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Sample records for ivermectin treatment conditioner

  1. The treatment of rosacea with topical ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Ali, S T; Alinia, H; Feldman, S R

    2015-04-01

    The treatment of rosacea is challenging because several pathophysiologic processes may be involved, including neurovascular dysregulation and alterations in innate immune status. Demodex mites may play a role in the latter mechanism. Topical ivermectin is a new therapeutic modality which demonstrates antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory properties. This article reviews published evidence related to the efficacy and safety of topical ivermectin. PubMed was utilized to search for key words "topical ivermectin", "ivermectin cream" and "rosacea". Three clinical trials were found that studied topical ivermectin as a treatment option for rosacea. Ivermectin was effective, safe and well tolerated. PMID:26020066

  2. Ivermectin

    MedlinePlus

    ... may cause rash, bumps under the skin, and vision problems including vision loss or blindness). Ivermectin is in a class ... Call your doctor immediately if you experience blurred vision, head or neck pain, seizures or difficulty walking ...

  3. Ivermectin vs. lindane in the treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Raghifar, Ramin; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Scabies is commonly treated with acaricides but the treatment of choice is still controversial. This study aimed at comparing the efficacy of oral ivermectin vs. lindane lotion 1% for the treatment of scabies. Four hundred fourty patients with scabies were enrolled, and randomized into two groups: the first group received a single dose of oral ivermectin 200 microg/kg body weight, and the second group were treated with two applications of topical lindane lotion 1%, with a 1-week interval. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. Single dose of oral ivermectin provided a cure rate of 63.6% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 81.8% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with two applications of lindane lotion 1%, with a 1-week interval between them, was effective in 45.4% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 63.6% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. Single dose ivermectin was as effective as two applications of lindane lotion 1% at the 2-week follow-up. After repeating the treatment, ivermectin was superior to lindane lotion 1% at the 4-week follow up. PMID:23829057

  4. Comparison of ivermectin and benzyl benzoate for treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Glaziou, P; Cartel, J L; Alzieu, P; Briot, C; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Martin, P M

    1993-12-01

    A randomized investigator-blinded trial of oral ivermectin 100 micrograms/kg single dose vs. benzyl benzoate 10% application in the treatment of scabies, was conducted in 1992 in French Polynesia. In total, 44 patients aged 5-56 years were included in the study: 23 in the group ivermectin (IVER) and 21 in the group benzyl benzoate (BB). At day 30 after treatment, the cumulative recovery rates were 70% (16/23) in the group IVER, and 48% (10/21) in the group BB, 95% confidence intervals 51-87% and 29-70% respectively. The rates of recovery were greater in the group IVER at day 7, 14 and 30, but the difference was not statistically significant. Our results show that oral ivermectin is a valuable alternative to benzyl benzoate local treatment. PMID:8134777

  5. Assessment of topical versus oral ivermectin as a treatment for head lice.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hesham M; Abdel-Azim, Eman S; Abdel-Aziz, Rasha T

    2014-01-01

    Many medications are available for treatment of pediculosis capitis including ivermectin. Our aim is to compare the efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin in treatment of pediculosis capitis. Sixty-two patients with proved head lice infestation were included and divided into group I (31 patients; received single topical application of 1% ivermectin) and group II (31 patients; received single dose of oral ivermectin). Treatment was repeated after 1 week for nonresponders. At 1 week after treatment, the eradication rates and improvement of pruritus were significantly higher among patients who received topical than oral ivermectin. When a second treatment, topical or oral, was given to nonresponders, the cure rates of infestation and pruritus was 100% and 97% among patients treated with topical and oral ivermectin, respectively with no significant difference between the two groups. This study suggests that both topical and oral ivermectin demonstrate high efficacy and tolerability in treatment of pediculosis capitis. However, a single treatment with topical ivermectin provides significantly higher cure of infestation and faster relief of pruritus than oral ivermectin. In addition, whether topical or oral ivermectin is used to treat head lice, a second dose is required in some cases to ensure complete eradication. PMID:25041547

  6. Can ivermectin mass treatments eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Winnen, M.; Plaisier, A. P.; Alley, E. S.; Nagelkerke, N. J. D.; van Oortmarssen, G.; Boatin, B. A.; Habbema, J. D. F.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the conditions in which mass treatment with ivermectin reduces the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus sufficiently to eliminate infection from an African community. METHODS: ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation model for onchocerciasis transmission, was used to explore the implications of different treatment intervals, coverage levels and precontrol endemicities for the likelihood of elimination. FINDINGS: Simulations suggested that control strategies based exclusively on ivermectin mass treatments could eliminate onchocerciasis. The duration of treatment required to eliminate infection depended heavily on the treatment programme and precontrol endemicity. In areas with medium to high levels of infection, annual mass treatments with 65% coverage for at least 25 years were necessary. Model predictions suggested that durations exceeding 35 years would be required if there were much heterogeneity in exposure to vector bites and, consequently, wide individual variation in microfilaria counts. If the treatment interval were reduced from 12 to 6 months the time for completion of the programme could be more than halved and elimination could be accomplished in areas of hyperendemicity, provided that the effects of each treatment would be the same as with annual treatments. However, it was doubtful whether high coverage levels could be sustained long enough to achieve worldwide eradication. CONCLUSION: Elimination of onchocerciasis from most endemic foci in Africa appears to be possible. However, the requirements in terms of duration, coverage, and frequency of treatment may be prohibitive in highly endemic areas. PMID:12077614

  7. Ivermectin Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Ivermectin lotion is used to treat head lice (small bugs that attach themselves to the skin) in adults and ... Ivermectin comes as a lotion to apply to the scalp and hair. It is usually applied to the scalp and hair in one treatment. Follow ...

  8. Effectiveness of ivermectin in the treatment of equine Parascaris equorum and Oxyuris equi infections.

    PubMed

    Yazwinski, T A; Hamm, D; Williams, M; Greenway, T; Tilley, W

    1982-06-01

    Fifteen horses harboring naturally acquired, patent Parascaris equorum and Oxyuris equi infections were equally allotted to 3 treatment groups given (1) injectable vehicle; (2) injectable ivermectin at the dose rate of 200 microgram/kg of body weight; and (3) injectable ivermectin at the rate of 300 microgram/kg. All treatments were given IM in the neck. All animals were killed 14 days after treatment and examined for the targeted nematodes. Regardless of dose rate, ivermectin proved 100% effective in the removal of adult O equi and P equorum infections. Levels of immature P equorum were decreased by 98.5% in both ivermectin-treated groups. Oxyuris equi 4th-stage larval injections were decreased by 95.7% and 99.9% by the 200 and 300 microgram/kg ivermectin treatments, respectively. Adverse reactions to the injections of drug were not seen. PMID:6896611

  9. New developments in the treatment of rosacea - role of once-daily ivermectin cream.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Leah A; Alinia, Hossein; Moradi Tuchayi, Sara; Feldman, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Rosacea is a chronic dermatological disorder with a variety of clinical manifestations localized largely to the central face. The unclear etiology of rosacea fosters therapeutic difficulty; however, subtle clinical improvement with pharmacologic treatments of various drug categories suggests a multifactorial etiology of the disease. Factors that may contribute to disease pathogenesis include immune abnormality, vascular abnormality, neurogenic dysregulation, presence of cutaneous microorganisms, UV damage, and skin barrier dysfunction. The role of ivermectin in the treatment of rosacea may be as an anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic agent targeting Demodex mites. In comparing topical ivermectin and metronidazole, ivermectin was more effective; this treatment modality boasted more improved quality of life, reduced lesion counts, and more favorable participant and physician assessment of disease severity. Patients who received ivermectin 1% cream had an acceptable safety profile. Ivermectin is efficacious in decreasing inflammatory lesion counts and erythema. PMID:27051311

  10. New developments in the treatment of rosacea – role of once-daily ivermectin cream

    PubMed Central

    Cardwell, Leah A; Alinia, Hossein; Moradi Tuchayi, Sara; Feldman, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Rosacea is a chronic dermatological disorder with a variety of clinical manifestations localized largely to the central face. The unclear etiology of rosacea fosters therapeutic difficulty; however, subtle clinical improvement with pharmacologic treatments of various drug categories suggests a multifactorial etiology of the disease. Factors that may contribute to disease pathogenesis include immune abnormality, vascular abnormality, neurogenic dysregulation, presence of cutaneous microorganisms, UV damage, and skin barrier dysfunction. The role of ivermectin in the treatment of rosacea may be as an anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic agent targeting Demodex mites. In comparing topical ivermectin and metronidazole, ivermectin was more effective; this treatment modality boasted more improved quality of life, reduced lesion counts, and more favorable participant and physician assessment of disease severity. Patients who received ivermectin 1% cream had an acceptable safety profile. Ivermectin is efficacious in decreasing inflammatory lesion counts and erythema. PMID:27051311

  11. An emerging treatment: Topical ivermectin for papulopustular rosacea.

    PubMed

    Abokwidir, Manal; Fleischer, Alan B

    2015-01-01

    Ivermectin shows broad-spectrum anti-parasitic activity. It kills the Demodex mites that reside in the pilosebaceous units of patients with papulopustular rosacea. Ivermectin also has anti-inflammatory effects, it decreases cellular and humoral immune responses. Inflammatory mechanisms appear to play a dominant role in the development of rosacea inflammatory lesions. Additionally, there is some evidence that it shows antimicrobial activity against Myobacterium tuberculosis and Chlamydia trachomatis. The recent clinical studies of ivermectin on rosacea show that it was superior to vehicle in reducing inflammatory lesion counts, and its tolerability was excellent. Ivermectin displays antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:25424053

  12. Treatment of rosacea with topical ivermectin cream: a series of 34 cases.

    PubMed

    Mendieta Eckert, Marta; Landa Gundin, Nerea

    2016-01-01

    Rosacea is a highly prevalent, chronic inflammatory disease. The use of topical ivermectin cream has recently been described in the treatment of rosacea in three clinical trials. We report our experience in a series of 34 patients treated with topical ivermectin cream. The results are a reflection of the reality of clinical practice and the perception of patients of the treatment. We also evaluate the efficacy in cases of mild rosacea and erythematotelangiectatic rosacea which have not been studied in trials. PMID:27617938

  13. Identifying sub-optimal responses to ivermectin in the treatment of River Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Churcher, Thomas S.; Pion, Sébastien D. S.; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Prichard, Roger K.; Awadzi, Kwablah; Boussinesq, Michel; Collins, Richard C.; Whitworth, James A.; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Identification of drug resistance before it becomes a public health concern requires a clear distinction between what constitutes a normal and a suboptimal treatment response. A novel method of analyzing drug efficacy studies in human helminthiases is proposed and used to investigate recent claims of atypical responses to ivermectin in the treatment of River Blindness. The variability in the rate at which Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae repopulate host's skin following ivermectin treatment is quantified using an individual-based onchocerciasis mathematical model. The model estimates a single skin repopulation rate for every host sampled, allowing reports of suboptimal responses to be statistically compared with responses from populations with no prior exposure to ivermectin. Statistically faster rates of skin repopulation were observed in 3 Ghanaian villages (treated 12–17 times), despite the wide variability in repopulation rates observed in ivermectin-naïve populations. Another village previously thought to have high rates of skin repopulation was shown to be indistinguishable from the normal treatment response. The model is used to generate testable hypotheses to identify whether atypical rates of skin repopulation by microfilariae could result from low treatment coverage alone or provide evidence of decreased ivermectin efficacy. Further work linking phenotypic poor responses to treatment with parasite molecular genetics markers will be required to confirm drug resistance. Limitations of the skin-snipping method for estimating parasite load indicates that changes in the distribution of microfilarial repopulation rates, rather than their absolute values, maybe a more sensitive indicator of emerging ivermectin resistance. PMID:19805362

  14. Clinical efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin in treatment of uncomplicated scabies.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hesham M; Abdel-Azim, Eman S; Abdel-Aziz, Rasha T

    2016-01-01

    Many medications are available for scabies treatment including oral and topical ivermectin. However, studies comparing these two forms as a scabies treatment are few. This study compares efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin as scabies treatment. The study included 62 confirmed uncomplicated scabies patients, divided into: Group I (32 patients, received topical ivermectin) and Group II (30 patients, received oral ivermectin). Patients were assessed, clinically and by KOH smear at 1, 2 and 4 weeks. Treatment was repeated after one week in patients with persistent infection. Adverse events were recorded. Most patients (87.5% and 73.5% in group I and group II respectively) were symptom free after a single treatment. A second treatment was required in 4 patients of group I and 8 patients of group II. However, 2 weeks after treatment symptoms and signs completely resolved in all cases with no recurrence at 4 weeks. This study suggests that both topical and oral ivermectin are safe and equally effective in treatment of uncomplicated scabies. Single treatment, whether topical or oral, is associated with high cure rate in a week post treatment. However, repeating treatment after one week may be required to achieve 100% cure. PMID:26555785

  15. The efficacy of topical ivermectin versus malation 0.5% lotion for the treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham

    2013-05-01

    Objective: There are different medications for the treatment of scabies but the treatment of choice is still controversial. This study aimed at comparing the efficacy of topical ivermectin versus malation 0.5% lotion for the treatment of scabies. Methods: In total, 340 patients with scabies were enrolled, and randomized into two groups: the first group received 1% ivermectin applied topically to the affected skin and the second group received topical malation 0.5% lotion and were told to apply this twice with 1 week interval. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. Results: Two application of topical ivermectin provided a cure rate of 67.6% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 85.2% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with two applications of malation 0.5% lotion was effective in 44.1% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 67.6% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. Conclusion:Two application of ivermectin was as effective as single applications of malation 0.5% lotion at the 2-week follow-up. After repeating the treatment, ivermectin was superior to malation 0.5% lotion at the 4-week follow up. PMID:23472617

  16. The efficacy of topical and oral ivermectin in the treatment of human scabies.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Poursaleh, Zohreh; Goldust, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Scabies is an itchy skin condition caused by the microscopic mite Sarcoptes scabei. The itching is caused by an allergic reaction to the mites. The treatment of choice is still controversial. It is commonly treated with topical insecticides. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of topical and oral ivermectin in the treatment of human scabies. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Occupational Safety and Health Review Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (Ovid), Pubmed, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, Open Grey and WHO ICTRP) up to September 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or cluster RCTs which compared the efficacy of ivermectin with other medications in the treatment of scabies. Interventions could be compared to each other, or to placebo or to no treatment. The author intended to extract dichotomous data (developed infection or did not develop infection) for the effects of interventions. We intended to report any adverse outcomes similarly. It has been sated that ivermectin was as effective as permethrin in the treatment of scabies. In comparison to other medications such as lindane, benzyl benzoate, crotamiton and malathion, ivermectin was more effective in the treatment of scabies. Ivermectin is an effective and cost-comparable alternative to topical agents in the treatment of scabies infection. PMID:25911032

  17. Topical ivermectin versus crotamiton cream 10% for the treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Raghiafar, Ramin

    2014-07-01

    Scabies, known colloquially as the 7-year itch, is a contagious skin infection that occurs among humans and other animals. The treatment of choice is still controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of topical ivermectin vs. crotamiton cream 10% for the treatment of scabies. In total, 340 patients with scabies were enrolled, and randomized into two groups. The first group received 1% ivermectin applied topically to the affected skin. The dose employed was 400 μg/kg, repeated once the following week, and the second group received crotamiton 10% cream and were told to apply this twice daily for five consecutive days. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of two and four weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. Two applications of topical ivermectin provided a cure rate of 64.7% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 82.3% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with single applications of crotamiton cream 10% was effective in 41.2% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 64.7% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. Ivermectin was quite safe in our cases. Two applications of ivermectin were as effective as single applications of crotamiton 10% cream at the 2-week follow-up. After repeating the treatment, ivermectin was superior to crotamiton cream 10% at the 4-week follow-up. PMID:24898622

  18. The efficacy of oral ivermectin vs. sulfur 10% ointment for the treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Human; Goldust, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Human scabies is caused by an infection of the skin by the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis). There are different medications for the treatment of scabies. This study aimed at comparing the efficacy and safety of oral ivermectin vs. sulfur 10% ointment for the treatment of scabies. In total, 420 patients with scabies were enrolled, and randomized into two groups: the first group received a single dose of oral ivermectin 200 μg/kg body weight, and the second group received sulfur 10% ointment and were told to apply this for three successive days. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. A single dose of ivermectin provided a cure rate of 61.9% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 78.5% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with single applications of sulfur 10% ointment was effective in 45.2% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 59.5% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. A single dose of ivermectin was as effective as single applications of sulfur 10% ointment at the 2-week follow-up. After repeating the treatment, ivermectin was superior to sulfur 10% ointment at the 4-week follow up. The delay in clinical response with ivermectin suggests that it may not be effective against all the stages in the life cycle of the parasite. . PMID:26342502

  19. A proposed new therapeutic protocol for the treatment of canine mange with ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Mueller, R S; Bettenay, S V

    1999-01-01

    Ivermectin was used orally for the treatment of generalized demodicosis or scabies in 222 dogs. The dose was increased gradually from 50 microg/kg body weight on day one, 100 microg/kg body weight on day two, 150 microg/kg body weight on day three, 200 microg/kg body weight on day four, to the final dose of 300 microg/kg body weight on day five. This dose was continued daily until resolution for demodicosis and given four times at seven-day intervals for scabies. Two patients developed clinical ivermectin toxicity after two and 10 days, respectively, and recovered once the drug was discontinued. A gradual increase of the ivermectin dose into the therapeutic range and thorough monitoring of patients during treatment are recommended when using this drug to treat patients with generalized demodicosis or scabies. PMID:9934933

  20. Treatment of rabbit cheyletiellosis with selamectin or ivermectin: a retrospective case study

    PubMed Central

    Mellgren, Marianne; Bergvall, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    Background A retrospective study of rabbits treated against cheyletiellosis was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of selamectin or ivermectin in clinical practice. Methods Medical records from 53 rabbits with microscopically confirmed Cheyletiella infestation were collected from two small animal clinics. The rabbits were divided into three groups, based on treatment protocols. Group 1 included 11 rabbits treated with ivermectin injections at 200–476 μg kg-1 subcutaneously 2–3 times, with a mean interval of 11 days. In Group 2, 27 rabbits were treated with a combination of subcutaneous ivermectin injections (range 618–2185 μgkg-1) and oral ivermectin (range 616–2732 μgkg-1) administered by the owners, 3–6 times at 10 days interval. The last group (Group 3) included 15 rabbits treated with selamectin spot-on applications of 6.2–20,0 mgkg-1, 1–3 times with an interval of 2–4 weeks. Follow-up time was 4 months–4.5 years. Results Rabbits in remission were 9/11 (81,8%), 14/27 (51,9%) and 12/15 (80,8%) in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Conclusion All treatment protocols seemed to be sufficiently effective and safe for practice use. Though very high doses were used in Group 2 (ivermectin injections followed by oral administration), the protocol seemed less efficacious compared to ivermectin injections (Group 1) and selamectin spot on (Group 3), respectively, although not statistically significant. Controlled prospective studies including larger groups are needed to further evaluate efficacy of the treatment protocols. PMID:18171479

  1. Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis refractory to ivermectin treatment in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yuri; Murayama, Nobuo; Ikemura, Hiroshi; Morita, Tatsushi; Nagata, Masahiko

    2010-12-01

    A 10-year-old castrated male Shih Tzu presented with severe generalized pruritus. Skin scrapings revealed the presence of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis. A Yorkshire terrier in the same household simultaneously developed pruritus due to scabies. Both dogs were treated with 300 μg/kg ivermectin, at first orally and then subcutaneously at 14 day intervals. However, live mites were still found on day 35, and the skin condition deteriorated in both dogs. These findings suggested that the S. scabiei in these dogs was clinically refractory to ivermectin. The pruritus in both dogs rapidly and completely disappeared following topical fipronil administration. This appears to be the first report of canine scabies refractory to ivermectin treatment. PMID:20880016

  2. Sustained Clearance of Mansonella ozzardi Infection after Treatment with Ivermectin in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Basano, Sergio de Almeida; Fontes, Gilberto; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Aranha Camargo, Juliana Souza de Almeida; Souza Vera, Luana Janaína; Parente Araújo, Marcos Paulo; Pires Parente, Maira Santiago; Mattos Ferreira, Ricardo de Godoi; Barreto Crispim, Pedro di Tárique; Aranha Camargo, Luís Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Therapy for mansonelliasis is challenging because there is no standard drug recommended for its treatment. This non-randomized study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a single dose of 0.15 mg/kg of ivermectin to reduce Mansonella ozzardi microfilaraemia in infected persons. A total of 74 patients were studied within the municipality of Lábrea, which is located in Amazonas State, Brazil. The patients were treated with ivermectin after detection of the parasite by blood examination. Significant microfilaraemia reduction was observed and its residual effect was maintained for at least 12 months. There was no significant change in the laboratory blood count, hepatic metabolites, and nitrogen-bounding compound excreta dosage values that could compromise the use of this drug, demonstrating that ivermectin has a low toxicity level. PMID:24710613

  3. Sustained clearance of Mansonella ozzardi infection after treatment with ivermectin in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Basano, Sergio de Almeida; Fontes, Gilberto; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Aranha Camargo, Juliana Souza de Almeida; Souza Vera, Luana Janaína; Parente Araújo, Marcos Paulo; Pires Parente, Maira Santiago; Mattos Ferreira, Ricardo de Godoi; Barreto Crispim, Pedro di Tárique; Aranha Camargo, Luís Marcelo

    2014-06-01

    Therapy for mansonelliasis is challenging because there is no standard drug recommended for its treatment. This non-randomized study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a single dose of 0.15 mg/kg of ivermectin to reduce Mansonella ozzardi microfilaraemia in infected persons. A total of 74 patients were studied within the municipality of Lábrea, which is located in Amazonas State, Brazil. The patients were treated with ivermectin after detection of the parasite by blood examination. Significant microfilaraemia reduction was observed and its residual effect was maintained for at least 12 months. There was no significant change in the laboratory blood count, hepatic metabolites, and nitrogen-bounding compound excreta dosage values that could compromise the use of this drug, demonstrating that ivermectin has a low toxicity level. PMID:24710613

  4. Community-based treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin: acceptability and early adverse reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Pacque, M. C.; Dukuly, Z.; Greene, B. M.; Munoz, B.; Keyvan-Larijani, E.; Williams, P. N.; Taylor, H. R.

    1989-01-01

    A study of community-based treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin was undertaken in a rain forest area of Liberia to investigate the possible occurrence of serious adverse effects. The total population was 13,704, the microfilarial load was 5.35 mf/mg skin, and the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection was 50% at 9 years of age and over 80% among those aged 15 years and older. Certain groups (like pregnant women and young children) were excluded from treatment. Out of the 7956 people eligible for treatment, 7699 (97%) accepted the ivermectin. Data on possible adverse reactions were collected by four different methods, including systematic house-by-house follow-up visits three days after treatment, biweekly population surveillance, and monitoring of both mobile clinic records and hospital records. No severe adverse reactions were noted, and no deaths could be related to ivermectin treatment; only 1.3% of the persons treated had a moderate adverse reaction of the Mazzotti type, presumably related to the killing of microfilariae. The study showed good acceptance by the population, and that mass treatment campaigns with ivermectin are feasible. PMID:2633887

  5. Treatment of scabies: the topical ivermectin vs. permethrin 2.5% cream.

    PubMed

    Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Raghifar, Ramin; Hemayat, Sevil

    2013-01-01

    Human scabies is caused by an infestation of the skin by the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei va. hominis). It is commonly treated with topical insecticides, but the treatment of choice is still controversial. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of topical ivermectin vs. permethrin 2.5% cream for the treatment of scabies. In total, 380 patients with scabies were enrolled, and randomized into two groups: the first group received 1% ivermectin applied topically to the affected skin at a dose of 400 microg/kg, repeated once the following week, while the second group received permethrin 2.5% cream and were told to apply this twice at one week intervals. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. Two applications of topical ivermectin provided a cure rate of 63.1% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 84.2% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with two applications of permethrin 2.5% cream with a 1-week interval between them was effective in 65.8% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 89.5% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. Two application of ivermectin was as effective as two applications of permethrin 2.5% cream at the 2-week follow-up. After repeating the treatment, ivermectin was as effective as permethrin 2.5% cream at the 4-week follow up. PMID:24171301

  6. Topical (pour-on) ivermectin in the treatment of canine scabies.

    PubMed

    Paradis, M; de Jaham, C; Pagé, N

    1997-06-01

    The efficacy of a pour-on formulation of ivermectin at 500 micrograms/kg body weight applied on the dorsum on days 1 and 15 was evaluated in 90 dogs from a shelter, naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei. This very practical form of treatment was successful in eradicating scabies from this shelter. PMID:9187806

  7. Interferences on microbial inhibitor tests related to ivermectin treatment in lactating dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Romero, Tamara; Moya, Vicente Javier; Fernández, Nemesio; Althaus, Rafael; Reybroeck, Wim; Molina, María Pilar

    2016-08-01

    This Research Communication reports interferences related to the administration of ivermectin in lactating dairy goats on the response of microbial tests for screening antibiotics in milk. Twenty-eight Murciano-Granadina goats, naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. caprae, were treated with a subcutaneous injection of ivermectin (200 µg/kg b.w.). To prevent re-infestation, a second dose was applied 7 d later. Individual milk samples were collected, daily, up to 15 d post-treatment. Milk samples were analysed by microbial inhibitor tests (BRT MRL, Delvotest SP-NT MCS and Eclipse 100) and ivermectin residues were quantified by HPLC. A large number of positive results were obtained for all microbial tests, especially on the first day after treatment (BRT MRL = 46·4%; Delvotest SP-NT MCS = 14·3%; and Eclipse 100 = 17·8%). However, the highest concentration of drug residues in milk (24·3 ng/ml) was detected on the tenth day after treatment, when positive outcomes were relatively lower (BRT MRL = 17·8%; Delvotest SP-NT MCS = 10·7%; and Eclipse 100 = 7·4%). Results herein suggest that factors related to the ivermectin treatment other than drug residues in milk, or alterations produced by the parasitic disease itself affecting the immune response of animals, could be the cause of false-positive results in microbial tests. It can be concluded that the application of ivermectin in dairy goats infested with sarcoptes mange during lactation produces persistent drug residues in milk, and could also cause false-positive results in microbial inhibitor tests for screening antibiotics. PMID:27600969

  8. Control, Elimination, and Eradication of River Blindness: Scenarios, Timelines, and Ivermectin Treatment Needs in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Eun; Remme, Jan H. F.; Steinmann, Peter; Stolk, Wilma A.; Roungou, Jean-Baptiste; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    River blindness (onchocerciasis) causes severe itching, skin lesions, and vision impairment including blindness. More than 99% of all current cases are found in sub-Saharan Africa. Fortunately, vector control and community-directed treatment with ivermectin have significantly reduced morbidity. Studies in Mali and Senegal proved the feasibility of elimination with ivermectin administration. The treatment goal is shifting from control to elimination in endemic African regions. Given limited resources, national and global policymakers need a rigorous analysis comparing investment options. For this, we developed scenarios for alternative treatment goals and compared treatment timelines and drug needs between the scenarios. Control, elimination, and eradication scenarios were developed with reference to current standard practices, large-scale studies, and historical data. For each scenario, the timeline when treatment is expected to stop at country level was predicted using a dynamical transmission model, and ivermectin treatment needs were predicted based on population in endemic areas, treatment coverage data, and the frequency of community-directed treatment. The control scenario requires community-directed treatment with ivermectin beyond 2045 with around 2.63 billion treatments over 2013–2045; the elimination scenario, until 2028 in areas where feasible, but beyond 2045 in countries with operational challenges, around 1.15 billion treatments; and the eradication scenario, lasting until 2040, around 1.30 billion treatments. The eradication scenario is the most favorable in terms of the timeline of the intervention phase and treatment needs. For its realization, strong health systems and political will are required to overcome epidemiological and political challenges. PMID:25860569

  9. Influence of permethrin, diazinon and ivermectin treatments on insecticide resistance in the horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Byford, R L; Craig, M E; DeRouen, S M; Kimball, M D; Morrison, D G; Wyatt, W E; Foil, L D

    1999-01-01

    The history of insecticide resistance in the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, and the relationship between the characteristics of horn fly biology and insecticide use on resistance development is discussed. Colonies of susceptible horn flies were selected for resistance with six insecticide treatment regimens: continuous single use of permethrin, diazinon and ivermectin: permethrin-diazinon (1:2) mixture; and permethrin-diazinon and permethrin-ivermectin rotation (4-month cycle). Under laboratory conditions, resistance developed during generations 21, 31 and 30 to permethrin, diazinon and ivermectin, respectively. The magnitude of resistance ranged from < 3-fold with ivermectin to 1470-fold with permethrin. Field studies demonstrated that use of a single class of insecticidal ear tag during the horn-fly season resulted in product failure within 3-4 years for pyrethroids and organophosphates, respectively. In laboratory studies, use of alternating insecticides or a mixture of insecticides delayed the onset of resistance for up to 12 generations and reduced the magnitude of pyrethroid resistance. In field studies, yearly alternated use of pyrethroids and organophosphates did not slow or reverse pyrethroid resistance (Barros et al., unpublished data), while a 2-year alternated use with organophosphates resulted in partial reversion of pyrethroid resistance. When pyrethroid and organophosphate ear tags were used in a mosaic strategy at two different locations, efficacy of products did not change during a 3-year period. PMID:10048825

  10. Tolerance and Efficacy of Emamectin Benzoate and Ivermectin for the Treatment of Pseudocapillaria tomentosa in Laboratory Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Collymore, Chereen; Watral, Virginia; White, Julie R.; Colvin, Michael E.; Rasmussen, Skye; Tolwani, Ravi J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tolerance of adult zebrafish and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin in eliminating Pseudocapillaria tomentosa infection were evaluated. In the tolerance study, behavioral changes, fecundity, histopathology, and mortality were evaluated for in-feed administration of emamectin (0.05, 0.10, and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg). All doses of emamectin were well tolerated. Ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg administration resulted in mild behavioral changes and a transient decrease in fecundity. Ivermectin 0.10 mg/kg administration resulted in severe behavioral changes and some mortality. In the efficacy study, emamectin (0.05 and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 mg/kg) were evaluated for their efficacy in eliminating P. tomentosa infection. Emamectin reduced parasite burden in infected zebrafish, and ivermectin eliminated intestinal nematode infections. Despite a small margin of safety, ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg was effective at eliminating P. tomentosa infection in adult zebrafish. Higher doses or a longer course of treatment may be needed for complete elimination of P. tomentosa infection using emamectin. In this study, we propose two possible treatments for intestinal nematode infections in zebrafish. PMID:25237985

  11. Efficacy of ivermectin for the treatment of head lice (Pediculosis capitis).

    PubMed

    Glaziou, P; Nyguyen, L N; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Cartel, J L; Martin, P M

    1994-09-01

    Twenty six male and female patients aged 5 to 17 years who had head lice infestation confirmed by eggs presence and received treatments with a single 200 mu/kg oral dose of ivermectin in open fashion. At day 14 after treatment, 20 responded to the treatment (77%), and 6 patients (23%) presented with a complete disappearance of eggs and all clinical symptoms. At day 28, 7 patients were healed (27%), but 4 patients of the 6 healed at day 14 presented with signs of reinfestation. This study suggests that ivermectin is a promising treatment of head lice, and a second dose at day 10 should be appropriate for a further comparative trial. PMID:7899799

  12. [Ivermectin use in tropical medicine].

    PubMed

    Dupouy-Camet, J; Yera, H; Tourte-Schaefer, C

    2003-12-01

    Ivermectin is a major breakthrough for the treatment of onchocerciasis, strongyloidosis, scabies and cutaneous larva migrans. Combined with albendazole, ivermectin is highly efficient for treating lymphatic filariasis and intestinal worms. Ivermectin shows very few side-effects but its use in children below 5 and during pregnancy is discussed. Ivermectin tolerance could be related to mdr1 gene expression. Additional studies are needed to assess its efficiency for pediculosis. PMID:15022779

  13. Factors associated with compliance with community directed treatment with ivermectin for onchocerciasis control in Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although ivermectin is distributed free of charge through the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC), not all eligible individuals within communities receive the annual treatment. This poses a serious threat to efforts aimed to control onchocerciasis. This study attempts to determine factors associated with compliance to Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) and provides a basis for trying to understand how best to sustain long-term compliance in order to achieve success in the control of onchocerciasis. Methods An unmatched case-control study was conducted in Bebeka coffee plantation southwest Ethiopia. Cases were, compliant i.e., those individuals who had been registered on the relevant treatment registers and had taken all the five annual doses of Ivermectin. Controls were non-compliant, i.e. those individuals who had been recorded in the relevant treatment registers during the first treatment round(2003), and did not take at least two doses of which one being in the last treatment round (2007). Data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Data were edited, cleaned, coded and analyzed using SPSS version 12.0.1 for Microsoft Windows. Multiple logistic regression models was used to identify factors associated with compliance to ivermectin. Results From the total of 456 individuals selected for administration of the survey questionnaire, 450(225 cases and 225 controls) were contacted and completed the study 2 refused and 4 were unavailable. Five factors associated with compliance were identified: high risk perception [Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR) = 1.98, 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.32-2.95], one's family support [AOR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.22-2.84], perceiving that the Community Drug Distributors (CDDs) are doing their work well [AOR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.50-5.37] and perceiving measuring height is the best way to determine a person's treatment dose [AOR = 6.37, 95% CI, 2.10-19.29] are

  14. Elimination of African Onchocerciasis: Modeling the Impact of Increasing the Frequency of Ivermectin Mass Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Coffeng, Luc E.; Stolk, Wilma A.; Hoerauf, Achim; Habbema, Dik; Bakker, Roel; Hopkins, Adrian D.; de Vlas, Sake J.

    2014-01-01

    The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) is currently shifting its focus from morbidity control to elimination of infection. To enhance the likelihood of elimination and speed up its achievement, programs may consider to increase the frequency of ivermectin mass treatment from annual to 6-monthly or even higher. In a computer simulation study, we examined the potential impact of increasing the mass treatment frequency for different settings. With the ONCHOSIM model, we simulated 92,610 scenarios pertaining to different assumptions about transmission conditions, history of mass treatment, the future mass treatment strategy, and ivermectin efficacy. Simulation results were used to determine the minimum remaining program duration and number of treatment rounds required to achieve 99% probability of elimination. Doubling the frequency of treatment from yearly to 6-monthly or 3-monthly was predicted to reduce remaining program duration by about 40% or 60%, respectively. These reductions come at a cost of additional treatment rounds, especially in case of 3-monthly mass treatment. Also, aforementioned reductions are highly dependent on maintained coverage, and could be completely nullified if coverage of mass treatment were to fall in the future. In low coverage settings, increasing treatment coverage is almost just as effective as increasing treatment frequency. We conclude that 6-monthly mass treatment may only be worth the effort in situations where annual treatment is expected to take a long time to achieve elimination in spite of good treatment coverage, e.g. because of unfavorable transmission conditions or because mass treatment started recently. PMID:25545677

  15. Elimination of African onchocerciasis: modeling the impact of increasing the frequency of ivermectin mass treatment.

    PubMed

    Coffeng, Luc E; Stolk, Wilma A; Hoerauf, Achim; Habbema, Dik; Bakker, Roel; Hopkins, Adrian D; de Vlas, Sake J

    2014-01-01

    The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) is currently shifting its focus from morbidity control to elimination of infection. To enhance the likelihood of elimination and speed up its achievement, programs may consider to increase the frequency of ivermectin mass treatment from annual to 6-monthly or even higher. In a computer simulation study, we examined the potential impact of increasing the mass treatment frequency for different settings. With the ONCHOSIM model, we simulated 92,610 scenarios pertaining to different assumptions about transmission conditions, history of mass treatment, the future mass treatment strategy, and ivermectin efficacy. Simulation results were used to determine the minimum remaining program duration and number of treatment rounds required to achieve 99% probability of elimination. Doubling the frequency of treatment from yearly to 6-monthly or 3-monthly was predicted to reduce remaining program duration by about 40% or 60%, respectively. These reductions come at a cost of additional treatment rounds, especially in case of 3-monthly mass treatment. Also, aforementioned reductions are highly dependent on maintained coverage, and could be completely nullified if coverage of mass treatment were to fall in the future. In low coverage settings, increasing treatment coverage is almost just as effective as increasing treatment frequency. We conclude that 6-monthly mass treatment may only be worth the effort in situations where annual treatment is expected to take a long time to achieve elimination in spite of good treatment coverage, e.g. because of unfavorable transmission conditions or because mass treatment started recently. PMID:25545677

  16. Comparative Study of Efficacy of Oral Ivermectin Versus Some Topical Antiscabies Drugs in the Treatment of Scabies

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rani Indira; Kumar, Manish; Sinha, Kumari Indu

    2014-01-01

    Background: The conventionally used topical antiscabetics have poor compliance. Ivermectin, an oral antiparasitic drug, has been shown to be an effective scabicide and could be a useful substitute. This study was designed to compare efficacy of oral ivermectin with commonly used topical antiscabies drugs. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on four groups including 60 patients in each group by simple random sampling. Treatment given in each group was: Group 1: Ivermectin (200 μg/kg body weight) oral in a single dose, Group 2: Topical Permethrin 5% cream single application, Group 3: Topical gamma benzene hexachloride (GBHC) lotion 1% single application and Group 4: Topical Benzyl benzoate (BB) lotion 25% single application. All of the patients were followed for improvement in terms of severity of disease and severity of pruritus at the end of 1st wk and 6th wk. Results: Efficacy of ivermectin, permethrin, GBHC and BB lotion considering improvement in severity of pruritus as parameter were 85%, 90%, 75% and 68.33% respectively at 2nd follow-up. Similarly considering improvement in severity of lesion as parameter, results were 80%, 88.33%, 71.66% and 65% respectively at 2nd follow up. Topical Permethrin (5%) was more effective as compared to topical BB lotion and topical GBHC lotion (p<0.05, significant) but statistical difference between efficacy of topical Permethrin and oral Ivermectin was non-significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: The results suggested that oral Ivermectin and topical Permethrin (5%) were equally efficacious. Oral Ivermectin is well tolerated, non irritant to skin, does not show central nervous system side effects because it does not cross blood brain barrier. So, the good therapeutic response with few side effects seen with oral Ivermectin can be useful in those patients for whom topical treatment is potentially irritant and less well-tolerated. PMID:25386453

  17. The curative and antioxidative efficiency of ivermectin and ivermectin + vitamin E-selenium treatment on canine Sarcoptes scabiei infestation.

    PubMed

    Behera, Suvendu Kumar; Dimri, Umesh; Singh, Shanker Kumar; Mohanta, Ranjan Kumar

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the curative and antioxidative efficacy of ivermectin and ivermectin + vitamin E-selenium, and the influence of these agents on oxidative stress parameters in canines infested by Sarcoptes scabiei. Twenty two sarcoptic mites infested dogs and nine healthy dogs of 6 months to 2 years of age were divided into three groups. Group I comprised of healthy dogs (n=9) whereas animals in group II (n=11) and III (n=11) were positive for scabies. Group II animals were treated with only 1% ivermectin @ 0.2 mg/kg SC whereas group III were additionally treated with Vitamin E and selenium (tocopherol 50 mg + Se 1.5 mg/ml) @ 0.5 ml/20 kg IM at weekly intervals for three times. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and 28 post therapy. The values for hemato-biochemical parameters and activities of antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased (P<0.05) whereas level of lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in all the infested dogs in comparison to the healthy dogs on day 0 which approached normalcy by day 28 post therapy. The dogs of group III showed better clinical recovery in comparison to group II at the end of therapy. Thus, administration of vitamin E and selenium in addition to standard therapy can alleviate these alterations hastening the clinical recovery of diseased dogs and can be recommended as an adjunct therapy with miticides for canine sarcoptic mange. PMID:21336571

  18. African Program for Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2010: Impact of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatment on Off-Target Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Krotneva, Stanimira P; Coffeng, Luc E; Noma, Mounkaila; Zouré, Honorat G M; Bakoné, Lalle; Amazigo, Uche V; de Vlas, Sake J; Stolk, Wilma A

    2015-01-01

    Since its initiation in 1995, the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has had a substantial impact on the prevalence and burden of onchocerciasis through annual ivermectin mass treatment. Ivermectin is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic agent that also has an impact on other co-endemic parasitic infections. In this study, we roughly assessed the additional impact of APOC activities on the burden of the most important off-target infections: soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH; ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm, and strongyloidiasis), lymphatic filariasis (LF), and scabies. Based on a literature review, we formulated assumptions about the impact of ivermectin treatment on the disease burden of these off-target infections. Using data on the number of ivermectin treatments in APOC regions and the latest estimates of the burden of disease, we then calculated the impact of APOC activities on off-target infections in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. We conservatively estimated that between 1995 and 2010, annual ivermectin mass treatment has cumulatively averted about 500 thousand DALYs from co-endemic STH infections, LF, and scabies. This impact comprised approximately an additional 5.5% relative to the total burden averted from onchocerciasis (8.9 million DALYs) and indicates that the overall cost-effectiveness of APOC is even higher than previously reported. PMID:26401658

  19. African Program for Onchocerciasis Control 1995–2010: Impact of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatment on Off-Target Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Noma, Mounkaila; Zouré, Honorat G. M.; Bakoné, Lalle; Amazigo, Uche V.; de Vlas, Sake J.; Stolk, Wilma A.

    2015-01-01

    Since its initiation in 1995, the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has had a substantial impact on the prevalence and burden of onchocerciasis through annual ivermectin mass treatment. Ivermectin is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic agent that also has an impact on other co-endemic parasitic infections. In this study, we roughly assessed the additional impact of APOC activities on the burden of the most important off-target infections: soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH; ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm, and strongyloidiasis), lymphatic filariasis (LF), and scabies. Based on a literature review, we formulated assumptions about the impact of ivermectin treatment on the disease burden of these off-target infections. Using data on the number of ivermectin treatments in APOC regions and the latest estimates of the burden of disease, we then calculated the impact of APOC activities on off-target infections in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. We conservatively estimated that between 1995 and 2010, annual ivermectin mass treatment has cumulatively averted about 500 thousand DALYs from co-endemic STH infections, LF, and scabies. This impact comprised approximately an additional 5.5% relative to the total burden averted from onchocerciasis (8.9 million DALYs) and indicates that the overall cost-effectiveness of APOC is even higher than previously reported. PMID:26401658

  20. Acute morbidity associated with scabies and other ectoparasitoses rapidly improves after treatment with ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Worth, Christine; Heukelbach, Jorg; Fengler, Gernot; Walter, Birke; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Hengge, Ulrich; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    In resource-poor settings, scabies is associated with considerable morbidity. Which factors determine morbidity and how rapidly it recedes after specific treatment is not known. Patients with scabies were recruited in three urban slums in Fortaleza, Northeast Brazil. Diagnosis was established according to dermatoscopy, skin scraping, or adhesive film test. Severity of scabies-associated morbidity was assessed semiquantitatively. Patients and close contacts were treated with oral ivermectin (200 μg/kg, repeated after 7 days) and followed up for 2 weeks. Ninety-five patients were included in the study. Papules were the most common lesion type (98.9%). Excoriations due to scratching were observed in 43.2% and bacterial superinfection in 24.2%. Predilection sites were the arms (82.1%) and the abdomen (81.1%). At baseline, 36.3% of patients complained about intense or severe itching. Intense or severe itch decreased to 6.3% 2 weeks after treatment (p=0.02). Whereas 37.5% of the patients complained about intense or severe itch-related sleep disturbances at baseline, only 8.8% reported the symptom 2 weeks after treatment (p=0.35). At baseline, the degree of itching was correlated with the degree of sleep disturbance (ρ=0.64; p<0.001). One week after the first dose of ivermectin, the intensity of itching and of sleep disturbance decreased significantly (p<0.001). In patients living in resource-poor setting, scabies was associated with considerable morbidity. Treatment with ivermectin rapidly reconstituted health in almost all cases. PMID:22211573

  1. Comparing the efficacy of oral ivermectin vs malathion 0.5% lotion for the treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Raghifar, Ramin; Hemayat, Sevil

    2014-01-01

    Scabies is found worldwide among people of all groups and ages. It is curable with scabicide medications. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of oral ivermectin vs malathion 0.5% lotion for the treatment of scabies. In total, 148 patients with scabies were enrolled and randomized into two groups: the first group received a single dose of oral ivermectin 200 sg/kg body weight, and the second was treated with two applications of topical lindane lotion 1%, with a 1-week interval between applications. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. A single dose of ivermectin provided a cure rate of 60.8% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 89.1% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with two applications oflindane lotion 1%, with a 1-week interval between them, was effective in 47.2% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 72.9% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. A single dose of ivermectin was as effective as two applications of lindane lotion 1% at the 2-week follow-up. After repeat treatment, ivermectin was superior to lindane lotion 1% at the 4-week follow-up. The delay in clinical response with ivermectin suggests that it may not be effective against the parasite at all stages in the life cycle. PMID:25632646

  2. Observations on topical ivermectin in the treatment of otoacariosis, cheyletiellosis, and toxocariosis in cats.

    PubMed Central

    Pagé, N; de Jaham, C; Paradis, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the efficacy of a topical pour-on formulation of ivermectin in the treatment of otoacariosis, cheyletiellosis, and toxocariosis in cats. Forty-five cats were treated. All cats received 2 to 4 topical applications of ivermectin on the skin between the shoulder blades in a narrow strip, 14 days apart. This practical treatment was effective in 96% (23/24) of cases of feline otoacariosis and in 100% (20/20) of cats with toxocariosis. All cats with cheyletiellosis (16/16) received 4 treatments and had resolution of clinical signs, but one Cheyletiella egg could still be found 45 days after the last treatment. The viability of this egg could not be evaluated, but the cats were still free of clinical signs on follow-up 6 months later. The treatment was well tolerated in all the animals. A few cats developed a transient small alopecic area and mild scaling at the site of application of the drug. PMID:11062834

  3. Treatment of cyathostominosis with ivermectin and its influence on selected blood biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Ras-Noryńska, M; Sokół, R

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by nematodes of the subfamily Cyathostominae affect nearly 100% of pastured horses. Despite of an absence of pronounced symptoms, cyathostominosis can have very serious health consequences. The aim of this study was to monitor changes in total protein levels and concentrations of selected microelements and macroelements in the blood of horses before and after ivermectin treatment. In healthy horses infected by the studied parasites, total blood protein levels were below the physiological norm, but iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations were within normal limits. Ivermectin treatment reduced the number of excreted parasite eggs (FEC) by 100%, and dead parasites were observed in feces. Decreased iron (Fe) concentrations and an insignificant increase in total blood protein levels were reported. A progressive decline in iron levels was observed when parasite eggs reappeared in feces 60 days after treatment. Iron loss takes place as a result of bleeding from the large intestine when adult nematodes affected by the drug are removed from intestine and fourth-stage larvae leave parasitic nodules in the intestinal wall. A drop in iron levels could be an indirect indicator of the severity of cyathostominosis. PMID:24195282

  4. Treatment for crusted scabies: limitations and side effects of treatment with ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kazuhisa; Kawasaki, Yushi; Morimoto, Kensuke; Kikuchi, Izumi; Kawana, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Skin eruption with mild itching of the hands and feet developed in a man in his 90s 1 month after he was hospitalized following a traffic accident. Scabies was diagnosed in an attending nurse 3 months after the patient's hospitalization, and infection from the patient was suspected. Cornification of the patient's soles and marked hypertrophy of the nails of both feet were observed. After a large number of scabies mites were detected on microscopic examination, crusted scabies was diagnosed. The patient was given oral ivermectin, 6 mg, once per week for 3 weeks, and crotamiton topical ointment containing 30% benzyl benzoate was applied on the body from the neck down. However, because a large number of scabies mites were detected again on microscopic examination, the dose of ivermectin was increased to 12 mg and administered 3 times. One week after the sixth dose of ivermectin was administered, hemorrhagic scabs around the mouth and erosion of the tongue developed. Mucosal drug eruption was suspected, and eruptions around the mouth and on the tongue resolved within 1 week after ivermectin being discontinued. 1% gamma-benzene hexachloride ointment was applied topically on the body from the neck down once a week, crotamiton ointment containing benzyl benzoate was applied daily, and the hypertrophic parts of the nails were removed. The patient subsequently achieved a full recovery. PMID:24998962

  5. Impact of Long-Term Treatment with Ivermectin on the Prevalence and Intensity of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Ana Lucia; Vaca, Maritza; Amorim, Leila; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Erazo, Silvia; Oviedo, Gisela; Quinzo, Isabel; Padilla, Margarita; Chico, Martha; Lovato, Raquel; Gomez, Eduardo; Barreto, Mauricio L.; Cooper, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections relies on the periodic and long-term administration of anthelmintic drugs to high-risk groups, particularly school-age children living in endemic areas. There is limited data on the effectiveness of long-term periodic anthelmintic treatment on the prevalence of STHs, particularly from operational programmes. The current study investigated the impact of 15 to 17 years of treatment with the broad-spectrum anthelmintic ivermectin, used for the control of onchocerciasis, on STH prevalence and intensity in school-age and pre-school children. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in communities that had received annual or twice-annual ivermectin treatments and geographically adjacent communities that had not received treatment in two districts of Esmeraldas Province in Ecuador. Stool samples were collected from school-age children and examined for STH infection using the Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration methods. Samples were collected also from pre-school children and examined by the formol-ether concentration method. Data on risk factors for STH infection were collected by parental questionnaire. We sampled a total of 3,705 school-age children (6–16 years) from 31 treated and 27 non-treated communities, and 1,701 pre-school children aged 0–5 years from 18 treated and 18 non-treated communities. Among school-age children, ivermectin treatment had significant effects on the prevalence (adjusted OR =  0.06, 95% CI 0.03–0.14) and intensity of Trichuris trichiura infection (adjusted RR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11–0.70), but appeared to have no impact on Ascaris lumbricoides or hookworm infection. Reduced prevalence and intensities of T. trichiura infection were observed among children not eligible to receive ivermectina, providing some evidence of reduced transmission of T. trichiura infection in communities receiving mass ivermectin treatments. Conclusion Annual and twice

  6. Ivermectin Treatment and Sanitation Effectively Reduce Strongyloides stercoralis Infection Risk in Rural Communities in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schindler, Christian; Schär, Fabian; Marti, Hanspeter; Char, Meng Chuor; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis is the only soil-transmitted helminth with the ability to replicate within its host, leading to long-lasting and potentially fatal infections. It is ubiquitous and its worldwide prevalence has recently been estimated to be at least half that of hookworm. Information on the epidemiology of S. stercoralis remains scarce and modalities for its large-scale control are yet to be determined. Methodology/Principal Findings A community-based two-year cohort study was conducted among the general population in a rural province in North Cambodia. At each survey, participants infected with S. stercoralis were treated with a single oral dose of ivermectin (200μg/kg BW). Diagnosis was performed using a combination of the Baermann method and Koga agar plate culture on two stool samples. The cohort included participants from eight villages who were either positive or negative for S. stercoralis at baseline. Mixed logistic regression models were employed to assess risk factors for S. stercoralis infection at baseline and re-infection at follow-up. A total of 3,096 participants were examined at baseline, revealing a S. stercoralis prevalence of 33.1%. Of these participants, 1,269 were followed-up over two years. Re-infection and infection rates among positive and negative participants at baseline were 14.4% and 9.6% at the first and 11.0% and 11.5% at the second follow-up, respectively. At follow-up, all age groups were at similar risk of acquiring an infection, while infection risk significantly decreased with increasing village sanitation coverage. Conclusions/Significance Chemotherapy-based control of S. stercoralis is feasible and highly beneficial, particularly in combination with improved sanitation. The impact of community-based ivermectin treatment on S. stercoralis was high, with over 85% of villagers remaining negative one year after treatment. The integration of S. stercoralis into existing STH control programs should be considered

  7. Ivermectin treatment of bovine psoroptic mange: effects on serum chemistry, hematology, organ weights, and leather quality.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, S; Visser, M; Meyer, M; Lindner, T

    2016-04-01

    Psoroptic mange is a skin disease which may result in serious health and welfare problems and important economic losses. Apart from the effect on weight gain, little information is available concerning other responses of the organism consequent to the successful therapy of bovine psoroptic mange. Accordingly, serum chemistry, hematology, organ weights, and leather quality of young bulls with experimentally induced clinical Psoroptes ovis mange and treated with either ivermectin long-acting injection (IVM LAI; IVOMEC(®) GOLD, Merial) or saline (n = 16 each) were examined 8 weeks after treatment when all IVM LAI-treated bulls were free of live P. ovis mites while the saline-treated bulls maintained clinical mange. IVM LAI-treated bulls had higher (p < 0.05) alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, cholesterol, glucose, and albumin levels and lower (p < 0.01) total protein and β- and γ-globulin levels than the saline-treated bulls. Complete blood counts revealed higher leukocyte counts associated with higher eosinophil counts and higher platelet counts in the saline-treated compared to the IVM LAI-treated bulls (p < 0.01). Correlating with body weight, the warm carcass weight of the saline-treated bulls was lower than that of the IVM LAI-treated bulls (p < 0.05). Absolute and relative (organ weight divided by body weight) weights of the spleen, thymus, omental fat, and perirenal fat were higher (p < 0.01) for the IVM LAI-treated bulls than for the saline-treated bulls, while the IVM LAI-treated bulls had lower (p < 0.05) absolute and relative weights of the liver, adrenal glands, and selected lymph nodes than the saline-treated bulls. The leathers produced from the IVM LAI-treated bulls showed significantly (p < 0.001) less severe gouging or etching than leathers from the saline-treated bulls, and significantly (p < 0.05) more leather from the IVM LAI-treated bulls was of usable quality than the size of leather from the saline

  8. Influence of ivermectin and clorsulon treatment on productivity of a cow-calf herd on the southern Oregon coast.

    PubMed

    Rickard, L G; Zimmerman, G L; Hoberg, E P; Bishop, J K; Pettitt, R J

    1992-02-01

    The reproductive performance of beef cows and the weight gain of their calves was evaluated after oral administration of clorsulon or clorsulon in combination with the subcutaneous administration of ivermectin. One hundred and fifty pregnant cows harboring infections of Fasciola hepatica were assigned to one of three treatment groups: Group 1 comprising 50 unmedicated controls; Group 2, 50 cows treated with clorsulon orally at 7 mg kg-1; Group 3, 50 cows treated with clorsulon orally at 7 mg kg-1 and ivermectin subcutaneously at 200 micrograms kg-1. Weights and body condition scores of the cows were measured and fecal and blood samples were taken at trial initiation and days 158 and 270. Pregnancy status was also determined at day 270. Weights and body condition scores were measured for the calves at days 158 and 270. Adjusted 205 day weaning weight of the calves was calculated and analyzed for differences between treatment groups. Four sets of tracer calves were used periodically throughout the trial to monitor the helminth challenge to the herd. Both gastro-intestinal nematodes and liver flukes were transmitted to the tracer calves during the entire trial. Even in the face of continual helminth challenge, beef cows treated with combined clorsulon/ivermectin conceived approximately 2 weeks earlier than their untreated counterparts and their calves had better body condition scores and weights than untreated calves. PMID:1561761

  9. Co-endemicity of loiasis and onchocerciasis in the South West Province of Cameroon: implications for mass treatment with ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Esum, M; Wanji, S; Tendongfor, N; Enyong, P

    2001-01-01

    Encephalopathy has been reported in Cameroon in individuals heavily infected with Loa loa microfilariae who were treated with ivermectin against onchocerciasis. Prior to the initiation of the community-directed treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin (CDTI) in the South West Province of Cameroon, an epidemiological survey of loiasis was conducted (in July 1998-July 1999) to ascertain the intensity of the disease. Thick blood films were made from 1228 blood samples collected during the day. Rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) of onchocerciasis was conducted among 614 individuals in the Upper Bayang area. Sixteen percent of the population examined were carriers of L. loa microfilariae. More males (20.1%) than females (12.4%) were infected. The community mean microfilaraemias of the different villages were low (< 1100 mf/mL). However, 1 person was found harbouring 174,000 mf/mL of blood and 1% of the study population (12) had microfilaraemia > 8100 mf/mL. Results of the REA of onchocerciasis show that 31.3% of the population investigated in the Upper Bayang area have this disease. These findings show that loiasis and onchocerciasis are co-endemic in the area, but the risk of developing encephalopathy after taking ivermectin is small. PMID:11816443

  10. Does Increasing Treatment Frequency Address Suboptimal Responses to Ivermectin for the Control and Elimination of River Blindness?

