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1

Geochemistry and age of Ivory Coast tektites and microtektites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ivory Coast tektites were first reported in 1934 from a geographically restricted area at Ivory Coast, West Africa. Although some additional specimens have been found later, the total number remains small (a few hundred). The Bosumtwi impact crater in Ghana is most likely the source crater for the Ivory Coast tektites, based on the finding that the tektites and the

Christian Koeberl; Richard Bottomley; Billy P. Glass; Dieter Storzer

1997-01-01

2

New data on selected Ivory Coast tektites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fourteen Ivory Coast tektites exhibit a range of bulk indices of refraction of 1.5156 to 1.5217 ?? 0.0004 and of bulk specific gravities of 2.428 to 2.502 ??0.005. Seven of these Ivory Coast (IVC) tektites were analyzed for major and minor element content. Compared to tektites from other strewn fields, their SiO2 content is low (67.2-69.1 %), A12O3 relatively high (15.8-16.8 %), and total iron relatively high but with a more restricted range (6.3-6.8 % as FeO). Their lime content is low (0.71-1.35%) compared to Australasian tektites but their MgO CaO ratio (about 3.1) is unusually high. All other tektite groups have Na2O K2O ratios less than unity, but the Na2O K2O ratio of the IVC tektites is slightly greater than unity. Their K Rb ratios range from 200 to 256 and average 227, which is higher than those determined for Australasian tektites, but similar to some obtained for moldavites. The Li content (41-48 ppm) is about the same as that of the Australasian tektites, but the Cs and Rb are lower, being 1.9 to 2.9 and 57 to 86 ppm, respectively. The IVC tektites are high in Cr (260-375 ppm), Co (19-25 ppm) and Ni (101-167 ppm), and particularly in Pb (<10-18 ppm), Cu (13-21 ppm) and Ga (14-23 ppm). The high Cr Ni ratios of the IVC tektites (range 2-3.6) are similar to those found for australites, philippinites and thailandites, but not the javanites and indochinites. Evaluation of these and other reported data show that compositional similarities between the IVC tektites and green or black Bosumtwi Crater glasses strongly support the hypothesis of a common impact origin-i.e. the Bosumtwi Crater site. Comparison of the IVC tektite composition with those of returned lunar materials (gabbros, basalts, breccia and soils) do not support a lunar origin for the Ivory Coast tektites. ?? 1972.

Cuttitta, F.; Carron, M.K.; Annell, C.S.

1972-01-01

3

New data on selected Ivory Coast tektites.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fourteen Ivory Coast tektites exhibit a range of bulk indices of refraction of 1.5156 to 1.5217 plus or minus 0.0004 and of bulk specific gravities of 2.428 to 2.502 plus or minus 0.005. Seven of these Ivory Coast (IVC) tektites were analyzed for major and minor element content. Compared to tektites from other strewn fields, their SiO2 content is low (67.2-69.1%), Al2O3 relatively high (15.8-16.8%), and total iron relatively high but with a more restricted range (6.3-6.8% as FeO). Their lime content is low (0.71-1.35%) compared to Australasian tektites but their MgO/CaO ratio (about 3.1) is unusually high. All other tektite groups have Na2O/K2O ratios less than unity, but the Na2O/K2O ratio of the IVC tektites is slightly greater than unity. Their K/Rb ratios range from 200 to 256 and average 227.

Cuttitta, F.; Carron, M. K.; Annell, C. S.

1972-01-01

4

Detection of a meteoritic component in Ivory Coast tektites with rhenium-osmium isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of rhenium (Re) and osmium (Os) concentrations and Os isotopic compositions in Ivory Coast tektites (natural glasses with upper crustal compositions that are ejected great distances during meteorite impact) and rocks from the inferred source crater, Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana, show that these tektites incorporate about 0.6 percent of a meteoritic component. Analysis of elemental abundances of noble metals alone

Christian Koeberl; Steven B. Shirey

1993-01-01

5

Oxygen isotopes as tracers of tektite source rocks: An example from the Ivory Coast tektites and Lake Bosumtwi Crater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oxygen isotope studies of tektites and impact glasses provide an important tool to help in identifying the target lithologies for terrestrial impacts, including the K-T boundary impact. However, such studies may be complicated by modification of the original oxygen isotope values of some source rocks during the tektite formation process either by vapor fractionation or incorporation of meteoric water. To further investigate the relationship between the oxygen isotopic composition of tektites and their source rocks, Ivory Coast tektites and samples of impact glasses and bedrock lithologies from the Bosumtwi Crater in Ghana--which is widely believed to be the source crater for the Ivory Coast tektites--were studied. Our preliminary results suggest that the phyllites and metagraywackes from the Bosumtwi Crater were the predominant source materials for the impact glasses and tektites and that no significant oxygen isotope modification (less than 1 percent delta(O-18)) took place during impact melting. This contrasts with previous studies of moldavites and Australasian tektites and their sedimentary source materials which suggests a 4 to 5 percent lowering of delta(O-18) due to meteoric water incorporation during impact melting.

Blum, Joel D.; Koeberl, Christian; Chamberlain, C. Page

1993-01-01

6

Rare-earth and barium abundances in Ivory Coast tektites and rocks from the Bosumtwi Crater area, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundances of eight rare-earth elements and barium have been determined by isotope dilution in an Ivory Coast tektite composite, an individual Ivory Coast tektite, two impactite glasses and three country-rocks from the Bosumtwi Crater area of Ghana. The rare-earth abundances are lower, in general, than those in previously analyzed tektites from different geographic localities. However, there is some overlap in

C. C. Schnetzler; John A. Philpotts; H. H. Thomas

1967-01-01

7

Osmium isotopes in Ivory Coast tektites: Confirmation of a meteoritic component and rhenium depletion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sensitive negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry method was used for the measurement of concentrations and isotopic ratios of osmium and rhenium in four Ivory Coast tektites. These tektites have crustal major and trace element composition, as well as large negative epsilon(sub Nd)(-20) and positive epsilon(sub Sr)(+260 to +300) which are characteristic for old continental crust. Os concentrations ranging from 0.09 to 0.30 ppb were found, clearly much higher than average crustal values, Os-187/Os-186 ratios of about 1.2-1.7, and low Re-187/Os-186 ratios. These results show unambiguously the existence of a meteoritic component (on the order of 0.06%) in the Ivory Coast tektites. Low Re abundances are the result of fractionation of Re during the impact.

Koeberl, Christian; Shirey, Steven B.

1993-01-01

8

Petrology and geochemistry of target rocks from the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana, and comparison with Ivory Coast tektites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 10.5 km diameter Bosumtwi crater in Ghana, West Africa, is the most likely source crater for the Ivory Coast tektites, as the tektites and the crater have the same age (1.07 Ma), and there are close similarities between the isotopic and chemical compositions of the tektites and crater rocks. The crater is excavated in 2.1–2.2 Ga old metasediments and

Christian Koeberl; WolfUwe Reimold; Joel D. Blum; C. Page Chamberlain

1998-01-01

9

Trace Elements in Ivory Coast Tektites, Microtektites, and Fallback Particles of the Lake Bosumtwi Impact Crater, Ghana: A LA-ICP-MS Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LA-ICP-MS trace element data of Ivory Coast tektites, microtektites, and glassy fallback particles indicate a soil contribution to the precursor materials of the tektites. A variable Ni/Co ratio seems to be characteristic of the fallback particles.

Luetke, S.; Deutsch, A.; Berndt, J.; Langenhorst, F.

2008-03-01

10

Beryllium-10 concentrations of tektites from the Ivory Coast and from Central Europe: Evidence for near-surface residence of precursor materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using accelerator mass spectrometry, we measured 10Be ( T1/2 = 1.5 Ma) concentrations in nine Ivory Coast (IVC) tektites, in six soil samples collected near the Bosumtwi impact crater, the likely source region, and in a depth profile taken through a 23 g moldavite. In the core of the moldavite sample we also measured an upper limit on the 36Cl ( T1/2 = 0.3 My) concentration. The average 10Be concentration in IVC tektites of (22 ± 11) × 10 6 atom/g exceeds reasonable limits for a meteoritic component or cosmic-ray production in situ after tektite formation. The 10Be must be meteoric, which implies that IVC tektites formed from soils or sediments. Corrected to the time of formation (ToF) 1.07 Ma ago and for a small in situ component, the average 10Be concentration of (35 ± 7) × 10 6 atom/g (1 - ? mean) is considerably lower than those of contemporary Bosumtwi soils, ˜250 × 10 6 atom/g, or of Australasian tektites at their ToF, 0.8 Ma B.P. near Lake Bosumtwi today the soil column is only ˜1 m thick. If the landscape was similar 1.07 Ma ago, then the total thickness of the tektite formation zone probably did not exceed 10 m. With increasing depth below the surface of the moldavite, the 10Be concentrations decrease rapidly owing to the presence of a surface component, probably of recent origin. The main interior mass of the sample contains ˜0.8 × 10 6 atom 10Be/g and fewer than 0.1 × 10 6 atom 36Cl/g, little of which can be meteoritic. Although not definitive, consideration of several possible cosmic-ray exposure histories suggests that about half the interior 10Be has a meteoric origin, which if corrected to the time of formation yields a concentration compatible with those measured in typical contemporary soils. The observations are consistent with the formation of three of the four main tektite groups from surface soils or sediments.

Serefiddin, Feride; Herzog, Gregory F.; Koeberl, Christian

2007-03-01

11

SETTLEMENT POINTS Ivory Coast  

E-print Network

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Columbia University

12

Single crystal U-Pb zircon age and Sr-Nd isotopic composition of impactites from the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana: Comparison with country rocks and Ivory Coast tektites.  

PubMed

The 1.07 Myr old Bosumtwi impact structure (Ghana), excavated in 2.1-2.2 Gyr old supracrustal rocks of the Birimian Supergroup, was drilled in 2004. Here, we present single crystal U-Pb zircon ages from a suevite and two meta-graywacke samples recovered from the central uplift (drill core LB-08A), which yield an upper Concordia intercept age of ca. 2145 ± 82 Ma, in very good agreement with previous geochronological data for the West African Craton rocks in Ghana. Whole rock Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope data of six suevites (five from inside the crater and one from outside the northern crater rim), three meta-graywacke, and two phyllite samples from core LB-08A are also presented, providing further insights into the timing of the metamorphism and a possibly related isotopic redistribution of the Bosumtwi crater rocks. Our Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd data show also that the suevites are mixtures of meta-greywacke and phyllite (and possibly a very low amount of granite). A comparison of our new isotopic data with literature data for the Ivory Coast tektites allows to better constrain the parent material of the Ivory Coast tektites (i.e., distal impactites), which is thought to consist of a mixture of metasedimentary rocks (and possibly granite), but with a higher proportion of phyllite (and shale) than the suevites (i.e., proximal impactites). When plotted in a Rb/Sr isochron diagram, the sample data points (n = 29, including literature data) scatter along a regression line, whose slope corresponds to an age of 1846 ± 160 Ma, with an initial Sr isotope ratio of 0.703 ± 0.002. However, due to the extensive alteration of some of the investigated samples and the lithological diversity of the source material, this age, which is in close agreement with a possible "metamorphic age" of ? 1.8-1.9 Ga tentatively derived from our U-Pb dating of zircons, is difficult to consider as a reliable metamorphic age. It may perhaps reflect a common ancient source whose Rb-Sr isotope systematics has not basically been reset on the whole rock scale during the Bosumtwi impact event, or even reflect another unknown geologic event. PMID:21037794

Ferrière, Ludovic; Koeberl, Christian; Thöni, Martin; Liang, Chen

2010-08-01

13

Single crystal U–Pb zircon age and Sr–Nd isotopic composition of impactites from the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana: Comparison with country rocks and Ivory Coast tektites  

PubMed Central

The 1.07 Myr old Bosumtwi impact structure (Ghana), excavated in 2.1–2.2 Gyr old supracrustal rocks of the Birimian Supergroup, was drilled in 2004. Here, we present single crystal U–Pb zircon ages from a suevite and two meta-graywacke samples recovered from the central uplift (drill core LB-08A), which yield an upper Concordia intercept age of ca. 2145 ± 82 Ma, in very good agreement with previous geochronological data for the West African Craton rocks in Ghana. Whole rock Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd isotope data of six suevites (five from inside the crater and one from outside the northern crater rim), three meta-graywacke, and two phyllite samples from core LB-08A are also presented, providing further insights into the timing of the metamorphism and a possibly related isotopic redistribution of the Bosumtwi crater rocks. Our Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd data show also that the suevites are mixtures of meta-greywacke and phyllite (and possibly a very low amount of granite). A comparison of our new isotopic data with literature data for the Ivory Coast tektites allows to better constrain the parent material of the Ivory Coast tektites (i.e., distal impactites), which is thought to consist of a mixture of metasedimentary rocks (and possibly granite), but with a higher proportion of phyllite (and shale) than the suevites (i.e., proximal impactites). When plotted in a Rb/Sr isochron diagram, the sample data points (n = 29, including literature data) scatter along a regression line, whose slope corresponds to an age of 1846 ± 160 Ma, with an initial Sr isotope ratio of 0.703 ± 0.002. However, due to the extensive alteration of some of the investigated samples and the lithological diversity of the source material, this age, which is in close agreement with a possible “metamorphic age” of ? 1.8–1.9 Ga tentatively derived from our U–Pb dating of zircons, is difficult to consider as a reliable metamorphic age. It may perhaps reflect a common ancient source whose Rb–Sr isotope systematics has not basically been reset on the whole rock scale during the Bosumtwi impact event, or even reflect another unknown geologic event. PMID:21037794

Ferrière, Ludovic; Koeberl, Christian; Thöni, Martin; Liang, Chen

2010-01-01

14

Violence in the Ivory Coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After Sunday's presidential election in the Ivory Coast (or Cote d'Ivoire), violence broke out when two candidates, the Ivory Coast's military ruler, General Robert Guei, and Laurent Gbagbo, Guei's main opponent, both declared that they had won the election. Thousands of Gbagbo supporters protested in the streets of the country's capitol, Abidjan and were met by military authorities, who responded with live ammunition, teargas, and batons. In the following three days, at least 60 people were killed. The conflict has also threatened relations between the Ivory Coast's ethnic groups. Guei's supporters mainly live in the country's northern, Muslim region, while Gbagdo represents the Christians living in the western and southern regions. Both mosques and churches have been looted and set on fire. On Thursday the official vote was released by the national electoral commission: Gbagbo received 59 percent of the vote, and Guei, 32 percent. Later that day, Gbagdo was swore in as president, as Guei went into hiding. The violence in Abidjan seems to have settled. Today, Gbagdo named Affi N'Guessan as the Ivory Coast's new prime minister. Previously, N.Guessan was the Minister of Industry and Tourism in Guei's government. The new president has also vowed to keep Guei's timetable to return the Ivory Coast to democracy.

15

Tektites and their origin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Questions concerning the tektite distribution are examined, taking into account the Australasian strewn field, the Ivory Coast strewn field, the Moldavite strewn field, the North American strewn field, the Libyan desert glass, the Aouelloul crater glass, and amerikanites. Attention is given to the shapes of tektites, the internal structure of tektites, the physical properties of tektite glass, the chemical composition of tektites, isotopes, fission tracks, cosmic ray tracks, and arguments in favor and against the terrestrial origin of tektites. It is concluded that tektites cannot be terrestrial in origin. They are probably volcanic ejects, of geologically recent epochs, from one or a number of lunar volcanoes.

Okeefe, J. A.

1976-01-01

16

Glassy Objects (Microtektites?) from Deep-Sea Sediments near the Ivory Coast.  

PubMed

Glassy objects of spherical, oval, dumbbell, teardrop, and irregular shapes have been found in a deep-sea sediment core taken off the Ivory Coast. They occur in a layer of sediment that was apparently deposited about 800,000 years ago. Their geographic location, appearance, and physical properties suggest that they are microtektites and that they are related to the tektite-strewn field of the Ivory Coast. PMID:17812117

Glass, B P

1968-08-30

17

Pepper veinal mottle virus in Ivory Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mosaic and stunt disease of chilli pepper (Capsicum frutescens) in Ivory Coast was found to be caused by pepper veinal mottle virus, a member of the potato virus Y group, recently described from chilli pepper in Ghana. The Ivory Coast isolate was first transmitted by aphids toPhysalis floridana and subsequently maintained by mechanical inoculation inP. floridana andNicotiana megalosiphon. The

J. J. De Wijs

1973-01-01

18

Phillips goes subsea trees in Ivory Coast  

SciTech Connect

Describes installation of 3 wet, diver-assist trees, in the Espoir field offshore Ivory Coast, as part of Phillips Petroleum's plans to use 5 satellite wells with downhole completion equipment and subsea production trees. Simplicity in design and attention to training has resulted in an installation time of about 3 weeks for one of the largest subsea trees in the industry. Presents diagram showing the converted jackup, Dan Duke drilling unit, which supports equipment to handle production from subsea wells.

Bryngelson, R.H.

1982-11-15

19

[The migration policy of the Ivory Coast].  

PubMed

Migration policies adopted by the Ivory Coast at independence were essentially a continuation of colonial policies aimed at providing manpower for the coffee and cacao plantations of the south, whose exports were to form the basis of the national development strategy. Instead of forced labor, the government facilitated installation of migrants in agricultural areas by means of laws assuring their access to lands not currently in use. Massive immigration of workers resulted in an age and sex distribution favorable to the needs of the plantation economy. The concentration of development efforts in the forest zone of the south, including Abidjan, encouraged thousands of workers from the savannah to migrate south in search of higher incomes and better living conditions. Bilateral accords with the former Upper Volta and with France and multilateral accords with the Economic Community of the West African states regulated the migratory movement. The Ivory Coast's migration policy succeeded in populating the forest zone and permitted the Ivory Coast to construct a powerful economy. But the policy produced sometimes violent opposition among natives overwhelmed by foreigners in search of lands. The loss of labor force in the savannah threatened the nation's food supply and demographic balance. In the forest zone itself, many of the immigrant workers left the plantations to seek greater success in the cities, swelling the ranks of the urban unemployed and leaving much of the rural area short of labor. In prosperous times, when prices for southern goods were high, the system worked reasonably well. When economic conditions worsened, the inefficiency of the policy became clear. At those times the international conventions failed to control the influx because of the conflicting interests of the countries. Ethnic and regional tensions mounted, the rural exodus continued despite attempts to encourage regional development, and conflicts over land tenure intensified. PMID:12290034

Brou, K; Charbit, Y

1994-01-01

20

North-American Microtektites are More Oxidised than Tektites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

North American (NA) microtektites display Fe3+/Fetot ratios from 0 to 0.75, much higher than microtektites from Ivory Coast and Australasian strewn fields. FTIR determined water content compare well with NA tektites, suggesting lack of alteration.

Giuli, G.; Cicconi, M. R.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Koeberl, C.; Glass, B. P.; Pratesi, G.; Paris, E.

2012-09-01

21

Infrasound from lightning measured in Ivory Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well established that more than 2,000 thunderstorms occur continuously around the world and that about 45 lightning flashes are produced per second over the globe. More than two thirds (42) of the infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO (Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation) are now certified and routinely measure signals due to natural activity (e.g., airflow over mountains, aurora, microbaroms, surf, volcanoes, severe weather including lightning flashes, ...). Some of the IMS stations are located where worldwide lightning detection networks (e.g. WWLLN) have a weak detection capability but lightning activity is high (e.g. Africa, South America). These infrasound stations are well localised to study lightning flash activity and its disparity, which is a good proxy for global warming. Progress in infrasound array data processing over the past ten years makes such lightning studies possible. For example, Farges and Blanc (2010) show clearly that it is possible to measure lightning infrasound from thunderstorms within a range of distances from the infrasound station. Infrasound from lightning can be detected when the thunderstorm is within about 75 km from the station. The motion of the squall zone is very well measured inside this zone. Up to 25% of lightning flashes can be detected with this technique, giving better results locally than worldwide lightning detection networks. An IMS infrasound station has been installed in Ivory Coast for 8 years. The optical space-based instrument OTD measured a rate of 10-20 flashes/km^2/year in that country and showed strong seasonal variations (Christian et al., 2003). Ivory Coast is therefore a good place to study infrasound data associated with lightning activity and its temporal variation. First statistical results will be presented in this paper based on 3 years of data (2005-2008).

Farges, T.; Matoza, R. S.

2011-12-01

22

Phillips goes subsea trees in Ivory Coast  

SciTech Connect

Describes installation of 3 satellite subsea trees in 500 ft of water from a semisubmersible drilling rig. These wet, diver-assist trees are part of Phillips Petroleum's early development and production program (EDPP) for the Espoir field offshore Ivory Coast, with plans calling for 5 satellite wells with downhole completion equipment and subsea production trees. Diagram shows how a converted jackup, Dan Duke, supports equipment to handle production from subsea wells. Table gives time breakdown of subsea tree installation. Before mobilizing the subsea trees, control system, and tubulars to the rig, a study of deck layout, payloads, and traffic patterns was performed. Concludes that, based on experience in this project and the cost differences between purchase and installation costs, final success is 90% dependent on informed and trained field personnel after engineering, design, and manufacturing; attention to installation procedures and training of field and operational personnel are as critical or more critical than design changes to equipment; and selection of a supplier for high technology equipment, based on a low bid alone, may not translate into lower installation costs.

Bryngelson, R.H.

1982-11-15

23

Infrasound from lightning measured in Ivory Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well established that more than 2,000 thunderstorms occur continuously around the world and that about 45 lightning flashes are produced per second over the globe. More than two thirds (42) of the infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO (Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation) are now certified and routinely measure signals due to natural activity (e.g., airflow over mountains, aurora, microbaroms, surf, volcanoes, severe weather including lightning flashes, …). Some of the IMS stations are located where worldwide lightning detection networks (e.g. WWLLN) have a weak detection capability but lightning activity is high (e.g. Africa, South America). These infrasound stations are well localised to study lightning flash activity and its disparity, which is a good proxy for global warming. Progress in infrasound array data processing over the past ten years makes such lightning studies possible. For example, Farges and Blanc (2010) show clearly that it is possible to measure lightning infrasound from thunderstorms within a range of distances from the infrasound station. Infrasound from lightning can be detected when the thunderstorm is within about 75 km from the station. The motion of the squall zone is very well measured inside this zone. Up to 25% of lightning flashes can be detected with this technique, giving better results locally than worldwide lightning detection networks. An IMS infrasound station has been installed in Ivory Coast for 9 years. The lightning rate of this region is 10-20 flashes/km2/year from space-based instrument OTD (Christian et al., 2003). Ivory Coast is therefore a good place to study infrasound data associated with lightning activity and its temporal variation. First statistical results will be presented in this paper based on 4 years of data (2005-2009). For short lightning distances (less than 20 km), up to 60 % of lightning detected by WWLLN has been one-to-one correlated. Moreover, numerous infrasound events which have the infrasound from lightning signature could not be correlated when thunderstorms were close to the station. Statistical analyses of all correlated infrasound events show an exponential decrease of the infrasound amplitude with the distance of one order of magnitude per 50 km. These analyses show also that the relative position of lightning is important: the detection limit is higher when lightning occur at the East of the station than when they occur at the West. The dominant wind (the Easterlies) could be responsible of this dissymmetry. It also exists a high variability of detection efficiency with the seasons (better efficiency in fall than in spring). Finally, these statistics show clearly a structure inside the shadow zone (from 70 to 200 km away from the station). These results will be compared with intensive numerical simulations. The simulations are separated into two parts: the simulation of the near-field blast wave generated by a lightning and the simulation of the non-linear propagation of the shock front through a realistic atmosphere. By comparing our numerical results to recorded data over a full 1-year period, we aim to show that dominant features of statistics at the IMS station may be explained by the meteorological variability.

Farges, T.; Millet, C.; Matoza, R. S.

2012-04-01

24

Primary productivity of a Hevea forest in the Ivory Coast B.A. Monteny  

E-print Network

Primary productivity of a Hevea forest in the Ivory Coast B.A. Monteny ORSTOM, Bioclimatologie- duction rates of a Hevea forest located in the humid tropical zone of the Ivory Coast have been calculated, at Dabou-Ousrou, near Abid- jan (5°19' N, 04"30' W), Ivory Coast. The tropi- cal forest zone is under

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

25

Catch Efficiencies of Purse and Beach Seines in Ivory Coast Lagoons  

E-print Network

Catch Efficiencies of Purse and Beach Seines in Ivory Coast Lagoons Emmanuel Charles-Dominique ABSTRACT: Catch efficiencies of two commonly used fishing gears. in Ivory Coast lagoons, purse seine fisheries are well developed in Ivory Coast lagoons, yielding from 10,000 to 20,000 tons of commercially

26

Evolution of a Paleoproterozoic "weak type" orogeny in the West African Craton (Ivory Coast)  

E-print Network

Evolution of a Paleoproterozoic "weak type" orogeny in the West African Craton (Ivory Coast) M The Paleoproterozoic domain of the Ivory Coast lies in the central part of the West African Craton (WAC) and is mainly. Results of the structural analysis, focused on three areas within the Ivory Coast, suggest

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

27

Boron content and isotopic composition of tektites and impact glasses: Constraints on source regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundances of Li, Be, and B, as well as boron isotopic compositions, were determined in twenty-seven tektite and impact glass samples, using an ion microprobe. Samples included tektites from the Australasian, North American, and Ivory Coast strewn fields, and Aouelloul and Darwin impact glasses. Variations of B abundance and isotopic composition in a flanged australite were also studied. ?11B variations

Marc Chaussidon; Christian Koeberl

1995-01-01

28

Antiparasitic activities of medicinal plants used in Ivory Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an ethnopharmacological survey of antiparasitic medicinal plants used in Ivory Coast, 17 plants were identified and collected. Polar, non-polar and alkaloidic extracts of various parts of these species were evaluated in vitro in an antiparasitic drug screening. Antimalarial, leishmanicidal, trypanocidal, antihelminthiasis and antiscabies activities were determined. Among the selected plants, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia glaucescens were strongly active against

T Okpekon; S Yolou; C Gleye; F Roblot; P Loiseau; C Bories; P Grellier; F Frappier; A Laurens; R Hocquemiller

2004-01-01

29

Sediment trace metal contamination in the Ivory Coast, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help expand our global perspective on trace metal contamination, concentrations of Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined for sediments from the Ebrie Lagoon in the Ivory Coast, a developing West African nation. Excess loading of several metals, especially Hg, Pb, and Zn was found at several sites. The maximum concentration of Hg measured in sediments

Issifou Kouadio; John H. Trefry

1987-01-01

30

What it is like to live in the Ivory Coast  

SciTech Connect

Exploration and production activity is increasing in the Ivory Coast on the strength of a small discovery by Exxon in 1977 and unofficial reports that Phillips has found a field in deep water which approaches Prudhoe Bay in size. Phillips is bringing five offshore rigs into Ivoirian waters.

Liddell, W.W.

1981-09-01

31

NICKEL IN TEKTITES BY ACTIVATION ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nickel abundances of most of the major occurrences of tektites, as ; well as several meteorite impact glasses and obsidians, were determined using ; neutron activation analysis. Iron abundances were determined in the same ; specimens; and Ni\\/Fe abundance ratios were tabulated. These ratios, determined ; that for the first time on the Libyan Desert glass, the Ivory Coast

W EHMANN

1960-01-01

32

Nd and Sr isotopic evidence for the origin of tektite material from DSDP site 612 off the New Jersey coast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sr and Nd isotopic composition was analyzed for samples from the Late Eocene tektite material from DSDP site 612 off the New Jersey coast, to determine whether these tektites may be assigned to the North-American-tektite group. It was found that the ranges of the Sr-87/Sr-86 and the Nd-143/Nd-144 ratios were much wider than in the 612-tectite material than in the tightly constrained group of North American tektites and microtektites and were significantly different from ratios in other groups of tektites. Results indicate that the DSDP tektites were formed from a chemically and isotopically heterogeneous material, in a regime that was different from that of other groups of tektites. It is suggested that the 612-tectites and the North American tektites were either formed by impacts of several bolides in the same general area or by a single impact event that sampled different layers.

Stecher, O.; Ngo, H. H.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

1989-01-01

33

The Influence of Predisposing, Enabling and Need Factors on Condom Use in Ivory Coast  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this study was to identify key determinants of condom use in Ivory Coast. Data stem from Ivory Coast Demographic Health Survey (DHS) conducted by ORC Macro in 2005 among a representative sample of 9,686 persons aged 15 - 49. Following the behavioral model, we use logistic regression to assess the effect of predisposing,…

Ngamini Ngui, Andre

2010-01-01

34

Foreign Fishery Developments Fleet Table 1.-The Ivory Coast catch of tuna and tunalike species, 1971-78'.  

E-print Network

Foreign Fishery Developments Fleet Catch (t) Table 1.-The Ivory Coast catch of tuna and tuna,83 7,420 10,026 10,138 The Ivory Coast tuna fleet, while small, is the most modem of any African. It is the sixth tuna vessel ordered by the Ivory Coast- French joint venture SIPAR (Societe Ivoirienne de Peche et

35

North-American Microtektites are More Oxidised than Tektites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microtektites from the Australasian and Ivory Coast strewn fields (SF) show low values of the Fe^3^+/Fe_t_o_t ratio, comparable to tektites from the same SF. In contrast, microtektites from the North American SF show a wider range (from 0 to 0.75).

Giuli, G.; Cicconi, M. R.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Koeberl, C.; Glass, B. P.; Pratesi, G.; Paris, E.

2012-03-01

36

Isotopic fractionation of zinc in tektites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tektites are terrestrial natural glasses produced during a hypervelocity impact of an extraterrestrial projectile onto the Earth's surface. The similarity between the chemical and isotopic compositions of tektites and terrestrial upper continental crust implies that the tektites formed by fusion of such target rock. Tektites are among the driest rocks on Earth. Although volatilization at high temperature may have caused this extreme dryness, the exact mechanism of the water loss and the behavior of other volatile species during tektite formation are still debated. Volatilization can fractionate isotopes, therefore, comparing the isotope composition of volatile elements in tektites with that of their source rocks may help to understand the physical conditions during tektite formation. For this study, we have measured the Zn isotopic composition of 20 tektites from four different strewn fields. Almost all samples are enriched in heavy isotopes of Zn compared to the upper continental crust. On average, the different groups of tektites are isotopically distinct (listed from the isotopically lightest to the heaviest): Muong-Nong type indochinites ( ?66/64Zn = 0.61 ± 0.30‰); North American bediasites ( ?66/64Zn = 1.61 ± 0.49‰); Ivory Coast tektites ( ?66/64Zn = 1.66 ± 0.18‰); the Australasian tektites (others than the Muong Nong-type indochinites) ( ?66/64Zn = 1.84 ± 0.42‰); and Central European moldavites ( ?66/64Zn = 2.04 ± 0.19‰). These results are contrasted with a narrow range of ?66/64Zn = 0-0.7‰ for a diverse spectrum of upper continental crust materials. The elemental abundance of Zn is negatively correlated with ?66/64Zn, which may reflect that isotopic fractionation occurred by evaporation during the heating event upon tektite formation. Simple Rayleigh distillation predicts isotopic fractionations much larger than what is actually observed, therefore, such a model cannot account for the observed Zn isotope fractionation in tektites. We have developed a more realistic model of evaporation of Zn from a molten sphere: during its hypervelocity trajectory, the molten surface of the tektite will be entrained by viscous coupling with air that will then induce a velocity field inside the molten sphere. This velocity field induces significant radial chemical mixing within the tektite that accelerates the evaporation process. Our model, albeit parameter dependent, shows that both the isotopic composition and the chemical abundances measured in tektites can be produced by evaporation in a diffusion-limited regime.

Moynier, Frederic; Beck, Pierre; Jourdan, Fred; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Reimold, Uwe; Koeberl, Christian

2009-01-01

37

Innovative production system goes in off Ivory Coast  

SciTech Connect

The phased field development of the Lion and Panthere fields, offshore the Ivory Coast, includes a small floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) tanker with minimal processing capability as an early oil production system (EPS). For the long-term production scheme, the FPSO will be replaced by a converted jack up mobile offshore production system (MOPS) with full process equipment. The development also includes guyed-caisson well platforms, pipeline export for natural gas to fuel an onshore power plant, and a floating storage and offloading (FSO) tanker for oil export. Pipeline export for oil is a future possibility. This array of innovative strategies and techniques seldom has been brought together in a single project. The paper describes the development plan, early oil, jack up MOPS, and transport and installation.

Childers, M. [Oceaneering Production Systems, Houston, TX (United States); Barnes, J. [Paragon Engineering Services Inc., Houston, TX (United States)]|[UMC Petroleum Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-07-17

38

Tektite origin by hypervelocity asteroidal or cometary impact: The quest for the source craters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tektites are natural glasses that are chemically homogeneous, often spherically symmetrical objects several centimeters in size, and occur in four known strewn fields on the surface of the Earth: the North American, moldavite (or Central European), Ivory Coast, and Australasian strewn fields. Tektites found within such strewn fields are related to each other with respect to their petrological, physical, and chemical properties as well as their age. A theory of tektite origin needs to explain the similarity of tektites in respect to age and certain aspects of isotopic and chemical composition within one strewn field, as well as the variety of tektite materials present in each strewn field. In addition to tektites on land, microtektites (which are generally less than 1 mm in diameter) have been found in deep-sea cores. Tektites are classified into three groups: (1) normal or splash-form tektites, (2) aerodynamically shaped tektites, and (3) Muong Nong-type tektites (sometimes also called layered tektites). The aerodynamic ablation results from partial remelting of glass during atmospheric passage after it was ejected outside the terrestrial atmosphere and quenched from a hot liquid. Aerodynamically shaped tektites are known mainly from the Australasian strewn field where they occur as flanged-button australites. The shapes of splash-form tektites (spheres, droplets, teardrops, dumbbells, etc., or fragments thereof) are the result of the solidification of rotating liquids in the air or vacuum. Mainly due to chemical studies, it is now commonly accepted that tektites are the product of melting and quenching of terrestrial rocks during hypervelocity impact on the Earth. The chemistry of tektites is in many respects identical to the composition of upper crustal material.

Koeberl, Christian

1992-01-01

39

Ivory Coast-Ghana margin: model of a transform margin  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a marine study of the eastern Ivory Coast-Ghana continental margins which they consider one of the most spectacular extinct transform margins. This margin has been created during Early-Lower Cretaceous time and has not been submitted to any major geodynamic reactivation since its fabric. Based on this example, they propose to consider during the evolution of the transform margin four main and successive stages. Shearing contact is first active between two probably thick continental crusts and then between progressively thinning continental crusts. This leads to the creation of specific geological structures such as pull-apart graben, elongated fault lineaments, major fault scarps, shear folds, and marginal ridges. After the final continental breakup, a hot center (the mid-oceanic ridge axis) is progressively drifting along the newly created margin. The contact between two lithospheres of different nature should necessarily induce, by thermal exchanges, vertical crustal readjustments. Finally, the transform margin remains directly adjacent to a hot but cooling oceanic lithosphere; its subsidence behavior should then progressively be comparable to the thermal subsidence of classic rifted margins.

Mascle, J.; Blarez, E.

1987-05-01

40

Energy assessment of Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal  

SciTech Connect

This report is an overview of the energy market in four West African countries: The Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal. We feel these countries are representative of the West African region. Together they account for 75% of the total energy use in West Africa, 78% of GDP, and 76% of population. The purpose of the study is to analyze the evolution of energy demand in the context of the general socio-economic background of the region. The study also examines energy supply and trade related to the energy sector. The analysis focuses on the study of commercial fuels. Although we have reviewed studies of wood, solar, wind, and agricultural residues, we leave out detailed discussions of these non-commercial energy forms. The first part of the report is an assessment of the trends in energy demand in the four study countries. We discuss the main factors driving energy demand sector by sector. This is followed by a review of the primary energy resources of the countries, and of the capacity for production of secondary fuels. The last section looks at energy trade, with particular emphasis on the role of the United States.

Ghirardi, A.; Sathaye, J.; Goering, P.

1986-11-01

41

[Traditional health practitioners and epilepsies in Ivory Coast].  

PubMed

We report the results of a descriptive 3-month observational study concerning the experience and knowledge about epilepsy of 30 traditional health practitioners in the Ivory Coast. Most respondents were men over 30 years of age. They had an average of 14.3 years of professional experience. More than half of respondents (54%) had not attended school. All traditional practitioners knew that epilepsy was a brain disease. For 83.3% of them, the disease was supernatural, due to a curse. These traditional healers knew all the clinical manifestations of generalized tonico-clonic seizure. For over 72% of them, noise, presence of a public, nervousness and coffee consumption were factors favoring seizures. Sixty percent of the traditional healers still believed in the contagiousness of epilepsy, and all claimed to cure it by traditional treatment. Most all healers (97%) used plant products, but only 10% released the name of the plants used (Rubiaceae or Lamiaceae families). This survey highlights the urgency of awareness campaigns and the need for training of Ivorian traditional healers and the necessity to improve the collaboration between modern and traditional medicine. PMID:25193012

François, A A; Elisée, B K; Christian, T A; Armel, K H; Any, G; Tchwa, A M; Constance, Y A

2014-01-01

42

Human trypanosomiasis in the Ivory Coast: therapy and problems.  

PubMed

Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) caused by Trypanosoma gambiense is recrudescing alarmingly in the Ivory Coast. Between 1987 and 1992, 980 new cases were registered. In the Bouafle District alone, 214 new cases were diagnosed in 1992, with a prevalence reaching 7% in some villages. This situation is a consequence of the neglect of control activities over the last five years. The problems linked with treatment of sleeping sickness in 626 patients, using three drugs, are described. The side-effects vary in severity according to the drug used. Out of 350 patients treated with melarsoprol (ARSOBAL), 4% developed encephalopathy, 5.7% died during treatment, 2% of encephalopathy. Relapses were noted in 3.7% of patients between 3 and 20 months after treatment. Among 150 patients treated with pentamidine, one case of diabetes mellitus was observed. The patient died of this complication 24 months after treatment. 2% relapses or reinfections were registered after pentamidine treatment. The most frequently encountered side-effects during intravenous plus oral treatment with DFMO were diarrhoea (64.4%) and anemia (35.5%). This drug was just as effective and better tolerated when treatment was limited to 14 days and administered intravenously only. PMID:7902655

Doua, F; Yapo, F B

1993-09-01

43

On the occurrence of gold mineralizations in southeastern Ivory Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gold mineralizations are known to occur in the Paleoproterozoic (Birimian) formations of the Aboisso area, southeastern Ivory Coast. These formations, which have been structured during the Eburnean orogeny, mainly consist of volcanic, volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks intruded by granitic, basic and ultrabasic plutons. Exploration of these terranes has revealed numerous gold mineralizations, the most significant of which are located in the Aféma shear zone. Four distinct types of mineralizations can be distinguished based on the typology of the host rocks. These include mineralizations enclosed in highly silicified volcanic rocks (type 1), mineralizations closely related to intense silicification of metasedimentary rocks (type 2), mineralizations associated with silicified polygenic conglomerates (type 3), and mineralizations encountered in brecciated and silicified zones within a metadiorite sill (type 4). Gold is observed either as free gold, or in association with pyrite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, ±pyrrhotite, ±galena, ±anatase, ±monazite, ±magnetite. Gold and the various sulfides are mostly of hydrothermal epigenetic origin. The fact that the gold mineralizations occurs in brecciated and silicified zones around granitoid intrusions clearly indicates that post-magmatic hydrothermal activity and tectonics exerted a major control during the mineralization process.

Kadio, E.; Coulibaly, Y.; Allialy, M. E.; Kouamelan, A. N.; Pothin, K. B. K.

2010-07-01

44

Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of tektite material from Barbados and their relationship to North American tektites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The isotopic composition of microtektites from Barbados was determined to establish their possible source and their relationship to known tektite strewn fields. Analyzed samples included microtektites and tektite fragments from the Barbados oceanic beds, samples of deep sea ooze, in which they occur, and of underlying volcanic ash, as well as glass beads from Lake Wanapitei Crater. Isotope ratios (Sr-87/Sr-86, Nd-143/Nd-144, Rb-87/Sr-86, and Sm-147/Nd-144) were determined, and the epsilon values for Sr and Nd plotted on the diagram available for the fields of North America, Australia, Ivory Coast, and Moldavite tektites. The epsilon coordinates of all Barbados microtektite and bulk tektite samples plot precisely within the narrow field determined by North American tektites (epsilon Sr, 111; epsilon Nd, -6.2), yield an Nd model age of 0.6 AE, and are distinct from all other fields. The isotopic signatures of samples from sea ooze, ash layer, and of the Lake Wanapitei glass beads are clearly different from all known tektite classes. It is concluded that the Barbados tektites are of the same source and temporal event as the North American tektites.

Ngo, H. H.; Wasserburg, J.; Glass, B. P.

