ear, easy contact bleeding, canal otorrhea and hearing loss. Otoscopic examination revealed granulation tissue and a greyish-black tumour with irregular surface. The first patient had previously been diagnosed with otitis externa with persistent ear itching for the past three years. The second patient had received tympanoplasty for treatment of chronic otitis media on the right ear ten years ago. The first case was treated with wide excision, whereas the second patient received resection of the skin of the EAC together with its adjacent soft tissue, followed by skin grafting. No tumour recurrence was noted in the fourth and third post-operative year for the first and second patient respectively. We suggest that EAC carcinoma can be detected early and treated. PMID:16719955

  12. Twelve Years’ Observation of Multiple Familial Trichoepithelioma with Squamous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Huifu; Feng, Song; Pei, Wenjun; Jin, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Long-standing trichoepithelioma lesion on scalp with 12 years follow-up. The patient was observed for 12 years, and the carcinoma recurred 3 times during 8 years after surgical excision and radiation therapy. Malignant transformation may occur in multiple familial trichoepitheliomas; Moderate radiation therapy should be given for malignant transformation patients with lower radiation dose and shorter time. Removing the trichoepithelioma as soon as possible if the tumor suddenly or continuously increased is recommended. PMID:27293274

  13. Etiology of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Study of 50 Cases in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital.

    PubMed

    Khan, J A; Siddque, M A; Haque, M N; Kundu, S C; Ahmed, M U; Bhuiyan, A S

    2015-07-01

    This cross sectional observational study was done in the Department of ENT & Head-Neck Surgery, Mymensingh Medical College, Bangladesh from January 2013 to July 2014. Fifty (50) cases of carcinoma larynx were purposively selected. Clinically diagnosed cases of carcinoma larynx and histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma were included. Among 50 cases age ranged from 35-75 years with an average age of 58.1 years. Maximum patients were in 5th and 6th decades with male-female ratio 16:1. Most of the patient (78%) came from rural areas and came from low socio-economic condition (58%); maximum patients were cultivator (42%) & illiterate (50%). Smoking was the commonest (64%) personal habit. The other common personal habits were chewing of Betel nut & leaf (44%) and chewing of Tobacco (36%). Most of them have more than one habit. PMID:26329945

  14. An unexpected reason for elevated human chorionic gonadotropin in a young woman. Cervical squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Aynur; Bozdag, Zehra; Tepe, Neslihan B; Ozcan, Husiyen C

    2016-08-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin has been used for decades, in addition to specific investigations, to detect pregnancy, trophoblastic tumors, as well as congenital defects. Rarely, it can be elevated in  non-trophoblastic tumors such as squamous cell cancers and germ cell tumors. A 33-year-old Asian Syrian female had irregular menses accompanied with feelings of heaviness in the vagina. In addition to routine investigations, we measured the serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-HCG) level (based on the patient's complaint of amenorrhea), which was 50.05 ml UI/ml. Cervical biopsy revealed a non-keratinized large cell squamous carcinoma. After excluding other causes, ß-hCG elevation was explained by the ectopic secretion of cancer cells line. Cervical biopsy was suggestive of large cell non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma and positive for human chorionic gonadotropin on immunohistochemistry. As a result, we manage the possibility of ectopic secretion of ß-HCG from non- trophoblastic disease. PMID:27464870

  15. Prognostic influence of retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Dirix, Piet . E-mail: piet.dirix@uz.kuleuven.ac.be; Nuyts, Sandra; Bussels, Barbara; Hermans, Robert; Bogaert, Walter van den

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of involvement of retropharyngeal lymph nodes on the prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx. Methods and Materials: The pretreatment computed tomographic scans of 208 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx were reviewed for the presence of metastatic retropharyngeal lymph nodes. All patients were treated at the Leuven department between 1984 and 2003: by radiotherapy alone in 84.1% of patients, by surgery with postoperative radiotherapy in 11.5%, and by concomitant chemoradiotherapy in 4.4%. Retropharyngeal node involvement was present in 34 (16%) patients. The influence on recurrence (local and regional), distant metastasis, and survival was retrospectively analyzed. Median follow-up was 47 months (3.9 years), and results were analyzed for 201 patients. Results: At 5 years, patients with retropharyngeal adenopathy had significantly more regional recurrences (45% vs. 10%, p = 0.004). Involvement of retropharyngeal lymph nodes significantly (relative risk 4.29 [95% confidence interval 3.33-5.25], p = 0.01) and independently predicted regional recurrence in multivariate analysis. Disease-specific survival was significantly lower in the retropharyngeal node positive group (38% vs. 58%, p = 0.03). Conclusions: Retropharyngeal node involvement has a negative impact on the prognosis of squamous cell cancer of the oropharynx. Patients are particularly at risk for regional recurrence, resulting in worse disease-specific survival. Retropharyngeal node involvement should be taken into account in designing the treatment plan for these patients.

  16. Primary Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ: Report of a rare disease.

    PubMed

    Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba S; Hassan, Mohammad J; Madaan, Garima; Jain, Reena

    2015-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the endometrium, whether primary or secondary to cervical cancer, is a rare entity. Primary endometrial squamous cell carcinoma in situ is even more uncommon; it usually occurs in postmenopausal women and has a strong association with pyometra. We report a 60-year-old multiparous postmenopausal woman who presented to the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, New Delhi, India, in May 2014 with a lower abdominal swelling corresponding in size to a pregnancy of 26 gestational weeks and vaginal discharge of one year's duration. A total abdominal hysterectomy with a bilateral salpingooophorectomy was performed, which revealed an enlarged uterus with pyometra. Histopathology showed that the entire endometrial lining had been replaced with malignant squamous cells without invasion of the myometrium. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumour cells were positive for p63 with a high Ki-67 labelling index. No adjuvant therapy was required and the patient was disease-free at a seven-month follow-up. PMID:26629388

  17. Techniques for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma: Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Carreras-Torras, Clàudia

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives The diagnosis of early oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is of paramount clinical importance given the mortality rate of late stage disease. The aim of this study is to review the literature to assess the current situation and progress in this area. Material and Methods A search in Cochrane and PubMed (January 2006 to December 2013) has been used with the key words “squamous cell carcinoma”, “early diagnosis” “oral cavity”, “Potentially Malignant Disorders” y “premalignant lesions”. The inclusion criteria were the use of techniques for early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD, 7 years aged articles and publications written in English, French or Spanish. The exclusion criteria were case reports and studies in other languages. Results Out of the 89 studies obtained initially from the search 60 articles were selected to be included in the systematic review: 1 metaanalysis, 17 systematic reviews, 35 prospective studies, 5 retrospective studies, 1 consensus and 1 semi-structured interviews. Conclusions The best diagnostic technique is that which we have sufficient experience and training. Definitely tissue biopsy and histopathological examination should remain the gold standard for oral cancer diagnose. In this systematic review it has not been found sufficient scientific evidence on the majority of proposed techniques for early diagnosis of OSCC, therefore more extensive and exhaustive studies are needed. Key words: Squamous cell carcinoma, early diagnosis, oral cavity, potentially malignant disorders, premalignant lesions. PMID:25662554

  18. Molecular Mechanisms of Ethanol-associated Oro-esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yao; Chen, Hao; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol drinking is a major etiological factor of oro-esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OESCC). Both local and systemic effects of ethanol may promote carcinogenesis, especially among chronic alcoholics. However, molecular mechanisms of ethanol-associated OESCC are still not well understood. In this review, we summarize current understandings and propose three mechanisms of ethanol-associated OESCC: (1) Disturbance of systemic metabolism of nutrients: during ethanol metabolism in the liver, systemic metabolism of retinoids, zinc, iron and methyl groups is altered. These nutrients are known to be associated with the development of OESCC. (2) Disturbance of redox metabolism in squamous epithelial cells: when ethanol is metabolized in oro-esophageal squamous epithelial cells, reactive oxygen species are generated and produce oxidative damage. Meanwhile, ethanol may also disturb fatty-acid metabolism in these cells. (3) Disturbance of signaling pathways in squamous epithelial cells: due to its physico-chemical properties, ethanol changes cell membrane fluidity and shape, and may thus impact multiple signaling pathways. Advanced molecular techniques in genomics, epigenomics, metabolomics and microbiomics will help us elucidate how ethanol promotes OESCC. PMID:25766659

  19. Molecular mechanisms of ethanol-associated oro-esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Chen, Hao; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol drinking is a major etiological factor of oro-esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OESCC). Both local and systemic effects of ethanol may promote carcinogenesis, especially among chronic alcoholics. However, molecular mechanisms of ethanol-associated OESCC are still not well understood. In this review, we summarize current understandings and propose three mechanisms of ethanol-associated OESCC: (1) Disturbance of systemic metabolism of nutrients: during ethanol metabolism in the liver, systemic metabolism of retinoids, zinc, iron and methyl groups is altered. These nutrients are known to be associated with the development of OESCC. (2) Disturbance of redox metabolism in squamous epithelial cells: when ethanol is metabolized in oro-esophageal squamous epithelial cells, reactive oxygen species are generated and produce oxidative damage. Meanwhile, ethanol may also disturb fatty-acid metabolism in these cells. (3) Disturbance of signaling pathways in squamous epithelial cells: due to its physico-chemical properties, ethanol changes cell membrane fluidity and shape, and may thus impact multiple signaling pathways. Advanced molecular techniques in genomics, epigenomics, metabolomics and microbiomics will help us elucidate how ethanol promotes OESCC. PMID:25766659

  20. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Stomach: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Segura, Sheila; Pender, Jacqueline; Dodge, Jessica; Brandwein, Steven L; El-Fanek, Hani

    2016-04-01

    Primary gastric squamous cell carcinoma (PGSCC) is an exceedingly rare disease, accounting for 0.04% - 0.07% of all gastric cancers. First reported in 1895 by Rörig et al, less than 100 cases of PGSCC worldwide have been reported in the literature. These reports show PGSCC is more common in males (5:1 male to female ratio), and exhibits a peak incidence in the sixth decade of life. It may involve any portion of the stomach with predilection for the proximal stomach, especially along the lesser curvature. Although no clear pathogenesis of this tumor has been reported, several plausible theories have been proposed. These include squamous differentiation of preexisting gastric adenocarcinoma, cancerization of ectopic squamous epithelium, malignant transformation of squamous metaplasia of glandular epithelium, association with Helicobacter pylori or Epstein-Barr virus infection, and evolution in the setting of marked chronic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia. This report presents and discusses the case of a 64-year-old female who developed PGSCC arising in the gastric fundus. PMID:27265923

  1. Influence of Metastatic Status and Number of Removed Lymph Nodes on Survival of Patients With Squamous Esophageal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Feng; Qingfeng, Zheng; Jia, Wang; Chao, Lv; Shi, Yan; Yuzhao, Wang; Chao, An; Yue, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the impact of lymph node (LN) metastasis conditions on the prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous carcinoma and the minimum number of LNs that should be removed to maximize overall postoperative survival among patients with this specific pathologic subtype. In this study, 312 patients with thoracic squamous esophageal carcinoma who received in-patient thoracic surgery by the same surgeon in our hospital from August 1, 2003 to December 31, 2009 were recruited. Subsequently, Kaplan-Meier methods were used to determine associations between LN metastasis conditions and mortality and between the numbers of LNs removed during esophagectomy and mortality. Cox regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding covariates. According to Kaplan-Meier analyses, the number of metastatic LNs was a good predictor for the prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous carcinoma and the dissection of ≥29 LNs during thoracic surgery significantly improved patient survival (P = 0.011). Lymph node metastasis rates may be a significant predictor for the prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous carcinoma. The number of LNs removed during esophagectomy is an independent predictor for the survival of patients with esophageal squamous carcinoma with maximal postoperative survival after the removal of ≥29 LNs. PMID:26632887

  2. Influence of Metastatic Status and Number of Removed Lymph Nodes on Survival of Patients With Squamous Esophageal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Feng; Qingfeng, Zheng; Jia, Wang; Chao, Lv; Shi, Yan; Yuzhao, Wang; Chao, An; Yue, Yang

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of lymph node (LN) metastasis conditions on the prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous carcinoma and the minimum number of LNs that should be removed to maximize overall postoperative survival among patients with this specific pathologic subtype. In this study, 312 patients with thoracic squamous esophageal carcinoma who received in-patient thoracic surgery by the same surgeon in our hospital from August 1, 2003 to December 31, 2009 were recruited. Subsequently, Kaplan-Meier methods were used to determine associations between LN metastasis conditions and mortality and between the numbers of LNs removed during esophagectomy and mortality. Cox regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding covariates. According to Kaplan-Meier analyses, the number of metastatic LNs was a good predictor for the prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous carcinoma and the dissection of ≥ 29 LNs during thoracic surgery significantly improved patient survival (P = 0.011).Lymph node metastasis rates may be a significant predictor for the prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous carcinoma. The number of LNs removed during esophagectomy is an independent predictor for the survival of patients with esophageal squamous carcinoma with maximal postoperative survival after the removal of ≥ 29 LNs. PMID:26632887

  3. Enhanced expression of Aggrus (T1alpha/podoplanin), a platelet-aggregation-inducing factor in lung squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yukinari; Kaneko, Mika; Sata, Makoto; Fujita, Naoya; Tsuruo, Takashi; Osawa, Motoki

    2005-01-01

    Aggrus (T1alpha/podoplanin, known as a specific marker for type I alveolar cells or lymphatic endothelial cells) is a transmembrane sialoglycoprotein that aggregates platelets. Previously, we showed that upregulated expression of Aggrus occurs in colorectal tumors or testicular tumors and could be associated with platelet-aggregating activity and metastatic ability. In testicular tumors, Aggrus is specifically expressed in seminoma. The present study investigates Aggrus expression in human primary lung cancer tissues of different types. Microarray analysis demonstrated that aggrus was significantly expressed in squamous cell carcinoma (10/15; 66.7%). Immunohistochemical analysis also showed that the incidence of positive staining in sections of squamous cell carcinoma (7/8; 87.5%) was higher than that in adenocarcinoma (2/13; 15.4%). Furthermore, Aggrus expression was detected in a squamous cell carcinoma cell line, NCI-H226, by real-time PCR. These findings indicated that overexpression of Aggrus occurred in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Therefore, Aggrus could be a useful diagnostic marker for squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. PMID:16006773

  4. Cytomorphological Analysis of Keratinocytes in Oral Smears from Tobacco Users and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lesions — A Histochemical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Suneet; Solomon, Monica Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Aim To analyse the cytomorphological features of keratinocytes in smears obtained from the oral mucosa of tobacco users and from oral squamous cell carcinoma lesions. Methodology Oral smears were obtained from clinically, normal appearing mucosa of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients (n=20) and from the mucosa of smokers (n=20), and apparently healthy individuals (n=20) were used as controls. The smears were histochemically stained and cytomorphological assessment of the keratinocytes was carried out. One-way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) was used for comparing the parameters among multiple groups and Tukey-HSD test was used to compare the mean values between groups. Results The mean nuclear area of keratinocytes from the mucosa of tobacco users was 46 ± 2.57 and that of the oral squamous cell carcinoma lesion was 81.54 ± 4.31. While there was a significant (P=0.001) reduction in the cellular area of keratinocytes from oral squamous cell carcinoma lesion when compared with those from oral smears of tobacco users. Conclusion Cytomorphometric analysis of keratinocytes can serve as a useful adjunct in the early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:20690418

  5. Genetic polymorphism at codon 546 of the human RAD17 contributes to the risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Yukiko; Sakai, Akiko; Ito, Sachio; Mita, Yuichiro; Sonoyama, Takayuki; Tanabe, Shunsuke; Shirakawa, Yasuhiro; Naomoto, Yoshio; Katayama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Human RAD17, a human homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell cycle checkpoint gene RAD17, plays a significant role in activating checkpoint signals in response to DNA damage. We evaluated the association of hRAD17 Leu546Arg (rs1045051), a missense single nucleotide polymorphism, with the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption history in 154 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma male patients and 695 cancer-free male controls by a case-control study conducted in Japan. The results showed that the hRAD17 Arg/Arg genotype compared to the Leu/Leu and Leu/Arg genotypes was significantly associated with the risk of the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with an adjusted odds ratios of 2.22 (95% CI: 1.19-4.16 P=0.013). In stratified studies, the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was markedly higher in light drinkers (less than 23 g ethanol/day) with the Arg/Arg genotype than in heavy drinkers (excess of 23 g ethanol/day) with the Arg/Arg genotype (OR=2.83, 95% CI: 1.05-7.61, P=0.04). We concluded that the genetic variant of hRAD17 Leu546Arg polymorphism exerts a significant effect on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk among Japanese men. PMID:27186329

  6. FGFR1 Amplification Is Often Homogeneous and Strongly Linked to the Squamous Cell Carcinoma Subtype in Esophageal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, Lia; Simon, Ronald; Steurer, Stefan; Burdak-Rothkamm, Susanne; Jacobsen, Frank; Sauter, Guido; Krech, Till

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Amplification of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) is believed to predict response to multi-kinase inhibitors targeting FGFR1. Esophageal cancer is an aggressive disease, for which novel targeted therapies are highly warranted. Methods This study was designed to investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of FGFR1 amplification in a tissue microarray containing 346 adenocarcinomas and 254 squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus, using dual-labeling fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Results FGFR1 amplification, defined as a ratio of FGFR1:centromere 8 copy numbers ≥ 2.0, was more frequently seen in squamous cell carcinoma (8.9% of 202 interpretable cases) than in adenocarcinoma (1.6% of 308; p<0.0001). There was no association between FGFR1 amplification and tumor phenotype or clinical outcome. To study potential heterogeneity of FGFR1 amplification, all available tumor blocks from 23 FGFR1 amplified tumors were analyzed on conventional large sections. This analysis revealed complete homogeneity of FGFR1 amplification in 20 (86.9%) primary tumors and in all available lymph node metastases. Remarkably, FGFR1 amplification was also seen in dysplasia adjacent to tumor in 6 of 9 patients with FGFR1 amplified primary cancers. Conclusions In conclusion, FGFR1 amplification occurs in a relevant subgroup of carcinomas of the esophagus and may play a particular role for development of squamous cell cancers. The high homogeneity of FGFR1 amplification suggests that patients with FGFR1 amplified esophageal cancers may particularly benefit from anti-FGFR1 therapies and prompt for clinical studies in this tumor type. PMID:26555375

  7. Phase Ib Study of BKM120 With Cisplatin and XRT in High Risk Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Cancer of Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-17

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; HPV Positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Early Invasive Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Carcinoma of Larynx; Cancer of Nasopharynx

  8. Recombinant Interleukin-15 in Treating Patients With Advanced Melanoma, Kidney Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-05

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  9. [Subacute sensory neuronopathy associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: a case report].

    PubMed

    Noto, Yuichi; Shiga, Kensuke; Fujinami, Jun; Mizuno, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Masanori; Tanaka, Keiko

    2009-08-01

    We report a 59-year-old man who developed dysesthesia in all extremities with severe loss of deep sensation over three months. A radiating radicular pain was also noted in the extremities. The nerve conduction study barely elicited sensory nerve action potentials both in the median and in the sural nerve. An extensive search for anti-neuronal antibodies including anti-Hu and anti-CV2 antibody was negetive. The biopsy specimen of an enlarged tracheobronchial lymph node revealed squamous cell carcinoma. The subsequent chemotherapy and radiation therapy for the neoplasm improved the radicular pain and the deep sensation to a moderate extent, leading to the diagnosis of paraneoplastic subacute sensory neuropathy (SSN). In general, cases with paraneoplastic SSN are associated mostly with small cell lung cancer, and quite rarely with squamous cell lung cancer. The early detection and the treatment of the primary tumor are crucial in a patient with subacute progression of sensory-dominant neuropathy. PMID:19827601

  10. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis, A Rare Site for a Commonly Known Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Nachiappan, Murugappan; Litake, Manjusha Madhusudhan; Paravatraj, Varun Gautam; Sharma, Navil; Narasimhan, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Chronic nephrolithiasis predisposes to squamous metaplasia and subsequently SCC which is a rare malignancy of the upper urinary tract. A 60-year-old woman with a long standing history of renal calculi presented with flank pain and fever. Investigations revealed a mass in the superior pole of a non functioning left kidney while the right kidney was sub optimally functioning, hydronephrotic and there was presence of bilateral staghorn calculi. Patient underwent decompression of right kidney by double j stenting and left radical nephrectomy that revealed well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis. Most SCC of the renal pelvis present with advanced disease and dismal prognosis while our patient presented with localized disease without lymphatic and distant metastasis. Thus radical nephrectomy can be curative if the disease can be diagnosed at an earlier stage. This emphasizes the need of early treatment of nephrolithiasis to prevent the development of SCC and screening of patients with long standing staghorn calculi. PMID:26894122

  11. Expression of Endoglin (CD-105) and Microvessel Density in Oral Dysplasia and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    SR, Shashikanth; BNVS, Satish

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the expression of Endoglin (CD-105) and Microvessel Density in clinically normal oral mucosa of non-tobacco and tobacco habituated patients & also histopathologically confirmed cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. Materials and Methods: Twenty cases of clinically normal oral mucosa with tobacco habituation in the form of chewing or smoking, 20 histopathologically confirmed cases of OSCC and twelve normal healthy oral mucosal cases without tobacco habituation in any form, served as control group, were immunohistochemically analysed for expression of Endoglin (CD-105). Chi-square test is used to determine statistical analysis and significance. Result & Conclusion: The finding of 65% of Endoglin CD - 105 positivity and microvessel density (MVD) in the mucosal specimens of tobacco users may be attributed as neoangiogenesis or angiogenic squamous dysplasia like phenomenon occurring as important pathological biomarker preceding oral cancer development, and may therefore be useful as a predictive marker of malignancy. PMID:25386532

  12. [Immunohistochemical description of proliferative activity and apoptosis of lung squamous cell carcinoma (literature review)].