    PubMed Central

    Frempong, Kwadwo K.; Walker, Martin; Cheke, Robert A.; Tetevi, Edward Jenner; Gyan, Ernest Tawiah; Owusu, Ebenezer O.; Wilson, Michael D.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Taylor, Mark J.; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Background. Several African countries have adopted a biannual ivermectin distribution strategy in some foci to control and eliminate onchocerciasis. In 2010, the Ghana Health Service started biannual distribution to combat transmission hotspots and suboptimal responses to treatment. We assessed the epidemiological impact of the first 3 years of this strategy and quantified responses to ivermectin over 2 consecutive rounds of treatment in 10 sentinel communities. Methods. We evaluated Onchocerca volvulus community microfilarial intensity and prevalence in persons aged ≥20 years before the first, second, and fifth (or sixth) biannual treatment rounds using skin snip data from 956 participants. We used longitudinal regression modeling to estimate rates of microfilarial repopulation of the skin in a cohort of 217 participants who were followed up over the first 2 rounds of biannual treatment. Results. Biannual treatment has had a positive impact, with substantial reductions in infection intensity after 4 or 5 rounds in most communities. We identified 3 communities—all having been previously recognized as responding suboptimally to ivermectin—with statistically significantly high microfilarial repopulation rates. We did not find any clear association between microfilarial repopulation rate and the number of years of prior intervention, coverage, or the community level of infection. Conclusions. The strategy of biannual ivermectin treatment in Ghana has reduced O. volvulus microfilarial intensity and prevalence, but suboptimal responses to treatment remain evident in a number of previously and consistently implicated communities. Whether increasing the frequency of treatment will be sufficient to meet the World Health Organization's 2020 elimination goals remains uncertain. PMID:27001801

  11. Ivermectin toxicosis in a kitten.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D T; Merchant, S R; Neer, T M

    1994-08-15

    A 4-month-old female kitten developed generalized ataxia, mild tremors, weakness, incoordination, and miosis after receiving an injection of ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg of body weight, SC) for treatment of ear mite infestation. The kitten became comatose within 12 hours, and despite supportive treatment, died 7 days after administration of ivermectin. Caution should be exercised when this drug is administered parenterally to kittens. PMID:7961095

  12. Selective mass treatment with ivermectin to control intestinal helminthiases and parasitic skin diseases in a severely affected population.

    PubMed Central

    Heukelbach, Jörg; Winter, Benedikt; Wilcke, Thomas; Muehlen, Marion; Albrecht, Stephan; de Oliveira, Fabíola Araújo Sales; Kerr-Pontes, Lígia Regina Sansigolo; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the short-term and long-term impact of selective mass treatment with ivermectin on the prevalence of intestinal helminthiases and parasitic skin diseases in an economically depressed community in north-east Brazil. METHODS: An intervention was carried out in a traditional fishing village in north-east Brazil where the population of 605 is heavily affected by ectoparasites and enteroparasites. The prevalence of intestinal helminths was determined by serial stool examination and the prevalence of parasitic skin diseases by clinical inspection. A total of 525 people out of a target population of 576 were treated at baseline. The majority of these were treated with ivermectin (200 microg/kg with a second dose given after 10 days). If ivermectin was contraindicated, participants were treated with albendazole or mebendazole for intestinal helminths or with topical deltamethrin for ectoparasites. Follow-up examinations were performed at 1 month and 9 months after treatment. FINDINGS: Prevalence rates of intestinal helminthiases before treatment and at 1 month and 9 months after mass treatment were: hookworm disease 28.5%, 16.4% and 7.7%; ascariasis 17.1%, 0.4% and 7.2%; trichuriasis 16.5%, 3.4% and 9.4%; strongyloidiasis 11.0%, 0.6% and 0.7%; and hymenolepiasis 0.6%; 0.4% and 0.5%, respectively. Prevalence rates of parasitic skin diseases before treatment and 1 month and 9 months after mass treatment were: active pediculosis 16.1%, 1.0% and 10.3%; scabies 3.8%, 1.0% and 1.5%; cutaneous larva migrans 0.7%, 0% and 0%; tungiasis 51.3%, 52.1% and 31.2%, respectively. Adverse events occurred in 9.4% of treatments. They were all of mild to moderate severity and were transient. CONCLUSION: Mass treatment with ivermectin was an effective and safe means of reducing the prevalence of most of the parasitic diseases prevalent in a poor community in north-east Brazil. The effects of treatment lasted for a prolonged period of time. PMID:15375445

  13. Ivermectin cream for rosacea.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Rosacea is a chronic facial skin disease that mainly occurs in people aged over 30 years. It is common, with an estimated incidence of 1·7 per 1,000 person-years in general practice in the UK.(1,2) Rosacea can cause embarrassment, anxiety, low self-esteem and lack of confidence.(3) A new topical treatment has become available for the treatment of one of the clinical subtypes of rosacea. Ivermectin 10mg/g (1%) cream (Soolantra-Galderma) has received marketing authorisation for the treatment of inflammatory lesions of papulopustular rosacea in adults.(4) Here we review the safety and effectiveness of ivermectin cream in the treatment of rosacea and assess how it compares with standard therapies. PMID:26563877

  14. Impact of Six Years Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin in the Control of Onchocerciasis, Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Abdi; Belay, Tariku; Yehalaw, Delenasaw; Taha, Mohammed; Zemene, Endalew; Zeynudin, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background The African Program for Onchocerciais Control (APOC) with a main strategy of community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) was established with the aim of eliminating Onchocerciasis as a disease of public health and socio-economic importance. The study area was a hyper endemic area just before the implementation of CDTI. It has been implemented for six years in this district but yet not been evaluated. So, the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of six years CDTI on parasitological and clinical indices of Onchocerciasis Methods This study employed a pre-post impact evaluation design. The minimum sample size for this study was 1318; the respondents were selected by multi-stage sampling technique. Data on socio-demographic characteristics using a semi-structured questionnaire, clinical examination for skin signs and symptoms of Onchocerciasis and two bloodless skin snips from each side of the gluteal fold were taken from the entire study participants. SPSS version 16.0 and Medcalc version 12.2.1.0 were used for analysis. Result The microfilaridermia reduced from the pre-intervention value of 74.8% to 40.7%, indicating a 45.6% reduction, mean intensity from 32.1(SD = 61.5) mf/mg skin snip to 18.7(SD = 28.7)indicating 41.75% reduction, CMFL from 19.6 mf/mg skin snip to 4.7 indicating 76% reduction. The result also showed that microfilaridermia and mean intensity decreased as the number of treatment taken increased. Pruritis, leopard skin, onchocercomata and hanging groin reduced by 54.4%, 61.3%, 77.7% and 88.5% respectively. Conclusions The implementation of CDTI significantly reduced the parasitological and clinical indices of Onchocerciasis, so, efforts should be made to improve the annual treatment coverage and sustainability of CDTI to drastically reduce the micro filarial load to the level the disease would no longer be a public health problem. PMID:26942910

  15. Treatment and control of bovine sarcoptic and psoroptic mange infestation with ivermectin long-acting injectable (IVOMEC(®) GOLD).

    PubMed

    Hamel, Dietmar; Joachim, Anja; Löwenstein, Michael; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Yoon, Stephen; Cramer, Luiz; Rehbein, Steffen

    2015-02-01

    The efficacy of ivermectin long-acting injection (IVM LAI, IVOMEC® GOLD, Merial; 3.15 % ivermectin w/v) formulation was evaluated in cattle with induced Sarcoptes scabiei var. bovis or Psoroptes ovis infestations. A total of 64 cattle were included in this series of four studies, with 16 animals per study. Approximately, 8 weeks following initial induced mite infestation, cattle were allocated to treatment groups based on decreasing pre-treatment bodyweights. Treatments (saline (control) or IVM LAI (630 mcg ivermectin/kg bodyweight) at 1 mL/50 kg bodyweight) were administered by a single subcutaneous injection in front of the right shoulder on Day 0. Skin scrapings were collected prior to treatment and at approximately weekly intervals for 8 weeks thereafter to establish live mite counts. Character and extent of skin lesions were evaluated at each sampling. Animals were weighed before treatment and at the end of the studies. Mite counts of the IVM LAI-treated animals were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than those of the controls in all four studies at all occasions post-treatment. In the two Sarcoptes studies, IVM LAI-treated cattle were free of mites at 14 days after treatment and in the Psoroptes studies at 13 or 28 days post-treatment. All IVM LAI-treated cattle remained free of mites to the end of the studies while all control animals remained infested. Mange lesions of the IVM LAI-treated animals improved significantly (p < 0.05) compared to those of the controls from Day 21 (Sarcoptes studies) and from Days 28 or 34 (Psoroptes studies). In all studies, mean weight gain over the 8 week post-treatment period was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for the IVM LAI-treated animals than for the controls: Sarcoptes studies, 64.1 and 68.6 kg vs. 46.9 and 48.6 kg, respectively; Psoroptes studies, 43.0 and 43.4 kg vs. 20.8 and 34.9 kg, respectively. All animals accepted the treatment well, and no treatment-related health problems and adverse events were

  16. Ivermectin treatment of free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups: effect on hookworm and lice infection status, haematological parameters, growth, and survival.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

    2015-07-01

    A placebo-controlled study was used to investigate the effectiveness of ivermectin to treat hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) and lice (Antarctophthirus microchir) infections in free-ranging Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups and to test the hypotheses that these parasitic infections cause anaemia, systemic inflammatory responses, and reduced growth, and contribute towards decreased pup survival. Ivermectin was identified as an effective and safe anthelmintic in this species. Pups administered ivermectin had significantly higher erythrocyte counts and significantly lower eosinophil counts compared to controls at 1-2 months post-treatment, confirming that U. sanguinis and/or A. microchir are causatively associated with disease and demonstrating the positive effect of ivermectin treatment on clinical health parameters. Higher growth rates were not seen in ivermectin-treated pups and, unexpectedly, relatively older pups treated with ivermectin demonstrated significantly reduced growth rates when compared to matched saline-control pups. Differences in survival were not identified between treatment groups; however, this was attributed to the unexpectedly low mortality rate of recruited pups, likely due to the unintended recruitment bias towards pups >1-2 months of age for which mortality due to hookworm infection is less likely. This finding highlights the logistical and practical challenges associated with treating pups of this species shortly after birth at a remote colony. This study informs the assessment of the use of anthelmintics as a tool for the conservation management of free-ranging wildlife and outlines essential steps to further the development of strategies to ensure the effective conservation of the Australian sea lion and its parasitic fauna. PMID:25911163

  17. Air Sample Conditioner Helps the Waste Treatment Plant Meet Emissions Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Pekour, Mikhail S.

    2014-12-02

    The air in three of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melter off-gas discharge stacks will be hot and humid after passing through the train of emission abatement equipment. The off-gas temperature and humidity levels will be incompatible with the airborne emissions monitoring equipment required for this type of stack. To facilitate sampling from these facilities, an air sample conditioner system will be installed to introduce cool, dry air into the sample stream to reduce the temperature and dew point. This will avoid thermal damage to the instrumentation and problematic condensation. The complete sample transport system must also deliver at least 50% of the particles in the sample airstream to the sample collection and on-line analysis equipment. The primary components of the sample conditioning system were tested in a laboratory setting. The sample conditioner itself is based on a commercially-available porous tube filter design. It consists of a porous sintered metal tube inside a coaxial metal jacket. The hot gas sample stream passes axially through the porous tube, and the dry, cool air is injected into the jacket and through the porous wall of the inner tube, creating an effective sample diluter. The dilution and sample air mix along the entire length of the porous tube, thereby simultaneously reducing the dew point and temperature of the mixed sample stream. Furthermore, because the dilution air enters through the porous tube wall, the sample stream does not come in contact with the porous wall and particle deposition is reduced in this part of the sampling system. Tests were performed with an environmental chamber to supply air with the temperature and humidity needed to simulate the off-gas conditions. Air from the chamber was passed through the conditioning system to test its ability to reduce the temperature and dew point of the sample stream. To measure particle deposition, oil droplets in the range of 9 to 11 micrometer

  18. Prevalence of onchocerciasis in the Fundong Health District, Cameroon after 6 years of continuous community-directed treatment with ivermectin

    PubMed Central

    Kamga, Henri Lucien Fouamno; Shey, Dickson Nsagha; Assob, Jules Clement Nguedia; Njunda, Anna Longdoh; Nde Fon, Peter; Njem, Peter Kindong

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Onchocerciasis is one of the leading infectious causes of blindness affecting over 37 million people of which 99% are in Africa. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of onchocerciasis in the Fundong Health District, a locality where community-directed treatment with ivermectin has been carried out for 6 consecutive years. Methods Questionnaires covering participants’ identity, Rapid Epidemiological Assessment (REA) for onchocerciasis and parasitological parameters were distributed to participants. Skin snip (SS) was collected for laboratory investigation. Results A total of 404 participants belonging to 200 households were randomly selected from the Fundong Health District, of which 134 (33.2%) were males and 270(66.8%) were females, 14 (3.5%) had microfilaredermia and 15(3.7%) had nodules. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of microfilaredermia with respect to age of participants (X2=2.749, P=0.601). There was however a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of nodule and impaired vision/eye itching (IVIE) with respect to age (X2=24.67, P<0.001). The greatest rate of infection was found among farmers (2.5%) followed by students (0.7%) and businessmen (0.25%). Conclusion This study shows that the study area is now hypo-endemic for onchocerciasis, following 6 years of continuous treatment with ivermectin. Careful monitoring of onchocerciasis should however be continued to avoid that the area returns to its initial hyper endemicity. PMID:22187616

  19. Impact of repeated ivermectin treatments against onchocerciasis on the transmission of loiasis: an entomologic evaluation in central Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Annual community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) have been carried out since 1999 in the Lekie division (central region of Cameroon where most cases of Loa-related post ivermectin severe adverse events were reported) as part of the joined activities of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) and Mectizan® Donation Program (MDP). As large-scale administration of ivermetine was demonstrated to be an efficient means to control loiasis transmission, it was hypothesized that CDTI would have lowered or halted the transmission of Loa loa in the Lekie division after 13 years of annual drug administration, indicating a possible reduction in the occurrence of Loa-related post-ivermectin severe adverse events. Methods A 4-month entomologic study was carried out from March to June 2012 in the Lekie division to evaluate the impact of 13 years of CDTI on the transmission of L. loa whose baseline data were recorded in 1999–2000. Results There was a significant reduction in the infection rate for Chrysops silacea and C. dimidiata from 6.8 and 9% in 1999–2000 to 3 and 3.6% in 2012, respectively. The differences in the infective rate (IR) (percentage of flies harboring head L3 larvae), potential infective rate (PIR) (percentage of flies bearing L3 larvae), mean head L3 larvae load (MHL3) (average L3 per infective fly) and mean fly L3 larvae load (MFL3) (average L3 per potentially infective fly) for both C. silacea and C. dimidiata were not significantly different between the two investigation periods. The biting density (BD) was almost three-fold higher in 2012 for C. silacea but not for C. dimidiata. The transmission potential (TP) which is a function of the BD, was higher in the present study than in the baseline investigation for each species. Conclusion The infection rate remaining high, the high TP and the stability observed in the IR, PIR, MHL3 and MFL3 after 13 years of CDTI suggest that transmission of L. loa is still active. This is

  20. Drawing and interpreting data: Children's impressions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in four onchocerciasis endemic countries in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mary; Tchounkeu, Yolande Flore Longang; Oyugi, Rahel Akumu; Kabali, Asaph Turinde; Okeibunor, Joseph C.; Manianga, Cele; Amazigo, Uche V.

    2011-01-01

    Although the depiction of a child leading a blind man is the most enduring image of onchocerciasis in Africa, research activities have hardly involved children. This paper aims at giving voice to children through drawings and their interpretation. The study was conducted in 2009 in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nigeria and Uganda. Children aged 6–16 years were asked to draw their perceptions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in their communities. A total of 50 drawings were generated. The drawings depicted four main aspects of onchocerciasis: (1) the disease symptoms, (2) the negative consequences of onchocerciasis among children and in the community generally, (3) the ivermectin distribution process, and (4) the benefits or effects of taking ivermectin. Out of the 50 drawings, 30 were on symptoms, 7 on effects of the disease on children, 8 on distribution process, and 5 represented multiple perceptions on symptoms, drug distribution processes, benefits, and effects of treatment. The lack of clarity when treatment with ivermectin can be stopped in endemic areas requires working with children to ensure continued compliance with treatment into the future. Children's drawings should be incorporated into health education interventions. PMID:21637349

  1. Drawing and interpreting data: Children's impressions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in four onchocerciasis endemic countries in Africa.

    PubMed

    Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mary; Tchounkeu, Yolande Flore Longang; Oyugi, Rahel Akumu; Kabali, Asaph Turinde; Okeibunor, Joseph C; Manianga, Cele; Amazigo, Uche V

    2011-01-01

    Although the depiction of a child leading a blind man is the most enduring image of onchocerciasis in Africa, research activities have hardly involved children. This paper aims at giving voice to children through drawings and their interpretation. The study was conducted in 2009 in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nigeria and Uganda. Children aged 6-16 years were asked to draw their perceptions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in their communities. A total of 50 drawings were generated. The drawings depicted four main aspects of onchocerciasis: (1) the disease symptoms, (2) the negative consequences of onchocerciasis among children and in the community generally, (3) the ivermectin distribution process, and (4) the benefits or effects of taking ivermectin. Out of the 50 drawings, 30 were on symptoms, 7 on effects of the disease on children, 8 on distribution process, and 5 represented multiple perceptions on symptoms, drug distribution processes, benefits, and effects of treatment. The lack of clarity when treatment with ivermectin can be stopped in endemic areas requires working with children to ensure continued compliance with treatment into the future. Children's drawings should be incorporated into health education interventions. PMID:21637349

  2. Ivermectin 1% cream for rosacea.

    PubMed

    Gupta, G; Daigle, D; Gupta, A K; Gold, L S

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of papulopustular rosacea (PPR) is not well understood yet appears to involve both the innate and adaptive immune response in addition to possible infestation with Demodex mites. Current treatments for PPR consist mainly of antibiotics. Ivermectin cream 1%, a new topical treatment for PPR, possesses both anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic properties. After 12 weeks of treatment, subjects treated with ivermectin cream 1% had significantly greater reductions in PPR symptoms and enhanced diseaserelated quality of life improvements compared to subjects who received vehicle. Furthermore, PPR symptoms continued to improve with prolonged treatment (40 weeks). Ivermectin cream 1% offers a multi-pronged approach to combat the complex pathophysiology of rosacea. PMID:26382711

  3. Results of a safety trial on single-dose treatments with 400 mcg/kg of ivermectin in bancroftian filariasis.

    PubMed

    Cartel, J L; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, L N; Chanteau, S; Roux, J F

    1992-12-01

    Two groups of Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers, 17 females aged 21 to 84 years and 20 males aged 26 to 57 years, in whom microfilaraemia ranged from 1 to 10,121 mf/ml and from 1 to 6,484 mf/ml, respectively, were given a supervised singledose treatment with 400 mcg/kg of ivermectin. Carriers were examined and questioned regarding their experience of adverse reactions, which were graded 0 to 3 according to severity, at 6, 12 and 24 hours and at 4 days after treatment. Biological examinations which included determination of microfilaraemia, complete blood count, liver function tests and assessment of creatinine and urea levels were performed at 4 days before and 4 days after treatment. Adverse reactions were observed in 65% of female and in 70% of male carriers; they were of grade > or = 2 in 35% of carriers in both groups. None as considered serious; they all disappeared in 24-48 hours. The main symptoms were headache, fever > or = 37.5 degrees C and myalgia in females. One male vomited 3 hours after treatment; as a result the drug was not ingested and no decrease of microfilaraemia was noted. Twelve days afterwards, he was given a second 400 mcg/kg dose, he experienced again a grade 1 reaction and his microfilaraemia fell to zero. The 37 carriers in the present study were matched with 37 other Polynesian carriers treated with a 100 mcg/kg single dose of ivermectin in previous trials for pretreatment mf density and sex: no significant difference could be found in adverse reactions between the 2 treatment groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1293733

  4. Serratospiculosis in falcons from Kuwait: incidence, pathogenicity and treatment with melarsomine and ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Tarello, W

    2006-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of the filarial avian nematode Serratospiculum seurati in falcons from Kuwait, report clinical signs and find an effective therapy. Naturally occurring S. seurati infestation was diagnosed in 149 (8.7%) out of 1,706 captive falcons examined between May 2003 and April 2005, and 140 of these were treated with melarsomine at dosage of 0.25 mg/kg injected intramuscularly for two days, and ivermectin, injected once at the dose of 1 mg/kg, 10 days later. Infestation was reportedly symptomatic in 107 (71.8%) and non-symptomatic in 42 (28.2%) falcons. Signs reported more often were dyspnoea (58.8%), reduced speed and strength in flight (56%), weight loss (38.3%), anorexia/poor appetite (22.4%) and lethargy (16.8%). After administration of melarsomine, signs disappeared within 1-10 days in symptomatic birds and improvement of flight performances was noted in non-symptomatic birds. Dead adult parasites were ejected in 22 cases. Embryonated eggs were not detected in coproscopic checks made 10 and 40 days after the end of therapy, in association with lasting clinical remission. The main conclusion is that Serratospiculum seurati is overall pathogenic for birds of prey in the Middle East and that melarsomine + ivermectin can be an effective protocol of therapy eliminating both clinical signs and parasites. PMID:16605068

  5. An evaluation of ivermectin in the treatment of sarcoptic mange in dogs.

    PubMed

    Scheidt, V J; Medleau, L; Seward, R L; Schwartzman, R M

    1984-06-01

    A colony of mixed-breed dogs (n = 298) naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei was treated, twice, with 200 micrograms of ivermectin/kg of body weight subcutaneously at 14-day intervals. After the initial injection, positive skin scrapings from 20 treated dogs decreased from 7 to 1 and the degree of pruritus decreased. In contrast, positive skin scrapings from 22 nontreated dogs increased from 10 to 14, and there was an additional deterioration in the condition of the skin and an increase in the degree of pruritus. Complete control was noticed in all treated dogs by posttreatment day 28 (14 days after a 2nd injection) based on negative skin scrapings. PMID:6377991

  6. The efficacy of avermectins (ivermectin, doramectin and abamectin) as treatments for infestation with the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis on rabbits in Korea.

    PubMed

    Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Noh, Jin Hyeong; Kim, Young Ha; Yoo, Mi Sun; Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar; Jung, Suk Chan; Kang, Seung Won

    2013-12-01

    The efficacy of a single subcutaneous injection of an avermectin (ivermectin, doramectin, or abamectin) as a treatment for infestation with nymphal and adult Haemaphysalis longicornis was evaluated in 24 New Zealand White rabbits. Two days after artificial infestation with nymphs or adult ticks, the rabbits were randomly allocated to three treatment groups (to be treated with ivermectin, doramectin, and abamectin) and a control group. The animals in the treatment groups were injected with commercial injectable formulations of each avermectins at a dose of 200 μg/kg live weight. The results showed that on rabbits treated with these avermectins, nymphs and female ticks had significantly reduced weight, nymphs had reduced moulting success rates, and females had inhibited ovary development. Among the treatments, doramectin was most effective in reducing the weight of nymphs (weight was reduced by 80%) and females (by 97.3%); ivermectin was most effective in reducing the moulting success rate in nymphs (by 55%); and both doramectin and abamectin were effective in inhibiting the development of female ticks' ovaries (by 46%). Data from this investigation show that avermectins are suitable for the control of H. longicornis on rabbits in Korea. PMID:24140165

  7. Long-term efficacy of single-dose treatment with 400 micrograms.kg-1 of ivermectin in bancroftian filariasis: results at one year.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, L N; Chanteau, S; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1993-12-01

    In April 1992, a safety trial was performed with a single dose of ivermectin 400 micrograms.kg-1 (IVER 400). In 37 bancroftian filariasis carriers, 6 and 12 months after IVER 400 treatment, the microfilaremia recurrences were 3.2% and 13.5%, respectively. As compared to results from other studies with diethylcarbamazine and IVER at different dosages and periodicities, the dosage of IVER 400 seems the most effective; but a yearly intake might not be sufficient. PMID:8134778

  8. The disappearance of onchocerciasis from the Itwara focus, western Uganda after elimination of the vector Simulium neavei and 19 years of annual ivermectin treatments.

    PubMed

    Lakwo, T L; Garms, R; Rubaale, T; Katabarwa, M; Walsh, F; Habomugisha, P; Oguttu, D; Unnasch, T; Namanya, H; Tukesiga, E; Katamanywa, J; Bamuhiiga, J; Byamukama, E; Agunyo, S; Richards, F

    2013-06-01

    The Itwara onchocerciasis focus is located around the Itwara forest reserve in western Uganda. In 1991, annual treatments with ivermectin started in the focus. They were supplemented in 1995 by the control of the vector Simulium neavei, which was subsequently eliminated from the focus. The impact of the two interventions on the disease was assessed in 2010 by nodule palpations, examinations of skin snips by microscopy and PCR, and Ov16 recombinant ELISA. There was no evidence of any microfilaria in 688 skin snips and only 2 (0.06%) of 3316 children examined for IgG4 were slightly above the arbitrary cut off of 40. A follow up of the same children 21 months later in 2012 confirmed that both were negative for diagnostic antigen Ov-16, skin snip microscopy and PCR. Based on the World Health Organization (WHO) elimination criteria of 2001 and the Uganda onchocerciasis certification guidelines, it was concluded that the disease has disappeared from the Itwara focus after 19 years of ivermectin treatments and the elimination of the vector around 2001. Ivermectin treatments were recommended to be halted. PMID:23458325

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in β-tubulin selected in Onchocerca volvulus following repeated ivermectin treatment: possible indication of resistance selection.

    PubMed

    Nana-Djeunga, Hugues; Bourguinat, Catherine; Pion, Sébastien D S; Kamgno, Joseph; Gardon, Jacques; Njiokou, Flobert; Boussinesq, Michel; Prichard, Roger K

    2012-09-01

    The control of onchocerciasis or river blindness by mass treatment of the population with ivermectin (IVM) has been a great success until now, so that in certain foci its elimination has become feasible. However, after more than 20 years of repeated IVM mass treatment, the disease still persists in many endemic countries. Sub-optimal responses and genetic changes have been reported in Onchocerca volvulus populations under high IVM pressure but more work is needed to determine whether resistance is developing. The situation needs to be urgently clarified to preserve the achievements of onchocerciasis control programs. In this study, O. volvulus adult worms were collected from the same individuals, before IVM exposure and following three years of annual or three-monthly treatments at 150 μg/kg or 800 μg/kg. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occurring in the β-tubulin gene of these parasites were investigated. We found changes in genotype frequencies in O. volvulus β-tubulin gene associated with IVM treatments. The SNP at position 1545 (A/G) showed a significant increase in frequency of the less common nucleotide in the female worms following treatment. After 13 three-monthly treatments, female worm homozygotes with the less common genotype, prior to treatment, increased in frequency. The selected homozygotes, as well as heterozygotes, appeared to be less fertile (without or with very few embryonic stages in their uteri) than the wild-type homozygotes. These results provide additional evidence for genetic selection and strengthen the warning that selection for IVM resistance may be occurring in some O. volvulus populations. PMID:22677339

  10. Contribution and performance of female Community-Directed Distributors in the treatment of onchocerciasis with Ivermectin in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vouking, Marius Zambou; Tamo, Violette Claire; Tadenfok, Carine Nouboudem

    2015-01-01

    The African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) was launched in 1995 with the main goal being to boost the fight against onchocerciasis in Africa. In 2011, over 80 million people benefited from this intervention thanks to the contribution of 268.718 Community-Directed Distributors (CDD). These significant results obscure the role of women CDD in this fight. Indeed, the insufficient involvement of female CDD has been identified as a concern by the APOC partners early in the program. The present study aims to assess the contribution and performance of women involved in a strategy to control onchocerciasis by community-directed treatment with ivermectin in sub Saharan Africa. We searched the following electronic databases from January 1995 to July 2013: Medline, Embase (Excerpta Medica Database), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), LILAS (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences), International Bibliography of Social Sciences, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts. Two research team members independently conducted data extraction from the final sample of articles by using a pre-established data extraction sheet. The primary outcome was the contribution of female CDD in the control of onchocerciasis by community-directed treatment with Ivermectin. Of 25 hits, 7 papers met the inclusion criteria. For the management of onchocerciasis, female CDDs are elected by the health committee from the communities they will serve. The significant proportion of those treated (about 61%) were women, although only 24% of CDDs were women. Many community members reported that women were more committed, persuasive and more patient than men in the distribution of ivermectin. Some studies have identified underutilization of female CDD as one reason for the limited effectiveness or, in some cases, pure failure related to the distribution of Ivermectin interventions in the fight against onchocerciasis in sub-Saharan Africa

  11. Contribution and performance of female Community-Directed Distributors in the treatment of onchocerciasis with Ivermectin in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Vouking, Marius Zambou; Tamo, Violette Claire; Tadenfok, Carine Nouboudem

    2015-01-01

    The African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) was launched in 1995 with the main goal being to boost the fight against onchocerciasis in Africa. In 2011, over 80 million people benefited from this intervention thanks to the contribution of 268.718 Community-Directed Distributors (CDD). These significant results obscure the role of women CDD in this fight. Indeed, the insufficient involvement of female CDD has been identified as a concern by the APOC partners early in the program. The present study aims to assess the contribution and performance of women involved in a strategy to control onchocerciasis by community-directed treatment with ivermectin in sub Saharan Africa. We searched the following electronic databases from January 1995 to July 2013: Medline, Embase (Excerpta Medica Database), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), LILAS (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences), International Bibliography of Social Sciences, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts. Two research team members independently conducted data extraction from the final sample of articles by using a pre-established data extraction sheet. The primary outcome was the contribution of female CDD in the control of onchocerciasis by community-directed treatment with Ivermectin. Of 25 hits, 7 papers met the inclusion criteria. For the management of onchocerciasis, female CDDs are elected by the health committee from the communities they will serve. The significant proportion of those treated (about 61%) were women, although only 24% of CDDs were women. Many community members reported that women were more committed, persuasive and more patient than men in the distribution of ivermectin. Some studies have identified underutilization of female CDD as one reason for the limited effectiveness or, in some cases, pure failure related to the distribution of Ivermectin interventions in the fight against onchocerciasis in sub-Saharan Africa

  12. Ivermectin Inhibits Growth of Chlamydia trachomatis in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pettengill, Matthew A.; Lam, Verissa W.; Ollawa, Ikechukwu; Marques-da-Silva, Camila; Ojcius, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Ivermectin is currently approved for treatment of both clinical and veterinary infections by nematodes, including Onchocerca cervicalis in horses and Onchocerca volvulus in humans. However, ivermectin has never been shown to be effective against bacterial pathogens. Here we show that ivermectin also inhibits infection of epithelial cells by the bacterial pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, at doses that could be envisioned clinically for sexually-transmitted or ocular infections by Chlamydia. PMID:23119027

  13. Ivermectin inhibits growth of Chlamydia trachomatis in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pettengill, Matthew A; Lam, Verissa W; Ollawa, Ikechukwu; Marques-da-Silva, Camila; Ojcius, David M

    2012-01-01

    Ivermectin is currently approved for treatment of both clinical and veterinary infections by nematodes, including Onchocerca cervicalis in horses and Onchocerca volvulus in humans. However, ivermectin has never been shown to be effective against bacterial pathogens. Here we show that ivermectin also inhibits infection of epithelial cells by the bacterial pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, at doses that could be envisioned clinically for sexually-transmitted or ocular infections by Chlamydia. PMID:23119027

  14. Safety trial of single-dose treatments with a combination of ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine in bancroftian filariasis.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Nguyen, L N; Glaziou, P; Chanteau, S; Gay, V M; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1993-06-01

    A supervised safety trial of the treatment with a combination of ivermectin 400 micrograms.kg-1 (IVER 400) plus increasing doses of diethylcarbamazine (DEC), given simultaneously in single dose, was performed on five groups of Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers, 49 males aged 25 to 73 years, in whom microfilaremia ranged from 1 to 6,137 mf/ml. The trial was hospital-based, open, dose-escalating (1 group per week). Safety of an unchanging dose of IVER 400 and ascending doses of DEC were studied in the 5 following groups: group 1- IVER 400 plus DEC 1 mg.kg-1, 12 patients; group 2- IVER 400 plus DEC 3 mg.kg-1, 17 patients; group 3- IVER 400 plus DEC 6 mg.kg-1, 10 patients. Two control groups were included in the study, group 4- DEC 6 mg.kg-1 alone, 5 patients; group 5-: IVER 400 alone, 5 patients. Carriers were examined and questioned regarding their experience of adverse reactions, which were graded 0 to 3 according to severity, at 6, 12 and 24 hours and at 4 days after treatment. Biological examination was performed 4 days before and 4 days after treatment and included determination of microfilaremia, complete blood count, liver function tests and assessment of creatinine and urea levels. Adverse reactions were observed in 51% of 49 carriers (15 of grade 1, 8 of grade 2, 2 of grade 3). None was considered serious and they all disappeared in 2 days. The main symptoms were fever > or = 37.5 degrees C, myalgia, arthralgia, headache, asthenia, anorexia, vertigo and chills. Adverse reactions of patients were not significantly different between the five groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8367670

  15. A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey Conducted Three Years after Halting Ivermectin Mass Treatment for Onchocerciasis in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Frank O.; Klein, Robert E.; de León, Oscar; Mendizábal-Cabrera, Renata; Morales, Alba Lucía; Cama, Vitaliano; Crovella, Carol G.; Díaz Espinoza, Carlos E.; Morales, Zoraida; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Rizzo, Nidia

    2016-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin for onchocerciasis was provided in Guatemala’s Central Endemic Zone (CEZ) over a 24 year period (1988–2011). Elimination of Onchocerca volvulus transmission was declared in 2015 after a three year post MDA surveillance period (2012–2014) showed no evidence of recrudescence. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards onchocerciasis and ivermectin among residents in the post endemic CEZ. A major interest in this study was to determine what community residents thought about the end of the ivermectin MDA program. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 148 interviews were conducted in November 2014 in four formerly hyperendemic communities using a standard questionnaire on smart phones. The majority (69%) of respondents knew that the MDA program had ended because the disease was no longer present in their communities, but a slight majority (53%) was personally unsure that onchocerciasis had really been eliminated. Sixty-three percent wanted to continue to receive ivermectin because of this uncertainty, or because ivermectin is effective against intestinal worms. Eighty-nine percent of respondents said that they would seek medical attention immediately if a family member had symptoms of onchocerciasis (especially the presence of a nodule), which is a finding very important for ongoing surveillance. Conclusions/Significance Many respondents wanted to continue receive ivermectin and more than half did not believe onchocerciasis had been eliminated. The ministry of health outreach services should be prepared to address ongoing concerns about onchocerciasis in the post endemic CEZ. PMID:27341104

  16. Genotypic analysis of β-tubulin in Onchocerca volvulus from communities and individuals showing poor parasitological response to ivermectin treatment.

    PubMed

    Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Boakye, Daniel A; Awadzi, Kwablah; Gyapong, John O; Prichard, Roger K

    2012-12-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) has been in operational use for the control of onchocerciasis for two decades and remains the only drug of choice. To investigate the parasitological responses and genetic profile of Onchocerca volvulus, we carried out a 21 month epidemiological study to determine the response of the parasite to IVM in 10 Ghanaian endemic communities. Onchocerca nodules were surgically removed from patients in three IVM response categories (good, intermediate and poor) and one IVM naïve community. DNA from adult worms was analyzed to determine any association between genotype and IVM response phenotypic. Embryogramme analysis showed significantly higher reproductive activity in worms from poor response communities, which had up to 41% of females with live stretched microfilaria (mf) in utero, despite IVM treatment, compared with good response communities, which had no intra-uterine stretched mf. β-tubulin isotype 1 gene has been shown to be linked to IVM selection in O. volvulus and also known to be associated with IVM resistance in veterinary nematodes. We have genotyped the full length genomic DNA sequence of the β-tubulin gene from 127 adult worms obtained from the four community categories. We found SNPs at 24 sites over the entire 3696 bp. Eight of the SNPs occurred at significantly higher (p < 0.05) frequencies in the poor response communities compared with the good response communities and the IVM naïve community. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses show that IVM resistance has been selected and the genotype (1183GG/1188CC/1308TT/1545GG) was strongly associated with the resistance phenotype. Since the region in the β-tubulin gene where these four SNPs occur is within 362 bp, it is feasible to develop a genetic marker for the early detection of IVM resistance. PMID:24533268

  17. Genotypic analysis of β-tubulin in Onchocerca volvulus from communities and individuals showing poor parasitological response to ivermectin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Awadzi, Kwablah; Gyapong, John O.; Prichard, Roger K.

    2012-01-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) has been in operational use for the control of onchocerciasis for two decades and remains the only drug of choice. To investigate the parasitological responses and genetic profile of Onchocerca volvulus, we carried out a 21 month epidemiological study to determine the response of the parasite to IVM in 10 Ghanaian endemic communities. Onchocerca nodules were surgically removed from patients in three IVM response categories (good, intermediate and poor) and one IVM naïve community. DNA from adult worms was analyzed to determine any association between genotype and IVM response phenotypic. Embryogramme analysis showed significantly higher reproductive activity in worms from poor response communities, which had up to 41% of females with live stretched microfilaria (mf) in utero, despite IVM treatment, compared with good response communities, which had no intra-uterine stretched mf. β-tubulin isotype 1 gene has been shown to be linked to IVM selection in O. volvulus and also known to be associated with IVM resistance in veterinary nematodes. We have genotyped the full length genomic DNA sequence of the β-tubulin gene from 127 adult worms obtained from the four community categories. We found SNPs at 24 sites over the entire 3696 bp. Eight of the SNPs occurred at significantly higher (p < 0.05) frequencies in the poor response communities compared with the good response communities and the IVM naïve community. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses show that IVM resistance has been selected and the genotype (1183GG/1188CC/1308TT/1545GG) was strongly associated with the resistance phenotype. Since the region in the β-tubulin gene where these four SNPs occur is within 362 bp, it is feasible to develop a genetic marker for the early detection of IVM resistance. PMID:24533268

  18. Comparative tissue pharmacokinetics and efficacy of moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin in lambs infected with resistant nematodes: Impact of drug treatments on parasite P-glycoprotein expression☆

    PubMed Central

    Lloberas, Mercedes; Alvarez, Luis; Entrocasso, Carlos; Virkel, Guillermo; Ballent, Mariana; Mate, Laura; Lanusse, Carlos; Lifschitz, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The high level of resistance to the macrocyclic lactones has encouraged the search for strategies to optimize their potential as antiparasitic agents. There is a need for pharmaco-parasitological studies addressing the kinetic-dynamic differences between various macrocyclic lactones under standardized in vivo conditions. The current work evaluated the relationship among systemic drug exposure, target tissue availabilities and the pattern of drug accumulation within resistant Haemonchus contortus for moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin. Drug concentrations in plasma, target tissues and parasites were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the efficacy of the three molecules was evaluated in lambs infected with resistant nematodes by classical parasitological methods. Furthermore, the comparative determination of the level of expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp2) in H. contortus recovered from lambs treated with each drug was performed by real time PCR. A longer persistence of moxidectin (P < 0.05) concentrations in plasma was observed. The concentrations of the three compounds in the mucosal tissue and digestive contents were significant higher than those measured in plasma. Drug concentrations were in a range between 452 ng/g (0.5 day post-treatment) and 32 ng/g (2 days post-treatment) in the gastrointestinal (GI) contents (abomasal and intestinal). Concentrations of the three compounds in H. contortus were in a similar range to those observed in the abomasal contents (positive correlation P = 0.0002). Lower moxidectin concentrations were recovered within adult H. contortus compared to abamectin and ivermectin at day 2 post-treatment. However, the efficacy against H. contortus was 20.1% (ivermectin), 39.7% (abamectin) and 89.6% (moxidectin). Only the ivermectin treatment induced an enhancement on the expression of P-gp2 in the recovered adult H. contortus, reaching higher values at 12 and 24 h post-administration compared to

  19. Comparative tissue pharmacokinetics and efficacy of moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin in lambs infected with resistant nematodes: Impact of drug treatments on parasite P-glycoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Lloberas, Mercedes; Alvarez, Luis; Entrocasso, Carlos; Virkel, Guillermo; Ballent, Mariana; Mate, Laura; Lanusse, Carlos; Lifschitz, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    The high level of resistance to the macrocyclic lactones has encouraged the search for strategies to optimize their potential as antiparasitic agents. There is a need for pharmaco-parasitological studies addressing the kinetic-dynamic differences between various macrocyclic lactones under standardized in vivo conditions. The current work evaluated the relationship among systemic drug exposure, target tissue availabilities and the pattern of drug accumulation within resistant Haemonchus contortus for moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin. Drug concentrations in plasma, target tissues and parasites were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the efficacy of the three molecules was evaluated in lambs infected with resistant nematodes by classical parasitological methods. Furthermore, the comparative determination of the level of expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp2) in H. contortus recovered from lambs treated with each drug was performed by real time PCR. A longer persistence of moxidectin (P < 0.05) concentrations in plasma was observed. The concentrations of the three compounds in the mucosal tissue and digestive contents were significant higher than those measured in plasma. Drug concentrations were in a range between 452 ng/g (0.5 day post-treatment) and 32 ng/g (2 days post-treatment) in the gastrointestinal (GI) contents (abomasal and intestinal). Concentrations of the three compounds in H. contortus were in a similar range to those observed in the abomasal contents (positive correlation P = 0.0002). Lower moxidectin concentrations were recovered within adult H. contortus compared to abamectin and ivermectin at day 2 post-treatment. However, the efficacy against H. contortus was 20.1% (ivermectin), 39.7% (abamectin) and 89.6% (moxidectin). Only the ivermectin treatment induced an enhancement on the expression of P-gp2 in the recovered adult H. contortus, reaching higher values at 12 and 24 h post-administration compared to

  20. Ongoing Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus after 25 Years of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatments in the Vina du Nord River Valley, in North Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbarth, Albert; Achukwi, Mbunkah Daniel; Renz, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent reports of transmission interruption of Onchocerca volvulus, the causing agent of river blindness, in former endemic foci in the Americas, and more recently in West and East Africa, raise the question whether elimination of this debilitating disease is underway after long-term treatment of the population at risk with ivermectin. The situation in Central Africa has not yet been clearly assessed. Methods and findings Entomologic data from two former endemic river basins in North Cameroon were generated over a period of 43 and 48 months to follow-up transmission levels in areas under prolonged ivermectin control. Moreover, epidemiologic parameters of animal-borne Onchocerca spp. transmitted by the same local black fly vectors of the Simulium damnosum complex were recorded and their impact on O. volvulus transmission success evaluated. With mitochondrial DNA markers we unambiguously confirmed the presence of infective O. volvulus larvae in vectors from the Sudan savannah region (mean Annual Transmission Potential 2009–2012: 98, range 47–221), but not from the Adamawa highland region. Transmission rates of O. ochengi, a parasite of Zebu cattle, were high in both foci. Conclusions/significance The high cattle livestock density in conjunction with the high transmission rates of the bovine filaria O. ochengi prevents the transmission of O. volvulus on the Adamawa plateau, whereas transmission in a former hyperendemic focus was markedly reduced, but not completely interrupted after 25 years of ivermectin control. This study may be helpful to gauge the impact of the presence of animal-filariae for O. volvulus transmission in terms of the growing human and livestock populations in sub-Saharan countries. PMID:26926855

  1. Probable reason why small strongyle EPG counts are returning "early" after ivermectin treatment of horses on a farm in Central Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Collins, S S

    2009-02-01

    three horses at 6 days PT but in 26% for horse H-10 at 25 days PT. As mentioned earlier, only a few adults were found in one horse and several L(4) in the three horses at necropsy at 6 days PT. Therefore, in horse H-10, most adults found at 25 days PT presumably developed from "young" specimens not removed by ivermectin. Thus, data from the present critical tests indicate the probable cause of the "early" return of small strongyle EPG values after ivermectin treatment in the horses in field tests on Farm MC. It seems this was the result of incomplete removal of luminal specimens (L(4) and possibly young adults), some of which matured and began laying eggs by about 4 weeks PT (Lyons et al. Parasitol Res 103:209-215, 2008a). The research also showed that ivermectin was highly effective on adult small strongyles. At necropsy, the following other species of parasites (adult) were found, but none was recovered from the feces. These were (n = number of horses infected): (1) ascarids (Parascaris equorum-n = 1), (2) tapeworms (Anoplocephala perfoliata-n = 4), and (3) pinworms (Oxyuris equi-n = 3). Immature (L4) O. equi were present in two horses and removals were 0% in one horse and 39% in the other. Eyeworms (Thelazia lacrymalis) were found in one horse at necropsy. Even though a small number of horses were used in the present research, the commonality of their background made them ideal candidates as a group for this study. This aspect helps strengthen the validity of the interpretation of the findings. PMID:18931857

  2. Ivermectin and clorsulon (ivomec super) in treatment of goats naturally infested with scab mites and biting lice.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; Habib, K S; Haridy, F M

    2001-08-01

    Five goats naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei, Psoroptes ovis and Bovicola caprae were treated with a combination of ivermectin and clorsulon. A subcutaneous injection in a dose of 1 ml/50 kg live weight was given. This provides dose levels of 200 ug ivermectin and 2 mg clorsulon. Four goats were cured from the three ectoparasites within one to two weeks. The last elder goat, which was anaemic and naturally infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis, was still infested with the two scab mites, but was free from B. caprae. A postal dose of 0.5 ml/50 kg live weight was given one week later (=3 weeks after the 1st injection). This goat was cured within a week, but still passed some T. colibriformis eggs. The result was discussed. PMID:11478437

  3. Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus continues in Nyagak-Bondo focus of northwestern Uganda after 18 years of a single dose of annual treatment with ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Katabarwa, Moses N; Lakwo, Tom; Habomugisha, Peace; Agunyo, Stella; Byamukama, Edson; Oguttu, David; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Unoba, Dickson; Dramuke, Patrick; Onapa, Ambrose; Tukahebwa, Edridah M; Lwamafa, Dennis; Walsh, Frank; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether annual ivermectin treatment in the Nyagak-Bondo onchocerciasis focus could safely be withdrawn. Baseline skin snip microfilariae (mf) and nodule prevalence data from six communities were compared with data collected in the 2011 follow-up in seven communities. Follow-up mf data in 607 adults and 145 children were compared with baseline (300 adults and 58 children). Flies collected in 2011 were dissected, and poolscreen analysis was applied to ascertain transmission. Nodule prevalence in adults dropped from 81.7% to 11.0% (P < 0.0001), and mf prevalence dropped from 97.0% to 23.2% (P < 0.0001). In children, mf prevalence decreased from 79.3% to 14.1% (P < 0.0001). Parous and infection rates of 401 flies that were dissected were 52.9% and 1.5%, respectively, whereas the infective rate on flies examination by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was 1.92% and annual transmission potential was 26.9. Stopping ivermectin treatment may result in onchocerciasis recrudescence. PMID:23690555

  4. A comparative study of the effects of four treatment regimes on ivermectin efficacy, body weight and pasture contamination in lambs naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Fiona; McBean, David; Greer, Andrew W; Burgess, Charlotte G S; Morrison, Alison A; Bartley, David J; Bartley, Yvonne; Devin, Leigh; Nath, Mintu; Jackson, Frank

    2013-12-01

    Refugia-based drenching regimes have been widely recommended to slow development of anthelmintic resistance but there are few comparisons between different treatment approaches in the UK. The impact of four ivermectin treatment regimes on drug efficacy, lamb body weight and nematode contamination during a 154 day grazing season were evaluated in a consecutive five year field study. Regimes were whole-flock treatment every 4 weeks (NST), targeted selective treatment (TST) based on individual performance, strategic whole-flock treatments at pre-determined times (SPT) or whole-flock treatment when clinical signs were apparent (MT). Mean numbers of ivermectin drenches administered per season were 4.0, 1.8, 2.0 and 1.4 for NST, TST, SPT and MT groups, respectively. The mean anthelmintic efficacy (AE) for each treatment group was based on faecal egg count reduction post-treatment employing a bootstrap sampling based algorithm. Mean AE was 95-98% for all groups in 2006 and mean AE (95% confidence limits) for NST declined to 62% (55%, 68%) in 2010. In comparison, AE for TST, SPT and MT in 2010 were 86% (81%, 92%), 86% (83%, 90%) and 83% (78%, 88%), respectively. Body weight in TST and SPT was similar to NST in all years (p > 0.05), however MT lambs were lighter than NST in 2006-2008 (p ⩽ 0.04). Tracer lamb worm burdens was lowest in NST but was not significantly different between other groups. Overall, both the TST and SPT regimes appeared to maintain animal performance and conserve anthelmintic efficacy compared with a neo-suppressive anthelmintic treatment regime. PMID:24533296

  5. A comparative study of the effects of four treatment regimes on ivermectin efficacy, body weight and pasture contamination in lambs naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Fiona; McBean, David; Greer, Andrew W.; Burgess, Charlotte G.S.; Morrison, Alison A.; Bartley, David J.; Bartley, Yvonne; Devin, Leigh; Nath, Mintu; Jackson, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Refugia-based drenching regimes have been widely recommended to slow development of anthelmintic resistance but there are few comparisons between different treatment approaches in the UK. The impact of four ivermectin treatment regimes on drug efficacy, lamb body weight and nematode contamination during a 154 day grazing season were evaluated in a consecutive five year field study. Regimes were whole-flock treatment every 4 weeks (NST), targeted selective treatment (TST) based on individual performance, strategic whole-flock treatments at pre-determined times (SPT) or whole-flock treatment when clinical signs were apparent (MT). Mean numbers of ivermectin drenches administered per season were 4.0, 1.8, 2.0 and 1.4 for NST, TST, SPT and MT groups, respectively. The mean anthelmintic efficacy (AE) for each treatment group was based on faecal egg count reduction post-treatment employing a bootstrap sampling based algorithm. Mean AE was 95–98% for all groups in 2006 and mean AE (95% confidence limits) for NST declined to 62% (55%, 68%) in 2010. In comparison, AE for TST, SPT and MT in 2010 were 86% (81%, 92%), 86% (83%, 90%) and 83% (78%, 88%), respectively. Body weight in TST and SPT was similar to NST in all years (p > 0.05), however MT lambs were lighter than NST in 2006–2008 (p ⩽ 0.04). Tracer lamb worm burdens was lowest in NST but was not significantly different between other groups. Overall, both the TST and SPT regimes appeared to maintain animal performance and conserve anthelmintic efficacy compared with a neo-suppressive anthelmintic treatment regime. PMID:24533296

  6. Fasciola hepatica: influence of gender and liver biotransformations on flukicide treatment efficacy of rats infested and cured with either clorsulon/ivermectin or triclabendazole.