1985-01-01

45

Economic Studies and Out-of-School Education Program Evaluation for the Ivory Coast. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a final one in a series of 17 reports concerned with costs analysis/projections of the instructional television program and the Out of School Television (OSTV) project in the Ivory Coast. It includes an introduction to the OSTV project after its first five years of existence, a description of the main elements of the in-school…

Grant, Stephen; And Others

46

On Needs Assessment of Out-of-School Educational Television in the Ivory Coast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six needs assessment studies are summarized from the point of view of rural needs, the media and information system, the educational situation, and expressed wishes on the part of spectators for TV program topics in the Ivory Coast. The six studies included were: (1) Ethno-Sociology Institute Study, 1974; (2) Evaluation Service Study A, 1975; (3)…

Grant, Stephen

47

An Administrative History of Out-of-School Educational Television in the Ivory Coast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the basic organization, management and evolution of the department producing "Tele Pour Tous," the first attempt to use national television in the Ivory Coast to bring educational and informational programs to a non-school adult, rural public. The department's task was (1) to produce TV programs, (2) to train and supervise TV…

Grant, Stephen

48

Some aspects of the epidemiology of African cassava mosaic virus in Ivory Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Re?infection of healthy cassava plants by African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) was followed In different varieties and for several years at various locations in two regions of Ivory Coast. Whitefly populations on cassava and virus incidence varied widely between sites, even amongst those close to one another. However, for each location and in every year, the spread of ACMV showed

C. Fauquet; D. Fargette; J. C. Thouvenel

1988-01-01

49

The Political Ecology of Peasant-Herder Conflicts in the Northern Ivory Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the great Sahelian drought of the early 1970s, an unprecedented number of Fulani pastoralists immigrated to the Ivory Coast with their cattle. Although welcomed by the Ivorian government for their contribution to national beef production, the Fulani's presence has been bitterly opposed by Senufo peasants in the savanna region over the problem of uncompensated crop damage. I examine the

Thomas J. Bassett

1988-01-01

50

Analysis of the temporal variability of runoff in Ivory Coast: statistical approach and phenomena characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The runoffs at four Ivory Coast hydrometric stations (monitoring flows from an area covering between 5930 and 66500 km2) were analysed with a set of statistical methods for the detection of breaks in the time series. The variables studied were the annual mean discharge and some characteristic discharges. From a quantitative standpoint, the existence of a clear break in the

A. A. AKA; E. SERVAT; J. E. PATUREL; B. KOUAMÉ; H. LUBES; J. M. MASSON

1997-01-01

51

Evidence of Tool-using by Chimpanzees in the Ivory Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indirect evidence was collected in Ivory Coast for the use of sticks and stones by chimpanzees to open the nuts of Coula edulis and Panda oleosa. 26 nut-smashing places at 15 different sites are described.Copyright © 1971 S. Karger AG, Basel

T. T. Struhsaker; P. Hunkeler

1971-01-01

52

Evidence for transform margin evolution from the Ivory Coast-Ghana continental margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented from a recent study (Blarez and Mascle, 1986) of the northern Gulf of Guinea margins, particularly off the eastern Ivory Coast and Ghana, where the continental margin is one of the best-preserved examples of an extinct transform margin. The observations support a four-stage model for transform margin evolution. Tectonically active transform contacts, first between normal continental crusts

Jean Mascle; Emmanuel Blarez

1987-01-01

53

Cost Analysis of the Primary Instructional Television Program in the Ivory Coast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of the costs of educational reform undertaken in the Ivory Coast in 1971 focuses on the primary education level (children aged 7-12). Designed to ensure that 100 percent of the primary school-age children receive an education and to adapt the content of that education to the characteristics and needs of Ivorians, this reform entailed…

Eicher, Jean-Claude; Orivel, Francois

54

Zhamanshin and Aouelloul - Craters produced by impact of tektite-like glasses?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the enhanced abundance of siderophile elements and chromium in tektite-like glasses from the two impact craters of Zhamanshin and Aouelloul cannot be explained as a result of contamination of the country rock by meteorites nor, probably, comets. The pattern is, however, like that found in certain Australasian tektites, and in Ivory Coast tektites. It is concluded, in agreement with earlier suggestions by Campbell-Smith and Hey, that these craters were formed by the impact of large masses of tektite-like glass, of which the glasses which were studied are fragments. It follows that it is necessary, in considering an impact crater, to bear in mind that the projectile may have been a glass.

O'Keefe, John A.

1987-01-01

55

Fragmentation and hydration of tektites and microtektites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An examination of data collected over the last 30 years indicates that the percent of glass fragments vs. whole splash forms in the Cenozoic microtektite strewn fields increases towards the source crater (or source region). We propose that this is due to thermal stress produced when tektites and larger microtektites fall into water near the source crater while still relatively hot (>1150 ??C). We also find evidence (low major oxide totals, frothing when melted) for hydration of most of the North American tektite fragments and microtektites found in marine sediments. High-temperature mass spectrometry indicates that these tektite fragments and microtektites contain up to 3.8 wt% H2O. The H2O-release behavior during the high-temperature mass-spectrometric analysis, plus high Cl abundances (???0.05 wt%), indicate that the North. American tektite fragments and microtektites were hydrated in the marine environment (i.e., the H2O was not trapped solely on quenching from a melt). The younger Ivory Coast and Australasian microtektites do not exhibit much evidence of hydration (at least not in excess of 0.5 wt% H2O); this suggests that the degree of hydration increases with age. In addition, we find that some glass spherules (with 65 wt% SiO2 can undergo simple hydration in the marine environment, while impact glasses (with <65 wt% SiO2) can also undergo palagonitization.

Glass, B.P.; Muenow, D.W.; Bohor, B.F.; Meeker, G.P.

1997-01-01

56

[Risk factors for human African trypanosomiasis in the endemic foci of Ivory Coast].  

PubMed

A case-control study on risk factors of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense human african trypanosomiasis was carried out in 111 patients diagnosed in the three main foci of Ivory coast. Each case was age and sex matched with one seronegative control living in the same locality. Based upon previous epidemiological surveys conducted in similar areas, the potential risk factors were identified and assessed using a standard questionnaire. The study demonstrates that in the forest area of Ivory coast human trypanosomiasis in a behavioral disease affecting mainly coffee and cocoa farmers. The allogenous populations coming from sudano-sahelian savannah are more exposed to the disease than other ethnic groups. People sleeping at the farm (encampments) are more likely to become infected than those living at the village (ODDS-Ratio = 4.5). People fetching water in natural holes and pools have an increased risk (ODDS-Ratio = 3.6). Cases reported more often than controls that they are foodstuffs dealers from the farms to the villages (ODDS-Ratio = 13.0). These results are consistent with data from previous studies. We identified preventable risk factors, upon which interventions should be carried out to reduce the incidence of the disease. The possibility of using these findings to improve sleeping sickness control programme in the forest areas of Ivory Coast is discussed. PMID:8389414

Meda, A H; Laveissiere, C; De Muynck, A; Doua, F; Diallo, P B

1993-01-01

57

A new species of Furculanurida (Collembola: Neanuridae) from Ivory Coast, with comments on related genera.  

PubMed

A new species of Pseudachorutinae, Furculanurida emucronata sp. nov., is described from Lamto in the Ivory Coast. It differs from all known Pseudachorutinae species by the presence of a strong lateral tooth on the claw of leg I, and from other species of the genus Furculanurida by the absence of a mucro. It is provisionally assigned to the genus Furculanurida which is redefined accordingly. The heterogeneity of the genus is stressed, and its relationships with Arlesiella, Kenyura, Pseudachorutes and Stachorutes are discussed. PMID:25544461

Zon, Serge Demeango; Tano, Yao; Deharveng, Louis

2014-01-01

58

Evolution of a Paleoproterozoic “weak type” orogeny in the West African Craton (Ivory Coast)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleoproterozoic domain of the Ivory Coast lies in the central part of the West African Craton (WAC) and is mainly constituted by TTG, greenstones, supracrustal rocks and leucogranites. A compilation of metamorphic and radiometric data highlights that: i) metamorphic conditions are rather homogeneous through the domain, without important metamorphic jumps, ii) HP-LT assemblages are absent and iii) important volumes of magmas emplaced during the overall Paleoproterozoic orogeny suggesting the occurrence of long-lived rather hot geotherms. Results of the structural analysis, focused on three areas within the Ivory Coast, suggest that the deformation is homogeneous and distributed through the Paleoproterozoic domain. In details, results of this study point out the long-lived character of vertical movements during the Eburnean orogeny with a two folds evolution. The first stage is characterized by the development of "domes and basins" geometries without any boundary tectonic forces and the second stage is marked by coeval diapiric movements and horizontal regional-scale shortening. These features suggest that the crust is affected by vertical movements during the overall orogeny. The Eburnean orogen can then be considered as an example of long-lived Paleoproterozoic "weak type" orogen.

Vidal, M.; Gumiaux, C.; Cagnard, F.; Pouclet, A.; Ouattara, G.; Pichon, M.

2009-11-01

59

Serological survey of canine leptospirosis in three countries of tropical Africa: Sudan, Gabon and Ivory Coast.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate the presence of leptospiral antibodies among 475 dogs from three countries of tropical Africa: Sudan (n=62), Gabon (n=255) and Ivory Coast (n=158). Sixteen reference strains belonging to seven serogroups were used as antigen in the microscopic agglutination test. Overall, considering titres ?1:40, 453 samples were positive towards one or several serovars of pathogenic leptospires. Focusing on high titres, i.e. ?1:320, the seroprevalence was 40.8%. In Gabon, the seroprevalence was higher in rural areas than in an urban environment (p<0.001). In Ivory Coast, the seroprevalence for serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola was not statistically different according to the vaccinal status. Predominant serogroups varied according to the countries but Grippotyphosa and Sejroë were the most common, while Icterohaemorragiae and Canicola were dominant in Sudan. In these three countries, dogs are heavily exposed to pathogenic Leptospira and humans living in the same environment are also at risk of infection. PMID:25467033

Roqueplo, Cédric; Marié, Jean-Lou; André-Fontaine, Geneviève; Kodjo, Angeli; Davoust, Bernard

2015-02-01

60

Aspects of the cycle of inorganic nitrogen compounds in the tropical rain forest of the Ivory Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partial balance of mineral N is given for the basins of two coastal rivers in a forest zone in the Ivory Coast. The dry and wet depositions on the basin surfaces is given for particulate matter (NO3-, NH4+). The quantity of mineral N washed away in the rivers is evaluated. The losses from leaching of the soils by rainwater

Jean Servant; Robert Delmas; Jacques Rancher; Marcel Rodriguez

1984-01-01

61

Allele and haplotype diversity of X-chromosomal STRs in Ivory Coast.  

PubMed

Twenty-one X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, including the six clusters of linked markers DXS10148-DXS10135-DXS8378 (Xp22), DXS7132-DXS10079-DXS10074 (Xq12), DXS6801-DXS6809-DXS6789 (Xq21), DXS7424-DXS101 (Xq22), DXS10103-HPRTB-DXS10101 (Xq26), DXS8377-DXS10146-DXS10134-DXS7423 (Xq28) and the loci DXS6800, GATA172D05 and DXS10011 were typed in a population sample from Ivory Coast (n=125; 51 men and 74 women). Allele and haplotype frequencies as well as linkage disequilibrium data for kinship calculations are provided. On the whole, no significant differences in the genetic variability of X-STR markers were observed between Ivorians and other sub-Saharan African populations belonging to the Niger-Kordofanian linguistic group. PMID:21717153

Pasino, Serena; Caratti, Stefano; Del Pero, Massimiliano; Santovito, Alfredo; Torre, Carlo; Robino, Carlo

2011-09-01

62

Mineralogical, crystallographic and morphological characteristics of natural kaolins from the Ivory Coast (West Africa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirteen clay samples from four deposits in the Ivory Coast (West Africa) were studied using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and chemical analysis. Mineralogical, crystallographic and morphological characteristics of these samples are given. Kaolinite is the principal mineral but other minerals are present in small quantities: illite, quartz, anatase and iron oxides (oxides and oxyhydroxides). The crystallographic, morphological and surface characteristics are influenced by the presence of these impurities. In particular, the presence of iron oxides was associated with reduced structural ordering and thermal stability of kaolinite and increased specific surface area. These clays could be used in the ceramics industry to make tiles and bricks, and also in agronomy as supports for chemical fertilizers or for environmental protection by immobilising potentially toxic waste products.

Sei, J.; Morato, F.; Kra, G.; Staunton, S.; Quiquampoix, H.; Jumas, J. C.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.

2006-10-01

63

Nitrogen compound emission from biomass burning in tropical African savanna FOS\\/DECAFE 1991 experiment (Lamto, Ivory Coast)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaseous nitrogen compounds (NOx, NOy, NH3, N2O) were measured at ground level in smoke plumes of prescribed savanna fires in Lamto, in the southern Ivory Coast, during the FOS\\/DECAFE experiment in January 1991. During the flaming phase, the linear regression between d[NOx] and d[CO2] (differences in concentration between smoke plumes and atmosheric background) results volumic emission ratio d[NOx]\\/d[CO2]=1.37×10-3 with only

Robert Delmas; Jean Pierre Lacaux; Jean Claude Menaut; Luc Abbadie; Xavier Roux; Gunter Helas; Jurgen Lobert

1995-01-01

64

Origins and dispersal of the mitochondrial DNA region V 9 bp deletion and insertion in Nigeria and the Ivory Coast  

SciTech Connect

An intergenic region V Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 9 bp deletion located between the genes for tRNA{sup LYS} and cytochrome oxidase II was discovered in a small percentage of Nigerian and Ivory Coast natives. Previously this deletion has been described as Asian-specific and has been reported throughout the New World, Asia, S.E. Asia, and the Pacific Islands at frequencies ranging from 0% to 100%. In the New World and the Pacific Islands, the deletion is almost always accompanied by an Hae III restriction site gain at nt 16517. All 9 occurrences of the deletion observed in Africa (from four different populations) co-occur with the Hae III 16517 site gain, indicating that the African deletion probably shares a common origin with the deletion described as {open_quotes}Asian-specific{close_quotes}. The deletion was found in Benin and Sokoto, Nigeria in 2/54 Edo Bini, 1/2 Edo Ishan, 3/99 Hausa, 0/18 Fulani, and 0/16 other Nigerians. The deletion was also detected in 3/115 Ivory Coast natives from Abidjan. A 9 bp insertion (triplication) was observed in 1/115 Ivory Coast natives. The triplicated individual also possessed the Hae III 16517 site gain. The fragment containing the African deletion was sequenced and found to be identical in sequence to the Asian deletion region. D-loop sequence of nts 15975 to 00048 revealed that 2 of the 3 Ivory Coast deleted individuals and 1 of the 6 Nigerians deleted (Hausa) had a T-C transition at nt position 16189 which is common in New World-deleted individuals. These results raise the possibility that the occurrence of this deletion predates the separation of Asian and African populations from a common ancestral populations, or that the deletion has occurred more than once in human evolution. Either explanation requires that caution be exercised when using the 9 bp deletion as a population marker.

Merriwether, D.A.; Huston, S.L.; Bunker, C.A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

65

The impact of human immunodeficiency virus infection on pelvic inflammatory disease: A case-control study in Abidjan, Ivory Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to assess the impact of human immunodeficiency virus infection on pelvic inflammatory disease.STUDY DESIGN: A case-control study was performed in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, women with pelvic inflammatory disease, 57 seropositive and 113 seronegative for the human immunodeficiency virus. Women underwent an interview, physical examination, pelvic ultrasonography, and laboratory testing.RESULTS: Seropositive women more often had an oral

Munkolenkole C. Kamenga; Kevin M. De Cock; Michael E. St. Louis; Coulibaly K. Touré; Sidibe Zakaria; Jean Marie N'gbichi; Peter D. Ghys; King K. Holmes; David A. Eschenbach; Helene D. Gayle; Joan K. Kreiss

1995-01-01

66

The disregarded West: diet and behavioural ecology of olive baboons in the Ivory Coast.  

PubMed

Despite living under environmental conditions considerably distinct from those of savannah baboons (Papio spp.) in East and southern Africa, very little is known about western Papio populations. We monitored the abundance and group sizes of olive baboons (P. anubis) in the savannah-forest mosaic of the Comoé National Park, northern Ivory Coast, and observed 2 habituated groups of different sizes. Against expectations for the kind of habitat, the individual density was low, yielding only 1.2 baboons/km(2). The groups were small, comprising on average 15 individuals, and the proportion of 1-male groups (50-63%) was remarkably high. One-male groups were more female biased than multi-male groups. The baboons were highly frugivorous, spending about 50% of their feeding time on fruits and seeds of at least 79 woody plant species. The 2 habituated groups had comparatively large home ranges and used forests more often than expected by random. We argue that regular subgrouping of the larger focal group and different habitat quality countervailed inter-group variations. Differences from other study sites, however, are not completely explained by current models of baboon (socio)ecology. It appears that the social organization of olive baboons is more flexible than assumed from data on East African populations. PMID:17855793

Kunz, Britta K; Linsenmair, K Eduard

2008-01-01

67

The Sefwi-Comoé belt Ghana/Ivory Coast : a major crustal shear zone ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Palaeoproterozoic Sefwi-Comoé region that straddles Ghana and the Ivory Coast in West Africa has been characterised as resulting from a combination of compression and simple shear during late synkinematic leucogranite intrusion. The analysis of regional geophysical datasets allows us to better define the geometry of the major lithostratigraphic packages and their structural contacts in this region. This analysis reveals a series of well defined leucogranites intrusions enveloped by high strain zones. Recent finite element modelling of two-phase aggregates has shown that we can analyse the geometry of these systems both in terms of their finite defomation and their mechanical contrast. We interpret the geometries we see in the Sefwi-Comoé region as reflecting the activity of a major crustal deformation zone which was dominated by simple shear. The comparison with the modelling suggests a finite shear strain of approximately 5 gamma, which in turn implies a lateral displacement of 400 km across the belt. Our analysis suggests that the leucogranites were already acting as more rigid bodies during the (dextral?) shearing, suggesting that their emplacement was predominantly pre-kinematic, and which has implications for their potential subsequent remobilization by gravitational forces.

Jessell, Mark

2010-05-01

68

Three-dimensional seismic interpretation: Espoir Field area, offshore Ivory Coast  

SciTech Connect

The Espoir oil field, located approximately 13 km offshore Ivory Coast, was discovered in 1980 by a joint venture comprised of Phillips Petroleum Company, AGIP, SEDCO Energy, and PETROCI. Following the discovery, a three-dimensional seismic survey was recorded by GSI in 1981-1982 to provide detailed seismic coverage of Espoir field and adjacent features. The seismic program consisted of 7700 line-km of data acquired in a single survey area that is located on the edge of the continental shelf and extends into deep water. In comparison with previous two-dimensional seismic surveys, the three-dimensional data provided several improvements in interpretation and mapping including: (1) sharper definition of structural features, (2) reliable correlations of horizons and fault traces between closely spaced tracks, (3) detailed time contour maps from time-slice sections, and (4) improved velocity model for depth conversion. The improved mapping helped us identify additional well locations; the results of these wells compared favorably with the interpretation made prior to drilling.

Grillot, L.R.; Anderton, P.W.; Haselton, T.M.; Dermargne, J.F.

1986-05-01

69

Regulation of business activities of petroleum contractors in Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Ivory Coast  

SciTech Connect

Foreign companies engaging in business in Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Ivory Coast are subject to a broad range of regulations. This article deals only with those aspects of the regulations that are most important to petroleum contractors intending to engage in business in these countries. The regulator scheme actually applicable in a given case will depend on the legal structure through which a corporation operates. An American corporation may envisage engaging in business on a long-term basis through a local subsidiary or branch. On the other hand, it may wish only to perform temporary activities pursuant to one or more fixed-duration contracts with petroleum companies operating in one of countries. Each of these situations is dealt with. Common features of each area of regulation were described and the differences in regulations were presented. These topics were included: exchange control regulation, corporate forms of business association, authorization to engage in business, requirement of government or local participation in capital, investment code incentives, labor law requirements, taxation of corporations, taxation of profits, taxation of income from movable capital, taxation of amounts paid abroad as technical assistance fees, royalties and similar compensation, turnover taxes, payroll taxes, taxation of business performed without forming a local company or branch, taxation of employees and Social Security contributions. (DP)

Frilet, M.; Newman, J.

1982-03-01

70

Impact of vertical structure on water mass circulation in a tropical lagoon (Ebrié, Ivory Coast)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one-dimensional vertical model has been developed to simulate the water mass circulation along the vertical structure in all deep coastal areas. The model has hydrodynamic and transport components solved using finite difference scheme. The one-dimensional vertical model results are coupled to the vertically averaged two-dimensional model results at each point of a horizontal grid. A theoretical salinity profile is introduced for each vertically integrated value obtained from the 2DH model results. A viscosity profile, simulating a viscosity value close to zero at the surface and with large viscosity gradients, is applied along the water column. The model is applied to the Vridi channel, connecting the Ebrié lagoon to the sea (Ivory Coast). The response of the Ebrié lagoon is studied in terms of inflow and outflow of water in the system through the Vridi channel. Due to the abrupt variation of the surface slope, vertical velocities along the water column show an anticlockwise spiral from bottom to surface during a tidal cycle. Due to the bottom friction and to the vertical viscosity profile, velocities decrease from surface to bottom. However, the freshwater inflow slows down the tidal propagation during the flood and causes the surface velocity to be smaller than the bottom velocity at mid-tide. Close to the bottom, velocities follow an anticlockwise movement due to the tidal propagation. At the water surface, velocities follow only an alternative movement of either ebb or flood, along the channel direction. No cross shore velocities can develop at the surface in the channel.

Brenon, Isabelle; Audouin, Olivier; Pouvreau, Nicolas; Maurin, Jean-Christophe

2009-09-01

71

Lithium in tektites and impact glasses: Implications for sources, histories and large impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium (Li) abundances and isotope compositions were determined in a representative suite of tektites (moldavites, Muong Nong-type tektites and an australite, Ivory Coast tektites and bediasites), impact-related glasses (Libyan Desert Glass, zhamanshinites and irghizites), a glass fragment embedded in the suevite from the Ries impact crater and sedimentary materials in order to test a possible susceptibility of Li to fractionation during hypervelocity impact events and to de-convolve links to their potential parental sources. The overall data show a large spread in Li abundance (4.7-58 ppm Li) and ? 7Li values (-3.2‰ to 26.0‰) but individual groups of tektites and impact glasses have distinctive Li compositions. Most importantly, any significant high-temperature Li isotope fractionation can be excluded by comparing sedimentary lithologies from central Europe with moldavites. Instead, we suggest that Li isotope compositions in tektites and impact-related glasses are probably diagnostic of the precursor materials and their pre-impact geological histories. The Muong Nong-type tektites and australite specimen are identical in terms of Li concentrations and ? 7Li and we tentatively endorse their common origin in a single impact event. Evidence for low-temperature Rayleigh fractionation, which must have operated prior to impact-induced melting and solidification, is provided for a subset of Muong Nong-type tektites. Although Li isotope variations in most tektites are broadly similar to those of the upper continental crust, Libyan Desert Glass carries high ? 7Li ?24.7‰, which appears to mirror the previous fluvial history of parental material that was perhaps deposited in lacustrine environment or coastal seawater. Lithium isotopes in impact-related glasses from the Zhamanshin crater define a group distinct from all other samples and point to melting of chemically less evolved mafic lithologies, which is also consistent with their major and trace element patterns. Extreme shock pressures and the related extreme post-shock temperatures alone appear not to have any effect on the Li isotope systematics; therefore, useful information on parental lithologies and magmatic processes may be retrieved from analyses of Martian and lunar meteorites. Moreover, lack of significant Li depletion in tektites provides further constraints on the loss of moderately volatile elements during the Moon-forming impact.

Magna, T.; Deutsch, A.; Mezger, K.; Skála, R.; Seitz, H.-M.; Mizera, J.; ?anda, Z.; Adolph, L.

2011-04-01

72

Tektite controversy  

SciTech Connect

Clues as to the possible origin of tektites are found by studying the chemical composition, sites where they are found, and shapes. An important chemical fact of tektites is that they are extremel dry. Tektites lie in four major areas and in three isolated regions. They are distributed as if they fell from the skies. By studying the flanged shapes of the australites, it was concluded that their shape was due to a fast, hot trip through the atmosphere. Tektites show no cosmic ray tracks which implies their space exposure time was short. This rules out the possibility that they are a form of meteorite with these clues in mind, four theories on their possible origin are discussed in this paper. The theories are: (1) terrestial impact by meteorite or comet; (2) lunar impact; (3) terrestial volcanoes; and (4) lunar volcanoes. This article rules out the first three theories for reasons which are given and leans toward the fourth theory as the most probable of the four. (SC)

Davis, J.

1981-04-01

73

Biomass burning in the tropical savannas of Ivory Coast: An overview of the field experiment Fire of Savannas (FOS\\/DECAFE 91)  

Microsoft Academic Search

FOS\\/DECAFE 91 (Fire of Savannas\\/Dynamique et Chimie Atmosphérique en Forêt Equatoriale) was the first multidisciplinary experiment organized in Africa to determine gas and aerosol emissions by prescribed savanna fires. The humid savanna of Lamto in Ivory Coast was chosen for its ecological characteristics representative of savannas with a high biomass density (˜900 g m-2 dry matter). Moreover the vegetation and

J. P. Lacaux; J. M. Brustet; R. Delmas; J. C. Menaut; L. Abbadie; B. Bonsang; H. Cachier; J. Baudet; M. O. Andreae; G. Helas

1995-01-01

74

Sensitivity and Specificity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Rapid Serologic Assays and Testing Algorithms in an Antenatal Clinic in Abidjan, Ivory Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate serologic testing algorithms for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) based on a combination of rapid assays among persons with HIV-1 (non-B subtypes) infection, HIV-2 infection, and HIV-1-HIV-2 dual infections in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, a total of 1,216 sera with known HIV serologic status were used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of four rapid assays: Determine HIV-1\\/2, Capillus HIV-1\\/HIV-2,

STEPHANIA KOBLAVI-DEME; CHANTAL MAURICE; DANIEL YAVO; TOUSSAINT S. SIBAILLY; YVONNE KAMELAN-TANO; STEFAN Z. WIKTOR; THIERRY H. ROELS; TERENCE CHORBA; JOHN N. NKENGASONG

2001-01-01

75

Ivory Basements and Ivory Towers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The metaphors of the ivory tower and ivory basement are used in this chapter to reflect how many women understand and experience the academy. The ivory tower signifies a place that is protected, a place of privilege and authority and a place removed from the outside world (and consequently the rigours of the market place). The ivory tower, by…

Fitzgerald, Tanya

2012-01-01

76

Cuban tektite revisited  

SciTech Connect

Major-element and trace-element analyses were performed on the Cuban tectite, found about 20 years ago at Columbia University and classified by Garlick et al. (1971) as belonging to the North American tectite strewn field. The results indicate that the Cuban tektite is a North American tektite, but different from both bediasites and Georgia tektites, although with some similarities to bediasites. This tektite also has some similarities to the Barbados tektites, and, thus, may comprise its own distinct subgroup, probably related to the Barbados occurrence and belonging to a Caribbean substrewn field. It is concluded that the Cuban tektite really originated from Cuba. 32 references.

Koeberl, C.

1988-06-01

77

Seasonal variability of carbon dioxide and methane in the rivers and lagoons of Ivory Coast (West Africa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a data-set of carbon dioxide (CO2) and dissolved methane (CH4) in three rivers (Bia, Tanoé and Comoé) and five lagoons (Tendo, Aby, Ebrié, Potou and Grand-Lahou) of Ivory Coast (West Africa), during the four main climatic seasons (high dry season, high rainy season, low dry season and low rainy season). The surface waters of the three rivers were oversaturated in CO2 and CH4 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, the seasonal variability of CO2 and CH4 seemed to be largely controlled by dilution during the flooding period. The strong correlation of CH4 concentrations with the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) confirm the dominance of a continental sources (from soils) for both CO2 and CH4 in these rivers. The largest CH4 over-saturations and diffusive air-water CH4 fluxes were observed in the Tendo and Aby lagoons that are permanently stratified systems (unlike the other 3 lagoons), leading to anoxic bottom waters favorable for a large CH4 production. In addition, these two stratified lagoons showed low pCO2 values due to high primary production, which suggests an efficient transfer of organic matter across the pycnocline. As a result, the stratified Tendo and Aby lagoons were respectively, a low source of CO2 to the atmosphere and a sink of atmospheric CO2 while the other 3 well-mixed lagoons were strong sources of CO2 to the atmosphere but lower sources of CH4 to the atmosphere.

Koné, Y. J. M.; Abril, G.; Delille, B.; Borges, A. V.

2009-04-01

78

A Cuban tektite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A large tektite from Cuba is classified with other North American tektites on the basis of its age. The major-element chemistry, oxygen isotopic composition, refractive index and density of the Cuban tektite are within the ranges exhibited by bediasites. ?? 1971.

Garlick, G.D.; Naeser, C.W.; O'Neil, J.R.

1971-01-01

79

Groundwater Pathways In Fractured Heterogeneous Granitic Aquifers - A Hydrochemistry Survey In The Sassandra Watershed (Inland Ivory Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogeochemical data and Landsat images are used to characterize the groundwater flow in a complex fractured granitic aquifer system located at the South-West of Ivory Coast (West Africa). The specific processing of the Landsat ETM+ images allows producing a detailed map of faults having length more than 3 km. The map is integrated with other data sources into a geographical information system (GIS) in order to identify areas favourable to groundwater sampling in fractured rock. The results of statistical analyses, as applied to hydrochemical data set clearly indicate that the groundwater of the study region is principally of Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Na-K-HCO3 types. The Ca-HCO3 type waters occur in areas of recharge (generally topographically higher area) i.e. where recharge occurs relatively fast. These waters generally have lower pH and EC values. The recharge occurs through preferential pathways such as alongside dykes and sills and the various fracture and joint patterns that transect the study area. The Na- HCO3 and Na-SO4 type waters occur in discharging and static regimes (the lower lying areas) where evaporation and cation exchange are the dominant processes. Ground waters are mostly oxidizing in character, and clearly unsaturated with respect to calcite, reflecting the small amount of carbonate in the aquifer. A few samples are reducing, with low NO3 and high dissolved Fe2+ and Mn2+ concentration and occur in the valley area. These reducing waters are thought to have experienced a deeper circulation and longer residence time in which reducing reactions have proceeded, with groundwater discharge along the valleys bottom. The chemistry of major ions, here applied to fractured aquifers, turns to be a powerful tool when carefully compared with a map of fault traces. We obtain a sufficient knowledge of the aquifer heterogeneity prior to realize a zoning of the region, based on cells with homogeneous hydrodynamic behaviour in which local permeability ellipses are computed. Thus, we characterize the geographical variability of the permeability anisotropy in this segment of the Sassandra watershed.

Yao, T.; Fouche, O.

2008-12-01

80

Palaeoclimatic and deforestation effect on the coastal fresh groundwater resources of SE Ivory Coast from isotopic and chemical evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryIn the South-east of the Ivory Coast, two aquifer systems have been studied in the sedimentary deposits at the South and in the fractured bedrock at the North of the study area (5-6°N, 2.40-4.40°W) : (1) the Continental Terminal (CT) and (2) the Paleoproterozoïc Bedrock (PB). In the studied area, the vegetation cover has undergone significant changes since 1955 in addition to climate change. Rainforests have gradually disappeared due to natural and anthropological deforestation. The impact of deforestation on groundwater of the PB and on the CT has been studied by a geochemical approach. Stable isotopes ( 18O, 2H and 13C) contents, radiocarbon ( 14C) contents and chemical data (major ions) have been measured on a set of 25 groundwater samples. The residence time of the groundwaters is estimated with the 14C using two models: (i) the model of well-mixed reservoir (WMR model) and (ii) the piston flow model (PF model). The range of the PB groundwater residence time (15,200-8300 to ˜300-100 a BP) for both models shows that the recharge has started at the beginning of the post-glacial period whereas the CT aquifer recharge is much more recent (from 300 a BP to today). The PB groundwater provides information about paleoclimatic conditions that occurred over the studied area during the late Pleistocene. The low contents indicate cold and/or more humid conditions of recharge. During that period, the low content of 13C is consistent with a vegetation cover dominated by rainforest (C 3 plants). After the 20th century, the progressive evolution of vegetation cover from forest to cultivated plants and grasses is shown by the enrichment of groundwater in 13C (C 3 plants to C 4 plants). The relatively high mineralization level (mean of 143.7 mg L -1) and high ?18O- ?2H values of modern PB groundwater reflect of a recharge process that is slowed by a thick layer (16.3-72.5 m) of weathered formations above the PB formations. Groundwaters of the CT aquifer are constantly supplied by the fast infiltration of rainfall towards the water-table, explaining their very low total dissolved solids (TDS) of 20.1 mg L -1, their high 14C activities and their non-evaporated characteristics.

Adiaffi, Bernard; Marlin, Christelle; Oga, Yéï Marie Solange; Massault, Marc; Noret, Aurelie; Biemi, Jean

2009-05-01

81

Dyula intellectualism in the Ivory Coast and Ghana : a study of the life and career of Al-H?a?jj S?a?lih? b. Muh?ammad b. Uthma?n   

E-print Network

are the establishment of the Gyaman Abron kingdom in northern Ivory Coast, the founding of a Dyula imamate and trading community within its frontiers, the impact of the Samorian and French subjugation of the territory, the intellectual activity of the Dyula...

Muhammad, Akbar

1974-01-01

82

[Private companies: an opportunity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevention and care in Ivory Coast in the wake of HIV/AIDS?  

PubMed

In the 1990s, defenders of "aids exceptionnalism" have promised that the inequities caused by HIV/AIDS could provide leverage in the care of other health issues later. Fifteen years later, this argument can be rethought at the light of the current context of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Ivory Coast. In fact, in this country, the challenges caused by HBVecho those of HIV/AIDS fifteen years ago: high prevalence (8-10%), ignorance of the disease, and high cost of care. To this end, this article compares the role of private companies in the fights against HIV/AIDS in the 2000s and its role in the fight against HBV today. Although some private firms played a critical role in the promotion of universal access to ART, today, they are one of the few places where HBV screening, vaccination and treatment are offered in the country. HIV/AIDS opened the door for private companies to address other diseases through their health care systems. However, many challenges still need to be met: the absence of qualitative ongoing training for health professionals, illness representations and the costs of treatments, which are all related to the lack of international and national collective action. In Ivory Coast, at the early stage of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, national authorities took up the leadership in the fight against AIDS in West Africa, by developing extraverted strategies (Xth ICASA's organization, Unaids initiative hosting). The exceptional international mobilization and the creation of innovative funding mechanisms [International Therapeutic Solidarity Fund (ITSF), Global Fund (GM), and President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)] have facilitated easy access to ARV. Although 380 million people are infected by chronic HBV in the world, even so, international and national collective actions are fledgling and remained weak. Moreover, private firms have represented leverage for testing, treatment, and the provision of universal access to medication in the context of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Ivory Coast, as relayed by other public and private actors. In the HBV context, private companies can only be a vector for the development of a two tier healthcare system. Therefore, the lack of a strong international commitment prevents public and private local initiatives to generalize HBV prevention and treatment. PMID:25407333

Bekelynck, A

2014-11-18

83

Palaeoproterozoic high-pressure granulite overprint of the Archaean continental crust: evidence for homogeneous crustal thickening (Man Rise, Ivory Coast)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The character of mountain building processes in the Palaeoproterozoic times is subject to much debate. The local observation of Barrovian-type assemblages and high-pressure granulite relics in the Man Rise (Côte d'Ivoire), led some authors to argue that Eburnean (Palaeoproterozoic) reworking of the Archaean basement was achieved by modern-style thrust-dominated tectonics (e.g., Feybesse & Milési, 1994). However, it has been suggested that crustal thickening and subsequent exhumation of high-pressure crustal rocks can be achieved by virtue of homogeneous, fold-dominated deformation of hot crustal domains even in Phanerozoic orogenic belts (e.g., Schulmann et al., 2002; 2008). We describe a mafic granulite of the Kouibli area (Archaean part of the Man Rise, western Ivory Coast) that displays a primary assemblage (M1) containing garnet, diopsidic clinopyroxene, red-brown pargasitic amphibole, plagioclase (andesine), rutile, ilmenite and quartz. This assemblage is associated with a subvertical regional foliation. Symplectites that develop at the expense of the M1 assemblage contain orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase (bytownite), green pargasitic amphibole, ilmenite and magnetite (M2). Multiequilibrium thermobarometric calculations and P-T pseudosections calculated with THERMOCALC suggest granulite-facies conditions of ca. 13 kbar, 850°C and <7 kbar, 700-800°C for M1 and M2, respectively. In agreement with the qualitative information obtained from reaction textures and chemical zoning of minerals, this suggests an evolution dominated by decompression accompanied by moderate cooling. A Sm-Nd garnet - whole-rock age of 2.03 Ga determined on this sample indicates that this evolution occurred during the Palaeoproterozoic. We argue that from the geodynamic point of view the observed features are best explained by homogeneous thickening of the margin of the Archaean craton, re-heated and softened due to the accretion of hot, juvenile Palaeoproterozoic crust, as well as coeval intrusion of juvenile magmas. Crustal shortening was mainly accommodated by transpressive shear zones and by lateral crustal spreading rather than large-scale thrust systems. The occurrence of high-pressure granulites does not imply thrust-dominated tectonics. Feybesse, J.-L. & Milési, J.-P., 1994. The Archean/Proterozoic contact zone in West Africa: a mountain belt of décollement thrusting and folding on a continental margin related to 2.1 Ga convergence of Archean cratons? Precambrian Research, 69, 199-227. Schulmann, K., Schaltegger, U., Ježek, J., et al. 2002. Rapid burial and exhumation during orogeny: thickening and synconvergent exhumation of thermally weakened and thinned crust (Variscan orogen in Western Europe). American Journal of Science, 302, 856-879. Schulmann, K., Lexa, O., Štípská, P. et al., 2008. Vertical extrusion and horizontal channel flow of orogenic lower crust: key exhumation mechanisms in large hot orogens? Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 26(2), 273-297.

Pitra, Pavel; Kouamelan, Alain N.; Ballèvre, Michel; Peucat, Jean-Jacques

2010-05-01

84

The role of savannas in the terrestrial Si cycle: A case-study from Lamto, Ivory Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Savannas currently occupy a fifth of the earth's land surface and are predicted to expand in the next few centuries at the expense of tropical forests, mainly as a result of deforestation and human fires. Can such a vegetation trend impact, through changes in plant Si cycling, the lithogenic silicon (LSi) release into soils (through chemical weathering) and the net dissolved Si (DSi) outputs from soils to stream water (through chemical denudation)? The first step of an investigation requires quantifying the net Si fluxes involved in the plant/soil system. Here, a schematic steady-state Si cycle, established for a tropical humid savanna (Lamto, Ivory Coast) that developed on a ferruginous soil and is subjected to annual fires, is presented. Erosion was assumed to be insignificant. LSi and biogenic Si (BSi under the form of phytoliths) pools were measured, and Si fluxes were estimated from Si concentrations and mass balance calculation. Identification of plant and soil phytoliths indicated that the soil BSi pool is in equilibrium with the current BSi input by the savanna. In the soil column, mixing between a young rapidly recycled BSi pool and an old stable BSi pool is attested by a mixing line equation. Storage of the old BSi pool is assimilated as a BSi output from the plant/soil system. A BSi output additionally occurs after annual fires, when ashes are exported. Both BSi outputs decrease as much the BSi dissolution. In order to uptake constant DSi flux, the savanna increases by three to eight times the net LSi release, depending upon the post-fire ash exportation scenario. A comparison between savanna and rainforest Si cycles that maximizes the differences in plant/soil systems and minimizes differences in climate is presented. The comparison revealed that BSi storage is higher in the savanna soil than in the rainforest soil, mainly due to BSi production that is twice higher in the savanna (127 vs 67 kg/ha/yr). The resulting LSi release that is enhanced by plant uptake is more than 1.5 higher in the savanna than in the rainforest (from 33 to 85 kg/ha/yr in the savanna vs 21 kg/ha/yr in the rainforest). On the contrary, DSi output from soils to stream water, which is not controlled by plant Si cycling but more likely by the soil hydrological regime (or meteoric weathering), is close to twice as high in the rainforest/ferrallitic soil ecosystem (16 vs 9 kg/ha/yr). This case study suggests that the predicted expansion of savannas at the expense of forests should significantly increase DSi uptake by plants, BSi storage in soils, BSi output with ash exportation, and, hence, LSi release through chemical weathering, without direct impact on DSi outputs from soils to stream water. Tracks for further assessing the role of plant Si cycling on chemical weathering, Si and C cycles were suggested: 1) estimates of BSi fluxes that were wrongly based on the assumption that the amount of DSi leached out from soils is linked to the magnitude of plant Si cycling and/or to BSi concentration in soils should be reappraised and 2) changes in the magnitude of plant Si cycling should be accounted in geochemical carbon cycle models, for one of the plant-induced weathering mechanisms.

Alexandre, A. E.; Abbadie, L.

2011-12-01

85

The role of savannas in the terrestrial Si cycle: A case-study from Lamto, Ivory Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Savannas currently occupy a fifth of the earth's land surface and are predicted to expand in the next few centuries at the expense of tropical forests, mainly as a result of deforestation and human fires. Can such a vegetation trend impact, through changes in plant Si cycling, the lithogenic silicon (LSi) release into soils (through chemical weathering) and the net dissolved Si (DSi) outputs from soils to stream water (through chemical denudation)? The first step of an investigation requires quantifying the net Si fluxes involved in the plant/soil system. Here, a schematic steady-state Si cycle, established for a tropical humid savanna (Lamto, Ivory Coast) that developed on a ferruginous soil and is subjected to annual fires, is presented. Erosion was assumed to be insignificant. LSi and biogenic Si (BSi under the form of phytoliths) pools were measured, and Si fluxes were estimated from Si concentrations and mass balance calculation. Identification of plant and soil phytoliths indicated that the soil BSi pool is in equilibrium with the current BSi input by the savanna. In the soil column, mixing between a young rapidly recycled BSi pool and an old stable BSi pool is attested by a mixing line equation. Storage of the old BSi pool is assimilated as a BSi output from the plant/soil system. A BSi output additionally occurs after annual fires, when ashes are exported. Both BSi outputs decrease as much the BSi dissolution. In order to uptake constant DSi flux, the savanna increases by three to eight times the net LSi release, depending upon the post-fire ash exportation scenario. A comparison between savanna and rainforest Si cycles that maximizes the differences in plant/soil systems and minimizes differences in climate is presented. The comparison revealed that BSi storage is higher in the savanna soil than in the rainforest soil, mainly due to BSi production that is twice higher in the savanna (127 vs 67 kg/ha/yr). The resulting LSi release that is enhanced by plant uptake is more than 1.5 higher in the savanna than in the rainforest (from 33 to 85 kg/ha/yr in the savanna vs 21 kg/ha/yr in the rainforest). On the contrary, DSi output from soils to stream water, which is not controlled by plant Si cycling but more likely by the soil hydrological regime (or meteoric weathering), is close to twice as high in the rainforest/ferrallitic soil ecosystem (16 vs 9 kg/ha/yr). This case study suggests that the predicted expansion of savannas at the expense of forests should significantly increase DSi uptake by plants, BSi storage in soils, BSi output with ash exportation, and, hence, LSi release through chemical weathering, without direct impact on DSi outputs from soils to stream water. Tracks for further assessing the role of plant Si cycling on chemical weathering, Si and C cycles were suggested: 1) estimates of BSi fluxes that were wrongly based on the assumption that the amount of DSi leached out from soils is linked to the magnitude of plant Si cycling and/or to BSi concentration in soils should be reappraised and 2) changes in the magnitude of plant Si cycling should be accounted in geochemical carbon cycle models, for one of the plant-induced weathering mechanisms.

Alexandre, Anne; Bouvet, Mickael; Abbadie, Luc

2011-08-01

86

Soc Sci Med . Author manuscript Couples, PMTCT programs and infant feeding decision-making in Ivory  

E-print Network

-making in Ivory Coast Annick Tijou-Traoré 1 , Madina Querre 2 , Hermann Brou 3 , Val riane Leroyé 4 , Alice interactions. To date, not enough studies have considered this question. In Abidjan, Ivory Coast, HIV

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

87

Tektites and Geomagnetic Reversals  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE microscopic glassy objects which occur in sediments deposited in the Australasian area during and shortly after the last magnetic polarity reversal are apparently tektites (see succeeding communication). The last reversal occurred 0.7 × 106 yr ago: potassium-argon dates1 indicate that the Australasian tektites were formed 0.7 × 106 yr ago. The tektites were formed and deposited at the same

Bill Glass; Bruce C. Heezen

1967-01-01

88

The origin of tektites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tektites called Muong Nong type by V. Barnes apparently represent the parent material from which other types are derived. In these tektites are found clues (coesite, angular voids) which indicate that they have not been substantially remelted since the event which detached them from the planet or satellite on which they were formed.

