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Sample records for iyengari nematoda mermithidae

  1. Host Penetration and Emergence Patterns of the Mosquito-Parasitic Mermithids Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nematoda: Mermithidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sanad, Manar M.; Shamseldean, Muhammad S. M.; Elgindi, Abd-Elmoneim Y.; Gaugler, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus are mermithid nematodes that parasitize mosquito larvae. We describe host penetration and emergence patterns of Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus in laboratory exposures against Culex pipiens pipiens larvae. The mermithid species differed in host penetration behavior, with R. iyengari juveniles attaching to the host integument before assuming a rigid penetration posture at the lateral thorax (66.7%) or abdominal segments V to VIII (33.3%). Strelkovimermis spiculatus attached first to a host hair in a coiled posture that provided a stable base for penetration, usually through the lateral thorax (83.3%). Superparasitism was reduced by discriminating against previously infected hosts, but R. iyengari’s ability to avoid superparasitism declined at a higher inoculum rate. Host emergence was signaled by robust nematode movements that induced aberrant host swimming. Postparasites of R. iyengari usually emerged from the lateral prothorax (93.2%), whereas S. spiculatus emergence was peri-anal. In superparasitized hosts, emergence was initiated by males in R. iyengari and females in S. spiculatus; emergence was otherwise nearly synchronous. Protandry was observed in R. iyengari. The ability of S. spiculatus to sustain an optimal sex ratio suggested superior self-regulation. Mermithid penetration and emergence behaviors and sites may be supplementary clues for identification. Species differences could be useful in developing production and release strategies. PMID:23589657

  2. Efficacy of a mermithid nematode Romanomermis iyengari (Welch) (Nematoda: Mermithidae) in controlling tree hole-breeding mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in a rubber plantation area of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Paily, K P; Chandhiran, K; Vanamail, P; Kumar, N Pradeep; Jambulingam, P

    2013-03-01

    In rubber plantations, tree holes are one of the major types of breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes which transmit dengue and chikungunya. A mermithid nematode, Romanomermis iyengari, was evaluated in tree holes for its efficacy in controlling Aedes albopictus. Infection of mosquito larvae by the nematode was determined through microscopic examination on the next day of application, and evaluation of immature density of mosquito was done on the seventh day. After application of the infective stage of the nematode in a host-parasite ratio of 1:3 or 1:4, the infection rates on the different larval instars of mosquito were similar, 85.7-95.8 % in first to third instars and 79.3 % in fourth instar larvae or 100 and 92.9 %, respectively. Parasite burden varied from 1.1 to 2.4, respectively, among first and third instar larvae applied at 1:3. At 1:4, the parasite burden was between 1.6 (fourth instar) and 4 (second instar). The increase in parasite burden due to parasite density was significant in all the larval instars (P < 0.05). High parasite burden is detrimental to parasite recycling as it can cause premature mortality of the host. Hence, the dosage of 1:3 could be considered as suitable for rubber tree hole habitats. In the nematode-applied tree holes, there was a significant level (P < 0.05) of reduction in the immature density of A. albopictus, especially late instars and pupae, confirming the efficacy of R. iyengari in infecting the mosquito and controlling pupal emergence. PMID:23306387

  3. Allomermis solenopsii n. sp. (Mermithidae: Nematoda) parasitizing the fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of mermithid nematode, Allomermis solenopsii, (Mermithidae: Nematoda) is described from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina. This is the first record of Allomermis from South America and the first host record for members of this genus. Previo...

  4. Anomalomermis ephemerophagis n. g., n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitic in the mayfly Ephemerella maculata Traver (Ephermeroptera: Ephermerellidae) in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George; Walder, Larissa; Uno, Hiromi

    2015-03-01

    A new nematode, Anomalomermis ephemerophagis n. g., n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the mayfly Ephemerella maculata Traver (Ephermeroptera: Ephermerellidae) in California. The new species is characterised by six cephalic papillae and four additional disk papillae located on the head between the cephalic papillae and stoma. Additional diagnostic characters are: a terminal mouth opening; absence of X-fibers in the cuticle of both postparasitic juveniles and adults; paired, curved, medium-sized spicules; a straight barrow-shaped vagina and large eggs. Two infectious agents were present in some specimens. This is the first description of an adult nematode from a mayfly. PMID:25693457