    PubMed

    Sibille, P; Calléja, C; Carreras, F; Bigot, K; Galtier, P; Boulard, C

    2000-04-01

    Two fasciolicide preparations have been compared in 130 rats experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica. Parasitological, immunological, and biochemical parameters have been followed to monitor the efficacy of the treatments. While Fascinex (triclabendazole) efficiently cured both male and female rats when administered as soon as 4 weeks postinfection, treatment with Ivomec-D (clorsulon + ivermectin) displayed a low efficacy on either male or female rats at this time point (54 and 0%, respectively). Moreover, when administered 8 weeks postinfection, the Ivomec-D treatment proved highly efficient on male rats while it displayed little effect on the female population (100 and 53%, respectively). This unexpected result has been related to an overexpression of a P4503A isoform that is observed only in females that have been treated with Ivomec-D. The influence of this P4503A cytochrome on drug metabolism and the need for the incorporation of both genders in clinical trials are discussed. PMID:10831390

  7. The geographic distribution of onchocerciasis in the 20 participating countries of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control: (1) priority areas for ivermectin treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) was created to control onchocerciasis as a public health problem in 20 African countries. Its main strategy is community directed treatment with ivermectin. In order to identify all high risk areas where ivermectin treatment was needed, APOC used Rapid Epidemiological Mapping of Onchocerciasis (REMO). REMO has now been virtually completed and we report the results in two articles. The present article reports the mapping of high risk areas where onchocerciasis was a public health problem. The companion article reports the results of a geostatistical analysis of the REMO data to map endemicity levels and estimate the number infected. Methods REMO consists of three stages: exclusion of areas that are unsuitable for the vector, selection of sample villages to be surveyed in each river basin, and examination of 30 to 50 adults for the presence of palpable onchocercal nodules in each selected village. The survey results and other relevant information were processed in a geographical information system. A panel of experts interpreted the data taking the river-based sampling into account and delineated high risk areas where the prevalence of nodules is greater than 20%. Results Unsuitable areas were identified in eight countries. In the remaining areas surveys were done in a total of 14,473 sample villages in which more than half a million people were examined. High-risk areas were identified in 18 APOC countries, ranging from small isolated foci to a vast contiguous endemic area of 2 million km2 running across seven countries. In five countries the high risk area covered more than 48% of the total surface area, and 31% to 48% of the population. It is estimated that 86 million people live in high risk areas in the APOC countries. Conclusions The REMO maps have played a significant role in onchocerciasis control in the 20 APOC countries. All high-risk areas where onchocerciasis used to be a serious public

  8. Advantages of ivermectin at a single dose of 400 micrograms/kg compared with 100 micrograms/kg for community treatment of lymphatic filariasis in Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, N L; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-01-01

    In April and October in 1991-1993, 5 supervised single doses of ivermectin were given to inhabitants aged > or = 3 years in a Polynesian district: the first 3 treatments were with 100 micrograms/kg and the 2 latter with 400 micrograms/kg. At each treatment, about 97% of the eligible population (899) were treated and blood samples were collected just before treatment from 96% of the 613 inhabitants aged > or = 15 years. Following the 5 successive treatments, adverse reactions were observed in, respectively, 23.8, 13, 6.2, 13.6 and 7.9% of the microfilariae (mf) carriers, and in less than 1% of amicrofilaraemic subjects. Neither the frequency nor the intensity of adverse reactions was significantly different between single doses of 100 micrograms/kg and 400 micrograms/kg. Although the geometric mean microfilaraemia (GMM) was reduced, the mf carrier prevalence remained unchanged before and after 3 mass treatments with 100 micrograms/kg (21.4 and 20.7% respectively), and the mf recurrence rate 6 months after each dose of 100 micrograms/kg was roughly stable (respectively, 34.3%, 21.6% and 31.2% of the initial GMM). In contrast, after one dose round of 400 micrograms/kg, the mf carrier prevalence decreased significantly to 14.9% (P < 10(-6)), and the mf recurrence rate dropped to 9.9% (P < 10(-3)) of the initial GMM. These results confirm the safety and the effectiveness of 400 micrograms/kg of ivermectin for lymphatic filariasis control. PMID:7570845

  9. Treatment and prevention of natural heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infections in red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) with selamectin and ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Lan, Jingchao; Fu, Yan; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Zhihe; Wang, Chengdong; Luo, Li; Liu, Li; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2012-06-01

    Ten of the 48 red pandas in the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, Sichuan province, China, died in 2006 after prolonged periods of depression, weight loss, and mucocutaneous membrane xanthochromia. During postmortem examination, live heartworms were found in the right cardiac ventricles and pulmonary arteries of all 10 animals. Selamectin and ivermectin were used for clinical prophylaxis in the remaining red pandas between December 2006 and November 2010. We observed a gradual decrease in morbidity and mortality during this period. As a consequence of our prophylaxis program, dirofilariosis did not occur in the remaining red pandas at Chengdu Research Base during 2010. PMID:22306025

  10. Clinical picture, epidemiology and outcome of Loa-associated serious adverse events related to mass ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Boussinesq, Michel; Gardon, Jacques; Gardon-Wendel, Nathalie; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe

    2003-01-01

    In August 2002, 65 cases of Loa-associated neurological Serious Adverse Events were reported after ivermectin treatment. The first signs, occurring within the 12–24 hours following treatment, included fatigue, generalized arthralgia, and sometimes agitation, mutism, and incontinence. Disorders of consciousness, including coma, generally appeared between 24 and 72 hours, and showed a rapid variation with time. The most frequent objective neurological signs were extrapyramidal. The patients presented with haemorrhages of the conjunctiva and of the retina. Biological examinations showed a massive Loa microfilaruria, the passage of Loa microfilariae into the cerebrospinal fluid, haematuria, and an increase in the C-reactive protein, all of which have been correlated with the high intensity of the initial Loa microfilaraemia. Eosinophil counts decreased dramatically within the first 24 hours, and then rose again rapidly. Electroencephalograms suggested the existence of a diffuse pathological process within the first weeks; the abnormalities disappearing after 3–6 months. Death may occur when patients are not properly managed, i.e. in the absence of good nursing. However, some patients who recovered showed sequelae such as aphasia, episodic amnesia, or extrapyramidal signs. The main risk factor for these encephalopathies is the intensity of the initial Loa microfilaraemia. The disorders of consciousness may occur when there are >50,000 Loa microfilariae per ml. The possible roles of co-factors, such as Loa strains, genetic predisposition of individuals, co-infestations with other parasites, or alcohol consumption, seem to be minor but they should be considered. The mechanisms of the post-ivermectin Loa-related encephalopathies should be investigated to improve the management of patients developing the condition. PMID:14975061

  11. Prevalence of Lymphatic Filariasis and Treatment Effectiveness of Albendazole/ Ivermectin in Individuals with HIV Co-infection in Southwest-Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Maganga, Lucas; Clowes, Petra; Maboko, Leonard; Hoerauf, Achim; Makunde, Williams H.; Haule, Antelmo; Mviombo, Prisca; Pitter, Bettina; Mgeni, Neema; Mabuye, Joseph; Kowuor, Dickens; Mwingira, Upendo; Malecela, Mwelecele N.; Löscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Annual mass treatment with ivermectin and albendazole is used to treat lymphatic filariasis in many African countries, including Tanzania. In areas where both diseases occur, it is unclear whether HIV co-infection reduces treatment success. Methodology In a general population study in Southwest Tanzania, individuals were tested for HIV and circulating filarial antigen, an indicator of Wuchereria bancrofti adult worm burden, before the first and after 2 consecutive rounds of anti-filarial mass drug administration. Principle Findings Testing of 2104 individuals aged 0–94 years before anti-filarial treatment revealed a prevalence of 24.8% for lymphatic filariasis and an HIV-prevalence of 8.9%. Lymphatic filariasis was rare in children, but prevalence increased in individuals above 10 years, whereas a strong increase in HIV was only seen above 18 years of age. The prevalence of lymphatic filariasis in adults above 18 years was 42.6% and 41.7% (p = 0.834) in HIV-negatives and–positives, respectively. Similarly, the HIV prevalence in the lymphatic filariasis infected (16.6%) and uninfected adult population (17.1%) was nearly the same. Of the above 2104 individuals 798 were re-tested after 2 rounds of antifilarial treatment. A significant reduction in the prevalence of circulating filarial antigen from 21.6% to 19.7% was found after treatment (relative drop of 8.8%, McNemar´s exact p = 0.036). Furthermore, the post-treatment reduction of CFA positivity was (non-significantly) larger in HIV-positives than in HIV-negatives (univariable linear regression p = 0.154). Conclusion/Significance In an area with a high prevalence for both diseases, no difference was found between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals regarding the initial prevalence of lymphatic filariasis. A moderate but significant reduction in lymphatic filariasis prevalence and worm burden was demonstrated after two rounds of treatment with albendazole and ivermectin. Treatment effects were

  12. Canine generalized demodicosis treated with varying doses of a 2.5% moxidectin+10% imidacloprid spot-on and oral ivermectin: parasiticidal effects and long-term treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Tara E; Halliwell, Richard E; Fields, Paul J; Louw, Marta Lanza; Ball, Geoff; Louw, Jakobus; Pinckney, Rhonda

    2014-10-15

    Advocate(®) (2.5% moxidectin+10% imidacloprid) (Bayer HealthCare, Leverkusen, Germany) is a multiparasiticidal spot-on authorized for treating canine demodicosis in many countries. This blinded, randomized three-phase clinical trial compared its efficacy employing different dosing regimens with that of ivermectin. In the blinded first phase, 58 dogs suffering from generalized demodicosis were randomly assigned to one of four groups and treated with monthly, biweekly or weekly applications of Advocate(®), or with oral ivermectin (IVR) at 500 μg/kg daily. Dogs were evaluated clinically and multiple skin scrapings undertaken every 4 weeks until parasitological cure was achieved (defined as two consecutive series of deep skin scrapings at monthly intervals negative for all life forms). Forty dogs completed the 16-week initial blinded phase, with 5 cases achieving parasitological cure. Five dogs were deemed treatment failures and subsequently treated with ivermectin. The treatment protocol was then changed for the remaining 35 dogs and this cross-over phase (Phase 2) was maintained for a further 8 weeks with an additional 9 dogs achieving parasitological cure. Thereafter, all remaining animals were treated with IVR until cured (Phase 3). Overall, 26 dogs achieved parasitological cure during the clinical investigation. Of these, 23 remained disease-free for at least 12 months while two were lost to follow up and one died of unrelated causes. A total of 32 (55.2%) dogs were withdrawn at various stages of the investigation including the 5 dogs that were judged treatment failures. Other reasons for withdrawal included: non-compliance, lost to follow-up, ivermectin toxicity or reasons unrelated to the investigation. No adverse effects were attributable to the use of Advocate(®). Parasiticidal efficacy was assessed by changes in mite counts (live adult, juvenile and egg) and skin lesion extent & severity scores. Statistical significance was assessed using ANCOVA with

  13. Toxicity and efficacy of ivermectin in chelonians.

    PubMed

    Teare, J A; Bush, M

    1983-12-01

    Five red-footed tortoises (Geochelone carbonaria) treated for intestinal nematode parasitism with a single IM injection of ivermectin (0.4 mg/kg) were found in a state of extreme paresis or flaccid paralysis. One tortoise recovered normal motor function over the next 7 to 10 days. The remaining tortoises died within 3 days of receiving the ivermectin. The only consistent postmortem finding was a marked fatty change in the liver. Studies in the red-footed tortoise showed that some paresis will occur with dosages as low as 0.05 mg/kg. At least 3 other species of chelonians were found to be susceptible to ivermectin toxicosis at similar dosages (0.1 mg/kg or less). The leopard tortoise (Geochelone pardalis) appeared to be the most susceptible of the species tested, consistently developing mild paresis with a dosage of 0.025 mg/kg. Death occurred with dosages as low as 0.3 mg/kg. A dosage of 0.05 mg/kg was found to be safe in red-footed tortoises, provided that treatment was not repeated at intervals of less than 7 days. Shedding of nematode larvae and eggs in the feces of parasitized red-footed tortoises was prevented with 2 to 6 weekly IM injections of ivermectin at a dosage of 0.05 mg/kg, but limited necropsy findings indicated that elimination of adult nematodes from the intestines was incomplete. PMID:6689009

  14. [Safety of oral ivermectin in children].

    PubMed

    Chosidow, A; Gendrel, D

    2016-02-01

    Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug, a derivate of avermectins, and a product of fermentation of an actinomycete, Streptomyces avermitilis. Its structure associates two avermectins. Ivermectin acts on the chloride-dependent channels of both glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid, interrupting neurotransmission in invertebrates. In humans, several mechanisms of brain protection exist, including P-glycoprotein, present on the apical face of endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier and coded by the MDR1 gene. Ivermectin is presently used in mass treatment of onchocerciasis, other filariasis, some intestinal nematode infections, but also in scabies, and more rarely in resistant head lice. The side effects described are related to the release of antigen and cause an inflammatory reaction. Studies conducted in children or infants have shown good tolerance of ivermectin. However, its use in infants who weigh less than 15kg is a problem because of the absence of marketing authorization for this age group. However, the risk of excessive and uncontrolled use in head lice requires close surveillance. PMID:26697814

  15. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A home use water treatment incorporates technology developed to purify water aboard Space Shuttle Orbiters. The General Ionics Model IQ Bacteriostatic Water Softener softens water and inhibits bacteria growth in the filtering unit. Ionics used NASA silver ion technology as a basis for development of a silver carbon dense enough to remain on top of the water softening resin bed.

  16. 75 FR 26647 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... use of an ivermectin injectable solution in cattle and swine for treatment and control of various... the use of Ivermectin Injection in cattle and swine for treatment and control of various internal and... Merial Ltd.'s IVOMEC Injection for Cattle and Swine, approved under NADA 128-409. The ANADA is...

  17. Impact of Eighteen-Year Varied Compliance to Onchocerciasis Treatment with Ivermectin in Sentinel Savannah Agrarian Communities in Kaduna State of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Osue, Hudu O.; Inabo, Helen I.; Yakubu, Sabo E.; Audu, Patrick A.; Galadima, Musa; Odama, Lillian E.; Musa, Danjuma; Ado, Saleh A.; Mamman, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Baseline and impact assessment data were generated in 1994 (n = 532) and 2011 (n = 593) from 6 sentinel villages with generalized onchocerciasis. Only volunteers and a cohort (n = 445, 75%) were screened at both visits. Each village had received 11 (64.7%) annual treatments and 92.6%, range 88.7–100%, treatment compliance. Overall mean number of treatment was 2.9 ± 1.6 with a range 2.0 ± 1.2–3.3 ± 0.6. Significant decreases in skin microfilaria prevalence from 201 (38%) to 0 (0%), palpable nodule from 77 (15%) to 4 (0.7%), dermal changes from 51 (9.6%) to 2 (0.04%), optic nerve disease from 24 (4.5%) to 4 (2.0%), and onchocercal inducible ocular lesions from 31 (5.8%) to 12 (2.0%) were recorded, P < 0.05, (t-test of unpaired data). Cases of glaucoma, 8 (1.4%), and blindness, 6 (1.05%), remained unchanged. Visual acuity ≥6/24 in one or both eyes, 198 (33.45%); cataract, 169 (28.5%); pterygium 157 (26.5%); and acute senilis, 165 (27.9%), were significantly increased and positively correlated with increase in age (R2 = 0.898 − 0.949). Dissected parous Simulium damnosum caught (n = 222) were without infective third stage larva. Active onchocerciasis transmission seems halted despite varied compliance to long-term ivermectin treatment. We recommend continued surveillance and targeted treatment of controlled and hypoendemic areas.

  18. Changes in the structure of dung insect communities after ivermectin usage in a grassland ecosystem. II. Impact of ivermectin under high-rainfall conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Kerstin; Scholtz, Clarke H.

    1998-10-01

    A large-scale field study was carried out to assess the ecotoxicological effect of ivermectin, a broad-spectrum veterinary agent, on dung insect communities under normal extensive farming conditions in South Africa. Dung insect communities were monitored: i) one year after a first treatment of entire herds with a single standard injection of ivermectin (200 μ·kg -1) in the 1992/93 season; and ii) for three months after a second single standard injection in the 1993/94 season. Two herds were treated with a single standard injection of ivermectin while two herds remained untreated as controls. Each herd was held in a paddock of about 80 ha. Field work was carried out in the rainy season of 1993/94, when the study area received above-average rainfall. The impact of ivermectin was examined using a variety of community measures, including univariate, graphical and multivariate methods. No effect of ivermectin on dung insect communities was observable one year after the 1992/93 treatment. Seven days after treatment in the 1993/94 season, fewer hydrophilid larvae, and scarabaeid and dipteran pupae were present in pats from treated animals in comparison with untreated controls. One and three months after treatment, there were no effects that could be attributed directly to the treatment with ivermectin. The results of the study indicate that the seriousness of the impact of ivermectin depends on several factors, including climatic conditions, spatial scale of treatment and number of animals treated in a herd.

  19. Ivermectin distribution using community volunteers in Kabarole district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kipp, W; Burnham, G; Bamuhiiga, J; Weis, P; Büttner, D W

    1998-06-01

    Ivermectin mass distribution for the control of onchocerciasis in Uganda began in 1991. This report describes a community based ivermectin distribution programme covering two foci in the Kabarole district which have an estimated 32,000 persons infected and another 110,000 at risk. Through nodule palpation in adult males, 143 villages were identified where nodule prevalence exceeded 20%. Skin snips were also taken from a sample of the population to measure changes in community microfilarial load (CMFL) with treatment. The delivery programme was integrated into the district health management structure, and used community volunteers supervised by medical assistants from adjacent health facilities for annual ivermectin distribution campaigns. After initial efforts by the community to support distributors in-kind proved inadequate, ivermectin distributors earned money retailing condoms as part of the social marketing component of district STD/AIDS programme. Reduction in the CMFL ranged from 40-62% twelve months after the second ivermectin treatment in three villages, and from 69-84% six months after the fourth round of treatment in two villages. After four years of treatment, 85% of eligible persons were receiving ivermectin from community volunteers in each treatment cycle. Drop out rates among volunteers did not exceed 20% over the four years reported here. The direct cost of treatment was US $0.29 per person. Among the reasons for low per-person treatment costs were the strong supervisory structure, the presence of health centres in the foci and a well developed and capable district Primary Health Care management team. PMID:10180405

  20. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  1. Re-evaluation of ivermectin efficacy against equine gastrointestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Klei, T R; Rehbein, S; Visser, M; Langholff, W K; Chapman, M R; French, D D; Hanson, P

    2001-07-27

    Two trials were conducted to confirm the efficacy of ivermectin paste against endoparasites of horses. In these trials, 20 ponies were treated with ivermectin oral paste at 200 mcg x kg body weight once on Day 0, and 20 ponies served as unmedicated controls. The animals carried naturally acquired parasite infections as confirmed by pretrial fecal examination. The animals were necropsied for worm recovery on Days 14, 15 or 16. Parasites recovered were identified to species. Horses treated with ivermectin had significantly (P<0.05) fewer (>99.0% reduction) adult small strongyles (Coronocyclus spp including C. coronatus, C. labiatus, C. labratus; Cyathostomum spp including C. catinatum, C. pateratum; Cylicocyclus spp including C. ashworthi, C. elongatus, C. insigne, C. leptostomum, C. nassatus, C. radiatus; Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus; Cylicostephanus spp including C. asymetricus, C. bidentatus, C. calicatus, C. goldi, C. longibursatus, C. minutus; Gyalocephalus capitatus; Parapoteriostomum spp including P. euproctus, P. mettami; Petrovinema poculatum; Poteriostomum spp including P. imparidentatum, P. ratzii) and adult large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, S. vulgaris; Triodontophorus spp including T. brevicauda, T. serratus; Craterostomum acuticaudatum) than the controls. Ivermectin was also highly effective (94% to >99%, P<0.05-0.01) against Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae, Habronema spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum. The data from these two trials confirm that ivermectin paste administered to horses orally at 200mcg x kg(-1) continues to be highly effective for treatment and control of a broad range of small and large strongyle species as well as other species of gastrointestinal parasites. PMID:11423189

  2. 21 CFR 520.1194 - Ivermectin meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ivermectin meal. 520.1194 Section 520.1194 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1194 Ivermectin meal. (a) Specifications. Each gram of meal contains 6 milligrams ivermectin (0.6 percent). (b) Sponsor. See No. 017135...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1194 - Ivermectin meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ivermectin meal. 520.1194 Section 520.1194 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1194 Ivermectin meal. (a) Specifications. Each gram of meal contains 6 milligrams ivermectin (0.6 percent). (b) Sponsor. See No. 017135...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1194 - Ivermectin meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ivermectin meal. 520.1194 Section 520.1194 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1194 Ivermectin meal. (a) Specifications. Each gram of meal contains 6 milligrams ivermectin (0.6 percent). (b) Sponsor. See No. 017135...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1194 - Ivermectin meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ivermectin meal. 520.1194 Section 520.1194 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1194 Ivermectin meal. (a) Specifications. Each gram of meal contains 6 milligrams ivermectin (0.6 percent). (b) Sponsor. See No. 017135...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1194 - Ivermectin meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ivermectin meal. 520.1194 Section 520.1194 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1194 Ivermectin meal. (a) Specifications. Each gram of meal contains 6 milligrams ivermectin (0.6 percent). (b) Sponsor. See No. 017135...

  7. Assessment of community’s knowledge, attitude and practice about onchocerciasis and community directed treatment with Ivermectin in Quara District, north western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has been working with ultimate goal of reducing the public health and socio-economic problems associated with onchocerciasis within a period of 12–15 years. Although dedicated community engagement is crucial for the success of the program, there is little/no information on the levels of community’s knowledge, attitude and practice about onchocerciasis as well as about the ongoing control program in Ethiopia. In this study, we have assessed the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of Quara district residents about onchocerciasis and the current control strategies in the area. Methods This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2012 and January 2013 in Quara District, Amhara Regional State, North West of Ethiopia. The study participants were recruited from randomly selected kebeles (small administrative units) of the study area and were interviewed about onchocerciasis and about community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) using structured questionnaire. The collected data were double entered into a data entry file using EpiData software, V.3.1. The data were transferred to SPSS soft-ware V.16 and analyzed according to the different variables. Results Out of 418 respondents, 401 (95.9%) of the respondents have heard about onchocerciasis (locally known as ‘wara’) and 11.2% said that they knew about the etiology of the disease, which was named as filarial worm. However, 356 (88.8%) had at least one misconception about the causative agent of onchocerciasis. More than half (69.4%) knew that the transmission of the disease is related to black fly biting. Overall, 93.3% participants believed that onchocerciasis is preventable, of whom 49.5% indicated use of drug as the means of preventing the disease. Majority (95.5%) of the participants perceived CDTI as very useful program. Conclusion Although onchocerciasis is endemic disease in the study area, large

  8. Cardio-Muscular Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In the mid-sixties, Gary Graham, a Boeing designer, developed a cardiovascular conditioner for a planned Air Force orbiting laboratory. After the project was cancelled, Graham participated in space station conditioning studies for the Skylab program. Twenty years later, he used this expertise to develop the Shuttle 2000-1, a physical therapy and athletic development conditioner, available through Contemporary Designs. The machine is used by football teams, sports clinics and medical rehabilitation centers. Cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength development are promoted through both kinetic and plyometric exercises.

  9. Anthelmintic resistance of intestinal nematodes to ivermectin and pyrantel in Estonian horses.

    PubMed

    Lassen, B; Peltola, S-M

    2015-11-01

    There is evidence of resistance in horses to anthelmintic treatment using ivermectin and pyrantel. However, little information is available about the parasites, treatment practices or anthelmintic resistance in the horse population in Estonia. In the present study, we examined 41 trotting and riding horses aged < 3 years from four stables in Estonia. Faecal samples were collected, and horses were selected for treatment if the nematode egg count per gram faeces exceeded 200. Horses (n= 32) that shed strongyle-type eggs were treated with pyrantel, whereas Parascaris equorum-positive animals received ivermectin. Up to 78% of horses required anthelmintic treatment and the efficiency of the anthelmintics was evaluated using a faecal egg count reduction test. Resistance of P. equorum was observed in 50% of horses treated with ivermectin and of strongyles in 27% of horses treated with pyrantel. Ivermectin treatment resulted in a mean reduction of 100% for strongyle eggs and an 89% reduction in P. equorum, and pyrantel-treated horses exhibited an 88% reduction in strongyle eggs. These results are considered to be the first indication of resistance to pyrantel, but further studies of ivermectin resistance are required. According to questionnaires completed by the owners of horses, resistance might be explained by a lack of evidence-based strategies, a strong preference for using ivermectin and possibly a subjective evaluation of the body weight of horses. PMID:25007041

  10. Host ABC transporter proteins may influence the efficacy of ivermectin and possibly have broader implications for the development of resistance in parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Dooley, L A; Froese, E A; Chung, Y T; Burkman, E J; Moorhead, A R; Ardelli, B F

    2015-10-01

    ABC transporter proteins function to extrude compounds from the cell. These proteins present an obstacle for treatment and for overcoming drug resistance as they are expressed by both host and parasite, and function similarly. The contribution of host ABC proteins to drug efficacy was examined using ivermectin and a Brugia malayi model system. Parallel in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted using equal concentrations of ivermectin. The motilities and fecundity of B. malayi exposed to ivermectin in vitro were significantly lower than those treated in vivo. The higher motilities were correlated with low concentrations of ivermectin in worms extracted from treated hosts. The expression of ABC proteins was significantly higher in worms treated in vitro compared to those treated in vivo as well as in gerbils treated with ivermectin than in non-treated controls. The results suggest that host ABC transporters may influence the efficacy of ivermectin. PMID:26143231

  11. Comparative efficacy of moxidectin and ivermectin against hypobiotic and encysted cyathostomes and other equine parasites.

    PubMed

    Xiao, L; Herd, R P; Majewski, G A

    1994-05-01

    Efficacies of moxidectin and ivermectin were compared in four groups of eight ponies with natural parasite infections: placebo (Control), oral moxidectin gel at 0.3 mg kg-1 of body weight (Mox 0.3), oral moxidectin gel at 0.4 mg kg-1 of body weight (Mox 0.4), and oral ivermectin paste at 0.2 mg kg-1 of body weight (Ivermectin). Fecal samples were taken 0 and 2 weeks after treatment. Animals were necropsied and worms were collected 2 weeks after treatment. Moxidectin and ivermectin showed similar efficacy (99%) against adult cyathostomes, Strongylus spp., Triodontophorus spp. and Habronema muscae. Both drugs were also more than 98% effective against luminal cyathostome and Oxyuris equi fourth stage larvae (L4). Neither drug was effective (0-10.1%) against hypobiotic early third stage cyathostome larvae (EL3). Moxidectin was moderately effective (62.6-79.1%) in removing encysted cyathostome late third stage larvae (LL3) and L4, whereas ivermectin was ineffective (0%) against these stages. By contrast, ivermectin was 95.4% effective against Gasterophilus spp. third instar stage, whereas moxidectin was only 0-20.4% effective. PMID:8091622

  12. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  13. Bacterial counts associated with sawdust and recycled manure bedding treated with commercial conditioners.

    PubMed

    Hogan, J S; Bogacz, V L; Thompson, L M; Romig, S; Schoenberger, P S; Weiss, W P; Smith, K L

    1999-08-01

    Bacteria counts associated with untreated organic bedding materials were compared with those of bedding treated with either an alkaline commercial bedding conditioner, acidic commercial bedding conditioner, or hydrated lime. Bedding materials were recycled manure and kiln-dried sawdust. The effects of bedding treatments on bacteria counts differed between bedding types. Each of the bedding treatments significantly reduced bacteria in recycled manure prior to use. The alkaline conditioner and hydrated lime effectively inhibited bacteria in recycled manure for 1 d. Bedding counts and teat swabs of cows housed on recycled manure treated with the alkaline conditioner were reduced on d 2. The use of the acid conditioner in recycled manure had little effect on bacteria in bedding. Sawdust differed from recycled manure in that bacteria in untreated sawdust prior to use were minimal, and populations increased rapidly during the first 2 d after use as bedding. The acid conditioner had a bacteriostatic effect in sawdust, evident by the reduction of bacteria on d 2. The alkaline conditioner and hydrated lime did not alter bacteria counts in sawdust compared with untreated sawdust. Antibacterial activity of each conditioner deteriorated between d 2 and d 6 in both beddings. The antibacterial activities of conditioners were related to the pH of bedding materials. The use of commercial bedding conditioners initially reduced bacterial counts; however, the antibacterial effects had diminished between d 2 and 6 after use in bedding. PMID:10480094

  14. A new ivermectin formulation topically kills permethrin-resistant human head lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Strycharz, Joseph P; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Clark, J Marshall

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a new ivermectin formulation for the topical treatment of the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae). Permethrin-resistant lice originally obtained from south Florida and maintained on an in vitro rearing system were 100% susceptible to ivermectin formulations by using a semiclinical hair tuft bioassay. The formulation was 100% effective at killing lice using 1, 0.5, and 0.25% ivermectin concentrations after 10-min exposures. As judged by the lethal time (LT)50 and LT95 values, 0.5% formulated ivermectin was 3.8 and 3.2 times faster at killing lice, respectively, than 0.5% nonformulated ivermectin, indicating that the formulation may facilitate the penetration of ivermectin into the louse. The hair tuft-based bioassay in conjunction with the in vitro rearing system provides a standardized method to assess the comparative efficacy of pediculicide formulations in a reproducible format that mimics the exposure scenario that occurs on the human scalp. PMID:18283945

  15. Double-blind controlled trial of a single dose of the combination ivermectin 400 micrograms/kg plus diethylcarbamazine 6 mg/kg for the treatment of bancroftian filariasis: results at six months.

    PubMed

    Glaziou, P; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Nguyen, L N; Chanteau, S; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-01-01

    In 1993, a three-arm double-blind controlled trial was implemented in French Polynesia to compare the tolerance and efficacy of a single dose of the combination ivermectin (IVR) 400 micrograms/kg plus diethylcarbamazine (DEC) 6 mg/kg vs. IVR 400 micrograms/kg alone vs. DEC 6 mg/kg alone, for treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti carriers. Of the 57 treated male patients in whom microfilaria (mf) densities ranged from 22 to 4709 mg/mL, 3 groups of 19 were randomly selected and allocated to one of the 3 treatments. Side effects were experienced by 34 patients (60%), but none suffered a severe reaction. Grade of reaction did not differ between treatment group, but was significantly correlated with the pretreatment mf density. Six months after treatment, 26%, 32% and 53% of patients were amicrofilaraemic in the DEC, IVR and IVR+DEC groups, respectively. Mf levels were 6.3%, and 3.1% and 1.0% of the pretreatment level, respectively, significantly lower in the IVR+DEC group than in both the IVR and DEC comparison groups. The combination IVR+DEC showed promise in term of sustained mf decrease, and could be an effective alternative for lymphatic filariasis control programmes. PMID:7886781

  16. Attenuator And Conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Carson, Richard F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; Kemme, Shanalyn Adair; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.

    2006-04-04

    An apparatus and method of attenuating and/or conditioning optical energy for an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module is disclosed. An apparatus for attenuating the optical output of an optoelectronic connector including: a mounting surface; an array of optoelectronic devices having at least a first end; an array of optical elements having at least a first end; the first end of the array of optical elements optically aligned with the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices; an optical path extending from the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices and ending at a second end of the array of optical elements; and an attenuator in the optical path for attenuating the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices. Alternatively, a conditioner may be adapted in the optical path for conditioning the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices.

  17. [Ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine in spaced dosages in Bancroft's filariasis: which protocol?].

    PubMed

    Cartel, J L; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Nguyen, L N; Martin, P M; Roux, J F; Spiegel, A

    1992-06-01

    58 apparently healthy Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers were randomly allocated to 5 treatment groups: 1) two annual doses of ivermectin 100 mcg/kg, 2) three semi-annual doses of ivermectin 100 mcg/kg, 3) two annual doses of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) 3 mg/kg, 4) semi-annual doses of DEC 3 mg/kg, 5) two annual doses of DEC 6 mg/kg. Results observed during the 12-month period which followed last treatment have confirmed that efficacy of ivermectin is higher than that of DEC in terms of immediate clearance or complete negativation of microfilaremia, but not in terms of sustained reduction and that efficacy of repeated single doses of either DEC 3 mg/kg or ivermectin 100 mcg/kg is much higher when given semi-annually than annually. They also have indicated that (i) 6 months after last treatment: 3 semi-annual doses of 100 mcg/kg of ivermectin have resulted in high reduction of microfilaremia (85%) and, 2 annual doses of 6 mg/kg and 3 semi-annual doses of 3 mg/kg of DEC have resulted in even greater reduction (96 and 98% respectively) and (ii): 12 months after last treatment, the greatest reductions of microfilaremia (95 and 92%) have been observed in carriers treated, respectively, with 3 semi-annual doses of 3 mg/kg or with 2 annual doses of 6 mg/kg of DEC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1417159

  18. Crusted scabies and multiple dosages of ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Loayza, Alex G; McCall, Calvin O; Nunley, Julia R

    2013-05-01

    We present the case of a bone marrow transplant patient who was diagnosed with crusted scabies but did not respond to the usual approach with topical permethrin and ivermectin. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were contacted and suggested a 7-dose regimen of ivermectin. The patient started to improve remarkably after the third dose, and the skin eruption was resolved after 7 doses. This case supports the use of a more prolonged course of oral ivermectin for crusted scabies in those who fail the conventional approach. PMID:23652958

  19. [A case of pulmonary toxocariasis successfully treated with ivermectin].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yasuhiro; Mataki, Hiroko; Koreeda, Yoshifusa; Kawabata, Toshifumi; Hamada, Minako; Nakashioya, Jirou; Tomiyama, Yumiko; Kawabata, Masaharu

    2011-05-01

    A 36-year-old man who often ate raw chicken meat had abnormal chest radiograph findings on a health check-up in July 2009, and visited our department. A chest computed tomographic scan revealed 6 nodular shadows in both lungs, and a hematologic examination revealed eosinophilia and elevation of IgE. Because of his history of eating raw chicken meat, antiparasite antibody testing was performed which revealed antibodies to Toxocara canis, leading to the diagnosis of pulmonary toxocariasis due to Toxocara canis. Although treatment with albendazole was performed, it was discontinued because of hepatic impairment. However, hematological examination showed that his eosinophil count and IgE increased again, and chest image findings were exacerbated. Therefore, ivermectin, reported as effective in cases outside Japan, was administered, resulting in decreased peripheral eosinophils, normalized IgE level, and disappearance of the shadows on chest images. In Japan, no cases of pulmonary toxocariasis responding well to ivermectin have previously been reported. Administration of ivermectin should be considered when albendazol cannot be used due to hepatic impairment or related problems. PMID:21688651

  20. Control of bancroftian filariasis in an endemic area of Polynesia by ivermectin 400 micrograms/kg.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, N L; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Cartel, J L

    1996-01-01

    Community treatment with ivermectin was implemented in Opoa, French Polynesia from April 1991 to October 1993. All consenting inhabitants aged 3 years or more were treated with twice-yearly single doses of ivermectin, pregnant women excepted. A dosage of 100 microgram/kg was used for the 3 first treatments and then abandoned because it did not reduce the prevalence of microfilariae (mf) carriers. With a dosage of 400 micrograms/kg dosage, this prevalence decreased dramatically from 21% to 7%, and the mf level in carriers dropped to only 0.5% of its initial value after 3 treatments. The 400 micrograms/kg dosage was well tolerated and compliance was excellent. The twice-yearly single dose strategy with ivermectin at 400 micrograms/kg is safe and highly effective for filariasis control in an endemic area. PMID:9015520

  1. Doxycycline Leads to Sterility and Enhanced Killing of Female Onchocerca volvulus Worms in an Area With Persistent Microfilaridermia After Repeated Ivermectin Treatment: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial

    PubMed Central

    Debrah, Alexander Yaw; Specht, Sabine; Klarmann-Schulz, Ute; Batsa, Linda; Mand, Sabine; Marfo-Debrekyei, Yeboah; Fimmers, Rolf; Dubben, Bettina; Kwarteng, Alexander; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike; Boakye, Daniel; Ricchiuto, Arcangelo; Büttner, Marcelle; Adjei, Ohene; Mackenzie, Charles D.; Hoerauf, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ivermectin (IVM) has been the drug of choice for the treatment of onchocerciasis. However, there have been reports of persistent microfilaridermia in individuals from an endemic area in Ghana after many rounds of IVM, raising concerns of suboptimal response or even the emergence of drug resistance. Because it is considered risky to continue relying only on IVM to combat this phenomenon, we assessed the effect of targeting the Onchocerca volvulus Wolbachia endosymbionts with doxycycline for these individuals with suboptimal response. Methods. One hundred sixty-seven patients, most of them with multiple rounds of IVM, were recruited in areas with IVM suboptimal response and treated with 100 mg/day doxycycline for 6 weeks. Three and 12 months after doxycycline treatment, patients took part in standard IVM treatment. Results. At 20 months after treatment, 80% of living female worms from the placebo group were Wolbachia positive, whereas only 5.1% in the doxycycline-treated group contained bacteria. Consistent with interruption of embryogenesis, none of the nodules removed from doxycycline-treated patients contained microfilariae, and 97% of those patients were without microfilaridermia, in contrast to placebo patients who remained at pretreatment levels (P < .001). Moreover, a significantly enhanced number of dead worms were observed after doxycycline. Conclusions. Targeting the Wolbachia in O. volvulus is effective in clearing microfilariae in the skin of onchocerciasis patients with persistent microfilaridermia and in enhanced killing of adult worms after repeated standard IVM treatment. Strategies can now be developed that include doxycycline to control onchocerciasis in areas where infections persist despite the frequent use of IVM. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN 66649839. PMID:25948064

  2. Cross-resistance to moxidectin and ivermectin on a meat sheep farm in France.

    PubMed

    Paraud, C; Marcotty, T; Lespine, A; Sutra, J F; Pors, I; Devos, I

    2016-08-15

    Resistance to ivermectin and moxidectin was explored by a faecal egg count reduction test in two sheep flocks with suspected anthelmintic resistance. The FECRT confirmed one suspicion, with a mean percentage of reduction in egg excretion within the treated groups of 0% for ivermectin (CI 95%: -228 to 58) and 13% for moxidectin (CI 95%: -152 to 70). This was further explored by a controlled efficacy test. An experimental infection of 18 naïve lambs was set up using infective larvae isolated from this flock (5000 L3/lamb). Compared to the control group, abomasal worm burdens (Teladorsagia circumcincta) were reduced by 90% [CI 95%: 81.5-94.8] and 85% [CI 95%: 72.4-92.2] after ivermectin (p<0.05) and moxidectin (p<0.05) treatment respectively. Again, compared to the control group, there was a reduction for intestinal strongyles (Trichostrongylus colubriformis) of 100% and 99% [CI 95%: 97.5-99.7] for ivermectin and moxidectin respectively. No difference was found between the efficacy of moxidectin and ivermectin. Pharmacokinetic values indicated that the strongyles were submitted to anthelmintic concentrations usually lethal to them. This trial demonstrated the first multiple resistance of ovine strongyles in France. PMID:27514891

  3. EVALUATION OF REFRIGERANT FROM MOBILE AIR CONDITIONERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to provide a scientific basis for choosing a reasonable standard of purity for recycled chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerant in operating automobile air conditioners. The quality of refrigerant from air conditioners in automobiles of differen...

  4. Ivermectin

    MedlinePlus

    ... or have ever had meningitis, human African trypanosomiasis (African sleeping sickness; an infection that is spread by the bite of the tsetse fly in certain African countries), or conditions that affect your immune system, ...

  5. Prolonged clearance of microfilaraemia in patients with bancroftian filariasis after multiple high doses of ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M M; Weil, G J; Jayasinghe, K S; Premaratne, U N; Abeyewickreme, W; Rajaratnam, H N; Sheriff, M H; Perera, C S; Dissanaike, A S

    1996-01-01

    In a double-blind trial on 37 asymptomatic microfilaraemic subjects (minimum 400 microfilariae [mf] per mL) with Wuchereria bancrofti infection, the safety, tolerability and macrofilaricidal efficacy of 12 fortnightly doses of ivermectin, 400 micrograms/kg (ivermectin group), was compared with 12 fortnightly doses of diethylcarbamazine (DEC), 10 mg/kg (DEC group), over a period of 129 weeks after treatment. A control group (LDIC group) was treated with low dose ivermectin to clear microfilaraemia, for ethical reasons. Both ivermectin and DEC in high multiple doses were well tolerated and clinically safe. Macrofilaricidal efficacy was assessed by prolonged clearance of microfilaraemia, appearance of local lesions, and reduction of circulating W. bancrofti adult antigen detected by an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunoassay based on the monoclonal antibody AD12. Mf counts fell more rapidly after ivermectin than after DEC, but low residual mf levels were equivalent in these groups after week 4. Conversely, filarial antigen levels fell more rapidly after DEC than after ivermectin, but low residual antigen levels in these groups were statistically equivalent at all times beyond 12 weeks. Mild, self-limited systemic reactions to therapy were observed in all 3 treatment groups. Local reactions, such as development of scrotal nodules, were observed in several subjects in the DEC and ivermectin groups. These results suggested that high dose ivermectin and DEC both had significant macrofilaricidal activity against W. bancrofti, but neither of these intensive therapeutic regimens consistently produced complete cures. Thus, new drugs or dosing schedules are needed to achieve the goal of killing all filarial parasites in the majority of patients. PMID:9015519

  6. Ivermectin toxicosis in a chameleon (Chamaeleo senegalensis) infected with Foleyella furcata.

    PubMed

    Széll, Z; Sréter, T; Varga, I

    2001-03-01

    Both male and female Foleyella furcata were found in the subcutaneous tissue and abdominal cavity of an adult male wild-caught Senegalese chameleon (Chamaeleo senegalensis). This nematode species is endemic to Madagascar but has never been recorded from the continent of Africa. Prior to the chameleon's death, a migrating worm was seen under the skin in the abdominal and thoracic region. Huge numbers of small, sheathed microfilariae were detected in the blood smears. The chameleon was treated with a single dose (0.2 mg/kg s.c.) of ivermectin. Serious adverse reactions (complete inertia) developed within 24 hr after injection and lasted for 7 days, indicating either ivermectin toxicity or a systemic reaction involving the release of endotoxins from the microfilariae dying in the bloodstream as a result of parasiticide therapy. Therefore, ivermectin treatment of chameleons infected with Foleyella should be avoided. PMID:12790406

  7. A comparison of the efficacy of single doses of albendazole, ivermectin, and diethylcarbamazine alone or in combinations against Ascaris and Trichuris spp.

    PubMed Central

    Belizario, V. Y.; Amarillo, M. E.; de Leon, W. U.; de los Reyes, A. E.; Bugayong, M. G.; Macatangay, B. J. C.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of single doses of albendazole, ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine, and of the combinations albendazole + ivermectin and albendazole + diethylcarbamazine against common intestinal helminthiases caused by Ascaris and Trichuris spp. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, infected children were randomly assigned to treatment with albendazole + placebo, ivermectin + placebo, diethylcarbamazine + placebo, albendazole + ivermectin, or albendazole + diethylcarbamazine. The Kato-Katz method was used for qualitative and quantitative parasitological diagnosis. The chi2 test was used to determine the significance of cure rates, repeated measures analysis of variance for the comparison of mean log egg counts, the Newman-Keuls procedure for multiple comparison tests, and logistic regression for the comparison of infection rates at days 180 and 360 after treatment. FINDINGS: Albendazole, ivermectin and the drug combinations gave significantly higher cure and egg reduction rates for ascariasis than diethylcarbamazine. For trichuriasis, albendazole + ivermectin gave significantly higher cure and egg reduction rates than the other treatments: the infection rates were lower 180 and 360 days after treatment. CONCLUSION: Because of the superiority of albendazole + ivermectin against both lymphatic filariasis and trichuriasis, this combination appears to be a suitable tool for the integrated or combined control of both public health problems. PMID:12640474

  8. Endectocide activity of a pour-on formulation containing 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Heloisa Cristina; Prette, Nancy; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro M; Buzzulini, Carolina; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Teixeira, Weslen F Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Carvalho, Rafael Silveira; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Soares, Vando Edésio; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate, through ten different studies, the therapeutic efficacy of a new pour-on formulation, containing 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, against parasites of cattle. Results obtained on trials against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus showed that the pour-on combination of 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin obtained superior efficacy indexes against this ectoparasite, when compared with formulations containing 0.5 per cent ivermectin, 1 per cent ivermectin and the combination of 1 per cent abamectin +20 per cent levamisole. The results of efficacy of the ivermectin+abamectin and the 0.5 per cent ivermectin against Haematobia irritans were similar. Against Cochliomyia hominivorax larvae, all pour-on formulations tested (1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, 0.5 per cent ivermectin and 0.5 per cent abamectin), as well as 1 per cent doramectin administered subcutaneously, were considered ineffective. Cattle medicated with 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, pour-on, remained free from parasitism by Dermatobia hominis larvae during 42 days (96 per cent efficacy), while values superior to 90 per cent were obtained by 0.5 per cent ivermectin (92 per cent) and 0.5 per cent abamectin (93 per cent) until the 42nd and 35th days post treatment, respectively. Against Haemonchus placei and Oesophagostomum radiatum, the pour-on of ivermectin+abamectin showed better efficacy than the 0.5 per cent ivermectin and 0.5 per cent abamectin. As to Cooperia punctata, there was no difference regarding efficacy results obtained by the avermectins combination and abamectin. The pour-on combination of 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin obtained high efficacy against R. (B.) microplus, D. hominis and some species of cattle gastrointestinal helminths when compared with formulations of 0.5 per cent ivermectin and 0.5 per cent abamectin administered through the same route. PMID:26392893

  9. Endectocide activity of a pour-on formulation containing 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin in cattle.

    PubMed

    Silva, Heloisa Cristina; Prette, Nancy; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro M; Buzzulini, Carolina; Dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Teixeira, Weslen F Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Carvalho, Rafael Silveira; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Soares, Vando Edésio; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate, through ten different studies, the therapeutic efficacy of a new pour-on formulation, containing 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, against parasites of cattle. Results obtained on trials against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus showed that the pour-on combination of 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin obtained superior efficacy indexes against this ectoparasite, when compared with formulations containing 0.5 per cent ivermectin, 1 per cent ivermectin and the combination of 1 per cent abamectin +20 per cent levamisole. The results of efficacy of the ivermectin+abamectin and the 0.5 per cent ivermectin against Haematobia irritans were similar. Against Cochliomyia hominivorax larvae, all pour-on formulations tested (1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, 0.5 per cent ivermectin and 0.5 per cent abamectin), as well as 1 per cent doramectin administered subcutaneously, were considered ineffective. Cattle medicated with 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, pour-on, remained free from parasitism by Dermatobia hominis larvae during 42 days (96 per cent efficacy), while values superior to 90 per cent were obtained by 0.5 per cent ivermectin (92 per cent) and 0.5 per cent abamectin (93 per cent) until the 42nd and 35th days post treatment, respectively. Against Haemonchus placei and Oesophagostomum radiatum, the pour-on of ivermectin+abamectin showed better efficacy than the 0.5 per cent ivermectin and 0.5 per cent abamectin. As to Cooperia punctata, there was no difference regarding efficacy results obtained by the avermectins combination and abamectin. The pour-on combination of 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin obtained high efficacy against R. (B.) microplus, D. hominis and some species of cattle gastrointestinal helminths when compared with formulations of 0.5 per cent ivermectin and 0.5 per cent abamectin administered through the same route. PMID:26392893

  10. Absence of an association between Plasmodium falciparum infection and post-ivermectin Loa-related non-neurologic serious adverse events.

    PubMed

    Fokom-Domgue, Joël; Pion, Sébastien D; Gounoue, Raceline; Akame, Julie; Nguipdop-Djomo, Patrick; Twum-Danso, Nana A Y; Thylefors, Björn; Boussinesq, Michel; Kamgno, Joseph

    2014-02-01

    Although ivermectin treatment can induce serious adverse events (SAEs) in individuals harboring high Loa loa microfilaremia (mf), not all patients with high mf levels develop such reactions, suggesting that cofactors may be involved. A study was conducted in Cameroon to investigate the possible role of Plasmodium coinfection at the time of ivermectin treatment in the development of SAEs. Before their first ivermectin treatment, thick smears were obtained from 4,175 individuals to determine the burden of Plasmodium sp., L. loa, and Mansonella perstans. After treatment, 18 (4.3 per 1,000) patients developed a non-neurologic SAE. Logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, sex, P. falciparum infection, and M. perstans infection intensities, confirmed that L. loa mf was the main risk factor for SAEs. We found no evidence that coinfection with P. falciparum at the time of ivermectin treatment was associated with the occurrence of Loa-related SAEs in this population. PMID:24420781

  11. MOBILE AIR CONDITIONER REFRIGERANT EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an evaluation of refrigerant from mobile air conditioners. The data gathered indicate that CFC-l2 refrigerant does not degrade significantly with use. Furthermore, while small amounts of contaminant are removed with the refrigerant during servicing, most of th...

  12. Hybrid respiration-signal conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinard, G. A.; Steffen, D. A.; Sturm, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid impedance-pneumograph and respiration-rate signal conditioner element of hand-held vital signs monitor measures changes in impedance of chest during breathing cycle and generates analog respiration signal as output along with synchronous square wave that can be monitored by breath-rate processor.

  13. The Effects of Ivermectin on Brugia malayi Females In Vitro: A Transcriptomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Maeghan; Burkman, Erica; Zaky, Weam I.; Xia, Jianguo; Moorhead, Andrew; Williams, Steven A.; Geary, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are disabling and disfiguring neglected tropical diseases of major importance in developing countries. Ivermectin is the drug of choice for mass drug administration programs for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in areas where the diseases are co-endemic. Although ivermectin paralyzes somatic and pharyngeal muscles in many nematodes, these actions are poorly characterized in adult filariae. We hypothesize that paralysis of pharyngeal pumping by ivermectin in filariae could result in deprivation of essential nutrients, especially iron, inducing a wide range of responses evidenced by altered gene expression, changes in metabolic pathways, and altered developmental states in embryos. Previous studies have shown that ivermectin treatment significantly reduces microfilariae release from females within four days of exposure in vivo, while not markedly affecting adult worms. However, the mechanisms responsible for reduced production of microfilariae are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed transcriptomic profiles from Brugia malayi adult females, an important model for other filariae, using RNAseq technology after exposure in culture to ivermectin at various concentrations (100 nM, 300 nM and 1 μM) and time points (24, 48, 72 h, and 5 days). Our analysis revealed drug-related changes in expression of genes involved in meiosis, as well as oxidative phosphorylation, which were significantly down-regulated as early as 24 h post-exposure. RNA interference phenotypes of the orthologs of these down-regulated genes in C. elegans include “maternal sterile”, “embryonic lethal”, “larval arrest”, “larval lethal” and “sick”. Conclusion/Significance These changes provide insight into the mechanisms involved in ivermectin-induced reduction in microfilaria output and impaired fertility, embryogenesis, and larval development. PMID:27529747

  14. Synergistic activity of antibiotics combined with ivermectin to kill body lice.

    PubMed

    Sangaré, Abdoul Karim; Rolain, Jean Marc; Gaudart, Jean; Weber, Pascal; Raoult, Didier

    2016-03-01

    Ivermectin and doxycycline have been found to be independently effective in killing body lice. In this study, 450 body lice were artificially fed on a Parafilm™ membrane with human blood associated with antibiotics (doxycycline, erythromycin, rifampicin and azithromycin) alone and in combination with ivermectin. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation and spectral deconvolution were performed to evaluate bacterial transcriptional activity following antibiotic intake by the lice. In the first series, a lethal effect of antibiotics on lice was observed compared with the control group at 18 days (log-rank test, P≤10(-3)), with a significant difference between groups in the production of nits (P=0.019, Kruskal-Wallis test). A high lethal effect of ivermectin alone (50ng/mL) was observed compared with the control group (log-rank test, P≤10(-3)). Fluorescence of bacteriocytes in lice treated with 20μg/mL doxycycline was lower than in untreated lice (P<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test). In the second series with antibiotic-ivermectin combinations, a synergistic lethal effect on treated lice (log-rank test, P<10(-6)) was observed compared with the control group at 18 days, associated with a significant decrease in the production of nits (P≤0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test). Additionally, survival of lice in the combination treatment groups compared with ivermectin alone was significant (log-rank test, P=0.0008). These data demonstrate that the synergistic effect of combinations of antibiotics and ivermectin could be used to achieve complete eradication of lice and to avoid selection of a resistant louse population. PMID:26897755

  15. Ivermectin as an antiparasitic agent in horses.

    PubMed

    Schröder, J; Swan, G E

    1982-06-01

    Ivermectin, described as 22,23-dihydroavermectin B1, was the compound chosen from the avermectin group of compounds for development as an antiparasitic agent in horses. A review of the literature indicates that parenteral administration in horses at 200 microgram/kg body mass is highly effective against the strongyles Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus and triodontophorus spp., and adult and immature cyathostomes, including strains resistant to benzimidazole anthelmintics. Other nematodes controlled in horses include Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Trichostrongylus axei, and Habronema spp. Ivermectin is also highly effective against stomach bots (Gastrophilus spp.). PMID:6750120

  16. Effectiveness Evaluation of Levamisole, Albendazole, Ivermectin, and Vernonia amygdalina in West African Dwarf Goats

    PubMed Central

    Adediran, Oyeduntan A.; Uwalaka, Emmanuel C.

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintic drug resistance has led to the search for alternatives in controlling helminth infections. Fifty West African Dwarf goats without history of anthelmintic treatment were divided equally into five groups. Group A was treated with ivermectin injection subcutaneously, group B with levamisole subcutaneously, group C with albendazole orally, and group D with aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina and group E was untreated control. Faecal samples were collected before treatment from each animal and larval culture was carried out. Faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test was carried out for each group and the data analysed using FECR version 4 to calculate percent reduction in faecal egg count. Predominant helminth infections from larval culture were Haemonchus contortus (70%), Trichostrongylus spp. (61%), and Oesophagostomum spp. (56%). Mixed infection was present in all the animals. From the FECR test Vernonia amygdalina extract was more effective against helminths (100%), compared to ivermectin 96%, levamisole 96%, and albendazole 99%. The lower 95% confidence limit was 89 for ivermectin and levamisole and 91 for albendazole. There is low resistance to ivermectin and levamisole and susceptibility to albendazole while V. amygdalina has great potentials that could be explored for the treatment of helminth diseases in goats. PMID:26579232

  17. Effectiveness Evaluation of Levamisole, Albendazole, Ivermectin, and Vernonia amygdalina in West African Dwarf Goats.