John A. O'keefe

1966-01-01

89

Gases in Tektite Bubbles.  

PubMed

Spectroscopic analysis of light produced by electrodeless discharge in a tektite bubble showed the main gases in the bubble to be neon, helium, and oxygen. The neon and helium have probably diffused in from the atmosphere, while the oxygen may be atmospheric gas incorporated in the tektite during its formation. PMID:17801113

O'keefe, J A; Lowman, P D; Dunning, K L

1962-07-20

90

Origin of tektites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin of tektites has been obscure because of the following dilemma. The application of physical principles to the data available on tektites points strongly to origin from one or more lunar volcanoes; but few glasses of tektite composition have hitherto been reported from the lunar samples. Instead, the lunar silicic glasses consist chiefly of a material very rich in K2O and poor in MgO. The ratio of K2O/MgO is higher in these glasses than in any tektites reported. The solution of the dilemma seems to come from the study of some recently discovered terrestrial deposits of tektite glass with high values of K2O/MgO at the Cretaceous Tertiary boundary. These glasses are found to be very vulnerable to crystallization into sandine or to alteration to smectite. These end products are known and are more abundant than any terrestrial deposits of tektite glass. It seems possible that, in fact, the moon produces tektite glass, mostly of the high K2O-low MgO type; but on Earth these deposits are destroyed. The much less abundant deposits with lower K and higher Mg are observed because they survive. Other objections to the lunar origin hypothesis appear to be answerable.

O'Keefe, John A.

1994-01-01

91

Ivory Snowmen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recalling memories from her own third grade art classes, Ann Mueller, recreated an updated version for her students showing her students how to make snow scenes from Ivory Snow flakes. She showed students the video, The Snowman based on Raymond Briggs's book of the same name. Its beautiful images spur the imagination, and the musical score is…

Mueller, Ann

2005-01-01

92

Paleoclimatic and deforestation effect on the chemical and isotopic composition of the coastal fresh groundwater resources of South-east Ivory Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since a half of century, the forest surface area of the South Ivory Coast has been decreased for the benefit of agriculture (15 000 km2 in 1993 versus 83 000 km2 in 1955-1958). This area also undergoes climate change. Vegetation cover has gradually changed from rainforests (C3 plants) to savanna (C4 plants) and agricultural plants. In the Abidjan area (5.00-6.00°N, 2.40-4.40°W), the mean rainfall amount and temperature value evolve during the 20th century (1912 mm/year and 26.3°C/year during the first decennial to 1613 mm/year and 26.9°C/year during the last ten years). The Paleoproterozoïc fractured bedrock (PB) and the Continental Terminal (CT) deposits groundwater are studied to show the climate change and deforestation effect on the area groundwater resources using stable isotopes (18O, 2H and 13C) contents, radiocarbon (14C) contents and chemical data on a set of 25 groundwater samples. The residence time of the groundwaters is estimated by the 14C using two models: (i) the model of well-mixed reservoir (WMR model) and (ii) the piston flow model (PF model). The range of the PB groundwater residence time (15 000 - 8 000 to ~ 300 - 100 a BP) for both models shows that the recharge has started at the beginning of the post-glacial period whereas the CT aquifer recharge is much more recent (from 300 a BP to today). The PB groundwater provides information about paleoclimatic conditions that occurred over the studied area during the late Pleistocene. It is demonstrated, through this study, that the evolution of vegetation cover (from forests to savanna and agriculture plants) is shown in groundwater by the trend in 13C content from old groundwater (confined bedrock groundwater: residence time of ~ 15 000 a BP) to the recent groundwater (unconfined bedrock groundwater and CT groundwater: residence times: ~ 300 a BP and lower than 100 a BP, respectively). The ?18O and ?2H values also increase with time from the beginning of the post-glacial period (~ 15 000 a BP) to the present day (< 100 a BP), showing the evolution of the climate from cold to warm conditions. This study has shown the paleoclimate effect on the water resources in Ivory Coast and are consistent with the results obtained by some authors in Western Africa (Ghana, Liberia, Mali and Niger).

Adiaffi, B.; Marlin, C.; Yei, O. M.-S.; Massault, M.; Noret, A.; Biemi, J.

2009-04-01

93

The tektite problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small glassy pebbles, called tektites, are found in widely scattered locations around the world. These tektites appear much like volcanic glass obsidian, but their chemical composition is different from that of any terrestrial lava and they contain far less water and none of obsidian's characteristic microcrystals. No one has ever found the mother lode of a field of tektites. They cannot, therefore, be the product of terrestrial volcanism. Recently acquired knowledge about the moon's surface confirms earlier indications that tektites cannot be bits of lunar soil propelled to the earth by the impact of meteorites on the moon. According to one of two remaining possibilities tektites are bits of terrestrial sedimentary rock excavated by meteorites striking the earth's surface, melted by the heat of impact, and congealed into glass as they travel above the atmosphere to the scattered sites where they are found. The other possibility is that tektites are the remains of gobs of lava fired at the earth by volcanic activity on the moon.

Okeefe, J. A.

1978-01-01

94

Emissions and concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in the air of the tropical forest of the Ivory Coast and of temperate regions in France  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric H/sub 2/S was measured by a fluorometric method (sensitivity 10 ng). In France, for aerated soils the emissions were between 0.8 and 27 ..mu..g m/sup -2/ h/sup -1/ H/sub 2/S (average 5 ..mu..g m/sup -2/ h/sup -1/). The soil temperature is an important factor governing this emission. The H/sub 2/S concentrations in the air ranged from 0.017 to 0.17 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ (average 0.080 ..mu..g m/sup -3/). In the Ivory Coast the H/sub 2/S emissions were estimated between 30 and 300 ..mu..g m/sup -2/ h/sup -1/. The measured concentrations of H/sub 2/S in the air at ground level ranged from 0.10 to 8.7 ..mu..g m/sup -3/. The relative importance of the measured emissions for anoxic soils of the humid equatorial forests in the global S cycle is discussed.

Delmas, R.; Baudet, J.; Servant, J.; Baziard, Y.

1980-08-20

95

Detrital Mineral Grains in Tektites.  

PubMed

Abundant detrital crystalline mineral grains have been found in layered Muong Nong-type indochinite tektites from Nong Sapong, northeastern Thailand. These grains are an integral part of some tektite layers, and their presence furnishes strong presumptive evidence that indochinites, as well as other tektite groups in which layered specimens occur, formed from surficial earth materials. PMID:17834370

Bairnes, V E

1963-12-27

96

Correspondence Synthetic ivory fails  

E-print Network

Correspondence Synthetic ivory fails to stop illegal trade Synthetic ivory can now be crafted to the same diagnostic standards as genuine ivory (see M. E. Sims et al. Ethnobiol. Lett. 2, 40­44; 2011), and its price in China is only about 14% of that of real ivory. First manufactured in 1865 to save

Cai, Long

97

Comparison of the bacterial species diversity of spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out at selected farms in Ivory Coast and Brazil.  

PubMed

To compare the spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process carried out in different cocoa-producing regions, heap and box (one Ivorian farm) and box (two Brazilian farms) fermentations were carried out. All fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. In general, the temperature inside the fermenting mass increased throughout all fermentations and reached end-values of 42-48 °C. The main end-products of pulp carbohydrate catabolism were ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and/or mannitol. In the case of the fermentations on the selected Ivorian farm, the species diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) was restricted. Lactobacillus fermentum and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides were the predominant LAB species, due to their ethanol and acid tolerance and citrate consumption. The levels of mannitol, ascribed to growth of L. fermentum, were fermentation-dependent. Also, enterobacterial species, such as Erwinia soli and Pantoea sp., were among the predominating microbiota during the early stages of both heap and box fermentations in Ivory Coast, which could be responsible for gluconic acid production. Consumption of gluconic acid at the initial phases of the Ivorian fermentations could be due to yeast growth. A wider microbial species diversity throughout the fermentation process was seen in the case of the box fermentations on the selected Brazilian farms, which differed, amongst other factors, regarding pod/bean selection on these farms as compared to fermentations on the selected Ivorian farm. This microbiota included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus durianis, L. fermentum, Lactobacillus mali, Lactobacillus nagelii, L. pseudomesenteroides, and Pediococcus acidilactici, as well as Bacillus subtilis that was present at late fermentation, when the temperature inside the fermenting mass reached values higher than 50 °C. Moreover, AAB seemed to dominate the Brazilian box fermentations studied, explaining higher acetic acid concentrations in the pulp and the beans. To conclude, it turned out that the species diversity and community dynamics, influenced by local operational practices, in particular pod/bean selection, impact the quality of fermented cocoa beans. PMID:21569940

Papalexandratou, Zoi; Camu, Nicholas; Falony, Gwen; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-08-01

98

Water in Tektite Glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tektites contain about 20 ppm of water, whereas plausible terrestrial source ma- terials contain about 10,000 ppm. The removal of the water cannot have taken place by the formation of bubbles and their rise to the surface, because the movement of the bubbles de- pends on the body forces (gravity plus acceleration). If these forces are kept low enough so

John A. O'Keefe

1964-01-01

99

Australasian tektites: source parameters and crater location reviewed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tektites of the Australasian strewn field cover an area from SE-Asia, through the Southwestern part of the Pacific Ocean and parts of the Indian Ocean, down to Australia. The impact crater has until now not been positively located, but it is generally assumed to be located somewhere in Indochina, where tektites also are more abundant and larger. 40Ar/39Ar dated Australasian tektites consistently give ages around 800 ka (1,2), and our new laser step-heating determinations on a Thailand tektite are in agreement. Australasian tektites show a marked coherence in physical, chemical and isotopic parameters. Refractive indices of tektite fragments, numbers of vesicles, abundance of relict minerals, tektite mass/m2, major elements compositions from tektites covering the whole strewn field can be contoured with more or less elliptical curves with slightly varying center positions, located within a few 100 km of the Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam junction. Isotope data suggest that sediments of the impact area consisted of ~1500 Ma old denudation material (Nd-isotope data (3,4)) and that this material was eroded within the last 170 Ma (Sr-isotope data (3,4)). Fine-grained minerals and particularly soils are effective scavengers of cosmogenic 10Be, and the high values reported for Australasian tektites (5) suggest that clay minerals are a significant and variable component in the target material. The highest 10Be-values are from tektites found furthest from the impact site. In the impact process, the top layer of the target - with its young sedimentation ages and higher 10Be values - will be projected the furthest away from the impact site. The next layer down consists of slightly older material with lower 10Be, and the impact process will propel these tektites to areas closer to the impact site. The 10Be distribution in tektites shows this variation and defines a broad center (~17°N, ~107°E) off the coast of Vietnam (5). La-ICPMS Pb/Pb-isotope data from tektites show small progressive variations from Australia over Java to Thailand, and when these data are compared to determined Pb/Pb-isotope data from sediments from the Pearl River (S. China) and the Mekong River (S.Vietnam)(6) the data project towards the Mekong River suggesting that the crater could be found nearer to the Mekong River delta. Schnetzler et al. (7) using early Seasat/Geos3 satellite data first reported the possibility of a large crater off the coast of Vietnam (~13.8°N, ~110.6 °E). We have examined satellite bathymetry and gravity data for a large section of off-shore Vietnam, and we located a near circular feature at essentially the same position. The structure has a diameter of approximately 100 km, with a center at (~13.6°N, ~111.2 °E), and a peak rises more than 500 m above the crater floor. We concur with Schnetzler et al. (7) that this structure is most likely the impact site for Australasian tektites. (1) Yamei et al., Science 287, p1622 (2000) (2) Lo et al., MAPS, 37, p1555 (2002)) (3) Blum et al., GCA 56, p483 (1992) (4) Shaw and Wasserburg, EPSL 60, p155 (1982) (5) Ma et al., GCA 68, p3883 (2004) (6) Millot et al., Chem Geol, 203, p75 (2004) (7) Schnetzler et al., GRL 15, p357 (1988)

Stecher, O.; Storey, M.; Hopper, J. R.

2009-12-01

100

The Origin of Tektites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tektites are probably extraterrestrial, rather than the result of heating some terrestrial materials, because they are a chemically homogeneous group with definite peculiarities (high silica, excess of alkaline earths over alkalis, excess of potash over soda, absence of water), and because some of them (the australites) appear to have undergone ablation in flight through the atmosphere. Since comparatively slow heating is required to explain the liquefaction of the tektite material, it is suggested that the tektites arrived along orbits which were nearly parallel to the surface of the earth, and which resulted from the decay of the orbit of a natural satellite. The great meteor procession of February 9, 1913, is an example of such an object. Comparison with the reentry phenomena of the artificial satellite 1957 Beta suggests that the 1913 shower consisted of a single large stone weighing about 400 kilograms, and a few dozen smaller bodies weighing about 40 grams each, formed by ablation from the larger body. It is shown that under the observed conditions considerable liquid flow would be expected in the stone, which would be heated to about 2100 K. Objects falling from such a shower near the perigee point of the orbit would have a considerable distribution along the orbit as a result of slight variations in height or drag coefficient. The distribution in longitude would be made wider by the turning of the earth under the orbit during the time of fall. The ultimate source of the body which produces a tektite shower is probably the moon, which appears, by virtue of its polarization and the phase distribution of the returned light, to contain high-silica materials. It is suggested that the Igast object alleged to have fallen in 1855 is in fact genuine and represents an unmelted portion of the lunar crust.

OKeefe, J. A.

1960-01-01

101

Tektite glass in apollo 12 sample.  

PubMed

The glassy portion of lunar sample 12013 from Apollo 12 is chemically more like some tektites from Java than like any terrestrial igneous rock. It satisfies all the chemical criteria for a tektite. Tektites are relatively recent and acid rocks, whereas the moon is chiefly ancient and basaltic; hence, tektites are probably ejected volcanically, rather than by impact, from the moon. PMID:17843588

O'keefe, J A

1970-06-01

102

Georgiaites: Tektites in Central Georgia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information is provided about the origin, the features, and the availability of tektites which are odd and very rare types of transparent glass theorized to be from a common, yet unknown, origin. The basis for this article is the Howard collection of tektites found in a small region of central Georgia. (seven references) (JJK)

Albin, Edward F.

1991-01-01

103

Tektite 2 habitability research program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multi-level parameters relating to perceived life quality in an isolated research and residence quarters were measured using a variety of tests. The habitat under study, emplaced beneath the sea off the coast of St. John's Island as a part of the Tektite II program, was being used for marine research. The crew for each of the 10 missions consisted of one engineer and 4 scientists. One mission had an all-female crew. Mission length was either 14 or 20 days, and 4 engineers, in covering 6 missions, stayed in the habitat for periods of 30 days each. A personality test was taken before confinement in the habitat. Two attitude tests were filled out by the aquanauts while they were still in the habitat. Daily moods were monitored during all missions. Special observations were made of leisure time use. Standardized private debriefings were administered at the end of each mission to each aquanaut. Other behavioral observations made by another research team were intercorrelated with the other measures described above.

Nowlis, D. P.; Wortz, E. C.; Watters, H.

1972-01-01

104

Tektite ablation - Some confirming calculations.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The calculation of tektite ablation has been redone, taking into account transient effects, internal radiation, melting and nonequilibrium vaporization of the glass, and the drag effect of the flanges. It is found that the results confirm the earlier calculations of Chapman and his group and of Adams and his co-workers. The general trend of the results is not sensitive to reasonable changes of the physical parameters. The ablation is predominantly by melting rather than by vaporization at all velocities up to 11 km/sec; this is surprising in view of the lack of detectable melt flow in most tektites. Chemical effects have not been considered.

O'Keefe, J. A., III; Silver, A. D.; Cameron, W. S.; Adams , E. W.; Warmbrod, J. D.

1973-01-01

105

The geochemistry of tektites: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical arguments have been used to demonstrate that tektites have been derived from terrestrial upper crustal rocks, presumably sediments. These arguments include the abundances and ratios of major- and trace-elements as well as isotope data. Trace-element ratios in all types of tektites are characteristic, particularly ratios such as Ba\\/Rb, Th\\/Sm, K\\/U and La\\/Sc which support the conclusion that tektites are

C. Koeberl

1990-01-01

106

An Ordinary Chondrite Impactor Composition for the Bosumtwi Impact Structure, Ghana, West Africa: Discussion of Siderophile Element Contents and Os and Cr Isotope Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Osmium isotope data had shown that Ivory Coast tektites contain an extraterrestrial component, but do not allow distinction between chondritic and iron meteorite contamination. PGE abundances of Ivory Coast tektites and impactites and target rocks from the Bosumtwi crater, the source crater of the Ivory Coast tektites, were all relatively high and did not allow to resolve the presence, or identify the nature, of the meteoritic component. However, Cr isotope analyses of an Ivory Coast tektite yielded a distinct 53Cr excess of 0.30+/-0.06, which indicates that the Bosumtwi impactor was an ordinary chondrite.

Koeberl, Christian; Shukolyukov, Alex; Lugmair, Guenter

2004-01-01

107

Brecciated Muong Nong-type tektites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Welded breccias and faults in Muong Nong-type indochinite tektites from Thailand are illustrated. Electron probe analyses of these tektites show somewhat higher Al and alkalies in light-colored layers, and somewhat higher Si and Ca in dark-colored layers.

Futrell, D. S.; Fredriksson, K.

1983-03-01

108

BOSUMTWI IMPACT CRATER: USE OF ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TOMOGRAPHY (ERT)  

E-print Network

of the tektites and microtektites of the Ivory Coast strewn field. Electrical resistivity survey was carried out/bedrock surface and the faults combined with the location of the tektite strewn field indicate that the about 0

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

109

Fe-57 Moessbauer study of tektites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moessbauer measurements were made on selected moldavite, australite, philippinite, and Georgia tektites. The spectra consist of two apparent lines, but at least two quadrupole doublets can be fitted to these spectra. The Moessbauer parameters for these doublets indicate that they arise from Fe2+ ions with local environments, which are relatively rich and relatively poor in calcium, respectively, similar to those in clinopyroxenes. No evidence for Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios above 0.01 (estimated detection limit) have been found in any tektite. Tektites are considerably more reduced than previously believed, and the extent of the reduction shows little or no variation among different types of tektites. These results limit the source materials of tektites to minerals in which the iron is uniformly highly reduced and in which the iron is contained clinopyroxene-like phases.

Evans, B. J.; Leung, L. K.

1976-01-01

110

Submicroscopic spherules and color of tektites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Magnetic susceptibility measurements of 18 tektites from various strewn fields have been made as a function of temperature from 77??K to room temperature. A relatively large temperature-independent component of the magnetic susceptibility was observed in all cases, and an analysis of the data shows that this component is the result of submicroscopic iron spherules in the tektites. An analysis of the color of tektites in terms of the magnetic measurements and also of the optical absorption spectra suggests that the basic color of all tektites is green or greenish-blue, and that the brown to black coloration in some tektites is due to finely dispersed Fe2O3 and/or many metallic spherules, both probably of colloidal size. ?? 1964.

Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.

1964-01-01

111

Tektites and their origin. [properties and distribution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted of the literature pertaining to the origin and characteristics of tektites. Topics discussed include tektite distribution in geographical locations, shapes of tektites, internal structure of tektites, physical properties, mechanical properties, optical properties, chemical composition, and comparisons with compositions of impact materials. Various arguments are presented on the terrestrial origin of tektites. It was found that some lunar craters of considerable size must be the products of volcanism which occurred during the past few million years, and that the moon must have within it a reservoir of rock which is considerably more like the mantle of the earth than like the rocks from which the basalts of the lunar crust are derived.

Okeefe, J. A.

1975-01-01

112

Chemical systematics among the moldavite tektites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The compositional variations that occur among the moldavite tektites are caused principally by incomplete mixing of two components during fusion. With the possible exception of silica, there is no evidence for significant losses of volatile species by fractional vaporization. Chemical constraints have been calculated for the two source-materials that contributed to the moldavites. If these tektites were formed by impact fusion, as is commonly believed, then the compositional systematics preserved within the moldavites suggest that hypersonic flow and ejection of impact melts are orderly processes. Insights gained from the study of tektites should prove useful in interpreting the chemistries of impact glasses from other bodies in the solar system.

Delano, J. W.; Lindsley, D. H.

1982-01-01

113

A Muong Nong-type Georgia tektite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large (130 g), layered tektite was found just south of Riddleville, Georgia, USA, in July 1993. The specimen has a bulk composition similar to that of splash-form Georgia tektites, but with a much wider range in composition (e.g., the silica content ranges from 69–99 wt%) and it contains numerous white opaque inclusions. Portions of the specimen were studied to

B. P. Glass; C. Koeberl; J. D. Blum; F. Senftle; G. A. Izett; B. J. Evans; A. N. Thorpe; H. Povenmire; R. L. Strange

1995-01-01

114

Study of the ablative effects on tektite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tumbling and surface roughness effects on the trajectory of entry tektite are studied in both free molecular and continuum flows. It was concluded that, while surface roughness has negligible effect on trajectory, the tumbling may play an important role in tektite trajectory and the consequent ablation, provided the body shape is different from a sphere. A shape factor was a good parameter for correlations between body shape and tumbling effects.

Chen, K. K.

1975-01-01

115

The oxidation state of iron in tektite glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reported extremes in Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) ratios of tektites are evaluated and alternative methods of analysis (wet chemical and instrumental) are explored. It is believed that most if not all Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) ratios in tektites fall within the 0.02-0.12 range. The findings suggest that tektites are not of lunar volcanic origin and that special formation conditions specific to Muong Nong tektites need not be postulated.

Fudali, R. F.; Dyar, M. Darby; Griscom, David L.; Schreiber, Henry D.

1987-01-01

116

Coasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site serves as a portal for information pertaining to the coasts of the U.S. The coast page offers an introduction to the nature and importance of our coasts followed by a section that spells out their mission. The site contains a host of active links to other pages which include quick access to coastal information, immediate graphical and tabular water level and meteorological data from NOAA water level stations located at various U.S. coastal locations, real-time water levels, currents, and other oceanographic and meteorological data from bays and harbors, links to U.S. coastal observing systems, NOAA Restoration Center, and NOAA photo galleries. The site also has links to current topics, products such as publications and data bases, and seventeen organizations that are either a part of NOAA or closely aligned.

117

Magnetic susceptibility of tektites and some other glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic susceptibility at several magnetic field strengths of about thirty tektites from various localities have been measured. The susceptibility ranges from 2 × 10 -6 to about 7.9 × 10 -6 e.m.u.\\/g. Tektites from a given locality have similar susceptibilities. The intensity of magnetization of all the tektites measured is zero or very small. For comparison, the same measurements

F. E. Senftle; A. Thorpe

1959-01-01

118

Age of the Australasian Tektite Strewn Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Fig. 1 shows, the widespread belief that the age of the Australasian tektite strewn field (AATSF) is ~0.7 m.y. appeared to be conventional. Tektites of different fission-track ages were found within the AATSF: 0.83 m.y. [1], 3.54-4.25 m.y. [2], and ~11 m.y. [3]. The first systematic investigation of the tektites, which were collected from a single stratigraphic layer in Vietnam, revealed three statistically discrete tektite age groups: 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 m.y. [4]. Similar tektites 0.75 m.y. and 1.1 m.y. in age are typical of the Zhamanshin impact crater, which represents an eminent part of the AATSF [5]. Fig. 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows radiogenic dating: 1-2: AATSF; 3-4: Zhamanshin; 1,3: data with known annealing correction. Compiled after Zahringer, 1963; Fleischer and Price, 1964; Gentner et al., 1969; McDougal and Lovering, 1969; Fleischer et al., 1969; Storzer and Wagner, 1979, 1980; Watanabe et al., 1985; Virk, 1985; Shukolukov et al., 1986; Kashkarov et al, 1986, 1987; Kolesnikov et al., 1987; Storzer and Muller-Sonhius, 1986; Arakelyants et al., 1988; etc. The very young geological age of the AATSF was established in Australia, and was confirmed by the author in Vietnam and in the Zhamanshin impact crater. This well-known tektite age paradox strongly supports an extraterrestrial origin of tektites. The paradox is fatal to the currently dominating Earth- impact theory of tektite origin, and we are not surprised that there are no continued attempts to either silence or disavow its significance. As a matter of fact, the formation of the gigantic AATSF can be considered as the main reason for the abrupt catastrophic climatic global changes and mass extinction of species on the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary 10,000 years ago [5,6]. The age-paradox scope dictates that tektites have been periodically formed and accumulated somewhere on an as-yet-unknown planetary body and then delivered to the Earth. The extraterrestrial volcanic eruptions seem to be the most appropriate process of the tektite formation and launching [7]. The frequent shift of the K-Ar ages relative to the fission-track ages of tektites can be explained by the presence of an extra argon inherited from some older crystalline inclusions foreign to the tektite glass. These inclusions are most common to the Muong Nong-type layered tektites and to flanges of the button-shape australites, and can be considered as an extraterrestrial environmental dust peppering. References: [1] Storzer and Wagner (1980) Meteoritics, 15, 372. [2] Fleischer et al. (1969) EPSL, 7, 51-52. [3] Storzer and Muller-Sonhius (1986) Meteoritics, 21, 518-519. [4] Kashkarov et al. (1986) Meteoritika, 45, 105-170. [5] Izokh (1991) Soviet Geol. and Geophys., 32, 1-10. [6] Tollman and Tollmann (1992) Mitt. Osterr. Geol. Ges., 84. [7] Izokh and Le duc An (1983) Meteoritika, 42, 158-169.

Izokh, E. P.

1993-07-01

119

Vapor Pressure of Tektite Glass and Its Bearing on Tektite Trajectories Determined from Aerodynamic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various experiments have been conducted to resolve a large discrepancy be- tween two measurements that have been reported for the vapor pressure of tektite glass. This discrepancy significantly affects the trajectories and mode of tektite origin as determined from calculations oœ aerodynamic ablation. Measurements in a furnace oœ vaporization rate relative to that of four different standards (SiO2, TiO_, Au,

FRANK J. CENTOLANZI; DEAN R. CHAPMAN

1966-01-01

120

Exploration of tektite formation processes through water and metal content measurements  

E-print Network

Exploration of tektite formation processes through water and metal content measurements Nigel WATT1 and trace element compositions of tektites from Da Lat, Vietnam. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for trace element measurements. Consistent with previous investigations of tektites, we found

Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

121

Mechanism of Muong Nong-type tektite formation and speculation on the source of Australasian tektites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The source crater of the youngest and largest of the tektite strewnfields, the Australasian strewnfield, has not been located. A number of lines of evidence indicate that the Muong Nong-type tektites, primarily found in Indochina, are more primitive than the much more abundant and widespread splash-form tektites, and are proximal to the source. In this study the spatial distribution of Muong Nong-type tektite sites and chemical character have been used to indicate the approximate location of the source. The variation of Muong Nong-type tektite chemical composition appears to be caused by mixing of two silicate rock end-members and a small amount of limestone, and not by vapor fractionation. The variation in composition is not random, and does not support in situ melting or multiple impact theories. The distribution of both Muong Nong and splash-form tektite sites suggest the source is in a limited area near the southern part of the Thailand-Laos border.

Schnetzler, C. C.

1992-01-01

122

ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF LEAD FROM TEKTITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isotopic composition of lead in three tektites and Libyan Desert ; glass is compared with that in knowa terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources. ; The lead contained in the glasses is similar to modern terrestrial lead, ; particularly lead frozen modern oceanic sediments. The uranium, thorium, and ; lead concentrations were determined for one of the glasses, an australia. ;

G TILTON

1958-01-01

123

The oxidation state of iron in tektite glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fe{sup 3+}\\/Fe{sup 2+} ratios in tektite glass have the potential for constraining the f{sub Oâ}-T conditions associated with tektite melts prior to quenching. But even discounting older analyses, values of Fe{sup 3+}\\/Fe{sup 2+} in the literature range from zero to 0.82. The authors have analyzed five tektites from populations that have been reported to have Fe{sup 3+}\\/Fe{sup 2+} ratios both

R. F. Fudali; M. D. Dyar; D. L. Griscom; H. D. Schreiber

1987-01-01

124

Study of the ablative effects on tektites: Atmosphere entry of a swarm of tektites. [shielding by hypersonic wake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The large variety of ablation markings observed on recovered tektites lead to the previously proposed swarm wake model which states that the lead peripheral tektites bore the blunt of aerodynamic heating upon entry, and that the bulk of tektites in the wake enjoyed partial shielding at the expense of the leaders. Further considerations are presented in support of this model. Quantitative assessments indicate that wake shielding might indeed have provided for substantially less heating than would have been experienced by a tektite entering an undisturbed atmosphere along a similar trajectory. For the case of strong wake shielding it is even possible that the surface temperature of a falling tektite had barely reached its melting point. In the distribution of tektites, there is a size band (near R = 0.5 cm) which is least susceptible to melting.

Sepri, P.; Chen, K. K.

1977-01-01

125

731 The Meteoritical Society, 2007. Printed in USA. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 42, Nr 4/5, 731741 (2007)  

E-print Network

tektites. Further analyses of the fallback material from the Bosumtwi drill cores should confirm (or not with the Ries and Chesapeake Bay craters, Bosumtwi is one of the rare craters to have produced a tektite strewn field. It is considered the probable source of the Ivory Coast tektites and microtektites recovered

Claeys, Philippe

2007-01-01

126

Annual Movement Patterns of Endangered Ivory Gulls: The Importance of Sea Ice  

PubMed Central

The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is an endangered seabird that spends its entire year in the Arctic environment. In the past three decades, threats from various sources have contributed to a >70% decline in Canada. To assess the annual habitat needs of this species, we attached satellite transmitters to 12 ivory gulls on Seymour Island, Nunavut in 2010, which provided up to four breeding seasons of tracking data. Analysis of migratory behaviour revealed considerable individual variation of post-breeding migratory route selection. Ivory gulls traveled a median of 74 days during post-breeding migration, but only 18 days during pre-breeding migration. In contrast to predictions, ivory gulls did not use the Greenland coast during migratory periods. Ivory gulls overwintered near the ice edge in Davis Strait, but also used the Labrador Sea in late February and March. We suggest that the timing of formation and recession and extent of sea ice plays a large role in ivory gull distribution and migratory timing. PMID:25551556

Spencer, Nora C.; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Mallory, Mark L.

2014-01-01

127

Origin of tektites: an alternative to terrestrial impact theory.  

PubMed

The Terrestrial Impact Theory (TIT) has won a complete victory over O'Keefe's lunar volcanic theory, but only because the Moon appears to be the wrong place for tektites. Indeed, the TIT ignores strong evidence of their volcanic origin--far from the Moon. The Extraterrestrial Volcanic Comet Theory proposes an alternative to both of these theories. Major arguments for an extraterrestrial tektite source are paradoxical: a great time difference between tektite formation and their arrival on Earth, and also forms, plastic deformations, ice collision marks, vacuum voids, etc. indicating specific conditions of tektite formation such as low gravitational field, lack of atmosphere, interaction of hot plastic tektites with ice, etc. Major evidence of volcanic origin includes: close analogy between shaped tektites and small volcanic bombs, and between layered tektites and lava or tuff-lava flows or huge bombs; analogy between flanged tektites and volcanic bombs ablated by gasjets: long-time, multistage formation of some tektites that corresponds to wide variations in their radiometric ages; well-ordered long compositional trends (series) typical of magmatic differentiation; different compositional tektite families (subseries) comparable to different stages (phases) of the volcanic process. Thus, different types of volcanic eruptions under extraterrestrial conditions could be reconstructed based on tektite properties. It is presumed that tektites were transported to the Earth by specific eruptive comets, i.e. in the form of ice-tektite agglomerates launched into space by volcanic explosion. Major arguments favouring comets include: ice collision marks and imprints as mentioned above; linear band-like sculpture of the Australasian strewn field as evidence of comet fragmentation and slope or skipping trajectory of separate fragments; compact coincidence of the Zhamanshin impact crater with small tektite strewn field as evidence of steep trajectory of separate comet fragments that disintegrated while entering the atmosphere. The comet-Earth collision under consideration happened 10,000 years ago and caused the global catastrophe marked by the sharp Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, i.e. by abrupt climatic changes, the end of glaciation, mass extinction, etc. This event can be compared with the "dinosaur" catastrophe at the K/T boundary 65 Ma, which was also accompanied by tektite fall. PMID:11541098

Izokh, E P

1996-01-01

128

Lunar sample 14425 - Not a lunar tektite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of a polished section of lunar sample 14425 shows, in contradiction to a previous report, that it has a composition similar to Apollo 14 breccias, but not to high-magnesium microtektites. Lunar sample 14425 is a large (8.006±0.006 mm dia.) glass bead. Sample 14425 is one of the largest glass beads returned from the moon. Semiquantitative analysis of the bead indicated that it has a composition unlike other lunar samples, but similar to high-magnesium microtektites (O'Keefe and Glass, 1985). A polished section was prepared at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. Quantitative analysis of this section shows that the spherule is extremely homogenous in composition and that the composition is similar to Apollo 14 impact breccias and not to any known terrestrial tektite. It appears that the glass bead was formed by impact melting and that it is not a lunar tektite.

Glass, B. P.

1986-01-01

129

Tektites - Volcanic ejecta from the moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility is considered that tektites are lunar volcanic ejecta, and lunar regions are examined from which tektites could be ejected with the necessary velocities and trajectories to reach the earth. The examined regions include areas around the Lunar Transient Phenomena sites near Censorinus, Messier, Messier A, and Taruntius, the area of Mare Foecunditatis near Secchi X, areas near Cauchy and Capella, and the eastern part of Mare Tranquillitatis. Evidence of acidic volcanic activity in these regions is described in detail, including possible calderas, mudflows, and endogenous domes. It is suggested that the moon is still gently degassing and that more violent eruptions of material may still occur on rare occasions. Remotely-sensed evidence of recent lunar internal activity is noted.

Cameron, W. S.; Lowrey, B. E.

1975-01-01

130

Volatile fractionation and tektite source material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The arguments used by Love and Woronow (1988) to assess the role played in the origin of bediasites by extensive volatile fractionation are critically examined. Using the ratios of 'refractory' oxides, CaO, Al2O3, and MgO, to the 'volatile' oxides, Na2O and K2O, these authors concluded that vapor fractionation did not play a significant role. In this paper, experimental evidence is presented that shows that the assumption of volatility for the alkali elements (as least with respect to silica) to be not valid under the conditions under which tektites formed. It is shown that the results of vapor fractionation in experiments on glasses of tektite composition are approximately parallel the trends seen in bediasite analysis.

Walter, Louis S.

1989-01-01

131

The first polish tektites: preliminary sem investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Lower Silesia, the first Polish moldavites were discovered. To recognize the primary chemical composition and check the morphology of investigated material SE and BSE images were used. The samples show presence of vesicles, which are one of the most typical features of tektite glass. Referring to the preliminary EDS results and comparing them with literature data, it can be assumed that in all cases the base material for all known moldavites was the same.

Brachaniec, Tomasz; Szopa, Krzysztof; Karwowski, ?ukasz

2013-09-01

132

A 10.8-kg layered (Muong-Nong-type) tektite from Wenchang, Hainan, China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 10.79-kg layered tektite from Hainan is the largest tektite from China, and the fifth largest reported to date. It, together with a 1.9-kg Hainan tektite described by Yuan (1981), greatly extends the area of the Australasian field within which layered tektites having masses greater than 1 kg have been found.

Futrell, Darryl S.; Wasson, John T.

1993-01-01

133

Layered tektites of Southeast Asia: Field studies in Central Laos and Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recovered 18 kg of layered tektites from 10 tektite-bearing localities in Laos and central Vietnam, including 5 localities around the town of Muong Nong (Laos). Several of these deposits originally contained several hundred kg of layered tektite fragments and one fragmented mass may have been as large as 1,000 kg. This is the largest single deposit of tektites

Peter S. Fiske; Charles C. Schnetzler; John McHone; Kong Kham Chanthavaichith; Inpong Homsombath; Thonkeo Phouthakayalat; Bounsou Khenthavong; Pham Tich Xuan

1999-01-01

134

Noble gases and nitrogen in Muong Nong tektites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three samples of Muong Nong tektites have been studied for N and noble gases. The isotopic composition of noble gases is air-like. The noble gas amounts are much higher than in splash form tektites. As compared to air, He and Ne have been enriched, most likely due to inward diffusion from ambient air, subsequent to glass formation. N contents range

S. V. S. Murty

1997-01-01

135

A laboratory model for splash-form tektites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assume that tektites are produced by terrestrial impacts, either directly from the splashing of shock melt, or possibly as condensates from the impact vapor cloud. In either case, the final product is a fluid drop falling through air, and this physical system is our subject of focus. We interpret and extend the dynamics and stability of spinning, translating fluid drops to make inferences concerning the dynamic history of tektites. Drop shape is uniquely prescribed by normal force balance at the tektite surface. The shapes of drops progress with change in the non-dimensional group Bo, called the Bond number, which is a ratio of density, angular speed, and drop radius to surface tension. As Bond number increases, the tektite shape progresses from a sphere to a dumbbell or an oblate ellipsoid, and then to a biconcave shape. A laboratory model for tektites is developed that consists of rolling or tumbling molten metallic drops either in a cylindrical drum or down a ramp into air or a quench bath. The model reproduces all of the known forms of splash-form tektites, including spheres, oblate ellipsoids, dumbbells, teardrops and tori. The laboratory also highlights important differences between rolling drops and drops tumbling while in flight; for example, toroidal drops are much more stable when rolling. We conclude that molten tektites can exist as equilibrium bodies of revolution only up to 3 mm, based on an analysis of capillary length. Smaller drops are the product of break-up at greater than terminal velocity. Larger tektites are necessarily non-equilibrium forms. This underscores the importance of cooling and quenching in flight, since many tektites greatly exceed the maximum sizes anticipated based on any reasonable relative flight speed estimate, suggesting that their break-up time greatly exceeded their cooling time. This is supported by the large fraction of tektites that show a high-viscosity crust that evidently cracked while in flight.

Elkins Tanton, L. T.; Aussillous, P.; Bico, J.; Quéré, D.; Bush, J. W. M.

2003-04-01

136

Tektite-like bodies at Lonar Crater, India - Implications for the origin of tektites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Homogeneous dense glass bodies (both irregular and splash form) with high silica contents (about 67 pct SiO2) occur in the vicinity of Lonar Crater, India. Their lack of microlites and mineral remnants and their uniform chemical composition virtually preclude a volcanic origin. They are similar to tektites reported in the literature. While such a close association of tektite-like bodies with impact craters is already known (Aouelloul Crater, Mauritania; Zhamanshin Crater, U.S.S.R.), the tektite-like bodies at Lonar Crater are unique in that they occur in an essentially basaltic terrain. Present geochemical data are consistent with these high silica glass bodies being impact melt products of two-thirds basalt and one-third local intertrappean sediment (chert). The tektite-like bodies of the impact craters Lonar, Zhamanshin, and Aouelloul are generally similar. Strong terrestrial geochemical signatures reflect the target rock REE patterns and abundance ratios and demonstrate their terrestrial origin resulting from meteorite impact, as has been suggested by earlier workers.

Murali, A. V.; Zolensky, M. E.; Blanchard, D. P.

1987-01-01

137

A New Tektite Discovery in the Guangdong Province, China, and the Search for the Source Crater of the Australasian Tektite Strewn Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new tektite location in South China is presented that belongs to the Australasian tektite strewnfield. We also investigated a 30 km circular structure in the Guangdong and Guangxi Province that might be related to the Australasian impact event.

Kenkmann, T.; Maier, R. V.; Sturm, S.; Zhu, Meng-Hua.

2014-09-01

138

Viscous flow and crystallization behavior of tektite glasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The variation of viscosity with temperature was determined in the 200-2000 K range for a Muong Nong tektite material. The viscosity at the liquidus temperature of 1320 C is 20,000 P; treatments between 900 and 1300 C do not result in significant crystallization in the natural sample except when the sample is heated in contact with a synthetic tektite composition. Two synthetic microtektite with lower SiO2 contents than the Muong Nong material were also examined; heat flow calculations were performed for 2.5 to 10 cm spheres of tektite when cooling by radiation.

Klein, L. C.; Yinnon, H.; Uhlmann, D. R.

1980-01-01

139

3-D laser images of splash-form tektites and their use in aerodynamic numerical simulations of tektite formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten splash-form tektites from the Australasian strewn field, with masses ranging from 21.20 to 175.00 g and exhibiting a variety of shapes (teardrop, ellipsoid, dumbbell, disk), have been imaged using a high-resolution laser digitizer. Despite challenges due to the samples' rounded shapes and pitted surfaces, the images were combined to create 3-D tektite models, which captured surface features with a high fidelity (?30 voxel mm-2) and from which volume could be measured noninvasively. The laser-derived density for the tektites averaged 2.41 ± 0.11 g cm-3. Corresponding densities obtained via the Archimedean bead method averaged 2.36 ± 0.05 g cm-3. In addition to their curational value, the 3-D models can be used to calculate the tektites' moments of inertia and rotation periods while in flight, as a probe of their formation environment. Typical tektite rotation periods are estimated to be on the order of 1 s. Numerical simulations of air flow around the models at Reynolds numbers ranging from 1 to 106 suggest that the relative velocity of the tektites with respect to the air must have been <10 m s-1 during viscous deformation. This low relative velocity is consistent with tektite material being carried along by expanding gases in the early time following the impact.

Samson, C.; Butler, S.; Fry, C.; McCausland, P. J. A.; Herd, R. K.; Sharomi, O.; Spiteri, R. J.; Ralchenko, M.

2014-05-01

140

The problem of the origin of tektites from Zhamanshin astrobleme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tektites (from Greek. Tektós - molten, melted) - are natural glassy formations of yellow, green, but mostly black color, completely fused, that may have different shape and size. According to their composition tektites are high-silicon (acidic) glasses. The content of SiO may reach 88,5%, AlO - 20,5%, FeO - 11,5%, and CaO - 8,5%. The presence of Ni and relatively low content of water in comparison with other glasses (only 0.02%, which is 10 times less than in the volcanic glass) is of particular importance. The name to tektites was given by Austrian geologist E. Suess (1900). Tektites are often denominated according to their location: irgizites and zhamanshinites (river Irgiz and Zhamanshin hole in Kazakhstan), moldavites [river Moldava (modern Vltava, Czech Republic)] filippinites (Philippines), idoshinites (Indo-china), avstralites (Australia), etc. There is still no generally accepted hypothesis about the origin of tektites: some consider them to be a part of meteorites, others suggest that tektites are the result of the explosion and melting of terrestrial matter that happens when meteorites, asteroids or comets fall down on Earth. The aim of the present work is to conduct analytic studies of tektites from Zhamanshin crater. We examined 50 samples that are part of the collection from the Zhamanshin crater gathered in 1979 by I.N. Plotnikova during her student field expedition led by P.V. Florenskiy. For the convenience of the research of tektites during its early stages the authors compiled a morphological classification of the given samples. On the basis of the visual inspection by the help of a magnifying glass we distinguished the following groups of tektites, which are characterized by certain morphological features: 1. Porous (cavernous), black, isometric shape 2. Porous (cavernous), yellowish-brown, isometric shape 3. Elongated, torose 4. Elongated, with glassy luster 5. Elongated, twisted 6. worm-shaped 7. Vitreous, glassy 8. Deformated The vast majority of researchers believe that the surface of tektites reflects the dynamic resistance of the medium (air) that they were experiencing in their movement. Visual examination of the samples confirms that, and looking at the most tektites, it is difficult not to agree with this idea. Consequently, we can make an assumption that the morphology of tektites depends on the conditions of the genesis (in particular, on the distance and the expansion velocity of tektites). Aubrey Whymark, a famous contemporary specialist in tektites, also believes that the morphology is associated with the range of expansion of tektites from an impact crater, which, according to his theory, are formed as a result of impact metamorphism. This opinion is shared by many scientists involved in the research of tektites. In the next phase of the research the samples of all the morphological groups were examined using electron microscopy. During this analysis, we have found non-melted areas of the rock in 3 out of 50 samples (these were the rocks of the 2nd and the 7th groups from our classification). We also detected the features of the surface patterns that testify the impact formation of tektites.