    PubMed

    Филенко, Борис Н; Ройко, Наталия В; Степанчук, Алла П; Проскурня, Сергей А

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the publications are describe immunohistochemical study of proliferative activity and apoptosis of lung squamous cell carcinoma. Established that the imbalance between proliferation and cell death is a key process in the development of tumors. However, the value of tumor markers in histogenesis and morfogenesis of tumors and forecast their occurrence is not studied enough. Despite the significant amount of scientific literature devoted to this issue, has not yet established a clear link expression of immunohistochemical markers of proliferation and apoptosis with the degree of differentiation of squamous cell lung cancer. Analysis of the literature shows that the morphology of this histogenetics type lung cancer at the cellular, subcellular structural and functional levels are controversial and require detailed investigation. PMID:27487551

  13. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis, A Rare Site for a Commonly Known Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Litake, Manjusha Madhusudhan; Paravatraj, Varun Gautam; Sharma, Navil; Narasimhan, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Chronic nephrolithiasis predisposes to squamous metaplasia and subsequently SCC which is a rare malignancy of the upper urinary tract. A 60-year-old woman with a long standing history of renal calculi presented with flank pain and fever. Investigations revealed a mass in the superior pole of a non functioning left kidney while the right kidney was sub optimally functioning, hydronephrotic and there was presence of bilateral staghorn calculi. Patient underwent decompression of right kidney by double j stenting and left radical nephrectomy that revealed well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis. Most SCC of the renal pelvis present with advanced disease and dismal prognosis while our patient presented with localized disease without lymphatic and distant metastasis. Thus radical nephrectomy can be curative if the disease can be diagnosed at an earlier stage. This emphasizes the need of early treatment of nephrolithiasis to prevent the development of SCC and screening of patients with long standing staghorn calculi. PMID:26894122

  14. Reduced nuclear and ectopic cytoplasmic expression of lysyl oxidase-like 2 is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Yu; Xu, Li-Yan; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Liao, Lian-Di; Shen, Jin-Hui; Xu, Xiu-E; Du, Ze-Peng; Zhao, Qing; Li, En-Min

    2012-07-01

    Lysyl oxidase family members have various roles in cancer progression. The aim of this study was to investigate their expression and clinical significance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. We examined messenger RNA expression of lysyl oxidase family members including lysyl oxidase and lysyl oxidase-like proteins (lysyl oxidase L) in 10 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and 83 pairs of tumor samples by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. All except lysyl oxidase L3 were expressed at high levels in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, but only lysyl oxidase L2 was associated with lymph node metastasis (P = .034). We examined lysyl oxidase L2 protein further by immunohistochemistry staining in 178 surgically resected esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissue samples. The protein manifested decreased nuclear expression and increased cytoplasmic expression. Moreover, these 2 events both had significant correlation with the presence of lymph node metastasis (P = .001 and P < .001). Overall survival rates of the patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with decreased nuclear expression or increased cytoplasmic expression of lysyl oxidase L2 were significantly lower than those of the patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with the reverse expression pattern (P = .040 or P = .022). Multivariate analyses revealed that nuclear expression of lysyl oxidase L2 was an independent prognostic factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. These results suggest that lysyl oxidase L2 exerts a critical effect on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma progression and can be a predictive marker of lymph node metastasis and outcome. PMID:22204712

  15. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising in dentigerous cyst: Report of 2 cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Camps-Font, Octavi; López-Ramírez, Marta; Vidal-Bel, August

    2015-01-01

    Dentigerous cysts are one of the most common odontogenic cysts of the oral cavity. Odontogenic cysts can give rise to a variety of neoplasms. Carcinoma arising in a dentigerous cyst is extremely rare, with a review of literature showing near 30 cases. The present report describes 2 cases of primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma originated from a dentigerous cyst. The first one refers to a 57-year old female with a persistent lesion in the left retromolarregion and diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma originated fromthe incomplete excision of the lower third molar follicle during its surgical extraction. The second case describes the case of an 18-year old male with an impacted upper canine with previous history of infection and swelling of the oral cavity. The histopathological study revealed the malignization of the follicle surrounding the dental crown. These two cases confirmed the importance of the histopathological study of all the tissue samples obtained from surgical procedures. Although the development of a malignant lesion from a dentigerous cyst is rare and its clinical-radiological features are apparently innocuous, this entity should be considered as a differential diagnosis. Key words:Dentigerous cyst, odontogenic cyst, squamous cell carcinoma, primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma, odontogenic carcinoma. PMID:26644846

  16. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the United States Across Time

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are involved in approximately 5% of all human cancer. Although initially recognized for causing nearly all cases of cervical carcinoma, much data has now emerged implicating HPVs as a causal factor in other anogenital cancers as well as a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), most commonly oropharyngeal cancers. Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated that patients with HPV+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) have improved survival compared to patients with HPV– cancers. Furthermore, epidemiological evidence shows the incidence of OPSCC has been steadily rising over time in the United States. It has been proposed that an increase in HPV-related OPSCCs is the driving force behind the increasing rate of OPSCC. Although some studies have revealed an increase in HPV+ head and neck malignancies over time in specific regions of the United States, there has not been a comprehensive study validating this trend across the entire country. Therefore, we undertook this meta-analysis to assess all literature through August 2013 that reported on the prevalence of HPV in OPSCC for patient populations within the United States. The results show an increase in the prevalence of HPV+ OPSCC from 20.9% in the pre-1990 time period to 51.4% in 1990–1999 and finally to 65.4% for 2000–present. In this manner, our study provides further evidence to support the hypothesis that HPV-associated OPSCCs are driving the increasing incidence of OPSCC over time in the United States. PMID:24641254

  17. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in the United States across time.

    PubMed

    Stein, Andrew P; Saha, Sandeep; Yu, Menggang; Kimple, Randall J; Lambert, Paul F

    2014-04-21

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are involved in approximately 5% of all human cancer. Although initially recognized for causing nearly all cases of cervical carcinoma, much data has now emerged implicating HPVs as a causal factor in other anogenital cancers as well as a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), most commonly oropharyngeal cancers. Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated that patients with HPV+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) have improved survival compared to patients with HPV- cancers. Furthermore, epidemiological evidence shows the incidence of OPSCC has been steadily rising over time in the United States. It has been proposed that an increase in HPV-related OPSCCs is the driving force behind the increasing rate of OPSCC. Although some studies have revealed an increase in HPV+ head and neck malignancies over time in specific regions of the United States, there has not been a comprehensive study validating this trend across the entire country. Therefore, we undertook this meta-analysis to assess all literature through August 2013 that reported on the prevalence of HPV in OPSCC for patient populations within the United States. The results show an increase in the prevalence of HPV+ OPSCC from 20.9% in the pre-1990 time period to 51.4% in 1990-1999 and finally to 65.4% for 2000-present. In this manner, our study provides further evidence to support the hypothesis that HPV-associated OPSCCs are driving the increasing incidence of OPSCC over time in the United States. PMID:24641254

  18. Squamous esophageal carcinoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma of the colon - an unusual association.

    PubMed

    Mirea, Cecil Sorin; Vasile, Manuela Ioana; Vîlcea, Ionică Daniel; Vasile, Ion; Moraru, Emil; Ciorbagiu, Mihai Călin; Sfeclan, Maria Cristina; Marin, Cătălina; Obleagă, Vasile Cosmin; Gheonea, Ioana Andreea; Vîlcea, Alina Maria

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a simultaneous cancer of the esophagus and colon is a rare situation that recognizes an increased incidence in recent years in the world, probably as a result of the improved measures of diagnosis and treatment, as well as the development of screening programs. The aim of this work is to present a case of synchronous esophageal squamous carcinoma with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the hepatic angle of the colon. The patient was hospitalized to our Surgical Clinic with the thoracic squamous esophageal carcinoma diagnosis. On admission, symptoms were dominated by overall dysphagia, patient showing a weight loss of 10 kg for the last 30 days. Preoperative imaging tests did not revealed regional or distant metastatic disease. Preoperative colonoscopy was incomplete (only until the splenic angle of the left colon) due to the insufficient mechanical preparation. On laparotomy, a carcinoma of the hepatic angle of the colon, partially stenosing was discovered. An upper pole esogastrectomy with intrathoracic esogastrostomy and a right colectomy with ileotransversostomy were practiced, at the same operative session. Postoperative evolution was poor and the patient died on the ninth day from the surgery during an alcohol withdrawal crisis. PMID:27151719

  19. Significance of Nuclear Accumulation of Foxo3a in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.-F. Fang, F.-M.; Lu, C.-H.; Lu, M.-S.; Chen, W.-C.; Lee, K.-D.; Lin, P.-Y.

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the value of Foxo3a in predicting the response to neoadjuvant treatment of, and prognosis for, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemical staining was performed in a retrospective series of 60 biopsied esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, and the correlation between nuclear accumulation of Foxo3a and clinicopathologic features was analyzed, including patient survival. In addition, in vitro biologic changes, radiosensitivity, and in vivo tumorigenicity of esophageal carcinoma cells after experimental manipulation of Foxo3a expression levels were determined. Results: Clinical findings point to a significant correlation between the nuclear accumulation of Foxo3a and the survival rate of esophageal cancer patients. In addition, Foxo3a is a significant predictor for the response to neoadjuvant therapy. In cell culture, irradiation and oxidative stress seemed to result in nuclear accumulation of Foxo3a. Down-regulation of Foxo3a significantly decreased radiosensitivity but had no obvious effect on tumor growth, as measured by a clonogenic assay in vitro and growth delay in vivo. Conclusions: Nuclear accumulation of Foxo3a in tumor cells was correlated with increased radiosensitivity and with improved patient survival. Thus, it is suggested that Foxo3a may be a potential marker for esophageal cancer.

  20. HNdb: an integrated database of gene and protein information on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Henrique, Tiago; José Freitas da Silveira, Nelson; Henrique Cunha Volpato, Arthur; Mioto, Mayra Mataruco; Carolina Buzzo Stefanini, Ana; Bachir Fares, Adil; Gustavo da Silva Castro Andrade, João; Masson, Carolina; Verónica Mendoza López, Rossana; Daumas Nunes, Fabio; Paulo Kowalski, Luis; Severino, Patricia; Tajara, Eloiza Helena

    2016-01-01

    The total amount of scientific literature has grown rapidly in recent years. Specifically, there are several million citations in the field of cancer. This makes it difficult, if not impossible, to manually retrieve relevant information on the mechanisms that govern tumor behavior or the neoplastic process. Furthermore, cancer is a complex disease or, more accurately, a set of diseases. The heterogeneity that permeates many tumors is particularly evident in head and neck (HN) cancer, one of the most common types of cancer worldwide. In this study, we present HNdb, a free database that aims to provide a unified and comprehensive resource of information on genes and proteins involved in HN squamous cell carcinoma, covering data on genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, literature citations and also cross-references of external databases. Different literature searches of MEDLINE abstracts were performed using specific Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) for oral, oropharyngeal, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. A curated gene-to-publication assignment yielded a total of 1370 genes related to HN cancer. The diversity of results allowed identifying novel and mostly unexplored gene associations, revealing, for example, that processes linked to response to steroid hormone stimulus are significantly enriched in genes related to HN carcinomas. Thus, our database expands the possibilities for gene networks investigation, providing potential hypothesis to be tested. Database URL: http://www.gencapo.famerp.br/hndb PMID:27013077

  1. Expression of SRSF3 is Correlated with Carcinogenesis and Progression of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Peiqi, Liu; Zhaozhong, Guo; Yaotian, Yin; Jun, Jia; Jihua, Guo; Rong, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of head and neck with high mortality rates. The mechanisms of initiation and development of OSCC remain largely unknown. Dysregulated alternative splicing of pre-mRNA has been associated with OSCC. Splicing factor SRSF3 is a proto-oncogene and overexpressed in multiple cancers. The aim of this study was to uncover the relationship between SRSF3 and carcinogenesis and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Design and Methods: The expression of SRSF3 in oral normal, dysplasia, or carcinoma tissues was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of EMT-related genes were quantified by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of SRSF3 in DMBA treated primary cultured oral epithelial cells were analyzed by western blot. Result: SRSF3 is overexpressed in oral cancer and moderate or severe dysplasia tissues. Patients with high grade cancer or lymphatic metastasis showed up-regulated expression of SRSF3. Knockdown of SRSF3 repressed the expression of Snail and N-cadherin in vitro. Carcinogen DMBA treated primary cultured oral epithelial cells showed significantly increased SRSF3 level than in control cells. Conclusion: Our results suggested that SRSF3 is associated with the initiation and development of OSCC and may be a biomarker and therapeutic target of OSCC. PMID:27429590

  2. Cytotoxic effects of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Klingbeil, Ma Fátima G; Xavier, Flávia C A; Sardinha, Luiz R; Severino, Patricia; Mathor, Monica B; Rodrigues, Rodrigo V; Pinto, Décio S

    2013-11-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is a complex disease with several etiologic factors and different molecular changes that may trigger certain events; it is also globally one of the most common malignancies in this topography. Extracts from Viscum album L. (VA) (mistletoe) have been used as adjuvant therapies with promising results in several types of cancer, mainly in European countries. In vitro studies have demonstrated that various types of VA may have cytotoxicity in carcinoma cells, activating the apoptotic cascade or leading cells to necrosis. This study aimed to verify the effects of three types of VA extracts (Iscador Qu Spezial, Iscador P and Iscador M) in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue cell lines SCC9 and SCC25, not previously studied. A concentration of 0.3 mg/ml (IC50) of the drugs induced apoptosis, affecting gene expression and protein levels of AKT, PTEN and CYCLIN D1. It was concluded that VA extracts have a cytotoxic effect on SCC9 and SCC25 cell lines, but while SCC9 cell line was more resistant to the action of the drugs, Iscador Qu Spezial and Iscador M have higher cytotoxic potential in both cell lines compared to Iscador P. PMID:24026291

  3. FGFR4 Profile as a Prognostic Marker in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Mouth and Oropharynx

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Roberta Lelis; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; dos Santos, Marcelo; Mercante, Ana Maria da Cunha; Gazito, Diana; de Cicco, Rafael; Group, GENCAPO; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Louro, Iúri Drumond; da Silva, Adriana Madeira Álvares

    2012-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is a member of a receptor tyrosine kinase family of enzymes involved in cell cycle control and proliferation. A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Gly388Arg variant has been associated with increased tumor cell motility and progression of breast cancer, head and neck cancer and soft tissue sarcomas. The present study evaluated the prognostic significance of FGFR4 in oral and oropharynx carcinomas, finding an association of FGFR4 expression and Gly388Arg genotype with tumor onset and prognosis. Patients and Methods DNA from peripheral blood of 122 patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas was used to determine FGFR4 genotype by PCR-RFLP. Protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on paraffin-embedded tissue microarrays. Results Presence of allele Arg388 was associated with lymphatic embolization and with disease related premature death. In addition, FGFR4 low expression was related with lymph node positivity and premature relapse of disease, as well as disease related death. Conclusion Our results propose FGFR4 profile, measured by the Gly388Arg genotype and expression, as a novel marker of prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth and oropharynx. PMID:23226373

  4. Isolated Limb Perfusion With Melphalan in Treating Patients With Stage IIIB-IV Melanoma or Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-22

    Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin; Eccrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Skin Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Melanoma; Stage IIIC Melanoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Melanoma

  5. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy for the Assessment of Biochemical Changes in Skin Due to Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Cássio A.; Goulart, Viviane P.; Côrrea, Luciana; Pereira, Thiago M.; Zezell, Denise M.

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers represent 95% of cutaneous neoplasms. Among them, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the more aggressive form and shows a pattern of possible metastatic profile. In this work, we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy to assess the biochemical changes in normal skin caused by squamous cell carcinoma induced by multi-stage chemical carcinogenesis in mice. Changes in the absorption intensities and shifts were observed in the vibrational modes associated to proteins, indicating changes in secondary conformation in the neoplastic tissue. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of the technique to differentiate the spectra of neoplastic and normal skin tissue, so that the accuracy obtained for this classification was 86.4%. In this sense, attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy provides a useful tool to complement histopathological analysis in the clinical routine for the diagnosis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25811925

  6. Selective Killing Effects of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma with NO Induced Dysfunction of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Om, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP)-induced radicals on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is overexpressed by oral squamous cell carcinoma, to determine the underlying mechanism of selective killing. CAP-induced highly reactive radicals were observed in both plasma plume and cell culture media. The selective killing effect was observed in oral squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal human gingival fibroblast. Degradation and dysfunction of EGFRs were observed only in the EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma and not in the normal cell. Nitric oxide scavenger pretreatment in cell culture media before CAP treatment rescued above degradation and dysfunction of the EGFR as well as the killing effect in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CAP may be a promising cancer treatment method by inducing EGFR dysfunction in EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma via nitric oxide radicals. PMID:26919318

  7. Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Penis: An HPV-related Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Report of 3 Cases.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Diego F; Rodriguez, Ingrid M; Piris, Adriano; Cañete, Sofía; Lezcano, Cecilia; Velazquez, Elsa F; Fernandez-Nestosa, Maria J; Mendez-Pena, Javier E; Hoang, Mai P; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2016-07-01

    Penile clear cell carcinoma originating in skin adnexal glands has been previously reported. Here, we present 3 morphologically distinctive penile tumors with prominent clear cell features originating not in the penile skin but in the mucosal tissues of the glans surface squamous epithelium. Clinical and pathologic features were evaluated. Immunohistochemical stains were GATA3 and p16. Human papilloma virus (HPV) detection by in situ hybridization was performed in 3 cases, and whole-tissue section-polymerase chain reaction was performed in 1 case. Patients' ages were 52, 88, and 95 years. Tumors were large and involved the glans and coronal sulcus in all cases. Microscopically, nonkeratinizing clear cells predominated. Growth was in solid nests with comedo-like or geographic necrosis. Focal areas of invasive warty or basaloid carcinomas showing in addition warty or basaloid penile intraepithelial neoplasia were present in 2 cases. There was invasion of corpora cavernosa, lymphatic vessels, veins, and perineural spaces in all cases. p16 was positive, and GATA3 stain was negative in the 3 cases. HPV was detected in 3 cases by in situ hybridization and in 1 case by polymerase chain reaction. Differential diagnoses included other HPV-related penile carcinomas, skin adnexal tumors, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Features that support primary penile carcinoma were tumor location, concomitant warty and/or basaloid penile intraepithelial neoplasia, and HPV positivity. Clinical groin metastases were present in all cases, pathologically confirmed in 1. Two patients died from tumor dissemination at 9 and 12 months after penectomy. Clear cell carcinoma, another morphologic variant related to HPV, originates in the penile mucosal surface and is probably related to warty carcinomas. PMID:26848799

  8. Distant Metastases in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Min; Lu Minggen; Savvides, Panayiotis S.; Rezaee, Rod; Zender, Chad A.; Lavertu, Pierre; Buatti, John M.; Machtay, Mitchell

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the pattern and risk factors for distant metastases in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) after curative treatment with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study of 284 HNSCC patients treated in a single institution with IMRT. Sites included were oropharynx (125), oral cavity (70), larynx (55), hypopharynx (17), and unknown primary (17). American Joint Committee on Cancer stage distribution includes I (3), II (19), III (42), and IV (203). There were 224 males and 60 females with a median age of 57. One hundred eighty-six patients were treated with definitive IMRT and 98 postoperative IMRT. One hundred forty-nine patients also received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 22.8 months (range, 0.07-77.3 months) and 29.5 months (4.23-77.3 months) for living patients. The 3-year local recurrence-free survival, regional recurrence-free survival, locoregional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival were 94.6%, 96.4%, 92.5%, 84.1%, and 68.95%, respectively. There were 45 patients with distant metastasis. In multivariate analysis, distant metastasis was strongly associated with N stage (p = 0.046), T stage (p < 0.0001), and pretreatment maximum standardized uptake value of the lymph node (p = 0.006), but not associated with age, gender, disease sites, pretreatment standardized uptake value of the primary tumor, or locoregional control. The freedom from distant metastasis at 3 years was 98.1% for no factors, 88.6% for one factor, 68.3% for two factors, and 41.7% for three factors (p < 0.0001 by log-rank test). Conclusion: With advanced radiation techniques and concurrent chemotherapy, the failure pattern has changed with more patients failing distantly. The majority of patients with distant metastases had no local or regional failures, indicating that these patients might have microscopic distant

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with chemoradiotherapy in a patient with HIV.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Aya; Nakazuru, Shoichi; Sakakibara, Yuko; Nishio, Kumiko; Yamada, Takuya; Ishida, Hisashi; Yajima, Keishiro; Uehira, Tomoko; Mori, Kiyoshi; Mita, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), the life expectancy has increased for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This has been associated with reductions in the incidences of some AIDS-defining malignancies, such as Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, but has coincided with an increased incidence of non-AIDS-defining malignancies, such as anal cancer. However, anal cancers are rare in patients with HIV in Japan. We report the case of an HIV-infected patient with anal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy. A 37-year-old man receiving ART for HIV infection presented with a 1-month history of left inguinal lymphadenopathy and anal pain. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed a 56-mm mass, left inguinal lymphadenopathy, and left external iliac lymphadenopathy. The mass had infiltrated from the anal canal to the right levator ani and corpus spongiosum. Colonoscopy revealed a tumor with an ulcer in the anal canal. Histological examination of the tumor biopsy specimens confirmed the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was diagnosed with anal cancer (T4N2M1 stage IV), and he received 5-fluorouracil (1000mg/m(2) on days 1-4 and 29-32) plus mitomycin C (10mg/m(2) on days 1 and 29) and concurrent radiotherapy (total dose, 59.4Gy in 33 fractions) along with ART. The treatment-related adverse events were grade 4 leukopenia and neutropenia, grade 3 thrombocytopenia, and grade 2 radiation dermatitis. Moreover, CD4 suppression was observed:the CD4 count decreased from 190 cells/μl before chemoradiotherapy to 138 cells/μl after 3 months, but increased to 210 cells/μl after 1 year. Because of the grade 4 leukopenia and neutropenia, the dose of 5-fluorouracil was reduced to 800mg/m(2) on days 29-32. A complete response was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging, and colonoscopy confirmed the disappearance of the anal cancer. The patient is living with no signs of recurrence at 2 years