    PubMed

    Adediran, Oyeduntan A; Uwalaka, Emmanuel C

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintic drug resistance has led to the search for alternatives in controlling helminth infections. Fifty West African Dwarf goats without history of anthelmintic treatment were divided equally into five groups. Group A was treated with ivermectin injection subcutaneously, group B with levamisole subcutaneously, group C with albendazole orally, and group D with aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina and group E was untreated control. Faecal samples were collected before treatment from each animal and larval culture was carried out. Faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test was carried out for each group and the data analysed using FECR version 4 to calculate percent reduction in faecal egg count. Predominant helminth infections from larval culture were Haemonchus contortus (70%), Trichostrongylus spp. (61%), and Oesophagostomum spp. (56%). Mixed infection was present in all the animals. From the FECR test Vernonia amygdalina extract was more effective against helminths (100%), compared to ivermectin 96%, levamisole 96%, and albendazole 99%. The lower 95% confidence limit was 89 for ivermectin and levamisole and 91 for albendazole. There is low resistance to ivermectin and levamisole and susceptibility to albendazole while V. amygdalina has great potentials that could be explored for the treatment of helminth diseases in goats. PMID:26579232

  18. Comparative efficacy evaluation of moxidectin gel and ivermectin paste against internal parasites of equines in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, A J; Barbosa, O F; Moraes, F R; Acuña, A H; Rocha, U F; Soares, V E; Paullilo, A C; Sanches, A

    1998-12-15

    A total of 24 male and female equines of mixed breed, 10-20 months of age and naturally infected with internal parasites was utilized in a controlled test to evaluate the efficacy of a moxidectin 2% gel formulation at the dosage of 0.4 mg moxidectin per kg of live weight and an ivermectin 1.87% commercial paste formulation at the dosage 0.2 mg ivermectin per kg applied orally. Animals were allocated into three groups of eight horses each based on pre-treatment eggs per gram (EPG) counts and treatments were randomized among the groups. One group was kept as untreated controls. One animal in the moxidectin-treated group died before the end of the trial from a cause unrelated to treatment leaving a total of seven animals in this group. Fecal egg counts were performed three times post-treatment and the number of parasites remaining in each animal was determined. Statistical analyses using geometric means were performed at the 1% level of significance. Both moxidectin and ivermectin preparations reduced initial EPG from a mean of 1600 to 0 on Days 5, 7 and at the end of the trial on Day 14. Efficacy percentages of moxidectin and ivermectin against immature and adult nematodes were as follows: Trichostrongylus axei, Parascaris equorum, Strongylus edentatus, S. vulgaris, Triodontophorus spp. and Gyalocephalus capitatus, 100% for both products; Habronema muscae 99.5 and 99.6%, respectively, Strongyloides westeri, 100 and 99.2%, respectively; Oxyuris equi, 99.6 and 100%, respectively; small strongyles, 99.7% for both products. Of the latter, the most numerous were: Cylicocyclus insigne, Cylicostephanus longibursatus and Cyathostomum catinatum. No Gasterophilus nasalis were found in horses from either treated group, while two of eight control horses had infections with thisparasite. Moxidectin showed greater efficacy (84.9%) than ivermectin (67.8%) against Strongylus vulgaris larvae found in the mesenteric artery aneurisms, but the difference was not statistically

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Single and Double Doses of Ivermectin versus 7-Day High Dose Albendazole for Chronic Strongyloidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Premasathian, Nalinee; Bhumimuang, Kid; Waywa, Duangdao; Nilganuwong, Surasak; Karuphong, Ekkapun; Anekthananon, Thanomsak; Wanachiwanawin, Darawan; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk

    2011-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis, caused by an intestinal helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, is common throughout the tropics. It remains an important health problem due to autoinfection, which may result in hyperinfection and disseminated infection in immunosuppressed patients, especially patients receiving chemotherapy or corticosteroid treatment. Ivermectin and albendazole are effective against strongyloidiasis. However, the efficacy and the most effective dosing regimen are to be determined. Methods A prospective, randomized, open study was conducted in which a 7-day course of oral albendazole 800 mg daily was compared with a single dose (200 microgram/kilogram body weight), or double doses, given 2 weeks apart, of ivermectin in Thai patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. Patients were followed-up with 2 weeks after initiation of treatment, then 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 1 year after treatment. Combination of direct microscopic examination of fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method, and modified Koga agar plate culture were used to detect strongyloides larvae in two consecutive fecal samples in each follow-up visit. The primary endpoint was clearance of strongyloides larvae from feces after treatment and at one year follow-up. Results Ninety patients were included in the analysis (30, 31 and 29 patients in albendazole, single dose, and double doses ivermectin group, respectively). All except one patient in this study had at least one concomitant disease. Diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythrematosus, nephrotic syndrome, hematologic malignancy, solid tumor and human immunodeficiency virus infection were common concomitant diseases in these patients. The median (range) duration of follow-up were 19 (2–76) weeks in albendazole group, 39 (2–74) weeks in single dose ivermectin group, and 26 (2–74) weeks in double doses ivermectin group. Parasitological cure rate were 63.3%, 96.8% and 93.1% in albendazole, single dose oral ivermectin

  20. Ivermectin: A Reflection on Simplicity (Nobel Lecture).

    PubMed

    Campbell, William C

    2016-08-22

    Parasitic diseases including river blindness and lymphatic filariasis affect hundreds of millions of people annually. The discovery of the drug ivermectin has provided humankind with a powerful new means to combat these severe diseases. To a very large extent the drug was brought about by "simple" science. PMID:27243156

  1. Outbreak of sarcoptic mange in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and control with repeated subcutaneous ivermectin injections.

    PubMed

    Twomey, D F; Birch, E S; Schock, A

    2009-02-01

    An outbreak of sarcoptic mange was investigated in an alpaca herd. Clinical disease occurred 2 months after the introduction of four alpacas with dry seborrhoeic skin lesions, the cause of which was not investigated. Initially a group of females was affected, despite repeated topical treatment with ivermectin at a dose of 0.5mg/kg bodyweight. One female died and post-mortem examination indicated sarcoptic mange as the cause of death. Infection with Sarcoptes scabiei was also demonstrated on microscopic examination of skin scrapes taken from clinically affected cohorts. Later in the outbreak, a separate group of male alpacas was also affected. Treatment using subcutaneous ivermectin injections at a dose of 0.2mg/kg, administered at 14-day intervals, was evaluated. During this course of treatment, another female died. A successful response in the other alpacas was eventually reached following 12 treatments of the female group and 8 treatments of the male group. PMID:19019545

  2. Over 25 Years of Clinical Experience With Ivermectin: An Overview of Safety for an Increasing Number of Indications.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon H; Del Rosso, James Q; Layton, Alison M; Schauber, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Although the broad-spectrum anti-parasitic effects of the avermectin derivative ivermectin are well documented, its anti-inflammatory activity has only recently been demonstrated. For over 25 years, ivermectin has been used to treat parasitic infections in mammals, with a good safety profile that may be attributed to its high affinity to invertebrate neuronal ion channels and its inability to cross the blood-brain barrier in humans and other mammals. Numerous studies report low rates of adverse events, as an oral treatment for parasitic infections, scabies and head lice. Ivermectin has been used off-label to treat diseases associated with Demodex mites, such as blepharitis and demodicidosis. New evidence has linked Demodex mites to rosacea, a chronic inflammatory disease. Ivermectin has recently received FDA and EU approval for the treatment of adult patients with inflammatory lesions of rosacea, a disease in which this agent has been shown to be well tolerated. After more than 25 years of use, ivermectin continues to provide a high margin of safety for a growing number of indications based on its anti-parasitic and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26954318

  3. [Effectiveness of ivermectin in Strongyloides westeri cases in foals].

    PubMed

    Köhler, M; Hiepe, T

    1986-08-01

    Efficacy of Ivermectin in combating Strongyloides westeri infection of foal. The efficacy of Ivermectin and Mebendazol in combating spontaneous Strongyloides westeri infections in foals has been tested by examining faecal egg output reduction. Ivermectin as a paste formulation was given to sucking foals and pregnant mares in a single dosage of 200 micrograms/kg bodyweight by oral administration. A high efficacy of Ivermectin in combating patent Strongyloides westeri infection could be demonstrated; no side effects have been observed. Mebendazol at a dosage rate of 8 mg/kg did not yield satisfactory results. PMID:3777529

  4. [Lymphatic filariasis transmission assessment survey in schools three years after stopping mass drug treatment with albendazole and ivermectin in the 7 endemic districts in Togo].

    PubMed

    Dorkenoo, A M; Sodahlon, Y K; Bronzan, R N; Yakpa, K; Sossou, E; Ouro-Medeli, A; Teko, M; Seim, A; Mathieu, E

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to verify the level of transmission of lymphatic filariasis three years after stopping mass drug treatment in the 7 endemic districts in Togo. The survey was conducted in 2012 in Togo's 7 endemic districts grouped into four evaluation units (EU) using the WHO-recommended transmission assessment survey (TAS) protocol. Children aged 6-7 years were screened for Wuchereria bancofti antigen using the immunochromatographic card (ICT) method. A cluster sampling method was used to select eligible children in schools as the net primary-school enrolment ratio is greater than or equal to 75% in each of the four EUs. The number of children and schools to be selected in each EU, the randomization list for the selection of these children and the critical cut-off number of positive cases not to exceed were automatically generated using the Survey Sample Builder (SSB) tool, (NTD Support Center, Atlanta, Ga, USA). For confirmation, positive cases were subsequently tested for microfilaremia using nocturnal thick blood smear and for filarial antigen using Og4C3 antigen ELISA (TropBio ELISA Kit®, Townsville, Queensland, Australia). An EU is considered to have passed the test successfully (it is assumed that transmission can no longer be sustained), when the number of positive cases is below the critical cut-off number set by the SSB, which is roughly equivalent to 2% prevalence. Of the 1 706 children surveyed in Kpendjal-Tone's EU, 1 549 in Binah-Doufelgou's EU, 1 550 in Kozah's EU and the 1 575 in Amou-Haho's EU, 8 (0.46%), 1 (0.08%), 0 (0.00%) and 4 (0.25%) ICT positive cases respectively were detected. The number of positive ICT tests was well below 18, the critical cut number for each of the 4 EUs. All 13 ICT positive cases tested negative for nocturnal microfilaremia and Og4C3 ELISA. We conclude that all four EU passed the TAS with success, and the transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti is no longer likely to be sustained in the 7 endemic districts in Togo

  5. Low-noise pulse conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Bird, David A.

    1983-01-01

    A low-noise pulse conditioner is provided for driving electronic digital processing circuitry directly from differentially induced input pulses. The circuit uses a unique differential-to-peak detector circuit to generate a dynamic reference signal proportional to the input peak voltage. The input pulses are compared with the reference signal in an input network which operates in full differential mode with only a passive input filter. This reduces the introduction of circuit-induced noise, or jitter, generated in ground referenced input elements normally used in pulse conditioning circuits, especially speed transducer processing circuits.

  6. Therapeutic Potential of Myrrh and Ivermectin against Experimental Trichinella spiralis Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    El-Sabaa, Abdel-Aleem A.

    2013-01-01

    Trichinosis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis. Anthelmintics are used to eliminate intestinal adults as well as tissue-migrating and encysted larvae. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ivermectin and myrrh obtained from the aloe-gum resin of Commiphora molmol on experimental trichinosis. Ninety albino mice were orally infected with 300 T. spiralis larvae. Drugs were tested against adult worms at day 0 and day 5 and against encysted larvae on day 15 and day 35 post-infection (PI). Mature worms and encysted larvae were counted in addition to histopathological examination of muscle specimens. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, and creatinine values were estimated. Significant reductions in mean worm numbers were detected in ivermectin treated mice at day 0 and day 5 PI achieving efficacies of 98.5% and 80.0%, while efficacies of myrrh in treated mice were 80.7% and 51.5%, respectively. At days 15 and 35 post-infection, ivermectin induced significant reduction in encysted larval counts achieving efficacies of 76.5% and 54.0%, respectively, while myrrh efficacies were 76.6% and 35.0%, respectively. AST, ALT, urea, and creatinine levels were reduced, while total proteins were increased in response to both treatments compared to their values in the infected non-treated mice. Ivermectin use for controlling T. spiralis could be continued. Myrrh was effective and could be a promising drug against the Egyptian strains of T. spiralis with results nearly comparable to ivermectin. PMID:23864740

  7. A Randomized, Single-Ascending-Dose, Ivermectin-Controlled, Double-Blind Study of Moxidectin in Onchocerca volvulus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Opoku, Nicholas O.; Attah, Simon K.; Lazdins-Helds, Janis; Kuesel, Annette C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Control of onchocerciasis as a public health problem in Africa relies on annual mass ivermectin distribution. New tools are needed to achieve elimination of infection. This study determined in a small number of Onchocerca volvulus infected individuals whether moxidectin, a veterinary anthelminthic, is safe enough to administer it in a future large study to further characterize moxidectin's safety and efficacy. Effects on the parasite were also assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings Men and women from a forest area in South-eastern Ghana without ivermectin mass distribution received a single oral dose of 2 mg (N = 44), 4 mg (N = 45) or 8 mg (N = 38) moxidectin or 150 µg/kg ivermectin (N = 45) with 18 months follow up. All ivermectin and 97%–100% of moxidectin treated participants had Mazzotti reactions. Statistically significantly higher percentages of participants treated with 8 mg moxidectin than participants treated with ivermectin experienced pruritus (87% vs. 56%), rash (63% vs. 42%), increased pulse rate (61% vs. 36%) and decreased mean arterial pressure upon 2 minutes standing still after ≥5 minutes supine relative to pre-treatment (61% vs. 27%). These reactions resolved without treatment. In the 8 mg moxidectin and ivermectin arms, the mean±SD number of microfilariae/mg skin were 22.9±21.1 and 21.2±16.4 pre-treatment and 0.0±0.0 and 1.1±4.2 at nadir reached 1 and 3 months after treatment, respectively. At 6 months, values were 0.0±0.0 and 1.6±4.5, at 12 months 0.4±0.9 and 3.4±4.4 and at 18 months 1.8±3.3 and 4.0±4.8, respectively, in the 8 mg moxidectin and ivermectin arm. The reduction from pre-treatment values was significantly higher after 8 mg moxidectin than after ivermectin treatment throughout follow up (p<0.01). Conclusions/Significance The 8 mg dose of moxidectin was safe enough to initiate the large study. Provided its results confirm those from this study, availability of moxidectin to control

  8. 7 CFR 3201.92 - Fuel conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel conditioners. 3201.92 Section 3201.92... Designated Items § 3201.92 Fuel conditioners. (a) Definition. Products formulated to improve the performance... fuel system. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred procurement product must have...

  9. 7 CFR 3201.92 - Fuel conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel conditioners. 3201.92 Section 3201.92... Designated Items § 3201.92 Fuel conditioners. (a) Definition. Products formulated to improve the performance... fuel system. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred procurement product must have...

  10. Conditioner for a helically transported electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Changbiao.

    1992-05-01

    The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically transported electron beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the electron's relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.

  11. Conditioner for a helically transported electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Changbiao

    1992-05-01

    The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically transported electron beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the electron`s relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.

  12. Space shuttle aps propellant thermal conditioner study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical and experimental effort was completed to evaluate a baffle type thermal conditioner for superheating O2 and H2 at supercritical pressures. The thermal conditioner consisted of a heat exchanger and an integral reactor (gas generator) operating on O2/H2 propellants. Primary emphasis was placed on the hydrogen conditioner with some effort on the oxygen conditioner and a study completed of alternate concepts for use in conditioning oxygen. A hydrogen conditioner was hot fire tested under a range of conditions to establish ignition, heat exchange and response parameters. A parallel technology task was completed to further evaluate the integral reactor and heat exchanger with the side mounted electrical spark igniter.

  13. Conditioner for a helically transported electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.

    1992-05-01

    The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically imported electron beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the electron's relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.

  14. Conditioner for a helically transported electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.

    1992-05-01

    The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically imported electron beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the electron`s relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.

  15. Seventeen years of annual distribution of ivermectin has not interrupted onchocerciasis transmission in North Region, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Katabarwa, Moses N; Eyamba, Albert; Nwane, Philippe; Enyong, Peter; Yaya, Souleymanou; Baldiagaï, Jean; Madi, Théodore Kambaba; Yougouda, Abdoulaye; Andze, Gervais Ondobo; Richards, Frank O

    2011-12-01

    We studied onchocerciasis transmission and impact on ocular morbidity in three health districts in North Region, Cameroon, where annual mass ivermectin treatment has been provided for 12-17 years. The studies, which took place from 2008 to 2010, consisted of skin snips for microfilariae (mf), palpation examinations for nodules, slit lamp examinations for mf in the eye, and Simulium vector dissections for larval infection rates. Adults had mf and nodule rates of 4.8% and 13.5%, respectively, and 5.5% had mf in the anterior chamber of the eye. Strong evidence of ongoing transmission was found in one health district, where despite 17 years of annual treatments, the annual transmission potential was 543 L3/person per year; additionally, children under 10 years of age had a 2.6% mf prevalence. Halting ivermectin treatments in North Cameroon now might risk recrudescence of transmission and ocular disease. PMID:22144441

  16. Interruption of Infection Transmission in the Onchocerciasis Focus of Ecuador Leading to the Cessation of Ivermectin Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Lovato, Raquel; Guevara, Angel; Guderian, Ronald; Proaño, Roberto; Unnasch, Thomas; Criollo, Hipatia; Hassan, Hassan K.; Mackenzie, Charles D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: A clinically significant endemic focus of onchocerciasis existing in Esmeraldas Province, coastal Ecuador has been under an ivermectin mass drug administration program since 1991. The main transmitting vector in this area is the voracious blackfly, Simulium exiguum. This paper describes the assessments made that support the decision to cease mass treatment. Methodology and Principle Findings: Thirty-five rounds of ivermectin treatment occurred between 1991–2009 with 29 of these carrying >85% coverage. Following the guidelines set by WHO for ceasing ivermectin distribution the impact on parasite transmission was measured in the two vector species by an O-150 PCR technique standard for assessing for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus. Up to seven collection sites in three major river systems were tested on four occasions between 1995 and 2008. The infectivity rates of 65.0 (CI 39–101) and 72.7 (CI 42–116) in 1995 dropped to zero at all seven collection sites by 2008. Assessment for the presence of antibodies against O. volvulus was made in 2001, 2006, 2007 and 2008 using standard ELISA assays for detecting anti-Ov16 antibodies. None of total of 1810 children aged 1–15 years (between 82 and 98% of children present in the surveyed villages) tested in the above years were found to be carrying antibodies to this antigen. These findings were the basis for the cessation of mass drug treatment with ivermectin in 2009. Significance: This fulfillment of the criteria for cessation of mass distribution of ivermectin in the only known endemic zone of onchocerciasis in Ecuador moves the country into the surveillance phase of official verification for national elimination of transmission of infection. These findings indicate that ivermectin given twice a year with greater than 85% of the community can move a program to the final stages of verification of transmission interruption. PMID:24853587

  17. Efficacy of pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin paste formulations against naturally acquired Oxyuris equi infections in horses.

    PubMed

    Reinemeyer, Craig R; Prado, Julio C; Nichols, Eric C; Marchiondo, Alan A

    2010-07-15

    In recent years, numerous veterinary practitioners have reported anecdotal episodes in which anthelmintic treatment did not appear to deliver the expected efficacy against equine pinworms (Oxyuris equi). Anthelmintic resistance has not been demonstrated formally in equine pinworms, so a clinical study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of paste formulations of pyrantel pamoate or ivermectin against naturally acquired infections with O. equi. Twenty-one horses (>4 months to 15 years of age) with patent, naturally acquired pinworm infections were blocked by source of origin and allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups: horses (n=7) assigned to Group 1 were treated orally with pyrantel pamoate paste at a dosage of 13.2 mg/kg (2x label dosage), Group 2 horses (n=7) were untreated controls, and horses (n=7) assigned to Group 3 were treated orally with ivermectin paste at a dosage of 200 microg/kg. Fourteen days after treatment, horses were euthanatized, necropsied, and large intestinal contents were processed for recovery of adult pinworms. In addition, duplicate 1% aliquots of intestinal contents from the cecum, ventral colon, dorsal colon, and small colon were collected, preserved, and examined for recovery and enumeration of fourth-stage larval O. equi. Anthelmintic efficacy against pinworms was evaluated by comparing the post-treatment worm counts of Groups 1 and 3 to those of control animals. Mean numbers of O. equi adults recovered postmortem were significantly decreased by both pyrantel pamoate (P=0.0366) and ivermectin (P=0.0137) treatment, with respective efficacies of 91.2% and 96.0%. In addition, both products demonstrated >99% efficacy against fourth-stage O. equi larvae. The current study demonstrated acceptable adulticidal and larvicidal efficacy of both pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin paste formulations against O. equi and did not support the existence of macrocyclic lactone or pyrimidine resistance in the pinworm populations evaluated. PMID

  18. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains: (1) 34...) Amount. Administer monthly according to body weight as follows: (i) 6 to 12 lb: one tablet as...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains: (1) 34...) Amount. Administer monthly according to body weight as follows: (i) 6 to 12 lb: one tablet as...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains either... § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. Administer tablets to provide...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains either... § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. Administer tablets to provide...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains: (1) 34...) Amount. Administer monthly according to body weight as follows: (i) 6 to 12 lb: one tablet as...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains: (1) 34...) Amount. Administer monthly according to body weight as follows: (i) 6 to 12 lb: one tablet as...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains: (1) 34...) Amount. Administer monthly according to body weight as follows: (i) 6 to 12 lb: one tablet as...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains either... § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. Administer tablets to provide...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains either... § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. Administer tablets to provide...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains either... § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. Administer tablets to provide...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1193 - Ivermectin tablets and chewables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ivermectin tablets and chewables. 520.1193 Section 520.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1193 Ivermectin tablets and chewables. (a) Specifications....

  9. 21 CFR 524.1195 - Ivermectin otic suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ivermectin otic suspension. 524.1195 Section 524.1195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1195 Ivermectin otic suspension....

  10. Low-noise pulse conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Bird, D.A.

    1981-06-16

    A low-noise pulse conditioner is provided for driving electronic digital processing circuitry directly from differentially induced input pulses. The circuit uses a unique differential-to-peak detector circuit to generate a dynamic reference signal proportional to the input peak voltage. The input pulses are compared with the reference signal in an input network which operates in full differential mode with only a passive input filter. This reduces the introduction of circuit-induced noise, or jitter, generated in ground referenced input elements normally used in pulse conditioning circuits, especially speed transducer processing circuits. This circuit may be used for conditioning the sensor signal from the Fidler coil in a gas centrifuge for separation of isotopic gaseous mixtures.

  11. High efficiency laser spectrum conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Norman R.

    1980-01-01

    A high efficiency laser spectrum conditioner for generating a collinear parallel output beam containing a predetermined set of frequencies from a multifrequency laser. A diffraction grating and spherical mirror are used in combination, to disperse the various frequencies of the input laser beam and direct these frequencies along various parallel lines spatially separated from one another to an apertured mask. Selection of the desired frequencies is accomplished by placement of apertures at locations on the mask where the desired frequencies intersect the mask. A recollimated parallel output beam with the desired set of frequencies is subsequently generated utilizing a mirror and grating matched and geometrically aligned in the same manner as the input grating and mirror.

  12. Effects of conditioners on surface hardness of hair fibers: an investigation using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ruetsch, S B; Kamath, Y K; Kintrup, L; Schwark, H-J

    2003-01-01

    Conditioners are known to have a prophylactic effect on hair damage caused by cosmetic chemical treatments or mechanical grooming procedures. They are known to impart softness and smoothness to hair by moisturizing the fiber. Since the amount of conditioners deposited on the fiber is very small in quantity, it is conceivable that mainly the surface is moisturized. This is especially true of polymeric conditioners, which deposit preferentially on the surface of the fiber, rather than penetrate into the cortex. Therefore, this study strictly investigates whether cationic polymeric conditioners impart softness to the surface cuticle cell as a result of their hydrophilicity, with no regard to its applicability to cosmetic effects. Such softening can be detected by indentation of the surface and can be quantified by measuring the depth of the indent in real time. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), equipped with nano-indentation capability, is ideally suited for this purpose. In this work it was used to determine changes in the microhardness (micromechanical properties) of the hair fiber surface as a result of fiber/conditioner/moisture interactions. In a preliminary study, we observed that the scale faces of hair treated with Polyquaternium 10 (PQ-10) conditioner gave deeper indents, while scale edges yielded shallower ones in comparison to cuticle cells of untreated hair. This suggests that the conditioner softens the scale face and hardens the scale edges. However, because of significant amounts of conditioner residues left on the scale face, this conclusion was rather ambiguous. Therefore, the study was repeated in which multiple indentations were made on the surface cuticle cells of a larger number of the same hair fibers before and after multiple applications of the conditioner. This reduces errors due to fiber-to-fiber variation in pre-existing microhardness differences in surface cuticle cells. Also, the larger number of fibers investigated in the current work

  13. Ivermectin 400 micrograms/kg: long-term suppression of microfilariae in Bancroftian filariasis.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, L N; Chanteau, S; Plichart, R; Beylier, I; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-01-01

    Forty-three Wuchereria bancrofti carriers were given 4 successive semi-annual single doses of ivermectin 100 micrograms/kg (IVER 100). The geometric mean microfilaremia (mf) recurrence percentages, compared to the pre-initial treatment mf level, were 35%, 21%, 17% and 17% at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months respectively. However, the recurrence of mf 6 months after the fourth treatment remained high in 15 individuals, considered as 'bad responders'. At month 24, the subjects were randomly allocated into 2 groups: the first group was treated with a fifth dose of IVER 100 and the second with a first, single dose of 400 micrograms/kg of ivermectin (IVER 400). At month 30, the mf recurrence percentage was significantly higher in patients treated with IVER 100 than in those receiving IVER 400 (61% vs. 8%, P < 0.05). In the IVER 100 group, 6 of the 8 'bad responders' remained 'bad responders', whereas only 2 of 7 did so in the IVER 400 group. Only 3 additional patients in the IVER 100 group became consistently amicrofilaraemic, whereas 9 did so in the IVER 400 group. Two 'good responders' in the IVER 100 group became 'bad responders'. A single dose of 400 micrograms/kg of ivermectin has been demonstrated to be efficient for the treatment of carriers refractory to repeated doses of 100 micrograms/kg and to result in better long-term mf suppression. These results suggest a possible effect of 400 micrograms/kg of ivermectin on macrofilaria. PMID:8153984

  14. Residential air conditioner cycling: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Strickler, G.F.; Noell, S.K.

    1988-02-01

    Southern California Edison currently operates its Residential Air Conditioner Cycling Program as a production program on a systemwide basis. Air conditioner cycling enables Edison to cycle, or switch off, at predetermined intervals, approximately 100,000 air conditioners throughout the Edison service areas. Activation of this system reduces peak demands for load shaping capability. Benefits of this method of peak reduction include the potential for system load factor improvement and/or for deferral of construction of new generation facilities. Edison began testing hardware for direct load control in 1976. Experimental test programs were implemented from 1978 through 1980. These successful test programs resulted in the decision to implement the Residential Air Conditioner Cycling Program on a systemwide basis in 1983.

  15. Efficacy of fenbendazole, levamisole and ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes in Jamunapari goats.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Sharma, R L; Sodhi, S S

    2011-10-01

    Efficacy of fenbendazole, levamisole and ivermectin was checked in comparison to untreated controls in twenty Jamunapari goats, naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematode parasites. Faecal examination at day 0 revealed an egg per gram of 930 ± 175.1, 1350 ± 421.1, 1060 ± 224.9 and 800 ± 279.7 in group A, B, C and D, respectively having five animals each. The results of larval culture examination revealed the presence of Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum and Strongyloides spp. in these animals. Faecal egg counts of the animals treated with fenbendazole (group A), levamisole (group B) and ivermectin (group C) were reduced by 23.66, 63.70 and 98.11%, respectively on day 14 post-treatment. PMID:23024509

  16. Assessment of loiasis and outcomes of ivermectin masstreatment in Ijebu-North, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A A; Akinsanya, B; Iyase, N; Owagboriaye, F O

    2011-06-01

    A total of 286 individuals from 3 selected communities (Areedi-Aje, Ipakodo/Ojokodo, and Ijebu-Igbo) of Ijebu-North, southwestern Nigeria were examined for Loa loa microfilaremia using finger prick blood smear, between December 2008 and March 2009. Rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA) was used to obtain information, from 187 Ijebu-Igbo residents, on adverse reactions experienced from retrospective treatments with ivermectin and history of eye worm. Only 33.9% of the respondents reported having had a history of eye worm while 33.2% had microfilaremia. The demographic factor of gender was not significant determinants of the prevalence (P>0.05) while age was significant (P<0.05). The highest prevalence of eye worm history and microfilaremia were recorded in 61-70 and 15-20 years of age categories, respectively. Ijebu-Igbo had 27.3% eye worm history, 32.1% microfilaremia, and the highest intensity of 140 microfilariae (mf)/ml. Ipakodo area had the highest eye worm history of 54.4% and the highest intensity of 420 mf/ml. Areedi-Aje had the highest occurrence of 45.2% microfilaremia and the highest intensity of 460 mf/ml. Predictably, Areedi-Aje and Ipakodo areas were high risk communities. The low intensity of L. loa infection with an insignificant (2.1%; P>0.05) adverse reactions from 187 subjects involved in the retrospective ivermectin administration confirmed that ivermectin delivery may be considered safe. The community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) programme was most probably responsible for the low prevalence and intensity. PMID:21738271

  17. Anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for seven consecutive days (100 µg/kg/day), against nematodes in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Buzulini, Carolina; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Prando, Luciana; Bichuette, Murilo A; Dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate ivermectin and abamectin, both administered orally in naturally infected domestic swine, as well as analysing if the EPG (eggs per gram of faeces) values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies. The animals were randomly selected based on the average of three consecutive EPG counts of Strongylida, Ascaris suum and Trichuris for experiment I, and of Strongylida and Trichuris for experiment II. After the random draw, eight animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100 µg/kg/day ivermectin (Ivermectina® premix, Ouro Fino Agronegócios), eight other animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100 µg/kg/day abamectin (Virbamax® premix - Virbac do Brasil Indústria e Comércio Ltda.), and eight pigs were kept as controls. EPG counts were performed for each individual animal at 14th day post-treatment (DPT). All animals (control and treatment) were necropsied at the 14th DPT. The results from both experiments demonstrate that both ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for a continuous period of seven days, at a daily dosage of 100 µg/kg, were highly effective (>95%) against Hyostrongylus rubidus, Strongyloides ransomi, Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus salmi. Against Oesophagostomum dentatum, abamectin presented over 95% efficacy against both evaluated strains, while ivermectin reached other strain as resistant. Regarding T. suis, both ivermectin and abamectin were effective (efficacies >90%) against one of the tested strains, while the other one was classified as resistant. Furthermore, the EPG values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies. PMID:25278142

  18. Compared efficacy of repeated annual and semi-annual doses of ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine for prevention of Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis in French Polynesia. Final evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cartel, J L; Spiegel, A; Nguyen Ngnoc, L; Cardines, R; Plichart, R; Martin, P M; Roux, J F; Moulia-Pelat, J P

    1992-06-01

    In October 1989, 58 apparently healthy Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers, in whom microfilarial (mf) density was greater than or equal to 100 mf/ml, were randomly allocated to treatment groups receiving single doses of either ivermectin at 100 mcg/kg or diethylcarbamazine (DEC) at 3 and 6 mg/kg. Six months later, half of the carriers initially treated with ivermectin 100 mcg/kg or DEC 3 mg/kg were given a second similar dose while the rest were given a placebo. Six months later again, all of the carriers received a last treatment dose similar to the initial one. The results observed during the 12-month period which followed this last treatment have confirmed that (i) in terms of immediate clearance or complete negativation of microfilaremia, the efficacy of ivermectin is higher than that of DEC (at dosage of 3 or 6 mg/kg), (ii) DEC is more effective than ivermectin in sustaining the reduction of microfilaremia over a longer period of time and (iii) the efficacy of repeated single doses of either DEC 3 mg/kg or ivermectin 100 mcg/kg is much higher when given semi-annually than annually.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1519031

  19. Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection

    PubMed Central

    Henriquez-Camacho, Cesar; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Echevarria, Juan; White, A Clinton; Terashima, Angelica; Samalvides, Frine; Pérez-Molina, José A; Plana, Maria N

    2016-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis is a gut infection with Strongyloides stercoralis which is common world wide. Chronic infection usually causes a skin rash, vomiting, diarrhoea or constipation, and respiratory problems, and it can be fatal in people with immune deficiency. It may be treated with ivermectin or albendazole or thiabendazole. Objectives To assess the effects of ivermectin versus benzimidazoles (albendazole and thiabendazole) for treating chronic strongyloides infection. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (24 August 2015); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (January 1966 to August 2015); EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2015); LILACS (August 2015); and reference lists of articles. We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) using 'strongyloid*' as a search term, reference lists, and conference abstracts. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials of ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for treating chronic strongyloides infection. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias in the included trials. We used risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and fixed- or random-effects models. We pooled adverse event data if the trials were sufficiently similar in their adverse event definitions. Main results We included seven trials, enrolling 1147 participants, conducted between 1994 and 2011 in different locations (Africa, Southeast Asia, America and Europe). In trials comparing ivermectin with albendazole, parasitological cure was higher with ivermectin (RR 1.79, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.08; 478 participants, four trials, moderate quality evidence). There were no statistically significant differences in adverse events (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.09; 518 participants, four trials, low quality evidence). In trials comparing ivermectin with thiabendazole

  20. Locally produced natural conditioners for dewatering of faecal sludge.

    PubMed

    Gold, Moritz; Dayer, Pauline; Faye, Marie Christine Amie Sene; Clair, Guillaume; Seck, Alsane; Niang, Seydou; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Strande, Linda

    2016-11-01

    In urban areas of low-income countries, treatment of faecal sludge (FS) is insufficient or non-existent. This results in large amounts of FS being dumped into the environment. Existing treatment technologies for FS, such as settling-thickening tanks and drying beds, are land intensive which is limiting in urban areas. Enhanced settling and dewatering by conditioning was evaluated in order to reduce the treatment footprint (or increase treatment capacity). Conventional wastewater conditioners, such as commercially available lime and polymers, are expensive, and commonly rely on complex supply chains for use in low-income countries. Therefore, the treatment performance of five conditioners which could be produced locally was evaluated: Moringa oleifera seeds and press cake, Jatropha curcas seeds, Jatropha Calotropis leaves and chitosan. M. oleifera seeds and press cake, and chitosan improved settling and dewatering and had a similar performance compared to lime and polymers. Optimal dosages were 400-500 kg M. oleifera/t TS, 300-800 kg lime/t TS and 25-50 kg polymer solution/t TS. In comparison, chitosan required 1.5-3.75 kg/t TS. These dosages are comparable to those recommended for wastewater (sludge). The results indicate that conditioning of FS can reduce total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent of settling-thickening tanks by 22-81% and reduce dewatering time with drying beds by 59-97%. This means that the area of drying beds could be reduced by 59-97% with end-use as soil conditioner, or 9-26% as solid fuel. Least expensive options and availability will depend on the local context. In Dakar, Senegal, chitosan produced from shrimp waste appears to be most promising. PMID:26984372

  1. Anthelmintic resistance to ivermectin and moxidectin in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Geurden, Thomas; Chartier, Christophe; Fanke, Jane; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane; Traversa, Donato; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina; Vanimisetti, Hima Bindu; Bartram, David J.; Denwood, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance has been increasingly reported in cattle worldwide over the last decade, although reports from Europe are more limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of injectable formulations of ivermectin and moxidectin at 0.2 mg per kg bodyweight against naturally acquired gastro-intestinal nematodes in cattle. A total of 753 animals on 40 farms were enrolled in Germany (12 farms), the UK (10 farms), Italy (10 farms), and France (8 farms). Animals were selected based on pre-treatment faecal egg counts and were allocated to one of the two treatment groups. Each treatment group consisted of between 7 and 10 animals. A post-treatment faecal egg count was performed 14 days (±2 days) after treatment. The observed percentage reduction was calculated for each treatment group based on the arithmetic mean faecal egg count before and after treatment. The resistance status was evaluated based on the reduction in arithmetic mean faecal egg count and both the lower and upper 95% confidence limits. A decreased efficacy was observed in half or more of the farms in Germany, France and the UK. For moxidectin, resistance was confirmed on 3 farms in France, and on 1 farm in Germany and the UK. For ivermectin, resistance was confirmed on 3 farms in the UK, and on 1 farm in Germany and France. The remaining farms with decreased efficacy were classified as having an inconclusive resistance status based on the available data. After treatment Cooperia spp. larvae were most frequently identified, though Ostertagia ostertagi was also found, in particular within the UK and Germany. The present study reports lower than expected efficacy for ivermectin and moxidectin (based on the reduction in egg excretion after treatment) on European cattle farms, with confirmed anthelmintic resistance on 12.5% of the farms. PMID:26448902

  2. Ivermectin plus diethylcarbamazine: an additive effect on early microfilarial clearance.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Nguyen, L N; Glaziou, P; Chanteau, S; Ottesen, E A; Cardines, R; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-02-01

    The effects of ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and the combination of both drugs on levels of microfilaremia (mf) were studied in 30 male Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers. Microfilarial densities were measured 30 min (H1/2), 1 hr (H1), and 2, 4, 8, 24, and 96 hr (H2, H4, H8, H24, and H96) after supervised single doses of ivermectin plus DEC (400 micrograms/kg plus 1 mg/kg, respectively, 400 micrograms/kg plus 3 mg/kg, respectively, and 400 micrograms/kg plus 6 mg/kg, respectively), DEC (6 mg/kg) alone, and ivermectin (400 micrograms/kg and 100 micrograms/kg, respectively) alone given to six groups of five patients each. The results showed that 1) DEC alone or combined with ivermectin induced a rapid clearance of mf after drug intake; at H1/2, the number of circulating microfilariae was reduced to 16%, 8%, 28%, and 31%, respectively, of pretreatment values in the groups receiving ivermectin plus DEC (400 micrograms/kg plus 1 mg/kg, 400 micrograms/kg plus 3 mg/kg, and 400 micrograms/kg plus 6 mg/kg) and DEC (6 mg/kg) alone; 2) ivermectin alone induced a rapid increase of mf densities during the first 2 hr, followed by a sharp decrease from H4 to H96; and 3) between H8 and H96, mf clearance was almost complete with the combination of ivermectin and DEC. A comparison among groups did not show any synergistic interaction between ivermectin and DEC on the clearance of microfilaria, with the effect of each drug being additive to each another. PMID:8116814

  3. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  4. Liposomal Systems as Nanocarriers for the Antiviral Agent Ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Croci, Romina; Bottaro, Elisabetta; Chan, Kitti Wing Ki; Watanabe, Satoru; Pezzullo, Margherita; Mastrangelo, Eloise; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    RNA virus infections can lead to the onset of severe diseases such as fever with haemorrhage, multiorgan failure, and mortality. The emergence and reemergence of RNA viruses continue to pose a significant public health threat worldwide with particular attention to the increasing incidence of flaviviruses, among others Dengue, West Nile Virus, and Yellow Fever viruses. Development of new and potent antivirals is thus urgently needed. Ivermectin, an already known antihelminthic drug, has shown potent effects in vitro on Flavivirus helicase, with EC50 values in the subnanomolar range for Yellow Fever and submicromolar EC50 for Dengue Fever, Japanese encephalitis, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. However ivermectin is hampered in its application by pharmacokinetic problems (little solubility and high cytotoxicity). To overcome such problems we engineered different compositions of liposomes as ivermectin carriers characterizing and testing them on several cell lines for cytotoxicity. The engineered liposomes were less cytotoxic than ivermectin alone and they showed a significant increase of the antiviral activity in all the Dengue stains tested (1, 2, and S221). In the current study ivermectin is confirmed to be an effective potential antiviral and liposomes, as drug carriers, are shown to modulate the drug activity. All together the results represent a promising starting point for future improvement of ivermectin as antiviral and its delivery. PMID:27242902

  5. Liposomal Systems as Nanocarriers for the Antiviral Agent Ivermectin

    PubMed Central

    Croci, Romina; Bottaro, Elisabetta; Chan, Kitti Wing Ki; Watanabe, Satoru; Pezzullo, Margherita; Mastrangelo, Eloise; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    RNA virus infections can lead to the onset of severe diseases such as fever with haemorrhage, multiorgan failure, and mortality. The emergence and reemergence of RNA viruses continue to pose a significant public health threat worldwide with particular attention to the increasing incidence of flaviviruses, among others Dengue, West Nile Virus, and Yellow Fever viruses. Development of new and potent antivirals is thus urgently needed. Ivermectin, an already known antihelminthic drug, has shown potent effects in vitro on Flavivirus helicase, with EC50 values in the subnanomolar range for Yellow Fever and submicromolar EC50 for Dengue Fever, Japanese encephalitis, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. However ivermectin is hampered in its application by pharmacokinetic problems (little solubility and high cytotoxicity). To overcome such problems we engineered different compositions of liposomes as ivermectin carriers characterizing and testing them on several cell lines for cytotoxicity. The engineered liposomes were less cytotoxic than ivermectin alone and they showed a significant increase of the antiviral activity in all the Dengue stains tested (1, 2, and S221). In the current study ivermectin is confirmed to be an effective potential antiviral and liposomes, as drug carriers, are shown to modulate the drug activity. All together the results represent a promising starting point for future improvement of ivermectin as antiviral and its delivery. PMID:27242902

  6. Aeroacoustic Characteristics of Model Jet Test Facility Flow Conditioners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzie, Kevin W.; Henderson, Brenda S.; Haskin, Harry H.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation of flow conditioning devices used to suppress internal rig noise in high speed, high temperature experimental jet facilities is discussed. The aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics of a number of devices including pressure loss and extraneous noise generation are measured. Both aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics are strongly dependent on the porosity of the flow conditioner and the closure ratio of the duct system. For unchoked flow conditioners, the pressure loss follows conventional incompressible flow models. However, for choked flow conditioners, a compressible flow model where the duct and flow conditioner system is modeled as a convergent-divergent nozzle can be used to estimate pressure loss. Choked flow conditioners generate significantly more noise than unchoked conditioners. In addition, flow conditioners with small hole diameters or sintered metal felt material generate less self-noise noise compared to flow conditioners with larger holes.

  7. Efficacy and safety of clorsulon used concurrently with ivermectin for control of Fasciola hepatica in Florida beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Courtney, C H; Shearer, J K; Plue, R E

    1985-06-01

    The safety and anthelmintic efficacy of clorsulon (7 mg/kg of body weight, orally) given concurrently with ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg, subcutaneously) for control of Fasciola hepatica were evaluated in 75 crossbred beef cattle. Twenty-three control animals were given only ivermectin. Fluke egg counts were significantly lower (P less than 0.0001) in clorsulon-treated animals by day 14 after treatment than before treatment (base line) and were significantly lower (P less than 0.005) after treatment in clorsulon-treated animals than in controls. There was no significant change in fluke egg counts of controls after treatment. The efficacy of clorsulon in reducing F hepatica egg counts was 99%. Clorsulon showed poor efficacy against paramphistomes. Adverse reactions were not observed. PMID:3839640

  8. Photovoltaic array: Power conditioner interface characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.; Hill, G. M.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The electrical output (power, current, and voltage) of flat plate solar arrays changes constantly, due primarily to changes in cell temperature and irradiance level. As a result, array loads such as dc-to-ac power conditioners must be capable of accommodating widely varying input levels while maintaining operation at or near the maximum power point of the array. The array operating characteristics and extreme output limits necessary for the systematic design of array load interfaces under a wide variety of climatic conditions are studied. A number of interface parameters are examined, including optimum operating voltage, voltage energy, maximum power and current limits, and maximum open circuit voltage. The effect of array degradation and I-V curve fill factor or the array power conditioner interface is also discussed. Results are presented as normalized ratios of power conditioner parameters to array parameters, making the results universally applicable to a wide variety of system sizes, sites, and operating modes.

  9. Stirling Air Conditioner for Compact Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Infinia is developing a compact air conditioner that uses an unconventional high efficient Stirling cycle system (vs. conventional vapor compression systems) to produce cool air that is energy efficient and does not rely on polluting refrigerants. The Stirling cycle system is a type of air conditioning system that uses a motor with a piston to remove heat to the outside atmosphere using a gas refrigerant. To date, Stirling systems have been expensive and have not had the right kind of heat exchanger to help cool air efficiently. Infinia is using chip cooling technology from the computer industry to make improvements to the heat exchanger and improve system performance. Infinia’s air conditioner uses helium gas as refrigerant, an environmentally benign gas that does not react with other chemicals and does not burn. Infinia’s improvements to the Stirling cycle system will enable the cost-effective mass production of high-efficiency air conditioners that use no polluting refrigerants.

  10. Efficacy of ivermectin and albendazole alone and in combination for treatment of soil-transmitted helminths in pregnancy and adverse events: a randomized open label controlled intervention trial in Masindi district, western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Kabatereine, Narcis; Olsen, Annette; Magnussen, Pascal

    2008-12-01

    A randomized open-label trial, including 834 pregnant women, examined efficacy and recorded adverse events of ivermectin (ivc) and albendazole (alb) alone and combined (comb) on soil-transmitted helminth infections (STHs) in the second trimester of pregnancy. One abortion occurred in the alb group and 10 stillbirths (1, 5, 3, and 1) in the ivc, alb, comb, and the reference group (ref) with no STHs, respectively. Two babies were born with congenital abnormalities (1 [ivc] and 1 [ref]). The prevalence of anemia at first antenatal care (ANC) visit was 20.6% (23.7% [ivc], 21.1% [alb], 22.2% [comb], and 16.1% [ref]). Anemia was reduced to 8.5% at 36 weeks of gestation with 10.9% (ivc), 11.5% (alb), 7.7% (comb), and 6.9% (ref). Hookworm cure rates were 29.4% (ivc), 95.5% (alb), and 92.6% (comb). No severe adverse events were reported by the women after the administration of ivc, alb, or comb during the second trimester of pregnancy, but long-term pharmacovigillance is needed to assess safety of ivc, alb, or comb in pregnancy. PMID:19052293

  11. 21 CFR 882.1845 - Physiological signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physiological signal conditioner. 882.1845 Section... signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A physiological signal conditioner is a device such as an integrator or differentiator used to modify physiological signals for recording and processing....

  12. 21 CFR 882.1845 - Physiological signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Physiological signal conditioner. 882.1845 Section... signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A physiological signal conditioner is a device such as an integrator or differentiator used to modify physiological signals for recording and processing....

  13. 21 CFR 882.1845 - Physiological signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Physiological signal conditioner. 882.1845 Section... signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A physiological signal conditioner is a device such as an integrator or differentiator used to modify physiological signals for recording and processing....

  14. 21 CFR 882.1845 - Physiological signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Physiological signal conditioner. 882.1845 Section... signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A physiological signal conditioner is a device such as an integrator or differentiator used to modify physiological signals for recording and processing....

  15. 21 CFR 882.1845 - Physiological signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Physiological signal conditioner. 882.1845 Section... signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A physiological signal conditioner is a device such as an integrator or differentiator used to modify physiological signals for recording and processing....

  16. A field test of the effect of spiked ivermectin concentrations on the biodiversity of coprophagous dung insects in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Jochmann, Ralf; Lipkow, Erhard; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U

    2016-08-01

    Veterinary medical product residues can cause severe damage in the dung ecosystem. Depending on the manner of application and the time after treatment, the excreted concentration of a given pharmaceutical varies. The popular anthelmintic drug ivermectin can be applied to livestock in several different ways and is fecally excreted over a period of days to months after application. In a field experiment replicated in summer and autumn, the authors mixed 6 ivermectin concentrations plus a null control into fresh cow dung to assess the reaction of the dung insect community. Taxon richness of the insect dung fauna emerging from the dung, but not Hill diversity ((1) D) or the total number of individuals (abundance), decreased as ivermectin concentration increased. Corresponding declines in the number of emerging insects were found for most larger brachyceran flies and hymenopteran parasitoids, but not for most smaller nematoceran flies or beetles (except Hydrophilidae). Parallel pitfall traps recovered all major dung organism groups that emerged from the experimental dung, although at times in vastly different numbers. Ivermectin generally did not change the attractiveness of dung: differences in emergence therefore reflect differences in survival of coprophagous offspring of colonizing insects. Because sample size was limited to 6 replicates, the authors generally recommend more than 10 (seasonal) replicates and also testing higher concentrations than used in the present study as positive controls in future studies. Results accord with parallel experiments in which the substance was applied and passed through the cow's digestive system. In principle, therefore, the authors' experimental design is suitable for such higher-tier field tests of the response of the entire dung community to pharmaceutical residues, at least for ivermectin. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1947-1952. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26013817

  17. Microfilariae recurrence in Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers treated with repeated single doses of 100 micrograms/kg of ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Cartel, J L; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, L N; Chanteau, S; Roux, J F; Spiegel, A

    1993-01-01

    Forty-six Polynesian carriers of Wuchereria bancrofti were treated with 3 successive single doses of ivermectin, 100 micrograms/kg, given every 6 months. Immediate microfilaricidal activity of ivermectin was excellent in all carriers, since residual mean microfilaraemia levels, 2 d after each of the 3 treatments, were less than 1% of pretreatment levels. Before initial treatment, geometric mean microfilaraemia was 500 microfilaria (mf)/ml for the whole group (range 21-6398 mf/ml); 6 months after each successive treatment it was 197, 108 and 87 mg/ml, respectively, 39.4, 21.6 and 17.4% of the pre-initial treatment level. By considering the mean percentage recurrent level at 6 months after the 3rd treatment (36.8%) as a threshold, it was possible to classify the carriers into 2 groups: 17 in whom the percentage recurrent level was > 36.8% and who were considered as 'fast repopulating' individuals, and the remaining 29 who were considered as 'slow repopulating' individuals. In the latter group, 6 months after each of the 3 treatments, the recurrent microfilaremia levels were 22.7%, 8.0% and 4.9% of the pre-initial treatment level, respectively, while they were 95.1%, > 100% and > 100% in the former. The constant recurrence of mf suggests that ivermectin, at a dosage of 100 micrograms/kg, had no effect on adult worms in 'fast repopulating' individuals, whereas the progressive lessening in recurrence of mf suggests some activity (sterilizing or killing) of ivermectin on W. bancrofti macrofilariae in 'slow repopulating' individuals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8249089

  18. [Experimental therapy in Chinese hamsters and rats infected with larval Echinococcus multilocularis by using mebendazole, albendazole and ivermectin with brief review of chemotherapy of human multilocular echinococcosis].

    PubMed

    Inaoka, T; Nakao, M; Ohnishi, K; Kutsumi, H

    1987-01-01

    The effects of the mebendazole, albendazole and ivermectin on secondary multilocular echinococcosis in Chinese hamsters infected with intraperitoneal inoculation of protoscolices and in rats infected with transportal inoculation of protoscolices were investigated. A reduction in weight of the hydatids greater than 95% was recorded in Chinese hamsters intraperitoneally injected with mebendazole suspension. Oral administration of mebendazole moderately inhibited the development of the hydatids. Albendazole was less effective than mebendazole. Ivermectin was ineffective. The treatment with mebendazole of larval E. multilocularis inhibited the growth of the hydatids but it could not completely kill the parasite tissues. The present status of chemotherapy of the human multilocular echinococcosis was briefly discussed. PMID:3546045

  19. Controlled evaluation of ivermectin in Shetland ponies.

    PubMed

    Craig, T M; Kunde, J M

    1981-08-01

    Ivermectin was injected IM into 12 yearling Shetland ponies. The following reactions in percentages of parasites recovered from ponies given 200 microgram/kg or 300 microgram/kg, as compared with the parasitic population in those given the vehicle at 1 week after injection, were as follows: Otobius megnini nymphs--no reduction; Gasterophilus intestinalis--100% and 99.9%; G nasalis--100% and 99.9%; Parascaris equorum adults--100% and 96%; Strongylus vulgaris adults--100% and 100%; S edentatus adults--100% and 100%; cyathostome adults of the genera Gyalocephalus, Cylicocyclus, Cyathostomum, Cylicostephanus, and Poteriostomum--99.9% and 100%; 4th-stage larvae--97.3% and 96.8%; Oesophagodontus robustus adults--100% and 100%; Triodontophorus spp--adults--100% and 100%, 4th-stage larvae--95.1% and 100%; and Oxyuris equi adult males--66.7% and 77.7%, adult females--96.5% and 100%, and 4th-stage larvae--94.1% and 96.9%. Other parasites encountered were too few in number to estimate drug efficacy. PMID:7027848

  20. Susceptibility of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to ivermectin (200, 500 and 630 μg/kg) in field studies in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Felippelli, Gustavo; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício Pires; Carvalho, Rafael Silveira; Ruivo, Maycon Araújo; Colli, Marcos Henrique Alcantara; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro Massamitsu; da Costa, Alvimar José; De Oliveira, Gilson Pereira

    2015-01-30

    The present study aimed to determine the susceptibility of 17 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus populations, originating in the Southeast and Southern regions of Brazil, to different ivermectin concentrations (200, 500 and 630 μg/kg), administered through subcutaneous or topical (pour-on) routes. R. (B.) microplus populations from the states of Minas Gerais (seven populations), São Paulo (seven populations) and Paraná (three populations) were chosen for the tests. The selected cattle were allocated to treatment groups on day 0, and block formation was based on the arithmetic mean of female ticks (4.5-8.0 mm long) counted on three consecutive days (-3, -2 and -1). To evaluate the therapeutic and residual efficacies of these formulations, tick counts (females ranging from 4.5 to 8.0 mm long) were performed on days 3, 7 and 14 post-treatment, and continued on a weekly basis thereafter until the end of each experiment. The results obtained throughout this study, utilizing field efficacy studies, allowed us to conclude that the resistance of R. (B.) microplus against 200 and 500 μg/kg ivermectin is widely disseminated because all tick populations that had contact with these specific concentrations were diagnosed as resistant. However, it is possible to infer that R. (B.) microplus resistance against 630 μg/kg ivermectin was also widespread, diagnosed at six of ten analyzed properties. Resistance of these ectoparasites to 630 μg/kg ivermectin is most likely emerging in three other populations of R. (B.) microplus. Strategies of resistance management need to be quickly determined to keep the selection pressure at a minimum level in Brazil. PMID:25576441

  1. Comparison of moxidectin oral gel and ivermectin oral paste against a spectrum of internal parasites of ponies with special attention to encysted cyathostome larvae.

    PubMed

    Monahan, C M; Chapman, M R; Taylor, H W; French, D D; Klei, T R

    1996-06-01

    Two dosages of moxidectin oral gel were evaluated and compared to a therapeutic dose of ivermectin oral paste in the control of a spectrum of gastrointestinal parasites of ponies naturally infected in southern Louisiana or Mississippi. Thirty-two mixed-breed ponies ranging in age from one to 21 years were used in this controlled test. Eight weeks prior to the experiment, ponies grazing on contaminated pasture were moved to a paddock and fed a pelleted ration, thus reducing or eliminating the potential for additional infection and ensuring the existence of a population of encysted larvae. Ponies were then allocated to replicates of four animals based on values of fecal strongyle egg counts and percent strongyle larvae composition determined from Baermann sedimentations of fecal cultures. Members of replicates were allocated to one of four treatment groups: moxidectin oral gel administered at 300 micrograms kg-1 body weight, moxidectin oral gel at 400 micrograms kg-1, the oral gel vehicle as negative control, and ivermectin oral paste at 200 micrograms kg-1. Prior to treatment, ponies were confined in pairs to covered concrete runs by treatment group. Two weeks following treatment, necropsy examinations of all animals were performed. Parasites were recovered from the lumen of the stomach, the intestinal tract, the cranial mesenteric artery and its major branches, the peritoneal body wall and from pepsin digests of mucosal scrapings taken from the cecum and large colon. Encysted cyathostome larval burdens were also compared using mural transillumination of segments of the large colon for visualization of the encysted forms. Control ponies were not uniformly infected with the spectrum of parasites; however, moxidectin, at either dosage, compared favorably with ivermectin in the control of the adults of Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus, Triodontophorus spp., Oesophagodontus robustus, Trichostrongylus axei, Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Habronema muscae, as

  2. 21 CFR 522.1193 - Ivermectin and clorsulon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... female dairy cattle of breeding age. Do not use in other animal species because severe adverse reactions... chapter. (e) Conditions of use in cattle—(1) Amount. Administer 1 mL (10 mg ivermectin and 100 mg...) Limitations. For subcutaneous use only. Not for intravenous or intramuscular use. Do not treat cattle...