Takhauov, Artur; Anoshin, Dmitriy; Plotnikova, Irina

2013-04-01

141

Jetting and the origin of tektites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific consensus is that tektites were produced by impacts on the Earth, but the exact mechanism by impacts might form tektites is still unclear. The most widely cited mechanism is jetting, which results from the extremely high pressures generated at the intersection of two bodies whose surfaces converge obliquely at high speed. Theory of jetting for thin plates is extended to the case of the impact of the sphere onto a half-space. The calculations are done for the impact of a silicate sphere onto a silicate target for impact speeds of 15, 20, and 25 km/sec, spanning the range of reasonable impact speeds for asteroids. The angle of impact is varied from 0 to 75 deg. The mass jetted, the jet velocity, projectile fraction in the jet, azimuthal distribution of the jet, and the phase of the jetted material are calculated as functions of time. The total mass jetted and the overall mass-averages of jet velocity, etc. are also calculated.

Vickery, A. M.

1991-01-01

142

Diminished tektite ablation in the wake of a swarm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of ablation markings on tektite surfaces reveal that a large variation in aerodynamic heating must have occurred among the members of a swarm during atmospheric entry. In a few cases, the existence of jagged features indicates that these tektite surfaces may have barely reached the melting temperature. Such an observation seems to be incompatible with the necessarily large heating rates suffered by other tektites which exhibit the ring wave melt flow. A reconciliation is proposed in the form of a wake shielding model which is a natural consequence of swarm entry. Calculations indicate that the observed ablation variations are actually possible for swarm entry at greater than escape velocity. This aerodynamic conclusion provides support for the arguments favoring extraterrestrial origin of tektites.

Sepri, P.; Chen, K. K.; Okeefe, J. A.

1981-01-01

143

The Parent Stratum and Distribution of the Georgia Tektites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seventy-six field expeditions for Georgia tektites have been made to the vicinity of Dodge County, Georgia in an effort to determine the parent formation and distribution pattern by locating new specimens. About 67 new specimens have been recovered; they represent about 9 percent of all known specimens. The primary area of distribution is a fan shaped area approximately 30 by 72 kilometers. It is likely that these tektites have been transported by water from the parent formation. No correlation could be found between size, shape, soil type, elevation and tektite location. Georgia tektites have previously been found only in strata much younger than their 34 m.y. radiometric age. Here, however, the parent formation is identified as the Tobacco Road Sand of this age.

Povenmire, H.

1985-12-01

144

Study of the ablative effects on tektite. [reentry trajectories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tumbling and surface roughness effects on the trajectory of entry tektite were studied in both free molecular and continuum flows. It is shown that, while surface roughness has negligible effect on trajectory, the tumbling may play an important role in tektite trajectory and the consequent ablation, provided the body shape is different from a sphere. A shape factor B was proposed to measure the shape irregularity and is found to be a good parameter for correlations between body shape and tumbling effects.

Chen, K. K.

1975-01-01

145

The water, deuterium, gas and uranium content of tektites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water content, deuterium concentration of the water, total gas and uranium contents were determined on tektite samples and other glass samples from Texas, Australia, Philippine Islands, Java, French Indo-China, Czechoslovakia, Libyan Desert, Billiton Island, Thailand, French West Africa, Peru, and New Mexico. The water content ranges from 0.24 per cent for the Peru tektite, to 0.0002 per cent for

Irving Friedman

1958-01-01

146

The oxidation state of iron in tektite glass  

SciTech Connect

Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} ratios in tektite glass have the potential for constraining the f{sub O{sub 2}}-T conditions associated with tektite melts prior to quenching. But even discounting older analyses, values of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} in the literature range from zero to 0.82. The authors have analyzed five tektites from populations that have been reported to have Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} ratios both of zero and also a range of ratios up to 0.67. The authors employed several wet chemical techniques and two instrumental techniques - Moessbauer and Electron Spin Resonance - for all five samples and failed to confirm either extreme. The range they found of 0.02-0.12 is in excellent agreement with the literature values that they consider to be consistently most reliable and they believe that most if not all Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} ratios in tektites fall within this range. The obvious presence of systematic errors in their data set strongly suggests the true range is narrower than their reported range. Additional standardization work is need to address these systematic errors. Nevertheless, the authors present accuracy is sufficient to demonstrate that there is no need to invoke a lunar volcanic origin for tektites or to postulate special formation conditions specific to Muong Nong tektites.

Fudali, R.F. (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (USA)); Dyar, M.D. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA)); Griscom, D.L. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (USA)); Schreiber, H.D. (VMI Research Labs., Lexington, VA (USA))

1987-10-01

147

Seconds After Impact: Insights from Diffusion Between Lechatelierite and Host Glass in Tektites and Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study exploits the presence of lechatelierites in tektites to extract information about their thermal histories by investigating chemical diffusion between molten silica inclusions and surrounding felsic melt in natural tektites and experiments.

Macris, C. A.; Badro, J.; Asimow, P. D.; Eiler, J. M.; Stolper, E. D.

2014-09-01

148

Healdsburgite - a New Tektite and Associated Tektite Strewnfield in North Central California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erickson, Rolfe; Norwick, Steven; and Byrd, Caitlin, Sonoma State University; Deino, Alan, Berkeley Geochronology Center. I A Distinctive Glass Clast Population In numerous locations in Sonoma and Solano Counties in north central California, over an area of ~ 200 km2, distinctive ~ 1-5 cm dominantly ovoid glass clasts are found as part of the pebble population in young sediments. They are composed of black massive aphyric nonvesicular glass whose surfaces are totally covered with a texture of adjoining small deep pits and grooves. The pits are hemispherical, 1-10 mm across, and join at sharp edges composed of straight segments. The grooves, where present, are the width and depth of the pits and may be up to several cm long and vermicular. Some clasts have internal layering resembling flow textures. These glass objects were brought to our attention by a local resident, Ms. Diane Moore, about 20 years ago. Four of these glass clasts from widely separated locations in the exposure area have been dated by the laser incremental-heating Ar39/Ar40 method at the Berkeley Geochronology Center, with an age of ~ 2.81 Ma (upper Pliocene). The four samples have mutually overlapping ages at one sigma. Chemical analyses of the 10 major and 50 minor elements, of four widely separated clasts, were obtained at commercial laboratories. The clasts are all rhyolites and cluster tightly on the TAS diagram of Le Maitre et al (2002). All available data show that all these pitted and grooved clasts are part of a single population. II. The Clasts are Tektites We believe these distinctive glass clasts to be tektites for the following reasons: 1. Pits are always present and wholly cover the clast surface. Perhaps half the clasts also have distinctive irregular vermicular grooves superimposed on the pitted surface. This surface pattern is like those on other long-recognized 'classic' tektites, like indochinites. The clasts look like tektites; compare McCall (2001, Figure 2.30) for example. 2. The clasts show no significant weathering. Once cleaned of adhering sediment, they are solid and vitreous. There are also no cases of partial development of the distinctive surface texture, as might be expected if it were a consequence of in situ weathering. 3. The clasts do not have a detrital origin; they are not obsidian pebbles. The pit and groove pattern, which is uniformly well developed on clasts throughout the distribution area, is fragile and could not have survived much transport. 4. The clasts are not volcanic in origin (i.e., 'apache tears'). The pit and groove pattern contrasts with the relatively smooth surface of apache tears, and the clasts bear no resemblance to lapilli. Their distinctive appearance and uniform age and chemistry suggests that these objects are tektites in a strewnfield, only a small part of which has been identified to date. No related impact site has been identified, but clast composition suggests a continental target. We suggest these clasts, heretofore informally called Healdsburg glass, be recognized as tektites and called healdsburgites, in the manner of other tektites. A public domain PDF format copy of this poster will be available for download in the digital archive in the Sonoma State University library.

Erickson, R. C.; Deino, A. L.; Norwick, S. A.; Byrd, C.

2012-12-01

149

Beryllium10 in Australasian tektites: Constraints on the location of the source crater  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using accelerator mass spectrometry we have measured the 10Be concentrations of 86 Australasian tektites. Corrected to the time of tektite production ?0.8 My ago, the 10Be concentrations (106 atom\\/g) range from 59 for a layered tektite from Huai Sai, Thailand, to 280 for an australite from New South Wales, Australia. The average value is 143 ± 50. When tektites

P. Ma; K. Aggrey; C. Tonzola; C. Schnabel; P. de Nicola; G. F. Herzog; J. T. Wasson; B. P. Glass; L. Brown; F. Tera; R. Middleton; J. Klein

2004-01-01

150

New estimates of area and mass for the North American tektite strewn field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A revised estimate is given for the total mass of the North American tektite material, which is based on a concept of patches or rays of distribution rather than on a continuous tektite and microtektite blanket. This concept yields a total mass of about 3 x 10 to the 14th g, which is less than a third of previous estimates. The shape of the North American tektite strewn field is in agreement with other tektite strewn fields.

Koeberl, C.

1989-01-01

151

The Shape Distribution of Splash-form Tektites Predicted by Numerical Simulations of  

E-print Network

The Shape Distribution of Splash-form Tektites Predicted by Numerical Simulations of Rotating Fluid Distribution of Splash-form Tektites Predicted by Numerical Simulations of Rotating Fluid Drops S. L. B U T L E September 2010) Splash-form tektites are glassy rocks ranging in size from roughly 1 to 100 mm

Spiteri, Raymond J.

152

Optical magnetic, and electrical properties of tektites, meteorites, and other space related materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scope of the project is reported to study the infrared absorption of water and the magnetic properties of the iron in tektites. Subsequently, the work was expanded to include the other properties of tektites and lunar materials. When the lunar samples became available, the emphasis of the research shifted from tektites to lunar samples.

1974-01-01

153

A POSSIBLE ORIGIN OF TEKTITES BY SOIL FUSION AT IMPACT SITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is assumed that tektites are formed on the Earth by the impact of ; some extra-terrestrial object, presumably by the rapid fusion of rock during the ; impact. Various works on the composition of tektites are evaluated, and it is ; demonstrated that a possible parent rock for tektites is terrestrial soil. Soil ; forms a discrete, geochemically well

HENRY P. SCHWARCZ

1962-01-01

154

The water, deuterium, gas and uranium content of tektites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The water content, deuterium concentration of the water, total gas and uranium contents were determined on tektite samples and other glass samples from Texas, Australia, Philippine Islands, Java, French Indo-China, Czechoslovakia, Libyan Desert, Billiton Island, Thailand, French West Africa, Peru, and New Mexico. The water content ranges from 0.24 per cent for the Peru tektite, to 0.0002 per cent for a moldavite. The majority of the tektites have less than 0.05 per cent water, and average 0.005 per cent H2O by weight. No other gases were detected, the lower detection limit being about 1 p.p.m. by weight. The deuterium content of the water in tektites is in the same range as that in terrestrial waters, and varies from 0.010 mole per cent to 0.0166 mole per cent deuterium. The uranium content is about from 1 to 3 p.p.m. The possible origin of tektites is discussed. The experimental data presented favour their being originally terrestrial, but produced by some catastrophic event. An extra-terrestrial source is not ruled out. ?? 1958.

Friedman, I.

1958-01-01

155

Magnetic susceptibility of tektites and some other glasses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The magnetic susceptibility at several magnetic field strengths of about thirty tektites from various localities have been measured. The susceptibility ranges from 2 ?? 10-6 to about 7.9 ?? 10-6 e.m.u./g. Tektites from a given locality have similar susceptibilities. The intensity of magnetization of all the tektites measured is zero or very small. For comparison, the same measurements have been made on about thirty obsidians. The magnetic susceptibilities cover approximately the same range, but the intensity of magnetization of the impurity was found to be much higher. By heating the obsidians to 1450??C the intensity of magnetization was reduced to zero. From the above data, it is shown that the tektites must have been heated well above 1400??C, and that essentially all the iron is in solution. On the other hand, the evidence shows that obsidians have not been heated much above this temperature, and that there is a significant amount of undissolved iron in the glass, probably as magnetite. Further, if tektites are extraterrestrial, they probably entered the earth's atmosphere as a glass. ?? 1959.

Senftle, F.E.; Thorpe, A.

1959-01-01

156

IVORY'S THEOREM IN HYPERBOLIC SPACES H. STACHEL AND J. WALLNER  

E-print Network

IVORY'S THEOREM IN HYPERBOLIC SPACES H. STACHEL AND J. WALLNER Abstract. According to the planar version of Ivory's Theorem the family of confocal conics has the property that in each quadrangle formed to hyperbolic and other spaces. 1. Introduction The planar Euclidean version of Ivory's Theorem states

Wallner, Johannes

157

Dissecting the illegal ivory trade: an analysis of ivory seizures data.  

PubMed

Reliable evidence of trends in the illegal ivory trade is important for informing decision making for elephants but it is difficult to obtain due to the covert nature of the trade. The Elephant Trade Information System, a global database of reported seizures of illegal ivory, holds the only extensive information on illicit trade available. However inherent biases in seizure data make it difficult to infer trends; countries differ in their ability to make and report seizures and these differences cannot be directly measured. We developed a new modelling framework to provide quantitative evidence on trends in the illegal ivory trade from seizures data. The framework used Bayesian hierarchical latent variable models to reduce bias in seizures data by identifying proxy variables that describe the variability in seizure and reporting rates between countries and over time. Models produced bias-adjusted smoothed estimates of relative trends in illegal ivory activity for raw and worked ivory in three weight classes. Activity is represented by two indicators describing the number of illegal ivory transactions--Transactions Index--and the total weight of illegal ivory transactions--Weights Index--at global, regional or national levels. Globally, activity was found to be rapidly increasing and at its highest level for 16 years, more than doubling from 2007 to 2011 and tripling from 1998 to 2011. Over 70% of the Transactions Index is from shipments of worked ivory weighing less than 10 kg and the rapid increase since 2007 is mainly due to increased consumption in China. Over 70% of the Weights Index is from shipments of raw ivory weighing at least 100 kg mainly moving from Central and East Africa to Southeast and East Asia. The results tie together recent findings on trends in poaching rates, declining populations and consumption and provide detailed evidence to inform international decision making on elephants. PMID:24250744

Underwood, Fiona M; Burn, Robert W; Milliken, Tom

2013-01-01

158

A possible tektite strewn field in the Argentinian Pampa.  

PubMed

Impact glass associated with 11 elongate depressions in the Pampean Plain of Argentina, north of the city of Rio Cuarto, was suggested to be proximal ejecta related to a highly oblique impact event. We have identified about 400 additional elongate features in the area that indicate an aeolian, rather than an impact, origin. We have also dated fragments of glass found at the Rio Cuarto depressions; the age is similar to that of glass recovered 800 kilometers to the southeast. This material may be tektite glass from an impact event around 0.48 million years ago, representing a new tektite strewn field. PMID:12004127

Bland, P A; de Souza Filho, C R; Jull, A J T; Kelley, S P; Hough, R M; Artemieva, N A; Pierazzo, E; Coniglio, J; Pinotti, L; Evers, V; Kearsley, A T

2002-05-10

159

Beryllium-10 in australasian tektites: evidence for a sedimentary precursor.  

PubMed

Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 1 x l0(8) atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 x 10(6) years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event. PMID:17771035

Pal, D K; Tuniz, C; Moniot, R K; Kruse, T H; Herzog, G F

1982-11-19

160

Beryllium-10 in Australasian tektites - Evidence for a sedimentary precursor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 100 micron atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 million years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.

Pal, D. K.; Moniot, R. K.; Kruse, T. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Tuniz, C.

1982-01-01

161

Beryllium-10 in Australasian tektites: evidence for a sedimentary precursor  

SciTech Connect

Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 1 x 10/sup 8/ atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 x 10/sup 6/ years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.

Pal, D.K.; Tuniz, C.; Moniot, R.K.; Kruse, T.H.; Herzog, G.F.

1982-11-19

162

Soret diffusion: A possible cause of compositional heterogeneity within tektites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although a terrestrial origin for tektites is well-established on geochemical evidence, the physical processes involved in tektite formation have been largely ignored by geochemists and petrologists. For example, two observations that potentially bear on the physics of their origin are the following: (1) The flange of an australite is often more heterogeneous than its core; and (2) microtektites are compositionally more diverse than tektites. The first observation contradicts the traditional view of flange formation since a second heating to super-liquidus temperatures during atmospheric re-entry should, by chemical diffusion and mixing, have tended to homogenize the melt as it flowed off the leading edge of the core to form the flange. Analyses of an australite flange have been performed by electron microprobe. The results of those analyses emphasize the magnitude of the heterogeneity, as well as the well-defined elemental correlations that may constrain the process responsible for it. The second observation that the bulk compositions of microtektites are more divers than the tektites within the same strewnfield is a well-known characteristic, for which no quantitative explanation has been offered. The current investigation has involved the analysis of 43 Australasian microtektites from the Wharton Basin by electron microprobe, as well as trace-element abundances on fifteen of these microtecktites by INAA.

Delano, J. W.; Liu, Y.-G.; Schmitt, R. A.

1993-01-01

163

An empirical model for the Australasian tektite field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australasian strewn?field contains a radial sequence of tektite shapes ranging from unmodified impactite (Muong Nong type), through dumb?bells and discs (thailandites, indochinites), and spheres (phillipinites, billitonites, and javanites) to ablated button shapes (australites). This sequence extends from a suspected impact area in northeast Kampuchea following an approximate southeasterly bearing to southeastern Australia and Tasmania. The possible impact area appears

Ramsay J. Ford

1988-01-01

164

Iron Redox Variations in Australasian Muong Nong-Type Tektites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fe oxidation state along few profile across dark/light layers of two Australasian Muong Nong tektite sample have been studied by Fe K-edge XANES. The dark layer results to be slightly but reproducibly more oxidized respect to the light layers.

Giuli, G.; Cicconi, M. R.; Trapananti, A.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Pratesi, G.; Paris, E.; Koeberl, C.

2013-08-01

165

Iron Redox Variations in Australasian Muong Nong-Type Tektites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fe oxidation state along profiles across dark and light layers of two Australasian Muong Nong tektite samples have been studied by Fe K-edge XANES. The dark layer results to be slightly but reproducibly more oxidized respect to the light layers.

Giuli, G.; Cicconi, M. R.; Trapananti, A.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Pratesi, G.; Paris, E.; Koeberl, C.

2013-09-01

166

Metallic spherules in tektites from Isabela, Philippine Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Iron-nickel spherules, as much as 0.5 mm in diameter, have been found completely embedded in some philippinites. The spherules consist mainly of kamacite with unidentified pink inclusions. The meteoritic origin of these spherules seems reasonable, suggesting that the tektites containing them were formed by asteroidal or meteoritic impact.

Chao, E.C.T.; Adler, I.; Dwornik, E.J.; Littler, J.

1962-01-01

167

New fission track ages of tektites and related glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fission track dating is applied to a large number of australites, Muong Nong type tektites, Darwin glasses and Libyan Desert glasses. It is found that these glasses often have lowered fission track ages due to annealing effects. The same specimens have also smaller fission track etch pits. According to the diminishing percentage of etched fossil fission track diameters, lowered fission

W. Gentner; D. Storzer; G. A. Wagner

1969-01-01

168

[Organization of dentistry in the Ivory Coast. Evaluation and perspectives].  

PubMed

The author of this article was interested in the organization of odontology on the Côte d'Ivoire. First of all, he studied the different odontology pillars existing: their composition and their problems. Then he explained that in spite of the sanituary structures and the dental personal in office, the needs of the population in buccal and dental care would not be satisfied as long as the authorities would not modify the present organization of Ivoirian odontology. Finally, he produced some concrete propositions aimed at, in the long run on improving the buccal and dental state (health) of the collectivity. PMID:2561689

Egnankou, K; Coulibaly, S

1989-09-01

169

A recent history of forest fragmentation in southwestern Ivory Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides monitoring and spatial analysis of forest fragmentation based on high-resolution remote sensing, in order to give a framework for assessing residual biodiversity in the Guiglo-Taï region. Massive deforestation has taken place, mainly in the last 20 years, 79% of unprotected forests have been eliminated on the 100 × 100 km study area. Deforestation is also beginning to

Cyrille Chatelain; Laurent Gautier; Rodolphe Spichiger

1996-01-01

170

Cote D'Ivoire (Ivory Coast): World Oil Report 1991  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the country's limited oil reserves which are almost exhausted meaning difficult times in the future. New terms for an offer of 11 offshore blocks allow for a negotiable split of cost oil and profit oil linked to either daily production or the ratio between accumulated net revenues and accumulated revenue.

Not Available

1991-08-01

171

The ivory trade ban: Is it effective?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effectiveness of the ivory trade ban when producer and consumer states have different incentives to comply with such a ban. The paper distinguishes between two types of producer states: those with stable elephant population and those with declining elephant population. We compare the independent enforcement level of each of these producer states and a consumer state

Jyoti Khanna; Jon Harford

1996-01-01

172

Potassium isotope abundances in Australasian tektites and microtektites.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report electron microprobe determinations of the elemental compositions of 11 Australasian layered tektites and 28 Australasian microtektites; and ion microprobe determinations of the 41K/39K ratios of all 11 tektites and 13 of the microtektites. The elemental compositions agree well with literature values, although the average potassium concentrations measured here for microtektites, 1.1 1.6 wt%, are lower than published average values, 1.9 2.9 wt%. The potassium isotope abundances of the Australasian layered tektites vary little. The average value of ?41K, 0.02 ± 0.12‰ (1? mean), is indistinguishable from the terrestrial value (= 0 by definition) as represented by our standard, thereby confirming four earlier tektite analyses of Humayun and Koeberl (2004). In agreement with those authors, we conclude that evaporation has significantly altered neither the isotopic nor the elemental composition of Australasian layered tektites for elements less volatile than potassium. Although the average 41K/39K ratio of the microtektites, 1.1 ± 1.7‰ (1? mean), is also statistically indistinguishable from the value for the standard, the individual ratios vary over a very large range, from -10.6 ± 1.4‰ to +13.8 ± 1.5‰ and at least three of them are significantly different from zero. We interpret these larger variations in terms of the evaporation of isotopically light potassium; condensation of potassium in the vapor plume; partial or complete stirring and quenching of the melts; and the possible uptake of potassium from seawater. That the average 41K/39K ratio of the microtektites equals the terrestrial value suggests that the microtektite-forming system was compositionally closed with respect to potassium and less volatile elements. The possibility remains open that 41K/39K ratios of microtektites vary systematically with location in the strewn field.

Herzog, G. F.; O'D. Alexander, C. M.; Berger, E. L.; Delaney, J. S.; Glass, B. P.

2008-10-01

173

Iridium anomaly associated with the Australasian tektite-producing impact - Masses of the impactor and of the Australasian tektites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently published studies of Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) cores from near southeast Asia reveal microtektite contents much higher than those in previously studied cores, suggesting that Ir contents might be enhanced in the tektite-bearing horizons. A positive Ir anomaly in ODP core 758B from the Ninetyeast Ridge, eastern Indian Ocean has been determined in this study. The peak Ir concentration

Gerhard Schmidt; Lei Zhou; John T. Wasson

1993-01-01

174

[Human African trypanosomiasis in Ivory Coast: biological characteristics after treatment. 812 cases treated in the Daloa focus (Ivory Coast)].  

PubMed

The treatment and post therapeutic follow up of patients diagnosed with HAT are important for HAT control. A longitudinal survey was implemented in the focus of Daloa (Côte d'Ivoire). A total of 812 patients infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in meningoencephalitic stage and treated with melarsoprol were included, this study pointed out the biological characteristics of patients after treatment. The relapse occurs between 1 and 24 months after treatment. It is essentially neurological, and characterised by the presence in the CSF of antibodies, by the increase of cell count compared with value immediately after treatment, or by the presence of trypanosomes. The cure can be confirmed from 18 months after treatment, and is characterised by the absence of antibodies and trypanosomes in the CSF, by a normal cell count and a normal proteinorachy. Biological scares were recorded on some of the patients after 18 months of follow up, but no relapse occurred among them. PMID:12696377

Miezan, T W; Dje, N N; Doua, F; Boa, F

2002-12-01

175

Zircon and chromite crystals in a muong nong-type tektite.  

PubMed

Chromite, zircon, and quartz crystals (identified by x-ray diffraction) have been recovered from a 2.07-gram sample of Muong Nong-type tektite. The absence of eskolaite (Cr(2)O(3)) and baddeleyite (ZrO(2)) supports a previous conclusion that Muong Nong-type tektites were not heated as intensely as other tektite groups. X-ray asterism studies indicate that the crystals are shocked, which supports an impact origin. The presence of chromite and zircon together suggests that the Muong Nong-type tektite was produced from sedimentary material. PMID:17820307

Glass, B P

1970-08-21

176

Vector diagram of the chemical compositions of tektites and earth lavas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chemical compositions of tektites and various volcanic glasses, similar in composition to tektites are compared by a petrochemical method. The advantage of the method is that a large number of chemical analyses of igneous rocks can be graphically compared with the help of vectors, plotted in relation to six parameters. These parameters, calculated from ratios of the main oxides given by silicate analysis, reflect the chief characteristics of igneous rock. Material for the study was suppled by data from chemical analysis characterizing tektites of all known locations and data from chemical analyses of obsidians similar in chemical composition to tektites of various petrographical provinces.

Kvasha, L. G.; Gorshkov, G. S.

1978-01-01

177

Trace element concentration and distribution in ivory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trace element content and distribution in ivory from elephants and hippopotami were measured for both natural elements and elements present due to pollution. The National Accelerator Centre Nuclear Microprobe was used to investigate trace elements heavier than Ca, and distributions of these trace elements were measured over small areas (ca. 1 mm 2), using the Dynamic Analysis imaging method in the GeoPIXE software package. Quantitativity of elemental maps was checked by complementary point analyses in the same area as where the elemental maps were taken from and found to be accurate to within around 10%. The possibility of locating ivory on the basis of the trace element concentrations, determined by the environment in which these animals live, was demonstrated by using correspondence analysis.

Prozesky, V. M.; Raubenheimer, E. J.; Van Heerden, W. F. P.; Grotepass, W. P.; Przybylowicz, W. J.; Pineda, C. A.; Swart, R.

1995-09-01

178

Geochemistry and origin of Muong-Nong-type tektites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The petrographical characteristics and the chemical compositions of 19 Muong Nong-type tektite specimens are studied in detail using a variety of techniques. Results on the petrography, relict mineral grains, major element and trace element chemistry, volatile element enrichments and volatilization, water content chemistry of light and dark layers, and ferric\\/ferrous iron ratios are reported. A comparison is made with splash-form

Christian Koeberl

1992-01-01

179

Beryllium10 in Australasian tektites: evidence for a sedimentary precursor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 1 x 10⁸ atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 x 10⁶ years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in

D. K. Pal; C. Tuniz; R. K. Moniot; T. H. Kruse; G. F. Herzog

1982-01-01

180

Tektites: Origin as melts produced by the impact of small projectiles onto dry targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of tektites in general and layered tektites in particular seems to require a very special kind of cratering event. Evidence for the formation of pools of melt free of unmelted clasts has not been reported for the well-studied terrestrial craters such as Manicouagan or Ries. It is suggested that large amounts of relict-free melt were produced only when

John T. Wasson

1988-01-01

181

Geographic variation of stable isotopes in African elephant ivory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1989, the international community listed the African elephant in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) thus prohibiting commercial ivory trade. Recent surveillance data show that the illegal trade in ivory has been growing worldwide. Long-term preservation of many of the African elephant populations can be supported with a control mechanism that helps with the implementation of remedial conservation action. Therefore, setting up a reference database that predicts the origin of ivory specimens can assist in determining smuggling routes and the provenance of illegal ivory. Our research builds on earlier work to seek an appropriate method for determining the area of origin for individual tusks. Several researchers have shown that the provenance of elephant ivory can be traced by its isotopic composition, but this is the first attempt to produce an integrated isotopic reference database of elephant ivory provenance. We applied a combination of various routine geochemical analyses to measure the stable isotope ratios of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulphur. Up to now, we analysed 606 ivory samples of known geographical origin from African range states, museums and private collections, comprising 22 African elephant range states. The isotopic measurements were superimposed with data layers from vegetation, geology and climate. A regression function for the isotope composition of the water isotopes in precipitation and collagen in ivory was developed to overcome the problem of imprecise origin of some of the sampled material. Multivariate statistics, such as nearest neighborhood and discriminate analysis were applied to eventually allow a statistical determination of the provenance for ivory of unknown origin. Our results suggest that the combination of isotopic parameters have the potential to provide predictable and complementary markers for estimating the origin of seized elephant ivory.

Ziegler, S.; Merker, S.; Jacob, D.

2012-04-01

182

The Ivory Tower: the history of a figure of speech and its cultural uses  

E-print Network

The Ivory Tower: the history of a figure of speech and its cultural uses STEVEN SHAPIN* Abstract. This is a historical survey of how and why the notion of the Ivory Tower became part of twentieth- and twenty in the ancient debate between the active and contemplative lives. Holy ivory There never was an Ivory Tower

Shapin, Steven

183

Discovery of the most distal Ries tektites found in Lower Silesia, southwestern Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first occurrence of moldavites in Poland. This discovery confirms the hypothesis that moldavites could have been distributed up to 500 km from the Ries crater in Germany. The tektites were reworked from Middle Miocene sediments and redeposited in Late Miocene (Pannonian) fluvial deposits of the Gozdnicka Formation in Lower Silesia. The Polish moldavites are represented by nine (<8 mm) fragments with a total of 0.471 g. The lack of the autochthonous tektites indicates that tektites investigated here had to be redeposited in a fluvial environment, probably from the Lusatian area. The chemical composition of the Polish moldavites plots in the same area with those from other localities.

Brachaniec, Tomasz; Szopa, Krzysztof; Karwowski, ?Ukasz

2014-08-01

184

Study of the ablative effects on tektites. [wake shielding during atmospheric entry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Equations are presented which provide approximate parameters describing surface heating and tektite deceleration during atmosphere passage. Numerical estimates of these parameters using typical initial and ambient conditions support the conclusion that the commonly assumed trajectories would not have produced some of the observed surface markings. It is suggested that tektites did not enter the atmosphere singly but rather in a swarm dense enough to afford wake shielding according to a shock envelope model which is proposed. A further aerodynamic mechanism is described which is compatible with hemispherical pits occurring on tektite surfaces.

Sepri, P.; Chen, K. K.

1976-01-01

185

Ornithologists continue quest to locate the ivory-billed woodpecker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ivory-billed Woodpecker Chat [Real Player]http://www.nature.org/chat/lordgodbird/index.html?src=searchThe Search for the Ivory-Billed Woodpeckerhttp://www.birds.cornell.edu/ivory/Audubon: Ivory-billed woodpeckerhttp://www.mass.gov/lib/collections/dc/Audubon/Ivory_Billed_Woodpecker.htmIvory-billed woodpecker [pdf]http://www.fws.gov/ivorybill/Big Woods Conservation Partnershiphttp://www.ivorybill.org/Three years ago, a bird scientist claimed to have seen an ivory-billed woodpecker in Arkansas. It was an unusual sighting, mostly because the bird was supposedly extinct, and had been so since the 1940s. The alleged sighting set off a flurry of activity among ornithologists, and even those with little interest in bird watching became interested. The quest for this rare bird continues, as a team of researchers from Cornell University was recently dispatched to the White River National Wildlife Refuge in Arkansas to continue the search. To look for the bird, they have brought along tools like GPS coordinate monitors, automatic cameras, infrared flash strobes, and sensitive audio recorders. Of course, there are some in the birding community who remain convinced that there are no ivory-billed woodpeckers left at all. There are a number of believers however, and groups like the Nature Conservancy, the Audubon Society, and even NASA have provided support and technical assistance. Even noted biologist E. O. Wilson has chimed in on the subject, noting that while the bird may be gone forever, "Great science discoveries have come from longer odds." The first link leads to a fine piece from this Sunday's Boston Globe which reports on the quest to locate the ivory-billed woodpecker. The second link leads to a chat with author Phillip Hoose, who wrote a book about the ivory-billed woodpecker. Moving on, the third link leads to the homepage for the research expedition sponsored by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Here, visitors can learn more about the expedition and read dispatches from the field. The fourth link will take visitors to a drawing of the ivory-billed woodpecker by noted naturalist John James Audubon. The fifth link will lead visitors to the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service's site dedicated to the ivory-billed woodpecker. Here visitors can read a draft recovery plan and also learn more about the bird. The last link will take visitors to the homepage of the Big Woods Conservation Partnership.

2008-01-01

186

Source of Australasian Tektites: Investigating Possible Impact Sites in Laos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 770,000 years ago an asteroid or comet crashed with the Earth somewhere in southeast Asia, in what was arguably the largest terrestrial impact in the past several 10's of millions of years. Evidence for this impact is not a crater but ejecta from a crater - tektites, microtektites and impact debris - which are found over more than one-tenth of the Earth's surface. Despite its relative youth and the large size of the ejecta field, the structure produced by this impact has not yet been discovered. In the past few years searches have focused on eastern Indochina, specifically in northeast Thailand [1], Cambodia [2] and Laos [3]. In February, 1995 we spent ten days in southern Laos looking for the source crater. The trip was an outgrowth of an investigation using satellite imagery and a digital topographic database, which suggested the impact site might be one of several structures in southern Laos. The primary purpose of the trip was to investigate these structures; a secondary objective was to document tektite localities and to collect samples of known provenance. One crater-like structure identified from digital topographic and multispectral images seemed to be especially interesting due to its quasi-circular shape and relatively youthful appearance. Three additional suspicious structures were identified near this primary target, but these appeared much more subdued and highly eroded. All of these features lie in southern Laos within the broad region of Mesozoic marine sedimentary rocks, primarily sandstones interbedded with shales and limestones, which covers much of central Indochina. The top-priority structure, centered at 16.35 degrees N/106.15 degrees E, is a ring of steep-sided hills 35 to 40 km in diameter, rising 70 to several hundred meters above the surrounding flat plain. It also has a central elevated area rising about 100 meters above the floor, suggesting an eroded central uplift. Despite difficult field conditions we successfully reconnoitered all four potential impact structures. None showed obvious evidence of formation by extraterrestrial impact. A small domal feature near the city of Savannakhet is probably a salt diapir, and a nearby larger eviscerated domal form to the southeast is similarly related to broadscale evaporite tectonics. The 90 km diameter Savannakhet Basin shows no evidence of impact damage and has been a stable sedimentary trap since Mesozoic times. Our prime target, the 35 to 40 km diameter craterlike depression south of Muong Phin, is an erosional feature etched into upper layers of a sedimentary section. Its "central peak" is a fortuitous resistant erosional remnant. Not a great deal of time was available for the secondary objective, i.e., to look for tektites which occur in Indochina in two forms: layered form (Muong Nong-type) which appear to have flowed over the ground and splash form which solidified during atmospheric flight. We identified ten new sites and collected samples from some of these sites. Nine sites were in southern Laos, and all contained only layered tektites. Three of these sites were found by us in road-material quarries south of the village of Xeno. Here the yellow loessial soil overburden had been scraped off to expose a laterite layer rich in quartz pebbles, where small tektites were found after only a short search. This same technique, looking for road-material quarries beside the highway, was used to find layered tektites by Wasson's 1994 field expedition in Thailand [1] about 200 km to the southwest of our areas in Laos. Our new sites support a working theory [3, 4] that this area is rich in layered tektites but there are no splash-form tektites over a broad area of southern NE Thailand and neighboring Laos. The approximate dimensions of this area appears to be at least 200 by 350 km. Acknowledgments: Work was supported in part by NASA and the Barringer Crater Company. References: [1] Wasson J. T. et al. (1995) JGR, in press. [2] Hartung J. and Koeberl C. (1994) Meteoritics, 29, 411-416. [3] Schnetzler C. C. (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 1

Schnetzler, C. C.; McHone, J. F.

1995-09-01

187

New approach to the origin of the tektite in China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tektites in China are distributed on the north part of Australia - Southeastern Asia strewfield of tektite: Leizhou Peninsula of Guangdong Province and Hainan Island, and located exactly at the boundary between Zanjiang Formation and Beihai Formation. A new hypothesis is suggested: During the end of Lower Pleistocene, a comet of special components from the outer part of the Solar System approached the Earth, and then it was captured by the Earth, when it came approximately to the Roche's limet. It was crushed into countless fragments, detritus and dusts, which rotated around the Earth, probably far above the Earth's atmosphere, as a cloud ring. Under the action of crushing energy they could be in the situation of liquid-melt drop in the almost vacuum circumstances and the flow and bubble structure were formed. During their rotation the climate became anomalous and the violet Fe-Si concentration were formed on the surface of sediments. After a rather short time of rotation the unstable ring was broken and the fragments impacted on the hard ground instantaneously.

Qin-Wen, Zhang; Dao-Yi, XU; Zheng, Yan

1988-01-01

188

A dynamical and statistical investigation of the shape of splashform tektites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Splash-form tektites are believed to represent molten rock that was ejected by a large impactor that solidified while in flight. These glassy rocks are found in a number of strewn fields around the Earth and are found in a number of intriguing shapes including near spheres, axisymmetric biconcave shapes as well as rods and "dumb-bells". In this contribution, we will present the results of a statistical study of the shapes of over 1000 tektites from South-East Asia and the results of a numerical study of the evolution of fluid droplets under the influence of a centrifugal force and surface tension. As we will show, the numerical simulations first evolve to an oblate, axisymmetric form before becoming subject to a non-axisymmetric instability which results in a prolate shape. The numerical model results are consistent with the measurements of real tektites that show that there is a dearth of weakly deformed, highly prolate tektites.

Butler, S. L.; Stauffer, M.

2008-12-01

189

Magnetic Properties of Tektites and Related Glasses: Discriminating Among Different Fields and Impactor Component  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic susceptibility of tektites and related glass is a good proxy for total amount of iron, as well as impactor contamination. We present new data from bediasites, ivoirites, atacamaites, Darwin, LDG and Wabar glasses.

Rochette, P.; Moustard, F.; Gattacceca, J.; Devouard, B.

2014-09-01

190

XAFS study on Ca local structure in natural glasses and tektite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local structures of tektite and natural glasses were studied by Ca K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) in order to provide quantitative data on bonding distances and coordination numbers. The pre-edge peak intensities of tektites are 10.7-11.7%, and those of peudotachylite, Kirauea volcanic glass, impactite, pitchstone and perlite are 6.7-10.9%. The main peak shoulder intensities of tektites are 68.3-70.7%, and other natural glasses are 63.0-63.9%. XAFS analysis indicated all tektites possess 7-coordinated Ca, but natural glasses possess 6-, 7- and 8- coordinated Ca. This study indicated that different petrogenesis of natural glasses gives different local structures of calcium.

Tobase, T.; Wang, L.; Yoshiasa, A.; Okube, M.; Nakatani, T.; Hayasaka, Y.; Isobe, H.

2013-04-01

191

Report of centimeter-sized tektites in Pima County, Arizona, cannot be verified  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glassy objects reportedly found in Pima County, Arizona, have been identified as tektites. A field survey of the area where they were said to occur, however, did not produce any other tektites, nor did it reveal any other geologic features that might indicate a nearby impact crater. The major-, minor-, and trace-element composition of one specimen is similar to those measured in indochinites, which suggests the objects reportedly from Pima County were instead transported to southern Arizona from Indochina by people.

Kring, David A.; Hildebrand, Alan R.; Drake, Michael J.; Melosh, H. Jay; Vickery, Ann M.

1995-01-01

192

Nickel-iron spherules in tektites - Non-meteoritic in origin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concentrations of several diagnostic trace elements were determined in two comparatively large NiFe spherules extracted from tektites. The purpose of the study was to obtain some clues about the chemistry of the projectile that is presumed responsible for the formation of these tektites. However, the trace element pattern is distinctly terrestrial implying that the spherules are the result of in-situ reduction of the host rock and are not meteoritic in origin.

Ganapathy, R.; Larimer, J. W.

1983-01-01

193

North American tektite debris and impact ejecta from DSDP Site 612  

SciTech Connect

A layer of tektite glass and shock-metamorphosed grains found in an upper Eocene section of core 21 from DSDP Site 612 taken on the continental slope off New Jersey may belong to the North American tektite strewn field. In order to better define the layer, a series of samples was taken continuously through the layer at 1 cm intervals. Tektite fragments are in an 8 cm thick layer; microtektites are concentrated in the upper 4 cm, while spherules with crystalline textures (microkrystites) are concentrated in the lower half of the layer. Millimeter-size splash forms are mostly in the lower part of the tektite-bearing layer. Rock and mineral grains showing evidence of shock metamorphism are abundant in the upper half of the tektite-bearing layer. Coesite is abundant, and stishovite was found in one rock fragment. The size and abundance of the tektite glass and the abundance of shocked debris indicate that Site 612 is relatively close to the source crater, which may be to the north of Site 612 on the coastal plain or adjacent continental shelf. 40 refs.

Glass, B.P. (Delaware Univ., Newark (USA))

1989-12-01

194

Triple-Oxygen Isotope Composition of Moldavites and Irghizites: Clues for Source Materials of Tektites and Other Impact-related Glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-precision triple-oxygen isotope data for tektite-like glassy irghizites indicate clear addition of meteoritic component, paralleled by high Ni, whilst moldavite tektites have terrestrial oxygen isotope systematics.

Magna, T.; Žák, K.; Pack, A.; Ackerman, L.; Skála, R.; Jonášová, Š.; ?urišová, Š.; ?anda, Z.; Mizera, J.