  10. Treatment of Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma With Adjuvant or Definitive Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, David J.; Thotakura, Vijaya; Balboni, Tracy A.; Norris, Charles M.; Haddad, Robert I.; Posner, Marshall R.; Lorch, Jochen; Goguen, Laura A.; Annino, Donald J.; Tishler, Roy B.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The optimal management of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) typically involves surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in the setting of adverse pathologic features. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is frequently used to treat oral cavity cancers, but published IMRT outcomes specific to this disease site are sparse. We report the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute experience with IMRT-based treatment for OCSCC. Methods and Materials: Retrospective study of all patients treated at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute for OCSCC with adjuvant or definitive IMRT between August 2004 and December 2009. The American Joint Committee on Cancer disease stage criteria distribution of this cohort included 5 patients (12%) with stage I; 10 patients (24%) with stage II (n = 10, 24%),; 14 patients (33%) with stage III (n = 14, 33%),; and 13 patients (31%) with stage IV. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS); secondary endpoints were locoregional control (LRC) and acute and chronic toxicity. Results: Forty-two patients with OCSCC were included, 30 of whom were initially treated with surgical resection. Twenty-three (77%) of 30 surgical patients treated with adjuvant IMRT also received concurrent chemotherapy, and 9 of 12 (75%) patients treated definitively without surgery were treated with CRT or induction chemotherapy and CRT. With a median follow-up of 2.1 years (interquartile range, 1.1-3.1 years) for all patients, the 2-year actuarial rates of OS and LRC following adjuvant IMRT were 85% and 91%, respectively, and the comparable results for definitive IMRT were 63% and 64% for OS and LRC, respectively. Only 1 patient developed symptomatic osteoradionecrosis, and among patients without evidence of disease, 35% experienced grade 2 to 3 late dysphagia, with only 1 patient who was continuously gastrostomy-dependent. Conclusions: In this single-institution series, postoperative IMRT was associated with promising LRC

  11. Elevated Serum Gas6 Is a Novel Prognostic Biomarker in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Tao; Liu, Guoxia; Wang, Lin; Liu, Hongchen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study explored the level and clinical significance of serum Gas6 in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods A total of 128 OSCC patients and 145 normal controls were selected. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect Gas6 concentration in sera from the OSCC patients and controls. The correlations of serum Gas6 concentration and clinicopathological characteristics of OSCC patients were assessed, and the prognostic significance of serum Gas6 was evaluated with a Kaplan–Meier curve and log-rank test. Results The results showed that serum Gas6 concentration was significantly higher in OSCC patients than in controls (P < 0.05). OSCC patients with late TNM stage (III, IV) had a relatively high serum Gas6 concentration compared with those with early stage (I, II) (P < 0.01) and patients with poorly differentiated tumors had a higher level of serum Gas6 than those with well-differentiated tumors (P < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that high serum Gas6 was an independent risk factor for lymph nodal metastases in OSCC patients (OR = 2.79, 95% CI: 1.72–4.48). For predicting OSCC development, ROC curve analysis showed a sensitivity of 0.63 with a specificity of 0.92 (AUC = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.74–0.85). Cox analysis revealed that high serum Gas6 was an independent biomarker for predicting poor overall survival in OSCC patients (HR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.79–3.62). In addition, we found that Gas6 expression was increased in OSCC tissues and it may significantly decrease E-cadherin expression, and increase P-cadherin and N-cadherin expression, in OSCC cells. Further, Gas6 could promote the migratory and invasive ability of OSCC cells in vitro. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that Gas6 increases the metastatic capacity of OSCC cells and serum Gas6 could be a candidate biomarker for diagnostic and prognostic use in OSCC patients. PMID:26207647

  12. Definitive Radiotherapy for T1-T2 Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Pyriform Sinus

    SciTech Connect

    Rabbani, Anna; Amdur, Robert J.; Mancuso, Anthony A.; Werning, John W.; Kirwan, Jessica; Morris, Christopher G.; Mendenhall, William M.

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To report the long-term results after definitive radiotherapy (RT) for T1-T2 pyriform sinus squamous cell carcinoma. Patients and Methods: The data from 123 patients with T1-T2 pyriform sinus squamous cell carcinoma treated with RT with or without neck dissection between November 1964 and June 2003 were analyzed. The median follow-up for all patients was 3.2 years, and the median follow-up for living patients was 10.7 years. Results: The 5-year local control, locoregional control, freedom from distant metastasis, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rate was 85%, 70%, 75%, 61%, and 35%, respectively. The ultimate local control rate, including successful salvage of RT failure, for T1 and T2 cancer patients was 96% and 94%, respectively. The overall local control rate with a functional larynx was 83%. Pretreatment computed tomography tumor volume data were available for 55 patients. The median computed tomography tumor volume was 4.2 cm{sup 3} (range, 0-22.4). Local control was worse for patients with a tumor volume >6.5 cm{sup 3} compared with those with a smaller tumor volume. Of the 123 patients, 16% developed moderate to severe acute (2%), late (9%), or postoperative (5%) complications. Conclusions: Local control with larynx preservation after definitive RT for T1-T2 pyriform sinus squamous cell carcinoma likely results in local control and survival similar to that after total laryngectomy or larynx-conserving surgery. Two-thirds of our living patients retained a functional larynx.

  13. Radiotherapy alone or combined with chemotherapy as definitive treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, William R; Herman, Michael P; Deraniyagala, Rohan L; Amdur, Robert J; Werning, John W; Dziegielewski, Peter; Kirwan, Jessica; Morris, Christopher G; Mendenhall, William M

    2016-08-01

    This study is aimed at updating our institution's experience with definitive radiotherapy (RT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. We reviewed 531 patients treated between 1983 and 2012 with definitive RT for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. Of these, 179 patients were treated with either induction (n = 19) or concomitant (n = 160) chemotherapy. Planned neck dissection was performed on 217 patients: unilaterally in 199 and bilaterally in 18 patients. Median follow-up was 5.2 years for all patients (range 0.1-31.6 years) and 8.2 years for living patients (range 1.9-31.6 years). The 5-year local control rates by T stage were as follows: T1, 94 %; T2, 87 %; T3 79 %; T4, 70 %; and overall, 83 %. Multivariate analysis revealed that local control was significantly influenced by T stage and neck dissection. The 5-year cause-specific survival rates by overall stage were as follows: I, 94 %; II, 88 %; III, 87 %; IVA, 75 %; IVB, 52 %; and overall, 78 %. Multivariate analysis revealed that cause-specific survival was significantly influenced by T stage, N stage, overall stage, fractionation, neck dissection, sex, and ethnicity. Of 77 patients treated with ipsilateral fields only, contralateral neck failure occurred in 1 %. The rate of severe complications was 12 %. Definitive RT for patients with tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma provides control rates equivalent to other modalities with a comparatively low incidence of late complications. Patients with anterior tonsillar pillar or tonsillar fossa primaries that are well lateralized with no base of tongue or soft palate extension may be treated with ipsilateral fields. PMID:27059836

  14. Minor Salivary Gland Changes in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma - A Histopathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Chitturi, Ravi Teja; Ragunathan, Yoithapprabhunath Thukanayakanpalayam; Lakshmi, Suman Jhansi; Nallusamy, Jaisanghar; Joseph, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The most common etiology for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is tobacco and tobacco related products which cause nuclear damage to the keratinocytes. The chemical carcinogens not only affect the lining of oral epithelium but also affect the lining epithelium of the excretory ducts of the salivary glands. Thus, there is a possibility of epithelial dysplasia of the salivary duct epithelium which may lead to potential malignant transformation. Aim The study was performed to see the changes in the minor salivary glands and excretory ducts in cases of oral epithelial dysplasia and OSCC. Materials and Methods A total of 278 archival cases of mild, moderate and severe epithelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, OSCC including verrucous carcinoma were histopathologically evaluated to observe changes in the excretory ducts and the minor salivary glands. Results In the study there were 56.5% males and 43.5% females. The age group that was most commonly affected in both the sexes was 50-60 yr old. Buccal mucosa was the most common site of involvement. Ductal changes observed in the excretory duct include simple hyperplasia, metaplastic changes such as mucous, oncocytic & squamous, and infiltration of inflammatory cells and malignant cells. Acinar changes observed were degeneration, squamous metaplasia, myoepithelial cell proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Both the excretory ducts and ducts within the gland showed dysplasia. Conclusion According to observations in our study it is suggested that histopathological interpretation for oral mucosal lesions especially oral epithelial dysplasias and OSCC should also include changes related to salivary gland tissue to provide a better treatment plan and prevent recurrence of the malignant tumours.

  15. Expression of Osteopontin in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and its Surgical Margins-An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Malathi; Thiyagarajan, Muthukumar; Munuswamy, Balu David; Jayamani, Logeswari

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the advances in the treatment modalities offered for oral squamous cell carcinoma. The recurrence rate of it still remains quite high. Early detection of recurrence will improve the outcome and the survival of the patient. Osteopontin, a transformation–related phosphorylated protein in epithelial cells has been closely related with tumourigenesis. This study was undertaken to explore the potential of OPN as a tumour marker of recurrence in OSCC. Aim To analyse the expression of Osteopontin (OPN) in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC), patient matched tumour free surgical margins and normal oral mucosa and to correlate with local & loco regional recurrence. Materials and Methods Twenty cases each of formalin fixed paraffin embedded blocks of histopathologically diagnosed cases of OSCC, patient matched tumour free surgical margins and normal oral mucosal tissues were obtained from the archives of the Oral Pathology & Microbiology Department, Faculty of Dental Sciences, SRU and Govt. Arignar Anna Memorial Cancer Hospital, Kancheepuram. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed with an antibody to Osteopontin protein. Patients with secondary tumours and those treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy were excluded from this study. Results The expression of OPN was elevated in 95% of tumours & 55% of histologically tumour free margin samples. There was negative OPN expression in normal mucosal samples. The result of the study was statistically analysed using Pearson chi-square test and was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion OPN can be used as a diagnostic marker in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. In the tumour free surgical margins, elevated levels of OPN may predict a significantly increased risk of recurrence. PMID:26675878

  16. Identification of differentially expressed genes between lung adenocarcinoma and lung squamous cell carcinoma by gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chaojing; Chen, Hezhong; Shan, Zhengxiang; Yang, Lixin

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between lung adenocarcinoma and normal lung tissues, and between lung squamous cell carcinoma and normal lung tissues, with the purpose of identifying potential biomarkers for the treatment of lung cancer. The gene expression profile (GSE6044) was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, which included data from 10 lung adenocarcinoma samples, 10 lung squamous cell carcinoma samples, and five matched normal lung tissue samples. After data processing, DEGs were identified using the Student's t‑test adjusted via the Benjamini‑Hochberg method. Subsequently, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery, and a global network was constructed. A total of 95 upregulated and 241 downregulated DEGs were detected in lung adenocarcinoma samples, and 204 upregulated and 285 downregulated DEGs were detected in lung squamous cell carcinoma samples, as compared with the normal lung tissue samples. The DEGs in the lung squamous cell carcinoma group were enriched in the following three pathways: Hsa04110, Cell cycle; hsa03030, DNA replication; and hsa03430, mismatch repair. However, the DEGs in the lung adenocarcinoma group were not significantly enriched in any specific pathway. Subsequently, a global network of lung cancer was constructed, which consisted of 341 genes and 1,569 edges, of which the top five genes were HSP90AA1, BCL2, CDK2, KIT and HDAC2. The expression trends of the above genes were different in lung adenocarcinoma and lung squamous cell carcinoma when compared with normal tissues. Therefore, these genes were suggested to be crucial genes for differentiating lung adenocarcinoma and lung squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27356570

  17. Identification of differentially expressed genes between lung adenocarcinoma and lung squamous cell carcinoma by gene expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chaojing; Chen, Hezhong; Shan, Zhengxiang; Yang, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between lung adenocarcinoma and normal lung tissues, and between lung squamous cell carcinoma and normal lung tissues, with the purpose of identifying potential biomarkers for the treatment of lung cancer. The gene expression profile (GSE6044) was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, which included data from 10 lung adenocarcinoma samples, 10 lung squamous cell carcinoma samples, and five matched normal lung tissue samples. After data processing, DEGs were identified using the Student's t-test adjusted via the Benjamini-Hochberg method. Subsequently, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery, and a global network was constructed. A total of 95 upregulated and 241 downregulated DEGs were detected in lung adenocarcinoma samples, and 204 upregulated and 285 downregulated DEGs were detected in lung squamous cell carcinoma samples, as compared with the normal lung tissue samples. The DEGs in the lung squamous cell carcinoma group were enriched in the following three pathways: Hsa04110, Cell cycle; hsa03030, DNA replication; and hsa03430, mismatch repair. However, the DEGs in the lung adenocarcinoma group were not significantly enriched in any specific pathway. Subsequently, a global network of lung cancer was constructed, which consisted of 341 genes and 1,569 edges, of which the top five genes were HSP90AA1, BCL2, CDK2, KIT and HDAC2. The expression trends of the above genes were different in lung adenocarcinoma and lung squamous cell carcinoma when compared with normal tissues. Therefore, these genes were suggested to be crucial genes for differentiating lung adenocarcinoma and lung squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27356570

  18. Radiotherapy Alone for Early-Stage Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx and Hypopharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, Robert L.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To describe and illustrate examples of early-stage larynx and hypopharynx cancer that can be successfully treated with radiotherapy alone. Methods and Materials: Review of the NCCN and ASCO practice guidelines. Representative examples are included. Results: Early-stage larynx and hypopharynx cancer is defined by tumor extent based on physical and imaging examination. Conclusions: Radiotherapy alone is appropriate treatment for properly selected early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx. The NCCN and ASCO practice guidelines can be an aid to the clinician in identifying favorable cancers that can be successfully treated with radiotherapy alone with preservation of organ function.

  19. Targeting epidermal growth factor receptor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: still lost in translation?

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Christopher H.; Saba, Nabil F.

    2016-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is preferentially expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and is a promising therapeutic target. Yet other than cetuximab, no agent targeting EGFR has been approved for this disease, and none has shown benefit over the standard of care. Several randomized trials of antibody and small molecule agents have found no new indication for these agents, despite their initial promise. In this review, we examine the major clinical evidence and discuss potential future developments of translational science in this area, including use of these agents in risk-stratified subgroups, inhibition of downstream/parallel targets, and combination with immunotherapy. PMID:27004227

  20. Renal calculus complicated with squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis: Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jiantao; Lei, Jun; He, Leye; Yin, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Longstanding renal calculus is a risk factor of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the renal pelvis. It is highly aggressive and usually diagnosed at advanced stages with a poor prognosis. We present two cases of kidney stone complications with renal pelvic SCC. These two patients had a radical nephrectomy and the dissected tissues were renal pelvic SCC. Our cases further emphasize that renal pelvic SCC should be considered in patients with longstanding renal calculus. These cases contribute greatly to an early diagnosis and early treatment, both of which will significantly minimize the damage of, and markedly improve the prognosis of, renal pelvic SCC. PMID:26029303

  1. Renal calculus complicated with squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jiantao; Lei, Jun; He, Leye; Yin, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Longstanding renal calculus is a risk factor of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the renal pelvis. It is highly aggressive and usually diagnosed at advanced stages with a poor prognosis. We present two cases of kidney stone complications with renal pelvic SCC. These two patients had a radical nephrectomy and the dissected tissues were renal pelvic SCC. Our cases further emphasize that renal pelvic SCC should be considered in patients with longstanding renal calculus. These cases contribute greatly to an early diagnosis and early treatment, both of which will significantly minimize the damage of, and markedly improve the prognosis of, renal pelvic SCC. PMID:26029303

  2. A review of the history, epidemiology and treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the scrotum

    PubMed Central

    Azike, Jerome E

    2009-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the scrotum is a tumor that is of interest for clinical and historical reasons. It was the first cancer linked to occupational exposure when, in 1775, Perivall Pott described it in chimney sweeps in England. Other occupations that had a preponderance of the disease included people who worked with the distillates of coal and men exposed to mineral oil. Currently, the disease is very rare and most cases are thought to result from poor hygiene and chronic irritation. Surgery with a negative resection margin offers the best hope of cure as adjunctive therapy has not proved useful. Prognosis correlates with the extent of nodal involvement. PMID:21139888

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: epidemiology, classification, management, and novel trends.

    PubMed

    Kallini, Joseph R; Hamed, Nouran; Khachemoune, Amor

    2015-02-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common non-melanoma skin cancer. It originates from epidermal keratinocytes or adnexal structures (such as eccrine glands or pilosebaceous units). We describe the salient features of cutaneous SCC. We also review novel classification schemes proposed during the last decade which attempt to stratify SCC lesions based on prognosis. Biopsy leads to definitive diagnosis. Treatment includes surgical excision; Mohs micrographic surgery produces excellent cure rates and spares the maximal amount of tissue. Other modalities include electrodessication and curettage, cryosurgery, radiotherapy, topical medications, photodynamic therapy, and systemic therapy. Management and follow-up depend on the risk stratification of individual lesions. PMID:25428226

  4. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A NINE-BANDED ARMADILLO (DASYPUS NOVEMCINCTUS).

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-ram; Oh, Sukhun; Lee, Su-hyung; Kim, Yongahn; Youn, Soonghee; Kim, Yangbeom; Kwon, Soowhan; Kim, Dae-yong

    2015-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are tumors that occur in most animals and show strong invasiveness into surrounding tissues and nearby osseous tissues. This report describes a case of SCC in a 5-yr-old female nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) with a hemorrhagic mass on the left mandibular region. The tumor originated in skin tissues and showed invasion of the oral cavity, adjacent to the submandibular salivary gland histologically. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a SCC in a nine-banded armadillo. PMID:26056888

  5. Squamous cell carcinoma of the scrotum: A look beyond the chimneystacks

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Ritva; Zargar, Homayoun; Trolio, Rossella Di; Lorenzo, Giuseppe Di; Autorino, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Despite the low incidence, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remains the most common scrotal malignancy with a propensity for recurrence and metastasis. In recent years there has been a significant change in the epidemiology of scrotal SCC. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for resectable disease. Sentinel lymph node dissection adapted from experience with penile SCC can reduce the morbidity of routine lymph node dissection. Emerging treatments for advanced and metastatic SCC are at the cusp of significantly changing management of this disease. We have performed a comprehensive review of scrotal SCC with a focus on these topics. PMID:25405188

  6. [Palliative surgery in squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior floor of the mouth].

    PubMed

    Bachmann, G; Hess, A; Guntinas-Lichius, O; Jungehülsing, M

    2004-07-01

    A 62 year old patient presented with a bleeding, incurable squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior floor of the mouth. A curative concept was not possible. After four palliative surgical procedures, a definitive and a palliative radiation therapy and a palliative chemotherapy, the patient remained free of tumor in the head and neck region for 2 years after the initial treatment. Using a combination of palliative procedures, it is possible not only to achieve a full local remission but also to provide a high quality of life. PMID:15309262

  7. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma derived from a maxillary cyst: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    MORITA, TAKUMA; YAMASHIRO, MASASHI; KAYAMORI, KOU; MIZUTANI, MIHO; NAKAKUKI, KOICHI; MICHI, YASUYUKI; UZAWA, NARIKAZU; IZUMO, TOSHIYUKI; HARADA, KIYOSHI

    2016-01-01

    Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) is a rare malignant central jaw tumor derived from odontogenic epithelial remnants. PIOSCC predominantly affects the mandible, although both jawbones may be involved. This case report describes a PIOSCC type 2 of the maxilla in a 37-year-old man, treated by partial maxillectomy. Histopathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as PIOSCC derived from an odontogenic cyst. Postoperatively, the patient has been followed up for 53 months, with no recurrence of the disease. We herein describe the clinical details, treatment results and histopathological characteristics of a rare case of PIOSCC derived from a maxillary odontogenic cyst with reference to the relevant literature. PMID:27073661

  8. Variability of the thymidine labeling index in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B.; Woo, L.; Blatchford, S.; Aguirre, M.; Garewal, H.

    1988-06-01

    Tritiated thymidine (/sup 3/HTdR) labeling is the standard technique for determining the kinetic activity of tumors. This method has been used to label multiple sections of tumor specimens obtained from seven patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Considerable variability was observed in the labeling index in different sites from the same specimen. To reduce the large sampling error due to heterogeneity, we recommend that an average value be determined from multiple sections when employing this technique.

  9. Trichinella spiralis: Mere Co-Existence or Carcinogenic Parasite For Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Nadia; Bist, Sampan Singh; Ahmad, Sohaib; Harsh, Meena

    2015-10-01

    Trichinella spiralis is a parasite which is usually seen in pork-eaters. Most of the trichinosis infections cause little or no symptoms. We report a rare case of a middle aged North Indian male who presented with a painless ulcer in right buccal mucosa which was biopsied and reported as squamous cell carcinoma. Wide local excision was done subsequently which showed encysted larvae of Trichinella spiralis in the deeper skeletal muscle bundles. This article supports the carcinogenic potential of trichinosis and suggests timely work-up and treatment of the parasite. PMID:26557527

  10. Successful treatment of mandibular squamous cell carcinoma in a Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus).