  3. 21 CFR 522.1193 - Ivermectin and clorsulon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... female dairy cattle of breeding age. Do not use in other animal species because severe adverse reactions... chapter. (e) Conditions of use in cattle—(1) Amount. Administer 1 mL (10 mg ivermectin and 100 mg...) Limitations. For subcutaneous use only. Not for intravenous or intramuscular use. Do not treat cattle...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1193 - Ivermectin tablets and chewables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ivermectin tablets and chewables. 520.1193 Section... tablets and chewables. (a) Specifications. (1) Each tablet or chewable contains 68, 136, or 272 micrograms... tablets or chewables described in paragraph (a)(1) as in paragraph (d)(1) and chewables described...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1193 - Ivermectin tablets and chewables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ivermectin tablets and chewables. 520.1193 Section... tablets and chewables. (a) Specifications. (1) Each tablet or chewable contains 68, 136, or 272 micrograms... tablets or chewables described in paragraph (a)(1) as in paragraph (d)(1) and chewables described...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1193 - Ivermectin tablets and chewables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ivermectin tablets and chewables. 520.1193 Section... tablets and chewables. (a) Specifications. (1) Each tablet or chewable contains 68, 136, or 272 micrograms... tablets or chewables described in paragraph (a)(1) as in paragraph (d)(1) and chewables described...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1193 - Ivermectin tablets and chewables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ivermectin tablets and chewables. 520.1193 Section... tablets and chewables. (a) Specifications. (1) Each tablet or chewable contains 68, 136, or 272 micrograms... tablets or chewables described in paragraph (a)(1) as in paragraph (d)(1) and chewables described...

  8. Follow-up of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections in children living in a community treated with ivermectin at 3-monthly intervals.

    PubMed

    Ranque, S; Chippaux, J P; Garcia, A; Boussinesq, M

    2001-06-01

    Ivermectin treatment was administered every 3 months over a 1-year period (April 1993-April 1994) to the whole eligible population of a village in South Cameroon where both Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were hyper-endemic. A parasitological stool examination was performed before each treatment. Thirty children, aged 5-15 years, were not only found egg-positive for A. lumbricoides and/or T. trichiura before the first treatment but were also each treated and examined in each treatment round. Among these children, the intensity of infection with A. lumbricoides decreased significantly following the first treatment but thereafter remained steady. In contrast, the repeated ivermectin treatments had no significant impact on the intensity of the T. trichiura infections or on the prevalence of infection with T. trichiura or A. lumbricoides among the 30 children. PMID:11454248

  9. Toxicity and potential utility of ivermectin and moxidectin as xenointoxicants against the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.

    PubMed

    Sheele, Johnathan M; Ridge, Gale E

    2016-08-01

    The recent resurgence of the common bed bug Cimex lectularius L. throughout western industrialized nations has been facilitated in part by the insect becoming pesticide-resistant. Novel control strategies, including xenointoxication, should be considered to combat C. lectularius. Ivermectin, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment for several human parasites, and the antiparasitic drug moxidectin, currently being explored in human clinical trials, were evaluated for efficacy against C. lectularius. Results showed that C. lectularius fed on ivermectin or moxidectin blood concentrations of >25 ng/mL and had significantly higher mortality (50-100 %) than controls (0-6 %) by day 13. Bed bugs that survived a blood meal containing >2.5 ng/mL of ivermectin suffered long-term sequelae including reduced fecundity, feeding difficulty, and incomplete ecdysis. Some insects that survived a blood meal containing ≤75 ng/mL moxidectin were able to feed and reproduce. PMID:27090120

  10. Efficacy of ivermectin (22,23-dihydroavermectin B1) against gastrointestinal parasites in ponies.

    PubMed

    Klei, T R; Torbert, B J

    1980-11-01

    The controlled test method was used to evaluate the antiparasitic efficacy of IM inoculated 22,23-dihydroavermectin B1 (ivermectin) against gastrointestinal parasites of horses (ponies). Parasite infections were naturally acquired in southern Louisiana. Dose levels of the drug tested were 0.2 mg/kg, 0.3 mg/kg, and 0.5 mg/kg. Ivermectin at all dose levels tested had an efficacy greater than 97% (P less than 0.05) against Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae, Trichostrongylus axei, Oxyuris equi larvae, Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, 15 species of small strongyles, and small strongyle larvae. Ponies were less uniformly infected with Habronema sp larvae, G nasalis larvae, Parascaris equorum, O equi adults, Anoplocephala perfoliata, S equinus, and 11 small strongyle species, and statistical analysis was not possible to do. However, observations indicate that the drug was also highly effective against these species. There were no gross or clinical reactions observed in treated animals. Dissections of the injection sites revealed spindle-shaped lesions, 3 to 5 cm long, in a few ponies in all treatment groups, including those given the placebo injection. PMID:6894221

  11. On-line restricted access molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction of ivermectin in meat samples followed by HPLC-UV analysis.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Marcela Marília; Vieira, André Coutinho; Martins, Isarita; Boralli, Vanessa Bergamin; Borges, Keyller Bastos; Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa

    2016-04-15

    A new restricted access molecularly imprinted polymer coated with bovine serum albumin (RAMIP-BSA) was synthesized, characterized and used for direct analysis of ivermectin from bovine meat samples, in a two-dimensional liquid chromatography system with UV detection. Ivermectin, 4-vynilpiridine and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were employed as template, functional monomer and cross-linker, respectively. A BSA layer was cross-linked around the polymer, resulting in a biocompatible chemical barrier able to eliminate about 100% of protein from the samples. Ivermectin was extracted from the minced meat samples through a solvent extraction using methanol:water (70:30, v:v), and the extracts were directly injected into the two-dimensional liquid chromatography system, without any other treatment. Samples, fortified with ivermectin from 50 to 500 μg kg(-1), were used to build the analytical calibration curve (r=0.996). The limit of quantification was 50 μg kg(-1). Precision and accuracy presented variation coefficients, as well as relative errors lower than 17.0% and within -18.5% and 22.0%, respectively. PMID:26616918

  12. Cell module and fuel conditioner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The test results of and post test analysis of Stack 559 are reported. The design features and construction status of Stacks 560, 561, 562 and 563 are described. The measurements of cell materials compressibility are rationalized and summarized and an explanation of their uses is given. Preliminary results of a manifold material/coating survey are given. The results of shift converter catalyst performance tests and reforming catalyst aging tests are reported. State points for full load and part load operation of the fuel conditioning subsystem tabulated. Work on the data base for the fuel conditioner ancillary subsystems is summarized.

  13. 10 CFR 429.15 - Room air conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Room air conditioners. 429.15 Section 429.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.15 Room air conditioners. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1)...

  14. 10 CFR 429.15 - Room air conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Room air conditioners. 429.15 Section 429.15 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.15 Room air conditioners. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to room air...

  15. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Room Air Conditioners E Appendix E to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Appendix E to Part 305—Room Air Conditioners Range Information Manufacturer's rated cooling capacity in...

  16. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Room Air Conditioners E Appendix E to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Appendix E to Part 305—Room Air Conditioners Range Information Manufacturer's rated cooling capacity in...

  17. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  18. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  19. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  20. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  1. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  2. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  3. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  4. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  5. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  6. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  7. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Room Air Conditioners E Appendix E to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Appendix E to Part 305—Room Air Conditioners Range Information Manufacturer's rated cooling capacity in...

  8. The genetics of ivermectin resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Dent, J A; Smith, M M; Vassilatis, D K; Avery, L

    2000-03-14

    The ability of organisms to evolve resistance threatens the effectiveness of every antibiotic drug. We show that in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, simultaneous mutation of three genes, avr-14, avr-15, and glc-1, encoding glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) alpha-type subunits confers high-level resistance to the antiparasitic drug ivermectin. In contrast, mutating any two channel genes confers modest or no resistance. We propose a model in which ivermectin sensitivity in C. elegans is mediated by genes affecting parallel genetic pathways defined by the family of GluCl genes. The sensitivity of these pathways is further modulated by unc-7, unc-9, and the Dyf (dye filling defective) genes, which alter the structure of the nervous system. Our results suggest that the evolution of drug resistance can be slowed by targeting antibiotic drugs to several members of a multigene family. PMID:10716995

  9. Multilevel assessment of ivermectin effects using different zebrafish life stages.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rhaul; Grisolia, Cesar K; Monteiro, Marta S; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Domingues, Inês

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have shown high toxicity of the veterinary pharmaceutical ivermectin (a semisynthetic avermectin) for aquatic invertebrates however, few data is found for fish species. The present study evaluated the toxicity of ivermectin, to embryos, juveniles, and adults of zebrafish at different levels of biological organization including developmental, behavioural and biochemical. Toxicity tests were performed based on OECD protocols and mortality and behavioural changes were assed for all stages. Biochemical responses were assessed in adults and embryos and included cholinesterases (ChEs), catalase (CAT) (only in embryos), glutathione-S-Transferase (GST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and vitellogenin (VTG) like proteins (only in embryos). Genotoxicity was evaluated in adults. Results showed a higher sensitivity of juvenile and adults of zebrafish (96h-LC10 values of 14.0 and 55.4μg/L, respectively). For embryos a 96h-LC10 of 147.1μg/L was calculated, moreover developmental anomalies and hatching inhibition were observed only at high concentrations (>400μg/L), whereas biochemical and behavioural responses occurred at lower concentrations (<60μg/L). Behavioural responses (lethargy) occurred in all life stages. Biochemical responses were observed including the inhibition of GST in adults and changes in ChE, CAT, LDH activities and VTG levels in embryos. Ivermectin did not show to be genotoxic for adult fish. The species sensitivity distribution analysis, based on fish and invertebrate species, indicated a Hazardous Concentration for 5% of the population (HC5) value of 0.057μg/L; suggesting high sensitivity of both groups to ivermectin and a high risk of this compound to aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27153811

  10. Evaluation of the dosage of ivermectin in falcons.

    PubMed

    Lierz, M

    2001-05-12

    Twelve groups of falcons, each containing three female gyrfalcon-peregrine falcon hybrids (Falco rusticolus x Falco peregrinus) were injected intramuscularly with a single dose of ivermectin ranging from 0.2 mg/kg to 11 mg/kg bodyweight, and a control group was injected with water. Doses of ivermectin between 0.2 and 5 mg/kg failed to produce clinical signs of illness in the birds. Four birds which received either 6, 7 or 8 mg/kg showed slight clinical signs, and all the birds receiving 9 to 11 mg/kg showed more or less severe clinical signs of anorexia, apathy and sedation. Slight changes in the mean plasma activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase (AP) were detected in the group dosed with 5 mg/kg, and higher dosages caused marked changes in these enzymes as well as in the mean plasma activity of lactate dehydrogenase. The mean activity of AP decreased, and the activities of the other enzymes increased. A dosage of 2 to 3 mg/kg ivermectin is recommended as a safe and effective antiparasitic drug for falcons and it has been used successfully to treat infestations of Serratospiculum species. PMID:11386446

  11. Molecular mechanisms of Cys-loop ion channel receptor modulation by ivermectin

    PubMed Central

    Lynagh, Timothy; Lynch, Joseph W.

    2012-01-01

    Ivermectin is an anthelmintic drug that works by inhibiting neuronal activity and muscular contractility in arthropods and nematodes. It works by activating glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluClRs) at nanomolar concentrations. These receptors, found exclusively in invertebrates, belong to the pentameric Cys-loop receptor family of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs). Higher (micromolar) concentrations of ivermectin also activate or modulate vertebrate Cys-loop receptors, including the excitatory nicotinic and the inhibitory GABA type-A and glycine receptors (GlyRs). An X-ray crystal structure of ivermectin complexed with the C. elegans α GluClR demonstrated that ivermectin binds to the transmembrane domain in a cleft at the interface of adjacent subunits. It also identified three hydrogen bonds thought to attach ivermectin to its site. Site-directed mutagenesis and voltage-clamp electrophysiology have also been employed to probe the binding site for ivermectin in α1 GlyRs. These have raised doubts as to whether the hydrogen bonds are essential for high ivermectin potency. Due to its lipophilic nature, it is likely that ivermectin accumulates in the membrane and binds reversibly (i.e., weakly) to its site. Several lines of evidence suggest that ivermectin opens the channel pore via a structural change distinct from that induced by the neurotransmitter agonist. Conformational changes occurring at locations distant from the pore can be probed using voltage-clamp fluorometry (VCF), a technique which involves quantitating agonist-induced fluorescence changes from environmentally sensitive fluorophores covalently attached to receptor domains of interest. This technique has demonstrated that ivermectin induces a global conformational change that propagates from the transmembrane domain to the neurotransmitter binding site, thus suggesting a mechanism by which ivermectin potentiates neurotransmitter-gated currents. Together, this information provides new insights into

  12. Acquired Tolerance to Ivermectin and Moxidectin after Drug Selection Pressure in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Ménez, Cécile; Alberich, Mélanie; Kansoh, Dalia; Blanchard, Alexandra; Lespine, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Ivermectin and moxidectin are the most widely administered anthelmintic macrocyclic lactones (MLs) to treat human and animal nematode infections. Their widespread and frequent use has led to a high level of resistance to these drugs. Although they have the same mode of action, differences in terms of selection for drug resistance have been reported. Our objective was to study and compare changes occurring upon ivermectin or moxidectin selection in the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans C. elegans worms were submitted to stepwise exposure to increasing doses of moxidectin. The sensitivity of moxidectin-selected worms to MLs was determined in a larval development assay and compared with those of wild-type and ivermectin-selected strains. Selection with either ivermectin or moxidectin led to acquired tolerance to ivermectin, moxidectin, and eprinomectin. Importantly, moxidectin was the most potent ML in both ivermectin- and moxidectin-selected strains. Interestingly, this order of potency was also observed in a resistant Haemonchus contortus isolate. In addition, ivermectin- and moxidectin-selected strains displayed constitutive overexpression of several genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and transport. Moreover, verapamil potentiated sensitivity to ivermectin and moxidectin, demonstrating that ABC transporters play a role in ML sensitivity in ML-selected C. elegans strains. Finally, both ivermectin- and moxidectin-selected strains displayed a dye-filling-defective phenotype. Overall, this work demonstrated that selection with ivermectin or moxidectin led to cross-resistance to several MLs in nematodes and that the induction of detoxification systems and defects in the integrity of amphidial neurons are two mechanisms that appear to affect the responsiveness of worms to both ivermectin and moxidectin. PMID:27246778

  13. Failure of Ivermectin per Rectum to Achieve Clinically Meaningful Serum Levels in Two Cases of Strongyloides Hyperinfection

    PubMed Central

    Bogoch, Isaac I.; Khan, Kamran; Abrams, Howard; Nott, Caroline; Leung, Elizabeth; Fleckenstein, Lawrence; Keystone, Jay S.

    2015-01-01

    Two cases of Strongyloides hyperinfection are presented. Ivermectin was initially administered orally and per rectum pending the availability of subcutaneous (SC) preparations. In neither case did rectal suppositories of ivermectin achieve clinically meaningful serum values. Clinicians should use SC preparations of ivermectin as early as possible in Strongyloides hyperinfection and dissemination. PMID:25918215

  14. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment cost and pay back periods were calculated.

  15. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment costmore » and pay back periods were calculated.« less

  16. An automobile air conditioner design model

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, D M; Mei, V C; Chen, F C

    1992-12-01

    A computer program has been developed to predict the steady-state performance of vapor compression automobile air conditioners and heat pumps. The code is based on the residential heat pump model developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Most calculations are based on fundamental physical principles, in conjunction with generalized correlations available in the research literature. Automobile air conditioning components that can be specified as input to the program include open and hermetic compressors; finned tube condensers; finned tube and plate-fin style evaporators; thermostatic expansion valves (TXV), capillary tube, and short tube expansion devices; refrigerant mass; and evaporator pressure regulator and all interconnecting tubing. Pressure drop, heat transfer rates, and latent capacity ratio for the new plate-fin evaporator submodel are shown to agree well with laboratory data. The program can be used with a variety of refrigerants, including R-134a.

  17. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, andmore » R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.« less

  18. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.

  19. Formulation of humic-based soil conditioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amanova, M. A.; Mamytova, G. A.; Mamytova, B. A.; Kydralieva, K. A.; Jorobekova, Sh. J.

    2009-04-01

    The goal of the study is to prepare soil conditioners (SC) able to carry out the following functions: (i) the chemical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the adjustment of pH, (ii) the balancing of inorganic nutrients, (iii) the physical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the improvement of water permeability, air permeability and water retention properties, and (iv) improvement of the ecological system concerning of useful microorganisms activity in the soil. The SC was made of a mixture of inorganic ingredients, a chemical composition and physical and chemical properties of which promoted improvement of physical characteristic of soil and enrichment by its mineral nutritious elements. In addition to aforesaid ingredients, this soil conditioner contains agronomical-valued groups of microorganisms having the function promoting the growth of the crop. As organic component of SC humic acids (HA) was used. HA serve many major functions that result in better soil and plant health. In soil, HA can increase microbial and mycorrhizal activity while enhancing nutrient uptake by plant roots. HA work as a catalyst by stimulating root and plant growth, it may enhance enzymatic activity that in turn accelerates cell division which can lead to increased yields. HA can help to increase crop yields, seed germination, and much more. In short, humic acids helps keep healthy plants health. The first stage goal was to evaluate mineral and organic ingredients for formulation of SC. Soil conditioners assessed included ash and slag. The use of slags has been largelly used in agriculture as a source of lime and phosphoric acid. The silicic acid of slags reduces Al-acitivity thus, promoting a better assimilation of P-fertilizer by plants. Additionally, silicic acid is also known to improve soil moisture capacity, thus enhancing soil water availability to plants. Physico-chemical characteristics of ash and slag were determined, as a total - about 20 samples. Results include

  20. Experimental study of pharmacokinetics of external, whole-body bathing application of ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Atsushi; Komoda, Masayo; Akagi, Keita; Yuzawa, Kaoru; Yoshimasu, Takashi; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Hirota, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    As a novel method improving the safety of conventional oral ivermectin (IVM) for scabies treatment, we conceived an idea called the "whole-body bathing method". In this method, the patients would bathe themselves in a bathing fluid containing IVM at an effective concentration. To evaluate the feasibility of the method, we investigated the IVM concentration in the skin and plasma after bathing rats in a fluid containing 100 ng/mL of IVM. After the bathing, the concentration of IVM in the skin was more than 400 ng/g wet weight and was maintained until 8 h after the bathing. The concentration was clearly higher than that in patients taking IVM p.o. as previously reported; IVM was not detected in plasma in the present study. Thus, the method would be a preferable drug delivery system for the skin application of IVM compared with p.o. administration. PMID:25492083

  1. Ivermectin use and resulting milk residues on 4 Canadian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Chicoine, Alan L; Durden, David A; MacNaughton, George; Dowling, Patricia M

    2007-08-01

    The Canadian gFARAD was contacted for milk withdrawal recommendations after multiple cases of topical ivermectin use in lactating dairy cows. The following 4 cases included pertinent milk residue information and illustrate the challenges faced by producers, veterinarians, and regulatory authorities when ivermectin use occurs in dairy cows. PMID:17824327

  2. 21 CFR 520.1196 - Ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. 520.1196 Section 520.1196 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains either...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1196 - Ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. 520.1196 Section 520.1196 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains either...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1196 - Ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. 520.1196 Section 520.1196 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains either...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1196 - Ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. 520.1196 Section 520.1196 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains either...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1196 - Ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. 520.1196 Section 520.1196 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains either...

  7. Efficacy and security of ivermectin given orally to rats naturally infected with Syphacia spp., Giardia spp. and Hymenolepis nana.

    PubMed

    Foletto, V R S; Vanz, F; Gazarini, L; Stern, C A J; Tonussi, C R

    2015-07-01

    The results of this study show that the oral administration of ivermectin (48 mg/L) repeatedly for 72 h used in accordance with the present protocol is a safe and highly effective treatment for Giardia spp. and Hymenolepis nana in laboratory rat colonies. The drug can be easily and safely administered using drinking water. This simple regimen should control pinworm infection (Syphacia muris), a problem that can be endemic in laboratory colonies. Experiments using healthy animals are likely to generate more consistent results, thereby requiring a reduced number of animals per group. PMID:25480657

  8. Impact of an Ivermectin Mass Drug Administration on Scabies Prevalence in a Remote Australian Aboriginal Community

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Thérèse M.; Speare, Richard; Cheng, Allen C.; McCarthy, James; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Holt, Deborah C.; Currie, Bart J.; Page, Wendy; Shield, Jennifer; Gundjirryirr, Roslyn; Bundhala, Leanne; Mulholland, Eddie; Chatfield, Mark; Andrews, Ross M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Scabies is endemic in many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, with 69% of infants infected in the first year of life. We report the outcomes against scabies of two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs) delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community. Methods Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured scabies prevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and 18 determined disease acquisition and treatment failures. Scabies infestations were diagnosed clinically with additional laboratory investigations for crusted scabies. Non-pregnant participants weighing ≥15 kg were administered a single 200 μg/kg ivermectin dose, repeated after 2–3 weeks if scabies was diagnosed, others followed a standard alternative algorithm. Principal Findings We saw >1000 participants at each population census. Scabies prevalence fell from 4% at baseline to 1% at month 6. Prevalence rose to 9% at month 12 amongst the baseline cohort in association with an identified exposure to a presumptive crusted scabies case with a higher prevalence of 14% amongst new entries to the cohort. At month 18, scabies prevalence fell to 2%. Scabies acquisitions six months after each MDA were 1% and 2% whilst treatment failures were 6% and 5% respectively. Conclusion Scabies prevalence reduced in the six months after each MDA with a low risk of acquisition (1–2%). However, in a setting where living conditions are conducive to high scabies transmissibility, exposure to presumptive crusted scabies and population mobility, a sustained reduction in prevalence was not achieved. Clinical Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Register (ACTRN—12609000654257). PMID:26516764

  9. Efficacy of ivermectin against mange and gastrointestinal nematodes of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Gill, B S; Singh, J; Gill, B S; Singh, A; Khehra, S S; Rai, A; Hussain, O

    1989-05-01

    The incidence of mange in dairy buffalo in India has increased significantly in recent years. The authors record an outbreak of mange affecting a dairy herd stocking about 30,000 buffalo and 1000 cows. The mange mites were either Sarcoptes scabiei or Psoroptes ovis, or a mixed infestation of both. The morbidity rate was 5-30% varying from group to group, with 100% in a severely affected group. Signs noticed were progressive dermatitis, alopecia, keratinization, skin thickened and wrinkled, intense itching and marked loss of condition often ending in death. Great losses of young animals from mange and gastrointestinal nematodes are very common in dairy herds in India. In view of their economic importance, the activity of ivermectin against naturally occurring mange and parasitic infections of adult buffalo and buffalo calves was determined. Ivermectin was administered by subcutaneous injection (IVOMEC 1% w/v - MSD AGVET) at a dose of 200 mcg kg-1 body weight. The efficacy was ascertained from the disappearance of mites from skin scrapings and the reduction in numbers of worm eggs in the faeces. The results of the treatment were dramatic: the mites disappeared within 2 weeks of the drug being administered in the majority of animals, with marked improvement in skin lesions. Four buffalo which had their entire body surface affected with mange needed a second dose on Day 28 for complete recovery. The effect on the nematodes was equally spectacular, with infections of Neoascaris vitulorum, Trichostrongylidae, Oesophagostomum spp. and Bunostomum being eliminated within 1 week of treatment. PMID:2741301

  10. Ivermectin binding sites in human and invertebrate Cys-loop receptors.

    PubMed

    Lynagh, Timothy; Lynch, Joseph W

    2012-08-01

    Ivermectin is a gold standard antiparasitic drug that has been used successfully to treat billions of humans, livestock and pets. Until recently, the binding site on its Cys-loop receptor target had been a mystery. Recent protein crystal structures, site-directed mutagenesis data and molecular modelling now explain how ivermectin binds to these receptors and reveal why it is selective for invertebrate members of the Cys-loop receptor family. Combining this with emerging genomic information, we are now in a position to predict species sensitivity to ivermectin and better understand the molecular basis of ivermectin resistance. An understanding of the molecular structure of the ivermectin binding site, which is formed at the interface of two adjacent subunits in the transmembrane domain of the receptor, should also aid the development of new lead compounds both as anthelmintics and as therapies for a wide variety of human neurological disorders. PMID:22677714

  11. Efficacy of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) pellets against multi resistant Haemonchus contortus and interaction with oral ivermectin: Implications for on-farm control.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Elodie; Simon, Margaux; Quijada, Jessica; Schelcher, François; Sutra, Jean-François; Lespine, Anne; Hoste, Hervé

    2016-08-30

    The worldwide spread of resistance to anthelmintic (AH) drugs in gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) imposes to explore alternative solutions. Amongst those, the possible use of tannin-containing nutraceuticals appears as a relevant option to replace (or decrease the frequency of) chemical-based treatments. Our objectives were to test the AH efficacy of sainfoin pellets against a multiresistant strain of Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected lambs and to examine possible interaction between ivermectin (IVM) and condensed tannins (CT)-rich ressource. In vivo study was performed with twenty-four lambs were inoculated (Day 0) with multiresistant H. contortus infective larvae. On D21 Post-Infection, the lambs were assigned to two dietary treatments (sainfoin vs lucerne control pellets). On D39, half of the animals per group received 0.25ml/kg of an oral ivermectin treatment. On D47, animals were slaughtered to count worms. The consumption of sainfoin was associated with higher packed cell volume (PCV) values (P<0.05) and reduced faecal egg counts (FECs) (P<0.05). For the experimental feeding period, FECs were overall reduced by 50% in the sainfoin group. The diet did not have significant effect on the worm number but sainfoin significantly reduced female fertility. Decrease in plasma IVM concentrations was observed in the sainfoin-fed animals and was associated with a decrease of IVM efficiency when compared with the control group. Incubating tannin in vitro with ivermectin and rumen fluid showed a blocking of ivermectin by the tannins. This suggests that tannins lower the IVM intestinal absorption compromising thereby drug plasma bioavailability and efficacy. Tannin-containing nutraceuticals alter the biology of multiresistant nematodes, thus representing an option for their sustainable control. In vivo and in vitro interactions between nutraceuticals and chemicals impose caution when both tannin-rich diet and drug-based treatments are combined. Further

  12. Modelling the impact of ivermectin on River Blindness and its burden of morbidity and mortality in African Savannah: EpiOncho projections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has refocused its goals on the elimination of infection where possible, seemingly achievable by 15–17 years of annual mass distribution of ivermectin in some African foci. Previously, APOC had focused on the elimination of onchocerciasis as a public health problem. Timeframes have been set by the World Health Organization, the London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases and the World Bank to achieve these goals by 2020–2025. Methods A novel mathematical model of the dynamics of onchocercal disease is presented which links documented associations between Onchocerca volvulus infection and the prevalence and incidence of morbidity and mortality to model outputs from our host age- and sex-structured onchocerciasis transmission framework (EpiOncho). The model is calibrated for African savannah settings, and used to assess the impact of long-term annual mass administration of ivermectin on infection and ocular and skin disease and to explore how this depends on epidemiological and programmatic variables. Results Current onchocerciasis disease projections, which do not account for excess mortality of sighted individuals with heavy microfilarial loads, underestimate disease burden. Long-term annual ivermectin treatment is highly effective at reducing both the morbidity and mortality associated with onchocerciasis, and this result is not greatly influenced by treatment coverage and compliance. By contrast, impact on microfilarial prevalence and intensity is highly dependent on baseline endemicity, treatment coverage and systematic non-compliance. Conclusions The goals of eliminating morbidity and infection with ivermectin alone are distinctly influenced by epidemiological and programmatic factors. Whilst the former goal is most certainly achievable, reaching the latter will strongly depend on initial endemicity (the higher the endemicity, the greater the magnitude of inter-treatment transmission

  13. Lemongrass-Incorporated Tissue Conditioner Against Candida albicans Culture

    PubMed Central

    Amornvit, Pokpong; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tissue conditioner is applied popularly with dental prosthesis during wound healing process but it becomes a reservoir of oral microbiota, especially Candida species after long-term usage. Several antifungal drugs have been mixed with this material to control fungal level. In this study, lemongrass essential oil was added into COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner before being determined for anti-Candida efficacy. Materials and Methods: Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil was primarily determined for antifungal activity against C. albicans American type culture collection (ATCC) 10231 and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) value by agar disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods, respectively. COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner was prepared as recommended by the manufacturer after a fixed volume of the oil at its MIC or higher concentrations were mixed thoroughly in its liquid part. Antifungal efficacy of the tissue conditioner with/without herb was finally analyzed. Results: Lemongrass essential oil displayed potent antifungal activity against C. albicans ATCC 10231and its MIC value was 0.06% (v/v). Dissimilarly, the tissue conditioner containing the oil at MIC level did not cease the growth of the tested fungus. Both reference and clinical isolates of C. albicans were completely inhibited after exposed to the tissue conditioner containing at least 0.25% (v/v) of the oil (approximately 4-time MIC). The tissue conditioner without herb or with nystatin was employed as negative or positive control, respectively. Conclusion: COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner supplemented with lemongrass essential oil obviously demonstrated another desirable property as in vitro anti-Candida efficacy to minimize the risk of getting Candidal infection. PMID:25177638

  14. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    A new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted 'behind-the-scenes' without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  15. 21 CFR 522.1192 - Ivermectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... treatment. (5) Reindeer—(i) Amount. 200 µg/kg of body weight by subcutaneous injection. (ii) Indications for... reindeer within 56 days of slaughter. (6) Ranch-raised foxes—(i) Amount. 200 µg/kg of body weight...

  16. 21 CFR 522.1192 - Ivermectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Do not slaughter within 56 days of last treatment. (5) Reindeer—(i) Amount. 200 µg/kg of body weight... (Oedemagena tarandi). (iii) Limitations. Do not treat reindeer within 56 days of slaughter. (6)...

  17. 21 CFR 522.1192 - Ivermectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Do not slaughter within 56 days of last treatment. (5) Reindeer—(i) Amount. 200 µg/kg of body weight... (Oedemagena tarandi). (iii) Limitations. Do not treat reindeer within 56 days of slaughter. (6)...

  18. 21 CFR 522.1192 - Ivermectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Limitations. Do not slaughter within 56 days of last treatment. (5) Reindeer—(i) Amount. 200 µg/kg of body... (Oedemagena tarandi). (iii) Limitations. Do not treat reindeer within 56 days of slaughter. (6)...

  19. 21 CFR 522.1192 - Ivermectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Do not slaughter within 56 days of last treatment. (5) Reindeer—(i) Amount. 200 µg/kg of body weight... (Oedemagena tarandi). (iii) Limitations. Do not treat reindeer within 56 days of slaughter. (6)...

  20. The advent of ivermectin: people, partnerships, and principles.

    PubMed

    Crump, Andy

    2014-09-01

    The 2014 Gairdner Global Health Award has been given for the discovery of the microorganism and industry partnership that resulted in the appearance of ivermectin, possibly the world's most successful human health tool. The chemist responsible for the discovery, Satoshi Ōmura, also found many other microbial metabolites which have been the origin of novel, impactful drugs. The award emphasizes that multidisciplinary and equitable partnerships, often international in scope, are the key to advances in virtually all branches of science in the modern era. PMID:25168585

  1. Efficacy of ivermectin (Ivomec) against intestinal capulariosis in falcons.

    PubMed

    Tarello, W

    2008-06-01

    52 captive falcons out of 3,988 (1.3 %) raptors microscopically examined for intestinal parasites in the Middle East proved infested with hairworms (capillariid parasites). 26 of these (50 %) showed concurrent parasitoses. In the group of 26 falcons diagnosed with capillariosis as sole infestation (50 %) compatible clinical signs such as anorexia, weight loss, weakness, dyspnoea, regurgitation of food and blood, diarrhoea and dark tarry faeces, were recorded. These birds were treated intramuscularly with ivermectin at doses of 2 mg/kg. In fecal samples examined 10-15 days later, the eggs of capillariid parasites had disappeared, in association with complete clinical recovery. PMID:18642511

  2. B and F Signal Conditioner Checkout Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magleby, Alyssa; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    ATK Thiokol Propulsion, Test Services uses B&F Signal Conditioning units to provide excitation power and shunt calibration information to the data recording systems. Gage measurements such as force, temperature, pressure, strain, etc. are recorded using this equipment. Approximately 2500 reusable instrumentation B&F Signal Conditioning units were purchased over an interval from 1978 to 1988 at a cost of around $1000 each. Through use and over time, the relay contacts on the signal conditioning mode cards have become corroded, resulting in excessive contact resistance. This causes inaccurate and inconsistent calibration data and could jeopardize the test results. These signal conditioning cards are needed for product testing for an estimated five more years, therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to isolate the malfunctioning units for repair. The current screening method requires Test Area technicians to check cards manually, however the connections and measurements required for this process are inefficient and time consuming. To resolve this problem, funding was approved to design and build two B&F Signal Conditioner Checkout Units. Each unit will allow technicians to test relay contact resistance on signal conditioning mode cards before they are installed for data collection procedures. This tool will allow Test Area to resolve calibration accuracy problems and extend the life of the data acquisition equipment, as well as save troubleshooting time for the technicians.

  3. Embedding quantum into classical: contextualization vs conditionalization.

    PubMed

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N; Kujala, Janne V

    2014-01-01

    We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings) into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is "automatically" labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon). Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints). In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions. PMID:24681665

  4. Embedding Quantum into Classical: Contextualization vs Conditionalization

    PubMed Central

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Kujala, Janne V.

    2014-01-01

    We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings) into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is “automatically” labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon). Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints). In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions. PMID:24681665

  5. Effectiveness of Ivermectin and Albendazole against Haemonchus contortus in Sheep in West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Puspitasari, Silvia; Farajallah, Achmad; Sulistiawati, Erni; Muladno

    2016-02-01

    Administering a half dose of an anthelmintic is a simple method for detecting resistance in parasites infesting small ruminants. When a single anthelmintic fails in native sheep from Indonesia, a combination of anthelmintics from different chemical classes with different modes of action are administered as an alternative parasite-control strategy. This study compared the anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) and albendazole (ABZ) given either separately as a single dose or half dose or co-administered to sheep naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Twelve sheep from Bogor, West Java, Indonesia were divided into the following six treatment groups: half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, combined IVM + ABZ, and control. The treatment efficacy was determined using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) at day 0 (pre-treatment) and post-treatment at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. The efficacies of half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, and the combination treatment ranged from -1900% to 100%, 99% to 100%, -167% to 100%, -467% to 89%, and -200% to 100%, respectively. The FECRT for the half-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ showed that H. contortus is resistant to half-dose IVM and ABZ. Full-dose IVM was effective against H. contortus. The combined treatment was more effective against H. contortus than ABZ alone. PMID:27019686

  6. Effectiveness of Ivermectin and Albendazole against Haemonchus contortus in Sheep in West Java, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Puspitasari, Silvia; Farajallah, Achmad; Sulistiawati, Erni; Muladno

    2016-01-01

    Administering a half dose of an anthelmintic is a simple method for detecting resistance in parasites infesting small ruminants. When a single anthelmintic fails in native sheep from Indonesia, a combination of anthelmintics from different chemical classes with different modes of action are administered as an alternative parasite-control strategy. This study compared the anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) and albendazole (ABZ) given either separately as a single dose or half dose or co-administered to sheep naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Twelve sheep from Bogor, West Java, Indonesia were divided into the following six treatment groups: half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, combined IVM + ABZ, and control. The treatment efficacy was determined using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) at day 0 (pre-treatment) and post-treatment at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. The efficacies of half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, and the combination treatment ranged from −1900% to 100%, 99% to 100%, −167% to 100%, −467% to 89%, and −200% to 100%, respectively. The FECRT for the half-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ showed that H. contortus is resistant to half-dose IVM and ABZ. Full-dose IVM was effective against H. contortus. The combined treatment was more effective against H. contortus than ABZ alone. PMID:27019686

  7. Impact of annual dosing with ivermectin on progression of onchocercal visual field loss.

    PubMed Central

    Cousens, S. N.; Cassels-Brown, A.; Murdoch, I.; Babalola, O. E.; Jatau, D.; Alexander, N. D.; Evans, J. E.; Danboyi, P.; Abiose, A.; Jones, B. R.

    1997-01-01

    Reported are the results of a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial of annual ivermectin dosing in 34 rural communities, Kaduna State, northern Nigeria, where guinea savanna onchocerciasis is mesoendemic. A total of 939 individuals underwent Friedmann field analysis at the first examination and saw at least 19 spots in at least one eye. Of these, 636 (68%) completed a subsequent Friedmann field analysis 2-3 years later. The adjusted incidence rate ratio for the ivermectin group versus the placebo group was 0.64 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42-0.98). There was some evidence that the impact of ivermectin was greatest among those who had received one dose of ivermectin. The majority of the deteriorations occurred in eyes that gave evidence of optic atrophy at the first examination. An analysis restricted to individuals with optic atrophy at baseline indicated a reduction of 45% in the incidence of visual field deterioration in the ivermectin group (95% CI: 8-67%). Previous findings have shown that ivermectin has an impact on the incidence of optic atrophy. Our results indicate, for the first time, that ivermectin has a substantial impact on the progression of visual field loss among those with pre-existing optic atrophy. PMID:9277010

  8. 21 CFR 520.1192 - Ivermectin paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... has not been established, do not use in female dairy cattle of breeding age. ...) Cattle—(i) Amount. 23 milligrams per 250 pounds of body weight. (ii) Indications for use. It is used in cattle for the treatment and control of gastrointestinal roundworms (adults and fourth-stage...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1192 - Ivermectin paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... has not been established, do not use in female dairy cattle of breeding age. ...) Cattle—(i) Amount. 23 milligrams per 250 pounds of body weight. (ii) Indications for use. It is used in cattle for the treatment and control of gastrointestinal roundworms (adults and fourth-stage...

  10. 21 CFR 558.300 - Ivermectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... section; and for control of swine dysentery associated with Treponema hyodysenteriae on premises with a history of swine dysentery, but where symptoms have not yet occurred, or following an approved treatment... (e)(4) of this section; and for control of swine dysentery on premises with a history of...

  11. 21 CFR 558.300 - Ivermectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... section; and for control of swine dysentery associated with Treponema hyodysenteriae on premises with a history of swine dysentery, but where symptoms have not yet occurred, or following an approved treatment... (e)(4) of this section; and for control of swine dysentery on premises with a history of...

  12. 21 CFR 558.300 - Ivermectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... section; and for control of swine dysentery associated with Treponema hyodysenteriae on premises with a history of swine dysentery, but where symptoms have not yet occurred, or following an approved treatment... (e)(4) of this section; and for control of swine dysentery on premises with a history of...

  13. 21 CFR 558.300 - Ivermectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... section; and for control of swine dysentery associated with Treponema hyodysenteriae on premises with a history of swine dysentery, but where symptoms have not yet occurred, or following an approved treatment... (e)(4) of this section; and for control of swine dysentery on premises with a history of...

  14. 21 CFR 558.300 - Ivermectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... section; and for control of swine dysentery associated with Treponema hyodysenteriae on premises with a history of swine dysentery, but where symptoms have not yet occurred, or following an approved treatment... (e)(4) of this section; and for control of swine dysentery on premises with a history of...

  15. Δ²,³-ivermectin ethyl secoester, a conjugated ivermectin derivative with leishmanicidal activity but without inhibitory effect on mammalian P-type ATPases.

    PubMed

    Noël, François; Pimenta, Paulo Henrique Cotrim; Dos Santos, Anderson Rouge; Tomaz, Erick Carlos Loureiro; Quintas, Luis Eduardo Menezes; Kaiser, Carlos Roland; Silva, Claudia Lucia Martins; Férézou, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Looking at a new putative target for the large spectrum antiparasitic drug ivermectin, we recently showed that avermectin-derived drugs are active against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis at low micromolar concentrations. However, we then reported that at this concentration range ivermectin is also able to inhibit three important mammalian P-type ATPases so that unacceptable adverse effects could occur if this drug were used at such high doses therapeutically. The present work aimed to test the activity of ten ivermectin analogs on these rat ATPases in search of a compound with similar leishmanicidal activity but with no effect on the mammalian (host) ATPases at effective concentrations. We synthesized three new ivermectin analogs for testing on rat SERCA (1a and 1b), Na+, K+-ATPase (α₁ and α₂/α₃ isoforms) and H+/K+-ATPase activity, along with seven analogs already characterized for their leishmanicidal activity. Our main finding is that one of the prepared derivatives, Δ²,³-ivermectin ethyl secoester 8, is equipotent to ivermectin 1 for the in vitro leishmanicidal effects but is nearly without effect on the rat ATPases, indicating that it could have a better therapeutic index in vivo and could serve as a candidate for hit-to-lead progression. This conclusion is further supported by the fact that compound 8 produced only 6% (vs 77% for ivermectin) inhibition of the human kidney enzyme at 5 μM, a concentration corresponding to the IC₅₀ for the activity against L. amazonensis amastigotes. PMID:21088826

  16. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-02-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each conditionalization scheme studied, we analyze how correlations between densities of different dark matter species affect the prediction, and explicate the effects of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that the effects of correlations can depend on the conditionalization scheme, and that in each case atypicality can significantly change the prediction. In doing so, we demonstrate the existence of overlaps in the predictions of different "frameworks" consisting of conjunctions of theory, conditionalization scheme and typicality assumption. This conclusion highlights the acute challenges involved in using such tests to identify a preferred framework that aims to describe our observational situation in a multiverse.

  17. Factors Associated with Ivermectin Non-Compliance and Its Potential Role in Sustaining Onchocerca volvulus Transmission in the West Region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Senyonjo, Laura; Oye, Joseph; Bakajika, Didier; Biholong, Benjamin; Tekle, Afework; Boakye, Daniel; Schmidt, Elena; Elhassan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background Community Directed Treatment with ivermectin is the cornerstone of current efforts to eliminate onchocerciasis. However recent studies suggest there are foci where long-term annual distribution of the drug alone has failed to ensure elimination thresholds are reached. It is important to achieve high levels of compliance in order to obtain elimination targets. An epidemiological and entomological evaluation conducted in the western region of Cameroon in 2011 revealed that two health districts remained with a high prevalence of infection, despite long-term distribution of ivermectin since 1996. This paper explores potential factors that may have contributed to the non-interruption of transmission, focusing on ivermectin treatment compliance and the importance of systematic non-compliance within the population. Methodology/Principal findings A mixed methods approach was used, including a population-based survey to assess treatment compliance and factors associated and qualitative assessments including focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with key programme stakeholders and drug distributors. Compliance was reported at 71.2% (95%CI: 61.7–79.2%;n = 853/1198). The key factors related to compliance in the most recent round related to either programmatic and delivery issues, primarily absenteeism at the time of the campaign or alternatively individual determinants. An individual’s experience of side effects in the past was strongly associated with non-compliance to ivermectin. Other factors included ethnicity, how long lived in the village and age. There was a high percentage of reported systematic non-compliance at 7.4% (95% CI: 4.3–12.3%; n = 86/1165), higher amongst females. This group may be important in facilitating the sustainment of on-going transmission. Conclusions/Significance Efforts to reduce the number of systematic non-compliers and non-compliance in certain groups may be important in ensuring the interruption of transmission in

  18. Inadvertent exposure of pregnant women to ivermectin and albendazole during mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Gyapong, John O; Chinbuah, Margaret A; Gyapong, Margaret

    2003-12-01

    The current strategy for the interruption of transmission of lymphatic filariasis in areas where the disease is co-endemic with onchocerciasis is repeated annual mass treatment of endemic communities with ivermectin and albendazole. These drugs are not recommended for use in pregnancy. Pregnant women are excluded on the basis of their last menses. This exclusion criterion based on recall carries some inherent errors, leading sometimes to inadvertent exposure of foetuses to these drugs. This study set out to document the extent of inadvertent exposure of pregnant women to albendazole and ivermectin and assess the relative risk of congenital malformations because of inadvertent treatment with these drugs in early pregnancy. The study was conducted in the Ahanta West District of Ghana. Local pregnancy revelation norms were studied, followed by a household survey of women aged 15-45 years to assess drug administration coverage. All infants born within 42 weeks of the mass drug treatment were examined to document any congenital malformations. Mothers who had lost any such infants responded to a verbal autopsy to ascertain the probable cause of death. Health facilities and local Traditional Birth Attendants were also visited to review maternity records. Of 2985 women of childbearing age (15-49 years) who were interviewed, 343 were pregnant during the mass drug administration. The sensitivity of the last menstrual period in detecting pregnancy and thus being excluded from treatment was 0.854 (293 of 343). Some pregnant women 50 of 343 (14.6%) had thus been inadvertently treated. This represents 1.7% of women in fertile age group (15-49 years). Of the six children found with some congenital malformations in these communities, one had been exposed to the drugs in-utero. The relative risk for congenital malformation after exposure was 1.05 (P=1.0). Two of nine reported spontaneous abortions had been exposed to the drugs (P=0.62). We conclude that the local mode of excluding

  19. Control of scabies, skin sores and haematuria in children in the Solomon Islands: another role for ivermectin.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Gregor; Leafasia, Judson; Sheridan, John; Hills, Susan; Wate, Janet; Wate, Christine; Montgomery, Janet; Pandeya, Nirmala; Purdie, David

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a 3-year programme aimed at controlling scabies on five small lagoon islands in the Solomon Islands by monitoring scabies, skin sores, streptococcal skin contamination, serology and haematuria in the island children. METHODS: Control was achieved by treating almost all residents of each island once or twice within 2 weeks with ivermectin (160-250 microg/kg), except for children who weighed less than 15 kg and pregnant women, for whom 5% permethrin cream was used. Reintroduction of scabies was controlled by treating returning residents and visitors, whether or not they had evident scabies. FINDINGS: Prevalence of scabies dropped from 25% to less than 1% (P < 0.001); prevalence of sores from 40% to 21% (P < 0.001); streptococcal contamination of the fingers in those with and without sores decreased significantly (P = 0.02 and 0.047, respectively) and anti-DNase B levels decreased (P = 0.002). Both the proportion of children with haematuria and its mean level fell (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively). No adverse effects of the treatments were seen. CONCLUSION: The results show that ivermectin is an effective and practical agent in the control of scabies and that control reduces the occurrence of streptococcal skin disease and possible signs of renal damage in children. Integrating community-based control of scabies and streptococcal skin disease with planned programmes for controlling filariasis and intestinal nematodes could be both practical and produce great health benefits. PMID:15682247

  20. Establishment of the Ivermectin Research for Malaria Elimination Network: updating the research agenda.

    PubMed

    Chaccour, Carlos J; Rabinovich, N Regina; Slater, Hannah; Canavati, Sara E; Bousema, Teun; Lacerda, Marcus; Ter Kuile, Feiko; Drakeley, Chris; Bassat, Quique; Foy, Brian D; Kobylinski, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of ivermectin as an additional vector control tool is receiving increased attention from the malaria elimination community, driven by the increased importance of outdoor/residual malaria transmission and the threat of insecticide resistance where vector tools have been scaled-up. This report summarizes the emerging evidence presented at a side meeting on "Ivermectin for malaria elimination: current status and future directions" at the annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in New Orleans on November 4, 2014. One outcome was the creation of the "Ivermectin Research for Malaria Elimination Network" whose main goal is to establish a common research agenda to generate the evidence base on whether ivermectin-based strategies should be added to the emerging arsenal to interrupt malaria transmission. PMID:26068560

  1. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  2. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  3. Oral myiasis caused by the screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax treated with subcutaneous ivermectin and creolin: report of six cases after trauma.

    PubMed

    Duque, Francisco L; Ardila, Carlos M

    2011-10-01

    Human myiasis is a rare condition that is more common in regions with a warm and humid climate. The larvae involved in myiasis are voracious; they destroy healthy tissues and may cause serious haemorrhage. The condition can be life threatening. Six patients with craniofacial trauma and oral myiasis are reported. The diagnoses were made after larvae had been extracted. Treatment consisted of subcutaneous ivermectin therapy and the application of a phenol preparation (10% creolin) as a local measure for the control of larvae. After 12 (±1) days of hospitalization, no larvae remained in the patients' mouths and the patients were discharged. The laboratory identified the larvae as those of the fly Cochliomyia hominivorax. Healing was uneventful in the six cases presented, and no undesirable reactions were observed throughout the period of treatment. Although the usual treatment for myiasis involves surgical removal of the maggots, pharmacological therapies are emerging as effective alternatives. PMID:21535400

  4. Control Technologies for Room Air-conditioner and Packaged Air-conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Nobuhisa

    Trends of control technologies about air-conditioning machineries, especially room or packaged air conditioners, are presented in this paper. Multiple air conditioning systems for office buildings are mainly described as one application of the refrigeration cycle control technologies including sensors for thermal comfort and heating/ cooling loads are also described as one of the system control technologies. Inverter systems and related technologies for driving variable speed compressors are described in both case of including induction motors and brushless DC motors. Technologies for more accurate control to meet various kind of regulations such as ozone layer destruction, energy saving and global warming, and for eliminating harmonic distortion of power source current, as a typical EMC problem, will be urgently desired.

  5. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

  7. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling for central air conditioners, heat... (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Required Disclosures § 305.12 Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout. All energy labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps,...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a device... to a tooth surface. (b) Classification. Class II....