2014-09-01

195

Aerodynamic Analysis of Tektites and Their Parent Bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiment and analysis indicate that the button-type australites were derived from glassy spheres which entered or re-entered the atmosphere as cold solid bodies; in case of average-size specimens, the entry direction was nearly horizontal and the entry speed between 6.5 and 11.2 km/sec. Terrestrial origin of such spheres is impossible because of extremely high deceleration rates at low altitudes. The limited extension of the strewn fields rules out extraterrestrial origin of clusters of such spheres because of stability considerations for clusters in space. However, tektites may have been released as liquid droplets from glassy parent bodies ablating in the atmosphere of the earth. The australites then have skipped together with the parent body in order to re-enter as cold spheres. Terrestrial origin of a parent body would require an extremely violent natural event. Ablation analysis shows that fusion of opaque siliceous stone into glass by aerodynamic heating is impossible.

Adams, E. W.; Huffaker, R. M.

1962-01-01

196

75 FR 53012 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Ivory Mirror Case”  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Ivory Mirror Case'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following...determine that the object to be included in the exhibition ``Ivory Mirror Case,'' imported from abroad for temporary...

2010-08-30

197

Of Ivory and Smurfs: Loxodontan MapReduce Experiments for Web Search  

E-print Network

Of Ivory and Smurfs: Loxodontan MapReduce Experiments for Web Search Jimmy Lin,1 Donald Metzler,2@umd.edu, metzler@yahoo-inc.com, {telsayed,lidan}@cs.umd.edu ABSTRACT This paper describes Ivory, an attempt

Lin, Jimmy

198

Statistical Profiles of Highly-Rated Web Sites Melody Y. Ivory  

E-print Network

Statistical Profiles of Highly-Rated Web Sites Melody Y. Ivory EECS Department UC Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720-1776 ivory@cs.berkeley.edu Marti A. Hearst SIMS UC Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720-4600 hearst

Hearst, Marti

199

Jesse M. Heines, Katy Brner, Melody Ivory, and Ed Gehringer. (2003) The Development, Maintenance,  

E-print Network

Jesse M. Heines, Katy Börner, Melody Ivory, and Ed Gehringer. (2003) The Development, Maintenance, katy@indiana.edu School of Library and Information Science Indiana University Melody Y. Ivory, myivory

Börner, Katy

200

For Immediate Release Lecture to follow the Syrian Revolt in Aleppo from Ivory Tower to  

E-print Network

For Immediate Release Lecture to follow the Syrian Revolt in Aleppo from Ivory Tower to Battlefield University of Beirut is holding a lecture entitled "From Ivory Tower to Battlefield: Two Ethnographic

Shihadeh, Alan

201

The International Ban on Ivory Sales and its Effects on Elephant Poaching in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) secured an agreement in 1989 among its member states to ban the international trade in ivory. This disruption of the international ivory market was intended to reverse a sharp decline in the African elephant population, which resulted from widespread poaching for ivory in the previous decade. The continent's overall population of

Andrew M. Lemieux; Ronald V. Clarke

2009-01-01

202

OUT OF TUNE IVORY POLICY: UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES FOR MUSICIANS NICOLE BLUMENKEHL  

E-print Network

OUT OF TUNE IVORY POLICY: UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES FOR MUSICIANS NICOLE BLUMENKEHL New federal restrictions on the importation and exportation of ivory,1 coupled with imperfect pre-existing regulations,2 will explain how ivory has been used in the music industry and why its continued use is desirable. o This Note

Zhou, Pei

203

System and Algorithms for an Autonomous Observatory Assisting the Search for the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker  

E-print Network

System and Algorithms for an Autonomous Observatory Assisting the Search for the Ivory-- Ornithologists, conservationists, and millions of birdwatchers consider the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker (IBWO. INTRODUCTION The Ivory-Billed Woodpecker (IBWO) is a magnificent creature that is of great interest

Goldberg, Ken

204

UMD and USC/ISI: TREC 2010 Web Track Experiments with Ivory  

E-print Network

UMD and USC/ISI: TREC 2010 Web Track Experiments with Ivory Tamer Elsayed,1 Nima Asadi,1 Donald@umd.edu ABSTRACT Ivory is a web-scale retrieval engine we have been develop- ing for the past two years, built developed, largely from scratch, a web-scale retrieval engine called Ivory [13]. Accomplishments included

Lin, Jimmy

205

Academics IRL: Taking Scholarship out of the Ivory Tower Annual American Studies Symposium  

E-print Network

Academics IRL: Taking Scholarship out of the Ivory Tower 38th Annual American Studies Symposium disciplines to engage the theme "Academics IRL: Taking Scholarship out of the Ivory Tower." Our keynote of the Ivory Tower." Neal's research bridges African American studies, gender studies, and popular culture

Holland, Jeffrey

206

Fission track ages and ages of deposition of deep-sea microtektites.  

PubMed

The Australasian and Ivory Coast deep-sea microtektites have fission track ages of 0.71 and 1.09 million years, respectively. These ages are in good agreement with the ages of deposition of the microtektites determined from paleomagnetic data. Both the fission track ages and ages of deposition of the microtektites agree with the potassium/ argon and fission track ages of tektites from the respective tektite strewn fields. PMID:17809131

Gentner, W; Glass, B P; Storzer, D; Wagner, G A

1970-04-17

207

40Ar/39Ar age of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary tektites from Haiti  

USGS Publications Warehouse

40Ar/39Ar dating of tektites discovered recently in Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary marine sedimentary rocks on Haiti indicates that the K-T boundary and impact event are coeval at 64.5 ?? 0.1 million years ago. Sanidine from a bentonite that lies directly above the K-T boundary in continental, coal-bearing, sedimentary rocks of Montana was also dated and has a 40Ar/39Ar age of 64.6 ?? 0.2 million years ago, which is indistinguishable statistically from the age of the tektites.

Izett, G.A.; Dalrymple, G.B.; Snee, L.W.

1991-01-01

208

Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants.  

PubMed

Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ? 8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ? 40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ? 3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species. PMID:25136107

Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P

2014-09-01

209

Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants  

PubMed Central

Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ?8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ?40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ?3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species. PMID:25136107

Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M.; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P.

2014-01-01

210

Domestication of the Ivory Tower: Institutional Adaptation to Cultural Distance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the experiences of Native and non-Native Alaskan teacher educators in rural Alaska, describing opportunities for capitalizing on field settings available to faculty at any university. Discusses reasons for putting faculty in the field, looking at field-based training for Native teachers, the "ivory tower" versus the real world,…

Barnhardt, Ray

2002-01-01

211

Economics of Antipoaching Enforcement and the Ivory Trade Ban  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of elephant conservation that includes illegal poaching, enforcement effort, and legal culling is used to analyze enforcement and elephant populations for alternative policies, with and without legal trade in ivory. Consistent with previous theoretical models, banning trade may increase or decrease equilibrium stocks. As an empirical application, information for Zambia, along with sensitivity analysis, are used to show

Erwin H. Bulte; G. Cornelis van Kooten

1999-01-01

212

Artificial tektites: an experimental technique for capturing the shapes of spinning drops  

PubMed Central

Determining the shapes of a rotating liquid droplet bound by surface tension is an archetypal problem in the study of the equilibrium shapes of a spinning and charged droplet, a problem that unites models of the stability of the atomic nucleus with the shapes of astronomical-scale, gravitationally-bound masses. The shapes of highly deformed droplets and their stability must be calculated numerically. Although the accuracy of such models has increased with the use of progressively more sophisticated computational techniques and increases in computing power, direct experimental verification is still lacking. Here we present an experimental technique for making wax models of these shapes using diamagnetic levitation. The wax models resemble splash-form tektites, glassy stones formed from molten rock ejected from asteroid impacts. Many tektites have elongated or ‘dumb-bell' shapes due to their rotation mid-flight before solidification, just as we observe here. Measurements of the dimensions of our wax ‘artificial tektites' show good agreement with equilibrium shapes calculated by our numerical model, and with previous models. These wax models provide the first direct experimental validation for numerical models of the equilibrium shapes of spinning droplets, of importance to fundamental physics and also to studies of tektite formation. PMID:25564381

Baldwin, Kyle A.; Butler, Samuel L.; Hill, Richard J. A.

2015-01-01

213

Tektites: Origin as melts produced by the impact of small projectiles onto dry targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of tektites in general and layered tektites in particular seems to require a very special kind of cratering event. Evidence for the formation of pools of melt free of unmelted clasts has not been reported for the well-studied terrestrial craters such as Manicouagan or Ries. It is suggested that large amounts of relict-free melt were produced only when a sizeable fraction of the cratered target consisted of dry, high-porosity materials such as aeolian sediments. Since dry, high-porosity target materials are always confined to the outer 100 to 200 m of the Earth, the fraction of melt produced melt is probably higher in small (radius 50 to 500 m) craters than in large (r greater than 1 km) craters. Another reason to infer that the Southeast Asian tektites were produced in a multitude of small craters is the wide distribution of layered tektites. The file spans at least 1200 km, which would require ballistic ejection at velocities greater than 2 km s(-1) if all melt was generated in a single crater. It seems impossible to devise a scenario that would lead to the deposition of primary melt as a crystal-free pool at a distance of 600 km from the crater.

Wasson, John T.

214

Artificial tektites: an experimental technique for capturing the shapes of spinning drops.  

PubMed

Determining the shapes of a rotating liquid droplet bound by surface tension is an archetypal problem in the study of the equilibrium shapes of a spinning and charged droplet, a problem that unites models of the stability of the atomic nucleus with the shapes of astronomical-scale, gravitationally-bound masses. The shapes of highly deformed droplets and their stability must be calculated numerically. Although the accuracy of such models has increased with the use of progressively more sophisticated computational techniques and increases in computing power, direct experimental verification is still lacking. Here we present an experimental technique for making wax models of these shapes using diamagnetic levitation. The wax models resemble splash-form tektites, glassy stones formed from molten rock ejected from asteroid impacts. Many tektites have elongated or 'dumb-bell' shapes due to their rotation mid-flight before solidification, just as we observe here. Measurements of the dimensions of our wax 'artificial tektites' show good agreement with equilibrium shapes calculated by our numerical model, and with previous models. These wax models provide the first direct experimental validation for numerical models of the equilibrium shapes of spinning droplets, of importance to fundamental physics and also to studies of tektite formation. PMID:25564381

Baldwin, Kyle A; Butler, Samuel L; Hill, Richard J A

2015-01-01

215

Tektite 1, Man-in-the-Sea Project: Marine Science Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Project Tektite 1, during which a team of four scientists spent 60 days approximately 15 meters beneath the surface of the sea. Describes the "habitat" in which the men lived, reports biological and geological research carried out, and concludes that this research method has many advantages and potentialities. (EB)

Clifton, H. Edward; And Others

1970-01-01

216

The chemical variation of moldavite tektites: simple mixing of terrestrial sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test different hypotheses of moldavite formation a major and trace element study of 25 and Sm-Nd isotope measurement of three moldavite tektites was completed. The samples were selected from the classical substrewnfields and the newly described locations in Lusatia (Saxony, Germany). Samples with unusual bulk composition were also included. The results confirm earlier studies that the variation in the

Thomas Meisel; Jan-Michael Lange; Urs Krahenbuhl

1997-01-01

217

Titanium local structure in tektite probed by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The local structure of titanium in tektites from six strewn fields was studied by Ti K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) in order to provide quantitative data on Ti-O distance and Ti coordination number. The titanium in tektites possessed different coordination environment types. XANES spectra patterns revealed resemblance to high-temperature TiO(2)-SiO(2) glass and TiO(2) anatase. All samples showed that the valence of Ti is 4+. Based on the Ti-O distances, coordination numbers and radial distribution function determined by EXAFS analyses, the tektites were classified into three types: type I, Ti occupies a four-coordinated tetrahedral site with Ti-O distances of 1.84-1.79?Å; type II, Ti occupies a five-coordinated trigonal bipyramidal or tetragonal pyramidal site with Ti-O distances of 1.92-1.89?Å; type III, Ti occupies a six-coordinated octahedral site with Ti-O distances of 2.00-1.96?Å. Although Ti occupies the TiO(6) octahedral site in most titanium minerals under ambient conditions, some tektites have four- and five-coordinated Ti. This study indicated that the local structure of Ti might change in impact events and the following stages. PMID:21997913

Wang, Ling; Yoshiasa, Akira; Okube, Maki; Takeda, Takashi

2011-11-01

218

Artificial tektites: an experimental technique for capturing the shapes of spinning drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the shapes of a rotating liquid droplet bound by surface tension is an archetypal problem in the study of the equilibrium shapes of a spinning and charged droplet, a problem that unites models of the stability of the atomic nucleus with the shapes of astronomical-scale, gravitationally-bound masses. The shapes of highly deformed droplets and their stability must be calculated numerically. Although the accuracy of such models has increased with the use of progressively more sophisticated computational techniques and increases in computing power, direct experimental verification is still lacking. Here we present an experimental technique for making wax models of these shapes using diamagnetic levitation. The wax models resemble splash-form tektites, glassy stones formed from molten rock ejected from asteroid impacts. Many tektites have elongated or `dumb-bell' shapes due to their rotation mid-flight before solidification, just as we observe here. Measurements of the dimensions of our wax `artificial tektites' show good agreement with equilibrium shapes calculated by our numerical model, and with previous models. These wax models provide the first direct experimental validation for numerical models of the equilibrium shapes of spinning droplets, of importance to fundamental physics and also to studies of tektite formation.

Baldwin, Kyle A.; Butler, Samuel L.; Hill, Richard J. A.

2015-01-01

219

Tektites: Origin as melts produced by the impact of small projectiles onto dry targets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formation of tektites in general and layered tektites in particular seems to require a very special kind of cratering event. Evidence for the formation of pools of melt free of unmelted clasts has not been reported for the well-studied terrestrial craters such as Manicouagan or Ries. It is suggested that large amounts of relict-free melt were produced only when a sizeable fraction of the cratered target consisted of dry, high-porosity materials such as aeolian sediments. Since dry, high-porosity target materials are always confined to the outer 100 to 200 m of the Earth, the fraction of melt produced melt is probably higher in small (radius 50 to 500 m) craters than in large (r greater than 1 km) craters. Another reason to infer that the Southeast Asian tektites were produced in a multitude of small craters is the wide distribution of layered tektites. The file spans at least 1200 km, which would require ballistic ejection at velocities greater than 2 km s(-1) if all melt was generated in a single crater. It seems impossible to devise a scenario that would lead to the deposition of primary melt as a crystal-free pool at a distance of 600 km from the crater.

Wasson, John T.

1988-01-01

220

Lithium and Magnesium Isotopes in Sediments of the Ries Area: Constraints on the Sources of Moldavite Tektites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New Li and Mg isotope data is presented for sediments from the Ries area, considered sources of moldavite tektites. No direct link can be found between Li and specific lithologies while Mg is isotopically lighter in carbonate-rich samples.

Magna, T.; Žák, K.; Farkaš, J.; Truba?, J.; Rodovská, Z.; Šime?ek, M.; Skála, R.; ?anda, Z.; Mizera, J.

2014-09-01

221

Search for the 700,000-year-old source crater of the Australasian tektite strewn field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many tektite investigations have hypothesized that the impact crater that was the source of the extensive Australasian strewn field lies somewhere in or near Indochina. This is due to variations in abundance and size of tektites across the strewn field, variation of thickness of microtektite layers in ocean cores, nature and ablation characteristics across the field, and, above all, the occurrence of the large, blocky, layered Muong Nong-type tektites in Indochina. A recent study of the location and chemistry of Muong Nong-type and splash-form tektites suggests that the source region can be further narrowed to a limited area in eastern Thailand and southern Loas. Satellite multispectral imagery, a digital elevation dataset, and maps showing drainage patterns were used to search within this area for possible anomalous features that may be large degraded impact craters. Four interesting structures were identified from these datasets, and they are presented.

Schnetzler, C. C.; Garvin, J. B.

1992-01-01

222

Meteoritic material at five large impact craters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes the meteoritic material at five multikilometer craters: Clearwater (Lac a l'Eau Claire) East and West (22 and 32 km), Manicouagan (70 km) and Mistastin (28 km), all in Canada; and Lake Bosumtwi (10.5 km), Ghana, which is associated with Ivory Coast tektites. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis is applied to 16 crater samples for the siderophile trace elements

H. Palme; M. J. Janssens; H. Takahashi; E. Anders; J. Hertogen

1978-01-01

223

Source-area determination of elephant ivory by isotopic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENT international efforts to conserve the African elephant Loxodonta africana prompted us to seek an appropriate method for determining the area from which individual tusks were derived. Trace element analysis of ivory has indicated the potential of chemical analysis for source identification1, but recent isotopic studies of African mammals2-5 suggest another approach. Stable carbon isotope ratios (13C\\/12C) in elephant bone

N. J. van der Merwe; J. A. Lee-Thorp; J. F. Thackeray; A. Hall-Martin; F. J. Kruger; H. Coetzee; R. H. V. Bell; M. Lindeque

1990-01-01

224

September/October 2006 Out of the Ivory Tower Safety of HFCS GM plants: GM-less Pollen  

E-print Network

_____________________________________________________________________________ Out of the Ivory Tower Safety of HFCS GM plants: GM-less Pollen Colony Condition ­ CA/US CSBA ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Out of the Ivory Tower Following the record setting heat wave this summer in central California, I

Ferrara, Katherine W.

225

76 FR 15047 - Port of Ivory, LLC-Operation Exemption-Line of Railroad in Tulare County, CA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Board [Docket No. FD 35475] Port of Ivory, LLC--Operation Exemption--Line of Railroad in Tulare County, CA Port of Ivory, LLC (Port), a limited liability company...Railroad Company (SJVR) at a point known as Ivory (milepost 232.3 on SJVR's Exeter...

2011-03-18

226

Source of the Australasian tektite strewn field - A possible off-shore impact site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although there is a preponderance of evidence that tektites were formed by asteroid impacts on the earth, no source crater has been found for the largest and youngest of the strewn fields - the Austalasian strewn field. A combined Seasat/Geos 3 altimeter data set of sea surface heights in the northern portion of the Australasian strewn field has been examined for negative gravity anomalies on the continental shelf and slope which might be related to the source crater for these tektites. A large negative anomaly called the Qui Nhon Slope Anomaly is a sea surface depression of approximately 1.5 meters over an area of 100 km diameter. It corresponds to a gravity anomaly of about -50 mgal. It is proposed that this anomaly may be due to the impact structure that produced the Australasian strewn field.

Schnetzler, C. C.; Walter, L. S.; Marsh, J. G.

1988-01-01

227

Ti K-edge EXAFS and XANES study on tektites from different strewnfields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentration and local structure of each element may have various kinds of information about the asteroid impact and mass extinction. Farges and Brown have discussed about the Ti local structure by XANES, and concluded that Ti in tektite occupies 4-coordinated site. EXAFS can be analyzed to give precise information about the distance from Ti to near neighbors. The XAFS measurement of Ti local structure was preformed at the beamline 9C of the Photon Factory in KEK, Tsukuba, Japan. The specimens of tektites are from different strewnfields, they are: indochinite, bediasite, hainanite, philippinite, australite and moldavite. Sample for comparison are Libya desert glass and suevite. The k3?(k) function was transformed into the radial structure function (RSF) for Ti K-edge of six tektites. The RSF for the Ti atom in indochinite and bediasite are similar; hainanite, australite and philippinite are similar; and moldavite is discriminated from others. It indicates that they have the same local atomic environmental around the Ti atoms and extended structure respectively. Coordination numbers and radial structure function are determined by EXAFS analyses (Table 1). We classified the tektites in three types: in indochinite and bediasite, Ti occupies 4-coordinated tetrahedral site and Ti-O distances are 1.84-1.81 Å; in hainanite, australite and philippinite, Ti occupies 5-coordinated trigonal bi-pyramidal or tetragonal pyramidal site and Ti-O distances are 1.92-1.87 Å; in moldavite, Ti occupies the 6-coordinated octahedral site and Ti-O distance is 2.00-1.96 Å. Formation of tektites is related to the impact process. It is generally recognized that tektites were formed under higher temperature and high pressure. But through this study, local structures of Ti are differing in three strewnfields and even different locations of the same strewnfield. What caused the various local structures will be another topic of tektite studies. Local structure of Ti may be changed in the impact event and the following stage. Tektites splashed to the space and travel in several kinds of processes and routes, which lead to different temperature and pressure history. Local structure of Ti should be related with the temperature, pressure, quenching rate, sizes of impact meteorite and size of falling melts. [1] Koeberl. Ann.Rev.Earth Planet.Sci. 14, 323-350 (1986) [2] François Farges & Gordon E. Brown Jr Geochim. Cosmo. Acta.61, 1863-1870 (1997). [3]Paris, E., Dingwell, D., Seifert, F., Mottana, A. & Romano, C. (1994). Phys. Chem. Miner. 21, 520-525.
Table 1 Structure parameters determined by EXAFS

Wang, L.; Furuta, T.; Okube, M.; Yoshiasa, A.

2011-12-01

228

Impact of the ivory trade ban on poaching incentives: a numerical example  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does the CITES trade ban on international trade in elephant ivory affect the incentives to poach African elephants? In this commentary, the major effects of a trade ban on poaching incentives are captured in a simple static model of world ivory supply and demand. It is shown that a trade ban has ambiguous effects on poaching incentives. Although the

Rasmus Heltberg

2001-01-01

229

Bone and ivory points in the Lower and Middle Paleolithic of Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of shaped bone and ivory points, to be used as awls or with wooden hafts, has been suggested for the Lower Paleolithic sites of Torralba and Ambrona and for several Middle Paleolithic sites, such as Vaufrey, Combe Grenal, Pech de l'Azé I and Camiac. The use of hafted bone and ivory points would imply a spear armature technology

Paola Villa; Francesco D'errico

2001-01-01

230

Ivory vertebra on 18F-sodium fluoride scan: an old sign in a new modality.  

PubMed

We report a case of ivory vertebra on 18F-sodium fluoride. A prostate cancer patient had a 18F-sodium fluoride PET scan to evaluate overall spread of disease. In addition to other findings of metastatic disease, the patient had an ivory vertebra. PMID:24566404

Oldan, Jorge Daniel; Kuzminski, Samuel; James, Olga

2014-11-01

231

The chemical durability of tektites - A laboratory study and correlation with long-term corrosion behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leach tests carried out on tektite specimens (indochinites and australites) under high-dilution conditions show a common behavior characterized by low leach rates (0.00018 g/sq m per d, or 7.2 x 10 to the -12th m/d at 23 C) and an activation energy of (79,600 + or - 700 J/mol). The extent of selective leaching is very small, of the order of 10 to the -8th m. Extrapolation of test results over the lifetime of the tektites gives an excellent agreement with field observations on the extent of corrosion, and this is an important step in establishing the validity of laboratory tests as a basis for the development of models and predictions concerning long-term durabilities at least in the limiting case of high dilution or rapid flow. The results are also shown to be in agreement with various previous observations on the corrosion resistance of tektites. The chemical durability of tektites is observed to be consistent with their composition, highlighting requirements of high corrosion resistance in glasses; these requirements include a silica content in excess of 67 mol percent, an extremely low water content, and an alkali content which is low both absolutely and relative to the di- and poly-valent metal oxide levels. It is shown that artificial glasses which fulfil these criteria are no less corrosion-resistant than the corresponding natural glasses. These conclusions have bearing on the development, as well as on the evaluation, of glasses intended for very long service, such as radioactive waste vitrification media.

Barkatt, A.; Boulos, M. S.; Barkatt, A.; Sousanpour, W.; Boroomand, M. A.; Macedo, P. B.; Okeefe, J. A.

1984-01-01

232

Decompression mechanism of ferric iron reduction in tektite melts during their formation in the impact process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of available data on the Fe3+\\/Fe2+ ratio of impact-produced glasses showed that tektites and some other types of impact glasses are reduced compared with the\\u000a precursor target material. Possible reasons for the change in the degree of iron oxidation in the impact process are still\\u000a debatable. Based on the analysis of redox reactions in relatively simple systems with

O. A. Lukanin; A. A. Kadik

2007-01-01

233

Vapor pressure and vapor fractionation of silicate melts of tektite composition  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The total vapor pressure of Philippine tektite melts of approximately 70 per cent silica has been determined at temperatures ranging from 1500 to 2100??C. This pressure is 190 ?? 40 mm Hg at 1500??C, 450 ?? 50 mm at 1800??C and 850 ?? 70 mm at 2100?? C. Determinations were made by visually observing the temperature at which bubbles began to form at a constant low ambient pressure. By varying the ambient pressure, a boiling point curve was constructed. This curve differs from the equilibrium vapor pressure curve due to surface tension effects. This difference was evaluated by determining the equilibrium bubble size in the melt and calculating the pressure due to surface tension, assuming the latter to be 380 dyn/cm. The relative volatility from tektite melts of the oxides of Na, K, Fe, Al and Si has been determined as a function of temperature, total pressure arid roughly, of oxygen fugacity. The volatility of SiO2 is decreased and that of Na2O and K2O is increased in an oxygen-poor environment. Preliminary results indicate that volatilization at 2100??C under atmospheric pressure caused little or no change in the percentage Na2O and K2O. The ratio Fe3 Fe2 of the tektite is increased in ambient air at a pressure of 9 ?? 10-4 mm Hg (= 106.5 atm O2, partial pressure) at 2000??C. This suggests that tektites were formed either at lower oxygen pressures or that they are a product of incomplete oxidation of parent material with a still lower ferricferrous ratio. ?? 1964.

Walter, L.S.; Carron, M.K.

1964-01-01

234

U–Pb isotopic study of relict zircon inclusions recovered from Muong Nong-type tektites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotopic compositions of U and Pb were determined for relict zircon inclusions recovered from Muong Nong-type tektites from the Australasian and North American strewn fields. These inclusions are generally opaque white with granular textures, probably representing mechanical disaggregation and\\/or local melting and recrystallization. All zircons have strongly discordant U–Pb isotopic ratios and the isotopic ratios of most of the zircons

Etienne Deloule; Marc Chaussidon; Billy P. Glass; Christian Koeberl

2001-01-01

235

The chemical durability of tektites - A laboratory study and correlation with long-term corrosion behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leach tests carried out on tektite specimens (indochinites and australites) under high-dilution conditions show a common behavior characterized by low leach rates (0.00018 g/sq m per d, or 7.2 x 10 to the -12th m/d at 23 C) and an activation energy of (79,600 + or - 700 J/mol). The extent of selective leaching is very small, of the order of 10 to the -8th m. Extrapolation of test results over the lifetime of the tektites gives an excellent agreement with field observations on the extent of corrosion, and this is an important step in establishing the validity of laboratory tests as a basis for the development of models and predictions concerning long-term durabilities at least in the limiting case of high dilution or rapid flow. The results are also shown to be in agreement with various previous observations on the corrosion resistance of tektites. The chemical durability of tektites is observed to be consistent with their composition, highlighting requirements of high corrosion resistance in glasses; these requirements include a silica content in excess of 67 mol percent, an extremely low water content, and an alkali content which is low both absolutely and relative to the di- and poly-valent metal oxide levels. It is shown that artificial glasses which fulfil these criteria are no less corrosion-resistant than the corresponding natural glasses. These conclusions have bearing on the development, as well as on the evaluation, of glasses intended for very long service, such as radioactive waste vitrification media.

Barkatt, A.; Boulos, M. S.; Barkatt, A.; Sousanpour, W.; Boroomand, M. A.; Macedo, P. B.; O'Keefe, J. A.

1984-02-01

236

Backscattering Mössbauer MIMOS II and XRF studies on tektites from different strewn fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Room temperature 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy has been used to obtain information on the redox and coordination of iron in tektites. A MIMOS II spectrometer in backscattering geometry has been used in the study, so that no sample preparation at all was required. X-ray fluorescence has been used to determine the composition of the tektites. Mössbauer spectra have been deconvoluted using three extended Voigt-based profiles to allow quantitative analysis of iron atoms valence and coordination. In all tektites, the Fesites have been distinguished in Fe with octahedral and tetrahedral coordination. The Feoctahedral sites show a region of isomer shift (IS) and quadrupole splitting (QS), IS 1.02-1.14 mm/s and QS 1.82-2.12 mm/s, relative to -Fe. The Fetetrahedral sites show a region of hyperfine parameters of IS = 0.59-0.89 mm/s and QS = 1.14-1.60 mm/s. The Fe3+sites show IS = 0.11-0.33 mm/s and QS = 0.02-0.04 mm/s. The Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio was found to be 0.025-0.149.

Costa, B. F. O.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Panthöfer, M.; Alves, E. I.

2014-04-01

237

Chemical composition of North American microtektites and tektite fragments from Barbados and DSDP site 612 on the continental slope off New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major element and trace element content of tektite fragments and microtektites found in deep-sea sediments from Barbados and DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Project) Site 612 on the continental slope off New Jersey have been determined. The compositions are consistent with the conclusion that the samples from both occurrences belong to the North American tektite strewn field. However, the chemistry

C. Koeberl; B. P. Glass

1988-01-01

238

Age and provenance of the target materials for tektites and possible impactites as inferred from Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr systematics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical, trace element, and isotopic compositions of tektites are consistent with production by melting of sediments derived from the old terrestrial continental crust. Each tektite group is characterized by a uniform Nd model age, interpreted as the time of formation of the crustal segment which weathered to form the parent sediment for the tektites. Sr model ages are variable within each group, reflecting Rb-Sr fractionation, and, in the favorable limit of very high Rb/Sr ratios, approach the time of sedimentation of the parent material which melted to form the tektites. Unlike tektites, which are dense homogeneous objects, sanidine spherules are porous, fine grained inhomogeneous objects. The leaching experiment employed by the present study shows that the sanidine spherules could have been formed by an oceanic impact involving basaltic crust and overlying sediments or seawater.

Shaw, H. F.; Wasserburg, G. J.

1982-01-01

239

Chemical composition of sawdust from lunar rock 12013 and comparison of a java tektite with the rock.  

PubMed

Abundances of 11 major and minor elements and 11 trace elements have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis of two Apollo 12013 rock fragments, a sample of rock 12013,17 sawdust, and a Java tektite (J2). Although the abundances of major elements in tektite J2 are similar to those of rock 12013, comparison of the minor and trace elements shows that no fragment or sawdust of rock 12013 that has been analyzed to date is chemically similar to tektite glass. Rock sawdust is representative of "whole rock" composition only if the amount of contamination from the sawing process is known. After appropriate correction for saw wire contamination, analyses of sawdust yield fairly accurate averaged elemental compositions of complex clastic lunar and other rocks. PMID:17771802

Showalter, D L; Wakita, H; Smith, R H; Schmitt, R A; Gillum, D E; Ehmann, W D

1972-01-14

240

Legal ivory trade in a corrupt world and its impact on African elephant populations.  

PubMed

Illegal hunting of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) for ivory is causing rapid declines in their populations. Since 2007, illegal ivory trade has more than doubled. African elephants are facing the most serious conservation crisis since 1989, when international trade was banned. One solution proposed is establishment of a controlled legal trade in ivory. High prices for ivory mean that the incentives to obtain large quantities are high, but the quantity of tusks available for trade are biologically constrained. Within that context, effective management of a legal ivory trade would require robust systems to be in place to ensure that ivory from illegally killed elephants cannot be laundered into a legal market. At present, that is not feasible due to corruption among government officials charged with implementing wildlife-related legislation. With organized criminal enterprises involved along the whole commodity chain, corruption enables the laundering of illegal ivory into legal or potentially legal markets. Poachers and traffickers can rapidly pay their way out of trouble, so the financial incentives to break the law heavily outweigh those of abiding by it. Maintaining reliable permitting systems and leak-proof chains of custody in this context is challenging, and effective management breaks down. Once illegal ivory has entered the legal trade, it is difficult or impossible for enforcement officers to know what is legal and illegal. Addressing corruption throughout a trade network that permeates countries across the globe will take decades, if it can ever be achieved. That will be too late for wild African elephants at current rates of loss. If we are to conserve remaining wild populations, we must close all markets because, under current levels of corruption, they cannot be controlled in a way that does not provide opportunities for illegal ivory being laundered into legal markets. PMID:25103555

Bennett, Elizabeth L

2015-02-01

241

First Report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Ivory Coast and Cameroon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Orange rust of sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii was detected in Florida in 2007. It was hypothesized that the pathogen originated from Africa because brown rust of sugarcane (syn. common rust) was introduced to the Western Hemisphere from Africa. Requests for rust infected sugarcane samples were...

242

[Geographic distribution of trypanosomiasis treated in Ivory Coast from 1993 to 2000].  

PubMed

Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT, or sleeping sickness) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense develops chronically in Côte d'Ivoire. From 1993 to 2000, a total of 1616 patients were taken in charge in the three treatment centres of the country, which means an average of 202 patients a year. The patients came from two main areas in the Centre West of the country in the Marahoué region: the districts of Sinfra, South of Bouaflé, and Bonon, West of Bouaflé. In the Centre West and in the South East of the country (Aboisso-Ayamé), patients are still struck by the disease, although these foci are less active. The remaining foci seem to be controlled, although no active survey has been carried out. The areas where the greatest number of patients were recorded are the ones where rental crops are located (cocoa and coffee mainly) and where rural activities tend to bring humans and tsetse flies in contact. In this study, are figured the number of treated patients, the endemic and risk areas. It will help to design control strategies and decision makers to know where priority control programs should be implemented. PMID:12696376

Dje, N N; Miezan, T W; N'guessan, P; Brika, P; Doua, F; Boa, F

2002-12-01

243

Longitudinal zonation of lotic insects in the Bandama River system (Ivory Coast)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The longitudinal zonation of three lotic insect groups, viz. Hydropsychidae (Trichoptera), Philopotamidae (Trichoptera), and the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera) in the Bandama River system (West Africa) is anomalous when compared to the patterns known from other geographical areas: In general from the highest to the lowest riffles downstream there appears to be no clear species replacement. Instead, there is a

Francois Marie Gibonl; Bernhard Statzner

1985-01-01

244

Outbreak of typhoid fever in vaccinated members of the French Armed Forcesin the Ivory Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001, an outbreak of typhoid fever occurred among the members of the French Armed Forces. All had received a typhoid vaccination as per the immunization schedule practiced in the Armed Forces (every 5 years). A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 94 personnel. The objectives were to confirm the diagnosis, determine the source of contamination and identify the factors associated

Rémy Michel; Eric Garnotel; André Spiegel; Marc Morillon; Pierre Saliou; Jean-Paul Boutin

2005-01-01

245

Durabiliy of two simulated nuclear waste glasses, a frit glass, and tektite in aqueous solutions: Final report, Volume I  

SciTech Connect

High level nuclear waste is commonly incorporated into glass for disposal. Therefore the long term aqueous durability of the waste glass is important. The leaching behavior of three simulated nuclear waste glasses (AH10, AH165, and Frit 165) and a natural glass (tektite) were examined using nuclear reaction analysis, leachate solution analysis, and microscopy. The three simulated waste glasses developed hydrated layers which increased in thickness by t/sup /1/2//. The hydrated layer in Frit 165 reached a constant thickness of about one micron. Alkali were preferentially removed from the Frit 165 and AH10. The tektite corroded by slow uniform dissolution. 94 refs., 68 figs., 13 tabs.

Hagen, D.A.; Altstetter, C.J.; Brown, S.D.

1988-05-01

246

Tektites in Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary rocks on Haiti and their bearing on the Alvarez impact extinction hypothesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Relic tektites are associated with a Pt-group metal abundance anomaly and shocked minerals in a thin marl bed that marks the K-T boundary on Haiti. The presence of these three impact-produced materials at the precise K-T boundary enormously strengthens the Alvarez impact extinction hypothesis. The Haitian tektites are the first datable impact products in K-T boundary rocks, and 40Ar-39Ar ages of the glass show that the K-T boundary and impact event are coeval at 64.5 ?? 0.1 Ma. -from Author

Izett, G.A.

1991-01-01

247

Meteoroid mayhem in Ole Virginny: Source of the North American tektite strewn field  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New seismic reflection data from Chesapeake Bay reveal a buried, 85-km-wide, 1.5-2.0-km-deep, peak-ring impact crater, carved through upper Eocene to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary strata and into underlying pre-Mesozoic crystalline basement rocks. A polymictic, late Eocene impact breccia, composed mainly of locally derived sedimentary debris (determined from four continuous cores), surrounds and partly fills the crater. Structural and sedimentary characteristics of the Chesapeake Bay crater closely resemble those of the Miocene Ries peakring crater in southern Germany. We speculate that the Chesapeake Bay crater is the source of the North American tektite strewn field.

Poag, C. Wylie; Powars, David S.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Mixon, Robert B.

1994-01-01

248

Tektite 2 habitability research program: Day-to-day life in the habitat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because it is widely agreed that the field of environmental psychology is quite young, it was determined that a sample of recorded observations from a representative mission should be included in the report on Tektite to give the professional reader a better feeling of normal day-to-day life in the isolated habitat. Names of the crew members have been replaced with numbers and some off-color words have been replaced by more acceptable slang; some remarks have been omitted that might lead to easy identification of the subjects. Otherwise, the following pages are exactly as transcribed during the late afternoons and the evenings of the mission.

Nowlis, D. P.

1972-01-01

249

Impact origin of the Chesapeake Bay structure and the source of the North American tektites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seismic profiles, drill core samples, and gravity data suggest that a complex impact crater ???35.5 million years old and 90 kilometers in diameter is buried beneath the lower Chesapeake Bay. The breccia that fills the structure contains evidence of shock metamorphism, including impact melt breccias and multiple sets of planar deformation features (shock lamellae) in quartz and feldspar. The age of the crater and the composition of some breccia clasts are consistent with the Chesapeake Bay impact structure being the source of the North American tektites.

Koeberl, C.; Poag, C.W.; Reimold, W.U.; Brandt, D.

1996-01-01

250

Some alkali and titania analyses of tektites before and after G-1 precision monitoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A comparison of 55 older analyses of Australasian tektites with 110 modern precisely monitored analyses suggests that more than half of the older alkali and titania determinations are decidedly inaccurate and misleading. Deviations of the older analyses from the restricted values of the modern analyses are comparable to the imprecisions shown by early analyses of G-1 granite and W-1 diabase. This suggests that a high percentage of older alkali and titania analyses, such as those of Washington's tables, are of questionable quality. ?? 1966.

Tatlock, D.B.

1966-01-01

251

Meteoroid mayhem in Ole Virginny: source of the North American tektite strewn field  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New seismic reflection data from Chesapeake Bay reveal a buried, 85-km-wide, 1.5-2.0-km-deep, peak-ring impact crater, carved through upper Eocene to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary strata and into underlying pre-Mesozoic crystalline basement rocks. A polymictic, late Eocene impact breccia, composed mainly of locally derived sedimentary debris (determined from four continuous cores), surrounds and partly fills the crater. Structural and sedimentary characteristics of the Chesapeake Bay crater closely resemble those of the Miocene Ries peak-ring crater in southern Germany. It is speculated that the Chesapeake Bay crater is the source of the North American tektite strewn field. -Authors

Poag, C.W.; Powars, D.S.; Poppe, L.J.; Mixon, R.B.

1994-01-01

252

Beyond the ivory tower : in search of a new form for campus-community relationships  

E-print Network

The terms "ivory tower" and "town-gown" have long been used to characterize the relationship between institutions of higher education and the communities in which they reside. While these adversarial phrases reflect the ...

Bowman, Anne (Anne Renee)

2011-01-01

253

Ivory optomechanical tools for controlling random vibration effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibration effects can be a maj or limiter in the performance of optical instruments used for guidance, control, surveillance and observation. The author has recently developed software that takes the physical prescription data for the optical system, calculates the influence coefficients between all the elements in the system and the system's image and then prepares a NASTRAN finite element model ofthe optical imaging behavior. This model can be added to the elastic model ofthe optical instrument and NASTRAN can then calculate all the motions ofthe image on the detector. This paper describes the use of the Ivory Optomechanical Modeling Tools in analyzing optical instruments in vibration environments and uses a recent FUR project as a practical example oftheir utility.

Hatheway, Alson E.

2007-09-01

254

The diffraction grating in the Ivory optomechanical modeling tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In imaging spectrometers it is important that both the image of the far-field object and the image of the slit be stable on the detector plane. Lenses and mirrors contribute to the motions of these images but motions of the diffraction grating also have their own influences on these image motions. This paper develops the vector equations for the images (spectra) of the diffraction grating and derives their optomechanical influence coefficients from them. The Ivory Optomechanical Modeling Tools integrates the diffraction grating into the larger optical imaging system and formats the whole system's influence coefficients suitably for both spreadsheet and finite element analysis methods. Their application is illustrated in an example of a spectrometer exposed to both static and dynamic disturbances.

Hatheway, Alson E.

2013-09-01

255

IVORY - An Object-Oriented Framework for Physics-Based Information Visualization in Java  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present IVORY, a newly developed, platform-independent framework for physics-based visualization. IVORY is especially designed for information visualization applications and multidi- mensional graph layout. It is fully implemented in Java 1.1 and its architecture features client-server setup, which allows to run the visualization even on thin clients. In addition, VRML 2.0 exports can be viewed by any VRML plugged-in WWW-browser.

T. C. Sprenger; Markus H. Gross; Daniel Bielser; T. Strasser

1998-01-01

256

Comparison of the magnetic properties and Mossbauer analysis of glass from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, Beloc, Haiti, with tektites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetic properties of black Beloc glass have been measured. The Curie constant, the magnetization, and the magnetic susceptibility of the Beloc glass fall within the known ranges observed for tektites. However, the temperature-independent component of the magnetic susceptibility is slightly higher than that found for tektites. Moreover, it is not possible to match the experimental magnetic data for the Beloc glass with the calculated values using the previously reported Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) ratio of 0.7. The oxidation state of Fe was therefore redetermined by Mossbauer measurements, and the Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) ratio was found to be 0.024 plus or minus 0.015. Using the redetermined value of the ratio, the magnetic parameters were again calculated using formulas that are applicable to tektites, and good agreement was found between the calculated and experimental values. The experimental magnetic measurements and the redetermined Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) ratio of the Beloc glass specimens are essentially the same as those found for tektite glass.

Thorpe, A. N.; Senftle, F. E.; May, L.; Barkatt, A.; Adel-Hadadi, M. A.; Marbury, G. S.; Izett, G. A.; Maurrasse, F. R.

1994-01-01

257

Petrographic and petrological studies of lunar rocks. [Apollo 15 breccias and Russian tektites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clasts, rind glass, matrix glass, and matrix minerals from five Apollo 15 glass-coated breccias (15255, 15286, 15465, 15466, and 15505) were studied optically and with the SEM/microprobe. Rind glass compositions differ from sample to sample, but are identical, or nearly so, to the local soil, suggesting their origin by fusion of that soil. Most breccia samples contain green or colorless glass spheres identical to the Apollo 15 green glasses. These glasses, along with other glass shards and fragments, indicate a large soil component is present in the breccias. Clast populations include basalts and gabbros containing phases highly enriched in iron, indicative of extreme differentiation or fractional crystallization. Impact melts, anorthosites, and minor amounts of ANT suite material are also present among the clasts. Tektite glasses, impact melts, and breccias from the Zhamanshin structure, USSR, were also studied. Basic tektite glasses were found to be identical in composition to impact melts from the structure, but no satisfactory parent material has been identified in the limited suite of samples available.