    PubMed

    Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Manharth, Ann L; Clayton, Leigh Ann; Feinmehl, Rhonda; Robbins, Mitch

    2005-06-01

    An adult, female Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the rostral mandible. Initial treatment included bilateral mandibulectomy rostral to the lingual frenulum followed by intra- and perilesional cisplatin injections. Recovery after the procedure was uneventful and the Malayan sun bear adapted well to a shortened mandible. Histopathology indicated incomplete surgical excision of the tumor; therefore, radiation therapy was instituted weekly for four treatments at 2 Gy in parallel opposed fields (total 4 Gy each treatment) with one additional cisplatin treatment. Two years after initial presentation, the animal showed no recurrence of neoplasia. PMID:17323584

  11. Cetuximab Rechallenge and Monotherapy in Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Knutzen, Greg; Subbiah, Shanmuga

    2015-01-01

    Smokers with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) have a particularly poor prognosis when compared with human papillomavirus-positive SCCHN. Here, we present case reports of two smokers with SCCHN treated with cetuximab-based therapy, highlighting the potential benefit of cetuximab before definitive chemoradiotherapy in patients with poor performance status as well as cetuximab rechallenge after progression. We conclude that cetuximab demonstrated notable effectiveness in two patients at high risk for poor prognosis, yielding a durable response in one and retaining activity on rechallenge in the other. PMID:26668572

  12. Computer aided morphometric analysis of oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, K; Gupta, J; Miglani, R

    2016-01-01

    We compared the changes in the cells in the basal layer of normal mucosa, oral leukoplakia with dysplasia and different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using computer aided image analysis of tissue sections. We investigated three morphometric parameters: nuclear area (NA), cell area (CA) and their ratio (NA:CA). NA and NA:CA ratio showed a statistically significant increase from dysplasia to increasing grades of OSCC. Nuclear size was useful for differentiating normal tissue, potentially malignant leukoplakia and OSCC. PMID:26983454

  13. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery as treatment for oral maxillary squamous cell carcinoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Mestrinho, L A; Bernardo, E; Niza, M M R E; Lloret, A; Buracco, P

    2012-07-01

    A gingival maxillary squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed in a 12-year-old male Yorkshire Terrier. After a complete diagnostic work-up, including a computed tomography scan, the tumour was staged as T3bN1aM0 and considered non-resectable at presentation. The combination of neoadjuvant megavoltage radiotherapy and neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin and doxorubicin decreased the size of the tumour, allowing for surgery. The dog was free from local disease for 421 days after which it was euthanased at the owners' request. PMID:22731946

  14. Primary Malignant Mixed Germ Cell Tumour with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Mandible; A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Arun; Parmar, Harshad; Chacko, Rabin

    2015-01-01

    Germ cell Tumours (GCT) are neoplasm derived from germ cells. GCT usually occurs inside the gonads. Extragonadal GCT’s are rare. Most common GCT associated with head and neck region are the teratomas. Of the few teratomas found in the head and neck, malignant transformation of a teratomatous element is very uncommon, and primary bone involvement within the head and neck is even rare. We present a case of primary malignant mixed germ cell Tumour involving the mandible, the present case presented malignant transformation of the epithelial component showing foci of squamous cell carcinoma within the GCT. PMID:26266228

  15. Changing the paradigm: the potential for targeted therapy in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Megan L.; Birkeland, Andrew C.; Hoesli, Rebecca; Swiecicki, Paul; Spector, Matthew E.; Brenner, J. Chad

    2016-01-01

    Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) remains a highly morbid and fatal disease. Historically, it has been a model example for organ preservation and treatment stratification paradigms. Unfortunately, survival for LSCC has stagnated over the past few decades. As the era of next-generation sequencing and personalized treatment for cancer approaches, LSCC may be an ideal disease for consideration of further treatment stratification and personalization. Here, we will discuss the important history of LSCC as a model system for organ preservation, unique and potentially targetable genetic signatures of LSCC, and methods for bringing stratified, personalized treatment strategies to the 21st century. PMID:27144065

  16. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin and Coal Tar Creosote Exposure in a Railroad Worker

    PubMed Central

    Carlsten, Chris; Hunt, Stephen Carl; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2005-01-01

    A 50-year-old male railroad worker presented to his primary care physician with an erythematous, tender skin lesion on the right knee; a biopsy of this lesion revealed squamous cell carcinoma in situ. The site of the lesion was sun-protected but had been associated with 30 years of creosote-soaked clothing. In this article, we review dermal and other malignancies associated with creosote, along with creosote occupational exposures and exposure limits. This is a unique case, given the lack of other, potentially confounding, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and the sun-protected location of the lesion. PMID:15626654

  17. Immunological Treatment Options for Locoregionally Advanced Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mirandola, Leonardo; Bernardini, Giovanni; Cunha, Nicholas D’; Tijani, Lukman; Nguyen, Diane; Cordero, Joehassin; Jenkins, Marjorie R.; Cobos, Everardo; Kast, W. Martin; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) are usually treated by a multimodal approach with surgery and/or radiochemotherapy as the mainstay of local–regional treatment in cases with advanced disease. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy have the disadvantage of causing severe side effects, while the clinical outcome of patients diagnosed with HNSCC has remained essentially unchanged over the last decade. The potential of immunotherapy is still largely unexplored. Here the authors review the current status of the art and discuss the future challenges in HNSCC treatment and prevention. PMID:22251006

  18. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right main bronchus showing squamous differentiation and mimicking mucoepidermoid carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Koda, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Complete dissection of tracheobronchial adenoid cystic carcinoma (TACC) by surgery alone is sometimes difficult and has a greater propensity than tracheobronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma (TMEC) for its surgical margin to become positive. In addition, TACC is more likely to present distant metastases than TMEC. Considering these facts, TACC and TMEC should be differentiated based on histopathological examination of biopsy specimens. Herein, we present a case of 54-year-old woman with a tumor in the right main bronchus, whose biopsy specimen was difficult to diagnose as TACC or TMEC. The specimen from the rounded protrusion of the tumor showed squamous differentiation, along with the presence of glandular and basaloid cells, making morphological examination alone ineffective in rendering a definite diagnosis. Thus, the addition of immunohistochemical analysis, αSMA and CD43 expression in basaloid cells and c-kit expression in glandular cells, was useful for accurately diagnosing TACC in this case. The squamous component was considered to be neoplastic because of its increased expression of cyclin D1 and overexpression of p16. The surgically resected specimen contained typical morphology of ACC, and the diagnosis of TACC was definitely confirmed. PMID:26191305

  19. Outcomes of Postoperative Simultaneous Modulated Accelerated Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Sung Ho; Jung, Yuh-Seog; Ryu, Jun Sun; Choi, Sung Weon; Park, Joo Yong; Yun, Tak; Lee, Sang Hyun; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the treatment efficacy and toxicity of postoperative simultaneous modulated accelerated radiotherapy (SMART) for patients with head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods and Materials: Between February 2003 and September 2008, 51 patients with histologically confirmed HNSCC received postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (N = 33) or helical tomotherapy (N = 18) using SMART after curative surgical resection. The sites included were the oral cavity (OC), oropharynx (OP), larynx, and hypopharynx in 23, 20, 5, and 3 patients, respectively. Results: The median follow-up duration of all patients and surviving patients were 32 (range, 5-78 months) and 39 months (range, 9-77 months), respectively. The 3-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, disease-free survival, locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) in all patients were 71%, 77%, 75%, 85%, and 82%, respectively. Although no significant difference in 3-year LRRFS were found between OC (82%) and OP (82%) carcinomas, the 3-year DMFS was worse in cases of OC (66%) carcinoma compared with OP carcinoma (95%; p = 0.0414). Acute Grade 3 dermatitis, mucositis, and esophagitis occurred in 10%, 10%, and 2% of patients, respectively. At the last follow-up, Grade 3 xerostomia was documented in 10% of the patients. Young age ({<=}40 years) (p < 0.001) and OC carcinoma primary (p = 0.0142) were poor risk factors on univariate analysis for DMFS. Conclusion: Postoperative SMART was observed to be effective and safe in patients with HNSCC.

  20. Bleomycin in advanced squamous cell carcinoma: a random controlled trial. Report of Medical Research Council Working Party on Bleomycin.

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    Bleomycin was compared with conventional cytotoxic drugs in the treatment of 70 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma; the primary deposit was in the head and neck in 50 patients and in the perineum or skin in 20. Thirty-four patients received bleomycin while 36 received other cytotoxic drugs. No significant difference was detected between the two groups either in the proportion showing tumour regression or in the survival rates. If bleomycin is to advance the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma it can be only in combination with other drugs or with radiotherapy. PMID:55288

  1. The role of constitutive and inducible processes in the response of human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.L.

    1993-06-01

    The inherent radiation sensitivity of the cells within a tumor is thought to contribute to the success or failure of radiation therapy. In vitro studies have shown that radiation sensitivity differences in squamous cell carcinoma cell lines reflect alterations in DNA repair. These alterations result from constitutive changes in chromosome organization, not radiation-inducible processes. While inducible responses may play some role in the radiation response of tumor cells, there is no evidence for their involvement in inherent tumor cell radiosensitivity differences or in the success or failure of radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinomas.

  2. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Kidney Associated With Large Calculus in Non-functioning Kidney: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjay; Tomar, Vinay; Yadav, Sher S; Udawat, Hema; Priyadarshi, Shivam; Vyas, Nachiket; Agarwal, Neeraj

    2016-09-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of renal pelvis is a rare neoplasm. A 75-year old male presented with history of chronic dull aching pain in left flank region for last 10-years with history of left pyelolithotomy about 30-years back. After proper workup, large calculus with heterogeneous density mass detected in nonfunctioning left kidney. After radical nephrectomy, histopathological examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis. SCC should be suspected in a patient with long history of renal calculous and associated mass in non functioning kidney. PMID:27313983

  3. Autopsy findings in 14 patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Alcides; Reuter, Victor; Lezcano, Cecilia; Velazquez, Elsa; Codas, Ricardo; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe pathologic features found at autopsy of 14 patients with penile cancer. Nine patients died from disseminated disease; 5 of them presented local/regional recurrences. Five patients died from other causes, 2 of them postoperatively. Local recurrence sites were corpus cavernosum, Buck's fascia and urethra, regional skin, and prostate. Metastatic sites were lymph nodes (9 cases), liver (7 cases), lungs (6 cases), heart (5 cases), adrenals, bone and skin (3 cases each), thyroid and brain (2 cases each), and pancreas, spleen, and pleura (1 case each). Patients with heart metastasis had arrhythmias. Patients who died and who did not die from penile cancer had different profiles: low-grade superficial tumors with usual and warty subtypes versus high-grade deeply invasive basaloid or hybrid verrucous/sarcomatoid carcinomas. A natural history model for penile cancer routes of spread is proposed: local intrapeneal, regional and systemic nodes, regional skin, liver, lungs, heart, and other multiple sites. PMID:19411278

  4. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)1, PAR2 and PAR4 expressions in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LI, Si-Man; JIANG, Ping; XIANG, Yang; WANG, Wei-Wei; ZHU, Yue-Chun; FENG, Wei-Yang; LI, Shu-De; YU, Guo-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Here, we used reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot to detect protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1, PAR 2 and PAR 4 expression in cancer tissues and cell lines of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and investigated the co-relationship between PAR expression and clinic-pathological data for esophageal cancer. The methylation of PAR4 gene promoter involved in esophageal carcinoma was also analyzed. By comparing the mRNA expressions of normal esophageal tissue and human esophageal epithelial cells (HEEpiC), we found that among the 28 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, PAR1 (60%) and PAR2 (71%) were elevated in 17 and 20 cases, respectively, and PAR4 (68%) expression was lowered in 19 cases. Whereas, in human esophageal squamous cells (TE-1 and TE-10), PAR1 and PAR2 expression was increased but PAR4 was decreased. Combined with clinical data, the expression of PAR1 in poorly differentiated (P=0.016) and middle and lower parts of the esophagus (P=0.016) was higher; expression of PAR4 in poorly differentiated carcinoma was lower (P=0.049). Regarding TE-1 and TE-10 protein expression, we found that in randomized esophageal carcinoma, PAR1 (P=0.027) and PAR2 (P=0.039) expressions were increased, but lowered for PAR4 (P=0.0001). In HEEpiC, TE-1, TE-10, esophageal and normal esophagus tissue samples (case No. 7), the frequency of methylation at the 19 CpG loci of PAR4 was 35.4%, 95.2%, 83.8%, 62.6% and 48.2%, respectively. Our results indicate that the expression of PAR1 and PAR2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is increased but PAR4 is decreased. Hypermethylation of the promoter of the PAR4 gene may contribute to reduced expression of PAR4 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25297082

  5. Oral squamous cell carcinoma of the maxilla, a second malignancy after a right ethmoido-maxillary chondrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Suciu, Mircea; Morariu, Silviu Horia; Ormenişan, Alina; Grigoraş, Radu Ionuţ; Bostan, Radu Horia; Mocanu, Simona; Vartolomei, Mihai Dorin; Cotoi, Ovidiu Simion

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is defined as an invasive epithelial neoplasm, with variable degrees of squamous differentiation, with or without keratinization. It is origins stand at the level of the keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (skin) or non-keratinized (oral mucosa, esophageal mucosa, uterine exocervical mucosa), but it can also be found in squamous metaplasia areas (uterine endocervix or trachea-bronchial tree). This report presents the case of an oral squamous cell carcinoma as a second malignancy in the same anatomical territory, in a patient with prior treatment for chondrosarcoma, both surgical and radiotherapy. The tumor had appeared 5-6 months prior and had undergone a relatively rapid growth, this being the patient's main motive for addressing the doctors. The tumor was greyish, with imprecisely demarcated margins, of firm consistency, bleeding and with local necrotic deposits. The tumor extended from the incisive region to the maxillary tuberosity, towards the cheek mucosa and the soft palate. After a large excision, the histopathological diagnosis was infiltrative keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, with moderate differentiation, with origins in the oral mucosa, infiltrating the whole of the maxilla and the maxillary sinus mucosa. Approximately three months after the surgery, a new tumor appeared in the oral cavity, on superior and inferior mucosa of the right cheek, extending towards the right buccal commissure, implying a relapse of the primary tumor. Postoperative oncological therapy included standard chemotherapy, which resulted in favorable postoperative evolution. This case is interesting by the association, of two metachronous malignant tumors, of different histological origin: a chondrosarcoma and a squamous cell carcinoma, at an interval of 25 years. PMID:25607415

  6. Synchronous Occurrence of Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Hye; Lee, Jae Ho; Lim, Youngkyoung; Lee, You Jin

    2016-01-01

    CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) represent a spectrum of T-cell lymphoma including lymphomatoid papulosis and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). Epidermis overlying cutaneous CD30+ LPD often shows epidermal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, crusting, and ulceration and it is difficult to distinguish from carcinoma such as keratoacanthoma (KA) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Several cases of pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia mimicking KA or SCC in CD30+ LPD have been reported. The relationship between CD30+ LPD and epithelial proliferations has not yet well understood. It was reported that a variety of mediators, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-α and EGFR from CD30+ LPD could attribute to epidermal hyperplasia. However, separate and distinct SCC occurring in CD30+ LPD has rarely been reported. Herein, we present a rare case of coexistence of SCC and cutaneous ALCL located on the same region. PMID:27489433

  7. Downregulation of MTSS1 expression is an independent prognosticator in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, G; Csanadi, A; Kakanou, S; Prasse, A; Kassem, A; Stickeler, E; Passlick, B; zur Hausen, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: The metastasis suppressor 1 (MTSS1) is a newly discovered protein putatively involved in tumour progression and metastasis. Material and Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of MTSS1 was analysed in 264 non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs). Results: The metastasis suppressor 1 was significantly overexpressed in NSCLC compared with normal lung (P=0.01). Within NSCLC, MTSS1 expression was inversely correlated with pT-stage (P=0.019) and histological grading (P<0.001). NSCLC with MTSS1 downregulation (<20%) showed a significantly worse outcome (P=0.007). This proved to be an independent prognostic factor in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs; P=0.041), especially in early cancer stages (P=0.006). Conclusion: The metastasis suppressor 1 downregulation could thus serve as a stratifying marker for adjuvant therapy in early-stage SCC of the lung. PMID:25625275

  8. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising from an odontogenic keratocyst: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tamgadge, Sandhya; Tamgadge, Avinash; Modak, Neha; Bhalerao, Sudhir

    2013-01-01

    Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) derived from an odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the jaws, which is locally aggressive with quite poor prognosis. The incidence of carcinomas arising in odontogenic cysts was reported to be approximately 1–2/1000. The number of well-documented cases of PIOSCC ex OKC is extremely small; hence, no sufficient incidence data are available in the literature. Overall, the survival rate of an individual, which is a period of two years, is very poor, and this can be attributed to the delayed diagnosis. But knowledge of the histopathological and immunohistological features of PIOSCC allows accurate and early diagnosis of the lesion so that an early and appropriate treatment can be instituted for better prognosis. The following report describes an extremely rare case of PIOSCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 20-year-old female patient. PMID:23717337

  9. Clinical Significance of Langerhans Cells in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, Francisco; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco; Gonzalez-Moles, Miguel Angel; Lopez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Funez, Rafael; Redondo, Maximino

    2012-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) may be involved in the immunosurveillance against tumors as antigen-presenting cells. Our objective has been to determine the relevance of LC in progression of larynx squamous cell carcinomas and their relationship with different subpopulations of tumor-infiltrating cells. LCs were investigated by immunohistochemical methods using anti-CD1 antibody. LCs were detected in most of the primary tumors studied (44 out of 50) and also in metastases (6 out of 10) and recurrences (2 out of 3), but we did not find any statistical association between number of LCs and clinical-pathological parameters or survival. However, the number of LCs was increased in patients with evident infiltration of lymphocytes, mainly cytotoxic T cells. We can conclude that although LCs did not show clinical utility as prognostic marker, they may play a role in releasing an active immune response in larynx carcinomas, according to their ability to present antigens to sensitized T cells. PMID:22481933

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of a pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a Madagascar ground boa (Boa madagascariensis).

    PubMed

    Steeil, James C; Schumacher, Juergen; Hecht, Silke; Baine, Katherine; Ramsay, Edward C; Ferguson, Sylvia; Miller, Debra; Lee, Nathan D

    2013-03-01

    A 15-yr-old female Madagascar ground boa (Boa madagascariensis) presented with a history of anorexia, wheezing, and occasional open-mouth breathing. On oral examination, a firm, caseous mass was noted in the right caudoventral pharyngeal region, which was confirmed as a carcinoma on incisional biopsy. Advanced imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) was performed to evaluate local tumor invasion and to plan for palliative radiation therapy. However, following the second treatment (10 Gy), the mass had increased in size, and the snake was euthanatized. Radiation-associated vasculitis was noted within the soft tissues surrounding the mass and within muscles and the lung, which was verified on histopathology. The squamous cell carcinoma of the snake in this report was resistant to palliative radiation therapy. PMID:23505715

  11. Lung squamous cell carcinoma metastasizing to the nasopharynx following bronchoscopy intervention therapies: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the nasopharynx is extremely rare, and few cases have been reported in the literature. In the present report, we describe the case of a patient with a mass in the nasopharynx found by bronchoscopy. Our patient was a 61-year-old man receiving multiple bronchoscopy intervention therapies for advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which was histopathologically confirmed. The SCC metastasized to the nasopharynx following the bronchoscopy intervention therapies. The lesion was considered metastatic from lung cancer on the basis of clinical and histological clues. The exact mechanism of lung cancer metastasis to the nasopharynx in this case remains unclear because either implantation or hematogenous and lymphatic spread is possible. A thorough head and neck examination should be undertaken during bronchoscopic evaluation, especially in patients receiving bronchoscopy intervention therapies. The early detection of a silent nasopharyngeal metastasis is important to choosing from among the multiple treatment options available. PMID:24673971

  12. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Update on Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Marur, Shanthi; Forastiere, Arlene A

    2016-03-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma arises from multiple anatomic subsites in the head and neck region. The risk factors for development of cancers of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx include tobacco exposure and alcohol dependence, and infection with oncogenic viruses is associated with cancers developing in the nasopharynx, palatine, and lingual tonsils of the oropharynx. The incidence of human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal cancer is increasing in developed countries, and by 2020, the annual incidence could surpass that of cervical cancer. The treatment for early-stage squamous cell cancers of the head and neck is generally single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy. The treatment for locally advanced head and neck cancers is multimodal, with either surgery followed by adjuvant radiation or chemoradiation as indicated by pathologic features or definitive chemoradiation. For recurrent disease that is not amenable to a salvage local or regional approach and for metastatic disease, chemotherapy with or without a biological agent is indicated. To date, molecular testing has not influenced treatment selection in head and neck cancer. This review will focus on the changing epidemiology, advances in diagnosis, and treatment options for squamous cell cancers of the head and neck, along with data on risk stratification specific to oropharyngeal cancer, and will highlight the direction of current trials. PMID:26944243

  13. Interaction between Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adipose Tissue in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Atsushi; Aoki, Shigehisa; Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Nishijima-Matsunobu, Aki; Yamamoto, Mihoko; Kakihara, Nahoko; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Toda, Shuji

    2016-05-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) develops within the squamous epithelial layer and invades the submucosa to the subadventitia that has adipose tissue (AT). AT seems critical to ESCC progression, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We aimed to address the association between ESCC and AT in vitro. ESCC cells were cultured on rat or human subcutaneous AT-embedded or -non-embedded collagen gel. AT promoted the growth of ESCC cells and inhibited their apoptosis. AT promoted the expression of the squamous differentiation marker involucrin in ESCC cells. AT accelerated the expression of invasion-related factors in poorly differentiated ESCC cells only. AT promoted the expression of phosphorylated-insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in ESCC cells, whereas it inhibited that of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Insulin-like growth factor-1, but not leptin, adiponectin, or resistin, promoted and inhibited the growth and apoptosis of ESCC cells, respectively. In turn, ESCC cells decreased the production of these adipokines in AT and the number of preadipocytes and mesenchymal stem cell-like cells, which developed from AT. These results suggest that i) AT may influence the progression of ESCC with increased growth or invasion and decreased apoptosis through insulin-like growth factor-1/insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor signaling, ii) AT may affect human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-targeted therapy; and iii) the cancer cells may affect adipokine production in AT. PMID:26952643

  14. Cathepsin K Is Present in Invasive Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bitu, Carolina C.; Kauppila, Joonas H.; Bufalino, Andréia; Nurmenniemi, Sini; Teppo, Susanna; Keinänen, Meeri; Vilen, Suvi-Tuuli; Lehenkari, Petri; Nyberg, Pia; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Salo, Tuula