  9. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

  11. Single doses of ivermectin 400 micrograms/kg-1: the most effective dosage in bancroftian filariasis.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, L N; Cartel, J L

    1995-03-01

    Forty-three Wuchereria bancrofti carriers were given four successive semi-annual single doses of ivermectin 100 micrograms.kg-1 (IVER 100). The geometric mean microfilaremia (mf) recurrence percentage as compared to the pre-initial treatment mf level was 35%, 21%, 17% and 17% at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, respectively. However, the recurrence of mf 6 months after the fourth treatment remained high in several individuals: 15 have been considered as 'bad responders' and 28 as 'good responders' individuals. At month 24 (M 24), they were randomly allocated into 2 groups. A first group was treated with a fifty and a sixth dose of IVER 100, at M24 and M30, respectively; the second one was treated, at the same time, with single doses of IVER 400 micrograms.kg-1 (IVER 400). At M 36, the mf recurrence percentage (mf M36/mf M0) was significantly higher in patients treated with IVER 100 than IVER 400 (11% vs 1%, p < 10(-4). From the group IVER 100, 6 out of the 8 'bad responders' remained 'bad responders' whereas there were none of the 7 in the group IVER 400. Moreover, there were only 2 more patients in the group IVER 100 showing sustained complete zero mf, whereas they were 13 in the group IVER 400. Single doses of IVER 400 were effective on 'bad responders'; IVER 400 must be recommended for semi-annual mass treatment in bancroftian filariasis. PMID:8525398

  12. Low doses of ivermectin cause sensory and locomotor disorders in dung beetles.

    PubMed

    Verdú, José R; Cortez, Vieyle; Ortiz, Antonio J; González-Rodríguez, Estela; Martinez-Pinna, Juan; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre; Lobo, Jorge M; Numa, Catherine; Sánchez-Piñero, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Ivermectin is a veterinary pharmaceutical generally used to control the ecto- and endoparasites of livestock, but its use has resulted in adverse effects on coprophilous insects, causing population decline and biodiversity loss. There is currently no information regarding the direct effects of ivermectin on dung beetle physiology and behaviour. Here, based on electroantennography and spontaneous muscle force tests, we show sub-lethal disorders caused by ivermectin in sensory and locomotor systems of Scarabaeus cicatricosus, a key dung beetle species in Mediterranean ecosystems. Our findings show that ivermectin decreases the olfactory and locomotor capacity of dung beetles, preventing them from performing basic biological activities. These effects are observed at concentrations lower than those usually measured in the dung of treated livestock. Taking into account that ivermectin acts on both glutamate-gated and GABA-gated chloride ion channels of nerve and muscle cells, we predict that ivermectin's effects at the physiological level could influence many members of the dung pat community. The results indicate that the decline of dung beetle populations could be related to the harmful effects of chemical contamination in the dung. PMID:26350768

  13. Analysis and dissipation of the antiparasitic agent ivermectin in cattle dung under different field conditions.

    PubMed

    Wohde, Manuel; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Floate, Kevin D; Lahr, Joost; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre; Römbke, Jörg; Scheffczyk, Adam; Tixier, Thomas; Düring, Rolf-Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Cattle treated with the veterinary parasiticide ivermectin fecally excrete residues. The authors report the exposition and dissipation characteristics of these residues in dung of ivermectin-treated cattle and in soil beneath this dung on pastures in Canada, France, Switzerland, and The Netherlands. Residues were quantified for dung collected from cattle after 3 d, 7 d, 14 d, and 28 d posttreatment and subsequently exposed in the field for up to 13 mo. The authors optimized a high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method to detect ivermectin residues in dung and soil matrices. They showed that a solid phase extraction and purification step generally can be eliminated to reduce the time and cost of these analyses. They also found that the addition of water to relatively dry samples improves the extraction efficiency of residues. They then analyzed the field samples to document differences in ivermectin dissipation in cattle dung among sites, with 50% dissipation times of up to 32 d and 90% dissipation times >396 d. They further showed that the dissipation characteristics of residues are comparable between dung of ivermectin-treated cattle and dung to which ivermectin has been added directly. Lastly, they report the first use of a desorption electrospray ionization-high-resolution-mass spectrometric method to detect residues of metabolites in a dung matrix. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1924-1933. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27100922

  14. Viability of adult Onchocerca volvulus after six 2-weekly doses of ivermectin.

    PubMed Central

    Duke, B. O.; Pacqué, M. C.; Muñoz, B.; Greene, B. M.; Taylor, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    Ivermectin is a safe, effective microfilaricide and microfilarial suppressant for Onchocerca volvulus; but in single doses of 100-200 micrograms/kg body weight it has no macrofilaricidal action. The present trial aimed to determine whether 6 doses of 100 micrograms/kg ivermectin, given at 2-week intervals, would kill the adult worms. Eighty-two nodules from 28 otherwise healthy adult male Liberian patients treated with this ivermectin schedule, and 102 nodules from a similar group of 25 control patients, were removed four months after the last dose of ivermectin. They were coded and assessed in a masked fashion either by routine histology or by examination of whole worms extracted from the nodules after collagenase digestion. The drug had no visible effect on adult male worms. More adult female worms were assessed as moribund or dead in the ivermectin-treated group than in the control group (for the collagenase digests P = 0.09; for the histological assessment P = 0.47). The data suggest that repeated dosage with ivermectin may lead to a slow attrition of some female worms and this possibility should be investigated in patients receiving regular doses every 3, 6 or 12 months as part of onchocerciasis control programmes. PMID:1860146

  15. Oral delivery of ivermectin using a fast dissolving oral film: Implications for repurposing ivermectin as a pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Megan M; Huynh, Nhat; Rodgers, Kathleen E; Alkana, Ronald L; Davies, Daryl L

    2015-09-01

    Individuals suffering from an alcohol-use disorder (AUD) constitute a major health concern. Preclinical studies in our laboratory show that acute and chronic intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of ivermectin (IVM) reduces alcohol intake and preference in mice. To enable clinical investigation to use IVM for the treatment of an AUD, development of an oral formulation that can be used in animals as well as long-term preclinical toxicology studies are required. The present work explores the use of a promising alternative dosage form of IVM, fast-dissolving oral films (Cure Pharmaceutical®), to test the efficacy and safety of oral IVM in conjunction with alcohol exposure. We tested the effect of IVM (0.21 mg) using a fast-dissolving oral film delivery method on reducing 10% v/v alcohol (10E) intake in female C57BL/6 mice using a 24-h access two-bottle choice paradigm for 6 weeks (5 days per week). Differences in ethanol intake, preference for ethanol, water intake, fluid intake, food intake, changes in mouse and organ weights, as well as histological changes to kidney, liver, and brain were analyzed. The IVM group drank significantly less ethanol over the 30-day period compared to the placebo (blank strip) and the no-treatment groups. Organ weights did not differ between the groups. Histological evaluation showed no differences in the brain and kidney between groups. In the liver, there was a slight increase in the incidence of microvesicular fatty and degenerative changes of the animals receiving the thin strips. No overt hepatocellular necrosis or perivascular inflammation was noted. Overall, these data support the use of this novel method of oral drug delivery for longer-term studies and should facilitate FDA required preclinical testing that is necessary to repurpose IVM for treatment of an AUD. PMID:26095588

  16. Lessons from the History of Ivermectin and Other Antiparasitic Agents.

    PubMed

    Campbell, William C

    2016-01-01

    The twentieth century's arsenal of chemical anthelmintics brought manifold improvement in human health and, more abundantly, in animal health. The benefits were not only in health per se but also in agricultural economics, livestock management, and the overall production of food and fiber to support expanding human populations. Nevertheless, there remains (due in large part to drug resistance and paucity of available vaccines) a great need for new means of controlling disease caused by parasitic worms. Prudence should persuade us to look to our past for lessons that might help in our quest for new drugs. The lessons suggested here derive from the history of ivermectin and other anthelmintics. They deal with the means of finding substances with useful antiparasitic activity and with alternative approaches to drug discovery. PMID:26515271

  17. Monitoring and evaluation of replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency air conditioners in single-family detached houses in Austin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.; Hough, R.E. and Associates, Inc., Syracuse, NY )

    1991-10-01

    The US DOE initiated this project to evaluate the performance of an air conditioner retrofit program in Austin, Texas. The City's Austin's Resource Management Department pursued this project to quantify the retrofit effect of replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency air conditioners in single-family detached homes. If successfully implemented, this retrofit program could help defer construction of a new power plant which is a major goal of this department. The project compares data collected from 12 houses during two cooling seasons under pre-retrofit and then post-retrofit air conditioner units. The existing low-efficiency air conditioners were monitored during the 1987 cooling season, replaced during the 1987--88 heating season with new, smaller sized, high-efficiency units, and then monitored again during the 1988 cooling season. Results indicated that the air conditioner retrofits reduce the annual air conditioner electric consumption and peak electric demand by an average of 38%. When normalized to the nominal capacity of the air conditioner, average demand savings were 1.12 W/ft{sup 2} and estimated annual energy savings were 1.419 kWh/ft{sup 2}. Individual air conditioner power requirements were found to be a well defined function of outdoor temperature as expected. In the absence of detailed data, estimates of the peak demand reductions of new air conditioners can be made from the manufacturer's specifications. Air conditioner energy consumption proved to be strongly linear as a function of the outdoor temperature as expected when taken as an aggregate. No noticeable differences in the diversity factor of the air conditioner usage were found. Analysis of the retrofit effect using PRISM yields estimates of the reduction in normalized annual consumption (NAC) and annual cooling consumption of 12% and 30%. 2 refs., 11 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Field study on the efficacy of an oral 2% ivermectin formulation in horses.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, André Antonio; Santos, Anderson Tintino dos; Allegretti, Silmara Marques

    2011-01-01

    Twenty horses naturally infected with nematodes were included in a blind, controlled field study on efficacy and safety of an oral 2% ivermectin formulation at a dose of 0.2 mg.kg(-1). Horses were divided into treated and non-treated (control) groups with ten animals each based on preliminary counts of eggs per gram of feces (EPG). Stool samples were collected after treatment for identification of nematode species. Clinical evaluations and EPG counts were performed on days 0, +5, +14 and +19. Nineteen nematode species were identified: Coronocyclus ulambajari, Craterostomum acuticaudatum, Cyathostomum catinatum, Cyathostomum pateratum, Cylicocyclus brevicapsulatus, Cylicocyclus insigne, Cylicocyclus leptostomum, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicocyclus ultrajectinus, Cylicocyclus spp., Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylicostephanus longibursatus, Cylicostephanus poculatus, Habronema muscae, Habronema spp., Parascaris equorum, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, Oxyuris equi and Triodontophorus spp. The mean EPG counts of treated and non-treated (control) groups on Days �15, 0, +5, +14 and +19 were 1925, 1340, 0, 12.5, 0, 1470, 790, 875, 1605 and 1240 respectively. The efficacy of treatment on Days +5, +14 and +19 was 100, 99.2 and 100% respectively, with a significant difference compared to the control group (p < 0.01). The product was considered to be safe with no findings of clinical significant changes during the study. PMID:21722495

  19. Pretreatment with the inducers rifampicin and phenobarbital alters ivermectin gastrointestinal disposition.

    PubMed

    Ballent, M; Lifschitz, A; Virkel, G; Mate, L; Lanusse, C

    2010-06-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate the effects of rifampicin (RFP) and phenobarbital (PBT) on the plasma and gastrointestinal disposition kinetics of ivermectin (IVM) subcutaneously administered to Wistar rats. Fifty seven rats were used. Animals in Group I were the noninduced (control) group. Those in Groups II and III received a treatment with RFP (160 mg/day) and PBT (35 mg/day), respectively, both given orally during eight consecutive days as induction regimen. The IVM pharmacokinetic study was started 24 h after the RFP and PBT last administration. Animals received IVM (200 microg/kg) by subcutaneous injection. Rats were sacrificed between 6 h and 3 days after IVM administration. Blood and samples of liver tissue, intestinal wall and luminal content of jejunum were collected from each animal. IVM concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. IVM disposition kinetics in plasma and tissues was significantly modified by the PBT treatment, but not by RFP. Despite the enhanced CYP3A activity observed after the pretreatment with RPF and PBT, there were no marked changes on the percentages of IVM metabolites recovered from the bloodstream in induced and noninduced animals. An enhanced P-glycoprotein-mediated intestinal transport activity in pretreated animals (particularly in PBT pretreated rats) may explain the drastic changes observed on IVM disposition. PMID:20557442

  20. 10 CFR 429.15 - Room air conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Room air conditioners. 429.15 Section 429.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND... selected and tested to ensure that— (i) Any represented value of estimated annual operating cost,...

  1. Domestic Refrigeration, Freezer, and Window Air Conditioner Service. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Mark

    This curriculum guide contains six units of instruction for a course in domestic refrigerator, freezer, and window air conditioner service. The units cover the following topics: (1) service fundamentals; (2) mechanical components and functions; (3) electrical components and control devices; (4) refrigerator and freezer service; (5) domestic ice…

  2. Thermionic reactor power conditioner design for nuclear electric propulsion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, A. S.; Tasca, D. M.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the effects of various thermionic reactor parameters and requirements upon spacecraft power conditioning design. A basic spacecraft is defined using nuclear electric propulsion, requiring approximately 120 kWe. The interrelationships of reactor operating characteristics and power conditioning requirements are discussed and evaluated, and the effects on power conditioner design and performance are presented.

  3. Contraction pre-conditioner in finite-difference electromagnetic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavich, Nikolay; Zhdanov, Michael S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to constructing an effective pre-conditioner for finite-difference (FD) electromagnetic modelling in geophysical applications. This approach is based on introducing an FD contraction operator, similar to one developed for integral equation formulation of Maxwell's equation. The properties of the FD contraction operator were established using an FD analogue of the energy equality for the anomalous electromagnetic field. A new pre-conditioner uses a discrete Green's function of a 1-D layered background conductivity. We also developed the formulae for an estimation of the condition number of the system of FD equations pre-conditioned with the introduced FD contraction operator. Based on this estimation, we have established that the condition number is bounded by the maximum conductivity contrast between the background conductivity and actual conductivity. When there are both resistive and conductive anomalies relative to the background, the new pre-conditioner is advantageous over using the 1-D discrete Green's function directly. In our numerical experiments with both resistive and conductive anomalies, for a land geoelectrical model with 1:10 contrast, the method accelerates convergence of an iterative method (BiCGStab) by factors of 2-2.5, and in a marine example with 1:50 contrast, by a factor of 4.6, compared to direct use of the discrete 1-D Green's function as a pre-conditioner.

  4. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature was conducted which was concerned with the characterization of systems and equipment that could be applicable to the development of solar-powered air conditioners based on the Rankine cycle approach, and the establishment of baseline data defining the performance, physical characteristics, and cost of systems using the LiBr/H2O absorption cycle.

  5. Transforming PC Power Supplies into Smart Car Battery Conditioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Ascariz, J. M.; Boquete-Vazquez, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory project consisting of a PC power supply modification into an intelligent car-battery conditioner with both wireless and wired networking capabilities. Adding a microcontroller to an average PC power supply transforms it into a flexible, intelligent device that can be configured and that is suitable to keep car…

  6. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Room Air Conditioners E Appendix E to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND...

  7. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2013-03-01

    Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

  8. Relationship between Fear Conditionability and Aversive Memories: Evidence from a Novel Conditioned-Intrusion Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Wegerer, Melanie; Blechert, Jens; Kerschbaum, Hubert; Wilhelm, Frank H.

    2013-01-01

    Intrusive memories – a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – are often triggered by stimuli possessing similarity with cues that predicted or accompanied the traumatic event. According to learning theories, intrusive memories can be seen as a conditioned response to trauma reminders. However, direct laboratory evidence for the link between fear conditionability and intrusive memories is missing. Furthermore, fear conditioning studies have predominantly relied on standardized aversive stimuli (e.g. electric stimulation) that bear little resemblance to typical traumatic events. To investigate the general relationship between fear conditionability and aversive memories, we tested 66 mentally healthy females in a novel conditioned-intrusion paradigm designed to model real-life traumatic experiences. The paradigm included a differential fear conditioning procedure with neutral sounds as conditioned stimuli and short violent film clips as unconditioned stimuli. Subsequent aversive memories were assessed through a memory triggering task (within 30 minutes, in the laboratory) and ambulatory assessment (involuntary aversive memories in the 2 days following the experiment). Skin conductance responses and subjective ratings demonstrated successful differential conditioning indicating that naturalistic aversive film stimuli can be used in a fear conditioning experiment. Furthermore, aversive memories were elicited in response to the conditioned stimuli during the memory triggering task and also occurred in the 2 days following the experiment. Importantly, participants who displayed higher conditionability showed more aversive memories during the memory triggering task and during ambulatory assessment. This suggests that fear conditioning constitutes an important source of persistent aversive memories. Implications for PTSD and its treatment are discussed. PMID:24244407

  9. Effect of metal conditioner on bonding of porcelain to cobalt-chromium alloy

    PubMed Central

    Kajihara, Yutaro; Takenouchi, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takuo; Suzuki, Shiro; Minami, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two different metal conditioners for non-precious metal alloys for the bonding of porcelain to a cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Disk-shaped specimens (2.5×10.0 mm) were cast with Co-Cr alloy and used as adherend materials. The bonding surfaces were polished with a 600-grid silicon carbide paper and airborne-particle abraded using 110 µm alumina particles. Bonding specimens were fabricated by applying and firing either of the metal conditioners on the airborne-particle abraded surface, followed by firing porcelain into 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height. Specimens without metal conditioner were also fabricated. Shear bond strength for each group (n=8) were measured and compared (α=.05). Sectional view of bonding interface was observed by SEM. EDS analysis was performed to determine the chemical elements of metal conditioners and to determine the failure modes after shear test. RESULTS There were significant differences among three groups, and two metal conditioner-applied groups showed significantly higher values compared to the non-metal conditioner group. The SEM observation of the sectional view at bonding interface revealed loose contact at porcelain-alloy surface for non-metal conditioner group, however, close contact at both alloy-metal conditioner and metal conditioner-porcelain interfaces for both metal conditioner-applied groups. All the specimens showed mixed failures. EDS analysis showed that one metal conditioner was Si-based material, and another was Ti-based material. Si-based metal conditioner showed higher bond strengths compared to the Ti-based metal conditioner, but exhibited more porous failure surface failure. CONCLUSION Based on the results of this study, it can be stated that the application of metal conditioner is recommended for the bonding of porcelain to cobalt-chromium alloys. PMID:26949481

  10. Functional characterization of ivermectin binding sites in α1β2γ2L GABA(A) receptors

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Mondragon, Argel; Lynch, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors (GABAARs) are the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and are therapeutic targets for many indications including sedation, anesthesia and anxiolysis. There is, however, considerable scope for the development of new therapeutics with improved beneficial effects and reduced side-effect profiles. The anthelminthic drug, ivermectin, activates the GABAAR although its binding site is not known. The molecular site of action of ivermectin has, however, been defined by crystallography in the homologous glutamate-gated chloride channel. Resolving the molecular mechanisms of ivermectin binding to α1β2γ2L GABAARs may provide insights into the design of improved therapeutics. Given that ivermectin binds to subunit interfaces, we sought to define (1) which subunit interface sites it binds to, (2) whether these sites are equivalent in terms of ivermectin sensitivity or efficacy, and (3) how many must be occupied for maximal efficacy. Our approach involved precluding ivermectin from binding to particular interfaces by introducing bulky M3 domain 36′F sidechains to the “+” side of those interfaces. We thereby demonstrated that ivermectin produces irreversible channel activation only when it binds to the single γ2L-β2 interface site. When it binds to α1-β2 sites it elicits potentiation of GABA-gated currents but has no irreversible activating effect. Ivermectin cannot bind to the β2-α1 interface site due to its endogenous bulky 36′ methionine. Replacing this with an alanine creates a functional site at this interface, but surprisingly it is inhibitory. Molecular docking simulations reveal that the γ2L-β2 interface forms more contacts with ivermectin than the other interfaces, possibly explaining why ivermectin appears to bind irreversibly at this interface. This study demonstrates unexpectedly stark pharmacological differences among GABAAR ivermectin binding sites. PMID:26441518

  11. Depletion Rates of Injected and Ingested Ivermectin from Blood Serum of Penned White-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus Virginianus (Zimmermann) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depletion rates of ivermectin from blood serum of penned doe and buck white-tailed deer that were administered ivermectin both by direct subcutaneous injection and by ingestion of ivermectin-medicated whole kernel corn were determined by bi-weekly and weekly assays of sampled blood. No statistical ...

  12. Effect of high fat intake on the pharmacokinetic profile of ivermectin in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Hirota, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is used as an oral drug for treatment of scabies. It was reported that the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of IVM was higher in healthy volunteers after a high-fat meal than in those who were fasting, but the mechanism has not been clarified yet. In fasted rabbits, the AUC after oral administration of IVM as a solution was higher than that of a suspension, indicating that the absorption of IVM depends on how much is dissolved in the gastrointestinal tract. On the other hand, the AUC was higher in rabbits pre-treated with a high-fat solution (HF; fat and cholesterol) than in those that had fasted, when IVM was administered orally not only in suspension but also in solution, and even when it was administered intravenously. In addition, the increase in total cholesterol level in the HF condition was correlated with the increase in IVM level. These results suggest that enhancement of solubility may not be the only reason for the increase of AUC in rabbits. It is also suggested that the increase of cholesterol concentration might change the distribution profile of IVM in plasma, and accordingly its concentration could be increased. PMID:25887422

  13. The metabolic fate of ivermectin in host (Ovis aries) and parasite (Haemonchus contortus).

    PubMed

    Vokřál, Ivan; Jedličková, Veronika; Jirásko, Robert; Stuchlíková, Lucie; Bártíková, Hana; Skálová, Lenka; Lamka, Jiří; Holčapek, Michal; Szotáková, Barbora

    2013-03-01

    Ivermectin (IVE), one of the most important anthelmintics, is often used in the treatment of haemonchosis in ruminants. The objective of our work was (1) to find and identify phase I and II metabolites of IVE formed by the Barber's pole worm (Haemonchus contortus), and (2) to compare IVE metabolites in helminths with IVE biotransformation in sheep (Ovis aries) as host species. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) was used for this purpose. During in vitro incubations, microsomes (from adult worms or from ovine liver) and a primary culture of ovine hepatocytes were incubated with IVE. In the ex vivo study, living H. contortus adults were incubated in the presence of 1 μM IVE for 24 h. The results showed that the H. contortus enzymatic system is not able to metabolize IVE. On the other hand, 7 different phase I as well as 9 phase II IVE metabolites were detected in ovine samples using UHPLC/MS/MS analyses. Most of these metabolites have not been described before. Haemonchus contortus is not able to deactivate IVE through biotransformation; therefore, biotransformation does not contribute to the development of IVE-resistance in the Barber's pole worm. PMID:23089373

  14. Efficacy of albendazole, levamisole and ivermectin against gastro-intestinal nematodes in naturally infected goats at the National Semi-arid Resources Research Institute, Serere, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Byaruhanga, C; Okwee-Acai, J

    2013-07-01

    A study was conducted between April and July, 2011 to determine and compare the efficacy of albendazole (ABZ), levamisole (LVM) and ivermectin (IVM) against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected Mubende and Boer crossbred goats at the National Semi-arid Resources Research Institute in Serere, Uganda. Forty Mubende goats and 31 Boer crosses were each blocked by age and sex and randomly assigned to four groups. The first group of each breed served as the untreated control, the second was treated with albendazole (5mg/kg BW), the third with levamisole hydrochloride and oxyclozanide (7.5 and 15 mg/kg BW) and the fourth with ivermectin (0.2mg/kg BW). Each group included 7-11 animals. Treatments were administered with doses of goats in albendazole and ivermectin, and doses of sheep in levamisole, as recommended by the manufacturers. In the treated groups, goats received anthelmintics basing on individual weights. Fecal egg counts, expressed as eggs per gram and larval cultures were done on day zero before treatment and on day 13 after anthelmintic treatment. Efficacy for each anthelmintic was determined by the Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT). In Mubende goats, ABZ, LVM, and IVM reduced FEC by 28.5%, 91%, and 98%, respectively. In Boer crosses, ABZ, LVM, and IVM reduced FEC by 11%, 84.88% and 78.47%, respectively. At a 95% CI, only IVM was more effective in Mubende goats than Boer crosses (t=2.564, p<0.05). This may indicate occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in the goat farming sector in Uganda. Further studies need to be done to clarify the state of efficacy of the commonly used anthelmintics covering different agro ecological zones and species of animals in Uganda. PMID:23394798

  15. Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans in northern Brazil: resolution of clinical pathology after a single dose of ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Angela; Lesshafft, Hannah; Reichert, Felix; Talhari, Sinesio; de Oliveira, Silas Guedes; Ignatius, Ralf; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2013-10-01

    To assess the effect of ivermectin on the morbidity caused by hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans in patients in hyperendemic areas, we treated 92 patients (with 441 tracks in total) from Manaus, Brazil, with single-dose ivermectin (200 µg/kg). Four weeks later, patients had 60 tracks, and the associated morbidity improved significantly. PMID:23811416

  16. Use of a molasses–based liquid feed supplement to deliver Ivermectin to cattle to control ectoparasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two different dosages of ivermectin were used to medicate a liquid molasses feed supplement for free-choice consumption by cattle. Calves that fed on supplement medicated at 25 ppm with ivermectin had a 14 day mean consumption of 0.62 ± 0.07 kg supplement/animal/day producing an average dose of 15....

  17. Novel insertion mutation of ABCB1 gene in an ivermectin-sensitive Border Collie.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae-Ik; Son, Hyoung-Won; Park, Seung-Cheol; Na, Ki-Jeong

    2010-12-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is encoded by the ABCB1 gene and acts as an efflux pump for xenobiotics. In the Border Collie, a nonsense mutation caused by a 4-base pair deletion in the ABCB1 gene is associated with a premature stop to P-gp synthesis. In this study, we examined the full-length coding sequence of the ABCB1 gene in an ivermectin-sensitive Border Collie that lacked the aforementioned deletion mutation. The sequence was compared to the corresponding sequences of a wild-type Beagle and seven ivermectin-tolerant family members of the Border Collie. When compared to the wild-type Beagle sequence, that of the ivermectin-sensitive Border Collie was found to have one insertion mutation and eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding sequence of the ABCB1 gene. While the eight SNPs were also found in the family members' sequences, the insertion mutation was found only in the ivermectin-sensitive dog. These results suggest the possibility that the SNPs are species-specific features of the ABCB1 gene in Border Collies, and that the insertion mutation may be related to ivermectin intolerance. PMID:21113104

  18. Low doses of ivermectin cause sensory and locomotor disorders in dung beetles

    PubMed Central

    Verdú, José R.; Cortez, Vieyle; Ortiz, Antonio J.; González-Rodríguez, Estela; Martinez-Pinna, Juan; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre; Lobo, Jorge M.; Numa, Catherine; Sánchez-Piñero, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Ivermectin is a veterinary pharmaceutical generally used to control the ecto- and endoparasites of livestock, but its use has resulted in adverse effects on coprophilous insects, causing population decline and biodiversity loss. There is currently no information regarding the direct effects of ivermectin on dung beetle physiology and behaviour. Here, based on electroantennography and spontaneous muscle force tests, we show sub-lethal disorders caused by ivermectin in sensory and locomotor systems of Scarabaeus cicatricosus, a key dung beetle species in Mediterranean ecosystems. Our findings show that ivermectin decreases the olfactory and locomotor capacity of dung beetles, preventing them from performing basic biological activities. These effects are observed at concentrations lower than those usually measured in the dung of treated livestock. Taking into account that ivermectin acts on both glutamate-gated and GABA-gated chloride ion channels of nerve and muscle cells, we predict that ivermectin’s effects at the physiological level could influence many members of the dung pat community. The results indicate that the decline of dung beetle populations could be related to the harmful effects of chemical contamination in the dung. PMID:26350768

  19. Low doses of ivermectin cause sensory and locomotor disorders in dung beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdú, José R.; Cortez, Vieyle; Ortiz, Antonio J.; González-Rodríguez, Estela; Martinez-Pinna, Juan; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre; Lobo, Jorge M.; Numa, Catherine; Sánchez-Piñero, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    Ivermectin is a veterinary pharmaceutical generally used to control the ecto- and endoparasites of livestock, but its use has resulted in adverse effects on coprophilous insects, causing population decline and biodiversity loss. There is currently no information regarding the direct effects of ivermectin on dung beetle physiology and behaviour. Here, based on electroantennography and spontaneous muscle force tests, we show sub-lethal disorders caused by ivermectin in sensory and locomotor systems of Scarabaeus cicatricosus, a key dung beetle species in Mediterranean ecosystems. Our findings show that ivermectin decreases the olfactory and locomotor capacity of dung beetles, preventing them from performing basic biological activities. These effects are observed at concentrations lower than those usually measured in the dung of treated livestock. Taking into account that ivermectin acts on both glutamate-gated and GABA-gated chloride ion channels of nerve and muscle cells, we predict that ivermectin’s effects at the physiological level could influence many members of the dung pat community. The results indicate that the decline of dung beetle populations could be related to the harmful effects of chemical contamination in the dung.

  20. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus resistant to acaricides and ivermectin in cattle farms of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vivas, Róger Iván; Pérez-Cogollo, Luis Carlos; Rosado-Aguilar, José Alberto; Ojeda-Chi, Melina Maribel; Trinidad-Martinez, Iris; Miller, Robert John; Li, Andrew Yongsheng; de León, Adalberto Pérez; Guerrero, Félix; Klafke, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    Ticks and the diseases they transmit cause great economic losses to livestock in tropical countries. Non-chemical control alternatives include the use of resistant cattle breeds, biological control and vaccines. However, the most widely used method is the application of different chemical classes of acaricides and macrocyclic lactones. Populations of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, resistant to organophosphates (OP), synthetic pyrethroids (SP), amitraz and fipronil have been reported in Mexico. Macrocyclic lactones are the most sold antiparasitic drug in the Mexican veterinary market. Ivermectin-resistant populations of R. (B.) microplus have been reported in Brazil, Uruguay and especially in Mexico (Veracruz and Yucatan). Although ivermectin resistance levels in R. (B.) microplus from Mexico were generally low in most cases, some field populations of R. (B.) microplus exhibited high levels of ivermectin resistance. The CHPAT population showed a resistance ratio of 10.23 and 79.6 at lethal concentration of 50% and 99%, respectively. Many field populations of R. (B.) microplus are resistant to multiple classes of antiparasitic drugs, including organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, coumaphos and diazinon), pyrethroids (flumethrin, deltamethrin and cypermethrin), amitraz and ivermectin. This paper reports the current status of the resistance of R. (B.) microplus to acaricides, especially ivermectin, in Mexican cattle. PMID:25054487

  1. Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants for window air conditioners that currently use refrigerant R410A for residential and commercial applications. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and a mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration) and R125 (10% molar concentration). Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model was calibrated with the baseline data and was used to assess the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners.

  2. Advanced Signal Conditioners for Data-Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucena, Angel; Perotti, Jose; Eckhoff, Anthony; Medelius, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    Signal conditioners embodying advanced concepts in analog and digital electronic circuitry and software have been developed for use in data-acquisition systems that are required to be compact and lightweight, to utilize electric energy efficiently, and to operate with high reliability, high accuracy, and high power efficiency, without intervention by human technicians. These signal conditioners were originally intended for use aboard spacecraft. There are also numerous potential terrestrial uses - especially in the fields of aeronautics and medicine, wherein it is necessary to monitor critical functions. Going beyond the usual analog and digital signal-processing functions of prior signal conditioners, the new signal conditioner performs the following additional functions: It continuously diagnoses its own electronic circuitry, so that it can detect failures and repair itself (as described below) within seconds. It continuously calibrates itself on the basis of a highly accurate and stable voltage reference, so that it can continue to generate accurate measurement data, even under extreme environmental conditions. It repairs itself in the sense that it contains a micro-controller that reroutes signals among redundant components as needed to maintain the ability to perform accurate and stable measurements. It detects deterioration of components, predicts future failures, and/or detects imminent failures by means of a real-time analysis in which, among other things, data on its present state are continuously compared with locally stored historical data. It minimizes unnecessary consumption of electric energy. The design architecture divides the signal conditioner into three main sections: an analog signal section, a digital module, and a power-management section. The design of the analog signal section does not follow the traditional approach of ensuring reliability through total redundancy of hardware: Instead, following an approach called spare parts tool box, the

  3. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2015-03-12

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Amongmore » all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.« less

  4. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2015-03-12

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Among all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.

  5. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2012-04-01

    This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

  6. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The initial objective of the program was the optimization (in terms of cost and performance) of a Rankine cycle mechanical refrigeration system which utilizes thermal energy from a flat solar collector for air conditioning residential buildings. However, feasibility investigations of the adsorption process revealed that a dessicant-type air conditioner offers many significant advantages. As a result, limited efforts were expended toward the optimization of such a system.

  7. Rationale for the Coadministration of Albendazole and Ivermectin to Humans for Malaria Parasite Transmission Control

    PubMed Central

    Kobylinski, Kevin C.; Alout, Haoues; Foy, Brian D.; Clements, Archie; Adisakwattana, Poom; Swierczewski, Brett E.; Richardson, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    Recently there have been calls for the eradication of malaria and the elimination of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Malaria and STHs overlap in distribution, and STH infections are associated with increased risk for malaria. Indeed, there is evidence that suggests that STH infection may facilitate malaria transmission. Malaria and STH coinfection may exacerbate anemia, especially in pregnant women, leading to worsened child development and more adverse pregnancy outcomes than these diseases would cause on their own. Ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) to humans for malaria parasite transmission suppression is being investigated as a potential malaria elimination tool. Adding albendazole to ivermectin MDAs would maximize effects against STHs. A proactive, integrated control platform that targets malaria and STHs would be extremely cost-effective and simultaneously reduce human suffering caused by multiple diseases. This paper outlines the benefits of adding albendazole to ivermectin MDAs for malaria parasite transmission suppression. PMID:25070998

  8. Rationale for the coadministration of albendazole and ivermectin to humans for malaria parasite transmission control.

    PubMed

    Kobylinski, Kevin C; Alout, Haoues; Foy, Brian D; Clements, Archie; Adisakwattana, Poom; Swierczewski, Brett E; Richardson, Jason H

    2014-10-01

    Recently there have been calls for the eradication of malaria and the elimination of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Malaria and STHs overlap in distribution, and STH infections are associated with increased risk for malaria. Indeed, there is evidence that suggests that STH infection may facilitate malaria transmission. Malaria and STH coinfection may exacerbate anemia, especially in pregnant women, leading to worsened child development and more adverse pregnancy outcomes than these diseases would cause on their own. Ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) to humans for malaria parasite transmission suppression is being investigated as a potential malaria elimination tool. Adding albendazole to ivermectin MDAs would maximize effects against STHs. A proactive, integrated control platform that targets malaria and STHs would be extremely cost-effective and simultaneously reduce human suffering caused by multiple diseases. This paper outlines the benefits of adding albendazole to ivermectin MDAs for malaria parasite transmission suppression. PMID:25070998

  9. Efficacy of injectable and oral paste formulations of ivermectin against gastrointestinal parasites in ponies.

    PubMed

    Torbert, B J; Kramer, B S; Klei, T R

    1982-08-01

    A controlled test was used in ponies to compare the antiparasitic efficacy of ivermectin (22,23-dihydro-avermectin B1) in an injectable micelle solution administered IM with the efficacy of the same drug in an oral paste formulation. Parasite infections were naturally acquired in southern Louisiana. The drug was tested in both formulations at a dosage level of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight. Ivermectin in both formulations tested had an efficacy greater than 98% against Gasterophilus intestinalis and G nasalis larvae. Trichostrongylus axei, Habronema spp, Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, and species of small strongyles present. Efficacy of ivermectin against Oxyuris equi larvae was 100% in the paste formulation and 93% in the injectable formulation. The ponies were less uniformly infected with S equinus, Draschia megastoma, Parascaris equorum, O equi adults, Anoplocephala perfoliata, and A magna. However, observations indicated that the drug in either formulation was also effective against these parasites, except Anoplocephala spp. PMID:6896613

  10. Transgenically expressed Parascaris P-glycoprotein-11 can modulate ivermectin susceptibility in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Janssen, I Jana I; Krücken, Jürgen; Demeler, Janina; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2015-08-01

    P-glycoproteins (Pgps) are suspected to mediate drug extrusion in nematodes contributing to macrocyclic lactone resistance. This association was recently shown for Parascaris Pgp-11. Ivermectin resistance was correlated with the presence of three pgp-11 single nucleotide polymorphisms and/or increased pgp-11 mRNA levels. In the present study, the ability of Pgp-11 to modulate ivermectin susceptibility was investigated by its expression in a pgp-11-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans strain. Expression of Parascaris pgp-11 in two transgenic lines significantly decreased ivermectin susceptibility in a motility (thrashing) assay conducted in liquid medium. The EC50 values increased by 3.2- and 4.6-fold in the two lines relative to a transgenic control strain. This is the first report on the successful functional analysis of a parasitic nematode Pgp in the model organism C. elegans. PMID:25905032

  11. The Performance Evaluation of Room Air Conditioner Using R32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, Shigeharu; Yazima, Ryuzaburo; Koyama, Shigeru

    This paper deals with an experimental study on the performance evaluation of a room air conditioner using R32. The test room air conditioner is a product developed for the R410A use. The COP, cooling and heating capacities, charge amount of refrigerant, electric power input, refrigerant thermodynamic states in the air conditioner etc. were measured for both refrigerant R410A and R32, based on JIS-C9612 standard. The experimental results of R32 are evaluated in comparison with the results of R410A, and the following are confirmed :(1) The performance of R32 is higher than R410A. This reason is mainly due to the pressure drop and heat exchange characteristics (in the evaporator and the condenser), (2) The charge amount of R32 is less than that of R410A. From the above results, the further improving the performance and saving the refrigerant amount are expected when refrigerant R410A is replaced with R32. The effects of the performance of components on the COP are also analyzed based on the measured thermodynamic states at both ends of components in the system. Then, it's clarified that the most effective factor is irreversibility of the compressor and the following is the pressure drop in low pressure side including the evaporator and the suction pipe in the system.

  12. Mist Formation in Heat Exchanger of Air-Conditioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Isao; Matsumoto, Ryosuke; Shibata, Yutaka

    The mist formation is found occasionally at the outlet of the air-conditioner, especially in the high temperature and high humidity environment. When the condensation takes place, a certain degree of the super-saturation is needed. Some researchers introduced the critical saturation model1-3) into the condensation process concerning with the super-saturation. However, under the ordinary environmental conditions where air-conditioners are installed, there are many nuclei for the phase change such as dusts in the humid air. They may offer the trigger to condense; that is to form the mist. In this research, with taking into account the super-saturation depending on the diameter of foreign nucleus, the mist formation is numerically predicted by solving boundary layer equations for the cold parallel plate channel simulating the heat exchanger of air-conditioner with the slit fins. The effects of the humidity and channel dimension on the mist formation rate and on heat and mass transfer are investigated. In addition, the numerical results are compared with those for the plate channel reported previously.

  13. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... electricity. Packaged terminal heat pump means a packaged terminal air conditioner that utilizes reverse cycle... indoor grilles, outdoor louvers, various ventilation options, indoor free air discharges, ductwork,...

  14. Efficacy and productive performance of moxidectin in feedlot calves infected with nematodes resistant to ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Fazzio, L E; Streitenberger, N; Galvan, W R; Sánchez, R O; Gimeno, E J; Sanabria, R E F

    2016-06-15

    Anthelmintic resistance (AR) of gastrointestinal nematodes to macrocyclic lactones is an increasingly common worldwide phenomenon limiting cattle production. This has motivated the search for alternatives, such as new active compounds, added drug synergisms, different doses, and alternate administration routes. The aim of this study was the assessment of moxidectin (MXD) performance in feedlot calves with a history of AR to ivermectin (IVM). Crossbred female calves aged 6-7 months and weighing 163kg (SD=34kg) were divided into 3 groups of 35 animals each. They were assigned to the following antiparasitic treatment groups: IVM group (0.2mg/kg IVM); MXD group (0.2mg/kg MXD), and ricobendazole+levamisole (RBZ+LEV) group (7.5mg/kg RBZ+8mg/kg LEV). On days 0, 26, and 47, fecal samples were taken and the weight of each animal was registered. Anthelmintic efficacy (by fecal egg count reduction), total weight gain (TWG) and average daily weight gain (AWG) were compared between the groups. A mixed SAS procedure was used for statistical analysis. Fecal egg count reduction 26 days post-treatment (PT) was calculated at 28% for the IVM group, 85% for the MXD group, and 99% for the RBZ+LEV group. AWGs (Standard Error) of 1.095g (56), 1.264g (49), and 1.340g (52) were registered for the IVM, MXD, and RBZ+LEV groups, respectively (p<0.05). Coprocultures revealed that MXD more effectively reduced Haemonchus spp. and Cooperia spp. egg counts than IVM. This resulted in higher AWGs and TWGs for this group; similar results were seen for the RBZ+LEV group as well. In this study, animals treated with MXD gained about 160 more g/day than animals treated with IVM. This represents a gain of 16 USD per animal over the 47 day trial. PMID:27198772

  15. Ivermectin residue depletion in food producing species and its presence in animal foodstuffs with a view to human safety.

    PubMed

    Escribano, M; San Andrés, M I; de Lucas, J J; González-Canga, A

    2012-05-01

    From a human safety perspective, the administration of ivermectin to food producing animal species entails potential risks related to the presence of drug residues in edible tissues, milk, and other derived products. The European Medicines Agency has established the maximum residue limits for ivermectin in the European Union, with values of 100 μg·kg(-1) in fat and liver and 30 μg·kg(-1) in kidney for all mammalian food producing species, in order to ensure that the amount of ivermectin that can be found in animal foodstuff is below dangerous levels for the consumers. According to these values, withdrawal periods after subcutaneous injection were recently established in the European Union (2009), in 49 days for products containing ivermectin as a single active substance or in combination with closantel, and in 66 days when combined with clorsulon. The marker residue for ivermectin was found to be H(2)B(1a), which is the major component of the parent compound. The tissue distribution of residues and the overall ratios of marker to total residues were generally similar in most species, and the highest concentrations of ivermectin residues were found in fat and liver with high levels also detected in injection site muscles. Ivermectin is not licensed for use in animals from which milk is produced for human consumption, however its extra-label use should be considered regarding human safety, due to its long persistence in milk and milk-derived products. PMID:22039793

  16. [Evaluation of ivermectin's reproductive toxicity to male Carassius auratus].

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Li, Shao-wu; Geng, Long-wu; Liu, Tong-yan

    2015-10-01

    As a new type of antiparasitic drugs, ivermectin (IVM) has been widely applied in agriculture, stock raising and aquaculture in China because of its broad spectrum and high efficiency. In order to evaluate the IVM' s reproductive toxicity to male Crucian carp (Carassius auratus), IVM was orally given to the experimental fish with different dosages and the gonadosomatic index (GSI), sexual hormone contents (including testosterone and estradiol) in serum and testis, γ-aminobutyric acid content in serum and brain tissues, ultra-structure of spermatozoa and gonadal tissue in fish were determined in this study. The experimental fish were classified into A, B, C and D groups corresponding to the different dosages of IVM (0, 0.3, 0.9 and 1.5 mg . kg-1, respectively once a day for 3 days continuously). Several indices in fish were detected after 8 days self-purification. The results indicated that GSI gradually decreased with the increase of drug dosage, and GSI in groups C and D was significantly lower than that in group A. The contents of testosterone, estradiol and y-aminobutyric acid exhibited a trend of first increasing and then decreasing and reached the peak at group B. Sperm longevity gradually decreased and the motion time also decreased in II, III and IV level sperms with the increasing dosage of IVM, which appeared to be especially obvious in group C and D. No obvious differences were found in the ultra-structure of spermatozoa and gonadal tissues. In conclusion, this study suggested that IVM had no obvious reproductive toxicity to male Crucian carp at the normal therapeutic dosage but could cause serious potential reproductive toxicity to fish at a high concentration. PMID:26995928

  17. The efficiency of avermectins (abamectin, doramectin and ivermectin) in the control of Boophilus microplus, in artificially infested bovines kept in field conditions.

    PubMed

    Pereira, José Roberto

    2009-05-26

    Tests were performed on artificially infested bovines, kept in field conditions, to assess the efficiency of avermectins (abamectin, doramectin and ivermectin) on Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887). This assessment was carried out on 40 bovines, in the Paraíba Valley, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. These bovines were distributed into four groups (abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin and a control group), after artificial infestation with some 4000 larvae per animal on days -21, -14, -7, -1, 7 and 14. The animals from the treated groups were subcutaneously injected with the commercial avermectins, at a dose of 200microg/kg of live weight (1mL/50kg). The best results were shown by the group treated with doramectin, both in relation to the reduction of female count (an average of 85.92% between 3rd and 28th day after treatment) and also in the reduction of oviposition among the females collected from the bovines after treatment and then kept in the laboratory (an average of 83.51%). None of the avermectins proved to be efficient in inhibiting the hatching of the larvae. PMID:19286322

  18. Opportunities to investigate the effects of ivermectin mass drug administration on scabies.

    PubMed

    Engelman, Daniel; Martin, Diana L; Hay, Roderick J; Chosidow, Olivier; McCarthy, James S; Fuller, L Claire; Steer, Andrew C

    2013-01-01

    The recent article by Mohammed et al. demonstrates an impressive effect of ivermectin mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis on the burden of scabies. Partnering scabies research within the evaluation and monitoring of Neglected Tropical Disease programmes could potentially increase our understanding of the epidemiology and control of scabies and its important bacterial complications. PMID:23594459

  19. Selection of an ivermectin-resistant strain of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to ivermectin (IVM) in field populations of Rhipicephalus microplus of Brazil has been observed since 2001. In this work, four selection methods (infestations with: (1) IVM-treated larvae; (2) larvae from IVM-treated adult female ticks; (3) larvae from IVM-treated adult female ticks on an...

  20. First report of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus resistant to ivermectin in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three cattle farms with ticks, Rhipicephalus microplus, thought to be resistant to ivermectin in Yucatan, Mexico, were studied (SFDO, SPN, LUADY). Each field population was collected and tested twice, several months apart. The larval immersion test was used on the progeny of collected adult females ...

  1. 75 FR 26647 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... parasites that were approved for the pioneer product with 3 years of marketing exclusivity (69 FR 501... external and internal parasites when cattle are treated with a topical solution of ivermectin. DATES: This... solution used on cattle to control infestations of certain species of external and internal parasites....

  2. Cell module and fuel conditioner development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Components for the first 5 cell stack (no cooling plates) of the MK-2 design were fabricated. Preliminary specfications and designs for the components of a 23 cell MK-1 stack with four DIGAS cooling plates were developed. The MK-2 was selected as a bench mark design and a preliminary design of the facilities required for high rate manufacture of fuel cell modules was developed. Two stands for testing 5 cell stacks were built and design work for modifying existing stands and building new stands for 23 and 80 cell stacks was initiated. Design and procurement of components and materials for the catalyst test stand were completed and construction initiated. Work on the specifications of pipeline gas, tap water and recovered water and definition of equipment required for treatment was initiated. An innovative geometry for the reformer was conceived and modifications of the computer program to be used in its design were stated.

  3. Preliminary investigation on the design of biodegradable microparticles for ivermectin delivery: set up of formulation parameters.

    PubMed

    Dorati, Rosella; Genta, Ida; Colzani, Barbara; Tripodo, Giuseppe; Conti, Bice

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to design sterile biodegradable microparticulate drug delivery systems based on poly(dl-lactide) (PLA) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and containing ivermectin (IVM), an antiparasitic drug, for subcutaneous administration in dogs. The drug delivery system should: (i) ensure a full 12-month protection upon single dose administration; (ii) be safe with particular attention regarding IVM dosage and its release, in order to prevent over dosage side effects. This preliminary work involves: polymer selection, evaluation of the effects of γ-irradiation on the polymers and IVM, investigation and set up of suitable microparticle preparation process and parameters, IVM-loaded microparticles in vitro release evaluation. Results of gel permeation chromatography analysis on the irradiated polymers and IVM mixtures showed that combination of IVM with the antioxidant α-tocopherol (TCP) reduces the damage extent induced by irradiation treatment, independently on the polymer type. Solvent evaporation process was successfully used for the preparation of PLA microparticles and appropriately modified; it was recognized as suitable for the preparation of PCL microparticles. Good process yields were achieved ranging from 76.08% to 94.72%; encapsulation efficiency was between 85.76% and 91.25%, independently from the polymer used. The type of polymer and the consequent preparation process parameters affected microparticle size that was bigger for PCL microparticles (480-800 µm) and solvent residual that was >500 ppm for PLA microparticles. In vitro release test showed significantly faster IVM release rates from PCL microparticles, with respect to PLA microparticles, suggesting that a combination of the polymers could be used to obtain the suitable drug release rate. PMID:24994001

  4. Polysaccharide (guar) as a soil conditioner. [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.

    1986-05-01

    The author tested a polysaccharide (guar) derived from guar bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.) was tested in soil flocculation tests and found that use of acid solutions to fully dissolve the guar leads to more effective soil conditioning than otherwise would be possible, and that guar does not lead to strong water-stable aggregates. Larger quantities were needed to improve emergence and growth of plants in a glasshouse than for synthetic soil conditioners. The effects of soil conditioning with guar did not last long.

  5. Optimal Design of Automotive Thermoelectric Air Conditioner (TEAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attar, Alaa; Lee, HoSung; Weera, Sean

    2014-06-01

    The present work is an analytical study of the optimal design of an automotive thermoelectric air conditioner (TEAC) using a new optimal design method with dimensional analysis that has been recently developed by our research group. The optimal design gives not only the optimal current but also the optimal geometry (i.e., the number of thermocouples, the geometric factor, or the hot fluid parameters). The optimal design for the TEAC is carried out with two configurations: air-to-liquid and air-to-air heat exchangers.

  6. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Refrigeration Equipment... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  7. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Refrigeration Equipment... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  8. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refrigeration Equipment... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  9. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Refrigeration Equipment... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  10. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Refrigeration Equipment... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  11. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... heat pumps. 431.92 Section 431.92 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps § 431.92 Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. The following definitions...

  12. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... air conditioning heat pumps: The seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER in British thermal units per... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section..., energy consumption or other measure of energy consumption of the central air conditioner or heat pump...

  13. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... air conditioning heat pumps: The seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER in British thermal units per... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section..., energy consumption or other measure of energy consumption of the central air conditioner or heat pump...

  14. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... air conditioning heat pumps: The seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER in British thermal units per... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section..., energy consumption or other measure of energy consumption of the central air conditioner or heat pump...

  15. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... effect of an air conditioner or heat pump (or its produced heating effect, depending on the mode of... heat pumps. 431.92 Section 431.92 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps §...

  16. Aspects of decontamination of ivermectin and praziquantel from environmental waters using advanced oxidation technology.

    PubMed

    Havlíková, Lucie; Šatínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr

    2016-02-01

    Recently performed environmental risk assessments of ivermectin demonstrated the need to complete the information regarding the fate of ivermectin in environment. There is also a lack of information concerning the fate and stability of praziquantel. The forced degradation study and photocatalytic degradation pathways in aqueous TiO2 suspensions of the two anthelmintics ivermectin and praziquantel were investigated and compared. The degradation efficiency increased for both compounds with the increase in the TiO2 concentration from 0.25 to 2.00 g L(-1), and then remained constant. The estimated k-values were from 0.36 h(-1) to 0.64 h(-1) for IVE and from 0.29 h(-1) to 0.47 h(-1) for PZQ, respectively. The degradation rate was not significantly impacted by the change of the pH value (pH 3, 5, 7, and 9) at 2.0 g L(-1) of TiO2. The photo degradation was about 90% for both compounds after 5 h of irradiation and it was significantly inhibited in the presence of iodide anion and isopropyl alcohol, which indicated, that hydroxyl radicals as well as holes contributed to the degradation of both anthelmintics. The contribution of hydroxyl radicals and holes was 92.1% for IVE and 93.2% for PZQ, respectively. Photocatalytic process of ivermectin resulted in three degradation intermediates; another two were formed during acidic and basic hydrolysis. Praziquantel underwent degradation to six degradation intermediates; four of them were formed under photocatalytic irradiation. The intermediates were identified using UHPLC-MS/MS. UV/TiO2 photolysis has been found as an effective advanced oxidation technology for the decontamination of ivermectin and praziquantel. PMID:26344145

  17. Huffing air conditioner fluid: a cool way to die?

    PubMed

    Phatak, Darshan R; Walterscheid, Jeffrey

    2012-03-01

    "Huffing," the form of substance abuse involving inhalants, is growing in popularity because of the ease and availability of chemical inhalants in many household products. The purpose in huffing is to achieve euphoria when the chemicals in question interact with the central nervous system in combination with oxygen displacement. The abuser is lulled into a false sense of safety despite the well-documented potential for lethal cardiac arrhythmia and the effects of chronic inhalant abuse, including multisystem organ failure, and brain damage. Huffing air conditioner fluid is a growing problem given the accessibility to outdoor units and their fluid components, such as difluorochloromethane(chlorodifluoromethane, Freon), and we have classified multiple cases of accidental death due to the toxicity of difluorochloromethane. Given the ubiquity of these devices and the vast lack of gating or security devices, they make an inviting target for inhalant abusers. Acute huffing fatalities have distinct findings that are present at the scene, given the position of the decedent and proximity to the air conditioner unit. The purpose of the autopsy in these cases is to exclude other potential causes of death and to procure specimens for toxicological analysis. PMID:22442834

  18. Shampoo and Conditioners: What a Dermatologist Should Know?

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Paschal; Rathi, Sanjay K

    2015-01-01

    Dermatologists many a times encounter questions from patients and even colleagues asking about how to keep their hair looking clean, healthy and beautiful. Therefore, familiarity and a basic knowledge of the available hair care products will help them to guide their patients properly. A shampoo not only provides the cleaning of the scalp skin and hair as its primary function, but in addition also serves to condition and beautify hair and acts as an adjunct in the management of various scalp disorders. To achieve this, various ingredients in the correct proportion are mixed to provide a shampoo which is suitable for individuals having different hair types and hair need. Among the ingredients that go into the making of a shampoo are detergents, conditioners, thickeners, sequestering agents, pH adjusters, preservatives and specialty additives. Hair conditioners are designed to improve hair manageability, decrease hair static electricity and add luster. They are used in several ways depending upon the state of hair and requirement of the individual. This article attempts to put forward the basic and practical aspects regarding use of these products. PMID:26120149

  19. Contact urticaria from protein hydrolysates in hair conditioners.

    PubMed

    Niinimäki, A; Niinimäki, M; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, S; Hannuksela, M

    1998-11-01

    Protein hydrolysates (PHs) are added to hair-care products (to "repair" broken hair), soaps, bath gels, creams, etc. From one to 22 PHs used in hair-care products (collagen, keratin, elastin, milk, wheat, almond, and silk) were tested in three patient groups: A) 11 hairdressers with hand dermatitis B) 2160 consecutive adults with suspected allergic respiratory disease subjected to routine skin prick tests C) 28 adults with atopic dermatitis. In group A, all the 22 PHs were tested with scratch and patch tests. In groups B and C, one to three PHs were tested with prick tests. Positive scratch/prick test reactions were seen in 12 patients from three PHs altogether. All were women with atopic dermatitis, and all reacted to at least hydroxypropyl trimonium hydrolyzed collagen (Crotein Q). In three patients, prick and open tests with a hair conditioner containing Crotein Q were performed with positive results. One patient reported contact urticaria on her hands, and two reported acute urticaria on their head, face, and upper body from a hair conditioner containing Crotein Q. In seven of the eight studied sera, specific IgE to Crotein Q was detected. In conclusion, PHs of hair cosmetics can cause contact urticaria, especially in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:9860241

  20. Annual single-dose diethylcarbamazine plus ivermectin for control of bancroftian filariasis: comparative efficacy with and without vector control.

    PubMed

    Reuben, R; Rajendran, R; Sunish, I P; Mani, T R; Tewari, S C; Hiriyan, J; Gajanana, A

    2001-06-01

    Two intervention strategies for the control of bancroftian filariasis were compared in rural villages of southern India: annual mass treatment with single-dose diethylcarbamazine plus ivermectin, either on its own or combined with vector control. Vector control, based on the use of polystyrene beads and larvivorous fishes in the major breeding sites of Culex quinquefasciatus, brought about a drastic and sustained reduction in vector density and man-biting rates. After the first round of treatment, chemotherapy alone brought about a 60% drop in the annual transmission potential (ATP) whereas the integrated strategy reduced ATP by 96% (P < 0.05). After two annual rounds of treatment, the reduction in ATP was similar for both strategies (91%-96%), with the prevalences of microfilaraemia reduced by 88%-92%. However, when drug pressure was removed in the third and final year of the study, transmission was resumed in the absence of vector control whereas no infective female mosquitoes were detected in the villages with vector control. Vector control, though obviously not cost-effective in the short term, could play an important role in an integrated programme, by preventing re-establishment of transmission after chemotherapy is completed. PMID:11454246

  1. Comparative Efficacy of Ivermectin and Levamisole for Reduction of Migrating and Encapsulated Larvae of Baylisascaris transfuga in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yan; Nie, Hua-Ming; Niu, Li-Li; Xie, Yue; Deng, Jia-Bo; Wang, Qiang; Gu, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Shu-Xian

    2011-01-01

    The comparative efficacy of 2 anthelmintics (ivermectin and levamisole) against Baylisascaris transfuga migrating and encapsulated larvae was studied in mice. A total of 60 BALB/c mice inoculated each with about 1,000 embryonated B. transfuga eggs were equally divided into 6 groups (A-F) randomly. Mice of groups A and B were treated with ivermectin and levamisole, respectively, on day 3 post-infection (PI). Mice of groups A-C were killed on day 13 PI. Similarly, groups D and E were treated with ivermectin and levamisole, respectively, on day 14 PI, and all mice of groups D-F were treated on day 24 PI. The groups C and F were controls. Microexamination was conducted to count the larvae recovering from each mouse. The percentages of reduction in the number of migrating larvae recovered from group A (ivermectin) and B (levamisole) were 88.3% and 81.1%, respectively. In addition, the reduction in encapsulated larvae counts achieved by ivermectin (group D) and levamisole (group E) was 75.0% and 49.2%, respectively. The results suggested that, to a certain extent, both anthelmintics appeared to be more effective against migrating larvae than encapsulated larvae. However, in the incipient stage of infection, ivermectin may be more competent than levamisole as a larvicidal drug for B. transfuga. PMID:21738270

  2. Treatment of head lice.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Stephanie A; Morrell, Dean S; Burkhart, Craig N

    2009-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis, or head lice, is a common infestation among children worldwide. Multiple therapies exist for the treatment of this condition, including topical pediculicides and oral medications. When used in combination with environmental decontamination, these drugs can be very effective in eradicating head lice infestation without significant adverse events. The present study discusses the use of available over-the-counter and prescription treatments, including pyrethroids and permethrin, lindane, malathion, ivermectin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, in the treatment of head lice. PMID:19580574

  3. The Effect of Ivermectin in Seven Strains of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Including a Genetically Diverse Laboratory Strain and Three Permethrin Resistant Strains

    PubMed Central

    Deus, K. M.; Saavedra-rodriguez, K.; Butters, M. P.; Black, W. C.; Foy, B. D.