Winzer, S. R.

1978-01-01

258

Trace-element composition of Chicxulub crater melt rock, K/T tektites and Yucatan basement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary Chicxulub impact is the best preserved large impact in the geologic record. The Chicxulub crater has been buried with no apparent erosion of its intracrater deposits, and its ejecta blanket is known and is well preserved at hundreds of localities globally. Although most of the molten material ejected from the crater has been largely altered, a few localities still preserve tektite glass. Availability of intra- and extracrater impact products as well as plausible matches to the targeted rocks allows the comparison of compositions of the different classes of impact products to those of the impacted lithologies. Determination of trace-element compositions of the K/T tektites, Chicxulub melt rock, and the targeted Yucatan silicate basement and carbonate/evaporite lithologies have been made using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Some sample splits were studied with both techniques to ensure that inter-laboratory variation was not significant or could be corrected. The concentration of a few major and minor elements was also checked against microprobe results. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was used to determine Ir abundances in some samples.

Hildebrand, A. R.; Gregoire, D. C.; Attrep, M., Jr.; Claeys, P.; Thompson, C. M.; Boynton, W. V.

1993-01-01

259

Isotopic signatures of black tektites from the K-T boundary on Haiti - Implications for the age and type of source material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An isotopic study was carried out to characterize the type of black tektites from the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary on Haiti (the first reasonably well-preserved impact-derived material recovered from the K-T boundary), in order to help characterize the tektite source material (i.e., the type of rocks that were melted and ejected during the impact event(s) at around 64.5 Ma). Results show that the isotopic data and all of the element concentration data obtained are consistent with an andesitic-dacitic composition for the tektites and their source material. The Nd isotopic data suggest that the source rocks were not older than Silurian (T(chur) = 400 Ma) in age, and were composed largely of young (less than 1080 Ma) crustal material. Of the suspected K-T boundary impact sites, both the Manson (Iowa) and Chicxulub (Yucatan) structures occur in suitable lithologies to yield the Haitian black tektites.

Premo, W. R.; Izett, G. A.

1992-01-01

260

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C2, suppli2ment au no 3, Tome 40, mars 1979, page C2-489 M~SSBAUERSPECTROSCOPY OF TEKTITES AND OTHER NATURAL GLASSES  

E-print Network

~SSBAUERSPECTROSCOPY OF TEKTITES AND OTHER NATURAL GLASSES 8. J. Evans and L. K. Leung Depmtment of Chemistry, The University of Michigan A m Arbor, M I 48109, USA. Resume.- L'effet Mgssbauer du 5 7 ~ esur des tektites rdvGle : 1) l remarquables inhomogenei- t6s en fer. Ces rdsultats suggsrent que les tektites n'ont pas &ti5 forrnges 2i

Boyer, Edmond

261

Science education in rural America: Adaptations for the ivory tower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis illustrated what can happen when academic culture disconnects from the cultures surrounding it. It showed that formal school environments are not always the best places to learn. A discussion of the debate between coherence and fragmentation learning theories illustrated academic chasms and a mindset that science education must originate from within ivory towers to be valued. Rationales for place-based science education were developed. Two National Science Foundation initiatives were compared and contrasted for relevance to Native Science education (a) Informal Science Education and (b) Science Education for New Civic Engagement and Responsibilities. A National Science Foundation instrument, known as the Self-Assessment of Learning Gains, was selected to field-test measures of learning science outside of university science courses. Principles of chemistry were taught in community workshops, and those participant self-assessments were compared to self-assessments of students in introductory chemistry courses at two universities. University students consistently claimed the greatest learning gains, in the post-course survey, for the same areas that they claimed to have the greatest understanding, in the pre-course survey. The workshop participant responses differed, depending upon location of the learning environment. When held in a university laboratory, ideas were not related to other cultures, even when a Native Elder was present to describe those relationships. When held in a cultural center, those relationships were among the highest learning gains claimed. One of the instrument's greatest assets was the ability to measure reactions, level 4 of Bennett's (1976) hierarchy of evidence for program evaluation. A long-term commitment to informal science education (not short-term exhibits or programs), combined with negotiated place-based education was recommended as a crucially needed initiative, if relationships between universities and Native American communities are to improve. Some chasms created within ivory towers may never be bridged. Yet, those ideological chasms do not have to exist everywhere. The realities of working in the natural world and the practice of addressing multitudes of community challenges can alter perspectives, when horizons change from the edge of one's desk to those that meet the sea or sky.

van Doren, Gregory S.

262

Of Excellence and Trends in the Ivory Tower Here is a conundrum: What do "QWERTY" keyboards and the disappearance of 0.400 hitting  

E-print Network

Of Excellence and Trends in the Ivory Tower Here is a conundrum: What do "QWERTY" keyboards in the Ivory Tower (P. Louchouarn) 2 things get my clock ticking too. Football of course (I mean, the one form

Louchouarn, Patrick

263

Sandy Coasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Waves play a major role in breaking down and building up coastline features. But other factors, including tides, currents, and sediment type, also determine how erosional and depositional processes shape coastlines. This interactive feature introduces viewers to the landforms and features associated with sandy coasts. Typically located on passive margins in areas characterized by low wave energy, a wide continental shelf, and high offshore sediment influence, they develop depositional features such as extensive beaches and dunes, barrier islands, and sand spits.

264

The Coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the unique ecosystems and culture found along the Georgia coast and the Georgia barrier islands. Students are introduced to marine organisms and coastal ecology in class at school, then have the opportunity to see it all first hand on the trip to the University of Georgia Marine Station on Skidaway Island. Hands-on activities, simulations, inquiry labs, group learning, field trip, review and assessment through projects, tests, and a notebook are included.

Sharon Radford (Paideia School REV)

1995-06-30

265

Tektite 1, man-in-the-sea project: Marine Science Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Tektite experiment was designed to provide data for a number of behavioral, biomedical, and engineering studies in addition to the marine sciences program. Conditions for some of these studies were not altogether compatible with the program for the marine sciences. For example, isolation imposed by human behavioral studies precluded physical contact with the surface team, even though such contact was physically possible and desirable for the conduct of the marine sciences program. Isolation also imposed on the scientific team the duty of all in-habitat maintenance, both scheduled and unscheduled, thereby taking substantial time from scientific research. In addition, between 10 and 20 percent of the waking time was devoted to performance of psychological tests required for the biomedical studies. Most of the experiments were directed toward detecting potentially adverse changes and thus were accepted as necessary and desirable. The only health problem to affect the scientific program during the dive was a minor external ear infection contracted by all the divers. Nonetheless, the experiment demon. strated, at least to our satisfaction, the advantages of underwater habitation and saturation diving for biological and geological research. A major advantage is the opportunity for continuous monitoring of organisms or processes. In addition, underwater habitation provides for considerably more research time in the water than surface diving or intermittent bottom dwelling, and this advantage increases greatly as the depth of habitation increases. Even in the relatively shallow depths at which Tektite 1 was conducted, the undersea team could spend appreciably more time at work in the water than their colleagues on the surface. Finally, Tektite 1 demonstrated that the scientist who lives in the sea need not have the extensive qualifications of a professional diver. Of the four scientists of the in-habitat team, only Crew Chief Waller was so qualified; the other three had used scuba as a research tool, but on a relatively limited basis. Any healthy, well-conditioned marine scientist with a basic diving background is capable of extending his research into the shallow sea on a full-time basis. It is hoped that many such scientists will in the future be able to utilize the undersea laboratory.

Clifton, H.E.; Mahnken, C.V.W.; Van Derwalker, J. C.; Waller, R.A.

1970-01-01

266

Random image motion analysis with Ivory 2.0 FE models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A MWIR FLIR has been designed as the principal pointing and tracking system for a turret full of other sensors and systems in its payload. The payload is stabilized and vibration isolated but some vehicle disturbances get through these systems to excite the optical bench of the payload. These residual disturbances cause boresight shift and image blur of the IR image on the FLIR's cooled detector. Ivory was used to prepare a thermal and structural dynamic NASTRAN model of the FLIR image's response to the residual disturbances. The physical prescription for the FLIR optics was put into Ivory and it calculated all the influence coefficients between the image on the detector and all the lens design variables and all the lens motions. Ivory then prepared the portion of the NASTRAN model that relates the optical element displacements to the image motions. The Ivory optical model was then attached to an elastic model of the FLIR and payload and the effects on the image of temperature changes, gravitational vector changes and residual random vibrations were analyzed in NASTRAN. This paper discusses the Ivory modeling process, the error budgets associated with the analysis, the debugging of the models and the final analytical results.

Hatheway, Alson E.

2007-09-01

267

UNIVERSITY OF CAPE COAST Cape Coast, Ghana  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF CAPE COAST Cape Coast, Ghana College of Charleston Bilateral Exchange Program Site). Two of the most important historical sites in Ghana, Elmina and Cape Coast Castle, are only to this historic town and the cradle of education in Ghana. Cape Coast is now a growing tourist town with rich

Young, Paul Thomas

268

Levels and trends of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in Ivory Gull eggs from the Canadian Arctic, 1976 to 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is a circumpolar marine bird which has recently been listed as an endangered species in Canada. To determine whether contaminants may be playing a role in the population decline of this species, ivory gull eggs collected in 1976, 1987 and 2004 from Seymour Island in the Canadian Arctic were analyzed for organochlorines, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs),

Birgit M. Braune; Mark L. Mallory; H. Grant Gilchrist; Robert J. Letcher; Ken G. Drouillard

2007-01-01

269

57FE Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of Tektites from Khon Kaen, Ne Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Room temperature 57Fe Mössbauer effect spectroscopy has been used to investigate the local Fe environment in a set of indochinite tektites from Thailand. A MIMOS II spectrometer in backscattering geometry has been used in the study, so that no sample preparation at all was required. The spectra have been analysed in terms of discrete spectral components using Voigt functions. The results are similar to those obtained with analysis done with quadrupole splitting distributions. In all cases the Mössbauer spectra show a broadened asymmetric quadrupole split doublet. The Fe 2+ sites have been distinguished in Fe with octahedral and tetrahedral coordination. The Fe3+ /Fe2+ and Fe2+ tetrahedral/octahedral ratios have been determined from the relative areas of the various spectral components. Their values have been discussed in the light of actual literature.

Costa, B. F. O.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Alves, E. I.

2014-01-01

270

Some effects of gas adsorption on the high temperature volatile release behavior of a terrestrial basalt, tektite and lunar soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass pyrograms obtained from high-temperature, mass psectrometric pyrolysis of a glassy theoleiitic submarine basalt and a tektite, ground in air to less than 64 microns, have shown N2 and SO release patterns very similar to those from the pyrolysis of mature lunar soil fines. The N2 and CO release behavior from the terrestrial samples reproduces the biomodal, high-temperature (approximately 700 and 1050 C) features from the lunar samples. Unground portions of the basalt and tektite show no release of N2 and CO during pyrolysis. Grinding also alters the release behavior and absolute amounts of H2O and CO2. It is suggested that adsorption of atmospheric gases in addition to solar wind implantation of ions may account for the wide range of values in previously reported concentrations of carbon and nitrogen from lunar fines.

Graham, D. G.; Muenow, D. W.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

1979-01-01

271

Impact of the 2005 coral bleaching event on Porites porites and Colpophyllia natans at Tektite Reef, US Virgin Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal stress anomaly in 2005 caused mass coral bleaching at a number of north-east Caribbean reefs. The impact of the\\u000a thermal stress event and subsequent White-plague disease type II on Porites porites and Colpophyllia natans was monitored using a time series of photographs from Tektite Reef, Virgin Islands National Park, St. John. Over 92% of the\\u000a P. porites and

K. R. T. Whelan; J. Miller; O. Sanchez; M. Patterson

2007-01-01

272

Seismic investigation of the Lake Bosumtwi impact crater: preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lake Bosumtwi impact crater in Ghana, West Africa, has a diameter of 10.5km and is one of the youngest (1.07Ma) well-preserved large craters on Earth. It has a total dynamic range of topography of more than 400m, and it is the source crater of tektites and microtektites of the Ivory Coast strewn field. The crater was excavated in early

Tobias Karp; Bernd Milkereit; Peter Janle; Sylvester K. Danuor; Jean Pohl; Hans Berckhemer; Christopher A. Scholz

2002-01-01

273

An international and multidisciplinary drilling project into a young complex impact structure: The 2004 ICDP Bosumtwi Crater Drilling Project---An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bosumtwi impact crater in Ghana, arguably the best-preserved complex young impact structure known on Earth, displays a pronounced rim and is almost completely filled by Lake Bosumtwi, a hydrologically closed basin. It is the source crater of the Ivory Coast tektites. The structure was excavated in 2.1-2.2 Gyr old metasediments and metavolcanics of the Birimian Supergroup. A drilling project

Christian Koeberl; Bernd Milkereit; Jonathan T. Overpeck; Christopher A. Scholz; Philip Y. O. Amoako; Daniel Boamah; Sylvester Danuor; Tobias Karp; Jochem Kueck; Robert E. Hecky; John W. King; John A. Peck

2007-01-01

274

Detailed structural analysis of the rim of a large, complex impact crater: Bosumtwi Crater, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1 Ma Bosumtwi Crater in Ghana is an 11-km-diameter, presumably complex, well-preserved impact structure that is associated with the Ivory Coast tektite strewnfield. Detailed structural geologic studies along a complete traverse through the northwestern rim section indicated four zones characterized by distinct deformation styles from just outside of the crater rim to near the crater floor. Zone 1 is

Wolf U. Reimold; Dion Brandt; Christian Koeberl

1998-01-01

275

Putative audio recordings of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis).  

PubMed

Putative audio recordings of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) are presented along with discussions of the videos from which they were extracted and the observations that were made when these data were obtained. On two occasions, high-pitched calls were heard coming from the direction of a bird that was identified in the field as an Ivory-billed Woodpecker. These calls seem to match the description of an alarm call that was reported in the 1930s. One of the videos captured a series of the high-pitched calls, which sound similar to the Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata) bell call but do not match published sonograms of that call. A putative double knock, which is characteristic of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker, was captured in another video a little over a minute before a large bird with characteristics consistent with an Ivory-billed Woodpecker flew into view. Since it is extremely difficult to observe this critically endangered species, information on audio clues could have an impact on its conservation. PMID:21428525

Collins, Michael D

2011-03-01

276

Dating ivory by determination of 14C, 90Sr and 228/232Th.  

PubMed

A method is described to determine the time of death of elephants. This is accomplished by analysis of the radionuclides 14C, 90Sr and 228/232Th in known samples of ivory, and in samples of unknown age. The reliability of this method is considerably increased by multi nuclide analysis. PMID:22717552

Schmied, Stefanie A K; Brunnermeier, Matthias J; Schupfner, Robert; Wolfbeis, Otto S

2012-09-10

277

Asians in the Ivory Tower: Dilemmas of Racial Inequality in American Higher Education. Multicultural Education Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highly respected scholar Robert Teranishi draws on his vast research to present this timely and compelling examination of the experience of Asian Americans in higher education. "Asians in the Ivory Tower" explores why and how Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) are important to our nation's higher education priorities and places the…

Teranishi, Robert T.

2010-01-01

278

Nurturing and Validating Indigenous Epistemologies in Higher Education: Comment on "Domestication of the Ivory Tower."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to a paper that focused on the "domestication of the ivory tower" and that highlighted indigenous, field-based education associated with higher education institutions in Alaska. Shares two stories that illustrate what indigenous students often encounter in higher education, places of learning that frequently devalue or ignore their world…

Romero, Mary Eunice

2002-01-01

279

Notice to Nurserymen of the naming and release for propagaion of Ebony & Ivory crapemyrtle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lagerstroemia indica, ‘EBONY & IVORY’ is a white flowered crapemyrtle clone with burgundy foliage. This cultivar is recommended for trial by nurserymen and orticulturists as a flowering woody landscape plant in hardiness zones 6-9 and is particularly adapted to conditions in the southeastern U.S. ‘E...

280

Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) Persists in Continental North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis), long suspected to be extinct, has been rediscovered in the Big Woods region of eastern Arkansas. Visual encounters during 2004 and 2005, and analysis of a video clip from April 2004, confirm the existence of at least one male. Acoustic signatures consistent with Campephilus display drums also have been heard from the region. Extensive efforts

John W. Fitzpatrick; Martjan Lammertink; M. David Luneau; Tim W. Gallagher; Bobby R. Harrison; Gene M. Sparling; Kenneth V. Rosenberg; Ronald W. Rohrbaugh; Elliott C. H. Swarthout; Peter H. Wrege; Sara Barker Swarthout; Marc S. Dantzker; Russell A. Charif; Timothy R. Barksdale; J. V. Remsen; Scott D. Simon; Douglas Zollner

2005-01-01

281

The Human Ecology of World Systems in East Africa: The Impact of the Ivory Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact on human ecology of the ivory trade entailed direct and indirect effects. First, the reduction or extermination of elephant populations had direct effects on the vegetation patterns over large areas. Second, the economic activities connected with hunting, transport, and trading affected regional systems of exchange and thereby, indirectly through the political economy, settlements, patterns of resource utilization, population

N. Thomas Håkansson

2004-01-01

282

Obsidians and tektites: Natural analogues for water diffusion in nuclear waste glasses  

SciTech Connect

Projected scenarios for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository include significant periods of time when high relative humidity atmospheres will be present, thus the reaction processes of interest will include those known to occur under these conditions. The ideal natural analog for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository would consist of natural borosilicate glasses exposed to expected repository conditions for thousands of years; however, the prospects for identifying such an analog are remote, but an important caveat for using natural analog studies is to relate the reaction processes in the analog to those in the system of interest, rather than a strict comparison of the glass compositions. In lieu of this, identifying natural glasses that have reacted via reaction processes expected in the repository is the most attractive option. The goal of this study is to quantify molecular water diffusion in the natural analogs obsidian and tektites. Results from this study can be used in assessing the importance of factors affecting molecular water diffusion in nuclear waste glasses, relative to other identified reaction processes. In this way, a better understanding of the long-term reaction mechanism can be developed and incorporated into performance assessment models. 17 refs., 4 figs.

Mazer, J.J.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stevenson, C.M. [Archaeological Services Consultants, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

1991-11-01

283

Heat induced transformation of fossil mastodon ivory into turquoise 'odontolite'. Structural and elemental characterisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work deals with the structural and elemental analysis of turquoise mineral imitations as 'odontolite' or bone turquoise by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX) and particle induced X-ray and ?-ray emission (PIXE-PIGE). The aim of the work is to evidence the former deliberate transformation of fossilised ivory by man in order to transform them into semi-precious stones. We show that the crystal structure of 'odontolite' artefacts consisting of fluorapatite (Ca 5(PO 4) 3F) corresponds to that of heated fossil mastodon ivory (12-15 million years old). Metallic traces detected by PIXE-PIGE in these 'odontolites' are discussed in order to explain their role for coloration. Other more greenish turquoise imitations have a bone-like structure and composition, and carbonate-hydroxylapatite. The presence of copper salts at the surface is responsible for their green coloration.

Reiche, I.; Vignaud, C.; Menu, M.

2000-10-01

284

Heat induced transformation of fossil mastodon ivory into turquoise ‘odontolite’. Structural and elemental characterisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work deals with the structural and elemental analysis of turquoise mineral imitations as ‘odontolite’ or bone turquoise by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM–EDX) and particle induced X-ray and ?-ray emission (PIXE–PIGE). The aim of the work is to evidence the former deliberate transformation of fossilised ivory by man in order to transform them into semi-precious

I. Reiche; C Vignaud; M Menu

2000-01-01

285

PACIFIC COAST SALMON pacific Coast Salmon  

E-print Network

181 PACIFIC COAST SALMON UNIT 12 pacific Coast Salmon Unit 12 ROBERT G. KOPE NMFS Northwest Fisheries Science Center Seattle Washington INTRODUCTION Pacific salmon support important commercial and recreational fisheries in Washington, Oregon, and California. Salmon are a vital part of the cul- ture

286

Rapidly increasing methyl mercury in endangered ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) feathers over a 130 year record.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is increasing in marine food webs, especially at high latitudes. The bioaccumulation and biomagnification of methyl mercury (MeHg) has serious effects on wildlife, and is most evident in apex predators. The MeHg body burden in birds is the balance of ingestion and excretion, and MeHg in feathers is an effective indicator of overall MeHg burden. Ivory gulls (Pagophila eburnea), which consume ice-associated prey and scavenge marine mammal carcasses, have the highest egg Hg concentrations of any Arctic bird, and the species has declined by more than 80% since the 1980s in Canada. We used feathers from museum specimens from the Canadian Arctic and western Greenland to assess whether exposure to MeHg by ivory gulls increased from 1877 to 2007. Based on constant feather stable-isotope (?(13)C, ?(15)N) values, there was no significant change in ivory gulls' diet over this period, but feather MeHg concentrations increased 45× (from 0.09 to 4.11 µg g(-1) in adults). This dramatic change in the absence of a dietary shift is clear evidence of the impact of anthropogenic Hg on this high-latitude threatened species. Bioavailable Hg is expected to increase in the Arctic, raising concern for continued population declines in high-latitude species that are far from sources of environmental contaminants. PMID:25788594

Bond, Alexander L; Hobson, Keith A; Branfireun, Brian A

2015-04-22

287

Neodymium and strontium isotopic study of Australasian tektites - New constraints on the provenance and age of target materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of Australasian tectites (including two flanged Australian tectites, two low-SiO2 Muong Nong-type tectites, and three high-SiO2 Muong Nong-type tectites) and the Nd, Sm, Sr, and Rb concentrations were investigated by isotope-dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry, and the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotope systematics were used to study the characteristics of the parental material. It is shown that the Nd and Sr isotopic data provide evidence that all Australasian tektites were derived from a single sedimentary formation with a narrow range of stratigraphic ages close to 170 Ma. It is suggested that all of the Australasian tektites were derived from a single impact event and that the australites represent the upper part of a melt sheet ejected at high velocity, whereas the indochinites represent melts formed at a lower level in the target material distributed closer to the area of the impact.

Blum, Joel D.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Koeberl, C.

1992-01-01

288

Rivers and Coasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information about rivers, coasts, and the processes affecting them. Students can view an animation of the water cycle, read about how rivers and coasts change, learn about estuaries, and view information on how rivers, coasts, and other water features influence people's lives. Glossaries and a teacher's page offering lesson plans, worksheets, and links to additional sites are also provided.

289

[Intestinal parasites in children in Biankouma, Ivory Coast (mountaineous western region): efficacy and safety of praziquantel and albendazole].  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are a global public health problem, especially among schoolchildren. The purpose of this study was to determine the overall and specific prevalences of intestinal helminth infection and to assess the clinical efficacy, tolerance, and safety of praziquantel and albendazole for treating it. A descriptive cross-sectional study based on random sampling with one degree of freedom was conducted from November 2006 to March 2007 in the primary schools of Biankouma, Côte d'Ivoire. Stool samples were collected from 386 children aged from 4 to 15 years and analyzed by direct examination, with both the simplified Ritchie and Kato techniques. Children infected by schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis eggs were treated with praziquantel (40 mg/kg in a single dose), albendazole (400 mg/kg in a single dose) or both, as deemed necessary. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasite infection was 55.2%, including overall 15.4% with more than one parasite: two in 14.2% and three in 1.2%. Infection was correlated with male gender and older age. The most frequent helminths were Schistosoma mansoni (35.5%) and Necator americanus (25.9%). The efficacy rate for praziquantel, defined as parasite-free stools, was 57.7% on day 14 and 80.9% on day 90. The efficacy rate for albendazole on day 7 was 96.1% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 93% for Necator americanus and 81.3% for Trichuris trichiura. Adverse effects were common (40.8%) but minor (abdominal pain, headache, and itching) within 2 to 4 hours after intake of praziquantel. PMID:23107664

Adoubryn, K D; Kouadio-Yapo, C G; Ouhon, J; Aka, N A D; Bintto, F; Assoumou, A

2012-01-01

290

[Evaluation of the parasitologic technics used in the diagnosis of human Trypanosoma gambiense trypanosomiasis in the Ivory Coast].  

PubMed

The investigators carried out a comparative evaluation of twelve or parasitological techniques used nowadays in the diagnosis of human trypanosomiasis and parasite isolation in the lymph fluid, blood and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF). The tests were performed on 64 seropositive suspects selected with TESTRYP-CATT among 661 attendants examined at the Projet de Recherches Cliniques sur la Trypanosomiase (PRCT), Daloa, Côte-d'Ivoire. The study showed that the sensitivity of the different techniques varies between 17.2% (for CSF inoculation to Mastomys) and 84.5% (for the anion exchange centrifugation technique-mAECT). The classical techniques, says lymph fluid examination, direct blood examination and thick blood have a sensitivity of 58.6, 22.4 and 34.5% respectively. The most sensitive methods are lymph fluid examination, mAECT and double centrifugation of CSF (69%). The sensitivity increases up to 98.3% with the combination of two or three techniques. The combination of lymph fluid examination/mAECT/double centrifugation of CSF is either the most sensitive and the most suitable one for use in the field. The combination of lymph fluid examination and mAECT which detects 91.4% of the infected subjects is the most efficient. The authors discussed the results and recommended that similar study be done in field conditions to assess methods which either demonstrated better sensitivity and are more suitable for field use. PMID:8061525

Miezan, T W; Meda, A H; Doua, F; Cattand, P

1994-01-01

291

AIDS-The Leading Cause of Adult Death in the West African City of Abidjan, Ivory Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1988 to 1989, 698 adult cadavers in Abidjan's two largest morgues were studied, representing 38 to 43% of all adult deaths in the city over the study period, and 6 to 7% of annual deaths. Forty-one percent of male and 32% of female cadavers were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Fifteen percent of adult male and 13% of

Kevin M. de Cock; Bernard Barrere; Lacina Diaby; Marie-France Lafontaine; Emmanuel Gnaore; Anne Porter; Daniel Pantobe; Georges C. Lafontant; Augustin Dago-Akribi; Marcel Ette; Koudou Odehouri; William L. Heyward

1990-01-01

292

Fluid immiscibility and gold deposition in the Birimian quartz veins of the Angovia deposit (Yaouré, Ivory Coast)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleoproterozoic terranes (Birimian) of West Africa are well known to host numerous economic gold mineralizations. The Angovia gold mineralization is located in a brecciated and mylonitic zone within the Birimian greenstones. The sulfide-gold mineralization is mainly represented by gold associated with pyrite and chalcopyrite. A fluid inclusion study undertaken on mineralized quartz veins revealed the presence of aqueous-carbonic (CO 2-H 2O) fluids, the association of carbonic (CO 2) and early aqueous fluids, followed by later aqueous (H 2O-salt) and finally nitrogen-rich fluids. Entrapment of the initial homogeneous aqueous-carbonic fluids prior to fluid immiscibility depicts the evolution of the P-T conditions during the exhumation of the terranes after the peak of green-schist metamorphism. The CO 2 rich-fluid occurs especially in gold-bearing quartz, and are considered as the main evidence of the ore-forming process in the gold-bearing quartz veins. It is considered as a product of immiscibility of the CO 2-H 2O parent. The volatile fraction of carbonic and aqueous-carbonic fluid inclusions is dominated by CO 2, containing minor amounts of N 2, even smaller amounts of CH 4 and sporadically, H 2S. The aqueous-carbonic fluids have moderate salinity (3-10 wt.% eq. NaCl). Late aqueous and N 2 - (CH 4-CO 2) fluids are considered as later, unrelated to the main ore stage, and were trapped during the cooling of the hydrothermal system from 300 to 200 °C. The immiscibility has been favored by a strong pressure drop, the main trapping P-T conditions being 320-370 °C and 105-135 MPa. The mineralizing process is likely related to the immiscibility event, which was probably favored by the release of the fluid pressure after fracturing along the main shear zones. The ore process is likely to have occurred along the main shear zones or related secondary structures affected by cycling of the fluid pressure and quartz sealing-fracturing processes. The superimposed process can also explain the relative complexity of the quartz textures and fluid inclusion microfractures, and the rather wide range in the density of both parent fluid and CO 2-dominated fluid.

Coulibaly, Y.; Boiron, M. C.; Cathelineau, M.; Kouamelan, A. N.

2008-02-01

293

Iron local structure in tektites and impact glasses by extended X-ray absorption fine structure and high-resolution X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local structure of iron in three tektites has been studied by means of Fe K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and high-resolution X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy in order to provide quantitative data on distance and Fe coordination number. The samples studied are a moldavite and two australasian tektites. Fe model compounds with known Fe oxidation state

Gabriele Giuli; Giovanni Pratesi; Curzio Cipriani; Eleonora Paris

2002-01-01

294

http://http.cs.berkeley.edu/~wkahan/Cantilever.ps July 3, 1997 3:36 pm W. Kahan and Melody Ivory Univ. of Calif. @ Berkeley Page 1 of 11  

E-print Network

http://http.cs.berkeley.edu/~wkahan/Cantilever.ps July 3, 1997 3:36 pm W. Kahan and Melody Ivory. Melody Y. Ivory Elect. Eng. & Computer Science Dept. #1776 University of California Berkeley CA 94720 to get the aforementioned results is available by electronic mail from the authors: ivory

California at Berkeley, University of

295

PEN-Ivory: the design and evaluation of a pen-based computer system for structured data entry.  

PubMed Central

PEN-Ivory is a pen-based computer system that uses structured data entry for creating patient progress notes. Users make simple gestures such as circles, lines, and scratch-outs to enter medical findings from a controlled vocabulary. The result of an interaction with PEN-Ivory is a computer-generated patient progress note in English prose. We designed PEN-Ivory's user interface in a principled way. We first created multiple working prototypes, each differing in one of three user-interface characteristics. Then we empirically evaluated the prototypes in a controlled, experimental setting for their efficiencies in enabling users to create patient progress notes. The prototype that allowed the fastest data entry had the following three user-interface characteristics: it used a paging form, used a fixed palette of modifiers, and made available all findings from the controlled vocabulary at once. PMID:7949967

Poon, A. D.; Fagan, L. M.

1994-01-01

296

One-step synthesis of collagen hybrid gold nanoparticles and formation on Egyptian-like gold-plated archaeological ivory.  

PubMed

A one-step method is reported to synthesize hybrid gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by reduction of HAuCl4 in acetic solution in the presence of collagen (Col), dicarboxylic acid-terminated polyethylene glycol (PEG), and cetyltetrammonium bromide (CTAB) mixed with hydoxyapatite (HAP) as surfactants. Such formation process of AuNPs was shown to be responsible for purple stains naturally formed on Egyptianizing archaeological gilded ivories from 8th BC Syria. The understanding of this formation mechanism, which most likely involves a step with hybrid AuNPs, allows the establishing of an authenticity marker of ancient gold-plated ivories. PMID:24966058

Spadavecchia, Jolanda; Apchain, Emilande; Albéric, Marie; Fontan, Elisabeth; Reiche, Ina

2014-08-01

297

Living on the Coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video, adapted from material provided by the ECHO partners, illuminates how living on the coast affects individuals and communities, particularly humans' interrelationships with natural resources.

2007-02-12

298

PACIFIC COAST GROUNDFISH FISHERIES pacific Coast  

E-print Network

) Pacific hake (whiting). Many of the stocks included in the FMP have geographic ranges that extend beyond hake trawl fishery, there are vessels that deliver their catch to motherships as well as to shoreside components of Pa- cific Coast groundfish total ex-vessel value in 2006. Pacific hake 44% Sablefish 28

299

The Case of the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker: The Scientific Process and How It Relates to Everyday Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this case study, based on the reported rediscovery of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker in April 2005, students examine a real-world example of the scientific process and explore the practical implications of their conclusions. The case tells the story of Brad Murky, a student and research assistant who must decide whether the available evidence is…

Stanger-Hall, Kathrin; Merriam, Jennifer; Greuling, Ruth Ann

2007-01-01

300

An assessment of alternative methods of estimating the effect of the ivory trade ban on poaching effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ban on international trade in ivory introduced by the international community in 1989 was intended to protect the declining stock of African elephant (Loxodonta africana), by providing a barrier between the range state and the principal consuming nations. If there is a residual trade, then the efficiency of the ban is determined by the decline in the price paid

Michael Burton

1999-01-01

301

Eggshell thinning and decreased concentrations of vitamin E are associated with contaminants in eggs of ivory gulls.  

PubMed

The ivory gull is a high Arctic seabird species threatened by climate change and contaminant exposure. High levels of contaminants have been reported in ivory gull Pagophila eburnea eggs from Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. The present study investigated associations between high levels of contaminants (organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) and mercury (Hg)) and three response variables: eggshell thickness, retinol (vitamin A) and ?-tocopherol (vitamin E). Negative associations were found between levels of OCPs, PCBs and BFRs and eggshell thickness (p<0.021) and ?-tocopherol (p<0.023), but not with retinol (p>0.1). There were no associations between PFASs and mercury and the three response variables. Furthermore, the eggshell thickness was 7-17% thinner in the present study than in archived ivory gull eggs (?1930). In general, a thinning above 16 to 20% has been associated with a decline in bird populations, suggesting that contaminant-induced eggshell thinning may constitute a serious threat to ivory gull populations globally. PMID:22673175

Miljeteig, Cecilie; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Strøm, Hallvard; Gavrilo, Maria V; Lie, Elisabeth; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

2012-08-01

302

Sabine's Gull (Xema sabini), Ross's Gull (Rhodostethia rosea) and Ivory Gull (Pagophila eburnea) Gulls in the Arctic: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earliest information on Sabine's gull, Ross's gull and Ivory gull was collected by several heroic arctic explorers during the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth. Ross's gull was discovered in northern Canada in 1823 by James C. Ross and Sabine's gull in northwestern Greenland in 1818 by Edward Sabine. S.A. Buturlin was the first to find the

SVEN BLOMQVIST; MAGNUS ELANDER

303

How Much Ivory Does This Tower Need? What We Spend on, and Get from, Higher Education. Policy Analysis. No. 686  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is commonly asserted, especially by people within higher education, that the American Ivory Tower is strapped for cash and tightfisted taxpayers are to blame. Taxpayer support for postsecondary education has long been in decline, this narrative goes, and has forced schools to continually raise tuition to make up for the losses. Tallying…

McCluskey, Neal

2011-01-01

304

Genetic nature of white ivory (wi) in the white locus of Drosophila melanogaster as resolved through crossing-over tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presumed duplicational nature of white ivory (wi) of Drosophila melanogaster was tested by crossing over. It was observed that wi neither reduces nor enhances recombination in the intervals marked by subsites 1 and 3 and 4 and 5 of the white locus. The duplicational nature of this mutant site is questioned.

Subhas Kumar Hazra; Jayashree Banerjee; Soumitra K Sen

1978-01-01

305

Intrinsic oxygen fugacity measurements on seven chondrites, a pallasite, and a tektite and the redox state of meteorite parent bodies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Intrinsic oxygen-fugacity (fO2) measurements were made on five ordinary chondrites, a carbonaceous chondrite, an enstatite chondrite, a pallasite, and a tektite. Results are of the form of linear log fO2 - 1 T plots. Except for the enstatite chondrite, measured results agree well with calculated estimates by others. The tektite produced fO2 values well below the range measured for terrestrial and lunar rocks. The lowpressure atmospheric regime that is reported to follow large terrestrial explosions, coupled with a very high temperature, could produce glass with fO2 in the range measured. The meteorite Salta (pallasite) has low fO2 and lies close to Hvittis (E6). Unlike the other samples, results for Salta do not parallel the iron-wu??stite buffer, but are close to the fayalite-quartz-iron buffer in slope. Minor reduction by graphite appears to have taken place during metamorphism of ordinary chondrites. fO2 values of unequilibrated chondrites show large scatter during early heating suggesting that the constituent phases were exposed to a range of fO2 conditions. The samples equilibrated with respect to fO2 in relatively short time on heating. Equilibration with respect to fO2 in ordinary chondrites takes place between grades 3 and 4 of metamorphism. Application of P - T - fO2 relations in the system C-CO-CO2 indicates that the ordinary chondrites were metamorphosed at pressures of 3-20 bars, as it appears that they lay on the graphite surface. A steep positive thermal gradient in a meteorite parent body lying at the graphite surface will produce thin reduced exterior, an oxidized near-surface layer, and an interior that is increasingly reduced with depth; a shallow thermal gradient will produce the reverse. A body heated by accretion on the outside will have a reduced exterior and oxidized interior. Meteorites from the same parent body clearly are not required to have similar redox states. ?? 1984.

Brett, R.; Sato, M.

1984-01-01

306

Crise de la nature dans l'agglomration abidjanaise : l'exemple de la colonisation des espaces verts par l'habitat et les commerces dans la commune de Cocody.  

E-print Network

and trade activities in the district of Cocody. Abstract: - African cities like Abidjan in Ivory Coast, brings about another conception of city in Ivory Coast. Keywords: Ivory Coast, Abidjan, Cocody, city

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

307

GROUP A GROUP B GROUP D GROUP F GROUP G GROUP H  

E-print Network

/06/06, 2000 BST 10/06/06, 2000 BST Argentina Ivory Coast Argentina Serb & Mont Holland Ivory Coast Holland Ivory Coast Serb & Mont Portugal Mexico Iran Mexico Angola Portugal Iran Portugal Mexico Iran Angola

Major, Arkady

308

LRB Steven Shapin: Ivory Trade http://www.lrb.co.uk/v25/n17/print/shap01_.html 1 of 17 2/4/2008 11:31 AM  

E-print Network

LRB · Steven Shapin: Ivory Trade http://www.lrb.co.uk/v25/n17/print/shap01_.html 1 of 17 2/4/2008 11:31 AM LRB 11 September 2003 Steven Shapin screen layout tell a friend Ivory Trade Steven Shapin: Ivory Trade http://www.lrb.co.uk/v25/n17/print/shap01_.html 2 of 17 2/4/2008 11:31 AM headquarters

Shapin, Steven

309

West Coast Poverty Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the University of Washington, the West Coast Poverty Center "serves as a hub for research, education, and policy analysis leading to greater understanding of the causes and consequences of poverty and effective approaches to reducing it in the west coast states." The Center was created in the fall of 2005, and it represents a collaborative venture between the UW School of Social Work, the Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, and the College of Arts and Sciences. Scholars and others will find the site quite useful, and they may wish to start at the "Poverty Basics" section. This area includes helpful overviews like "How Many People Are Poor in the United States?" and interactive maps and charts that document the state of poverty levels on the West Coast. Moving on, the "Research" area contains links to papers, research briefs, and information about upcoming events sponsored by the Center.

310

Gulf Coast Wetlands  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title:  Wetlands of the Gulf Coast     ... web of estuarine channels and extensive coastal wetlands that provide important habitat for fisheries. The city of New Orleans ... or below sea level. The city is protected by levees, but the wetlands which also function as a buffer from storm surges have been ...

2014-05-15

311

Honduras: Caribbean Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the

Alastair R. Harborne; Daniel C. Afzal; Mark J. Andrews

2001-01-01

312

Lava Reaching the Coast  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

View looking south toward active flows on the coastal flats near Kalapana Gardens subdivision. The new flows entered the area from right center, crossing the end of Hwy 130, and burning through forest adjacent to the coast. The burned remains of trees and brush cover the surface of the new flows at ...

313

Northwest Coast Indian Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The visual art forms of the Northwest Coast Indian Tribes of Alaska (Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian) share common distinctive design elements (formline, ovoid, U-form, and curvilinear shapes) which are referred to as the "Northern Style." Designs represent events or characters taken from the oral tradition of song and legend. Characteristics of…

Manning, Thomas; Knecht, Elizabeth

314

Coast Salish Canoe Journey  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Coast Salish Canoe Journey 2009 landing in Pillar Point, WA.  Each year Northwest Indian tribes collaborate with USGS to measure salinity, temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen in the Salish Sea.  The Swinomish Tribe was recently awarded national recognition for their leadership in buildin...

315

In the Shadows of the Ivory Tower: Undocumented Undergraduates and the Liminal State of Immigration Reform  

E-print Network

Students Pursuing The American Dream (Sterling, VA: StylusOpening the Door to the American Dream: Increasing HigherAmerican Immigrant Stories on the East Coast (RAISE) Student Immigrant Movement (SIM) Students Working for Equal Rights (SWER) United We Dream (

Suarez-Orozco, MM; Teranishi, R; Suarez-Orozco, CE

2015-01-01

316

Tektite-bearing, deep-water clastic unit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northeastern Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hypothesis of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact on Yucatan, Mexico, predicts that nearby sites should show evidence of proximal impact ejecta and disturbance by giant waves. An outcrop along the Arroyo el Mimbral in northeastern Mexico contains a layered clastic unit up to 3 m thick that interrupts a biostratigraphically complete pelagic-marl sequence deposited at more than 400 m water depth. The marls were found to be unsuitable for determining magnetostratigraphy, but foraminiferal biostratigraphy places the clastic unit precisely at the K-T boundary. We interpret this clastic unit as the deposit of a megawave or tsunami produced by an extraterrestrial impact. The clastic unit comprises three main subunits. (1) The basal "spherule bed" contains glass in the form of tektites and microtektites, glass spherules replaced by chlorite-smectite and calcite, and quartz grains showing probable shock features. This bed is interpreted as a channelized deposit of proximal ejecta. (2) A set of lenticular, massive, graded "laminated beds" contains intraclasts and abundant plant debris, and may be the result of megawave backwash that carried coarse debris from shallow parts of the continental margin into deeper water. (3) At the top, several thin "ripple beds" composed of fine sand are separated by clay drapes; they are interpreted as deposits of oscillating currents, perhaps a seiche. An iridium anomaly (921 +/- 23 pg/g) is observed at the top of the ripple beds. Our observations at the Mimbral locality support the hypothesis of a K-T impact on nearby Yucatan.

Smit, J.; Montanari, A.; Swinburne, N. H.; Alvarez, W.; Hildebrand, A. R.; Margolis, S. V.; Claeys, P.; Lowrie, W.; Asaro, F.

1992-01-01

317

Tektite-bearing, deep-water clastic unit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northeastern Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The hypothesis of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact on Yucatan, Mexico, predicts that nearby sites should show evidence of proximal impact ejecta and disturbance by giant waves. An outcrop along the Arroyo el Mimbral in northeastern Mexico contains a layered clastic unit up to 3 m thick that interrupts a biostratigraphically complete pelagic-marl sequence deposited at more than 400 m water depth. The marls were found to be unsuitable for determining magnetostratigraphy, but foraminiferal biostratigraphy places the clastic unit precisely at the K-T boundary. The authors interpret this clastic unit as the deposit of a megawave or tsunami produced by an extraterrestrial impact. The clastic unit comprises three main subunits. (1) The basal 'spherule bed' contains glass in the form of tektites and microtektites, glass spherules replaced by chlorite-smectite and calcite, and quartz grains showing probable shock features. This bed is interpreted as a channelized deposit of proximal ejecta. (2) A set of lenticular, massive, graded 'laminated beds' contains intraclasts can abundant plant debris, and may the result of megawave backwash that carried coarse debris from shallow parts of the continental margin into deeper water. (3) At the top, several thin 'ripple beds' composed of fine sand are separated by clay drapes; they are interpreted as deposits of oscillating currents, perhaps a seiche. An iridium anomaly (921 {plus minus} 23 pg/g) is observed at the top of the ripple beds. Their observations at the Mimbral locality support the hypothesis of a K-T impact on nearby Yucatan.