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Cathepsin K, a lysosomal cysteine protease, is expressed in the tumor microenvironment (TME) of skin carcinoma, but nothing is known about cathepsin K in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). Our aim was to describe the expression of cathepsin K in invasive OTSCC in vitro and in a series of clinical cancer specimens. Materials and Methods OTSCC invasion in vitro was studied using invasive HSC-3 tongue carcinoma cells in 3D organotypic models. In total, 121 mobile tongue OTSCCs and 10 lymph node metastases were analyzed for cathepsin K expression. The association between cathepsin K expression and clinicopathological factors was evaluated. Results Cysteine protease inhibitor E64 and cathepsin K silencing significantly (p<0.0001) reduced HSC-3 cell invasion in the 3D models. Cathepsin K was expressed in a majority of carcinoma and metastatic cells, but the expression pattern in carcinoma cells did not correlate with clinical parameters. Instead, the weak expression of cathepsin K in the invasive TME front correlated with increased overall recurrence (p<0.05), and in early-stage tumors this pattern predicted both cancer recurrence and cancer-specific mortality (p<0.05 and p<0.005, respectively). Conclusions Cathepsin K is expressed in OTSCC tissue in both carcinoma and TME cells. Although the diminished activity and expression in aggressive tongue HSC-3 cells reduced 3D invasion in vitro, the amount of cathepsin K in carcinoma cells was not associated with the outcome of cancer patients. Instead, cathepsin K in the invasive TME front seems to have a protective role in the complex progression of tongue cancer. PMID:23951042

  15. Autofluorescence videoendoscopy for photodiagnosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Paczona, Robert; Temam, Stéphane; Janot, François; Marandas, Patrick; Luboinski, Bernard

    2003-11-01

    The diagnosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is usually made by visual identification. Searching for a non-invasive optical diagnostic method with the ability to detect the precancerous lesions or second primary tumors earlier in high-risk populations led to the development of photodiagnosis by autofluorescence (AF) endoscopy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and discuss the diagnostic potential of autofluorescence videoendoscopy as a complementary visual aid in the routine endoscopic diagnosis of head and neck cancers. In a prospective study, 48 patients underwent white light (WL) videoendoscopy followed by AF technique at the Institute of Gustave-Roussy from November 2001 to August 2002. Of 48 patients, 30 had suspected precancerous or cancerous laryngeal lesions, 7 presented benign laryngeal lesions, while 8 showed pharyngeal and 3 oral tumors. All detected lesions were evaluated by histological examination. AF was induced by filtered blue light of a xenon short arc lamp and processed by a CCD camera system (D-Light AF System; Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany). Normal laryngeal mucosa displayed a typical green fluorescence signal. Moderate and severe epithelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma showed a diminished green fluorescence and presented a marked reddish-blue color. In case of hyperkeratosis a bright white color was detected. Some benign lesions, such as granulomas, polyps and papillomas also displayed altered green fluorescence. Autofluorescence videoendoscopy for photodiagnosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas has proved to be a method of high specificity and good sensitivity. Two additional precancerous lesions that were invisible at the WL examination but detected with the AF technique show its potential role in the regular screening procedure or follow-up examination in a high-risk population. It was a very helpful complementary visual aid for the intraoperative control of the surgical margins after per

  16. Curcumin targets fibroblast–tumor cell interactions in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Dudás, József; Fullár, Alexandra; Romani, Angela; Pritz, Christian; Kovalszky, Ilona; Hans Schartinger, Volker; Mathias Sprinzl, Georg; Riechelmann, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Co-culture of periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLs) and SCC-25 oral squamous carcinoma cells (OSCC) results in conversion of PDLs into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and induces epithelial-to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of OSCC tumor cells. We hypothesized that Curcumin targets this dynamic mutual interaction between CAFs and tumor cells. Normal and 2 μM Curcumin-treated co-culture were performed for 4 days, followed by analysis of tumor cell invasivity, mRNA/protein expression of EMT-markers and mediators, activity measure of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), and western blot analysis of signal transduction in tumor cells and fibroblasts. In Curcumin-treated co-culture, in tumor cells, the levels of nuclear factor κB (NFκBα) and early response kinase (ERK)—decreased, in fibroblasts, integrin αv protein synthesis decreased compared to corresponding cells in normal co-culture. The signal modulatory changes induced by Curcumin caused decreased release of EMT-mediators in CAFs and reversal of EMT in tumor cells, which was associated with decreased invasion. These data confirm the palliative potential of Curcumin in clinical application. - Graphical abstract: Co-culture of periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLs) and SCC-25 oral squamous carcinoma cells (OSCC) results in conversion of PDLs into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and induces epithelial-to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumor cells. Curcumin targets this dynamic mutual interaction between CAFs and tumor cells by inhibiting the production of EMT mediators in CAFs and by modification of intracellular signaling in tumor cells. This causes less invasivity and reversal of EMT in tumor cells. Highlights: ► Curcumin targets tumor–fibroblast interaction in head and neck cancer. ► Curcumin suppresses mediators of epithelial–mesenchymal transition. ► Curcumin decreases the invasivity of tumor cells.

  17. PDGFRβ Is a Novel Marker of Stromal Activation in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rong; Haines, Paul; Gallagher, George; Noonan, Vikki; Kukuruzinska, Maria; Monti, Stefano; Trojanowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) form the main constituents of tumor stroma and play an important role in tumor growth and invasion. The presence of CAFs is a strong predictor of poor prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Despite significant progress in determining the role of CAFs in tumor progression, the mechanisms contributing to their activation remain poorly characterized, in part due to fibroblast heterogeneity and the scarcity of reliable fibroblast surface markers. To search for such markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), we applied a novel approach that uses RNA-sequencing data derived from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Specifically, our strategy allowed for an unbiased identification of genes whose expression was closely associated with a set of bona fide stroma-specific transcripts, namely the interstitial collagens COL1A1, COL1A2, and COL3A1. Among the top hits were genes involved in cellular matrix remodeling and tumor invasion and migration, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), which was found to be the highest-ranking receptor protein genome-wide. Similar analyses performed on ten additional TCGA cancer datasets revealed that other tumor types shared CAF markers with OSCC, including PDGFRβ, which was found to significantly correlate with the reference collagen expression in ten of the 11 cancer types tested. Subsequent immunostaining of OSCC specimens demonstrated that PDGFRβ was abundantly expressed in stromal fibroblasts of all tested cases (12/12), while it was absent in tumor cells, with greater specificity than other known markers such as alpha smooth muscle actin or podoplanin (3/11). Overall, this study identified PDGFRβ as a novel marker of stromal activation in OSCC, and further characterized a list of promising candidate CAF markers that may be relevant to other carcinomas. Our novel approach provides for a fast and accurate method to identify CAF markers without the need for

  18. PDGFRβ Is a Novel Marker of Stromal Activation in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kartha, Vinay K; Stawski, Lukasz; Han, Rong; Haines, Paul; Gallagher, George; Noonan, Vikki; Kukuruzinska, Maria; Monti, Stefano; Trojanowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) form the main constituents of tumor stroma and play an important role in tumor growth and invasion. The presence of CAFs is a strong predictor of poor prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Despite significant progress in determining the role of CAFs in tumor progression, the mechanisms contributing to their activation remain poorly characterized, in part due to fibroblast heterogeneity and the scarcity of reliable fibroblast surface markers. To search for such markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), we applied a novel approach that uses RNA-sequencing data derived from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Specifically, our strategy allowed for an unbiased identification of genes whose expression was closely associated with a set of bona fide stroma-specific transcripts, namely the interstitial collagens COL1A1, COL1A2, and COL3A1. Among the top hits were genes involved in cellular matrix remodeling and tumor invasion and migration, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), which was found to be the highest-ranking receptor protein genome-wide. Similar analyses performed on ten additional TCGA cancer datasets revealed that other tumor types shared CAF markers with OSCC, including PDGFRβ, which was found to significantly correlate with the reference collagen expression in ten of the 11 cancer types tested. Subsequent immunostaining of OSCC specimens demonstrated that PDGFRβ was abundantly expressed in stromal fibroblasts of all tested cases (12/12), while it was absent in tumor cells, with greater specificity than other known markers such as alpha smooth muscle actin or podoplanin (3/11). Overall, this study identified PDGFRβ as a novel marker of stromal activation in OSCC, and further characterized a list of promising candidate CAF markers that may be relevant to other carcinomas. Our novel approach provides for a fast and accurate method to identify CAF markers without the need for

  19. Podoplanin expression in the development and progression of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Podoplanin expression is attracting interest as a marker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. We therefore investigated the expression pattern and clinical significance of podoplanin during the development and progression of laryngeal carcinomas. Results Podoplanin expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 84 patients with laryngeal premalignancies and 53 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. We found podoplanin expression extending from the basal to the suprabasal layer of the epithelium in 37 (44%) of 84 dysplastic lesions, whereas normal epithelium showed negligible expression. Patients carrying podoplanin-positive lesions had a higher laryngeal cancer incidence than those with negative expression reaching borderline statistical significance (51% versus 30%, P = 0.071). Podoplanin expression in laryngeal carcinomas exhibited two distinct patterns. 20 (38%) cases showed diffuse expression in most tumour cells and 33 (62%) focal expression at the proliferating periphery of tumour nests. High podoplanin expression was inversely correlated with T classification (P = 0.033), disease stage (P = 0.006), and pathological grade (P = 0.04). There was a trend, although not significant, towards reduced disease-specific survival for patients with low podoplanin levels (P = 0.31) and diffuse expression pattern (P = 0.08). Conclusions Podoplanin expression increases in the early stages of laryngeal tumourigenesis and it seems to be associated with a higher laryngeal cancer risk. Podoplanin expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas, however, diminishes during tumour progression. Taken together, these data support a role for podoplanin expression in the initiation but not in the progression of laryngeal cancers. PMID:20196862

  20. The Use of P63 Immunohistochemistry for the Identification of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Conde, Esther; Angulo, Bárbara; Redondo, Pilar; Toldos, Oscar; García-García, Elena; Suárez-Gauthier, Ana; Rubio-Viqueira, Belén; Marrón, Carmen; García-Luján, Ricardo; Sánchez-Céspedes, Montse; López-Encuentra, Angel; Paz-Ares, Luis; López-Ríos, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Introduction While some targeted agents should not be used in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), other agents might preferably target SCCs. In a previous microarray study, one of the top differentially expressed genes between adenocarcinomas (ACs) and SCCs is P63. It is a well-known marker of squamous differentiation, but surprisingly, its expression is not widely used for this purpose. Our goals in this study were (1) to further confirm our microarray data, (2) to analize the value of P63 immunohistochemistry (IHC) in reducing the number of large cell carcinoma (LCC) diagnoses in surgical specimens, and (3) to investigate the potential of P63 IHC to minimize the proportion of “carcinoma NOS (not otherwise specified)” in a prospective series of small tumor samples. Methods With these goals in mind, we studied (1) a tissue-microarray comprising 33 ACs and 99 SCCs on which we performed P63 IHC, (2) a series of 20 surgically resected LCCs studied for P63 and TTF-1 IHC, and (3) a prospective cohort of 66 small thoracic samples, including 32 carcinoma NOS, that were further classified by the result of P63 and TTF-1 IHC. Results The results in the three independent cohorts were as follows: (1) P63 IHC was differentially expressed in SCCs when compared to ACs (p<0.0001); (2) half of the 20 (50%) LCCs were positive for P63 and were reclassified as SCCs; and (3) all P63 positive cases (34%) were diagnosed as SCCs. Conclusions P63 IHC is useful for the identification of lung SCCs. PMID:20808915

  1. Differential DNA sequence deletions from chromosomes 3, 11, 13, and 17 in squamous-cell carcinoma, large-cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of the human lung

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, A.; Willey, J.C.; Modali, R.; Sugimura, H.; McDowell, E.M.; Resau, J.; Light, B.; Haugen, A.; Mann, D.L.; Trump, B.F.; Harris, C.C. )

    1989-07-01

    Activation of protooncogens and inactivation of putative tumor suppressor genes are genetic lesions considered to be important in lung carcinogenesis. Fifty-four cases of non-small-cell lung cancer (23 adenocarcinomas, 23 squamous-cell carcinomas, and 8 large-cell carcinomas) were examined for loss of DNA sequences at 13 polymorphic genetic loci. Loss of heterozygosity was seen more frequently in squamous-cell carcinoma than in adenocarcinoma. The loss of DNA sequences from the short arm of chromosome 17 (D17S1 locus) was detected in 8 of 9 heterozygous cases of squamous-cell carcinoma and in only 2 of 11 heterozygous cases of adenocarcinomas. Loss of DNA sequences from chromosome 3 was seen in 16 of 31 cases where the constitutive DNA was heterozygous-i.e., informative. Loss of heterozygosity at the chromosome 13q locus, D13S3, was seen in 9 of 21 informative cases, and in 2 cases, both adenocarcinomas, duplication of the intact DNA sequences suggested the possibility that mitotic recombination had occurred. Frequent DNA sequence deletions, including those from chromosome 17, in squamous-cell carcinomas may reflect the extensive mutagenic and clastogenic effects of tobacco smoke that may lead to inactivation of putative tumor-suppressor genes.

  2. Genomic characterization of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: Insights from next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yasushi; Tamura, Miyuki; Koyama, Ryota; Nakagaki, Takafumi; Adachi, Yasushi; Tokino, Takashi

    2016-02-21

    Two major types of cancer occur in the esophagus: squamous cell carcinoma, which is associated with chronic smoking and alcohol consumption, and adenocarcinoma, which typically arises in gastric reflux-associated Barrett's esophagus. Although there is increasing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in Western counties, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) accounts for most esophageal malignancies in East Asia, including China and Japan. Technological advances allowing for massively parallel, high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) of DNA have enabled comprehensive characterization of somatic mutations in large numbers of tumor samples. Recently, several studies were published in which whole exome or whole genome sequencing was performed in ESCC tumors and compared with matched normal DNA. Mutations were validated in several genes, including in TP53, CDKN2A, FAT1, NOTCH1, PIK3CA, KMT2D and NFE2L2, which had been previously implicated in ESCC. Several new recurrent alterations have also been identified in ESCC. Combining the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with information obtained from NGS studies may lead to the development of effective diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for ESCC. As this research becomes more prominent, it is important that gastroenterologist become familiar with the various NGS technologies and the results generated using these methods. In the present study, we describe recent research approaches using NGS in ESCC. PMID:26900290

  3. Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in Development and Progression of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zaid, Khaled Waleed; Chantiri, Mansour; Bassit, Ghassan

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, regulate many cellular activities including cell migration, differentiation, adhesion, proliferation and apoptosis. Use of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein?2 (rhBMP?2) in oral and maxillofacial surgery has seen a tremendous increase. Due to its role in many cellular pathways, the influence of this protein on carcinogenesis in different organs has been intensively studied over the past decade. BMPs also have been detected to have a role in the development and progression of many tumors, particularly disease-specific bone metastasis. In oral squamous cell carcinoma - the tumor type accounting for more than 90% of head and neck malignancies- aberrations of both BMP expression and associated signaling pathways have a certain relation with the development and progression of the disease by regulating a range of biological functions in the altered cells. In the current review, we discuss the influence of BMPs -especially rhBMP-2- in the development and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27039814

  4. Concurrent Presentation of Erythrodermic Lichen Planus and Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Coincidence or Malignant Transformation?

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Neema M; Bhat, Ramesh; Rao, Shwetha B

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is a common papulosquamous disorder affecting about 1-2% of the population, neoplastic transformation of cutaneous lichen planus lesions occurs very rarely. A 40 year old female patient presented with a 1 year history of developing multiple, itchy, pigmented lesions over both lower legs which gradually spread to involve the whole body. A few tense bullae were seen on the extremities. An erythematous fleshy lesion was seen on the upper aspect of the left buttock. Skin biopsy from a plaque on the right forearm showed features suggestive of lichen planus. Skin biopsy of a bullae showed a sub epidermal bulla filled with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate. Direct immunofluorescence revealed no immunoreactants along the basement membrane zone. A diagnosis of erythrodermic lichen planus with bullous lichen planus was made. Biopsy of fleshy lesion of left buttock revealed a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Erythrodermic lichen planus with bullous lesions and secondary squamous cell carcinoma; these occurences in a single patient is extremely rare and has not been previously reported to the best of our knowledge. PMID:26538691

  5. Gene expression analysis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma survival and recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Xu; Lamperska, Katarzyna; Golusinski, Paweł; Schork, Nicholas J.; Luczewski, Lukasz; Kolenda, Tomasz; Golusinski, Wojciech; Masternak, Michal M.

    2015-01-01

    The squamous cell carcinomas represent about 90 % of all head and neck cancers, ranking the sixth most common human cancer. Approximately 450,000 of new cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are diagnosed every year. Unfortunately, because of diagnosis at the advanced stages and early metastasis to the lymph nodes, the HNSCC is associated with very high death rate. Identification of signature biomarkers and molecularly targeted therapies could provide more effective and specific cancer treatment, prevent recurrence, and increase survival rate. We used paired tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples to screen with RT² Profiler™ PCR Array Human Cancer PathwayFinderTM. Total of 20 up-regulated genes and two down-regulated genes were screened out. Out of 22 genes, 12 genes were subsequently validated to be significantly altered in the HNSCC; the samples were from all 41 patients. Five year survival and recurrence selected genes that could represent the biomarkers of survival and recurrence of the disease. We believe that comprehensive understanding of the unique genetic characteristics of HNSCC could provide novel diagnostic biomarkers and meet the requirement for molecular-targeted therapy for the HNSCC. PMID:25575813

  6. Antineoplastic and Apoptotic Potential of Traditional Medicines Thymoquinone and Diosgenin in Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Das, Subhasis; Dey, Kaushik Kumar; Dey, Goutam; Pal, Ipsita; Majumder, Abhijit; MaitiChoudhury, Sujata; kundu, Subhas C.; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2012-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) and diosgenin (DG), the active ingredients obtained from black cumin (Nigella sativa) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum), respectively, exert potent bioactivity, including anticancer effects. This study investigated the antineoplastic activity of these agents against squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and sarcoma 180–induced tumors in vivo. TQ and DG inhibited cell proliferation and induced cytotoxicity in A431 and Hep2 cells. These agents induced apoptosis by increasing the sub-G1 population, LIVE/DEAD cytotoxicity, chromatin condensation, DNA laddering and TUNEL-positive cells significantly (P<0.05). Increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activation of caspases and cleavage of poly ADP ribose polymerase were observed in treated cells. These drugs inhibited Akt and JNK phosphorylations, thus inhibiting cell proliferation while inducing apoptosis. In combination, TQ and DG had synergistic effects, resulting in cell viability as low as 10%. In a mouse xenograft model, a combination of TQ and DG significantly (P<0.05) reduced tumor volume, mass and increased apoptosis. TQ and DG, alone and in combination, inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in squamous cell carcinoma. The combination of TQ and DG is a potential antineoplastic therapy in this common skin cancer. PMID:23077516

  7. Predictive value of epigenetic alterations in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koffler, Jennifer; Sharma, Sarika; Hess, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck cancer collectively describes malignant tumors originating from the mucosal surface of the upper aerodigestive tract. These tumors pose a great threat to public health because of their high incidence and mortality. Traditional risk factors are tobacco and alcohol abuse. More recently, infection by high-risk types of human papilloma virus (HPV) has been identified as an additional risk factor, especially for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Moreover, HPV-positive OPSCC is considered a distinct tumor entity with an improved clinical outcome compared to HPV-negative OPSCC. Epigenetic alterations act as key events in the pathogenesis of cancer and are of special interest for basic and translational oncology because of their reversible nature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of alterations of the epigenome in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with a focus on the methylome (hypomethylation and hypermethylation) and its predictive value in the evaluation of pathologic states and clinical outcome, or monitoring response rates to certain therapies. PMID:27308324

  8. Neck dissection for oral squamous cell carcinoma: our experience and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Yogesh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This article describes our experience with neck dissection in 10 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods Between January 2007 and October 2009, 10 patients underwent primary surgery for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. For patients with N0 disease on clinical exam, selective neck dissection (SND [I-III]) was performed. In patients with palpable cervical metastases (N+), modified radical neck dissections were performed, except in one patient in whom SND (I-III) was performed. The histopathologic reports were reviewed to assess the surgical margins, the presence of extra-capsular spread, perineural invasion, and lymphatic invasion. Results On histopathologic examination, positive soft tissue margins were found in three patients, and regional lymph node metastases were present in five of the ten patients. Perineural invasion was noted in five patients, and extra nodal spread was found in four patients. Regional recurrence was seen in two patients and loco-regional recurrence plus distant metastasis to the tibia was observed in one patient. During the study period, three patients died. Seven patients remain free of disease to date. Conclusion Histopathological evaluation provides important and reliable information for disease staging, treatment planning, and prognosis. The philosophy of neck dissection is evolving rapidly with regard to the selectivity with which at-risk lymph node groups are removed. The sample size in the present study is small, thus, caution should be employed when interpreting these results. PMID:26734556

  9. Gene expression analysis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma survival and recurrence.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Xu; Lamperska, Katarzyna; Golusinski, Paweł; Schork, Nicholas J; Luczewski, Lukasz; Kolenda, Tomasz; Golusinski, Wojciech; Masternak, Michal M

    2015-01-01

    The squamous cell carcinomas represent about 90 % of all head and neck cancers, ranking the sixth most common human cancer. Approximately 450,000 of new cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are diagnosed every year. Unfortunately, because of diagnosis at the advanced stages and early metastasis to the lymph nodes, the HNSCC is associated with very high death rate. Identification of signature biomarkers and molecularly targeted therapies could provide more effective and specific cancer treatment, prevent recurrence, and increase survival rate. We used paired tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples to screen with RT² Profiler™ PCR Array Human Cancer PathwayFinderTM . Total of 20 up-regulated genes and two down-regulated genes were screened out. Out of 22 genes, 12 genes were subsequently validated to be significantly altered in the HNSCC; the samples were from all 41 patients. Five year survival and recurrence selected genes that could represent the biomarkers of survival and recurrence of the disease. We believe that comprehensive understanding of the unique genetic characteristics of HNSCC could provide novel diagnostic biomarkers and meet the requirement for molecular-targeted therapy for the HNSCC. PMID:25575813