    2014-01-01

    Seven different strains of Aedes aegypti (L.), including a genetically diverse laboratory strain, three laboratory-selected permethrin-resistant strains, a standard reference strain, and two recently colonized strains were fed on human blood containing various concentrations of ivermectin. Ivermectin reduced adult survival, fecundity, and hatch rate of eggs laid by ivermectin-treated adults in all seven strains. The LC50 of ivermectin for adults and the concentration that prevented 50% of eggs from hatching was calculated for all strains. Considerable variation in adult survival after an ivermectin-bloodmeal occurred among strains, and all three permethrin-resistant strains were significantly less susceptible to ivermectin than the standard reference strain. The hatch rate after an ivermectin bloodmeal was less variable among strains, and only one of the permethrin-resistant strains differed significantly from the standard reference strain. Our studies suggest that ivermectin induces adult mortality and decreases the hatch rate of eggs through different mechanisms. A correlation analysis of log-transformed LC50 among strains suggests that permethrin and ivermectin cross-resistance may occur. PMID:22493855

  4. Efficacy of an injectable combination anthelmintic (nitroxynil+clorsulon+ivermectin) against early immature Fasciola hepatica compared to triclabendazole combination flukicides given orally or topically to cattle.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, G W; Dawson, K; Fitzgibbon, C C; Martin, P J

    2009-06-10

    The objective was to compare the efficacy against artificially induced 2- and 4-week old early immature triclabendazole-susceptible liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica) of an injectable combination of nitroxynil, clorsulon and ivermectin with oral and pour-on combination formulations containing triclabendazole. Groups of yearling Angus or Angus cross cattle were confirmed fluke free before being artificially infected with 500 Sunny Corner strain triclabendazole-susceptible liver fluke metacercariae. Two or four weeks after infection, cattle were treated with the test combination Nitromec (10.2mg/kg nitroxynil, 2.0mg/kg clorsulon, 0.2mg/kg ivermectin), or oral Flukazole C+Se (triclabendazole/oxfendazole/Selenium), oral Fasimec C (triclabendazole/ivermectin) or Genesis Ultra Pour-On (triclabendazole/abamectin). At intervals cattle were weighed, faecal sampled for liver fluke egg counts and blood sampled for liver serum enzyme analysis. Cattle were slaughtered 14 weeks after infection for recovery of adult flukes; fluke egg counts and liver pathology assessment. All cattle increased in body weight by 0.4-0.8kg/day but there were no significant differences between control and treated groups or between the treatment groups. Geometric mean 14-week fluke egg counts and total fluke counts for all treatments, were significantly less (p<0.05) than the control group, except for the group treated with Genesis Ultra Pour-On, 2 weeks after infection. Nitromec treatment of 2-week old flukes was 83% and 95% effective as assessed by 14-week egg and fluke counts, respectively, compared to Flukazole C; 96% and 99%, Fasimec C; 70% and 46%, and Genesis Pour-On, which was ineffective, with egg and fluke count reductions of 0% and 8%, respectively. Against 4-week old flukes, Nitromec treatment was 88% and 99% effective when assessed by 14-week egg and fluke counts, respectively, with Flukazole C; 98% and 99%, Genesis Pour-On; 98% and 82% and Fasimec C; 91% and 61% effective, respectively

  5. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Small Commercial ACs Could Add Up to Big Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Hollomon, J Bradford; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes a technology procurement conducted by DOE, PNNL, and the Defense Logistics Agency to increase the availability of energy-efficient, packaged, unitary ''rooftop'' air conditioners. The procurement encourages air conditioner manufacturers to produce equipment that exceeds federal energy efficiency standards by at least 25 percent at a lower first cost. Program developers have also sought to aggregate market demand by organizing groups of large-volume buyers of air conditioning equipment. A Cost Estimator tool developed by PNNL to help consumers determine the cost effectiveness, based on local climate conditions, of purchasing energy efficient air conditioners for their own facilities is also described.

  6. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement to Achieve Advances in Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hollomon, Brad

    2003-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Defense Logistics Agency, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently conducted a technology procurement to increase the availability of energy-efficient, packaged unitary ''rooftop'' air conditioners. The procurement encouraged air conditioner manufacturers to produce equipment that exceeded US energy efficiency standards by at least 25% at a lower life-cycle cost. An outgrowth of the project, a web-based cost estimator tool is now available to help consumers determine the cost-effectiveness of purchasing energy-efficient air conditioners based on climate conditions and other factors at their own locations.

  7. Shortening the Defrost Time on a Heat Pump Air Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Eiji; Yamazaki, Masaya; Kawamura, Toshiaki

    Methods to shorten the defrost time have been studied on a heat pump air conditioner. The experiment has been carried out using a 0.75kW heat pump and the energy balance during defrosting has been analyzed. We have found that the following methods are effective to shorten the defrost time; (1) Increase in power inqut to the compressor during defrosting, (2) Utilization of the compressor for thermal energy storage, (3) Reduction of the water left on the outdoor heat exchanger fins. The heat pump with the new defrosting system has been made on an experimental basis. lts defrost time is 1 minute and 55 seconds under the defrost condition of the Japanese Industrial Standard. The defrost time of a conventional heat pump is about 4 or 5 minutes.

  8. Mycoflora of air-conditioners dust from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bagy, M M; Gohar, Y M

    1988-01-01

    Using the hair baiting technique, 6 genera and 14 species were collected on Sabouraud's dextrose agar from 37 dust samples from air-conditioners. The most common fungi were Chrysosporium tropicum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, Aspergillus flavus followed by Acremonium strictum and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Using the dilution-plate method, 26 genera and 52 species were collected from 37 dust samples on glucose-(23 genera and 45 species) and cellulose-(18 genera and 34 species) Czapek's agar at 28 degrees C. The most prevalent species were Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Ulocladium atrum, Mucor racemosus and Fusarium solani and A. niger, A. flavus, Trichoderma viride, P. chrysogenum, Ulocladium atrum, Chaetomium globosum, C. spirale, Stachybotrys chartarum and Mucor racemosus on the two media, respectively. PMID:3236219

  9. Development of a solar powered residential air conditioner (General optimization)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowen, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    A commercially available 3-ton residential Lithium Bromide (LiBr) absorption air conditioner was modified for use with lower temperature solar heated water. The modification included removal of components such as the generator, concentration control chamber, liquid trap, and separator; and the addition of a Chrysler designed generator, an off-the-shelf LiBr-solution pump. The design goal of the modified unit was to operate with water as the heat-transfer fluid at a target temperature of 85 C (185 F), 29.4 C (85 F) cooling water inlet, producing 10.5 kW (3 tons) of cooling. Tests were performed on the system before and after modification to provide comparative data. At elevated temperatures (96 C, 205 F), the test results show that Lithium Bromide was carried into the condenser due to the extremely violent boiling and degraded the evaporator performance.

  10. Mass chemoprophylaxis of lymphatic filariasis with a single dose of ivermectin in a Polynesian community with a high Wuchereria bancrofti infection rate.

    PubMed

    Cartel, J L; Nguyen, N L; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Plichart, R; Martin, P M; Spiegel, A

    1992-01-01

    In April 1991 supervised mass prophylaxis of lymphatic filariasis with a single dose of ivermectin, 100 micrograms/kg, was carried out in a Polynesian village with a high infection rate of Wuchereria bancrofti in humans and active transmission by the vector mosquito, Aedes polynesiensis. Of 876 inhabitants aged 3 years or more (pregnant women excluded), 864 (98.6%) were treated. Simultaneously, venous blood samples were collected from 577 (97.5%) of the 595 inhabitants aged 15 years or more, of whom 122 (21.4%) were found to be microfilaria (mf) carriers (86 males and 36 females). The geometric mean microfilariae (GMM) count was 358.7 mf/ml for the whole group, 387 mf/ml for males (range 1-8160 mf/ml) and 280 mf/ml for females (range 1-7769 mf/ml). Following treatment, 33 (3.8%) of the 864 persons treated experienced some adverse reactions (21 with grade 1 and 12 with grade 2). Of the 33 with reactions, 29 were among the 122 (23.8%) mf carriers and 4 among the 831 (0.5%) non-microfilaraemic persons. Six months later, 123 (21.1%) of 584 inhabitants sampled were microfilaraemic: the GMM count for the whole group was 106 mf/ml (1-8177), with 29 mf/ml (1-3740) in 35 female and 177 mf/ml (1-8177) in 88 male carriers. Of these 123, 15 (whose GMM count was 4.5 mf/ml; range 1-204) were amicrofilaraemic 6 months before, and 19 had a microfilaraemia level higher than that 6 months earlier, before treatment. 117 of the 122 carriers identified in April were resampled: comparison of their GMM counts before and 6 months after mass treatment indicated that treatment with a single dose of 100 micrograms/kg ivermectin resulted in a reduction of microfilaraemia by 69%. PMID:1475825

  11. Absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion of tritium-labeled ivermectin in cattle, sheep, and rat

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shuething Lee; Green, M.L.; Baylis, F.P.; Eline, D.; Rosegay, A.; Meriwether, H.; Jacob, T.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Tritium-labeled ivermectin was studied in cattle, sheep, and rat for absorption, tissue residue distribution, and excretion at doses of 0.3 mg/kg of body weight. The drug was absorbed by various dosing routes. By intraruminal and subcutaneous dosing routes, highest tissue residues were present in fat and liver of cattle, with half-lives of 6-8 and 4-5 days, respectively. Shorter half-lives (1-2 days) were observed in sheep and rat. The tissue residue distribution pattern was essentially the same for all species studied and similar in male and female rats. With doses of tritium-labeled avermectin B{sub 1a} ranging from 0.06 to 7.5 mg/kg of body weight, plasma and tissue residue concentrations increased proportionally with the dose. When ivermectin was administered by various routes (ip, sc, iv, oral, and intraruminal), blood residue levels converged to 20-50 ppb 4 h after dosing and then depleted at similar rate regardless of the dosing route. Ivermectin was excreted primarily in the feces, with only less than 2% of the doses being eliminated in the urine in all three species studied.

  12. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  13. Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstein, A.; Slayzak, S.; Kozubal, E.

    2006-07-01

    A novel liquid-desiccant air conditioner that dries and cools building supply air will transform the use of direct-contact liquid-desiccant systems in HVAC applications, improving comfort, air quality, and providing energy-efficient humidity control.

  14. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  15. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: System optimization preliminary specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, J.; Hwang, K. C.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations aimed at the optimization of a baseline Rankine cycle solar powered air conditioner and the development of a preliminary system specification were conducted. Efforts encompassed the following: (1) investigations of the use of recuperators/regenerators to enhance the performance of the baseline system, (2) development of an off-design computer program for system performance prediction, (3) optimization of the turbocompressor design to cover a broad range of conditions and permit operation at low heat source water temperatures, (4) generation of parametric data describing system performance (COP and capacity), (5) development and evaluation of candidate system augmentation concepts and selection of the optimum approach, (6) generation of auxiliary power requirement data, (7) development of a complete solar collector-thermal storage-air conditioner computer program, (8) evaluation of the baseline Rankine air conditioner over a five day period simulating the NASA solar house operation, and (9) evaluation of the air conditioner as a heat pump.

  16. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This Top Innovation profile explains how comprehensive performance testing by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory led to simple, affordable methods that homeowners could employ for increasing the energy efficiency of window air conditioners.

  17. Macrofilaricidal Activity after Doxycycline Only Treatment of Onchocerca volvulus in an Area of Loa loa Co-Endemicity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Joseph D.; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Esum, Mathias; Johnston, Kelly L.; Langley, R. Stuart; Ford, Louise; Faragher, Brian; Specht, Sabine; Mand, Sabine; Hoerauf, Achim; Enyong, Peter; Wanji, Samuel; Taylor, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The risk of severe adverse events following treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in areas co-endemic with loiasis currently compromises the development of control programmes and the treatment of co-infected individuals. We therefore assessed whether doxycycline treatment could be used without subsequent ivermectin administration to effectively deliver sustained effects on Onchocerca volvulus microfilaridermia and adult viability. Furthermore we assessed the safety of doxycycline treatment prior to ivermectin administration in a subset of onchocerciasis individuals co-infected with low to moderate intensities of Loa loa microfilaraemia. Methods A double-blind, randomized, field trial was conducted of 6 weeks of doxycycline (200 mg/day) alone, doxycycline in combination with ivermectin (150 µg/kg) at +4 months or placebo matching doxycycline + ivermectin at +4 months in 150 individuals infected with Onchocerca volvulus. A further 22 individuals infected with O. volvulus and low to moderate intensities of Loa loa infection were administered with a course of 6 weeks doxycycline with ivermectin at +4 months. Treatment efficacy was determined at 4, 12 and 21 months after the start of doxycycline treatment together with the frequency and severity of adverse events. Results One hundred and four (60.5%) participants completed all treatment allocations and follow up assessments over the 21-month trial period. At 12 months, doxycycline/ivermectin treated individuals had lower levels of microfilaridermia and higher frequency of amicrofilaridermia compared with ivermectin or doxycycline only groups. At 21 months, microfilaridermia in doxycycline/ivermectin and doxycycline only groups was significantly reduced compared to the ivermectin only group. 89% of the doxycycline/ivermectin group and 67% of the doxycycline only group were amicrofilaridermic, compared with 21% in the ivermectin only group. O. volvulus from doxycycline groups were depleted of Wolbachia

  18. Effects of polyacrylamide soil conditioner on the iron status of soybean plants. [Glycine max

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Wallace, G.A.; Abouzamzam, A.M.; Char, J.W.

    1986-05-01

    An iron-inefficient cultivar of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. Bragg cv. PI-54619-5-1 was grown in two different calcareous soils, a Natrargid and a Torrifluvents, to determine if improvement of soil aeration with a synthetic polyacrylamide as a soil conditioner would decrease the tendency of the cultivar to lime-induced chlorosis. The results suggest that when soil is well aerated with good drainage from use of the soil conditioner, the iron status of plants is improved.

  19. Unipolar pulse and bipolar noise testing of wideband signal noise conditioner (MC476-0132-0034)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Information is presented on performance characteristics of the shuttle orbiter wideband signal conditioner when subjected to special types of input signals. Design analysis of the signal flow path through the signal conditioning amplifier was performed followed by acutal testing of the amplifier with various signal inputs. Results indicate that the signal conditioner should perform acceptably if the shuttle orbiter flight vibration signal levels are in accord with preflight predictions.

  20. Synergism between ivermectin and the tyrosine kinase/P-glycoprotein inhibitor crizotinib against Haemonchus contortus larvae in vitro.

    PubMed

    Raza, Ali; Kopp, Steven R; Kotze, Andrew C

    2016-08-30

    Anthelmintic resistance is a major problem in parasitic nematodes of livestock worldwide. One means to counter resistance is to use synergists that specifically inhibit resistance mechanisms in order to restore the toxicity, and hence preserve the usefulness, of currently available anthelmintics. P-glycoproteins (P-gps) eliminate a wide variety of structurally unrelated xenobiotics from cells, and have been implicated in anthelmintic resistance. Crizotinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor under development as a cancer therapeutic. The compound also inhibits P-gps, and has been shown to reverse multidrug resistance in cancer cells. We were therefore interested in determining if the compound was able to increase the sensitivity of Haemonchus contortus larvae to ivermectin, as measured by in vitro larval development and migration assays with a drug-resistant and a -susceptible isolate. In migration assays, co-administration of crizotinib increased the toxicity of ivermectin to resistant larvae (up to 5.7-fold decrease in ivermectin IC50), and rendered the resistant larvae equally or more sensitive to ivermectin than the susceptible isolate. On the other hand, co-administration of crizotinib had no effect on ivermectin sensitivity in the susceptible isolate. In development assays, significant increases in the sensitivity of both the resistant (up to 1.9-fold) and susceptible (up to 1.6-fold) larvae to ivermectin were observed, although the magnitude of the observed synergism was less than seen in migration assays, and the resistant larvae retained significant levels of ivermectin resistance. By highlighting the ability of the P-gp inhibitor crizotinib to increase the sensitivity of H. contortus larvae to ivermectin, this study provides further evidence that P-gp inhibitors are potential tools for modulating the efficacy of anthelmintics. In addition, the differences in the outcomes of the two assays, with 'resistance-breaking' effects being much more marked in migration

  1. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J.; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3–90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers. PMID:26557428

  2. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3-90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers. PMID:26557428

  3. Analysis of the mdr-1 gene in patients co-infected with Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa who experienced a post-ivermectin serious adverse event.

    PubMed

    Bourguinat, Catherine; Kamgno, Joseph; Boussinesq, Michel; Mackenzie, Charles D; Prichard, Roger K; Geary, Timothy G

    2010-07-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is exceptionally safe in humans, and is used for mass treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. However, cases of encephalopathy, sometimes fatal, have been reported in a small number of individuals who harbored large numbers of Loa loa microfilariae (mf). A loss-of-function mutation in the mdr-1 gene in some dog breeds and in mice leads to accumulation of the drug in the brain, causing coma and death. This hypothesis was tested in four individuals from Cameroon who experienced a post-IVM serious adverse event (SAE) and in nine non-SAE matched controls. No loss-of-function mutation was detected in mdr-1 in any subject. However, haplotypes, associated with altered drug disposition, were present as homozygotes in two of the SAE patients (50%), but absent as homozygotes in the controls (0%). An association of high Loa mf load and a genetic predisposition to altered IVM distribution could be involved in IVM SAEs. PMID:20595473

  4. Therapeutic and persistent efficacy of a long-acting (LA) formulation of ivermectin against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) and sera concentration through time in treated cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentration-time profile, therapeutic, and persistent efficacy of a single subcutaneous injection of cattle with a long-acting (LA) formulation of ivermectin at a concentration of 630 µg per kg of body weight was determined against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Ivermectin sera concentratio...

  5. Chemoprophylaxis of Onchocerca infections: in a controlled, prospective study ivermectin prevents calves becoming infected with O. ochengi.

    PubMed

    Tchakouté, V L; Bronsvoort, M; Tanya, V; Renz, A; Trees, A J

    1999-02-01

    Onchocerciasis ('River Blindness'), caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus is of major public health importance in West Africa. Ivermectin, a drug originally developed for veterinary use, is now being incorporated in control strategies but whilst it has potent efficacy against L1 larvae (microfilariae), ivermectin is not lethal to adult (L5) O. volvulus, nor to adults of the related cattle parasite O. ochengi. We have exploited this model to determine if ivermectin has prophylactic activity against naturally transmitted, O. ochengi infections in a controlled, prospective study in northern Cameroon. Calves were treated monthly with ivermectin at either 200 micrograms/kg or 500 micrograms/kg for 21 months. None of 15 treated calves developed adult worm infection, whereas 5/6 untreated controls became infected (P < 0.001) with a total of 54 O. ochengi nodules, and all 5 developed patent microfilaridermia. These results have significant implications for the use of ivermectin in humans, and suggest that strategic chemotherapy at times of maximal transmission will confer prophylactic as well as therapeutic benefits. PMID:10028534

  6. Brief exposures of human body lice to sub-lethal amounts of ivermectin over transcribes detoxification genes involved in tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, K. S.; Strycharz, J. P.; Baek, J. H.; Sun, W.; Kim, J.H.; Kang, J.S.; Pittendrigh, B. R.; Lee, S. H.; Clark, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling results, using our non-invasive induction assay [short exposure intervals (2–5 h) to sub-lethal amounts of insecticides (ivermectin-induced detoxification genes from body lice are identified by quantitative real-time PCR analyses. Of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and ATP binding cassette transporter genes induced by ivermectin, CYP6CJ1, CYP9AG1, CYP9AG2 and PhABCC4 were respectively most significantly over-expressed, had high basal expression levels and were most closely related to genes from other organisms that metabolized insecticides, including ivermectin. Injection of dsRNAs against either CYP9AG2 or PhABCC4 into non-induced female lice reduced their respective transcript level and resulted in increase sensitivity to ivermectin, indicating that these two genes are involved in the xenobiotic metabolism of ivermectin and in the production of tolerance. PMID:21895817

  7. First report of ivermectin resistance in field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Punjab districts of India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Singh, Harkirat; Jyoti; Prerna, Mranalini; Rath, Shitanshu S

    2015-11-30

    The larval immersion test (LIT) was used on the progenies of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from four districts of the Punjab state, India to test the resistance to ivermectin. The regression graphs of probit mortality of larval ticks plotted against log values of increasing concentrations of ivermectin were utilized for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50%(LC50), 95%(LC95), resistance ratios (RR50, RR95) and the resistance levels (RL). Values of the coefficient of determination (R(2)) for LIT ranged from 0.900 to 0.978, and the RR50 and RR95 values against ivermectin ranged from 2.97 to 8.85 and 2.42 to 8.47, respectively, indicating resistance status in all field isolates. On the basis of RR values, three field isolates (BAT, GUR, HOS) showed level II, whereas PTK isolate showed presence of level I resistance status against ivermectin. This appears to be the first report of ivermectin resistance in R. (B.) microplus from Punjab, India. PMID:26404476

  8. Loa loa microfilarial periodicity in ivermectin-treated patients: comparison between those developing and those free of serious adverse events.

    PubMed

    Kamgno, Joseph; Pion, Sébastien D; Mackenzie, Charles D; Thylefors, Björn; Boussinesq, Michel

    2009-12-01

    The main risk factor of post-ivermectin serious adverse events (SAEs) is the presence of a high Loa loa microfilaremia. However, the majority of patients with such high loads do not develop SAEs, suggesting that co-factors may be involved. An infection with simian Loa parasites, whose microfilariae show a nocturnal periodicity, might be such a co-factor. The periodicity of Loa microfilariae was compared, using cosinor methodology, in 4 patients who had developed a post-ivermectin neurologic SAE, 4 patients who had experienced a non-neurologic SAE, and 14 control individuals. The periodicity was similar in all three groups, with a peak of microfilaremia occurring between 12:30 and 2:00 PM. The results of this study, which for the first time characterizes the periodicity of Loa microfilariae mathematically, suggest that post-ivermectin SAEs are not related to an infection with a Loa simian strain. PMID:19996437

  9. Centrifugal compressors for automotive air conditioners -- Component design

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, H.; Smith, J.L. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The application of a novel, electric motor-driven, variable-speed centrifugal compressor for automotive air conditioners has been investigated. For the feasibility analysis, a configuration design has been performed. It includes refrigerant selection, thermodynamic cycle analysis, compressor aerodynamic design, and mechanical layout of the integrated motor-compressor structure. Both the motor constraints (provided by the Laboratory for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems at M.I.T.) and the compressor constraints were considered for the configuration design. The result is an inter-cooled two-stage compression system using R123 as the refrigerant. The inter-cooling is achieved by feeding back a small fraction of the condenser liquid into the return channel between the first and the second stage through the electric motor. At the design condition, the pressure ratio is 3.2 for the first stage and 1.9 for the second stage. The design rotational speed is 75,000 rpm, and the maximum cooling capacity is 5,275 Watts. High efficiency is expected by varying the compressor speed to match the required cooling load at each instant.

  10. Electronic Power Conditioner for Ku-band Travelling Wave Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowstubha, Palle; Krishnaveni, K.; Ramesh Reddy, K.

    2016-07-01

    A highly sophisticated regulated power supply is known as electronic power conditioner (EPC) is required to energise travelling wave tubes (TWTs), which are used as RF signal amplifiers in satellite payloads. The assembly consisting of TWT and EPC together is known as travelling wave tube amplifier (TWTA). EPC is used to provide isolated and conditioned voltage rails with tight regulation to various electrodes of TWT and makes its RF performance independent of solar bus variations which are caused due to varying conditions of eclipse and sunlit. The payload mass and their power consumption is mainly due to the existence of TWTAs that represent about 35 % of total mass and about 70-90 % (based on the type of satellite application) of overall dc power consumption. This situation ensures a continuous improvement in the design of TWTAs and their associated EPCs to realize more efficient and light products. Critical technologies involved in EPCs are design and configuration, closed loop regulation, component and material selection, energy limiting of high voltage (HV) outputs and potting of HV card etc. This work addresses some of these critical technologies evolved in realizing and testing the state of art of EPC and it focuses on the design of HV supply with a HV and high power capability, up to 6 kV and 170 WRF, respectively required for a space TWTA. Finally, an experimental prototype of EPC with a dc power of 320 W provides different voltages required by Ku-band TWT in open loop configuration.

  11. Dirty air conditioners: Energy implications of coil fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Jeffrey; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2002-03-01

    Residential air conditioning is responsible for a substantial amount of peak electrical demand and energy consumption throughout most of the United States. Coil fouling, the deposition of indoor dusts and other particulate matter on evaporator heat exchangers, increases system pressure drop and, correspondingly, decreases system air flow and air conditioner performance. In this paper, we apply experimental and simulation results describing particle deposition on evaporator coils as well as research about indoor particle and dust concentrations to determine coil fouling rates. The results suggest that typical coils foul enough to double evaporator pressure drop in about 7.5 years, much sooner than the expected 15-30 year life time for an evaporator coil. The most important parameters in determining coil fouling times are the efficiency of the filter and indoor particle concentrations, although filter bypass and duct and coil design are important as well. The reduced air flows that result from coil fouling cause typical efficiency and capacity degradations of less than 5%, however they can be much greater for marginal systems or extreme conditions. These energy issues, as well as possible indoor air quality issues resulting from fouling by biological aerosols, suggest that regular coil cleaning to ameliorate low flow and the elimination of filter bypass should be an important part of residential air conditioning commissioning and maintenance practices.

  12. Effect of air-conditioner on fungal contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Nobuo; Fujita, Tadao

    Air-conditioners (AC) produce much dew and wet conditions inside their apparatus, when in operation. We studied the fungal contamination in AC and found that the average fungal contamination of AC filters was about 5-fold greater than that of a carpet, and Cladosporium and Penicillium were predominant in AC filters. The fungal contamination inside AC, which were used everyday, increased more markedly than those not used daily, e.g. a few days per week or rarely. Moreover, the airborne fungal contamination in rooms during air-conditioning was about 2-fold greater than one in rooms without AC, and was highest when air-conditioning started and decreased gradually with time. We recognized that the airborne fungal contamination was controlled by the environmental condition of the rooms, in which AC were used. It is suggested that AC might promote mold allergies in users via airborne fungal spores derived from the AC. On the other hand, AC was estimated to remove moisture in the room atmosphere and carpets, and reduce the relative humidity in rooms. It was found that the average fungal contamination in the house dust of carpets with AC was suppressed by two-third of that in rooms without AC. The use of AC for suppressing fungal hazards was discussed.

  13. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    SciTech Connect

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  14. 21 CFR 520.1197 - Ivermectin sustained-release bolus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... withdrawal time has not been established, do not use in female dairy cattle of breeding age. Do not slaughter cattle within 180 days of treatment. Consult your veterinarian for assistance in the diagnosis, treatment..., and ticks Amblyomma americanum. (3) Limitations. The bolus was specifically designed for use in...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1197 - Ivermectin sustained-release bolus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... withdrawal time has not been established, do not use in female dairy cattle of breeding age. Do not slaughter cattle within 180 days of treatment. Consult your veterinarian for assistance in the diagnosis, treatment..., and ticks Amblyomma americanum. (3) Limitations. The bolus was specifically designed for use in...

  16. 21 CFR 524.1193 - Ivermectin topical solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... larvae) Dictyocaulus viviparus; cattle grubs (parasitic stages) Hypoderma bovis, H. lineatum; mites Sarcoptes scabiei var. bovis; lice Linognathus vituli, Haematopinus eurysternus, Damalinia bovis, Solenoptes.... surnabada for 14 days after treatment, and D. bovis for 56 days after treatment. (3) Limitations. Do...

  17. 21 CFR 524.1193 - Ivermectin topical solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... larvae) Dictyocaulus viviparus; cattle grubs (parasitic stages) Hypoderma bovis, H. lineatum; mites Sarcoptes scabiei var. bovis; lice Linognathus vituli, Haematopinus eurysternus, Damalinia bovis, Solenoptes.... surnabada for 14 days after treatment, and D. bovis for 56 days after treatment. (3) Limitations. Do...

  18. 21 CFR 524.1193 - Ivermectin topical solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... larvae) Dictyocaulus viviparus; cattle grubs (parasitic stages) Hypoderma bovis, H. lineatum; mites Sarcoptes scabiei var. bovis; lice Linognathus vituli, Haematopinus eurysternus, Damalinia bovis, Solenoptes.... surnabada for 14 days after treatment, and D. bovis for 56 days after treatment. (3) Limitations. Do...

  19. The antimicrobial activity of a dentin conditioner combined with antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Michael G

    2005-01-01

    Dental hand instruments are not efficient in removing all infected dentin when performing carious removal for minimal intervention techniques. The use of an antibacterial dentin conditioner may therefore be useful when restoring cavities that have residual carious dentin. Antibacterial agents--chlorhexidine hydrochloride, cetylpyridinium chloride, cetrimide, benzaIkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite, were added either to a dentin conditioner used for glass ionomer cements or distilled water at 1% concentration. Dentin conditioning solutions at pH 2.5, 4.9 and 7.7 were also prepared, along with 1% aqueous thymol. Using an agar diffusion test, 25 microl aliquots were examined for their inhibitory effects on three cariogenic bacteria. After 24 hours, an agar pellet was extracted adjacent to the agar well and placed on a second inoculated agar plate to observe sustained inhibitory effects, after which this procedure was repeated one more time. Antibacterial dentin conditioners showed significant inhibitory effect compared to the control over the three test periods (p<0.016). The combination of dentin conditioners with antibacterial agents significantly reduced the inhibitory effect compared to the antibacterial aqueous solutions (p<0.016). One-percent aqueous thymol showed no inhibitory effect against the test bacteria. The cetrimide-dentin conditioner showed the greatest inhibitory effect against all three test bacteria over the three experimental periods (p<0.016). The inhibitory effect of antibacterial agents was significantly reduced when combined with a dentin conditioner. Only the cetrimide-dentin conditioner combination produced significant inhibitory effects against all three test organisms. PMID:15765961

  20. Positive and negative electrospray LC-MS-MS methods for quantitation of the antiparasitic endectocide drugs, abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin and selamectin in milk.

    PubMed

    Durden, David A

    2007-05-01

    Avermectin endectocides are used for the treatment of cattle against a variety of nematode and arthropod parasites, and consequently may appear in milk after normal or off-label use. The compounds abamectin, doramectin, and ivermectin, contain only C, H and O and may be expected to be detected by LC-MS in negative ion mode. The others contain nitrogen in addition and would be expected to be preferentially ionized in positive mode. The use of positive ion and negative ion methods with electrospray LC-MS-MS were compared. Using negative ion the compounds abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, and moxidectin gave a curvilinear response and were quantified in raw milk by LC-MS-MS with a triethylamine-acetonitrile buffer over the concentration range 1-60 ppb (microg/kg) using selamectin as the internal standard. The limits of detection (LOD) were between 0.19 ppb (doramectin) and 0.38 ppb (emamectin). The compounds gave maximum sensitivity with positive ionisation from a formic acid-ammonium formate-acetonitrile buffer and were detected in milk (LC-MS-MS) also with a curvilinear response over the range 0.5-60 ppb. Although the positive ion signals were larger, with somewhat lower limits of detection (LOD between 0.06 ppb (doramectin) and 0.32 ppb (moxidectin) the negative ion procedure gave a more linear response and more consistent results. Comparison of spiked samples in the range 2-50 ppb showed a high degree of correlation between the two methods. PMID:17129769

  1. Effective treatment for improving the survival rate of raccoon dogs infected with Sarcoptes scabiei.

    PubMed

    Kido, Nobuhide; Omiya, Tomoko; Kamegaya, Chihiro; Wada, Yuko; Takahashi, Maya; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2014-08-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei is one of the important external parasites. Although ivermectin is the recommended treatment, many raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) that were rescued and brought to the Kanazawa Zoological Gardens (Yokohama, Japan) have died because of S. scabiei, even after receiving single ivermectin treatment. Therefore, supportive treatment should be required. The present study revealed the number of animals that survived was greater after the administration of ivermectin along with an antibiotic for all raccoon dogs, as well as following the administration of fluid therapy to the debilitated raccoon dogs infected with S. scabiei, immediately after the rescue. During the initial period, treatment to improve the general clinical condition was required prior to deworming treatment for S. scabiei. PMID:24813465

  2. Effective Treatment for Improving the Survival Rate of Raccoon Dogs Infected with Sarcoptes scabiei

    PubMed Central

    KIDO, Nobuhide; OMIYA, Tomoko; KAMEGAYA, Chihiro; WADA, Yuko; TAKAHASHI, Maya; YAMAMOTO, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sarcoptes scabiei is one of the important external parasites. Although ivermectin is the recommended treatment, many raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) that were rescued and brought to the Kanazawa Zoological Gardens (Yokohama, Japan) have died because of S. scabiei, even after receiving single ivermectin treatment. Therefore, supportive treatment should be required. The present study revealed the number of animals that survived was greater after the administration of ivermectin along with an antibiotic for all raccoon dogs, as well as following the administration of fluid therapy to the debilitated raccoon dogs infected with S. scabiei, immediately after the rescue. During the initial period, treatment to improve the general clinical condition was required prior to deworming treatment for S. scabiei. PMID:24813465

  3. Serum Strongylus vulgaris-specific antibody responses to anthelmintic treatment in naturally infected horses.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Martin K; Vidyashankar, Anand N; Bellaw, Jennifer; Gravatte, Holli S; Cao, Xin; Rubinson, Emily F; Reinemeyer, Craig R

    2015-02-01

    Strongylus vulgaris is the most pathogenic helminth parasite of horses, causing verminous endarteritis with thromboembolism and infarction. A serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been validated for detection of antibodies to an antigen produced by migrating larvae of this parasite. The aim was to evaluate ELISA responses to anthelmintic treatment in cohorts of naturally infected horses. Fifteen healthy horses harboring patent S. vulgaris infections were turned out for communal grazing in May 2013 (day 0). On day 55, horses were ranked according to ELISA titers and randomly allocated to the following three groups: no treatment followed by placebo pellets daily; ivermectin on day 60 followed by placebo pellets daily; or ivermectin on day 60 followed by daily pyrantel tartrate. Fecal and serum samples were collected at ∼28-day intervals until study termination on day 231. Increased ELISA values were observed for the first 53 days following ivermectin treatment. Titers were significantly reduced 80 days after ivermectin treatment. Horses receiving daily pyrantel tartrate maintained lower ELISA values from 137 days post ivermectin treatment until trial termination. These results illustrate that a positive ELISA result is indicative of either current or prior exposure to larval S. vulgaris infection within the previous 5 months. PMID:25358238

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Physical Properties of Four Tissue Conditioners Relined to Modeling Plastic Material

    PubMed Central

    Monzavi, Abbas; Siadat, Hakimeh; Atai, Mohammad; Alikhasi, Marzieh; Nazari, Vahideh; Sheikhzadeh, Sadigheh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the interaction of tissue conditioners and modeling plastics. This study evaluates the influence of a variety of commercial tissue conditioners on alteration of viscoelastic properties of modeling plastics. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, the dynamic viscoelastic properties of four commercially available tissue conditioners (TC), Visco-gel (VG), GC Soft-Liner (SL), FITT (FT), and Coe Comfort (CC), relined to modeling plastics with a thickness of 2mm were evaluated after 1 and 7 days of water immersion with the use of storage modulus, loss modulus, and tan delta parameters. Values for these three parameters for each tissue conditioner were statistically analyzed by Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests with P value sets at<0.05. Results: Complex modulus and loss tangent values of TC were not significantly different among specimens containing 0, 2, 5 and 10 wt.%-SZ, respectively. In FT and TC containing 2 wt.%-SZ, these values were not significantly different between 1 and 28 days in both water- and saliva immersions. Conclusion: The results suggest that relining with modeling plastics does affect TC’s inherent dynamic viscoelastic properties, while the other tissue conditioners investigated may be found to have changed viscoelastic properties as a consequence of vicinity to the modeling plastics. PMID:24910661

  5. Reinforced glass-ionomer cements: the influence of conditioners on marginal leakage.

    PubMed

    Yap, A U; Mok, B Y

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of conditioners on the enamel and dentine margin sealing ability of three different reinforced glass-ionomer cements. Two Class V preparations were made on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 36 freshly extracted molar teeth. Preparations were solely in enamel or dentine/cementum. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups of 12 and restored with either Ketac Silver (KS), Hi-Dense (HD) or Miracle-Mix (MM) with and without (-C) their respective conditioners. All materials were capsulated and were manipulated according to the manufacturers' instructions. The restorations were finished as recommended by the manufacturers and then stored in saline at 37 degrees C for 1 week, polished, thermally stressed, subjected to dye penetration, sectioned and scored. Rankings in the order of decreasing leakage were as follows: enamel margin KS > KS-C > HD-C > HD > MM > MM-C; dentine margin KS > HD-C > KS-C > HD > MM-C > MM. At the enamel margins, only HD showed a significant increase in leakage when conditioner was not used. At the dentine margin, however, KS had significantly more leakage than KS-C and HD-C had significantly more leakage than HD. There was no significant difference in leakage for MM both with and without conditioner. The influence of conditioners on marginal leakage appears to be both product and tissue specific. PMID:9219996

  6. 21 CFR 524.1195 - Ivermectin otic suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....1195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...—(1) Amount. Administer the contents of one 0.5-mL tube topically into each external ear canal. (2) Indications for use. For the treatment of adult ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestations in cats and...

  7. Frictional Characterization of Chemical-Mechanical Polishing Pad Surface and Diamond Conditioner Wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yohei; Kawakubo, Masanori; Hirai, Osamu; Konishi, Nobuhiro; Kurokawa, Syuhei; Doi, Toshiro

    2008-08-01

    We evaluated a contact metrology instrument used in chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) systems for high-volume manufacture and examined in situ coefficient of friction (COF) monitoring to identify the tribology of CMP, and subsequently to determine the useful lifespan of consumables. The results showed that the direct measurement of the wear of the pad allowed for an accurate determination of both pad thickness and the ideal time to replace the pad and conditioner disk based on pad wear rate. We also presented a clear correlation between the working grid area of the conditioner disk and the tribological behavior of the pad break-in procedure, leading to the result showing that the variation in tungsten film removal rate decreased as the working grid density of the conditioner disk increased. This study has proven the effectiveness of measuring friction force for better CMP control.

  8. Evaluation of Annual Performance of Multi-type Air-conditioners for Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Choyu; Ohashi, Ei-Ichiro; Hirota, Masafumi; Nagamatsu, Katsuaki; Nakayama, Hiroshi

    The partial thermal load performance tests of electric-motor driven multi-type air-conditioners for buildings, the rated cooling and heating capacities of which were 56 kW and 63 kW, respectively, were carried out using the air-enthalpy method testing apparatus. Based on the results of those tests, the applicability of JIS B 8616: 2006, which was developed for the estimation of the annual electricity consumption of packaged air-conditioners with rated cooling capacities less than 28 kW, to the multi-type air-conditioners with larger capacities were examined. It was found that JIS B 8616: 2006 generally overestimates COP under a relatively low thermal load operation. As a result, the annual electricity consumption is underestimated by JIS. The prediction error changes depending of the building uses, and it amounted to -17 % in the case of office and -6 % in the detached shop.

  9. New ventures in the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of macrocyclic lactones, abamectin and ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Molinari, G; Soloneski, S; Larramendy, M L

    2010-01-01

    Abamectin and Ivermectin are 2 closely related members of the Avermectin family of 16-membered macrocyclic lactones derived from the actinomycete Streptomyces avermectinius which exhibit extraordinary anthelmintic activity. They are used worldwide in veterinary and human medicine as well as in agriculture. In the present review we summarized the results published so far for estimating the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity exerted by both compounds in several cellular systems. Although both compounds do not induce in vitro and in vivo gene mutations in either bacterial or mammalian cells, there is no concrete evidence of a clear clastogenic effect exerted both in vitro and in vivo in mammalian cells. However, reports indicating that both anthelmintic agents are able to induce single DNA-strand breaks in vitro and inhibit cell growth either in vitro or in in vivo bioassays, are scarce. Taking into account the similarity of the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity exerted by both antibiotics, and that only Abamectin has been classified so far as a class II toxicity pesticide by the EPA, the necessity of reconsideration for a further hazard evaluation of Ivermectin by an international regulatory agency(ies) is strongly recommended. PMID:20389039

  10. Discovery of berberine, abamectin and ivermectin as antivirals against chikungunya and other alphaviruses.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Finny S; Kaukinen, Pasi; Gläsker, Sabine; Bespalov, Maxim; Hanski, Leena; Wennerberg, Krister; Kümmerer, Beate M; Ahola, Tero

    2016-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic arbovirus of the Alphavirus genus, which has infected millions of people after its re-emergence in the last decade. In this study, a BHK cell line containing a stable CHIKV replicon with a luciferase reporter was used in a high-throughput platform to screen approximately 3000 compounds. Following initial validation, 25 compounds were chosen as primary hits for secondary validation with wild type and reporter CHIKV infection, which identified three promising compounds. Abamectin (EC50 = 1.5 μM) and ivermectin (EC50 = 0.6 μM) are fermentation products generated by a soil dwelling actinomycete, Streptomyces avermitilis, whereas berberine (EC50 = 1.8 μM) is a plant-derived isoquinoline alkaloid. They inhibited CHIKV replication in a dose-dependent manner and had broad antiviral activity against other alphaviruses--Semliki Forest virus and Sindbis virus. Abamectin and ivermectin were also active against yellow fever virus, a flavivirus. These compounds caused reduced synthesis of CHIKV genomic and antigenomic viral RNA as well as downregulation of viral protein expression. Time of addition experiments also suggested that they act on the replication phase of the viral infectious cycle. PMID:26752081

  11. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... conditioners at 10 CFR 430.32(b). 1. Definitions. 1.1“Active mode” means a mode in which the room air... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... conditioners at 10 CFR 430.32(b). 1. Definitions. 1.1“Active mode” means a mode in which the room air... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... conditioners at 10 CFR 430.32(b). 1. Definitions. 1.1 “Active mode” means a mode in which the room air... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  14. 10 CFR 431.96 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. 431.96 Section 431.96 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial... energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. (a) Scope. This section contains...

  15. 10 CFR 431.96 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. 431.96 Section 431.96 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial... energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. (a) Scope. This section contains...

  16. Effects of Ivermectin on the Susceptibility of Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ivermectin is one of the most frequently used antiparasitic drugs in the livestock industry. It is toxic to insects, because it can hyperpolarize their nerve and muscle cells and increases cellular membrane permeability to chloride ions, which leads to muscular paralysis. The mortality of Culicoides...

  17. Adaptation of in vitro bioassays for the diagnosis of resistance to Fipronil and Ivermectin in R. (B.) microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    R. microplus represents the most important pathological constraint to livestock production in Brazil and Uruguay. The infestation of cattle by ticks is controlled by chemical applications on a regular basis. Fipronil and ivermectin have been widely used in recent years to the benefit of cattle produ...

  18. Ivermectin-loaded lipid nanocapsules: toward the development of a new antiparasitic delivery system for veterinary applications.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, G V Ullio; Palma, S D; Lifschitz, A; Ballent, M; Lanusse, C; Passirani, C; Benoit, J P; Allemandi, D A

    2016-05-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is probably one of the most widely used antiparasitic drugs worldwide, and its efficacy is well established. However, slight differences in formulation may change the plasma kinetics, the biodistribution, and in consequence, the efficacy of this compound. The present study focuses on the development of a novel nanocarrier for the delivery of lipophilic drugs such as IVM and its potential application in antiparasitic control. Lipid nanocapsules (LNC) were prepared by a new phase inversion procedure and characterized in terms of size, surface potential, encapsulation efficiency, and physical stability. A complement activation assay (CH50) and uptake experiments by THP-1 macrophage cells were used to assess the stealth properties of this nanocarrier in vitro. Finally, a pharmacokinetics and biodistribution study was carried out as a proof of concept after subcutaneous (SC) injection in a rat model. The final IVM-LNC suspension displayed a narrow size distribution and an encapsulation rate higher than 90 % constant over the evaluated time (60 days). Through flow cytometry and blood permanence measurements, it was possible to confirm the ability of these particles to avoid the macrophage uptake. Moreover, the systemic disposition of IVM in the LNC administered by the SC route was higher (p < 0.05) (1367 ng h/ml) compared to treatment with a commercial formulation (CF) (1193 ng.h/ml), but no significant differences in the biodistribution pattern were found. In conclusion, this new carrier seems to be a promising therapeutic approach in antiparasitic control and to delay the appearance of resistance. PMID:26852126

  19. Comparative plasma disposition, bioavailability and efficacy of ivermectin following oral and pour-on administrations in horses.

    PubMed

    Gokbulut, Cengiz; Cirak, Veli Y; Senlik, Bayram; Aksit, Dilek; Durmaz, Murat; McKellar, Quintin A

    2010-05-28

    Pour-on formulations of endectocides decrease the risk of injury for both user and animal, and are particularly convenient for animal owners who can apply the product. This study was designed to investigate the plasma disposition and efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) following pour-on, per os and intravenous administrations. Eighteen female horses weighing 510-610 kg were used in this study. The animals were allocated into three groups (per os, pour-on and intravenous groups). The equine paste, bovine pour-on and bovine injectable formulations of IVM were administered orally, topically and intravenously at the dose rates of 0.2, 0.5 and 0.2mg/kg bodyweight, respectively. Heparinized blood samples and hair samples were collected at various times between 1h and 40 days. The samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. Faecal strongyle egg counts (EPG) were performed by a modified McMaster's technique before and at weekly intervals during 10 weeks after treatment. The results indicated that the plasma concentration and systemic availability of IVM was lower but the plasma persistence was prolonged after pour-on administration compared with per os route. IVM (paste) reduced the EPG by >95% for 10 weeks, whereas the reduction in pour-on group varied from 82 to 97%. EPG reduction in pour-on group was lower than that of per os group. Degradation on the application site, cutaneous biotransformation, binding of IVM to the haircoat and/or sebum are probably responsible for the relatively lower bioavailability of IVM in horses after pour-on administration. In conclusion, the poor plasma availability observed after pour-on administration could result in subtherapeutic plasma concentrations, which may promote the development of drug resistance in parasites. PMID:20181429

  20. Flow conditioner for fuel injector for combustor and method for low-NO.sub.x combustor

    DOEpatents

    Dutta, Partha; Smith, Kenneth O.; Ritz, Frank J.

    2013-09-10

    An injector for a gas turbine combustor including a catalyst coated surface forming a passage for feed gas flow and a channel for oxidant gas flow establishing an axial gas flow through a flow conditioner disposed at least partially within an inner wall of the injector. The flow conditioner includes a length with an interior passage opening into upstream and downstream ends for passage of the axial gas flow. An interior diameter of the interior passage smoothly reduces and then increases from upstream to downstream ends.

  1. Treatment of cutaneous larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Caumes, E

    2000-05-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans caused by the larvae of animal hookworms is the most frequent skin disease among travelers returning from tropical countries. Complications (impetigo and allergic reactions), together with the intense pruritus and the significant duration of the disease, make treatment mandatory. Freezing the leading edge of the skin track rarely works. Topical treatment of the affected area with 10%-15% thiabendazole solution or ointment has limited value for multiple lesions and hookworm folliculitis, and requires applications 3 times a day for at least 15 days. Oral thiabendazole is poorly effective when given as a single dose (cure rate, 68%-84%) and is less well tolerated than either albendazole or ivermectin. Treatment with a single 400-mg oral dose of albendazole gives cure rates of 46%-100%; a single 12-mg oral dose of ivermectin gives cure rates of 81%-100%. PMID:10816151

  2. A hybrid air conditioner driven by a hybrid solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alili, Ali

    The objective of this thesis is to search for an efficient way of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications. The current solar Air Conditioners (A/C)s suffer from low Coefficient of Performance (COP) and performance degradation in hot and humid climates. By investigating the possible ways of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications, the bottlenecks in these approaches were identified. That resulted in proposing a novel system whose subsystem synergy led to a COP higher than unity. The proposed system was found to maintain indoor comfort at a higher COP compared to the most common solar A/Cs, especially under very hot and humid climate conditions. The novelty of the proposed A/C is to use a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal collector, which outputs thermal and electrical energy simultaneously, to drive a hybrid A/C. The performance of the hybrid A/C, which consists of a desiccant wheel, an enthalpy wheel, and a vapor compression cycle (VCC), was investigated experimentally. This work also explored the use of a new type of desiccant material, which can be regenerated with a low temperature heat source. The experimental results showed that the hybrid A/C is more effective than the standalone VCC in maintaining the indoor conditions within the comfort zone. Using the experimental data, the COP of the hybrid A/C driven by a hybrid solar collector was found to be at least double that of the current solar A/Cs. The innovative integration of its subsystems allows each subsystem to do what it can do best. That leads to lower energy consumption which helps reduce the peak electrical loads on electric utilities and reduces the consumer operating cost since less energy is purchased during the on peak periods and less solar collector area is needed. In order for the proposed A/C to become a real alternative to conventional systems, its performance and total cost were optimized using the experimentally validated model. The results showed that for an

  3. Mass Administration of Ivermectin for the Elimination of Onchocerciasis Significantly Reduced and Maintained Low the Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis in Esmeraldas, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Anselmi, Mariella; Buonfrate, Dora; Guevara Espinoza, Angel; Prandi, Rosanna; Marquez, Monica; Gobbo, Maria; Montresor, Antonio; Albonico, Marco; Racines Orbe, Marcia; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of ivermectin mass drug administration on strongyloidiasis and other soil transmitted helminthiases. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected in Esmeraldas (Ecuador) during surveys conducted in areas where ivermectin was annually administered to the entire population for the control of onchocerciasis. Data from 5 surveys, conducted between 1990 (before the start of the distribution of ivermectin) and 2013 (six years after the interruption of the intervention) were analyzed. The surveys also comprised areas where ivermectin was not distributed because onchocerciasis was not endemic. Different laboratory techniques were used in the different surveys (direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration, IFAT and IVD ELISA for Strongyloides stercoralis). Results In the areas where ivermectin was distributed the strongyloidiasis prevalence fell from 6.8% in 1990 to zero in 1996 and 1999. In 2013 prevalence in children was zero with stool examination and 1.3% with serology, in adult 0.7% and 2.7%. In areas not covered by ivermectin distribution the prevalence was 23.5% and 16.1% in 1996 and 1999, respectively. In 2013 the prevalence was 0.6% with fecal exam and 9.3% with serology in children and 2.3% and 17.9% in adults. Regarding other soil transmitted helminthiases: in areas where ivermectin was distributed the prevalence of T. trichiura was significantly reduced, while A. lumbricoides and hookworms were seemingly unaffected. Conclusions Periodic mass distribution of ivermectin had a significant impact on the prevalence of strongyloidiasis, less on trichuriasis and apparently no effect on ascariasis and hookworm infections. PMID:26540412

  4. In vitro antimicrobial effect of the tissue conditioner containing silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to identify in vitro antimicrobial activity of the tissue conditioner containing silver nanoparticles on microbial strains, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. MATERIALS AND METHODS Experimental disc samples (20.0×3.0 mm) of tissue conditioner (GC Soft-Liner, GC cooperation, Tokyo, Japan) containing 0.1 - 3.0% silver nanoparticles (0%: control) were fabricated. Samples were placed on separate culture plate dish and microbial suspensions (100 µL) of tested strains were inoculated then incubated at 37℃. Microbial growth was verified at 24 hrs and 72 hrs and the antimicrobial effects of samples were evaluated as a percentage of viable cells in withdrawn suspension (100 µL). Data were recorded as the mean of three colony forming unit (CFU) numerations and the borderline of the antimicrobial effect was determined at 0.1% viable cells. RESULTS A 0.1% silver nanoparticles combined to tissue conditioner displayed minimal bactericidal effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans strains, a 0.5% for fungal strain. Control group did not show any microbial inhibitory effect and there were no statistical difference between 24 hrs and extended 72 hrs incubation time (P > .05). CONCLUSION Within the limitation of this in vitro study, the results suggest that the tissue conditioner containing silver nanoparticles could be an antimicrobial dental material in denture plaque control. Further mechanical stability and toxicity studies are still required. PMID:21503189

  5. Dehumidifying Characteristics of Polymer Electrolyte Dehumidifying Cell and its Application to Air Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyakuno, Takahiro; Hattori, Kikuo; Ikeda, Takanobu; Araki, Takuto; Onda, Kazuo

    Lots of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) has been released to atmosphere, resulting that the ozone layer in the stratosphere has been destroyed by the released CFC. Therefore, air conditioners without using CFC have been required to be developed. One of the candidates for such air conditioners is a combined conditioner of the dehumidifying cell by the proton exchange membrane (PEM) and the air cooler by water evaporation. But, we need to understand the operating principle of the dehumidifying cell because the performance of existing dehumidifying cells are not cleared. In this study, first we measured the transmissibility and the electro-osmotic coefficient nd of water vapor through the membrane electrode assembly, the water vapor diffusivity through the diffusion electrode, and the mass transfer coefficient between the flow in channel and the diffusion electrode, as important factors to determine the dehumidifying performance. These factors were adopted in our analysis of the dehumidifying cell performance, where the conservation equations of mass and energy with an equivalent electric circuit of the cell are solved simultaneously. Calculated results can describe well the experimental dehumidifying performance. By using this simulation code we predicted the coefficient of performance (COP) of our novel air conditioner. Calculated COP’s for test cell are as small as 0.10 or 0.21, but could be 4 when we can get the PEM with high nd of 5.

  6. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pumps, and furnaces. 305.12 Section 305.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS... pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout. All energy labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces (including boilers) shall use one size, similar colors, and typefaces with consistent...

  7. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 CFR part 430 for non-weatherized, and mobile home furnaces and content of labels for weatherized... Department of Energy for those products in 10 CFR part 430, manufacturers shall affix labels to covered... conditioners issued by the Department of Energy in 10 CFR part 430. (1) Headlines and texts, as illustrated...

  8. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pumps, and furnaces. 305.12 Section 305.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS... pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout. All energy labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces (including boilers) shall use one size, similar colors, and typefaces with consistent...

  9. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pumps, and furnaces. 305.12 Section 305.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS... pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout. All energy labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces (including boilers) shall use one size, similar colors, and typefaces with consistent...

  10. EPA evaluation of the 'Pass Master Vehicle Air Conditioner Cut-Off' Device. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Penninga, T.J.

    1980-08-01

    The conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'Pass Master Vehicle Air Conditioner Compressor Cut-Off Device' under the provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act are announced. The Pass Master device disengages the air conditioning compressor during hard vehicle acceleration modes. The reduced engine loading will result in some fuel savings.

  11. RETROFITTING AN AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONER WITH HFC-134A, ADDITIVE, AND MINERAL OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of a lubricant additive developed for use in retrofitting motor vehicle air conditioners. he additive was designed to enable HFC-134a to be used as a retrofit refrigerant with the existing mineral oil in CVC-12 systems. he goal of the proj...

  12. A review of polymer-based water conditioners for reduction of handling-related injury

    SciTech Connect

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Brown, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Fish are coated with an external layer of protective mucus. This layer serves as the primary barrier against infection or injury, reduces friction, and plays a role in ionic and osmotic regulation. However, the mucus layer is easily disturbed when fish are netted, handled, transported, stressed, or subjected to adverse water conditions. Water additives containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or proprietary polymers have been used to prevent the deleterious effects of mucus layer disturbances in the commercial tropical fish industry, aquaculture, and for other fisheries management purposes. This paper reviews research on the effectiveness of water conditioners, and examines the contents and uses of a wide variety of commercially available water conditioners. Water conditioners containing polymers may reduce external damage to fish held in containers during scientific experimentation, including surgical implantation of electronic tags. However, there is a need to empirically test the effectiveness of water conditioners at preventing damage to and promoting healing of the mucus layer. A research agenda is provided to advance the science related to the use of water conditions to improve the condition of fish during handling and tagging.

  13. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners H Appendix H to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC... CONSERVATION ACT (âENERGY LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. H Appendix H to Part 305—Cooling Performance and...