Smit, J. (Free Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Montanari, A.; Swinburne, N.H.M.; Alvarez, W. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Hildebrand, A.R. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States)); Margolis, S.V.; Claeys, P. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States)); Lowrie, W. (Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zuerich (Switzerland)); Asaro, F. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1992-02-01

318

Tektite-bearing, deep-water clastic unit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northeastern Mexico.  

PubMed

The hypothesis of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact on Yucatán, Mexico, predicts that nearby sites should show evidence of proximal impact ejecta and disturbance by giant waves. An outcrop along the Arroyo el Mimbral in northeastern Mexico contains a layered clastic unit up to 3 m thick that interrupts a biostratigraphically complete pelagic-marl sequence deposited at more than 400 m water depth. The marls were found to be unsuitable for determining magnetostratigraphy, but foraminiferal biostratigraphy places the clastic unit precisely at the K-T boundary. We interpret this clastic unit as the deposit of a megawave or tsunami produced by an extraterrestrial impact. The clastic unit comprises three main subunits. (1) The basal "spherule bed" contains glass in the form of tektites and microtektites, glass spherules replaced by chlorite-smectite and calcite, and quartz grains showing probable shock features. This bed is interpreted as a channelized deposit of proximal ejecta. (2) A set of lenticular, massive, graded "laminated beds" contains intraclasts and abundant plant debris, and may be the result of megawave backwash that carried coarse debris from shallow parts of the continental margin into deeper water. (3) At the top, several thin "ripple beds" composed of fine sand are separated by clay drapes; they are interpreted as deposits of oscillating currents, perhaps a seiche. An iridium anomaly (921 +/- 23 pg/g) is observed at the top of the ripple beds. Our observations at the Mimbral locality support the hypothesis of a K-T impact on nearby Yucatán. PMID:11537752

Smit, J; Montanari, A; Swinburne, N H; Alvarez, W; Hildebrand, A R; Margolis, S V; Claeys, P; Lowrie, W; Asaro, F

1992-02-01

319

Phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of haemocytes from the ivory snail, Babylonia areolata.  

PubMed

Haemocytes from the ivory snail, Babylonia areolata phagocytized Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus after 30 min. Haemocytes phagocytized V. parahaemolyticus at a greater rate than they phagocytized S. cerevisiae. The phagocytic rate (PP) of V. parahaemolyticus by granulocytes to was a little higher than that of S. cerevisiae. The phagocytic index (PI) of V. parahaemolyticus by granulocytes was significantly higher than that of S. cerevisiae. The same was true of hyalinocytes. The PP of granulocytes was significantly higher than that of hyalinocytes for each pathogen. No difference in PI was observed in granulocytes and hyalinocytes. Two defense mechanisms of B. areolata were quantified using flow cytometry. Haemocyte phagocytosis was quantified using fluorescent microbeads and respiratory burst activity was measured using H2O2 increases detected by 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. Both phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of the haemocytes increased over time. After 90 min the phagocytic rate no longer increased. In the case of respiratory burst, the greatest increase in fluorescence occurred between 30 and 120 min, no further increase was seen after 120 min. These results showed unequivocally that a native (unstimulated) haemocyte oxidative burst was active in B. areolata. The aim of this study was to further the knowledge of immunology in gastropods. PMID:23664911

Di, Guilan; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Ke, Caihuan

2013-08-01

320

Mapping Potential Ivory Billed Woodpecker Habitat using Lidar and Hyperspectral Data Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multisensor fusion is a powerful approach towards characterizing forest structure for effective management of wildlife habitats. The rediscovery of the Ivory Billed Woodpecker in 2005 reinforced the need to map and conserve suitable habitat for the previously thought extinct bird. In this study we fused waveform lidar and hyperspectral data to map potential habitat for the woodpecker along the Lower Mississippi Valley of Arkansas. Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) data was processed to produce high-resolution forest structure maps. We used multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) to map stressed and dead vegetation from the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data. LVIS and AVIRIS maps were fused to identify habitat hot-spots based on historical records of habitat preferences of the bird. Results indicate several small hotspots in the bottomland hardwood forests, but very few large and continuous patches qualify as potential woodpecker habitat. Results from this study are expected to aid search efforts for the woodpecker and also provide useful insights into lidar fusion for large scale habitat mapping.

Swatantran, A.; Dubayah, R.; Hofton, M.; Blair, J. B.; Handley, L.

2008-12-01

321

Coeval 40Ar/39Ar Ages of 65.0 Million Years Ago from Chicxulub Crater Melt Rock and Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Tektites.  

PubMed

(40)Ar/(39)Ar dating of drill core samples of a glassy melt rock recovered from beneath a massive impact breccia contained within the 180-kilometer subsurface Chicxulub crater in Yucatán, Mexico, has yielded well-behaved incremental heating spectra with a mean plateau age of 64.98 +/- 0.05 million years ago (Ma). The glassy melt rock of andesitic composition was obtained from core 9 (1390 to 1393 meters) in the Chicxulub 1 well. The age of the melt rock is virtually indistinguishable from (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages obtained on tektite glass from Beloc, Haiti, and Arroyo el Mimbral, northeastern Mexico, of 65.01 +/- 0.08 Ma (mean plateau age for Beloc) and 65.07 +/- 0.10 Ma (mean total fusion age for both sites). The (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages, in conjunction with geochemical and petrological similarities, strengthen the recent suggestion that the Chicxulub structure is the source for the Haitian and Mexican tektites and is a viable candidate for the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact site. PMID:17789640

Swisher, C C; Grajales-Nishimura, J M; Montanari, A; Margolis, S V; Claeys, P; Alvarez, W; Renne, P; Cedillo-Pardoa, E; Maurrasse, F J; Curtis, G H; Smit, J; McWilliams, M O

1992-08-14

322

Coeval Ar-40/Ar-39 ages of 65.0 million years ago from Chicxulub crater melt rock and Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary tektites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of drill-core samples of a glassy melt rock recovered from beneath a massive impact breccia contained with the 180-kilometer subsurface Chicxulub crater yields well-behaved incremental heating spectra with a mean plateau age of 64.98 +/- 0.05 million years ago (Ma). The glassy melt rock of andesitic composition was obtained from core 9 (1390 to 1393 meters) in the Chicxulub 1 well. The age of the melt rock is virtually indistinguishable from Ar-40/Ar-39 ages obtained on tektite glass from Beloc, Haiti, and Arroyo el Mimbral, northeastern Mexico, of 65.01 +/- 0.08 Ma (mean plateau age for Beloc) and 65.07 +/- 0.10 Ma (mean total fusion age for both sites). The Ar-40/Ar-39 ages, in conjunction with geochemical and petrological similarities, strengthen the suggestion that the Chicxulub structure is the source for the Haitian and Mexican tektites and is a viable candidate for the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact site.

Swisher, Carl C., III; Grajales-Nishimura, Jose M.; Montanari, Alessandro; Margolis, Stanley V.; Claeys, Philippe; Alvarez, Walter; Renne, Paul; Cedillo-Pardo, Esteban; Maurrasse, Florentin J.-M. R.; Curtis, Garniss H.

1992-01-01

323

Video analysis of the escape flight of Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus: does the Ivory-billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis persist in continental North America?  

PubMed Central

Background The apparent rediscovery of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis in Arkansas, USA, previously feared extinct, was supported by video evidence of a single bird in flight (Fitzpatrick et al, Science 2005, 308:1460–1462). Plumage patterns and wingbeat frequency of the putative Ivory-billed Woodpecker were said to be incompatible with the only possible confusion species native to the area, the Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus. Results New video analysis of Pileated Woodpeckers in escape flights comparable to that of the putative Ivory-billed Woodpecker filmed in Arkansas shows that Pileated Woodpeckers can display a wingbeat frequency equivalent to that of the Arkansas bird during escape flight. The critical frames from the Arkansas video that were used to identify the bird as an Ivory-billed Woodpecker are shown to be equally, or more, compatible with the Pileated Woodpecker. Conclusion The identification of the bird filmed in Arkansas in April 2004 as an Ivory-billed Woodpecker is best regarded as unsafe. The similarities between the Arkansas bird and known Pileated Woodpeckers suggest that it was most likely a Pileated Woodpecker. PMID:17362504

Collinson, J Martin

2007-01-01

324

Mapping The Pacific Coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maps of the Pacific Coast from the earliest period of European exploration continue to interest cartographers, geographers, and antiquarians. The maps in the Quivira Collection date from 1540 to 1802 and include early depictions of California as an island, Russian cartographic interpretations of the Pacific Coast, and overland maps across the continent westward to the ocean. All told, this online collection includes forty-five maps, books, and illustrations organized into six thematic galleries. Visitors can start by listening to an audio introduction, and then look around through the thematic galleries, which include such intriguing headings as " In the Wake of Captain James Cook" and "Secret Russian Explorations in the Pacific". Of course, visitors must click their way into the "California as an Island" section, if not just for a taste of six examples of what is perhaps one of the best-known cartographic mistakes in the world.

325

OzCoasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those persons with a penchant for public policy, coastal erosion, and estuaries will sing the praises of the OzCoasts website. Formally launched in 2008, OzCoasts represents a collaborative effort between more than 100 coastal scientists from a range of government agencies and universities across Australia. The materials on the site are divided into six primary areas, including "Coastal Indicators", "Habitat Mapping", and "Landform & Stability Maps". Within each section, visitors will find graphs, maps, charts, and short essays that document a wide range of natural and man-made phenomena including beach erosion, beach geomorphic models, and sea level rise. Visitors can also make their way to the "Glossary" area to get caught up relevant terms and then wander around the "What's New" area for the latest and greatest updates to the website.

326

West Coast Chlorophyll Bloom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on board the Orbview 2 satellite captured the phytoplankton bloom October 6, 2002 . Red represents high concentration of chlorophyll, follow by orange, yellow and green. Land and cloud portions of the image are presented in natural color. SeaWiFS monitors ocean plant life by measuring the amount of chlorophyll in the ocean. Large phytoplankton blooms tend to coincide with natural phenomena that drive that nutrient-rich water to the surface. The process is called upwelling. Winds coming off principal land masses push surface layers of water away from the shore. Into the resulting wind-driven void deeper water underneath the surface layers rushes in toward the coast, bringing with it nutrients for life to bloom. This upwelling fuel the growth of marine phytoplankton which, along with larger seaweeds, nourishes the incredible diversity of creatures found along the northern and central California coast.

Lori Perkins

2002-10-15

327

Maine coast winds  

SciTech Connect

The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

Avery, Richard

2000-01-28

328

The Case of the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker: The Scientific Process and How it Relates to Everyday Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case study, based on the reported rediscovery of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker in April 2005, students examine a real-world example of the scientific process and explore the practical implications of their conclusions. The case tells the story of Brad Murky, a student and research assistant who must decide whether the available evidence is sufficient for him to accept the bird's existence. In a series of e-mails, Brad and his sister debate the evidence, and Brad is left to wonder whether the press conference called to announce the rediscovery of the bird has been scheduled in haste.

Jennifer Merriam

2007-09-01

329

Impact of Tributyltin and Triphenyltin on Ivory Shell (Babylonia japonica) Populations  

PubMed Central

We histopathologically examined gonads and chemically determined organotin compounds in tissues of the ivory shell, Babylonia japonica. Imposex (a superimposition of male-type genital organs on females) occurred in approximately 80–90% of B. japonica specimens that we examined, with the penis and vas deferens both well developed. No oviduct blockage by vas deferens formation was observed. Ovarian spermatogenesis and suppressed ovarian maturation were observed in the females that exhibited imposex, although no histopathological abnormalities were found in males. Tissue distributions of organotin compounds [tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT), and their metabolites] were different for butyltins and phenyltins; a remarkably high accumulation of TBT was observed in the ctenidium, osphradium, and heart, whereas high concentrations of TPhT were detected in the ovary and digestive gland. More than one-third of TBT accumulated in the digestive glands of both males and females, followed by the testis, ctenidium, muscle, and heart tissues in males and in the muscle, ovary, ctenidium, and head tissues (including the central nervous system ganglia) in females. In both males and females, more than half of total TPhT accumulated in the digestive glands, followed by the gonads. The next highest values were in the muscle, ctenidium, and heart tissues in males and in the muscle, oviduct, and head tissues in females. Both TBT and TPhT concentrations in the gonads were positively correlated with penis length in females. Our findings strongly suggest that reproductive failure in adult females accompanied by imposex, possibly induced by TBT and TPhT from antifouling paints, may have caused the marked decline of B. japonica populations in Japan. PMID:16818241

Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Kojima, Mitsuhiro; Hamada, Fumihiko; Kajikawa, Akira; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Morita, Masatoshi; Shimizu, Makoto

2006-01-01

330

Coasts in Crisis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book describes the varied coastal environments of the United States and the natural processes and human actions that are constantly modifying them. Ignorance of these processes exacerbates the tragic collisions between people and nature, such as Hurricane Hugo in South Carolina, which left thousands homeless and destroyed billions of dollars of property. Topics include types of coasts; coastal change, including natural processes, local conditions, and human intervention; case studies of coastal conflicts in Ocean City, Isles Dernieres, Boston Harbor, and the effects of Hurricane Hugo. A summary overview of challenges and opportunities, and suggestions for further reading are also provided.

S. Williams

331

Coasts in Crisis  

SciTech Connect

Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.

Hinrichsen, D.

1996-11-01

332

Coast-to-Coast Seminar: Background, History, and Practice  

E-print Network

, History and Practice Jonathan Borwein, Veselin Jungic, David Langstroth, Mason Macklem, and Scott Wilson 1Coast-to-Coast Seminar: Background, History, and Practice Jonathan Borwein, David Langstroth, Mason Macklem, and Scott Wilson D-Drive, Dalhousie University Veselin Jungic IRMACS, Simon Fraser University #12

Borwein, Jonathan

333

East Coast -Suez Canal 15 East Coast -Strait of Hormuz 24  

E-print Network

Bases Places Crossroads East Coast - Suez Canal 15 East Coast - Strait of Hormuz 24 East Coast deployed (Avg Last 90 Days) 8 Sep 14 ~190 ships #12;Bases Places Crossroads East Coast - Suez Canal 15 East

334

Resource Wars and Conflict Ivory: The Impact of Civil Conflict on Elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo - The Case of the Okapi Reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and

Rene L. Beyers; John A. Hart; Anthony R. E. Sinclair; Falk Grossmann; Brian Klinkenberg; Simeon Dino

2011-01-01

335

The Red Light in the Ivory Tower: Contexts and Implications of Entrepreneurial Education. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 401  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Red Light in the Ivory Tower: Contexts and Implications of Entrepreneurial Education" critically analyzes the operational behaviors of prestigious and prestige-seeking universities, particularly within the context of budget shortfalls and increasing competition. The book challenges entrepreneurial activities within universities by exploring…

Breault, Donna Adair; Callejo Perez, David M.

2012-01-01

336

Non-invasive quantitative micro-PIXE-RBS/EBS/EBS imaging reveals the lost polychromy and gilding of the Neo-Assyrian ivories from the Louvre collection.  

PubMed

Antique objects are known to have been brightly colored. However, the appearance of these objects has changed over time and paint traces are rarely preserved. The surface of ivory objects (8th century B.C., Syria) from the Louvre museum collection (Paris) have been non-invasively studied by simultaneous particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford and elastic backscattering spectrometry (RBS/EBS) micro-imaging at the AGLAE facility (C2RMF, Paris). Qualitative 2D chemical images of elements ranging from Na to Pb on the surface of the ancient ivory carvings provide evidence of lost polychromy and gilding. Quantitative PIXE data of specific areas allow discrimination between traces of sediments and former polychromy. Different shades of blue can be differentiated from particular Pb/Cu ratios. The characterization of gilding based on RBS data demonstrates the exceptional technological skills of the Phoenician craftsmen supposed to have carved the Arslan Tash ivories. More precise reconstructions of the original polychromy compared to previous studies and a criterion for the authentication of ancient gilded ivory object are proposed. PMID:25770612

Albéric, Marie; Müller, Katharina; Pichon, Laurent; Lemasson, Quentin; Moignard, Brice; Pacheco, Claire; Fontan, Elisabeth; Reiche, Ina

2015-05-01

337

Egyptian Coast Mediterranean  

E-print Network

During August 2000 and February 2001 two cruises were carried out along the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast on the Egyptian r/v ‘El-Yarmouk’. The samples collected were used to study the ecology and distribution of hydromedusae and siphonophores during summer and winter. The density of hydromedusae was high in the inshore waters during summer (av. 71 org × 100 m?3), decreasing to 28 organisms per 100 m3 in the oceanic waters; in winter they were more abundant in the middle and offshore zones. A total of 9 hydromedusae species were recorded during the present study, 8 of them in summer. The most common of these were Aglaura hemistoma, Olindias singularis, Liriope tetraphylla andGeryonia proboscidalis. Only 4 species were recorded during winter, including Cunina octonaria, which was not recorded during the summer. The nine species recorded in the present study are circumtropical. The siphonophore density was high in summer. In winter, the average standing crop of siphonophores fell to about 30 % of that recorded in summer. 11 siphonophore species were recorded, 10 of them in summer; Cucullus campanula and Eudoxoides spiralis were the most common. Only 6 species were recorded in winter. These 11 species are widely distributed – they have been recorded from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. Strong seasonality is thus a striking feature of Egyptian Mediterranean waters. Temperature is the most variable factor affecting the planktonic community, fluc-tuating between 26.5 and 27?C in summer and between 16.3 and 17.5?C in winter. The western part of the Egyptian coast, the area under study in this work, is poorly diversified in comparison with the eastern part. The complete text of the paper is available at

During Summer; Oceanology Pas; Howaida Y. Zakaria

2004-01-01

338

Comparison of the bacterial species diversity of spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out at selected farms in Ivory Coast and Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process carried out in different cocoa-producing regions, heap and box (one Ivorian farm) and box (two Brazilian farms) fermentations were carried out. All fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. In general, the temperature inside the fermenting mass increased throughout all fermentations and reached end-values of 42–48°C. The main end-products of pulp carbohydrate

Zoi Papalexandratou; Nicholas Camu; Gwen Falony; Luc De Vuyst

2011-01-01

339

Poetry Expressed: Dance Diversity in the African Subcontinent--Perceptions, Misperceptions, and Preservation (with a Focus on the Ivory Coast and Mali)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author explains how African dances are created in many social venues as a form of communicating within specific societies. However, from her travels, she has discovered that there are many misconceptions outside of the continent, and many people who view African dances as exotic or as only entertainment. The article discusses…

Doumbia, Kadidia

2013-01-01

340

Seminar on the Training of Teachers, by the Interdisciplinary System, To Use This System in Schools (Bouake, Ivory Coast, March 24 - April 4, 1970). Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document summarizes the discussion and recommendation made at a meeting held to consider ways and means of putting the syllabuses of teacher training colleges and subsequently those of primary schools on an interdisciplinary footing. The conference was attended by teachers on the staff of primary teacher training colleges in Cameroon, the…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

341

The Economic Value of Breastfeeding (With Results from Research Conducted in Ghana and the Ivory Coast). Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series Number 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph focuses attention on economic considerations related to infant feeding practices in developing countries. By enlarging on previous methodologies, this paper proposes to improve the accuracy of past estimates of the economic value of human milk, or more specifically, the practice of breastfeeding. The theoretical model employed…

Greiner, Ted; And Others

342

Can the Language of Rights Get Hold of the Complex Realities of Child Domestic Work?: The Case of Young Domestic Workers in Abidjan, Ivory Coast  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review examines refractions of children's rights in development practice from an anthropological point of view and considers the case of young domestic girls working in Abidjan. The author argues that child labour legislation and the children's rights perspective in Abidjan is permeated by patriarchal values that mask the exploitation of work…

Jacquemin, Melanie

2006-01-01

343

[The different present-day clinical picture of human African trypanosomiasis caused by T. b. gambiense. Analysis of 300 cases from a focus in Daloa, Ivory Coast].  

PubMed

300 patients with sleeping sickness have been admitted, at the AHT clinic of Daloa, over a time period of 22 months. The sex ratio of the patients is 1.5 males for 1 female; the mean age is 25.5 years. The most frequent signs and symptoms observed by clinical examination are: fever (30%), nodes (86.3%), prurigo (43.3%), splenomegaly (15.3%), hepatomegaly (1%), headache (72.6%), vigilance and sleeping disturbances (68.7%), perioral reflexes (67.6%), cheiro-oral reflexes (64.3%), movement disorders consisting of tremor, choreo-athetosis movements, buccal dyskinesia or seizures (35%), motor palsy and gait disorders (15%), tonus disturbances (12.3%), sensitivity abnormalities (17%), endocrine disorders (16.3%), psychiatric symptoms (6.3%). According to CSF status, 261 patients have been classified in second period (P2). This group, although biologically well defined, is in fact a miscellaneous group of clinical signs and symptoms ranging from apparently normal patients to sleeping comatose and cachectic patients. 93% of the patients in this group have peripheral signs associated with neurological symptoms. They are as frequent in the first period as in the second period, with a statistical significance. This is an argument to think that the CNS is early affected in the course of the disease. The classification of the patients in groups of increasing neurological impairments, is in accordance with this hypothesis. 89% of the patients in the second period have only slight neurological signs. This explain how difficult it is for a physician to use melarsoprol in the treatment of all patients classified in second period. PMID:2848637

Boa, Y F; Traore, M A; Doua, F; Kouassi-Traore, M T; Kouassi, B E; Giordano, C

1988-01-01

344

Characterization of weathering profile in granites and volcanosedimentary rocks in West Africa under humid tropical climate conditions. Case of the Dimbokro Catchment (Ivory Coast)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In granitic rocks, various models of weathering profile have been proposed, but never for the hard rocks of West Africa. Besides, in the literature there is no description of the weathering profile in volcanosedimentrary rocks. Therefore, we propose three models describing the weathering profiles in granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks for hard rock formations located in West Africa. For each of these models proposed for granitic and volcanosedimentary rocks of the Dimbokro catchment, vertical layered weathering profiles are described, according to the various weathering and erosion cycles (specific to West Africa) that the geological formations of the Dimbokro catchment experienced from the Eocene to the recent Quaternary period. The characterization of weathering profiles is based on: i) bedrocks and weathering profile observations at outcrop, and ii) interpretation and synthesis of geophysical data and lithologs from different boreholes. For each of the geological formations (granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks), their related weathering profile model depicted from top to bottom comprises four separate layers: alloterite, isalterite, fissured layer, and fractured fresh basement. These weathering profiles are systematically covered by a soil layer. Though granites, metasediments and volcanic rocks of the Dimbokro catchment experience the same weathering and erosion cycles during the palaeoclimatic fluctuations from Eocene to recent Quaternary period, they exhibit differences in thickness. In granites, the weathering profile is relatively thin due to the absence of iron crust which protects weathering products against dismantling. In metasediments and volcanic rocks iron crusts develop better than in granites; in these rocks the alterite are more resistant to dismantling.

Koita, M.; Jourde, H.; Koffi, K. J. P.; da Silveira, K. S.; Biaou, A.

2013-06-01

345

Emissions and concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in the air of the tropical forest of the Ivory Coast and of temperate regions in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric H2S was measured by a fluorometric method (sensitivity 10 ng). In France, for aerated soils the emissions were between 0.8 and 27 mug m-2 h-1 H2S (average 5 mug m-2 h-1). The soil temperature is an important factor governing this emission. The H2S concentrations in the air ranged from 0.017 to 0.17 mug m-3 (average 0.080 mug m-3). In

Robert Delmas; Jean Baudet; Jean Servant; Yves Baziard

1980-01-01

346

Princess Astrid Coast, Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The continent of Antarctica is almost completely covered by a thick blanket of ice, punctuated only by steep mountain peaks and a handful of dry valleys. Antarctica is also ringed by a permanent ice shelf, and that is surrounded by seasonal sea ice. The image above, acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on September 26, 2001, shows many of the types of ice found in Antarctica. At the bottom of the image is the ice of the continental glacier, which is up to 4,000 meters thick in the interior. These thick glaciers are held in place by coastal mountain ranges. Some ice does flow through the mountains, spilling onto the relatively flat land of the Princess Astrid Coast. Cold air also spills over the mountains, creating very strong and persistent 'katabatic' winds. These scour the snow off the tops of the glaciers, leaving pale blue patches of bare ice. Above the coastline is the ice shelf, which is much smoother. There, glacial ice actually floats on the sea surface. Beyond that is the chaotic surface of the sea ice, which has been solidifying all winter long. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

347

SeeCoast port surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SeeCoast extends the US Coast Guard Port Security and Monitoring system by adding capabilities to detect, classify, and track vessels using electro-optic and infrared cameras, and also uses learned normalcy models of vessel activities in order to generate alert cues for the watch-standers when anomalous behaviors occur. SeeCoast fuses the video data with radar detections and Automatic Identification System (AIS) transponder data in order to generate composite fused tracks for vessels approaching the port, as well as for vessels already in the port. Then, SeeCoast applies rule-based and learning-based pattern recognition algorithms to alert the watch-standers to unsafe, illegal, threatening, and other anomalous vessel activities. The prototype SeeCoast system has been deployed to Coast Guard sites in Virginia. This paper provides an overview of the system and outlines the lessons learned to date in applying data fusion and automated pattern recognition technology to the port security domain.

Seibert, Michael; Rhodes, Bradley J.; Bomberger, Neil A.; Beane, Patricia O.; Sroka, Jason J.; Kogel, Wendy; Kreamer, William; Stauffer, Chris; Kirschner, Linda; Chalom, Edmond; Bosse, Michael; Tillson, Robert

2006-05-01

348

Multi-component diffusion between molten SiO2 inclusions and surrounding felsic melt in an indochinite: Tektites as natural laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tektites are natural glasses thought to have formed as a result of melting and quenching of distally ejected terrestrial material upon hypervelocity (>11 km/s) impact on Earth. Some tektites contain inclusions of lechatelierite (nearly pure SiO2 glass; 99-100 wt. % SiO2), generally thought to be the amorphous relicts of partially digested quartz grains (Koeberl, 1994). Electron and ion microprobe analyses of major and minor elements were performed on transects between lechatelierite inclusions and the surrounding felsic glass in an indochinite (sample from Newman et al., 1995). The surrounding glass is peraluminous with an average composition of 73.4 wt.% SiO2, 12.8 wt.% Al2O3, 4.5 wt. % FeO, 2.3 wt.% K2O, and < 2 wt.% (each) CaO, MgO, Na2O, and TiO2. The boundary between the lechatelierite and felsic glass is broad (~30 ?m), with complex concentration profiles reflecting diffusion between the two melts at high temperatures (>2200 °C for formation of lechatelierite; Bunch et al., 2012) prior to quenching. Although all components except SiO2 are pinned to near zero at the same point at the lechatelierite end of the profiles, the shapes of the oxide concentration profiles differ, with Ca and Mg falling off from their far-field values first, followed in order by Fe, Ti, Al, Na, and K. K has apparently propagated the longest distance, diffusing faster than other components from the surrounding melt toward the lechatelierite. Furthermore, concentration profiles of K2O systematically increase, reach a maximum, then decrease closest to lechatelierite, indicating uphill diffusion of K against its concentration gradient. All concentration profiles are asymmetric, becoming steepest towards the most silicic portions of the interdiffusion zone approaching lechatelierite, likely due to the sharp compositional contrast between matrix glass and inclusions. Sato (1974) observed similar alkali enrichment in coronas around quartz xenocrysts in basalt and andesite, where K, and to a lesser degree Na, diffused against their concentration gradients. The uphill diffusion of alkalis in corona glass surrounding quartz was interpreted by Sato (1974) with a diffusion model assuming non-ideality of alkali elements in silicate melt, in which diffusion occurs according to the chemical potential gradient of each species. Preliminary calculations using the MELTS (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995) activity-composition model to transform the composition profiles across lechatelierite and felsic glass into chemical potential profiles (at 2200 °C) indicate that all components, including K2O, diffuse down their own chemical potential gradients. We will investigate these phenomena further in attempt to model the observed profiles. A deeper understanding of this problem may inform the factors controlling diffusion coefficients in silicate melts derived from crustal material, as well as the thermal histories of tektites. Bunch T.E. et al. (2012) P NATL ACAD SCI 109:1903-1912 Ghiorso M.S., Sack R.O. (1995) CONTRIB MINERAL PETR 119:197-212 Koeberl C. (1994) GEOL S AM S 133-151 Newman S. et al. (1995) LPS XXVI 26:1039-1040 Sato H. (1974) CONTRIB MINERAL PETROL 50:49-64

Macris, C. A.; Eiler, J. M.; Asimow, P. D.; Stolper, E. M.

2013-12-01

349

Honduras: Caribbean Coast.  

PubMed

The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress to marine resources since most tourists spend time in the coastal zone. Hence the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in coastal development, a greater requirement for sewage treatment and more demand for freshwater, particularly in the Bay Islands. Although coastal zone management is relatively recent in Honduras, it is gaining momentum from both large-scale initiatives, such as the Ministry of Tourism's 'Bay Islands Environmental Management Project', and national and international NGO projects. For example, a series of marine protected areas and legislative regulations have been established, but management capacity, enforcement and monitoring are limited by funding, expertise and training. Existing and future initiatives, supported by increased political will and environmental awareness of stakeholders, are vital for the long-term economic development of the country. PMID:11827108

Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

2001-12-01

350

77 FR 67327 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National...transmitted Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for...

2012-11-09

351

77 FR 58930 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of...CONTACT: Peggy Mundy, Northwest Region Salmon Management Division, NMFS, 206-526-4323...regulatory areas in the commercial ocean salmon fishery off the coasts of...

2012-09-25

352

76 FR 57945 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National...submitted Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for...

2011-09-19

353

75 FR 23615 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...90 species of groundfish off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California...management measures for the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published...in consultation with Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Tribes and the States of...

2010-05-04

354

76 FR 54713 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...recreational regulations off the coasts of Washington and California...660--FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES 0 1. The authority...31 along the mainland coast and along islands and...deg]27' N. lat. (Central Management Area),...

2011-09-02

355

47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119...distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a) Coast stations...watches for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress...

2014-10-01

356

47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119...distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a) Coast stations...watches for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress...

2012-10-01

357

47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119...distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a) Coast stations...watches for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress...

2010-10-01

358

47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119...distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a) Coast stations...watches for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress...

2013-10-01

359

47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119...distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a) Coast stations...watches for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress...

2011-10-01

360

Bryan Coast, English Coast, Alexander Island, Fallieres Coast, and Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of Antarctica shows the Bryan Coast (lower left), the English Coast (lower central), Alexander Island (middle right), the Fallieres Coast (top right), and the Bellingshausen Sea. The entire continent has been dedicated to peaceful scientific investigation since 1961, with the signing of the Antarctic Treaty.The waters surrounding Antarctica are intensely cold. Salt water freezes at -2C, allowing sea ice to form. The middle left portion of the image shows quite a lot of sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea. During the Antarctic winter, when data for this image was acquired, Antarctica doubles in size to about 28.5 million square km (or about 11 million square miles), and temperatures in the -60C range are common.This true-color image was compiled from MODIS data gathered March 29, 2002. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

361

27 CFR 9.75 - Central Coast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...section is “Central Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Central Coast...following 43 United States Geological Survey topographic maps: (1) Monterey, California (formerly, the...

2010-04-01

362

BPW HIBISCUS COAST (Business & Professional Women)  

E-print Network

BPW HIBISCUS COAST (Business & Professional Women) $2000 STUDY AWARD Year 2012 Awarded to a female student who is a past or present Hibiscus Coast Resident, who has completed at least one full year HIBISCUS COAST ~ PO Box 321, Silverdale 0944 $2000 STUDY AWARD YEAR 2012 CONDITIONS AND CRITERIA 1

Auckland, University of

363

Radiological Habits Survey: Cumbrian coast beach occupancy,  

E-print Network

Radiological Habits Survey: Cumbrian coast beach occupancy, 2009 2010 Cefas contract report C3635 Environment Report RL 01/10 #12;1 Environment Report RL 01/10 Radiological Habits Survey: Cumbrian coast beach. Survey area 9 Map 1 The Cumbrian coast beach occupancy survey area 10 3.1 General observations 11 3

364

Molecular analysis of mutants obtained by treatment with alkylating agents in a quadruplicated white-ivory strain of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

The use of a white-ivory (wi) strain of Drosophila melanogaster carrying four copies of this allele, (wi)4, has proved to be useful in detecting somatic mutation in genotoxicity testing. Nevertheless, until now very little information exists about the nature of the genetic effects detected in such a strain. This work presents molecular data on the changes that have taken place in different germinal mutants obtained after treatment with alkylating agents. Three different phenotypes were obtained: wild-type red eyes, dark red eyes and eyes lighter than (wi)4. Our results show that, in at least one of the four copies of the allele, the wild-type red eye phenotypes are due to a precise excision of the 2.96 kb duplicated region characteristic of the wi allele. These data agree with previous results obtained in a strain carrying only a single copy of the wi allele. The dark red eye mutants analysed seemed to be generated as a cluster and all proved to be caused by deletions at the 3'-end of the duplicated wi region in two of the copies of the (wi)4 genome. Finally, the light eye mutants (obtained at high frequencies) failed to show alterations at the molecular level, although we cannot discard the possibility that they might have originated by the loss of some of the wi copies of the (wi)4 strain. PMID:10229920

Suárez, S; Cabré, O; Velázquez, A; Marcos, R; Xamena, N

1999-03-01

365

40Ar-39Ar step-heating of impact glasses from the Nördlinger Ries impact crater—Implications on excess argon in impact melts and tektites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven impact melts from various places in the Nördlinger Ries were dated by 40Ar-39Ar step-heating. The aim of these measurements was to increase the age data base for Ries impact glasses directly from the Ries crater, because there is only one Ar-Ar step-heating spectrum available in the literature. Almost all samples display saddle-shaped age spectra, indicating the presence of excess argon in most Ries glass samples, most probably inherited argon from incompletely degassed melt and possibly also excess argon incorporated during cooling from adjacent phases. In contrast, moldavites usually contain no inherited argon, probably due to their different formation process implying solidification during ballistic transport. The plateau age of the only flat spectrum is 14.60 ± 0.16 (0.20) Ma (2?), while the total age of this sample is 14.86 ± 0.20 (0.22) Ma (isochron age: 14.72 ± 0.18 [0.22] Ma [2?]), proofing the chronological relationship of the Ries impact and moldavites. The total ages of the other samples range between 15.77 ± 0.52 and 20.4 ± 1.0 Ma (2?), implying approximately 2-40% excess 40Ar (compared to the nominal age of the Ries crater) in respective samples. Thus, the age of 14.60 ± 0.16 (0.20) (2?) (14.75 ± 0.16 [0.20 Ma] [2?], calculated using the most recent suggestions for the K decay constants) can be considered as reliable and is within uncertainties indistinguishable from the most recent compilation for the age of the moldavite tektites.

Schwarz, Winfried H.; Lippolt, Hans J.

2014-06-01

366

Red Tide off Texas Coast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

2002-01-01

367

California coast nearshore processes study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. During the period 1 May to 30 June 1973 material was processed and interpreted for use in analyzing the three ocean seasons along the California coast. ERTS imagery from the first season of the year, called the Davidson Current period, was mosaiced and analyzed. The second season of the year, the Upwelling period, was mosaiced and interpretation was initiated. Imagery for the third ocean season, the Oceanic period, is being collected for future study.

Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (principal investigators)

1973-01-01

368

Resource Wars and Conflict Ivory: The Impact of Civil Conflict on Elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo - The Case of the Okapi Reserve  

PubMed Central

Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to document changes in elephant abundance and distribution. We employed Generalized Additive Models to relate changes in elephant distribution to human and environmental factors. Populations declined by nearly fifty percent coinciding with a major increase in elephant poaching as indicated by reports of ivory trade during the war. Our results suggest that humans influenced elephant distribution far more than habitat, both before and after the war, but post-war models explained more of the variation. Elephant abundance declined more, closer to the park boundary and to areas of intense human activity. After the war, elephant densities were relatively higher in the centre of the park where they were better protected, suggesting that this area may have acted as a refuge. In other sites in Eastern DRC, where no protection was provided, elephants were even more decimated. Post-war dynamics, such as weakened institutions, human movements and availability of weapons, continue to affect elephants. Survival of remaining populations and recovery will be determined by these persistent factors and by new threats associated with growing human populations and exploitation of natural resources. Prioritizing wildlife protection, curbing illegal trade in ivory and bushmeat, and strengthening national institutions and organizations in charge of conservation will be crucial to counter these threats. PMID:22096529

Beyers, Rene L.; Hart, John A.; Sinclair, Anthony R. E.; Grossmann, Falk; Klinkenberg, Brian; Dino, Simeon

2011-01-01

369

Traditional West Coast Native Medicine  

PubMed Central

An important part of the complex culture of the Native people of Canada's Pacific coast is the traditional system of medicine each culture has developed. Population loss from epidemics and the influence of dominant European cultures has resulted in loss of many aspects of traditional medicine. Although some Native practices are potentially hazardous, continuation of traditional approaches to illness remains an important part of health care for many Native people. The use of “devil's club” plant by the Haida people illustrates that Native medicine has both spiritual and physical properties. Modern family practice shares many important foundations with traditional healing systems. PMID:21253031

Deagle, George

1988-01-01

370

Phytoplankton bloom along the coast of Namibia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This MODIS true-color image, acquired March 4, 2002, shows a phytoplankton bloom along the coast of Namibia. Phytoplankton is a microscopic organism that utilizes chlorophyll, which sunlight reflects off of to create this intense blue-green color in the water. Also prominent in this image is the Skeleton Coast Game Park, which runs along Namibia's northern coast and here glows a beautiful coral-orange color.

2002-01-01

371

76 FR 32876 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures...management measures for the 2011 ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2012 salmon seasons opening earlier than May...

2011-06-07

372

78 FR 76570 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Pacific Whiting and Non-Whiting Allocations; Pacific Whiting Seasons AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

2013-12-18

373

77 FR 2655 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Pacific Whiting and Non-Whiting Allocations; Pacific Whiting Seasons AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

2012-01-19

374

Real-time PCR detection and quantification of elephantid DNA: species identification for highly processed samples associated with the ivory trade.  

PubMed

The ivory industry is the single most serious threat to global elephant populations. A highly sensitive, species-specific real-time PCR assay has been developed to detect and quantify African elephant (Loxodonta africana), Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) mitochondrial DNA from highly processed samples involved in the international ivory trade. This assay is especially useful for highly processed samples where there are no distinguishing morphological features to identify the species of origin. Using species-specific Taqman(®) probes targeting a region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, we developed an assay that can be used to positively identify samples containing elephant or Woolly mammoth DNA faster and more cost-effectively than traditional sequencing methods. Furthermore, this assay provides a diagnostic result based on probe hybridization that eliminates ambiguities associated with traditional DNA sequence protocols involving low template DNA. The real-time method is highly sensitive, producing accurate and reproducible results in samples with as few as 100 copies of template DNA. This protocol can be applied to the enforcement of the Convention on the International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES), when positive identification of species from illegally traded products is required by conservation officers in wildlife forensic cases. PMID:22257967

Wozney, Kristyne Michelle; Wilson, Paul J

2012-06-10

375

75 FR 51183 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-XX92 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...Canada Border to Cape Falcon, Oregon. Inseason...Canada Border to Cape Falcon, Oregon. The...9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to...

2010-08-19

376

West Coast Tsunami: Cascadia's Fault?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Japan tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Hypotheses of the rupture process of Cascadia fault include a long rupture (M9.1) along the entire fault line, short ruptures (M8.8 - M9.1) nucleating only a segment of the coastline, or a series of lesser events of M8+. Recent studies also indicate an increasing probability of small rupture occurring at the south end of the Cascadia fault. Some of these hypotheses were implemented in the development of tsunami evacuation maps in Washington and Oregon. However, the developed maps do not reflect the tsunami impact caused by the most recent updates regarding the Cascadia fault rupture process. The most recent study by Wang et al. (2013) suggests a rupture pattern of high- slip patches separated by low-slip areas constrained by estimates of coseismic subsidence based on microfossil analyses. Since this study infers that a Tokohu-type of earthquake could strike in the Cascadia subduction zone, how would such an tsunami affect the tsunami hazard assessment and planning along the Pacific Coast of North America? The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. West Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011 Japan tsunami,. Comparing to a long rupture, the Tohoku-type rupture may cause more serious impact at the adjacent coastline, independent of where it would occur in the Cascadia subduction zone. These findings imply that the Cascadia tsunami hazard may be greater than originally thought.

Wei, Y.; Bernard, E. N.; Titov, V.

2013-12-01

377

Healing our Coasts Protecting our Future  

E-print Network

to protect and restore coastal and marine resources harmed by oil spills, releases of hazardous substances;| DARRP | Healing our Coasts3 Threats to Our Nation's Coasts Each year, oil and toxic chemicals from ships also run aground on coral reefs and sea-grass beds, harming valuable habitat. Oil spills kill fish

378

CoastWatch Data in Google Earth  

E-print Network

CoastWatch Data in Google Earth: A How-to Guide Peter Hollemans, Terrenus Earth Sciences Consultant for NOAA/NESDIS CoastWatch Operations Managers Meeting, June, 2007 #12;Peter Hollemans, Terrenus Earth Sciences Consultant for NOAA/NESDISJune, 2007 Talk Outline · About Google Earth · Preparing Data

379

US Coast Guard Collision at Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collision between the USCGC Cuyahoga and the motor vessel Santa Cruz II resulted in psychological distress among the Coast Guard crewmen. The US Navy Special Psychiatric Rapid Intervention Team (SPRINT) was activated to provide mental health services to the Coast Guard survivors and others who had been affected by the disaster. The psychiatric records of the 18 survivors were

B. G. McCaughey

1985-01-01

380

Discovering the "-Ologies" on the Jurassic Coast  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Jurassic Coast is Britain's only natural World Heritage site, a tangible time-line that takes one through 185 million years of history in 95 miles of coast. It provides individuals with a world-famous educational resource and an unrivalled outdoor classroom that has played a key role in the study of earth sciences. The author is keen to ignite…

Peacock, Alan

2007-01-01

381

ANTH 442/542 Northwest Coast  

E-print Network

record of the Northwest Coast of North America, the culture area extending from southeast Alaska Native Americans and First Nations BLACKBOARD READINGS - The articles are listed by the date by which (1990) Environment. In: Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 7, Northwest Coast, edited by W

382

Greenland's Coast in Holiday Colors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vibrant reds, emerald greens, brilliant whites, and pastel blues adorn this view of the area surrounding the Jakobshavn Glacier on the western coast of Greenland. The image is a false-color (near-infrared, green, blue) view acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera. The brightness of vegetation in the near-infrared contributes to the reddish hues; glacial silt gives rise to the green color of the water; and blue-colored melt ponds are visible in the bright white ice. A scattering of small icebergs in Disco Bay adds a touch of glittery sparkle to the scene.