  10. Molecular biology of anal squamous cell carcinoma: implications for future research and clinical intervention.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Maria-Pia; Ngan, Samuel Y; Michael, Michael; Lynch, A Craig; Heriot, Alexander G; Ramsay, Robert G; Phillips, Wayne A

    2015-12-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is a human papillomavirus-related disease, in which no substantial advances in treatment have been made in over 40 years, especially for those patients who develop disease relapse and for whom no surgical options exist. HPV can evade the immune system and its role in disease progression can be exploited in novel immunotherapy platforms. Although several studies have investigated the expression and inactivation (through loss of heterozygosity) of tumour suppressor genes in the pathways to cancer, no clinically valuable biomarkers have emerged. Regulators of apoptosis, including survivin, and agents targeting the PI3K/AKT pathway, offer opportunities for targeted therapy, although robust data are scarce. Additionally, antibody therapy targeting EGFR may prove effective, although its safety profile in combination with standard chemoradiotherapy has proven to be suboptimal. Finally, progress in the treatment of anal cancer has remained stagnant due to a lack of preclinical models, including cell lines and mouse models. In this Review, we discuss the molecular biology of anal squamous cell carcinoma, clinical trials in progress, and implications for novel therapeutic targets. Future work should focus on preclinical models to provide a resource for investigation of new molecular pathways and for testing novel targets. PMID:26678214

  11. Evaluation of the antineoplastic activity of gallic acid in oral squamous cell carcinoma under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Talita A; Farias, Lucyana C; Fraga, Carlos A; Feltenberger, John D; Melo, Geraldo A; Coletta, Ricardo D; Souza Santos, Sergio H; de Paula, Alfredo M B; Guimaraes, Andre L

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and test a theoretical model that could explain the mechanism of action of gallic acid (GA) in the oral squamous cell carcinoma context for the first time. The theoretical model was developed using bioinformatics and interaction network analysis to evaluate the effect of GA on oral squamous cell carcinoma. In a second step to confirm theoretical results, migration, invasion, proliferation, and gene expression (Col1A1, E-cadherin, HIF-1α, and caspase-3) were performed under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Our study indicated that treatment with GA resulted in the inhibition of cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in neoplastic cells. Observation of the molecular mechanism showed that GA upregulates E-cadherin expression and downregulates Col1A1 and HIF-1α expression, suggesting that GA might be a potential anticancer compound. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that GA significantly reduces cell proliferation, invasion, and migration by increasing E-cadherin and repressing Col1A1. PMID:26849170

  12. A Naturally Occurring Feline Model of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wypij, Jackie M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in understanding cancer at the molecular level, timely and effective translation to clinical application of novel therapeutics in human cancer patients is lacking. Cancer drug failure is often a result of toxicity or inefficacy not predicted by preclinical models, emphasizing the need for alternative animal tumor models with improved biologic relevancy. Companion animals (dogs and cats) provide an opportunity to capitalize on an underutilized and biologically relevant translational research model which allows spontaneous disease modeling of human cancer. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a common cancer with a poor prognosis and limited clinical advancements in recent years. One potential novel spontaneous animal tumor model is feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC). FOSCC and HNSCC share similar etiopathogenesis (tobacco and papillomavirus exposure) and molecular markers (EGFR, VEGF, and p53). Both human and feline SCCs share similar tumor biology, clinical outcome, treatment, and prognosis. Future clinical trials utilizing FOSCC as a tumor model may facilitate translation of preclinical cancer research for human cancer patients. PMID:23970998

  13. The role of DAMPS in ALA-PDT for skin squamous cell carcinoma (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuli; Wang, Xiaojie; Ji, Jie; Zhang, Haiyan; Shi, Lei

    2016-03-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is an established local approach for skin squamous cell carcinoma. It is believed that dangerous signals damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) play an important role in ALA-PDT. In this study, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo expressions of major DAMPs, calreticulin (CRT), heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70), and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), induced by ALA-PDT using immunohistochemistry, western blot, and ELISA in a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) mouse model. The role of DAMPs in the maturation of DCs potentiated by ALA-PDT-treated tumor cells was detected by FACS and ELISA. Our results showed that ALA-PDT enhanced the expression of CRT, HSP70, and HMGB1. These induced DAMPs played an important role in activating DCs by PDT-treated tumor cells, including phenotypic maturation (upregulation of surface expression of MHC-II, CD80, and CD86) and functional maturation (enhanced capability to secrete IFN-γ and IL-12). Furthermore, injecting ALA-PDT-treated tumor cells into naïve mice resulted in complete protection against cancer cells of the same origin. Our findings indicate that ALA-PDT can upregulate DAMPs and enhance tumor immunogenicity, providing a promising strategy for inducing a systemic anticancer immune response.

  14. A retrospective study of (90)Strontium plesiotherapy for feline squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal planum.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Mark; Hayes, Alison; Murphy, Sue; Brearley, Malcolm

    2006-06-01

    The responses of 15 cats with histologically (n=14) or cytologically (n=1) confirmed nasal squamous cell carcinoma treated with (90)Strontium plesiotherapy were reviewed retrospectively. Cats were treated such that a total dose of 50Gy was delivered at a depth of 2mm, administered in five fractions over a 10-day period. Of the cats, 11 were stage T(2), three were T(is) and one had only a cytological diagnosis precluding staging. Eleven of the cats achieved complete response (no visible lesion after 6-8 weeks) following the first cycle of therapy, and two cats with partial response achieved complete response with a second cycle of therapy. The remaining two cats achieved partial response following therapy, but further intervention was declined. Euthanasia was performed in these two cats because of progressive disease after 81 and 142 days. Of the 85% of cats that achieved a complete response, there was no recurrence of disease during a follow-up period of 134-2,043 days (median 652 days). In addition to prolonged disease-free survivals, (90)Strontium therapy produced excellent cosmetic results from the owners' perspective. These results demonstrate that superficial squamous cell carcinoma of the feline nasal planum responds excellently to (90)Strontium plesiotherapy, and this form of therapy may offer advantages over other alternatives currently available. PMID:16442824

  15. Interstitial laser and chemotherapy combined for treatment of human squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxton, Romaine E.; Graeber, Ines P.; Suh, Michael J.; Paek, Woo H.; Paiva, Marcos B.; Castro, Dan J.

    1997-05-01

    We have tested a combined treatment for squamous cell carcinoma based on laser activation of anti-cancer drugs in human solid tumors. Cisplatinum and the new anthrapyrazole CI- 941 are reported to interact with photothermal energy. Combined intratumor drug and interstitial laser therapy were tested in nude mice bearing human squamous cell carcinomas grown as subcutaneous tumors. Cisplatinum injection (1.2 mg/500 mg tumor) 4 hours before KTP laser fiberoptic treatment (532 nm, 0.8 W, 10 sec/site, 300 J) resulted in complete tumor regression in 6/8 animals, while intratumor drug alone led to partial regression and tumor regrowth in 10/10 mice during 12 weeks followup. Laser treatment alone resulted in ablation followed by recurrence in 7/8 cases. Similar laser treatment 4 hours after injection of the light sensitive anthrapyrazole CI-941 led to complete tumor regression in 15/22 cases. CI-941 alone at drug levels up to 1.2 mg/gm tumor in 30 mice induced stasis followed by progression in all cases. Finally, tumor retention of 14C-CI-941 in mice 4 hrs after intralesional injection was 200-fold higher than via the systemic route and by 24 hrs remained 40-fold higher, but drug levels in normal tissues were reduced 10 - 100 fold. The data suggest laser chemotherapy may be a useful new treatment for human cancer.

  16. Cytokeratin-17 as a potential marker for squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Kerem, Raanan; Madah, Wahid; Sabo, Edmond; Rahat, Michal A; Greenberg, Elhanan; Elmalah, Irit

    2004-10-01

    To assess cytokeratin-17 (CK17) as an immunohistochemical marker for squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, we stained 63 tissue samples from 63 consecutive patients who were believed or suspected to have squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx for CK17 and analyzed them by computerized histomorphometry. The mean staining intensity for CK17 was significantly stronger (p < .01) in cancerous cells, dysplasia, and normal epithelium proximal to the tumor than in distal normal epithelium and polyps. The percentage of stained area, within samples taken from a single patient, was significantly higher in malignancy and dysplasia as compared to distal normal epithelium and in malignancy as compared to dysplasia and proximal normal epithelium (p < .001). The integrated optical density was significantly higher in the malignant epithelium, dysplasia, polyps, and proximal normal epithelium than in distal normal epithelium (p < .0001). We conclude that CK17 is a highly sensitive and specific immunohistochemical marker for premalignant and malignant transformation in the larynx. Further investigation is warranted in order to assess the role of CK17 in determining safe resection borders. PMID:15535145

  17. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising from Inverted Schneiderian Papilloma: A Case Report with Oral Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Alexandre Simões; Bravo-Calderón, Diego Maurício; Ferreira, Mariana Pisinato; Oliveira, Denise Tostes

    2014-01-01

    Inverted Schneiderian papilloma is an uncommon benign tumor that presents tendency to recur and propensity to be associated with malignancy in approximately 10% of the cases. Some of these lesions are isolated in the maxillary sinus, and predominantly affect white males with mean age of 50 years. We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising from inverted Schneiderian papilloma in the maxillary sinus extending to the mouth. The patient was submitted to extraction of a maxillary molar tooth four months before the exacerbation of the symptoms of nasal airway obstruction and facial enlargement. Computed tomography scan revealed a sinonasal mass causing opacification of the right maxillary sinus with destruction of the lateral nasal wall and maxillary sinus floor. The patient was referred to an oncology center for treatment and died from tumor progression one year after the cancer was diagnosed. The intention of this report is to alert dentists to include the inverted Schneiderian papilloma, either associated with squamous cell carcinoma, or not, in the differential diagnosis of maxillary sinus tumors with aggressive behavior, which may extend to the oral cavity or involve roots of teeth. PMID:25057422

  18. Distinct patterns of somatic genome alterations in lung adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Joshua D; Alexandrov, Anton; Kim, Jaegil; Wala, Jeremiah; Berger, Alice H; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Shukla, Sachet A; Guo, Guangwu; Brooks, Angela N; Murray, Bradley A; Imielinski, Marcin; Hu, Xin; Ling, Shiyun; Akbani, Rehan; Rosenberg, Mara; Cibulskis, Carrie; Ramachandran, Aruna; Collisson, Eric A; Kwiatkowski, David J; Lawrence, Michael S; Weinstein, John N; Verhaak, Roel G W; Wu, Catherine J; Hammerman, Peter S; Cherniack, Andrew D; Getz, Gad; Artyomov, Maxim N; Schreiber, Robert; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Meyerson, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    To compare lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) and to identify new drivers of lung carcinogenesis, we examined the exome sequences and copy number profiles of 660 lung ADC and 484 lung SqCC tumor-normal pairs. Recurrent alterations in lung SqCCs were more similar to those of other squamous carcinomas than to alterations in lung ADCs. New significantly mutated genes included PPP3CA, DOT1L, and FTSJD1 in lung ADC, RASA1 in lung SqCC, and KLF5, EP300, and CREBBP in both tumor types. New amplification peaks encompassed MIR21 in lung ADC, MIR205 in lung SqCC, and MAPK1 in both. Lung ADCs lacking receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras-Raf pathway alterations had mutations in SOS1, VAV1, RASA1, and ARHGAP35. Regarding neoantigens, 47% of the lung ADC and 53% of the lung SqCC tumors had at least five predicted neoepitopes. Although targeted therapies for lung ADC and SqCC are largely distinct, immunotherapies may aid in treatment for both subtypes. PMID:27158780

  19. Resistance to telomerase inhibition by human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bojovic, Bojana; Crowe, David L

    2011-04-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures at the ends of chromosomes that are composed of a repetitive G rich sequence and telomeric binding proteins. Telomeres prevent the degradation of chromosomal ends and protect against inappropriate recombination. Telomere attrition involves a tumor suppressor pathway that limits the replication of premalignant cells. The loss of telomeric DNA with each round of replication leads to growth arrest accompanied by senescence or apoptosis. Many tumor cells activate the telomerase gene to bypass senescence. Telomerase is a multisubunit ribonucleoprotein that uses an RNA template to catalyze the addition of telomeric DNA to chromosomal ends. Overexpression of the TERT subunit leads to telomere lengthening and extension of the replicative lifespan. Dominant-negative telomerase has been shown to inhibit telomerase activity in many tumor cell lines, and this is associated with telomere shortening and apoptosis. Additionally, pharmacological telomerase inhibitors have been developed which lead to progressive telomere shortening and programmed cell death. In this study, we report a series of human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines that have high telomerase activity and short telomeres. Dominant-negative telomerase expression and pharmacological telomerase inhibition failed to completely inhibit enzymatic activity which was accompanied by the lack of telomere shortening. These cells continued to proliferate and demonstrated fewer responsive genes when treated with a pharmacological telomerase inhibitor. We concluded that some human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines are resistant to telomerase inhibition. PMID:21305252

  20. Evaluation of miRNA-expression and clinical tumour parameters in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

    PubMed

    Moratin, J; Hartmann, S; Brands, R; Brisam, M; Mutzbauer, G; Scholz, C; Seher, A; Müller-Richter, U; Kübler, A C; Linz, C

    2016-07-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. The past decades have not led to substantial improvement in diagnosis and therapy. Analysis of miRNA-expression may help to determine the progression profiles and outcomes of many different diseases, including HNSCC. Therefore, in this investigation, 43 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma were micro-dissected, analysed for expression of 30 miRNAs and were compared with non-tumorous tissue. Furthermore, correlation analysis was performed, investigating possible correlations of miRNA-expression and patient or tumour-linked data, such as age, sex, tumour stage and size. miRNA extraction from FFPE samples functioned well for OSCC, and several miRNAs were differently expressed in tumours compared with non-tumorous tissue (i.e., miR-99*; miR-224; miR-205*), indicating their possible utility as biomarkers. Moreover, some miRNAs showed significant correlations with clinical and pathological data (e.g. tumour size: miR-3156, P = 0.033; T-stage: miR-212, P = 0.0009). PMID:27210505

  1. The detective, prognostic, and predictive value of DNA methylation in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kai; Cao, Baoping; Guo, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world. Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 90 % of esophageal cancer cases. Genetic and epigenetic changes have been found to accumulate during the development of various cancers, including esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC). Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are two major risk factors for ESCC, and both tobacco and alcohol were found to induce methylation changes in ESCC. Growing evidence demonstrates that aberrant epigenetic changes play important roles in the multiple-step processes of carcinogenesis and tumor progression. DNA methylation may occur in the key components of cancer-related signaling pathways. Aberrant DNA methylation affects genes involved in cell cycle, DNA damage repair, Wnt, TGF-β, and NF-κB signaling pathways, including P16, MGMT, SFRP2, DACH1, and ZNF382. Certain genes methylated in precursor lesions of the esophagus demonstrate that DNA methylation may serve as esophageal cancer early detection marker, such as methylation of HIN1, TFPI-2, DACH1, and SOX17. CHFR methylation is a late stage event in ESCC and is a sensitive marker for taxanes in human ESCC. FHIT methylation is associated with poor prognosis in ESCC. Aberrant DNA methylation changes may serve as diagnostic, prognostic, and chemo-sensitive markers. Characterization of the DNA methylome in ESCC will help to better understand its mechanisms and develop improved therapies. PMID:27110300

  2. Retinoic acid induces cells cultured from oral squamous cell carcinomas to become anti-angiogenic.

    PubMed Central

    Lingen, M. W.; Polverini, P. J.; Bouck, N. P.

    1996-01-01

    Retinoids have shown great promise as chemopreventive against the development of squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract. However, the exact mechanism by which they block new tumors from arising is unknown. Here, we report that 13-cis- and all-trans-retinoic acid, used at clinically achievable doses of 10(-6) mol/L or less, can directly and specifically affect cell lines cultured from oral squamous cell carcinomas, inducing them to switch from an angiogenic to an anti-angiogenic phenotype. Although retinoic-acid-treated and untreated tumor cells make the same amount of interleukin-8, the major inducer of neovascularization produced by such tumor lines, they vary in production of inhibitory activity. Only the retinoic-acid-treated cells produce a potent angio-inhibitory activity that is able to block in vitro migration of endothelial cells toward tumor cell conditioned media and to halt neovascularization induced by such media in the rat cornea. Anti-angiogenic activity is induced in the tumor cells by low doses of retinoids in the absence of toxicity with a kinetics that suggest that it could be contributing to the effectiveness of the retinoids as chemopreventive agents. Images Figure 6 PMID:8686749

  3. [A Case of Long-Term Survival of Advanced Esophageal Basaloid Squamous Carcinoma Invading the Trachea].

    PubMed

    Tokura, Michiyo; Yoshimura, Tetsunori; Murata, Tomohiro; Matsuyama, Takatoshi; Hoshino, Mayumi; Goto, Hiroshi; Kakimoto, Masaki; Koshiishi, Haruya

    2015-11-01

    A woman in her 50s complained of dysphagia and was diagnosed with locally advanced esophageal cancer in the middle and upper thoracic esophagus, invading the tracheal bronchus. The biopsy indicated esophageal basaloid squamous carcinoma. The pretreatment diagnosis was cT4N2M0, cStage Ⅳa. She was treated with systemic chemotherapy consisting of FAP (5-fluorouracil [5-FU], doxorubicin [DXR] and cisplatin[CDDP]), which resulted in significant tumor shrinkage. One year later, the tumor regrew, and nedaplatin (CDGP) plus docetaxel (DOC) was administered as second-line chemotherapy. The patient complained of dysphagia during the course of chemotherapy, and received radiation therapy for the residual tumor, which again significantly shrunk. Four years after the first round of chemotherapy, the patient can take oral nutrition, and is continuing to undergo chemotherapy. This is a case of long-term survival of locally advanced esophageal cancer of basaloid squamous carcinoma. Effective chemotherapy and radiation can improve the treatment outcome. PMID:26805208

  4. Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 expression correlates to tumor staging in tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    de Carli, Marina-Lara; Sperandio, Felipe-Fornias; Hanemann, João-Adolfo-Costa; Pereira, Alessandro-Antônio-Costa

    2015-01-01

    Background The immunohistochemical expression of Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 were analyzed in tongue squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), relating them to the clinical and morphological exhibition of these tumors. Material and Methods Twenty-nine patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria; clinical data included gender, age, ethnicity and use of licit drugs such as alcohol and tobacco. The TNM staging and histopathological differentiation grading was assessed for each case. In addition, T1 patients were gathered with T2 patients; and T3 patients were gathered with T4 patients to assemble two distinct groups: (T1/T2) and (T3/T4). Results The mean follow-up time was 24 months and 30% of the patients died as a consequence of the disease, while 23.3% lived with the disease and 46.7% lived lesion-free. T1 and T2 tumors showed statistically lesser Ki-67 and Cyclin D1 staining when compared to T3 and T4 tumors. Conclusions Ki-67 and Cyclin D1 pose as auxiliary tools when determining the progression of tongue SCC at the time of diagnosis. Key words:Carcinoma, squamous cell, cyclin D, immunohistochemistry, Ki-67 antigen, prognosis. PMID:26449430

  5. Targeted silencing of CXCR4 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yuansheng; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Longlong; Zhou, Xuan; He, Qinghua; Liu, Su; Yue, Kai; Wang, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant overexpression of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is a critical event during tumor metastasis. It has been previously reported that the expression of CXCR4 is linked with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues derived from patients. The present study addresses the role of CXCR4 in EMT in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCCA) cells in vitro and in xenograft models. Small interfering (si) RNA sequences targeting the CXCR4 gene were transfected into TSCCA cells. Cell migration, invasion, apoptosis and EMT markers were determined in TSCCA cells using wound healing and Transwell assays, Annexin V/propdidum iodide double staining and western blot analysis, respectively. In vivo, tumor growth was assessed by subcutaneous inoculation of cells into BALB/c nude mice. Phenotypic EMT markers and regulatory factors were detected in the tumor tissues derived from the mice. In vitro, silencing of CXCR4 expression suppressed cell migration and invasion, and induced apoptosis. The protein expression of the EMT-associated markers N-cadherin and matrix metalloproteinases 2/9 were attenuated, while E-cadherin was increased. In vivo, CXCR4 siRNA inhibited tumor growth, and EMT-associated proteins had similar expression patterns to the experimental results observed in vitro. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that CXCR4 silencing suppressed EMT in OSCC, thus affecting tumor metastasis. PMID:27602138

  6. Genomic characterization of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: Insights from next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Yasushi; Tamura, Miyuki; Koyama, Ryota; Nakagaki, Takafumi; Adachi, Yasushi; Tokino, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Two major types of cancer occur in the esophagus: squamous cell carcinoma, which is associated with chronic smoking and alcohol consumption, and adenocarcinoma, which typically arises in gastric reflux-associated Barrett’s esophagus. Although there is increasing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in Western counties, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) accounts for most esophageal malignancies in East Asia, including China and Japan. Technological advances allowing for massively parallel, high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) of DNA have enabled comprehensive characterization of somatic mutations in large numbers of tumor samples. Recently, several studies were published in which whole exome or whole genome sequencing was performed in ESCC tumors and compared with matched normal DNA. Mutations were validated in several genes, including in TP53, CDKN2A, FAT1, NOTCH1, PIK3CA, KMT2D and NFE2L2, which had been previously implicated in ESCC. Several new recurrent alterations have also been identified in ESCC. Combining the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with information obtained from NGS studies may lead to the development of effective diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for ESCC. As this research becomes more prominent, it is important that gastroenterologist become familiar with the various NGS technologies and the results generated using these methods. In the present study, we describe recent research approaches using NGS in ESCC. PMID:26900290

  7. Oncologic Outcomes of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Scalp Requiring Resection of Cranial Bone.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Andrea; Walker, Ronald; Varvares, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Objectives To identify the recurrence rates and survival outcomes of patients with invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp. Methods This study was a retrospective chart review of eight patients that had squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp with either periosteal or skull invasion on clinical and/or radiographic evaluation. Results The disease-free survival was 62.5% (5/8 patients) with a local control rate of 75% (6/8 patients) for the entire group. The two patients with full-thickness craniectomy had a local control rate of 100% (2/2 patients); the patients with outer cortex removal had a local control rate of 66.7% (4/6 patients). The disease-free survival of the full-thickness group was 50% (1/2 patients ), and the disease-free survival of the outer cortex removal patients was 66.7% (4/6 patients). Conclusion Despite the invasive nature of this disease, a high degree of local control can be achieved in this high-risk group with multiple comorbidities using outer cortex drilldown, and, in properly selected patients, full-thickness calvarial resection. We conclude that for patients without evidence of medullary involvement that outer table drilldown offers a well-tolerated approach with reasonable oncologic control. PMID:26807618

  8. Desmosomal component expression in normal, dysplastic, and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Nagamani; Gist, Julie; Smith, Tyler; Tylka, Daniel; Trogdon, Gavin; Wahl, James K

    2010-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (oral SCC) is the most common oral cancer in the U.S., affecting nearly 30,000 Americans each year. Despite recent advances in detection and treatment, there has been little improvement in the five-year survival rate for this devastating disease. Oral cancer may be preceded by premalignant disease that appears histologically as dysplasia. Identification of molecular markers for cellular change would assist in determining the risk of dysplasia progressing to oral squamous cell carcinoma. The goal of this study was to determine if any correlation exists between histological diagnosed dysplasia and OSCC lesions and altered expression of desmosomal cell-cell adhesion molecules in the oral epithelium. Our data showed that oral SCC tissue samples showed decreased immunoreactivity of both desmoplakin and plakophilin-1 proteins compared to normal oral epithelium. Furthermore, significant decrease in desmoplakin immunoreactivity was observed in dysplastic tissue compared to normal oral epithelium. In contrast, the level of desmoglein-1 staining was unchanged between samples however desmoglein-1 was found localized to cell borders in oral SCC samples. These data suggest that changes in expression of desmoplakin and plakophilin-1 may prove to be a useful marker for changes in tissue morphology and provide a tool for identifying pre-neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:20585603

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac in a spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta).