  5. The mermithid species Isomermis lairdi (Nematoda, Mermithidae), previously only known in Africa, found in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gradinarov, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present work contributs to the knowledge on the aquatic mermithids (Nematoda, Mermithidae) occurring in black flies – an insufficiently studied group of parasitic nematodes. Isomermis lairdi Mondet, Poinar & Bernadou, 1977, described from larvae of Simulium damnosum Theobald, 1903 in Western Africa, is reported to occur in Bulgaria. The species was isolated from larvae of Simulium ornatum Meigen, 1818 in a local population of simuliids in a mountain stream near Jeleznitsa Village, Sofia district. Postparasitic juveniles of mermithids were obtained from the hosts and reared to the adult stage. The species was identified by morphological and morphometrical characters of postparasitic juveniles, and of male and female individuals. In the summer of 2012 a relatively high rate of mermithid infection in a local host population was detected (prevalence up to 44.1%). In August of the next year host abundance had considerably declined and other simuliid species, Simulium variegatum Meigen, 1818 and Simulium reptans (Linnaeus, 1758), predominated in the investigated locality. In West Africa, Isomermis lairdi is considered to be a potential biological agent for reducing the population density of the Simulium damnosum complex – the main vector of human onchocerciasis. In Europe, species of the Simulium ornatum complex are among the vectors of onchocerciasis of cattle and deer. The mermithids presumably play a certain role in the epidemiology of these diseases. A brief discussion on the taxonomy of the genus Isomermis Coman, 1953, and of the feasibility of molecular methods in mermithid taxonomy is provided. The species Isomermis lairdi is reported for the first time from Europe. PMID:25493063

  6. New North American records of aquatic insects as paratenic hosts of pheromermis (nematoda : mermithidae).

    SciTech Connect

    Molloy, D. P.; Vinikour, W. S.; Anderson, R. V.; Environmental Assessment; New York State Museum; Western Illinois Univ.

    1999-07-01

    Several species of aquatic insects in Trout Park Nature Preserve (Elgin, IL) were observed to have small, black spots (<0.1 mm diameter) visible within their bodies. Microscopic examination revealed these spots to be coiled juveniles of a mermithid (Nematoda: Mermithidae). Based on host habitat (seepage areas and rivulets), host species (aquatic insects), and size (mean diameter of coiled juveniles = 79 {mu}m), it is likely that these mermithids were in the genus Pheromermis. Since adult mermithids were not found, species determination was not feasible, and the possibility of a new species cannot be ruled out. Pheromermis pachysoma and Pheromermis vesparum, however, are two species known to use aquatic insects as paratenic (i.e., transport) hosts in order to reach their definitive hosts, vespid wasps. Wasp larvae are infected by consuming the flesh of adult aquatic insects that contain the coiled juveniles of these Pheromermis spp. Of the 19 macroinvertebrate species examined in this study, Pheromermis juveniles were found in 4 caddisfly species (Hesperophylax designatus, Lepidostoma liba, Glossosoma intermedium, and Diplectrona modesta) and in 2 stonefly species (Clioperla clio and Amphinemura delosa). In addition to all 6 insect species being new host records for Pheromermis infection, this also represents the first report of nematode infection in stoneflies within the Western Hemisphere and of a Pheromermis sp. in Illinois. Among trophic groups, insect detritivores have been frequently recorded infected with coiled Pheromermis juveniles because of their direct consumption of eggs, and we also observed this for detritivores in our investigation (e.g., L. liba and A. delosa). Because C. clio was intensively infected, however, our study also provided evidence that predatory insects can be paratenic hosts. Coiled juveniles were typically present in muscle and fat body and present in almost all body regions. Not every infected paratenic host had external signs of

  7. Prevalence of parasitism and adult survival time of Aedes albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) parasitized by Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nematoda: Mermithidae).

    PubMed

    Di Battista, Cristian M; Fischer, Sylvia; Campos, Raúl E

    2015-12-01

    We described the carryover of Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Poinar and Camino) (Nematoda: Mermithidae) from mosquito larvae, the primary site of maturation, to adults. We analyzed the survival time of male and female Aedes albifasciatus (Macquart) (Diptera: Culicidae) parasitized by S. spiculatus, the time of emergence of nematodes from adult mosquitoes, and the state of parasitism in the same mosquito cohorts during the immature stages. Mosquito larvae with single and multiple parasitism (up to 11 parasites) were observed. The mortality of mosquito larvae and adults was produced in all cases where at least one mermithid emerged. The mortality of S. spiculatus showed an increasing trend in mosquito larvae with larger numbers of nematodes and was higher in larvae parasitized by eight or more nematodes. Maximum survival of parasitized adult females of Ae. albifasciatus was 38 days, while non-parasitized adult males and females survived 39 and 41 days, respectively. Strelkovimermis spiculatus mortality was observed in Ae. albifasciatus larvae with single or multiple parasitisms. The spread of mermithid parasitism in adult mosquito populations is discussed. PMID:26611976

  8. First record of a Mermithidae (Nematoda) from the meloid beetle Meloe violaceus Marsham, 1802 (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Lückmann, Johannes; Poinar, George O

    2003-05-01

    A new record of nematode parasitism of meloid beetles is reported and all earlier records are summarised. Rates of parasitism could be influenced by the toxic compound cantharidin that these beetles possess. PMID:12743809

  9. High-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution fixation reveal the ultrastructure of immature and mature spermatozoa of the plant-parasitic nematode Trichodorus similis (Nematoda; Triplonchida; Trichodoridae).