The large island in the upper left is called Qeqertarsuaq. To the east of this island, and just above image center, is the outlet of the fast-flowing Jakobshavn (or Ilulissat) glacier. Jakobshavn is considered to have the highest iceberg production of all Greenland glaciers and is a major drainage outlet for a large portion of the western side of the ice sheet. Icebergs released from the glacier drift slowly with the ocean currents and pose hazards for shipping along the coast.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer views the daylit Earth continuously and the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude is observed every 9 days. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired on June 18, 2003 during Terra orbit 18615. The image cover an area of about 254 kilometers x 210 kilometers, and use data from blocks 34 to 35 within World Reference System-2 path 10.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2003-01-01

383

75 FR 53667 - Space Coast Regional Innovation Cluster Competition  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No.: 1008270400-0400-01] Space Coast Regional Innovation Cluster Competition...upcoming availability of funding for the Space Coast Regional Innovation Cluster (RIC...Additional information can be found at the Space Coast RIC Web site at...

2010-09-01

384

33 CFR 23.10 - Coast Guard emblem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in full color is described as follows: White anchors and white ring all outlined in medium blue (Coast Guard blue), letters and numerals medium blue (Coast Guard blue), white area within ring, shield with medium blue (Coast Guard...

2010-07-01

385

76 FR 81851 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

2011-12-29

386

78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

2013-02-14

387

77 FR 75101 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

2012-12-19

388

78 FR 2254 - Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 0648-XC397 Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific...Association and Dan Platt; and (3) the Central Coast Sustainable Groundfish Association...Collaborative Fishing Survey EFP The Central Coast Sustainable Groundfish...

2013-01-10

389

"Through his indomitable spirit, outstanding work ethic, integrity and perseverance, LCdr Wong . . .  

E-print Network

of service as an officer in the Canadian Forces Advised U.N. Missions to Ivory Coast, Liberia, and Sudan affairs officer covering a broad geographic range of operations including UN Missions to the Ivory Coast

390

19 CFR 4.93 - Coastwise transportation by certain vessels of empty vans, tanks, and barges, equipment for use...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Guatemala Germany, Federal Republic of Greece Iceland India Iran Ireland Israel Italy Ivory Coast Japan Kuwait...Germany Finland France Greece Guatemala Iceland India Ireland Israel Italy Ivory Coast Kuwait...

2011-04-01

391

19 CFR 4.93 - Coastwise transportation by certain vessels of empty vans, tanks, and barges, equipment for use...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Guatemala Germany, Federal Republic of Greece Iceland India Iran Ireland Israel Italy Ivory Coast Japan Kuwait...Germany Finland France Greece Guatemala Iceland India Ireland Israel Italy Ivory Coast Kuwait...

2012-04-01

392

19 CFR 4.93 - Coastwise transportation by certain vessels of empty vans, tanks, and barges, equipment for use...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Guatemala Germany, Federal Republic of Greece Iceland India Iran Ireland Israel Italy Ivory Coast Japan Kuwait...Germany Finland France Greece Guatemala Iceland India Ireland Israel Italy Ivory Coast Kuwait...

2014-04-01

393

19 CFR 4.93 - Coastwise transportation by certain vessels of empty vans, tanks, and barges, equipment for use...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Guatemala Germany, Federal Republic of Greece Iceland India Iran Ireland Israel Italy Ivory Coast Japan Kuwait...Germany Finland France Greece Guatemala Iceland India Ireland Israel Italy Ivory Coast Kuwait...

2013-04-01

394

Scaling the Ivory Tower  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It used to be that newly minted Ph.D.s had to establish themselves and cut their academic teeth at less competitive colleges and universities. That was certainly true for young Black scholars. The prospects of landing a coveted teaching position at one of the nation's eight Ivy League institutions were dim. In the years leading up to the Civil…

Watson, Jamal Eric

2011-01-01

395

Leaving the Ivory Tower  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It all began with casual conversation between a university supervisor and classroom teachers and approval to use an unused classroom at a local elementary school. The space became the hub of an exciting professional development (PD) opportunity for classroom teachers. This article describes how hosting an on-site university science methods course…

DeCarlo, Carmine

2010-01-01

396

Leaving the Ivory Tower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It all began with casual conversation between a university supervisor and classroom teachers and approval to use an unused classroom at a local elementary school. The space became the hub of an exciting professional development (PD) opportunity for classr

Carmine DeCarlo

2010-07-01

397

Ebony and Ivory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's front hazard-avoidance camera focuses on a target called 'Goal 5.' Goal 5, examined during the 'Eagle Crater' soil survey, is a wind-rippled spot on the upper part of the crater , which the miniature thermal emission spectrometer shows is higher in hematite content compared to other soils within the crater. The light soil in the center of the image is referred to as 'Lanikai' -- an inspiration from the white sand beaches of Hawaii. The dark soil is referred to as 'Punaluu' after the black sand Hawaiian beaches.

2004-01-01

398

Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference  

SciTech Connect

Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

NONE

1997-05-01

399

The Coast Guard Comes to Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on Sea Partners, by the United States Coast Guard, that enables students to understand how pollution affects the marine environment. Correlates the activities with the National Science Education Standards. (DDR)

Fawcett, Paul

2002-01-01

400

Annabella: a North American coasting vessel  

E-print Network

The coasting schooner Annabella was built at Port Elizabeth, New Jersey, in 1834. Originally constructed as a sloop, the vessel was built specifically for transporting raw materials such as cordwood, brick, coal, and perishables to markets...

Claesson, Stefan Hans

1998-01-01

401

The Gulf Coast Energy Conservation Society  

E-print Network

membership, recent meeting topics, and examples of some benefits to society members are also presented. The Gulf Coast Energy Conservation Society was the outcome of informal meetings between Amoco, Union Carbide, and Monsanto back in 1973 and has grown...

Faulkner, C. R.

1979-01-01

402

Large colonies and striking sexual investment in the African stink ant, Paltothyreus tarsatus (subfamily Ponerinae)  

E-print Network

in the Ivory Coast. Colonies were monogynous in Comoé (forest and savanna), but polygynous in Taï (rainforest al. 1994). We collected over 40 complete colonies in savanna and forest habitats in the Ivory Coast field work at two localities (northern and coastal) in the Ivory Coast, West Africa. The southern part

Danchin, Etienne

403

PlantGeneticsandBreeding Original article  

E-print Network

in the Ivory Coast Christophe MONTAGNON*, Christian CILAS, Thierry LEROY, Antoine YAPO, Pierre CHARMETANT, Abidjan 01, Ivory Coast (Received 20 October 1998; accepted 6 December 1999) Abstract ­ A multi-site clonal trial comprising 16 clones and 9 locations in the Ivory Coast was used to study clone- location

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

404

BioMed Central Page 1 of 9  

E-print Network

Pierre Richet, Bouaké, Ivory Coast, 7Institut de Médecine Tropicale du Service de Santé des Armées for 671 isolates originating from three continents: Africa (Senegal, Ivory Coast, Central African Republic Pfcytb sequence, as did most samples originating from Cambodia and Ivory Coast. One synonymous (t759a

Boyer, Edmond

405

Ecology 2007 95, 10581071  

E-print Network

1303, Abidjan, Ivory Coast and UFR Science de la Nature, Université d'Abobo Adjamé, 02 BP 801 Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 7 Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève, case postale 60, CH-1292, Université de Cocody, 22, BP 582 Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 14 Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St

Malhi, Yadvinder

406

The Economic Partnership Agreements Between the European Union and the African-Caribbean-  

E-print Network

Countries The Impact on Trade Flow Between EU-Ghana and EU-Ivory Coast Enschede, October 28th , 2011 Greta................................................................................................................................ 19 4.1 Ivory Coast, the European Commission insists that positive effects prevail. The Western African states Ivory Coast and Ghana

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

407

Distinct difference in relative biological effectiveness of 252Cf neutrons for the induction of mitotic crossing over and intragenic reversion of the white-ivory allele in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 252Cf neutrons was determined for two different types of somatic mutations, i.e., loss of heterozygosity for wing-hair mutations and reversion of the mutant white-ivory eye-color, in Drosophila melanogaster. Loss of heterozygosity for wing-hair mutations results predominantly from mitotic crossing over induced in wing anlage cells of larvae, while the reverse mutation of eye-color is

Isao Yoshikawa; Masaharu Hoshi; Mituo Ikenaga

1996-01-01

408

Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center  

SciTech Connect

The Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center was initiated to significantly improve market and regulatory conditions for the implementation of combined heat and power technologies. The GC CEAC was responsible for the development of CHP in Texas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. Through this program we employed a variety of outreach and education techniques, developed and deployed assessment tools and conducted market assessments. These efforts resulted in the growth of the combined heat and power market in the Gulf Coast region with a realization of more efficient energy generation, reduced emissions and a more resilient infrastructure. Specific t research, we did not formally investigate any techniques with any formal research design or methodology.

Dillingham, Gavin

2013-09-30

409

Plans for West Coast STS launch capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The layout and scope of operations of the Vandenberg AFB West Coast Launch Site for the Space Shuttle are examined. The launch site intended for the first West Coast launch in December 1983 is being constructed by the United States Air Force. Topic discussed include site/selection/management/concepts, Shuttle hardware flow and related facilities, launch pad operations, orbiter erection at SLC-6 VAFB, solid rocket booster operations, and payload ground processing. In conclusion it is noted that NASA and DOD personnel are working together to ensure that the launch site is completed on schedule at minimum cost.

Murphy, W. P.; Marshall, J. H.

1979-01-01

410

Coasts, Beaches & Coastal Introduc5on  

E-print Network

Coasts, Beaches & Coastal Storms #12;Introduc5on · Con5nents are surrounded of New England and Oregon to the broad, sandy beaches of Florida and Texas constructed to stop beach erosion. No5ce that some areas of the beach maintain

Chen, Po

411

Lymphatic filariasis on the coast of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitological, clinical and entomological surveys for lymphatic filariasis were carried out in 6 villages and 3 towns on the coast of Ghana. Few or no filarial infections were observed in the towns or in the villages east of Accra. However, Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia was common in the 4 western villages, with overall prevalences of 9.2%–25.4% and overall microfilariae (mf) geometric

S. K. Dunyo; M. Appawu; F. K. Nkrumah; A. Baffoe-Wilmot; E. M. Pedersen; P. E. Simonsen

1996-01-01

412

Provenance of Norphlet sandstone, northern Gulf Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Upper Jurassic Norphlet sandstone of the northern Gulf Coast is predominantly subarkose, with some arkose in the eastern area and sublitharenite and quartzarenite in the western area. Despite great depths of burial and despite feldspar and rock-fragment constituents, diagenesis has not appreciably altered the composition of Norphlet sandstone. Therefore, reconstruction of original composition of Norphlet sandstone presented little difficulty.

W. P. Ryan; W. C. Ward; R. L. Kuglar

1987-01-01

413

Coast Guard's Response to Spilled Oil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Coast Guard utilizes a number of monitoring detectors, sensors, and techniques to find, recover and identify oil spills. Discussed in this article are in-situ and airborne sensors, systems developed to provide clean-up capability such as air deployable anti-pollution transfer system (ADAPTS), and techniques which will determine the source of a…

Ard, R. W., Jr.

1976-01-01

414

CONTAMINATION OF ATLANTIC COAST COMMERCIAL SHELLFISH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shellfish (oysters and/or clams) were obtained from 37 commercial harvesting sites in 12 Atlantic coast states from Maine to Florida and 1 site in New Brunswick, Canada. Gill washings from 25 shellfish at each site were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy (IFA) for oocysts of Cryptosporidium. ...

415

Infrared Imaging with COAST John Stephen Young  

E-print Network

Infrared Imaging with COAST John Stephen Young St John's College, Cambridge and CavendishD. thesis worth reading. I hope that is not the case here. This is, however, the only page not written, Professor John Baldwin, for always being available to give advice and encouragement, and for assisting

Young, John

416

OCEANOGRAPHIC OBSERVATIONS IN WEST COAST FLORIDA WATERS,  

E-print Network

the west coast af Florida since 1844. This fish-killing plague, known popularly as "red tide" be- cause not supported by evidence . It was not until 1948 that the cause of the red tide was positively identified. The goal of this investigation was to develop methods for prediction and control of red tide outbreaks

417

Human Dimensions of our Estuaries and Coasts  

EPA Science Inventory

The connection between humans and the sea via the coastal margin is well understood. Many of our major cities are built in the coastal zone, and 44 % of the world’s population lives within 150 km of the coast (United Nations 2014a). This tight connection is driven by the be...

418

SOUTH COAST SCHOOL BUS IDLING STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) and Coalition for Clean Air (CCA) conducted this study to provide information useful for estimating exposure of children in the South coast air basin to diesel exhaust while buses are loading and unloading at shcool sites. It was foun...

419

Greenland: Full West Coast (2nd render)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the ice concentration in Greenland. The ice has decreased significantly (~50 cm-year) along the coast and increased slightly in the center (+2 cm-year). Researchers view this as yet another serious warning sign of the threat of global warming.

Lori Perkins

2000-06-25

420

Red Tide Kills Fish, Fouls Gulf Coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This CBS news article reports a toxic algae bloom that spread along the Texas Gulf coast in 2000, killing millions of fish and fouling beaches with their remains. The article explains how red tide affects fish and describes health threats to humans.

CBS News

421

METRO EAST COAST ASSESSMENT: FINAL ASSESSMENT REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Metropolitan East Coast Regional Assessment is one of eighteen regional components of The U.S. National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change, organized by the U.S. Global Change Research Program. The goal of each regional assessment is to...

422

46 CFR 107.117 - Coast Guard addresses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Compliance, U.S. Coast Guard Stop 7501, 2703 Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20593-7501...Engineering Systems, U.S. Coast Guard Stop 7509, 2703 Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue SE., Washington, DC...

2014-10-01

423

46 CFR 107.117 - Coast Guard addresses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Compliance, U.S. Coast Guard Stop 7501, 2703 Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20593-7501...Engineering Systems, U.S. Coast Guard Stop 7509, 2703 Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue SE., Washington, DC...

2013-10-01

424

46 CFR 107.117 - Coast Guard addresses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...107.117 Section 107.117 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION General § 107.117 Coast Guard addresses. When approval of...

2011-10-01

425

U.S. Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Operations  

E-print Network

Continental Shelf Mapping Bathymetry -2003-2004 -2007-2008, planned for 2009 Seismic -Joint Canadian Coast Mapping Coast Guard Missions Logistics ­ Antarctic re-supply Logistics ­ Arctic re-supply Current Missions

Kuligowski, Bob

426

Fluctuations of cambial activity in relation to precipitation result in annual rings and intra-annual growth zones of xylem and phloem in teak (Tectona grandis) in Ivory Coast  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Teak forms xylem rings that potentially carry records of carbon sequestration and climate in the tropics. These records are only useful when the structural variations of tree rings and their periodicity of formation are known. Methods The seasonality of ring formation in mature teak trees was examined via correlative analysis of cambial activity, xylem and phloem formation, and climate throughout 1·5 years. Xylem and phloem differentiation were visualized by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Key Results A 3 month dry season resulted in semi-deciduousness, cambial dormancy and formation of annual xylem growth rings (AXGRs). Intra-annual xylem and phloem growth was characterized by variable intensity. Morphometric features of cambium such as cambium thickness and differentiating xylem layers were positively correlated. Cambium thickness was strongly correlated with monthly rainfall (R2 = 0·7535). In all sampled trees, xylem growth zones (XGZs) were formed within the AXGRs during the seasonal development of new foliage. When trees achieved full leaf, the xylem in the new XGZs appeared completely differentiated and functional for water transport. Two phloem growth rings were formed in one growing season. Conclusions The seasonal formation pattern and microstructure of teak xylem suggest that AXGRs and XGZs can be used as proxies for analyses of the tree history and climate at annual and intra-annual resolution. PMID:22805529

Dié, Agathe; Kitin, Peter; Kouamé, François N'Guessan; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Van Acker, Joris; Beeckman, Hans

2012-01-01

427

[Evaluation of Testryp CATT applied to blood samples on filter paper and on diluted blood in a focus of trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in the Ivory Coast].  

PubMed

The Testryp CATT was performed on dried blood samples on filter-paper and on diluted blood using a microtechnique. This method was applied to both sample collection techniques and was evaluated in parallel with the classical Testryp CATT on whole blood, as described in the instructions provided with the reagents by the manufacturer. A total of 2087 people were tested; 453 samples were tested in the laboratory and 1634 during a field survey in 5 villages of a trypanosomiasis focus in Daloa, Côte d'Ivoire. This study has demonstrated that the Testryp CATT micromethod on either type of sample collection gives results comparable to the Testryp CATT on whole blood. The collection of dried blood samples on filter-paper can be performed by non-specialized staff in trypanosomiasis control programmes of the national health services. In addition, a flask of CATT reagent will allow testing of 6 times more people by the micromethod than by the classical whole-blood method. The micromethod is suitable in the implementation of programmes for the serological surveillance of populations at risk. PMID:1959162

Miezan, T; Doua, F; Cattand, P; de Raadt, P

1991-01-01

428

78 FR 50347 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 6 Through...announces six inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

2013-08-19

429

78 FR 35153 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 4 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

2013-06-12

430

77 FR 22682 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1, 2...announces 3 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2011 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (76 FR 25246, May 4,...

2012-04-17

431

77 FR 65329 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 22 through...announces 5 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2,...

2012-10-26

432

77 FR 55426 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 4 through...announces 11 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2,...

2012-09-10

433

78 FR 24360 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2,...

2013-04-25

434

76 FR 17033 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1, 2...announces four inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. Inseason action 1 modified...in effect until the opening of the 2011 salmon season announced in the 2011...

2011-03-28

435

77 FR 61728 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 15 through...announces 7 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2,...

2012-10-11

436

78 FR 70509 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 12...announces 23 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified the commercial and recreational salmon fisheries in the area from the...

2013-11-26

437

75 FR 44925 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1, 2...announces four inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. Inseason action 1 modified...effect until the closing date of the 2010 salmon season announced in the 2010 annual...

2010-07-30

438

78 FR 30780 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Action 3 AGENCY...announces one inseason action in the ocean salmon fisheries. This inseason action modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

2013-05-23

439

78 FR 7371 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program; Cost Recovery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...SUMMARY: This action would implement a cost recovery program for the Pacific coast...rationalization program. One such requirement is cost recovery, where NFMS collects fees...

2013-02-01

440

The National Ocean Service: america's oceans and coasts: safe, healthy, and productive Office of Coast Survey  

E-print Network

with Gulf Coast maritime authorities. NOAA's Navigation Response Teams and a new torpedo-shaped autonomous mariners about a 600-pound World War II-era torpedo in the Gulf of Mexico to locating for removal 600 tons

441

WHITINGS ON THE COASTS OF THE AMERICAN CONTINENTS  

E-print Network

WHITINGS ON THE COASTS OF THE AMERICAN CONTINENTS . By ISAAC GINSBURG FISHERY BULLETIN 96 UNITED the study of these common food fishes occurring on the coasts of the American continents, all the species AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, John L. Farley, Director WHITINGS ON THE COASTS OF THE AMERICAN CONTINENTS By ISAAC

442

Beach Erosion along Tottori Coast and Comprehensive Sediment Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

YASUMOTO, Y., UDA, T., MATSUBARA, Y. and HIRANO, G., 2007. Beach erosion along Tottori coast and comprehensive sediment management. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 50 (Proceedings of the 9th International Coastal Symposium), 82 - 87. Gold Coast, Australia, ISSN 0749.0208 Beach erosion of the Tottori coast, Japan, was investigated based on the long-term shoreline changes using aerial photographs and bathymetric

Y. Yasumoto; T. Uda; Y. Matsubara; G. Hirano

2007-01-01

443

USGS with U.S. and Canadian Coast Guard  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Waiting to board the Canadian helicopter from U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy and visit Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St. Laurent. From left to right: USGS scientist Jonathan Childs, chief scientist for this expedition on Healy; U.S. Coast Guard Lieutenant Commander Douglas Petrusa; Canadian Coas...

444

33 CFR 166.500 - Areas along the Atlantic Coast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Areas along the Atlantic Coast. 166.500 Section...166.500 Areas along the Atlantic Coast. (a) Purpose...safe vessel routes along the Atlantic Coast. (b) Designated...enclosed by rhumb lines, [North American Datum of 1927...

2011-07-01

445

33 CFR 166.500 - Areas along the Atlantic Coast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Areas along the Atlantic Coast. 166.500 Section...166.500 Areas along the Atlantic Coast. (a) Purpose...safe vessel routes along the Atlantic Coast. (b) Designated...enclosed by rhumb lines, [North American Datum of 1927...

2010-07-01

446

33 CFR 166.500 - Areas along the Atlantic Coast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Areas along the Atlantic Coast. 166.500 Section...166.500 Areas along the Atlantic Coast. (a) Purpose...safe vessel routes along the Atlantic Coast. (b) Designated...enclosed by rhumb lines, [North American Datum of 1927...

2013-07-01

447

33 CFR 166.500 - Areas along the Atlantic Coast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Areas along the Atlantic Coast. 166.500 Section...166.500 Areas along the Atlantic Coast. (a) Purpose...safe vessel routes along the Atlantic Coast. (b) Designated...enclosed by rhumb lines, [North American Datum of 1927...

2012-07-01

448

33 CFR 166.500 - Areas along the Atlantic Coast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Areas along the Atlantic Coast. 166.500 Section...166.500 Areas along the Atlantic Coast. (a) Purpose...safe vessel routes along the Atlantic Coast. (b) Designated...enclosed by rhumb lines, [North American Datum of 1927...

2014-07-01

449

50. Elevation view underway, showing "new" coast guard paint scheme ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. Elevation view underway, showing "new" coast guard paint scheme and A-frame crane. Note crews quarters expanded over turtle deck at stern. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE SUMAC, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

450

28. VIEW OF WHITE SAGE PRIOR TO BEING PAINTED COAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. VIEW OF WHITE SAGE PRIOR TO BEING PAINTED COAST GUARD COLORS OF BLACK AND WHITE. NOTE ALSO THE PHOTOGRAPH WAS TAKEN PRIOR TO THE INSTALLATION OF A-FRAME MAST AND BOOM AND TO THE CONSTRUCTION OF TURTLE DECK. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE SAGE, U.S. Coast Guard 1st District Base, 1 Thames Street, Bristol, Bristol County, RI

451

50 CFR 660.324 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Fishing by a member of a Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribe outside...rockfish by members of the Pacific Coast Indian tribes using hook and...S.-Canadian border and Cape Alava (48°09.50? N. lat...management measures. Pacific Coast treaty Indians fishing...

2010-10-01

452

THE ATLANTIC COAST SURF CLAM with a partial bibliography  

E-print Network

THE ATLANTIC COAST SURF CLAM · with a partial bibliography UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OF THE INTERIOR U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES THE ATLANTIC COAST SURF CLAM #12;f OL }( - U ~ . #12;THE ATLANTIC COAST SURF CLAM with a partial bibliography By ROBER T M . YANCEY

453

77 FR 65639 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off the West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Provisions; Fisheries Off the West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Pacific Whiting and Non- Whiting Allocations; Pacific Whiting Seasons AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

2012-10-30

454

Identification of the projectile at the Brent crater, and further considerations of projectile types at terrestrial craters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact melt samples from drill hole B1-59 at the 3.8 km diameter Brent crater (Ontario) have been analysed for siderophile trace elements indicative of meteoritic contamination. Samples from the basal melt zone at 823-857 m depth are enriched in Ir, Os, Pd, Ni, Co, Cr and Se over basement, with the abundance pattern suggesting a chondritic projectile for Brent. From a Ni-Cr correlation of 10 melt samples an L or LL chondrite is inferred. The contribution of an ultramafic country rock (alnoite) in the melt is too small to significantly influence its Ni/Cr ratio. Glass-rich breccias from the allochthonous breccias filling the crater also contain a meteoritic component. Interelement ratios (e.g. Ni/Cr) are, however, fractionated relative to the melt zone samples. This, as well as the low Au content of all Brent samples, is probably a product of alteration. Additional data on impact melts from the 65 km diameter crater Manicouagan still did not reveal a meteoritic component, as also for the Mistastin crater (28 km diameter) where Cr analyses set an upper limit of 1% of an achondritic projectile component in the melt. Irghizites (tektite like glasses) from the Zhamanshin impact structure have been found to contain high Ni and Co concentrations, and our data show that Ir is also enriched. It is however not possible to define the projectile-type. Enrichment of an Ivory Coast tektite in Ir is confirmed. There are large differences in siderophile element concentrations among tektites, with otherwise similar chemical composition. There are now four known craters formed by chondrites (Clearwater East, Lapparjärvi, Wanapitei, and Brent), with Brent being the smallest of these. For smaller craters the projectiles appear to be limited to iron or stony-iron meteorites, because of atmospheric destruction of relatively small stony meteorites. It appears, however, that all major classes of meteorites are represented among the projectiles at terrestrial impact craters.

Palme, Herbert; Grieve, Richard A. F.; Wolf, Rainer

1981-12-01

455

Anarchism and the Archaeology of Anarchic Societies: Resistance to Centralization in the Coast Salish Region of the Pacific Northwest Coast  

E-print Network

Salish Region of the Pacific Northwest Coast Author(s): Bill Angelbeck and Colin Grier Reviewed work of Anarchic Societies Resistance to Centralization in the Coast Salish Region of the Pacific Northwest Coast by Bill Angelbeck and Colin Grier Throughout human history, people have lived in societies without

Kohler, Tim A.

456

CoastWatch Data Analysis Tool  

E-print Network

and animation support for map comparisons · Geographic feature support with attributes #12;CDAT Software DesignDraw AnalyzeGrid Coast Political Topo 7 Drawing color: Line style: Fill color: Transparency: Draw line drop Animate Date: 2009/01/10 20:58:02 PST Variable: 0 mLevel: avhrr_ch2 Date: 2009/01/10 20:58:02 PST Variable

457

Currents Along the Pacifie Coast of Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT A series of oceanographic,studies along the west coast of British Columbia in 1979-1982 produced($#$#$#CommaToBeDethe Sound,and,a strong,outjlowfrom,the Sound,near Cape St James are the two dominant,features,observed. At a!epths between 150 and 330 m, the currents along Vancouver Island are generally toward the northwest ut 5 to 15 cm s-‘, except between March and May. If thisjow is the Caltfornia Undercurrent, then

H. j. Freeland; W. r. Crawford; R. e. Thomson

458

Currents along the pacific coast of Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of oceanographic studies along the west coast of British Columbia in 1979–1982 produced several realizations of the seasonal cycle of currents. At one site, occupied for 3–1\\/4 years, the monthly mean currents are stable in speed and direction indicating that a single year of data reliably describes the pattern.Based upon three sets of observations at 15?m depth (summer

H. J. Freeland; W. R. Crawford; R. E. Thomson

1984-01-01

459

WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect

The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct.1. Contracts were then put into place with twelve organizations which will carry out the technical work required to meet Partnership objectives.

Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

2004-01-01

460

Peruvian Arid Coast and Agriculture, South America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The coast of Peru, between the Pacific Ocean and the Andes Mountains is very arid (16.5S, 72.5W). For several thousand years, water from numerous small streams has been used for traditional flood and canal irrigation agriculture. However, during the past decade innovative techniques have tapped new water sources for increased agricultural production. Ground water in the porous sedimentary rock formations has been tapped for well irrigation agriculture.

1991-01-01

461

Ocean Planet: Stranded Along the Coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unit from Smithsonian multidisciplinary ocean curriculum. Lesson plan focuses on how dynamic coastlines, oceanographic conditions and human activities affect marine animals such as cetaceans, pinnipeds and sea turtles. Students study sea turtle migrations, use math skills to plot sea turtle strandings on the Atlantic Coast. Unit includes: background essay; teacher instructions; maps for student activity; discussion questions; all online in PDF format. Resources include online version of Smithsonian Ocean Planet exhibition.

462

West Coast, United States and Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view shows the west coast of the United States and Mexico (32.5N, 118.0W) and gives an indication of the range of view from orbital altitude. The visual range of this particular scene is from Skammon's Lagoon on Baja to the northern tip of California's Central Valley and Sierra Nevada, a range of over 15 degrees of latitude. Coastal fog drapes over southern California and northern Baja California. White Sands, New Mexico is at far right center.

1990-01-01

463

Phytoplankton off the Coast of Portugal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large phytoplankton bloom off of the coast of Portugal can be seen in this true-color image taken on April 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The bloom is roughly half the size of Portugal and forms a bluish-green cloud in the water. The red spots in northwest Spain denote what are likely small agricultural fires. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

464

Tritium level along Romanian Black Sea Coast  

SciTech Connect

Establishing the tritium level along the Romanian Black Sea Coast, after 10 years of exploitation of the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda, is a first step in evaluating its impact on the Black Sea ecosystem. The monitoring program consists of tritium activity concentration measurement in sea water and precipitation from Black Sea Coast between April 2005 and April 2006. The sampling points were spread over the Danube-Black Sea Canal - before the locks Agigea and Navodari, and Black Sea along the coast to the Bulgarian border. The average tritium concentration in sea water collected from the sampling locations had the value of 11.1 {+-} 2.1 TU, close to tritium concentration in precipitation. Although an operating nuclear power plant exists in the monitored area, the values of tritium concentration in two locations are slightly higher than those recorded elsewhere. To conclude, it could be emphasized that until now, Cernavoda NPP did not had any influence on the tritium concentration of the Black Sea Shore. (authors)

Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Popescu, I.; Faurescu, I. [National Inst. for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, PO Box 10, Rm. Valcea, 24050 (Romania)

2008-07-15

465

Climate change sensitivity of the African ivory nut palm, Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart. (Arecaceae) - a keystone species in SE Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Africa is the most vulnerable continent to future climate change. Profound changes are projected for southwestern Africa with increased drying, notably with delayed onset of the rainy season in September-November, and temperature increases in all seasons. The projected climate changes combined with land-use changes are thought to constitute the main threats to biodiversity in the 21st century. To be able to predict the potential impact on biodiversity, it is crucial to achieve a better insight into the controls of contemporary species ranges. Using species distribution modeling, we assessed the climate sensitivity of the key-stone palm species Hyphaene petersiana (African ivory nut palm) in southern Africa. We tested the relative roles of climate vs. non-climatic range-controls and found that climate had a clear effect on the range of H. petersiana and that especially water-related variables (annual precipitation and precipitation driest quarter) were of high importance. Nevertheless, latitude was the overall most dominant variable, reflecting spatial constraints on the continental-scale distribution. Of the remaining non-climatic factors, soil type and human influence were as important as the climatic factors. A future decrease in annual precipitation below 400 mm and hydrological changes towards drier conditions could cause a dramatic decline in H. petersiana populations, while the influence of temperature changes is less clear. The ongoing, unsustainable utilization pressures on this palm species by humans and livestock are likely to exacerbate the negative effect of future climate changes on its populations, especially, given the expected human population increase in Africa.

Blach-Overgaard, A.; Svenning, J.-C.; Balslev, H.

2009-11-01

466

Montpellier 8 March 2003  

E-print Network

, Ivory Cost) that in many cases we are directly providing the salaries to the local forest officials tronchi dalla Liberia Conflict timber Liberia Congo RD Ivory Coast ... #12;2 2. Which are the most

Pettenella, Davide

467

CHARLESTON FUND School of humanitieS  

E-print Network

" in which traders sailed down the area of what is now the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo and Benin, purchasing slaves, gold and ivory at a number of ports, and then selling as many slaves as possible to Portuguese

Young, Paul Thomas

468

West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the homepage of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) tsunami warning center for Alaska and the west coast of the United States. Users can access current tsunami information through an interactive map that shows the latest events and information statements. Rolling over the map symbols provides the date and time, location, and preliminary magnitude of earthquakes. Clicking on them provides access to additional information, including a statement of whether a tsunami is expected. There are also links to previous warning messages, Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds with headlines, links to documents and brief information; publications; and links to related sites with additional information.

469

Central and North Gulf Coast, Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this view of the central and north Gulf Coast of Texas (30.0N, 96.0W), San Antonio Bay, Matagorda Bay and Galveston/Trinity Bay are clearly seen though small sediment plumes at the tidal passes are visible. The large field patterns of irrigated agriculture highlights an ancient deltaic plain formed by the Colorado and Brazos Rivers. Many manmade lakes and reservoirs, as far west as Lake Belton and Lake Waco and as far east as Toledo Bend are visible.

1992-01-01

470

3. AERIAL VIEW TO NORTH OF NORTH PART OF COAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. AERIAL VIEW TO NORTH OF NORTH PART OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING PAN AMERICAN WORLD AIRWAYS HANGAR IN BACKGROUND. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard Official Photograph, 12th District, File No. 62751-21 A.S. Date unknown. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

471

78 FR 26526 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...lower Columbia River, Snake River Basin, upper Willamette River, central California coast...lat. 1,859.85 1,811.40 Minor shelf rockfish complex....... North of...10' N. lat. 508.00 508.00 Minor shelf rockfish complex....... South...

2013-05-07

472

78 FR 75268 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Coast Region, NMFS, 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle...retained catch estimates (weight) from the observer data...of doing so, (3) The weight and ex-vessel value...Recovery Notification, 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle...Recovery Appeals, 7600 Sand Point Way NE.,...

2013-12-11

473

75 FR 75638 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 12 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. Inseason action 12 modified...effect until the closing date of the 2010 salmon season announced in the 2010 annual...

2010-12-06

474

75 FR 75639 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 14 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. Inseason action 14 modified...effect until the closing date of the 2010 salmon season announced in the 2010 annual...

2010-12-06

475

76 FR 68349 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 5 Through...announces 22 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...effect until the closing date of the 2011 salmon season announced in the 2011 annual...

2011-11-04

476

Sustaining Alabama's Gulf Coast Fishery Sustaining Alabama's Gulf Coast Fishery Resources Resources  

E-print Network

vitality of the State and Nation. It includes: ­ Transportation ­ Seafood ­ Oil and Gas · The coastal seafood industry and gulf fisheries ­ Critical economic resource for Alabama, gulf coast region on responsible stewardship of the resource Importance The coastal seafood industry and gulf Critical economic

Carver, Jeffrey C.

477

View of Mediterranean coast of France  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A vertical view of the Mediterranean coast of France is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This view includes the port cities of Marseilles (near center) and Toulon (far right). The mouth of the Rhone River is on the left. The irregular L-shaped inland body of water is Etang de Berre and is connected to the sea by a narrow canal. The city of Martiques is on the inland side of the canal. Cloud formations form narrow bands or streets along the coast east of Martiques and over the water. Cultural features such as major highways are indicated by thin white lines. Harbor facilities (wharves) and inner city patterns are distinctive in Marseilles and Toulon. The light tan areas in the regions inland from the major cities represent farming communities. The patterns are well shown in the vicinity of the Rhone River. The geology of the region is complex as illustrated by

1973-01-01

478

Sulfur Upwelling off the African Coast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Though these aquamarine clouds in the waters off the coast of northern Namibia may look like algae blooms, they are in fact clouds of sulfur produced by anaerobic bacteria on the ocean's floor. This image of the sulfur-filled water was taken on April 24, 2002, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite. The anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that can live without oxygen) feed upon algae carcasses that exist in abundance on the ocean's floor off of Namibia. As the bacteria ingest the algae husks, they produce hydrogen sulfide, which slowly builds up in the sea-floor sediments. Eventually, the hydrogen sulfide reaches the point where the sediment can no longer contain it, and it bubbles forth. When this poisonous chemical reaches the surface, it combines with the oxygen in the upper layers of the ocean to create clouds of pure sulfur. The sulfur causes the Namibian coast to smell like rotten eggs, and the hydrogen sulfide will often kill fish and drive lobsters away. For more information, read: A Bloom By Any Other Name A high-resolution (250 meters per pixel) image earlier on the 24th taken from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows additional detail in the plumes. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE. MODIS image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

479

Phytoplankton off the West Coast of Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Just off the coast of West Africa, persistent northeasterly trade winds often churn up deep ocean water. When the nutrients in these deep waters reach the ocean's surface, they often give rise to large blooms of phytoplankton. This image of the Mauritanian coast shows swirls of phytoplankton fed by the upwelling of nutrient-rich water. The scene was acquired by the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) aboard the European Space Agency's ENVISAT. MERIS will monitor changes in phytoplankton across Earth's oceans and seas, both for the purpose of managing fisheries and conducting global change research. NASA scientists will use data from this European instrument in the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) program. The mission of SIMBIOS is to construct a consistent long-term dataset of ocean color (phytoplankton abundance) measurements made by multiple satellite instruments, including the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). For more information about MERIS and ENVISAT, visit the ENVISAT home page. Image copyright European Space Agency

2002-01-01

480

75 FR 71293 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of California; 2007 South Coast State...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin area (South Coast nonattainment...Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin'' area (South Coast nonattainment...Plan for the South Coast Air Basin--PM 2.5 ...Houston-Galveston area, and by the Lake Michigan Air Directors...

2010-11-22

481

50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226...210 Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ),...

2011-10-01

482

50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226...210 Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ),...

2010-10-01

483

50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226...210 Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ),...

2013-10-01

484

50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226...210 Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ),...

2014-10-01

485

50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226...210 Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ),...

2012-10-01

486

Rainfall variability over the East African coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal region of Kenya and Tanzania experiences two rainy seasons per year (October-November-December (OND) and March-April-May (MAM)) and has an economy that is highly dependent on and vulnerable to the amounts and timing of rainfall during these seasons. Most of the interannual variability in OND seasonal rainfall totals relate to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events. While these relationships are fairly well documented and understood, there is a relatively poor understanding of the timing and intensity of the rainfall during ENSO/IOD seasons. In an attempt to improve understanding on this topic, daily rainfall station data, dekad and seasonal satellite rainfall estimates and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) imagery are analyzed for two recent OND seasons with El Niño conditions. These are OND 2006 which was characterized by devastating floods over the region and 2009 when the magnitude and spatial extent of the above average rainfall patterns were smaller. Daily rainfall data for the Tanzanian coastal stations showed that Tanga and Dar es Salaam (north and central coast) experienced few dry spells and several relatively intense wet spells during OND 2006 whereas at Mtwara, on the south coast, there were two very intense wet spells and a number of dry spells during the season. In OND 2009, only the north coast (Tanga) experienced above average rainfall, comprised of three wet spells with the one about a month after the beginning of the season being very intense. These data highlight the complexity of the rainfall distributions in the coastal region. A shift of the Walker circulation over coastal East Africa with strong uplift there seemed to be responsible for the very wet conditions during OND 2006. The marine air mass being advected from the western tropical Indian Ocean towards East Africa contained more moisture than average. Similar, but weaker, horizontal circulation anomalies occurred in OND 2009 along with increased moisture over the coastal zone although there was no obvious shift in the Walker circulation in this season.

Gamoyo, Majambo; Reason, Chris; Obura, David

2014-05-01

487

33 CFR 334.1480 - Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1480 Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques...

2011-07-01

488

33 CFR 334.1480 - Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1480 Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques...

2014-07-01

489

33 CFR 334.1480 - Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1480 Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques...

2012-07-01

490

33 CFR 334.1480 - Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1480 Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques...

2010-07-01

491

Impacts of Climate Change on the Coasts of Washington State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Climate change on the Washington coast will trigger significant physical and chemical stressors: (a) inundation of low-lying areas by high tides as sea level rises; (b) flooding of coasts during major storm events, especially near river mouths; (c) accelerated erosion of coastal bluffs; (d) shifting of beach profiles, moving the position of the Mean High Water line landward; (e)

Daniel D. Huppert; Amber Moore; Karen Dyson

492

JACK MACKEREL EGGS PACIFIC COAST, 1951-5  

E-print Network

JACK MACKEREL EGGS PACIFIC COAST, 1951-5 SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT- FISHERIES No. 263 UNITED STATES Report--Fisheries No. 263 Washington, D. C, July 1958 #12;JACK MACKEREL EGGS, PACIFIC COAST, 1951-54 By David A. Farris CONTENTS Page Area covered 2 Methods of sampling 2 The stages of jack mackerel egg

493

78 FR 54801 - Gulf Coast Restoration Trust Fund  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...also available to NOAA for a science research program, and to the Gulf Coast...animals, minerals, land, and water are interconnected. The ecosystem...of square miles of federal waters for fishing while contaminating...released oil dispersed over Gulf waters, wildlife, and coasts,...

2013-09-06

494

Regional Industry Workforce Development: The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network (GC-PIN) is a workforce development partnership among industry businesses and area institutions of higher education in the four-county Gulf Coast region. GC-PIN partners develop new industry-specific curricula, foster industry career awareness, and retrain existing employees in new technologies.

Hodgin, Johnette; Muha, Susan

2008-01-01

495

3 CFR - Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan...Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan...Agencies The oil spill in the Gulf...science-based restoration of the ecosystem...losses due to the spill. (c) The...respond to the oil spill,...

2011-01-01

496

33 CFR 23.20 - Coast Guard commission pennant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Coast Guard commission pennant. The Coast Guard commission pennant shall have the union part composed of thirteen blue stars in a horizontal line on a white field, one-fourth the length of the pennant; the remaining three-fourths shall...

2013-07-01

497

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF THE SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF THE SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT AIR CREDIT LIMITATIONS in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) present new challenges for California to achieve of the worst air quality in the nation, resulting in stringent local air quality requirements, including

498

CoastWatch Software Library and Utilities User's Guide  

E-print Network

CoastWatch Software Library and Utilities User's Guide Version 3.3.0 Revised October 22, 2013, AND INFORMATION SERVICE COASTWATCH PROGRAM #12;i Copyright Notice CoastWatch Software Library and Utilities this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above

499

Marine Algae Of Tobruk And Ain Ghazala Coasts, Libya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was mainly intended to collect and identify the marine algae of eastern Libyan coast closed to the Egyptian border lines. Two sampling stations were selected in the coasts of Tobruk and Ain Ghazala to cover the study area. Forty six marine algal species were collected and identified. Eighteen species of them were belonging to Chlorophyta (39.13%), twelve

M. M. Godeh; F. O. El-Menifi

500

Observation of coasting beam at the HERA Proton-Ring  

E-print Network

We present data collected with the HERA-B wire target which prove the existence of coasting beam at the HERA proton storage ring. The coasting beam is inherently produced by the proton machine operation and is not dominated by target effects.

Ehret, K; Issever, S; Jagla, T; Lohse, T; Schaller, S C; Spratte, S; Symalla, M; Vasilev, Yu; Wegener, D

2001-01-01

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