  14. Technical and economic analysis of energy efficiency of Chinese room air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David G.; Rosenquist, Gregory; Jiang, Lin; Li, Aixian; Xin, Dingguo; Cheng, Jianhong

    2001-02-01

    China has experienced tremendous growth in the production and sales of room air conditioners over the last decade. Although minimum room air conditioner energy efficiency standards have been in effect since 1989, no efforts were made during most of the 1990's to update the standard to be more reflective of current market conditions. In 1999, China's State Bureau of Technical Supervision (SBTS) included in their annual plan the development and revision of the 1989 room air conditioner standard, and experts from SBTS worked together with LBNL to analyze the new standards. Based on the engineering and life cycle-cost analyses performed, the most predominant type of room air conditioner in the Chinese market (split-type with a cooling capacity between 2500 and 4500 W (8500 Btu/h and 15,300Btu/h)) can have its efficiency increased cost-effectively to an energy efficiency ratio (EER) of 2.92 W/W (9.9 Btu/hr/W). If an EER standard of 2.92 W/W became effective in 2001, Chinese consumers would be estimated to save over 3.5 billion Yuan (420 million U.S. dollars) over the period of 2001-2020. Carbon emissions over the same period would be reduced by approximately 12 million metric tonnes.

  15. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brandemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  16. Product lifetime, energy efficiency and climate change: A case study of air conditioners in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    This study proposed a modelling technique for estimating life-cycle CO2 emissions of durable goods by considering changes in product lifetime and energy efficiency. The stock and flow of durable goods was modelled by Weibull lifetime distributions and the trend in annual energy efficiency (i.e., annual electricity consumption) of an "average" durable good was formulated as a reverse logistic curve including a technologically critical value (i.e., limit energy efficiency) with respect to time. I found that when the average product lifetime is reduced, there is a trade-off between the reduction in emissions during product use (use phase), due to the additional purchases of new, more energy-efficient air conditioners, and the increase in emissions arising from the additional production of new air conditioners stimulated by the reduction of the average product lifetime. A scenario analysis focused on residential air conditioners in Japan during 1972-2013 showed that for a reduction of average lifetime of 1 year, if the air conditioner energy efficiency limit can be improved by 1.4% from the estimated current efficiency level, then CO2 emissions can be reduced by approximately the same amount as for an extension of average product lifetime of 1 year. PMID:27423771

  17. Investigation of Flow Conditioners for Compact Jet Engine Simulator Rig Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Michael J.; Haskin, Henry H.

    2011-01-01

    The design requirements for two new Compact Jet Engine Simulator (CJES) units for upcoming wind tunnel testing lead to the distinct possibility of rig noise contamination. The acoustic and aerodynamic properties of several flow conditioner devices are investigated over a range of operating conditions relevant to the CJES units to mitigate the risk of rig noise. An impinging jet broadband noise source is placed in the upstream plenum of the test facility permitting measurements of not only flow conditioner self-noise, but also noise attenuation characteristics. Several perforated plate and honeycomb samples of high porosity show minimal self-noise but also minimal attenuation capability. Conversely, low porosity perforated plate and sintered wire mesh conditioners exhibit noticeable attenuation but also unacceptable self-noise. One fine wire mesh sample (DP450661) shows minimal selfnoise and reasonable attenuation, particularly when combined in series with a 15.6 percent open area (POA) perforated plate upstream. This configuration is the preferred flow conditioner system for the CJES, providing up to 20 dB of broadband attenuation capability with minimal self-noise.

  18. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners H Appendix H to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. H Appendix H to Part 305—Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air...

  19. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners H Appendix H to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. H Appendix H to Part 305—Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air...

  20. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... CONSERVATION ACT (âENERGY LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's...

  1. Simulation Models of Leaf Area Index and Yield for Cotton Grown with Different Soil Conditioners.

    PubMed

    Su, Lijun; Wang, Quanjiu; Wang, Chunxia; Shan, Yuyang

    2015-01-01

    Simulation models of leaf area index (LAI) and yield for cotton can provide a theoretical foundation for predicting future variations in yield. This paper analyses the increase in LAI and the relationships between LAI, dry matter, and yield for cotton under three soil conditioners near Korla, Xinjiang, China. Dynamic changes in cotton LAI were evaluated using modified logistic, Gaussian, modified Gaussian, log normal, and cubic polynomial models. Universal models for simulating the relative leaf area index (RLAI) were established in which the application rate of soil conditioner was used to estimate the maximum LAI (LAIm). In addition, the relationships between LAIm and dry matter mass, yield, and the harvest index were investigated, and a simulation model for yield is proposed. A feasibility analysis of the models indicated that the cubic polynomial and Gaussian models were less accurate than the other three models for simulating increases in RLAI. Despite significant differences in LAIs under the type and amount of soil conditioner applied, LAIm could be described by aboveground dry matter using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Moreover, the simulation model for cotton yield based on LAIm and the harvest index presented in this work provided important theoretical insights for improving water use efficiency in cotton cultivation and for identifying optimal application rates of soil conditioners. PMID:26536468

  2. Preliminary research on soil conditioner mediated citrus Huanglongbing mitigation in the field in Guangdong, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease) is devastating to citrus production worldwide. No completely effective management measure is currently available. In China, HLB management through nutrient applications was used in the past, and now has renewed interest. Therefore, soil conditioner (SC) effe...

  3. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... applications; rated for sensible coefficient of performance (SCOP) and tested in accordance with 10 CFR 431.96... split system air conditioner incorporating a single refrigerant circuit, with one or more outdoor units... resistance, steam, hot water, or gas. The equipment incorporates a single refrigerant circuit, with one...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765 Section 872.3765 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3765 Pit and fissure sealant...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765 Section 872.3765 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3765 Pit and fissure sealant...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765 Section 872.3765 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3765 Pit and fissure sealant...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765 Section 872.3765 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3765 Pit and fissure sealant...

  8. Simulation Models of Leaf Area Index and Yield for Cotton Grown with Different Soil Conditioners

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lijun; Wang, Quanjiu; Wang, Chunxia; Shan, Yuyang

    2015-01-01

    Simulation models of leaf area index (LAI) and yield for cotton can provide a theoretical foundation for predicting future variations in yield. This paper analyses the increase in LAI and the relationships between LAI, dry matter, and yield for cotton under three soil conditioners near Korla, Xinjiang, China. Dynamic changes in cotton LAI were evaluated using modified logistic, Gaussian, modified Gaussian, log normal, and cubic polynomial models. Universal models for simulating the relative leaf area index (RLAI) were established in which the application rate of soil conditioner was used to estimate the maximum LAI (LAIm). In addition, the relationships between LAIm and dry matter mass, yield, and the harvest index were investigated, and a simulation model for yield is proposed. A feasibility analysis of the models indicated that the cubic polynomial and Gaussian models were less accurate than the other three models for simulating increases in RLAI. Despite significant differences in LAIs under the type and amount of soil conditioner applied, LAIm could be described by aboveground dry matter using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Moreover, the simulation model for cotton yield based on LAIm and the harvest index presented in this work provided important theoretical insights for improving water use efficiency in cotton cultivation and for identifying optimal application rates of soil conditioners. PMID:26536468

  9. Heart Rate Conditioning in Newborn Infants: Relationships Among Conditionability, Heart Rate Variability, and Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamps, Leighton E.; Porges, Stephen W.

    1975-01-01

    Trace conditioning was evaluated in newborn infants by measurements of heart rate responses to a conditioned stimulus in anticipation of or in absence of the unconditioned stimulus. Data suggest females have higher levels of heart rate variability than males, which parallels their greater conditionability. (GO)

  10. Determination of Ivermectin in Medicated Feeds by Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A labour- and time-effective analytical procedure for determination of ivermectin in medicated feed at recommended level of 2.0 mg kg−1 has been developed and validated. The analyte was extracted from grinded feed samples with acetonitrile and derivatisated with N-methylimidazole and trifluoracetic anhydride. The fluorescent derivatives were analysed by liquid chromatography method using C8 column. The isocratic conditions using acetonitrile, methanol, water, and tetrahydrofuran were applied. Fluorescence detection was performed at 365 nm (excitation) and 475 nm (emission) wavelengths. The total analysis time was 10 min. The validation results of the method (within-laboratory reproducibility 4.0% CV, mean recovery 100.1%) confirm the appropriate precision and accuracy of the developed method. PMID:24453835

  11. Recurrent Hemorrhagic Pericardial Effusion and Tamponade due to Filariasis Successfully Treated with Ivermectin and Albendazole.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Goel, Amit; Sachan, Mohit; Saraf, Sameer; Verma, Chandra Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Filariasis presenting with pericardial effusion with tamponade is rare. We report a case of a 30-year-old female who was admitted with severe dyspnea and chest pain since 2 days. Echocardiogram showed massive pericardial effusion with tamponade. Pericardial fluid aspiration drained 1.2 L of hemorrhagic fluid. Cytology examination revealed microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti. She was treated with diethyl carbamazine and discharged. Six weeks later, she presented again with massive pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis was done. Cytology examination revealed microfilaria of W. bancrofti. This time she was treated with ivermectin and albendazole and cured. Hemorrhagic effusion resolved completely. Though relatively uncommon, tropical diseases must always be considered in the etiological diagnosis of recurrent pericardial effusion. PMID:26240733

  12. Fast separation ultra-performance liquid chromatography for determination of pre-column derivative abamectin and ivermectin residues in vegetable.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongcheng; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Lianliang; Li, Qiwan; Shao, Jinliang; Zou, Yanhong

    2011-03-01

    A new residue method for quantification of abamectin and ivermectin in vegetable is described in the article. The derivative process is devised that acylating chemical is firstly performed by N-methylimidazole (MI) and trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA), then which reacted with hydroxyl function of abamerctin to make fluorescence. The influence of triethylamin (TEA) is examined. Separation is resolute by a short column of 1.7 μm size and operated at high pressure values (10.000 psi). The optimal chromatographic condition and the highest sensitivity are achieved by acetonitrile: water (95: 5), 0.4 mL/min, 0.2 μL injector. The detection limits of abamectin and ivermectin are 1 μg/kg respectively. PMID:20936332

  13. New and Emerging Treatments for Rosacea.

    PubMed

    Gold, Lauren M; Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2015-12-01

    Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory disorder that affects approximately 16 million Americans. The multifactorial pathophysiology of rosacea is not fully understood. Several new treatment options were recently US Food and Drug Administration approved or are in clinical trials. This paper reviews new treatment options including ivermectin, brimonidine, the new foam formulation of azelaic acid, and oxymetazoline. The potential role in therapy, patient selection, and adverse effects of these agents are discussed. PMID:26396117

  14. Preventing transmission of sarcoptic mange from sows to their offspring by injection of ivermectin. Effects on swine production.

    PubMed

    Mercier, P; Cargill, C F; White, C R

    2002-12-11

    A blind and controlled field study was conducted on a pig farm in Australia to evaluate the activity of 1% ivermectin solution when injected into pregnant sows that were naturally infested with mites. The study was designed to appreciate the tolerance of the product on sows (litter size, litter birth weights, litter weaning weights, pre-weaning mortality) and to show the effects of sarcoptic mange on the growth performances of their offspring. Twenty sows were selected and ranked on Day-10, prior to the start of the study, on the basis of positive mite counts and parity. Sows were randomly allocated into two groups, A and B. On Day-7, they were injected once with product A (1 ml/33 kg; yielding 300 microg ivermectin/kg BW) or product B (placebo), respectively and then moved to the farrowing unit. Mite counts, ear and body lesions were scored and recorded. The average daily weight gain (ADG) was calculated on piglets from birth to Day-45 (ADG(45)) and birth to Day-70 (ADG(70)). Ivermectin was 100% efficient in preventing the transmission of scabies mites and did not have negative effect on the pregnant sows. Growth performances (ADG(45) and ADG(70)) of piglets from treated sows were significantly higher (452 and 541.5 g per day) than that from untreated sows (433.5 and 518.4 g per day) respectively, confirming that sarcoptic mange is detrimental to the production performances of growing pigs. PMID:12446087

  15. Enhanced dewatering of excess activated sludge through decomposing its extracellular polymeric substances by a Fe@Fe2O3-based composite conditioner.

    PubMed

    He, Dong-Qin; Luo, Hong-Wei; Huang, Bao-Cheng; Qian, Chen; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-10-01

    Efficient sludge dewatering methods are highly desired by municipal wastewater treatment plants. In this study, Fe@Fe2O3 nanomaterial, combined with polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDMDAAC) and H2SO4, was used for sludge dewatering. This composite conditioner exhibited an excellent dewatering capability. By using uniform design, the optimized dosages of Fe@Fe2O3, H2SO4 and PDMDAAC were determined to be 40, 136 and 4.8mg/gDS (dry solids), respectively. The moisture content of sludge cake decreased from 78.1% to 64.8%, and the capillary suction time from 56 to 21s. The sludge extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were decomposed, resulting in greater conversion of the bound water into free water and the release of free water. The electron spin resonance results show that the molecular oxygen activation process induced by Fe@Fe2O3 produced hydroxyl radicals, which were mainly responsible for the EPS decomposition. In this way, an efficient composite conditioner for enhancing sludge dewatering was developed. PMID:27395000

  16. Actual Performance Prediction of Split-type Room Air Conditioner which Considered Unsteady Operation Concerning Heat Island Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinomiya, Naruaki; Nishimura, Nobuya; Iyota, Hiroyuki; Nomura, Tomohiro

    Split type air conditioners are operated actually in the situation unlike the condition that was described in a product catalog. On the other hand, exhaust heat from air conditioner is considered as one of the causes of heat island problem in urban area, and the air conditioner performance and heat load affect exhaust heat amount. In this study, air conditioner performances in both standard summer day and severe hot day were examined by dynamic simulation which considered outdoor weather changes. As a result, actual performances of the air conditioner were demonstrated as a function of outdoor temperature, heat load and indoor temperature. The higher the outdoor temperature and heat load rise, the smaller influences of indoor temperature against COP became. In standard summer day, relative performance exceeded by 15 to 45% than that of JIS operating condition. Also, COP in severe hot day decreased about 6% at the peak time than that of standard day. As a result, the air conditioner exhaust heat during one day which was predicted by the proposed simulation model became about 16% smaller than the conventional prediction model.

  17. Doxycycline as an inhibitor of p-glycoprotein in the alpaca for the purpose of maintaining avermectins in the CNS during treatment for parelaphostrongylosis.

    PubMed

    Agbedanu, Prince N; Anderson, Kristi L; Brewer, Matthew T; Carlson, Steve A

    2015-09-15

    Meningeal worms (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) are a common malady of alpacas, often refractory to conventional treatments. Ivermectin is a very effective anthelmintic used against a variety of parasites but this drug is not consistently effective against alpaca meningeal worms once the parasite has gained access to the CNS, even if used in a protracted treatment protocol. Ivermectin is not effective against clinical cases of P. tenuis, raising the possibility that the drug is not sustained at therapeutic concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). A specific protein (designated as p-glycoprotein (PGP)) effluxes ivermectin from the brain at the blood-brain barrier, thus hampering the maintenance of therapeutic concentrations of the drug in the CNS. Minocycline is a synthetic tetracycline antibiotic with an excellent safety profile in all animals tested to date. Minocycline has three unique characteristics that could be useful for treating meningeal worms in conjunction with ivermectin. First, minocycline is an inhibitor of PGP at the blood-brain barrier and this inhibition could maintain effective concentrations of ivermectin in the brain and meninges. Second, minocycline protects neurons in vivo through a number of different mechanisms and this neuroprotection could alleviate the potential untoward neurologic effects of meningeal worms. Third, minocycline is a highly lipid-soluble drug, thus facilitating efficient brain penetration. We thus hypothesized that minocycline will maintain ivermectin, or a related avermectin approved in ruminants (abamectin, doramectin, or eprinomectin), in the alpaca CNS. To test this hypothesis, we cloned the gene encoding the alpaca PGP, expressed the alpaca PGP in a heterologous expression system involving MDCK cells, and measured the ability of minocycline to inhibit the efflux of avermectins from the MDCK cells; doxycycline was used as a putative negative control (based on studies in other species). Our in vitro studies

  18. Low GWP Refrigerants Modelling Study for a Room Air Conditioner Having Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Bhandari, Mahabir S

    2016-01-01

    Microchannel heat exchangers (MHX) have found great successes in residential and commercial air conditioning applications, being compact heat exchangers, to reduce refrigerant charge and material cost. This investigation aims to extend the application of MHXs in split, room air conditioners (RAC), per fundamental heat exchanger and system modelling. For this paper, microchannel condenser and evaporator models were developed, using a segment-to-segment modelling approach. The microchannel heat exchanger models were integrated to a system design model. The system model is able to predict the performance indices, such as cooling capacity, efficiency, sensible heat ratio, etc. Using the calibrated system and heat exchanger models, we evaluated numerous low GWP (global warming potential) refrigerants. The predicted system performance indices, e.g. cooling efficiency, compressor discharge temperature, and required compressor displacement volume etc., are compared. Suitable replacements for R22 and R-410A for the room air conditioner application are recommended.

  19. Method and apparatus for analog signal conditioner for high speed, digital x-ray spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Warburton, W.K.; Hubbard, B.

    1999-02-09

    A signal processing system which accepts input from an x-ray detector-preamplifier and produces a signal of reduced dynamic range for subsequent analog-to-digital conversion is disclosed. The system conditions the input signal to reduce the number of bits required in the analog-to-digital converter by removing that part of the input signal which varies only slowly in time and retaining the amplitude of the pulses which carry information about the x-rays absorbed by the detector. The parameters controlling the signal conditioner`s operation can be readily supplied in digital form, allowing it to be integrated into a feedback loop as part of a larger digital x-ray spectroscopy system. 13 figs.

  20. Dynamic modeling of brushless dc motor-power conditioner unit for electromechanical actuator application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive digital model for the analysis of the dynamic-instantaneous performance of a power conditioner fed samarium-cobalt permanent magnet brushless DC motor is presented. The particular power conditioner-machine system at hand, for which this model was developed, is a component of an actual prototype electromechanical actuator built for NASA-JSC as a possible alternative to hydraulic actuators as part of feasibility studies for the shuttle orbiter applications. Excellent correlation between digital simulated and experimentally obtained performance data was achieved for this specific prototype. This is reported on in this paper. Details of one component of the model, its applications and the corresponding results are given in this paper.

  1. Study on Variable Capacity Control Mechanism of Scroll Compressor for Automotive Air Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Takahisa; Shigeoka, Tetsuo

    As for the automotive air conditioner, (1) to keep the automotive cabin temperature in a comfortable region, (2) to improve driving feeling, (3) to drive the air conditioning system economically through all seasons, are universally required. Recently, from these points, compressors with variable capacity control mechanism for automotive air conditioners have been remarkably requested. We have developed a scroll comoressor with variable capacity control mechanism. The capacity control mechanism, which changes the channel area of the bypass hole continuously, according to the suction gas pressure and the discharge gas pressure, has been developed. In this report, we describe the mechanism of variable capacity control and the performance simulation program that has been developed for the scroll compressor. Further, we describe the measuring results of cylinder pressure behavior, the results of energy loss analysis and the effect of comfort, drivability, power saving in the refrigerating cycle using the developed capacity control compressor.

  2. Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for RoomAir Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2007-03-01

    The Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) finalized its first set of efficiency standards and labels for room air conditioners in July of 2006. These regulations followed soon after the publication of levels for frost-free refrigerators in the same year. As in the case of refrigerators, the air conditioner program introduces Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) and comparative labels simultaneously, with levels for one to five stars. Also like the refrigerator program, BEE defined several successive program phases of increasing stringency. In support of BEE's refrigerator program, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) produced an analysis of national impacts of standards in collaboration with the Collaborative Labeling and Standards Program (CLASP). That analysis drew on LBNL's experience with standards programs in the United States, as well as many other countries. Subsequently, as part of the process for setting optimal levels for air conditioner regulations, CLASP commissioned LBNL to provide support to BEE in the form of a techno-economic evaluation of air conditioner efficiency technologies. This report describes the methodology and results of this techno-economic evaluation. The analysis consists of three components: (1) Cost effectiveness to consumers of efficiency technologies relative to current baseline. (2) Impacts on the current market from efficiency regulations. (3) National energy and financial impacts. The analysis relied on detailed and up-to-date technical data made available by BEE and industry representatives. Technical parameters were used in conjunction with knowledge about air conditioner use patterns in the residential and commercial sectors, and prevailing marginal electricity prices, in order to give an estimate of per-unit financial impacts. In addition, the overall impact of the program was evaluated by combining unit savings with market forecasts in order to yield national impacts. LBNL presented preliminary results

  3. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling; Bechtel, II, William Theodore; Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur; Black, Stephen Hugh; Bland, Robert James; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne; Meyer, Stefan Martin; Taura, Joseph Charles; Battaglioli, John Luigi

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  4. Mechanism for transport of ivermectin to the stratum corneum in rats.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Atsushi; Kigure, Akira; Anata, Taichi; Hirota, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is used as an oral medication for scabies, a skin infection caused by a mite, sarcoptes scabiei, which parasitizes in the stratum corneum. After oral administration IVM is absorbed from the intestine, and finally distributed to the stratum corneum to eliminate the mites. However its transport mechanism remains unclear. A pharmacokinetic study was performed using hairless Wistar Yagi (HWY) rats, which have no or atrophied sebaceous glands, and Wistar rats as a reference. After oral administration of IVM to both groups, the area under the concentration-time curve of IVM in the dermis and epidermis (dermis-epidermis) of HWY rats were about 60% lower than that of Wistar rats, even though the plasma concentration profiles were comparable in both groups. In addition at 12 h after the administration, IVM concentration in the outer stratum corneum, the shallower layer of the dermis-epidermis, was higher compared to that in the deeper layer. In the dermis-epidermis of the skin from various locations, the concentrations of IVM and squalene, the latter of which is secreted to the skin surface via the sebaceous gland, were positively well correlated. Those results suggest that IVM is transported to the stratum corneum via the sebaceous glands. PMID:26613804

  5. Causal Interrogation of Neuronal Networks and Behavior through Virally Transduced Ivermectin Receptors.

    PubMed

    Obenhaus, Horst A; Rozov, Andrei; Bertocchi, Ilaria; Tang, Wannan; Kirsch, Joachim; Betz, Heinrich; Sprengel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The causal interrogation of neuronal networks involved in specific behaviors requires the spatially and temporally controlled modulation of neuronal activity. For long-term manipulation of neuronal activity, chemogenetic tools provide a reasonable alternative to short-term optogenetic approaches. Here we show that virus mediated gene transfer of the ivermectin (IVM) activated glycine receptor mutant GlyRα1 (AG) can be used for the selective and reversible silencing of specific neuronal networks in mice. In the striatum, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb, GlyRα1 (AG) promoted IVM dependent effects in representative behavioral assays. Moreover, GlyRα1 (AG) mediated silencing had a strong and reversible impact on neuronal ensemble activity and c-Fos activation in the olfactory bulb. Together our results demonstrate that long-term, reversible and re-inducible neuronal silencing via GlyRα1 (AG) is a promising tool for the interrogation of network mechanisms underlying the control of behavior and memory formation. PMID:27625595

  6. Causal Interrogation of Neuronal Networks and Behavior through Virally Transduced Ivermectin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Obenhaus, Horst A.; Rozov, Andrei; Bertocchi, Ilaria; Tang, Wannan; Kirsch, Joachim; Betz, Heinrich; Sprengel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The causal interrogation of neuronal networks involved in specific behaviors requires the spatially and temporally controlled modulation of neuronal activity. For long-term manipulation of neuronal activity, chemogenetic tools provide a reasonable alternative to short-term optogenetic approaches. Here we show that virus mediated gene transfer of the ivermectin (IVM) activated glycine receptor mutant GlyRα1AG can be used for the selective and reversible silencing of specific neuronal networks in mice. In the striatum, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb, GlyRα1AG promoted IVM dependent effects in representative behavioral assays. Moreover, GlyRα1AG mediated silencing had a strong and reversible impact on neuronal ensemble activity and c-Fos activation in the olfactory bulb. Together our results demonstrate that long-term, reversible and re-inducible neuronal silencing via GlyRα1AG is a promising tool for the interrogation of network mechanisms underlying the control of behavior and memory formation. PMID:27625595

  7. Ivermectin, ‘Wonder drug’ from Japan: the human use perspective

    PubMed Central

    CRUMP, Andy; ŌMURA, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Discovered in the late-1970s, the pioneering drug ivermectin, a dihydro derivative of avermectin—originating solely from a single microorganism isolated at the Kitasato Intitute, Tokyo, Japan from Japanese soil—has had an immeasurably beneficial impact in improving the lives and welfare of billions of people throughout the world. Originally introduced as a veterinary drug, it kills a wide range of internal and external parasites in commercial livestock and companion animals. It was quickly discovered to be ideal in combating two of the world’s most devastating and disfiguring diseases which have plagued the world’s poor throughout the tropics for centuries. It is now being used free-of-charge as the sole tool in campaigns to eliminate both diseases globally. It has also been used to successfully overcome several other human diseases and new uses for it are continually being found. This paper looks in depth at the events surrounding ivermectin’s passage from being a huge success in Animal Health into its widespread use in humans, a development which has led many to describe it as a “wonder” drug. PMID:21321478

  8. Pharmacokinetics of a new ivermectin/praziquantel suspension after intramuscular administration in sheep.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shusheng; Chen, Linlin; Qian, Minyi; Hao, Lihua; Xiao, Xilong

    2016-05-15

    A new oil suspension containing 0.10% ivermectin (IVM) and 15% praziquantel (PZQ) (Tivm+pzq) for intramuscular injection was developed for sheep, and its pharmacokinetics was investigated in sheep. The quality of the new product met the technical standards set by the Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China. In pharmacokinetics, the commercially available single-component products approved by the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture and widely used in the livestock industry in China were selected as reference products (Rivm and Rpzq). The results showed that all of the IVM pharmacokinetic parameters of Tivm+pzq were similar to those of the reference. However, after adminstraion of Tivm+pzq, mean residence time (MRT) and plasma elimination half-life (t1/2z) were 20.36h and 11.65h, which were 2.61 and 3.22 times longer than those of Rpzq (7.81h and 3.62h). In summary, the MRT and t1/2z of PZQ in Tivm+pzq were prolonged and IVM pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to commerical product, therefore the new injection may be an alternative choice for sheep to control parasites sensitive to IVM and PZQ. PMID:27084471

  9. Ivermectin Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, and Tissue/Egg Residue Profiles in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Laura; Dominguez, Paula; Farias, Cristina; Canton, Lucila; Virkel, Guillermo; Maté, Laura; Ceballos, Laura; Lanusse, Carlos; Alvarez, Luis

    2015-12-01

    The goals were to determine the ivermectin (IVM) plasma pharmacokinetics, tissue and egg residue profiles, and in vitro metabolism in laying hens. Experiments conducted were (1) 8 hens were intravenously treated with IVM and blood samples taken; (2) 88 hens were treated with IVM administered daily in water (5 days) (40 were kept and their daily eggs collected; 48 were sacrificed in groups (n = 8) at different times and tissue samples taken and analyzed); (3) IVM biotransformation was studied in liver microsomes. Pharmacokinetic parameters were AUC = 85.1 ng·day/mL, Vdss = 4.43 L/kg, and T1/2el = 1.73 days. Low IVM tissue residues were quantified with the highest measured in liver and skin+fat. IVM residues were not found in egg white, but significant amounts were quantified in yolk. Residues measured in eggs were greater than some MRL values, suggesting that a withdrawal period would be necessary for eggs after IVM use in laying hens. PMID:26553292

  10. Eco-toxicological effects of the avermectin family with a focus on abamectin and ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Ogbourne, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Avermectin family members are categorised as highly effective but toxic natural products that are used as pharmaceuticals in both humans and animals and for crop protection. Abamectin and ivermectin are the two most commonly used compounds from this family with abamectin the only compound to be used for both crop protection and pharmaceutical purposes. Avermectins are produced by the soil dwelling actinomycetes Streptomyces avermitilis and despite having complex chemical structures, they are manufactured via synthesis in large scales for commercial use. Although the extent of the eco-toxicological effects of avermectins is not well documented, reports of eco-toxicity exist. Avermectins have short half-lives and their residues can be eliminated through different food processing methods. However, avermectins can persist in water, sediment, soil and food products and therefore management practices that reduce the potential risks associated with eco-toxicity of these highly toxic compounds need to be further developed. This manuscript provides a critical review of the eco-toxicological risks and the potential for food contamination associated with avermectin use. PMID:27058912

  11. Unchanged triclabendazole kinetics after co-administration with ivermectin and methimazole: failure of its therapeutic activity against triclabendazole-resistant liver flukes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The reduced drug accumulation based on enhanced drug efflux and metabolic capacity, identified in triclabendazole (TCBZ)-resistant Fasciola hepatica may contribute to the development of resistance to TCBZ. The aim of this work was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of TCBZ administered alone or co-administered with ivermectin (IVM, efflux modulator) and methimazole (MTZ, metabolic inhibitor) in TCBZ-resistant F. hepatica-parasitized sheep. Sheep infected with TCBZ-resistant F. hepatica (Sligo isolate) were divided into three groups (n = 4): untreated control, TCBZ-treated (i.r. at 10 mg/kg) and TCBZ+IVM+MTZ treated sheep (10 i.r., 0.2 s.c. and 1.5 i.m. mg/kg, respectively). Plasma samples were collected and analysed by HPLC. In the clinical efficacy study, the animals were sacrificed at 15 days post-treatment to evaluate the comparative efficacy against TCBZ-resistant F. hepatica. Results The presence of IVM and MTZ did not affect the plasma disposition kinetics of TCBZ metabolites after the i.r. administration of TCBZ. The AUC value of TCBZ.SO obtained after TCBZ administration (653.9 ± 140.6 μg.h/ml) was similar to that obtained after TCBZ co-administered with IVM and MTZ (650.7 ± 122.8 μg.h/ml). Efficacy values of 56 and 38% were observed for TCBZ alone and for the combined treatment, respectively. No statistical differences (P > 0.05) were observed in fluke counts between treated groups and untreated control, which confirm the resistant status of the Sligo isolate. Conclusions The presence of IVM and MTZ did not affect the disposition kinetics of TCBZ and its metabolites. Thus, the combined drug treatment did not reverse the poor efficacy of TCBZ against TCBZ-resistant F. hepatica. PMID:20128898

  12. Additional evidence that rosacea pathogenesis may involve demodex: new information from the topical efficacy of ivermectin and praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Abokwidir, Manal; Fleischer, Alan B

    2015-09-01

    Additional evidence that Demodex folliculorum may contribute to the pathogenesis of papulopustular rosacea are new studies of two topical antiparasitic agents. Ivermectin and praziquantel have recently been shown to be effective in decreasing the severity of papulopustular rosacea. These two agents significantly differ in molecular structure, but yield similar antiparasitic mechanisms of action. Higher numbers of Demodex mites are found in the skin of patients with rosacea than in people with normal skin. If Demodex play a role in pathogenesis, then hypersensitivity to the mites, their flora, or their products could explain the observed efficacy of antidemodectic therapy. PMID:26437294

  13. An experimental investigation of compressor stall using an on-line distortion indicator and signal conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costakis, W. G.; Wenzel, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    The relation of the steady-state and dynamic distortions and the stall margin of a J85-13 turbojet engine was investigated. A distortion indicator capable of computing two distortion indices was used. A special purpose signal conditioner was also used as an interface between transducer signals and distortion indicator. A good correlation of steady-state distortion and stall margin was established. The prediction of stall by using the indices as instantaneous distortion indicators was not successful. A sensitivity factor that related the loss of stall margin to the turbulence level was found.

  14. Performance Characteristics of Cross-Fin-Tube-Type Heat Exchanger for Air Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Naoe; Kakiyama, Shiro; Sanuki, Noriyoshi

    The effects of enhanced heat transfer tube with ability to control the heat transfer disturbance by mechanical tube expanding were experimentally investigated on the performance characteristics of air-cooled cross-fin-tube-type heat exchanger for air conditioner. Three kinds of the enhanced heat transfer tube were developed and used in the experiment. The enhanced heat transfer tube was a kind of spirally grooved tube and composed with the fins smaller than those of the conventional spirally grooved tube excepting four fins located in orthogonal position on the tube circumference. The optimum groove number to enhance the performance of heat exchanger was also shown.

  15. USAF Bioenvironmental Noise Data Handbook. Volume 167: MA-3M air conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, T. H.

    1982-06-01

    The MA-3M is an electric motor-driven air conditioner designed to cool electronic equipment on aircraft during ground maintenance. This report provides measured and extrapolated data defining the bioacoustic environments produced by this unit operating at a normal rated condition. Near-field data are reported for 37 locations in a wide variety of physical and psychoacoustic measures: overall and band sound pressure levels, C-weighted and A-weighted sound levels, preferred speech interference levels, perceived noise levels, and limiting times for total daily exposure of personnel with and without standard Air Force ear protectors.

  16. Optimum dry-cooling sub-systems for a solar air conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. L. S.; Namkoong, D.

    1978-01-01

    Dry-cooling sub-systems for residential solar powered Rankine compression air conditioners were economically optimized and compared with the cost of a wet cooling tower. Results in terms of yearly incremental busbar cost due to the use of dry-cooling were presented for Philadelphia and Miami. With input data corresponding to local weather, energy rate and capital costs, condenser surface designs and performance, the computerized optimization program yields design specifications of the sub-system which has the lowest annual incremental cost.

  17. Investigation into the common mode rejection ratio of the physiological signal conditioner circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Edward M.

    1992-01-01

    The common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of the single operational amplifier (op amp) differential amplifier and of the three operational amplifier differential amplifier was investigated. The three op amp differential amplifier circuit is used in the signal conditioner circuit which amplifies signals such as the electromyograph or electrocardiogram. The investigation confirmed via SPICE modeling what has been observed by others in the recent literature that the CMRR for the circuit can be maximized without precision resistor values or precisely matched op amps. This can be done if one resistor in the final stage can be adjusted either by a potentiometer or by laser trimming in the case of hybrid circuit fabrication.

  18. Fate of ivermectin in the terrestrial and aquatic environment: mobility, degradation, and toxicity towards Daphnia similis.

    PubMed

    Rath, Susanne; Pereira, Leandro Alves; Bosco, Sandra Maria Dal; Maniero, Milena Guedes; Fostier, Anne Hélène; Guimarães, José Roberto

    2016-03-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug that is regularly employed in veterinary medicine. In this work, the sorption and desorption of IVM in two Brazilian soils (N1-sand and S2-clay) as well as its leaching capacity, dissipation under aerobic conditions, and degradation in aqueous solution by photocatalysis with TiO2 in suspension were evaluated. The kinetic sorption curves of IVM were adjusted to a pseudo-second-order model. The sorption and desorption data were well fitted with the Freundlich isotherms in the log form (r > 0.96). The Freundlich sorption coefficient (K F (ads) ) and the Freundlich desorption coefficient (K F (des) ) were 77.7 and 120 μg(1-1/n) (cm(3))(1/n) g(-1) and 74.5 and 138 μg(1-1/n) (cm(3))(1/n) g(-1), for soils N1 and S2, respectively. A greater leaching capacity of IVM was observed for the sandy soil N1 than for the clay soil S2. Under aerobic conditions, the dissipation (DT50) at 19.3 °C was 15.5 days (soil N1) and 11.5 days (soil S2). Photocatalysis with UVC and TiO2 in suspension resulted in the degradation of 98 % of IVM (500 μg L(-1)) in water in 600 s. The toxicity (Daphnia similis) of the solutions submitted to the photocatalytic process was completely eliminated after 10 min. PMID:26578379

  19. Characterization of the target of ivermectin, the glutamate-gated chloride channel, from Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Jacob I.; Gray, Meg; Kuklinski, Wojtek; Johnson, Lucas B.; Snow, Christopher D.; Black, William C.; Partin, Kathryn M.; Foy, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual insecticides targeting adult mosquito vectors is a key element in malaria control programs. However, mosquito resistance to the insecticides used in these applications threatens malaria control efforts. Recently, the mass drug administration of ivermectin (IVM) has been shown to kill Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes and disrupt Plasmodium falciparum transmission in the field. We cloned the molecular target of IVM from A. gambiae, the glutamate-gated chloride channel (AgGluCl), and characterized its transcriptional patterns, protein expression and functional responses to glutamate and IVM. AgGluCl cloning revealed an unpredicted fourth splice isoform as well as a novel exon and splice site. The predicted gene products contained heterogeneity in the N-terminal extracellular domain and the intracellular loop region. Responses to glutamate and IVM were measured using two-electrode voltage clamp on Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing AgGluCl. IVM induced non-persistent currents in AgGluCl-a1 and did not potentiate glutamate responses. In contrast, AgGluCl-b was insensitive to IVM, suggesting that the AgGluCl gene could produce IVM-sensitive and -insensitive homomultimers from alternative splicing. AgGluCl isoform-specific transcripts were measured across tissues, ages, blood feeding status and sex, and were found to be differentially transcribed across these physiological variables. Lastly, we stained adult, female A. gambiae for GluCl expression. The channel was expressed in the antenna, Johnston's organ, supraesophageal ganglion and thoracic ganglia. In summary, we have characterized the first GluCl from a mosquito, A. gambiae, and described its unique activity and expression with respect to it as the target of the insecticide IVM. PMID:25994631

  20. Ivermectin Antagonizes Ethanol Inhibition in Purinergic P2X4 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Maya; Perkins, Daya; Trudell, James R.; Alkana, Ronald L.; Davies, Daryl L.

    2010-01-01

    ATP-gated purinergic P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs) are expressed in the central nervous system and are sensitive to ethanol at intoxicating concentrations. P2XRs are trimeric; each subunit consists of two transmembrane (TM) α-helical segments, a large extracellular domain, and intracellular amino and carboxyl terminals. Recent work indicates that position 336 (Met336) in the TM2 segment is critical for ethanol modulation of P2X4Rs. The anthelmintic medication ivermectin (IVM) positively modulates P2X4Rs and is believed to act in the same region as ethanol. The present study tested the hypothesis that IVM can antagonize ethanol action. We investigated IVM and ethanol effects in wild-type and mutant P2X4Rs expressed in Xenopus oocytes by using a two-electrode voltage clamp. IVM antagonized ethanol-induced inhibition of P2X4Rs in a concentration-dependent manner. The size and charge of substitutions at position 336 affected P2X4R sensitivity to both ethanol and IVM. The first molecular model of the rat P2X4R, built onto the X-ray crystal structure of zebrafish P2X4R, revealed a pocket formed by Asp331, Met336, Trp46, and Trp50 that may play a role in the actions of ethanol and IVM. These findings provide the first evidence for IVM antagonism of ethanol effects in P2X4Rs and suggest that the antagonism results from the ability of IVM to interfere with ethanol action on the putative pocket at or near position 336. Taken with the building evidence supporting a role for P2X4Rs in ethanol intake, the present findings suggest that the newly identified alcohol pocket is a potential site for development of medication for alcohol use disorders. PMID:20543096

  1. Effects of soil conditioners on emergence and growth of tomato-cotton, and lettuce seedlings. [Lycopersicon esculentum; Gossypium hirsutum; Lactuea sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Wallace, G.A.

    1986-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the extent to which seedling emergence and plant growth can be improved with use of new soil conditioners. The early findings regarding polymeric soil conditioners are still valid today, with the exception that much lower application rates are needed today, and different application methodology is available.

  2. Ivermectin-dependent attachment of neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells to Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae in vitro.

    PubMed

    Vatta, Adriano F; Dzimianski, Michael; Storey, Bob E; Camus, Melinda S; Moorhead, Andrew R; Kaplan, Ray M; Wolstenholme, Adrian J

    2014-11-15

    The macrocyclic lactones are the only anthelmintics used to prevent heartworm disease, but it is very difficult to reproduce their in vivo efficacy against Dirofilaria immitis larvae in experiments in vitro. These assays typically measure motility, suggesting that paralysis is not the mode of action of the macrocyclic lactones against D. immitis. We isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and neutrophils from uninfected dogs and measured their adherence to D. immitis microfilariae in the presence of varying concentrations of ivermectin. We found that adherence of PBMC to the microfilariae was increased in the presence of ivermectin concentrations ≥100 nM and adherence of neutrophils was increased in drug concentrations ≥10 nM. Up to 50% of microfilariae had adherent PBMC in the presence of the drug, and binding was maximal after 40 h incubation. Neutrophil adherence was maximal after 16 h, with approximately 20% of the microfilariae having at least one cell adhered to them. Adherent neutrophils showed morphological evidence of activation. These results are consistent with a model in which the macrocyclic lactones interfere with the parasites ability to evade the host's innate immune system. PMID:24594213

  3. Larval immersion tests with ivermectin in populations of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) from State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larval immersion tests (LIT) with commercial formulation of ivermectin were carried out with larvae of two field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from commercial dairy farms of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil and a susceptible strain (Porto Alegre) to differentiate resistant suspect...

  4. Standardized laboratory tests with 21 species of temperate and tropical sepsid flies confirm their suitability as bioassays of pharmaceutical residues (ivermectin) in cattle dung.

    PubMed

    Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schäfer, Martin A; Scheffczyk, Adam; Römbke, Jörg

    2013-03-01

    Veterinary pharmaceuticals excreted in the dung of treated livestock can have strong non-target effects on the dung organism community. We report results of ecotoxicological tests with ivermectin for 21 species of temperate (Europe, North America) and tropical (Asia, Central America) black scavenger flies (Diptera: Sepsidae), using standardized methods developed previously for the yellow dung fly and the face fly. Our study documents great variation in ivermectin sensitivity of more than two orders of magnitude among species and even populations within species: estimated lethal effect concentrations LC(50) (at which 50% of the flies died) ranged from 0.05 to 18.55 μg/kg dung fresh weight (equivalent to 0.33-132.22 μg/kg dung dry weight). We also show that controlled laboratory tests can--within reasonable limits-be extended to the field or to laboratory settings without climate control, as obtained LC(50) were roughly similar. In addition to lethal effects, our study revealed relevant sub-lethal effects at lower ivermectin concentrations in terms of prolonged development, smaller body size and reduced juvenile growth rate. Finally, oviposition choice experiments showed that females generally do not discriminate against dung containing ivermectin residues. We conclude that sepsid flies are well suited test organisms for pharmaceutical residues in the dung of livestock due to their ease and speed of rearing and handling, particularly in the tropics, where high-tech laboratory equipment is often not available. PMID:23260241

  5. Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners -- Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Booten, C.; Christensen, C.; Winkler, J.

    2014-11-01

    This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home. Conventional wisdom holds that oversizing the AC results in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was shown to be due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters. A case study of a typical 1960's vintage home demonstrates results in the context of whole building simulations using EnergyPlus.

  6. A Proposal for the Time Domain Modeling of Split Air Conditioners for Consumer Reimbursement Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, Paulo Henrique Oliveira; Almeida Junior, Afonso Bernardino; Gondim, Isaque Nogueira; Oliveira, José Carlos

    2015-04-01

    This paper deals with computer application procedures for the evaluation of the causal consistency between anomalous phenomena manifested in electrical networks, along with the physical damage associated with electrical equipment and possible reimbursement requests. The focus is on the development of an air conditioner appliance model of the type known as split founded upon a representation, in the time domain, in accordance with the Alternative Transients Program (ATP) simulator requirements. This approach permits investigations concerning the performance of the product when submitted to ideal and non-ideal supply conditions. Once the equipment model is implemented in the program, a set of investigative studies are carried out to show the device performance under specific energy quality disturbance conditions. In addition, there are still the results for the validation of the process established through the correlation between computational performance of the air conditioner with corresponding studies carried out experimentally, which are presented herein. Moreover, once the effectiveness of the developed model is verified, it is implemented into the Requests for Reimbursement Software. Investigations related to the correlation between disturbances and the levels of thermal and dielectric tolerance are then performed aiming at illustrating the use of the research results for the reimbursement analyzes purposes.

  7. Using Field-Metered Data to Quantify Annual Energy Use of Portable Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Thomas; Willem, Henry; Ni, Chun Chun; Stratton, Hannah; Chen, Yuting; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Iyer, Maithili; Price, Sarah; Dunham, Camilla

    2014-12-01

    As many regions of the United States experience rising temperatures, consumers have come to rely increasingly on cooling appliances (including portable air conditioners) to provide a comfortable indoor temperature. Home occupants sometimes use a portable air conditioner (PAC) to maintain a desired indoor temperature in a single room or enclosed space. Although PACs in residential use are few compared to centrally installed and room air conditioning (AC) units, the past few years have witnessed an increase of PACs use throughout the United States. There is, however, little information and few research projects focused on the energy consumption and performance of PACs, particularly studies that collect information from field applications of PACs. The operation and energy consumption of PACs may differ among geographic locations and households, because of variations in cooling load, frequency, duration of use, and other user-selected settings. In addition, the performance of building envelope (thermal mass and air leakage) as well as inter-zonal mixing within the building would substantially influence the ability to control and maintain desirable indoor thermal conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an initial field-metering study aimed at increasing the knowledge and data related to PAC operation and energy consumption in the United States.

  8. Evaluation of Annual Performance of Multi-type Air-Conditioners for Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Choyu; Ohashi, Ei-Ichiro; Nagamatsu, Katsuaki; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Hirota, Masafumi

    In this paper, firstly the results of the partial thermal load performance tests of multi-type air-conditioners for buildings were shown. Tests were conducted by using the air-enthalpy method testing apparatus. Two types of air-conditioners, heat pump driven by electric motors (EHP) and that driven by gas engines (GHP), with a rated cooling capacity of 56 kW were tested. The coefficient of performance (COP) and the annual energy consumption measured by the above mentioned tests were closely compared with those predicted by JIS. In EHP,the measured COP indicates the maximum when the indoor thermal load is about 50% of the rated capacity, while COP in GHP decreases gradually as the thermal load is decreased. Based on these results, we examined the accuracies of COP and the annual energy consumption predicted by JIS. It was found that in both EHP and GHP the current calculating method prescribed in JIS could not duplicate the COP decrease that appeared under the low thermal load conditions. As a result, the annual energy consumption is seriously underestimated by JIS. The prediction errors of the annual energy consumption amounted to about 17% for EHP and 38% for GHP

  9. Evaluation of Annual Performance of Multi-type Air-Conditioners for Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Masafumi; Watanabe, Choyu; Furukawa, Masahide; Nagamatsu, Katsuaki

    The partial load performance tests of multi-type package air-conditioners for buildings powered by electric motors, the rating cooling performance of which was 56 kW, were carried out by using the air-enthalpy method testing apparatus. The coefficient of performance (COP) and annual energy consumption measured by those tests were closely compared with those estimated from the current calculating method (JIS B 8616:2006). It was found that the performance of the air-conditioner changes depending on the outdoor air temperature and the indoor thermal load. The current calculating method could not reproduce the deteriorations of COP that appeared under the low thermal load condition in both the cooling and heating seasons. As a result it seriously underestimated the annual energy consumption; the error amounted to as large as about 20 % of the measured annual electric power consumption. Based on these results, we have proposed new testing conditions for the performance evaluation and a calculation method of the annual energy consumption that can improve the accuracy of the estimation of the annual energy consumption.

  10. Impact of Natural Conditioners on Water Retention, Infiltration and Evaporation Characteristics of Sandy Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Nasser, G.; Al-Omran, A. M.; Falatah, A. M.; Sheta, A. S.; Al-Harbi, A. R.

    Soil conditioners i.e., natural deposits and organic fertilizer are used for alleviate some of poor physical properties of sandy soils such as low water retention and inefficient water use, especially in arid and semi-arid regions such as in Saudi Arabia conditions. The present study aims to investigate the impact of clay deposits and organic fertilizer on water characteristics, cumulative infiltration and intermittent evaporation of loamy sand soil. Soil sample was collected from surface layer (0-30 cm depth) of the Agricultural Experiment and Research Station at Dierab, 40 km south west of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Two samples of clay deposits (CD#22 and CD#23) collected from Khyleis area, Jeddah-Madina road in addition of commercial Organic Fertilizer (OF) were used in the present study. The experiments were done during August to December 2005 in soil physics laboratory, the soil was mixed with clay deposits and organic fertilizer at rates of 0, 1, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% (w/w). The transparent PVC columns were packed with soil to depth of 30 cm every 5.0 cm intervals to insure a homogeneity of soil in columns. The clay deposits (CD#22 and CD#23) and Organic Fertilizer (OF) mixed with the soil were packed in the upper 0-5.0 cm of each soil column. The infiltration experiment was done using a flooding apparatus (Marriot device) with constant head of 3.0 cm over the soil surface. The cumulative infiltration and wetting front depth as a function of time were recorded. The evaporation experiment was conducted in 40 cm long transparent sectioned Lucite cylinders (5.0 cm ID). Fifty millimeters of tap water were applied weekly for three wetting/drying cycles. Cumulative evaporation against time was measured daily by weighing each soil column. The soil moisture distribution at the end of the experiment was determined gravimetrically for each 5.0 cm interval. The results indicated that the three conditioners significantly increased the water constants of mixed soil (i.e., SWC, FC

  11. Effects of ivermectin on Danio rerio: a multiple endpoint approach: behaviour, weight and subcellular markers.

    PubMed

    Domingues, I; Oliveira, R; Soares, A M V M; Amorim, M J B

    2016-04-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is a broad acting antihelmintic used in various veterinary pharmaceuticals. It has been shown that IVM enters the aquatic compartment and adversely affects organisms including fish. This study is based on the hypothesis that long term exposure to IVM affects fish and thus, the main objective was to assess the chronic effects of 0.25 and 25 µg IVM/L to zebrafish using multiple endpoints representative of several levels of biological organization: weight, behaviour (swimming and feeding) and subcellular markers including biomarkers for oestrogenicity (vitellogenin-VTG), oxidative stress (catalase-CAT and glutathione-S-transferase-GST) and neurotransmission (cholinesterase-ChE). Concentrations as low as 0.25 µg IVM/L disrupted the swimming behaviour, causing fish to spend more time at the bottom of aquaria. Such reduction of the swimming performance affected the feeding ability which is likely responsible for the weight loss. The effects on weight were gender differentiated, being more pronounced in males (0.25 µg IVM/L) than in females (25 µg IVM/L). Fish exposed to 25 µg/L exhibited darker coloration and mild curvature of the spine. No effects on VTG and AChE were observed, but a reduction on CAT and GST levels was observed in fish exposed to 25 µg IVM/L, although these alterations probably only reflect the general condition of the fish which was significantly compromised at this concentration. Despite that predicted environmental concentrations of IVM are below 0.25 µg/L, the behavioural effects may be translated into important ecological impacts, e.g. at predator-prey interactions where fish competitive advantage can be decreased. Future work should address the link between behaviour disruption and population fitness. The current study was based on a one experiment and multiple endpoint (anchored) approach, allowing the results to be integrated and linked towards a mechanistic understanding. PMID:26769347

  12. Turfgrass Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Using technology developed under contract to NASA for the Space Agricultural Program, a scientist at the Plant-Wise Biostimulant Company invented a product for turfgrass called the 3-D Concentrated Plant Growth Supplement. The supplement is a blend of fortified seaweed extracts, humic acid and plant nutrients that supplies grass with extra insurance to handle adverse conditions. The "3-D" refers to its three dimensions: foliar enhancement, physiological integrity, and foundation fortification. The stimulant is used on lawns and on golf courses.

  13. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Aqualizer is designed to cleanse water with minimal use of chemicals by stabilizing the ions in the water. Its applications are both recreational and industrial. A non-electrical passive device, the Aqualizer operates on the principle of catalytic water conditioning. It consists of a stainless steel pipe length with a helical core and is offered in a variety of sizes depending on the quantity of water to be treated. The device is based on NASA silver ionization technology used to purify drinking water aboard the Apollo spacecraft.

  14. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform...

  16. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: Economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The results of investigations aimed at the development of cost models to be used in the economic assessment of Rankine-powered air conditioning systems for residential application are summarized. The rationale used in the development of the cost model was to: (1) collect cost data on complete systems and on the major equipment used in these systems; (2) reduce these data and establish relationships between cost and other engineering parameters such as weight, size, power level, etc; and (3) derive simple correlations from which cost-to-the-user can be calculated from performance requirements. The equipment considered in the survey included heat exchangers, fans, motors, and turbocompressors. This kind of hardware represents more than 2/3 of the total cost of conventional air conditioners.

  17. Characterization of cesium uptake mediated by a potassium transport system of bacteria in a soil conditioner.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengyao; Idota, Yoko; Yano, Kentaro; Negishi, Masayuki; Kawabata, Hideaki; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Morimoto, Kaori; Tsuji, Akira; Ogihara, Takuo

    2014-01-01

    We found that bacteria in a commercial soil conditioner sold in Ishinomaki, Miyagi, exhibited concentrative and saturable cesium ion (Cs(+)) uptake in the natural range of pH and temperature. The concentration of intracellular Cs(+) could be condensed at least a few times higher compared with the outside medium of the cells. This uptake appeared to be mediated by a K(+) transport system, since Cs(+) uptake was dose-dependently inhibited by potassium ion (K(+)). Eadie-Hofstee plot analysis indicated that the Cs(+) uptake involved a single saturable process. The maximum uptake amount (Jmax) was the same in the presence and absence of K(+), suggesting that Cs(+) and K(+) uptakes were competitive with respect to each other. These bacteria might be useful for bioremediation of cesium-contaminated soil. PMID:24694606

  18. Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

  19. Experimental Study on Efficiency Improvement of R410A Scroll Compressor for Air Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Kiyoshi; Sakuda, Atsushi; Iida, Noboru; Hiwata, Akira; Morimoto, Takashi; Ishii, Noriaki

    In scroll compressors, an increase in oil flow rate into thecompression chamber improves sealing effectsand decreases refrigerant leakage. On the other hand, as the oil supplies the heat energy, the suction refrigerantis heated and the volumetric efficiency degreases. In the present study, we made an apparatus which suppliesthe oil into the compression chamber while measuring the mass flow rate, thus investigating the relationshipbetween the oil flow rate and the compressor performance. Experimental results indicated that the presentR410A scroll compressor provided higher performance as the oil flow rate decreased under the rated conditionof the air-conditioner. In addition, based on the experimental results, we discussed that the oil flow in thecapillary installed in the orbiting scroll was considered to be a laminar flow, and the volumetric efficiencywould degrease by the effect of a quarter of the oil heat energy.

  20. Method and apparatus for analog signal conditioner for high speed, digital x-ray spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Warburton, William K.; Hubbard, Bradley

    1999-01-01

    A signal processing system which accepts input from an x-ray detector-preamplifier and produces a signal of reduced dynamic range for subsequent analog-to-digital conversion. The system conditions the input signal to reduce the number of bits required in the analog-to-digital converter by removing that part of the input signal which varies only slowly in time and retaining the amplitude of the pulses which carry information about the x-rays absorbed by the detector. The parameters controlling the signal conditioner's operation can be readily supplied in digital form, allowing it to be integrated into a feedback loop as part of a larger digital x-ray spectroscopy system.