    PubMed

    Goodnight, Andrea L; Traslavina, Ryan P; Emanuelson, Karen; Affolter, Verena K; Gaffney, Patricia M; Vernau, William; Williams, Colette; Wu, Connie I-kuan; Sturges, Beverly K; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2013-12-01

    A 25-yr-old spayed female spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) developed intermittent right pelvic limb lameness that persisted following conservative medical therapy. No obvious musculoskeletal lesions were noted on initial physical exam; however, spinal radiography was suspicious for possible intervertebral degenerative joint disease or discospondylitis. Despite prolonged medical therapy, the lameness progressed to minimal weight bearing and marked muscle atrophy of the right pelvic limb. Electromyography showed spontaneous activity in the muscles of right sciatic nerve distribution. Sensory and motor nerve conduction velocities in the right tibial and peroneal nerves were undetectable and markedly reduced, respectively. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed a large, space-occupying mass on the right side of the sacrum and pelvis. Antemortem fine-needle aspiration of the mass and postmortem histopathology resulted in diagnosis of a high-grade squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac is very rare in domestic dogs and previously unreported in spotted hyenas. PMID:24450071

  10. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Squamous Carcinoma of Oral Cavity: a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Sadighi, Sanambar; Keyhani, Amanolah; Harirchi, Iraj; Garajei, Ata; Aghili, Mahdi; Kazemian, Ali; Motiee Langroudi, Maziar; Zendehdel, Kazem; Nikparto, Nariman

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of adding neoadjuvant chemotherapy to surgery and radiation therapy for locally advanced resectable oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, 24 patients with T3 or T4a oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma were randomly assigned to surgery alone or Docetaxel, Cisplatin, and 5-FU (TPF) induction chemotherapy followed by surgery. All patients were planned to receive chemoradiotherapy after surgery. The primary end-points were organ preservation and progression-free-survival. SPSS version 17 was used for data analysis. Median follow-up was 16 months. The median age of the patients was 62 years old (23-75 years). Man/woman ratio was 1.13. The primary site of the tumor was the tongue in most patients (48%). No significant difference was observed between pathologic characteristics of the two groups. Chemotherapy group showed 16% complete pathologic response to TPF. No significant difference in organ preservation surgery or overall survival was detected. However, the patients in the chemotherapy group had longer progression-free-survival (P=0.014). Surgery followed by chemoradiotherapy with or without TPF induction results in similar survival time. However, progression-free-survival improves with the TPF induction chemotherapy. Studies with more patents and new strategies are recommended to evaluate organ preservation improvement and long-term outcomes. PMID:26069178

  11. p63 and E-cadherin Expression in Canine Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mestrinho, L A; Pissarra, H; Faísca, P B; Bragança, M; Peleteiro, M C; Niza, M M R E

    2015-07-01

    The expression of p63 and E-cadherin was studied in 22 oral squamous cell carcinomas in the dog according to immunohistochemical techniques. The association between these markers and clinicopathologic parameters was assessed. All tumor cells studied showed enhanced p63 expression. Regarding E-cadherin expression, 17 of 22 cases (77.3%) showed decreased immunoreactivity, and in 13 of 22 cases (59.1%), its expression was cytoplasmic. Neither p63 nor E-cadherin expression patterns were associated with tumor size, bone invasion, or lymph node metastasis. p63 score was related to proliferating cell nuclear antigen proliferative index (P = .020). A statistically significant correlation between the expression patterns of these 2 markers was noted (P = .026). Furthermore, they were related with tumor grade. An atypical p63 labeling and a cytoplasmic E-cadherin staining were statistically related with a higher tumor grade (P = .022 and P = .017, respectively). These findings suggest that changes in p63 and E-cadherin expression are frequent events in oral squamous cell carcinoma in dogs. PMID:25248518

  12. SU-E-P-18: Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Cervical Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, W; Qiao, X; Zhou, Z; Song, Y; Zhang, R; Zhen, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively analyze the outcomes and prognostic factors of cervical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: Thirty-seven patients with cervical esophageal SCC treated with IMRT were analyzed retrospectively. They received 54–66 Gy in 27–32 fractions. Nineteen patients received concurrent (n=12) or sequential (n=7) platinum-based two drugs chemoradiotherapy. Overall survival (OS), local control rates (LCR) and prognostic factors were evaluated. Acute toxicities and patterns of first failures were observed. Results: The median follow-up was 46 months for alive patients. The l-, 3-, 4- and 5-year OS of the all patients were 83.8%, 59.1%, 47.5% and 32.6% respectively. The median survival time was 46 months. The l-, 3-,4- and 5-year LCR were 82.9%, 63.0%, 54.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Univariate and Multivariate analysis all showed that size of GTV was an independent prognostic factor (p=0.033, p=0.039). There were no patients with Grade 3 acute radiation esophagitis and Grade 2–4 acute pneumonitis. The local failure accounted for 70.0% of all treatment-related failures. Conclusion: IMRT is safe and effective in the treatment of cervical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Size of GTV is an independent prognostic factor. Local failure still remains the main reason of treatment failures. The authors declare no conflicts of interest in preparing this article.

  13. Saracatinib Impairs Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Invasion by Disrupting Invadopodia Function

    PubMed Central

    Ammer, Amanda Gatesman; Kelley, Laura C.; Hayes, Karen E.; Evans, Jason V.; Lopez-Skinner, Lesly Ann; Martin, Karen H.; Frederick, Barbara; Rothschild, Brian L.; Raben, David; Elvin, Paul; Green, Tim P.; Weed, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated Src kinase activity is linked to the progression of solid tumors, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Src regulates HNSCC proliferation and tumor invasion, with the Src-targeted small molecule inhibitor saracatinib displaying potent anti-invasive effects in preclinical studies. However, the pro-invasive cellular mechanism(s) perturbed by saracatinib are unclear. The anti-proliferative and anti-invasive effects of saracatinib on HNSCC cell lines were therefore investigated in pre-clinical cell and mouse model systems. Saracatinib treatment inhibited growth, cell cycle progression and transwell Matrigel invasion in HNSCC cell lines. Dose-dependent decreases in Src activation and phosphorylation of the invasion-associated substrates focal adhesion kinase, p130 CAS and cortactin were also observed. While saracatinib did not significantly impact HNSCC tumor growth in a mouse orthotopic model of tongue squamous cell carcinoma, impaired perineural invasion and cervical lymph node metastasis was observed. Accordingly, saracatinib treatment displayed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on invadopodia formation, extracellular matrix degradation and matrix metalloprotease 9 activation. These results suggest that inhibition of Src kinase by saracatinib impairs the pro-invasive activity of HNSCC by inhibiting Src substrate phosphorylation important for invadopodia formation and associated matrix metalloprotease activity. PMID:20505783

  14. Analytical assessment of the novel Maglumi squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) immunoluminometric assay

    PubMed Central

    Dipalo, Mariella; Gnocchi, Cecilia; Aloe, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    Background The demand for routine measurement of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) is rapidly increasing in clinical laboratories, due to the central role that this biomarker plays in staging and monitoring patients with various forms of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Methods The present analytical evaluation of Maglumi SCCA was aimed to assess the imprecision, linearity and comparability against a widely used technique. Results The intra- and inter-assay imprecision was comprised between 2.6-4.2% and between 5.0-7.3%, respectively. The linearity of the test was excellent in the range of SCC values comprised between 1.0 and 18.0 ng/mL (r=0.998; P<0.001). A highly significant correlation was observed between Maglumi SCCA and BRAHMS Kryptor SCC in the range of values comprised between 0.44 and 15.18 ng/mL (r=0.960; P<0.001). The mean bias was 0.79 ng/mL (95% CI, 0.61-0.97) and the diagnostic agreement at the respective diagnostic cut-offs was 95%. Conclusions The results of this study confirm that Maglumi SCCA may be regarded as a suitable alternative to Kryptor SCC for routine and fully-automated assessment of SCCA in clinical laboratories. PMID:26807406

  15. Ileal Intussusception Due to Metastasis from Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung Resected 12 Years Previously.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tomoki; Chino, Osamu; Tajima, Takayuki; Tanaka, Yoichi; Yokoyama, Daiki; Hanashi, Tomoko; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu

    2015-12-01

    An 88-year-old woman, with a history of resection of stage IIA lung cancer in 1998, was referred to our hospital in August 2010 complaining of upper abdominal pain, vomiting, and dark brown stools. After endoscopic examination, she was admitted with a diagnosis of Mallory-Weiss syndrome. Vomiting occurred when food intake was resumed after fasting. Intestinal obstruction was suspected on abdominal radiography, and complete small bowel obstruction was confirmed by contrast-enhanced imaging after placement of an ileus tube. A small intestinal tumor with intussusception was detected by computed tomography. At laparotomy, there was no ascites. Intussusception was found due to an ileal tumor located approximately 50 cm from the ileocecal valve, and we performed partial small bowel resection. The resected small intestine contained a submucosal tumor approximately 40 mm in diameter that had penetrated the bowel wall to reach the serosa. Pathological examination revealed a submucosal tumor that showed poor continuity with the surrounding mucosa, while the histology was squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry showed that the tumor was CK7 positive, CK20 negative, TTF-1 negative, and CK10 positive. Based on these findings, we made a diagnosis of small intestinal metastasis at 12 years after radical resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. PMID:26662663

  16. Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Veliparib in Treating Patients With Stage IV Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-20

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Tongue Carcinoma

  17. Knockdown of S100A7 reduces lung squamous cell carcinoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guijuan; Wu, Qiang; Liu, Guilan; Song, Xueying; Zhang, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: S100A7 plays a role in the malignant potential of several epithelial cancers, and could candidate diagnostic marker or therapeutic target. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) regulates cancer cell growth and is modulated by phospholipase activity in many cancer cells. In the present study, we first evaluate the involvement of S100A7 in lung squamous cell carcinoma and its clinical usefulness for diagnosis. We then study whether knockdown of S100A7 in lung squamous cell carcinoma cells would reduce cell proliferation and NF-κB activity in vitro and attenuate tumor growth in vivo. Methods: We examined S100A7 expression in lung squamous cell carcinoma tissues by immunohistology .The human lung squamous cell carcinoma cell line NCI-H520 were transduced with short hairpin RNA targeting S100A7. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting confirmed knockdown of S100A7 messenger RNA and protein, respectively. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the MTT assay. NF-κB phosphorylation was assayed by western blot. 1×106 of NCI-H520/S100A7 knockdown cells were injected into the left flanks of nude mice (aged 6 to 8 weeks). Tumors were followed for 35 days, then removed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, stained with Ki-67, and analyzed for S100A7 protein expression. Results: S100A7 protein levels were significantly higher in carcinoma specimens than in nonneoplastic tissues. S100A7 might be a useful marker for diagnosis of lung squamous cell carcinoma. In vitro data showed that inhibition of S100A7 decreased proliferation of NCI-H520 cells. S100A7 knockdown reduced NF-κB phosphorylation and tumor growth in vivo and vivo. Explanted knockdown tumors maintained lower S100A7 levels compared with wild-type, confirmed by immunohistology. Ki-67 staining was more prominent throughout the wild-type tumors compared with knockdown tumors. Conclusions: Our present results suggest that S100A7 level is a promising tool for diagnosis of lung

  18. Overview of Current Treatment Options and Investigational Targeted Therapies for Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck.

    PubMed

    Zibelman, Matthew; Mehra, Ranee

    2016-08-01

    Patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) typically present with locally advanced (LA) stage III or IV disease and are treated with combined-modality therapy with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery (if resectable). These aggressive, upfront treatment measures are often associated with substantial morbidity, and about half the patients develop locoregional or distant recurrences. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are needed that offer similar efficacy benefits with less toxicity. Current research is focused on selectively targeting signaling pathways involved in the proliferation and malignant transformation of SCCHN cells and the tumor microenvironment. For example, the ErbB receptor pathway has been implicated in the development and progression of SCCHN, and several agents targeting this pathway and downstream effectors are in various phases of clinical investigation. Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is the only currently approved targeted therapy for the treatment of LA SCCHN. Additional agents targeting EGFR and other ErbB family members, including monoclonal antibodies (eg, panitumumab, nimotuzumab) and small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (eg, erlotinib, afatinib, lapatinib) are being studied in LA SCCHN with varying results. Other treatment strategies for LA SCCHN include targeting downstream effectors of signaling and resistance mechanisms to EGFR inhibitors (eg, mammalian target of rapamycin, Src family, and Aurora kinase family). Data from ongoing and future clinical trials will continue to refine current treatment paradigms for LA SCCHN and provide new therapeutic options and potential predictive biomarkers to improve patient efficacy and safety and abrogate resistance. PMID:26967327

  19. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Predictor of Outcome in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients With Nodal Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla-Dave, Amita; Lee, Nancy Y.; Jansen, Jacobus F.A.; Thaler, Howard T.; Stambuk, Hilda E.; Fury, Matthew G.; Patel, Snehal G.; Moreira, Andre L.; Sherman, Eric; Karimi, Sasan; Wang, Ya; Kraus, Dennis; Shah, Jatin P.; Pfister, David G.; and others

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) can provide information regarding tumor perfusion and permeability and has shown prognostic value in certain tumors types. The goal of this study was to assess the prognostic value of pretreatment DCE-MRI in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients with nodal disease undergoing chemoradiation therapy or surgery. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma and neck nodal metastases were eligible for the study. Pretreatment DCE-MRI was performed on a 1.5T MRI. Clinical follow-up was a minimum of 12 months. DCE-MRI data were analyzed using the Tofts model. DCE-MRI parameters were related to treatment outcome (progression-free survival [PFS] and overall survival [OS]). Patients were grouped as no evidence of disease (NED), alive with disease (AWD), dead with disease (DOD), or dead of other causes (DOC). Prognostic significance was assessed using the log-rank test for single variables and Cox proportional hazards regression for combinations of variables. Results: At last clinical follow-up, for Stage III, all 12 patients were NED. For Stage IV, 43 patients were NED, 4 were AWD, 11 were DOD, and 4 were DOC. K{sup trans} is volume transfer constant. In a stepwise Cox regression, skewness of K{sup trans} (volume transfer constant) was the strongest predictor for Stage IV patients (PFS and OS: p <0.001). Conclusion: Our study shows that skewness of K{sup trans} was the strongest predictor of PFS and OS in Stage IV HNSCC patients with nodal disease. This study suggests an important role for pretreatment DCE-MRI parameter K{sup trans} as a predictor of outcome in these patients.

  20. Increased Incidence of Squamous Cell Carcinomas in Mastomys natalensis Papillomavirus E6 Transgenic Mice during Two-Stage Skin Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Helfrich, Iris; Chen, Min; Schmidt, Rainer; Fürstenberger, Gerhard; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Trick, David; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; zur Hausen, Harald; Rösl, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Papillomaviruses cause certain forms of human cancers, most notably carcinomas of the uterine cervix. In contrast to the well-established involvement of papillomavirus infection in the etiology of cervical carcinomas and in carcinomas of a rare hereditary condition, epidermodysplasia verruciformis, a causative role for cutaneous human papillomavirus types in the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer has not been proven. In order to better understand the functions of individual genes of cutaneous papillomavirus types, we generated transgenic mice carrying oncogene E6 of the Mastomys natalensis papillomavirus (MnPV), which causes keratoacanthomas of the skin in its natural host. In the present study, we demonstrate that under conditions of experimental two-stage skin carcinogenesis, fast-paced squamous cell carcinomas develop in nearly 100% of MnPV E6 transgenic mice in comparison to 10% in their nontransgenic littermates (log rank test; P < 0.0001). Therefore, we conclude that the MnPV E6 transgene favors the malignant progression of chemically induced tumors. Whereas an activating H-ras mutation is a consistent feature in benign and malignant tumors in wild-type mice, the majority of papillomas and keratoacanthomas and all squamous cell carcinomas obtained in MnPV E6 transgenic mice contain nonmutated ras alleles. These results indicate that the development of squamous cell carcinomas in MnPV E6 transgenic mice does not depend on an activated H-ras oncogene. PMID:15078961

  1. ANG Promotes Proliferation and Invasion of the Cell of Lung Squamous Carcinoma by Directly Up-Regulating HMGA2

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Liao, Wei-Lin; Lu, Qi-Jue; Li, Chun-Guang; Yuan, Yang; Xu, Zhi-Yun; Huang, Sheng-Dong; Chen, He-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the mechanism of Angiogenin(ANG) function involved in the carcinogenesis of lung squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: 12 patients' normal tissue and cancerous tissue were collected. ANG expression in the squamous cell carcinoma of the lung was evaluated by qRT-PCR and western-blot. The regulation of ANG on proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of SK-MES-1 cells were analyzed by Cell Counting Kit-8, Transwell migration chamber, Transwell invasion chamber, and Annexin V-FITC assay, respectively. PCR array was utilized for screening potential target genes of ANG. Chromatin immunoprecipitation(ChIP) assays and luciferase assay were adopted for investigation of ANG's direct regulation on HMGA2. Results: ANG expression is increased in the squamous cell carcinoma of the lung tissue. In vitro experiments results indicated that overexpression of ANG promotes proliferation and invasion capability of SK-MES-1 cells. The candidate proliferation, migration, and invasion related ANG target gene found was HMGA2, expression levels of which were also enhanced in lung squamous cell carcinoma tissue. The direct regulation of ANG on HMGA2 was verified by ChIP and luciferase assay results. Furthermore, down-regulating HMGA2 significantly alleviated the suppression effects of ANG on proliferation, migration, and invasion of SK-MES-1 cells. Conclusions: Our data illustrated the mechanisms that ANG promoted the cell of SQCLC proliferation, migration, and invasion capacity via directly up-regulating HMGA2. PMID:27162546

  2. Poor prognostic value of lymphovascular invasion for pT1 urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation in bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Song, Hualin; Wang, Jiaxin; Bao, Yali; Niu, Yuanjie

    2016-01-01

    Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is the primary and essential step in the systemic dissemination of cancer cells. The aim of our study was to assess the independent prognostic role of LVI for pT1 urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation in bladder cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and pathological information of 206 patients diagnosed pT1 urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. Of the 206 patients, LVI was detected in 57 (27.6%) patients. The 5 year cancer specific survival (CSS) rates were 87.2% in LVI (−) and 52.4% in LVI (+) (p < 0.001). According to univariate analysis, tumor multiplicity, tumor size, recurrence and LVI were the prognostic factors associated with CSS. Additionally, tumor size and LVI significantly influenced the CSS in multivariate analysis. TURBT had shorter median CSS than RC in recurred patients with LVI (+). Our study suggested that LVI is an important predictor for survival of pT1 urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. LVI positive status and tumor size ≥3 cm led to a higher risk of death. RC should be routinely performed in recurred LVI (+) bladder cancer patients of pT1 urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. PMID:27279531

  3. Microsatellite alteration in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients from a betel quid-prevalent region

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jin-Ching; Wang, Chen-Chi; Jiang, Rong-San; Wang, Wen-Yi; Liu, Shih-An

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the frequency of microsatellite alteration and their impact on survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients from an endemic betel quid chewing area. We collected 116 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma specimens along with corresponding surgical margins which were confirmed by pathological examination. Ten oligonucleotide markers were chosen for the assessment of microsatellite alteration. The specimens were amplified by polymerase chain reaction followed by automatic fragment analysis. There were 44 specimens (37.9%) with microsatellite instability (MSI) in at least one marker while more than half of the specimens (n = 68, 58.6%) had loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in at least one marker. Though MSI/LOH was not correlated with the survival of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients, presence of MSI in the tumor-free surgical margins was associated with local recurrence (odds ratio: 15.14; 95% confidence interval: 6.451 ~ 35.53; P < 0.001). Genomic assessment of surgical margin can help surgeons to identify head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients who are at risk of developing local recurrence in a betel quid-prevalent region. PMID:27009367

  4. Microsatellite alteration in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients from a betel quid-prevalent region.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-Ching; Wang, Chen-Chi; Jiang, Rong-San; Wang, Wen-Yi; Liu, Shih-An

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the frequency of microsatellite alteration and their impact on survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients from an endemic betel quid chewing area. We collected 116 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma specimens along with corresponding surgical margins which were confirmed by pathological examination. Ten oligonucleotide markers were chosen for the assessment of microsatellite alteration. The specimens were amplified by polymerase chain reaction followed by automatic fragment analysis. There were 44 specimens (37.9%) with microsatellite instability (MSI) in at least one marker while more than half of the specimens (n = 68, 58.6%) had loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in at least one marker. Though MSI/LOH was not correlated with the survival of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients, presence of MSI in the tumor-free surgical margins was associated with local recurrence (odds ratio: 15.14; 95% confidence interval: 6.451 ~ 35.53; P < 0.001). Genomic assessment of surgical margin can help surgeons to identify head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients who are at risk of developing local recurrence in a betel quid-prevalent region. PMID:27009367

  5. Development of multifocal squamous cell carcinoma in lichen sclerosus et atrophicus of the penis associated to HCV hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Ena, P; Lorrai, P; Pintus, A; Marras, V; Dessy, L A

    2004-02-01

    We describe the case of a 59-year-old uncircumcised man, with a history of meatal stenosis and balanitis xerotica obliterans (lichen sclerosus et atrophicus) and human C virus hepatitis, who developed an infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. The relationship among these conditions is discussed. PMID:14871263

  6. Squamous cell carcinoma and suspect peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a 10-year-old Paint horse

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    A round mass 4 cm in diameter was present on the proximal rostro-lateral border of the right pinna of a 10-year-old, gelded, Paint horse. A preliminary histopathological diagnosis of a potential squamous cell carcinoma and peripheral nerve sheath tumor was made, and the lesion was resected at the base of the lateral edge of the ear. PMID:20119546

  7. Poor prognostic value of lymphovascular invasion for pT1 urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Song, Hualin; Wang, Jiaxin; Bao, Yali; Niu, Yuanjie

    2016-01-01

    Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is the primary and essential step in the systemic dissemination of cancer cells. The aim of our study was to assess the independent prognostic role of LVI for pT1 urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation in bladder cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and pathological information of 206 patients diagnosed pT1 urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. Of the 206 patients, LVI was detected in 57 (27.6%) patients. The 5 year cancer specific survival (CSS) rates were 87.2% in LVI (-) and 52.4% in LVI (+) (p < 0.001). According to univariate analysis, tumor multiplicity, tumor size, recurrence and LVI were the prognostic factors associated with CSS. Additionally, tumor size and LVI significantly influenced the CSS in multivariate analysis. TURBT had shorter median CSS than RC in recurred patients with LVI (+). Our study suggested that LVI is an important predictor for survival of pT1 urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. LVI positive status and tumor size ≥3 cm led to a higher risk of death. RC should be routinely performed in recurred LVI (+) bladder cancer patients of pT1 urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. PMID:27279531

  8. Study of Collagen Birefringence in Different Grades of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using Picrosirius Red and Polarized Light Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Arun Gopinathan, Pillai; Kokila, Ganganna; Jyothi, Mahadesh; Ananjan, Chatterjee; Pradeep, Linganna; Humaira Nazir, Salroo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was done to evaluate birefringence pattern of collagen fibres in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma using Picrosirius red stain and polarization microscopy and to determine if there is a change in collagen fibres between different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods. Picrosirius red stained 5 μm thick sections of previously diagnosed different grades of squamous cell carcinoma and normal oral mucosa were studied under polarization microscopy for arrangement as well as birefringence of collagen fibres around tumour islands. Results. It was found that thin collagen fibres increased and thick collagen fibres decreased with dedifferentiation of OSCC (P < 0.0001). It was observed that there was change in polarization colours of thick fibres from yellowish orange to greenish yellow with dedifferentiation of OSCC indicating loosely packed fibres (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. There was a gradual change of birefringence of collagen from yellowish orange to greenish yellow from well to poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, indicating that there is a change from mature form of collagen to immature form as tumour progresses. Studying collagen fibres with Picrosirius red for stromal changes around tumour islands along with routine staining may help in predicting the prognosis of tumour. PMID:26587310

  9. [Establishment and characterization of cell lines derived from nude mice transplanted squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix].

    PubMed

    Imanishi, K; Kato, Y; Karasaki, S; Yoshida, R; Kawana, T; Mizuno, M

    1990-06-01

    Two human cell lines, KIMI-1 and -2 were established from nude mice transplanted tumor originated from a human squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. These two cell lines have different shapes, chromosome numbers and tumor markers, respectively. PMID:2085478

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma at maxillary sinus: clinicopathologic data in a single Brazilian institution with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Marcello Roter M; Servato, João Paulo S; Cardoso, Sérgio Vitorino; de Faria, Paulo Rogério; Eisenberg, Ana Lúcia A; Dias, Fernando Luiz; Loyola, Adriano Mota

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma arising at maxillary sinus is a rare neoplasm, characterized by aggressive growth pattern and glooming prognosis. There are no studies describing specifically its epidemiology in the South America. The aim of the current paper is to characterize a Brazilian maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma sample and to compare such data with others worldwide relevant series. The records of the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (1997-2006) were gathered and plotted. Additionally, an extensive literature review was carry out using electronic database (PUBMED/MEDLINE and LILACS) over a period of 54 years. A descriptive statistics and univariate survival test (log rank) were employed. Maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest malignancy of sinonasal epithelium found. It affected mainly mid-age white men and most of them were diagnosed at advanced stage. Surgery combined with radiotherapy was the most therapeutic modalities given. The overall mortality rate in our sample was of 65.5%. Overall 1-, 2- and 5-year survival rate was 57.9%, 44.8%, and 17.7%, respectively. Maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma is an aggressive tumor normally diagnosed at the advanced stage and most patients present an unfavorable prognosis and reduced survival rate. PMID:25674251

  11. Vitamin D Repletion Reduces the Progression of Premalignant Squamous Lesions in the NTCU Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Mazzilli, Sarah A; Hershberger, Pamela A; Reid, Mary E; Bogner, Paul N; Atwood, Kristopher; Trump, Donald L; Johnson, Candace S

    2015-10-01

    The chemopreventive actions of vitamin D were examined in the N-nitroso-tris-chloroethylurea (NTCU) mouse model, a progressive model of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SWR/J mice were fed a deficient diet (D) containing no vitamin D3, a sufficient diet (S) containing 2,000 IU/kg vitamin D3, or the same diets in combination with the active metabolite of vitamin D, calcitriol (C; 80 μg/kg, weekly). The percentage (%) of the mucosal surface of large airways occupied by dysplastic lesions was determined in mice after treatment with a total dose of 15 or 25 μmol NTCU (N). After treatment with 15 μmol NTCU, the percentages of the surface of large airways containing high-grade dysplastic (HGD) lesions were vitamin D-deficient + NTCU (DN), 22.7% [P < 0.05 compared with vitamin D-sufficient +NTCU (SN)]; DN + C, 12.3%; SN, 8.7%; and SN + C, 6.6%. The extent of HGD increased with NTCU dose in the DN group. Proliferation, assessed by Ki-67 labeling, increased upon NTCU treatment. The highest Ki-67 labeling index was seen in the DN group. As compared with SN mice, DN mice exhibited a three-fold increase (P < 0.005) in circulating white blood cells (WBC), a 20% (P < 0.05) increase in IL6 levels, and a four-fold (P < 0.005) increase in WBC in bronchial lavages. Thus, vitamin D repletion reduces the progression of premalignant lesions, proliferation, and inflammation, and may thereby suppress development of lung SCC. Further investigations of the chemopreventive effects of vitamin D in lung SCC are warranted. PMID:26276745

  12. Evaluation of the 7th edition of the TNM classification in patients with resected esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Nan; Zheng, Qing-Feng; Yan, Shi; Lv, Chao; Li, Shao-Lei; Yang, Yue

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prognostic factors and tumor stages of the 7th edition TNM classification for esophageal cancer. METHODS: In total, 1033 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) who underwent surgical resection with or without (neo)adjuvant therapy between January 2003 and June 2012 at the Thoracic Surgery Department II of the Beijing Cancer Hospital, Beijing, China were included in this study. The following eligibility criteria were applied: (1) squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction identified by histopathological examination; (2) treatment with esophagectomy plus lymphadenectomy with curative intent; and (3) complete pathologic reports and follow-up data. Patients who underwent non-curative (R1) resection and patients who died in hospital were excluded. Patients who received (neo)adjuvant therapy were also included in this analysis. All patients were restaged using the 7th edition of the Union for International Cancer Control and the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging systems. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the prognostic factors for survival. Survival curves were plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test was used to evaluate differences between the subgroups. RESULTS: Of the 1033 patients, 273 patients received (neo)adjuvant therapy, and 760 patients were treated with surgery alone. The median follow-up time was 51.6 mo (range: 5-112 mo) and the overall 5-year survival rate was 36.4%. Gender, “pT” and “pN” descriptors, (neo)adjuvant therapy, and the 7th edition TNM stage grouping were independent prognostic factors in the univariate and multivariate analyses. However, neither histologic grade nor cancer location were independent prognostic factors in the univariate and multivariate analyses. The 5-year stage-based survival rates were as follows: IA, 84.9%; IB, 70.9%; IIA, 56.2%; IIB, 43.3%; IIIA, 37.9%; IIIB, 23.3%; IIIC,12.9% and IV, 3

  13. Evaluation of the ‘Hedgehog’ signaling pathways in squamous and basal cell carcinomas of the eyelids and conjunctiva

    PubMed Central

    CELEBI, ALI RIZA CENK; KIRATLI, HAYYAM; SOYLEMEZOGLU, FIGEN

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the role of hedgehog signaling pathway in the carcinogenesis of eyelid skin and conjunctival epithelial malignant tumors. The study was conducted on specimens from 41 patients with cutaneous eyelid basal cell carcinoma, 22 with bulbar conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma, 12 with bulbar conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia. Major molecules of Hedgehog signaling pathway (Sonic Hedgehog [Shh] and Patched-1 [Ptch-1] and Glioma-associated oncogene [Gli-1]) were evaluated in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens using immunohistochemical staining. For each specimen, the percentage (<10%, 10–50%, >50%) and the intensity of the immunohistochemical staining (graded from 0 to 3) were calculated and the scores obtained by multiplication of two values were analyzed using the Kruskall-Wallis test. Shh and Ptch-1 expression levels were statistically significantly lower in the basal cell carcinoma group compared with the squamous cell carcinoma group (P=0.043 for Shh; P=0.030 for Ptch-1). In the conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma group, the Ptch-1 score was 0 in ~25% of specimens and the Gli-1 score was ≤2 in ~45% of cases. In the conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia group, the Ptch-1 score was ≥2 in 66% of specimens, the Gli-1 score was ≤2 in ~92% of cases. Ptch-1 mutations contribute to the development of cutaneous eyelid basal cell carcinoma. The present study provides evidence that alterations in hedgehog signaling pathways may lead to transformation of the conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia into invasive squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27347166

  14. Levels of biological markers of nitric oxide in serum of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Ratajczak-Wrona, Wioletta; Jablonska, Ewa; Antonowicz, Bozena; Dziemianczyk, Dorota; Grabowska, Stanislawa Zyta

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was a determination of the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and its biological markers such as malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and nitrotyrosine in the serum of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and identification of the relationships between NO and those markers. These studies were performed on patients with SCC of the oral cavity before and after treatment. Griess reaction was used for the estimation of the total concentration of NO in serum. The nitrotyrosine level in serum was assessed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and MDA level using a spectrophotometric assay. Higher concentrations of NO in blood serum were determined in patients with stage IV of the disease before treatment in comparison to the control group and patients with stages II and III of the disease. Moreover, higher concentrations of MDA and nitrotyrosine were determined in the serum of patients in all stages of the disease in comparison to healthy people. After treatment, lower concentrations of NO in the serum of patients with stage IV of the disease were observed in comparison to the amounts obtained prior to treatment. In addition, lower levels of nitrotyrosine in the serum of patients with all stages of the disease were recorded, whereas higher concentrations of MDA were determined in these patients in comparison to results obtained before treatment. The compounds formed with the contribution of NO, such as MDA and nitrotyrosine, may lead to cancer progression in patients with SCC of the oral cavity, and contribute to formation of resistance to therapy in these patients as well. Moreover, the lack of a relationship between concentrations of NO and MDA, and between NO and nitrotyrosine in serum suggests that the process of lipid peroxidation and nitration in patients with SCC does not just depend on NO. PMID:23970140

  15. Role of CD133+ cells in tongue squamous carcinomas: Characteristics of ‘stemness’ in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Zhou, Xiao-Kang; Wu, Min; Kang, Fei-Wu; Wang, Zuo-Lin; Zhu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the ‘stemness’ characteristics of CD133+ cells (harvested from the squamous cell tongue carcinoma Tca-8113 cell line) in vitro and to observe the tumourigenicity of the CD133+ cells in the bodies of NOD/SCID mice. Single cells from the Tca-8113 cell line were observed for multiplication capacity in vitro. The suspending and pelletizing phenomena of Tca-8113 cells in vitro were also observed, and the expression of CD133 in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue was measured. The CD133+ cells from the Tca-8113 cell line were purified, and their multiplication capacity and differentiation potency were observed. The NOD/SCID mouse model was established, and the tumourigenicity of the CD133+ cells was determined. The Tca-8113 cells were observed to emerge in the form of suspending tumour spheres in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Monoplasts with sustainable multiplication capacity accounted for ~5.32% of the spheres, and 0.95% of the CD133+ cells were expressed in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, with stronger multiplication capacity and differentiation potency in vitro. Stronger tumourigenicity was also observed in the bodies of the NOD/SCID mice. CD133– cells exhibited a multiplication capacity to a certain extent. Overall, the CD133+ cells in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue are characterised by relatively strong tumourigenicity capacity in vivo and in vitro. To a certain extent, these CD133+ cells demonstrate the characteristics of ‘stemness’. PMID:27446361

  16. Effect of DR4 promoter methylation on the TRAIL-induced apoptosis in lung squamous carcinoma cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenwu; Qi, Xiaoyan; Wu, Minghua

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between DR4 methylation status and gene expression and to determine whether DR4 methylation status affects TRAIL-induced apoptosis in lung squamous carcinoma cells. MSP, RT-PCR and western blot analysis were applied to detect the methylation status and gene expression. An MTT assay was used to detect the cell proliferation inhibition rate and flow cytometry was utilized to detect the apoptotic rate. The results showed that there was no association of the apoptotic rate with the clinicopathological characteristics for 80.6% of 36 lung squamous carcinoma patients in the methylation status (P>0.05). In the lung squamous carcinoma patients, the probability of DR4 low expression was approximately 58.3%, which may be associated with DR4 promoter methylation. The results also showed that a low expression of DR4 was correlated with the prognosis of patients. The in vitro experiments suggested DR4 genes of H226 and SK-MES-1 cells were in the methylation status and their mRNA and proteins had a low expression. Following intervention with 5-Aza-CdR, the DR4 genes of H226 and SK-MES-1 cells were in the unmethylation status and their mRNA and protein expression was significantly upregulated compared with the pre-interference ones, with differences being statistically significant (P<0.05). In addition, following interference with 5-Aza-CdR, H226 and SK-MES-1 cells became significantly sensitive to TRAIL (P<0.05). The results revealed 5-Aza‑CdR was able to reverse DR4 methy-lation status to upregulate its expression, thereby increasing the TRAIL-induced apoptosis in lung squamous carcinoma cells. Therefore, combining 5-Aza-CdR and TRAIL is a new strategy for treating lung squamous carcinoma. PMID:26238205

  17. Prognostic Utility of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen in Carcinoma of the Cervix: Association With Pre- and Posttreatment FDG-PET

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Jeffrey R.; Dehdashti, Farrokh; Siegel, Barry A.; Zighelboim, Israel; Grigsby, Perry W.; Schwarz, Julie K.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC Ag) is a serum biomarker for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix. We investigated the prognostic significance of SCC Ag levels before and at the completion of chemoradiotherapy and compared these levels with the results of pre- and posttreatment positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Methods and Materials: The records of 63 women who underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy for SCC of the cervix were reviewed. SCC Ag levels were obtained before and at the completion of radiotherapy. Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of their pretreatment SCC Ag level (>30 ng/mL vs. {<=}30 ng/mL). Pre- and posttreatment FDG-PET/CT characteristics and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed according to SCC Ag groups. Results: Median follow-up was 12 months. Women with SCC Ag >30 ng/mL at diagnosis had more advanced lymph node disease on pretreatment FDG-PET/CT than those with SCC Ag {<=}30 ng/mL (p = .002). Women whose SCC Ag normalized at the completion of chemoradiotherapy were more likely to have a complete metabolic response on their 3-month posttreatment FDG-PET/CT than those whose SCC Ag did not normalize (p = .006). The 2-year PFS was 73% for patients with a SCC Ag level {<=}30 ng/mL at diagnosis compared with 0% for those with a SCC Ag level >30 ng/mL at diagnosis (p < .0001). The 2-year PFS was 62% for patients whose SCC Ag normalized at the completion of chemoradiotherapy compared with 0% for those whose SCC Ag did not normalize (p = .0004). Conclusion: Elevated SCC Ag at diagnosis and failure of the SCC Ag to normalize at the completion of treatment are associated with incomplete metabolic response and decreased PFS.

  18. The clinicopathological significances and biological functions of parafibromin expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Yang, Xue-Feng; Huang, Ke-Qiang; Ren, Li; Gou, Wen-Feng; Shen, Dao-Fu; Zhao, Shuang; Sun, Hong-Zhi; Takano, Yasuo; Zheng, Hua-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Downregulated parafibromin expression is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of parathyroid, breast, gastric, colorectal, and lung cancers. To investigate the roles of parafibromin expression in tumorigenesis, progression, and prognostic evaluation of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), we transfected parafibromin-expressing plasmid into HNSCC cell and examined the phenotypes and their relevant molecules. Parafibromin expression was detected on tissue microarray containing squamous epithelium, dysplasia, and carcinoma of head and neck by immunohistochemistry. Parafibromin overexpression was found to suppress growth, migration, and invasion, and induce apoptosis, S arrest, and mesenchymal to epithelial transition (EMT), compared with the mock and control (P < 0.05). Both overexpression of Cyclin E1, Bax, and E-cadherin and hypoexpression of c-myc, Bcl-xL, and slug were detected in B88 transfectants, in comparison to mock and control by real-time PCR. Parafibromin expression was weaker in primary cancers than those in normal squamous tissue and dysplasia (P < 0.05), but stronger than the metastatic cancers in lymph node (P < 0.05). Parafibromin expression was negatively correlated with lymph node metastasis, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging, but positively with human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity (P < 0.05). The HNSCCs in tongue showed more parafibromin expression than those in larynx (P < 0.05). There was stronger parafibromin expression in moderately-than poorly-differentiated carcinomas (P < 0.05). The significantly positive correlation was observed between parafibromin expression and relapse-free survival rate by Kaplan-Meier curves (P < 0.05). Cox's proportional hazard model indicated that distant metastasis and parafibromin expression were independent prognostic factors for overall and relapse-free survival of HNSCC, respectively (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that downregulated expression of

  19. Radon Exposure, IL-6 Promoter Variants, and Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Former Uranium Miners

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Shuguang; Thomas, Cynthia L.; Snider, Amanda M.; Picchi, Maria A.; Chen, Wenshu; Willis, Derall G.; Carr, Teara G.; Krzeminski, Jacek; Desai, Dhimant; Shantu, Amin; Lin, Yong; Jacobson, Marty R.; Belinsky, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: High radon exposure is a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma, a major lung cancer histology observed in former uranium miners. Radon exposure can cause oxidative stress, leading to pulmonary inflammation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pro-carcinogenic inflammatory cytokine that plays a pivotal role in lung cancer development. Objectives: We assessed whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL6 promoter are associated with lung cancer in former uranium miners with high occupational exposure to radon gas. Methods: Genetic associations were assessed in a case–control study of former uranium miners (242 cases and 336 controls). A replication study was performed using data from the Gene Environment Association Studies (GENEVA) Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) of Lung Cancer and Smoking. Functional relevance of the SNPs was characterized using in vitro approaches. Results: We found that rs1800797 was associated with squamous cell carcinoma in miners and with a shorter time between the midpoint of the period of substantial exposure and diagnosis among the cases. Furthermore, rs1800797 was also associated with lung cancer among never smokers in the GENEVA dataset. Functional studies identified that the risk allele was associated with increased basal IL-6 mRNA level and greater promoter activity. Furthermore, fibroblasts with the risk allele showed greater induction of IL-6 secretion by hydrogen peroxide or benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide treatments. Conclusions: An IL6 promoter variant was associated with lung cancer in uranium miners and never smokers in two external study populations. The associations are strongly supported by the functional relevance that the IL6 promoter SNP affects basal expression and carcinogen-induced IL-6 secretion. Citation: Leng S, Thomas CL, Snider AM, Picchi MA, Chen W, Willis DG, Carr TG, Krzeminski J, Desai D, Shantu A, Lin Y, Jacobson MR, Belinsky SA. 2016. Radon exposure, IL-6 promoter variants, and lung squamous

  20. “Person in the barrel” syndrome: Unusual heralding presentation of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajesh; Lalla, Rakesh; Patil, Tushar B; Babu, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are rare and relatively unusual in day to day clinical practice. Occasionally, PNS may be the heralding manifestation of the malignancy. Paraneoplastic syndromes are most commonly associated with small cell lung carcinoma and are rarely seen with non small cell lung carcinoma. In this case, we report a non-smoker, middle aged lady, who presented with “person in the barrel” syndrome due to myelo radiculoplexopathy as the first clinical manifestation of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. PMID:27011654