    PubMed

    Lak, Behnam; Yushin, Vladimir V; Slos, Dieter; Claeys, Myriam; Decraemer, Wilfrida; Bert, Wim

    2015-10-01

    The spermatozoa from testis and spermatheca of the plant-parasitic nematode Trichodorus similis Seinhorst, 1963 (Nematoda; Triplonchida; Trichodoridae) were studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), being the first study on spermatogenesis of a representative of the order Triplonchida and important to unravel nematode sperm evolution. Comprehensive results could only be obtained using high-pressure freezing (HPF) and freeze-substitution instead of chemical fixation, demonstrating the importance of cryo-fixation for nematode ultrastructural research. The spermatozoa from the testis (immature spermatozoa) are unpolarized cells covered by numerous filopodia. They contain a centrally-located nucleus without a nuclear envelope, surrounded by mitochondria. Specific fibrous bodies (FB) as long parallel bundles of filaments occupy the peripheral cytoplasm. No structures resembling membranous organelles (MO), as found in the sperm of many other nematodes, were observed in immature spermatozoa of T. similis. The spermatozoa from the uterus (mature or activated spermatozoa) are bipolar cells with an anterior pseudopod and posterior main cell body (MCB), which include a nucleus, mitochondria and MO appearing as large vesicles with finger-like invaginations of the outer cell membrane, or as large vesicles connected to the inner cell membrane. The peripheral MO open to the exterior via pores. In the mature sperm, neither FBs nor filopodia were observed. An important feature of T. similis spermatozoa is the late formation of MO; they first appear in mature spermatozoa. This pattern of MO formation is known for several other orders of the nematode class Enoplea: Enoplida, Mermithida, Dioctophymatida, Trichinellida but has never been observed in the class Chromadorea. PMID:26093476

  10. Molecular determinants archetypical to the phylum Nematoda

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Nematoda diverged from other animals between 600–1,200 million years ago and has become one of the most diverse animal phyla on earth. Most nematodes are free-living animals, but many are parasites of plants and animals including humans, posing major ecological and economical challenges around the world. Results We investigated phylum-specific molecular characteristics in Nematoda by exploring over 214,000 polypeptides from 32 nematode species including 27 parasites. Over 50,000 nematode protein families were identified based on primary sequence, including ~10% with members from at least three different species. Nearly 1,600 of the multi-species families did not share homology to Pfam domains, including a total of 758 restricted to Nematoda. Majority of the 462 families that were conserved among both free-living and parasitic species contained members from multiple nematode clades, yet ~90% of the 296 parasite-specific families originated only from a single clade. Features of these protein families were revealed through extrapolation of essential functions from observed RNAi phenotypes in C. elegans, bioinformatics-based functional annotations, identification of distant homology based on protein folds, and prediction of expression at accessible nematode surfaces. In addition, we identified a group of nematode-restricted sequence features in energy-generating electron transfer complexes as potential targets for new chemicals with minimal or no toxicity to the host. Conclusion This study identified and characterized the molecular determinants that help in defining the phylum Nematoda, and therefore improved our understanding of nematode protein evolution and provided novel insights for the development of next generation parasite control strategies. PMID:19296854

  11. The Evolution of Tyrosine-Recombinase Elements in Nematoda

    PubMed Central

    Szitenberg, Amir; Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Blaxter, Mark L.; Lunt, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements can be categorised into DNA and RNA elements based on their mechanism of transposition. Tyrosine recombinase elements (YREs) are relatively rare and poorly understood, despite sharing characteristics with both DNA and RNA elements. Previously, the Nematoda have been reported to have a substantially different diversity of YREs compared to other animal phyla: the Dirs1-like YRE retrotransposon was encountered in most animal phyla but not in Nematoda, and a unique Pat1-like YRE retrotransposon has only been recorded from Nematoda. We explored the diversity of YREs in Nematoda by sampling broadly across the phylum and including 34 genomes representing the three classes within Nematoda. We developed a method to isolate and classify YREs based on both feature organization and phylogenetic relationships in an open and reproducible workflow. We also ensured that our phylogenetic approach to YRE classification identified truncated and degenerate elements, informatively increasing the number of elements sampled. We identified Dirs1-like elements (thought to be absent from Nematoda) in the nematode classes Enoplia and Dorylaimia indicating that nematode model species do not adequately represent the diversity of transposable elements in the phylum. Nematode Pat1-like elements were found to be a derived form of another Pat1-like element that is present more widely in animals. Several sequence features used widely for the classification of YREs were found to be homoplasious, highlighting the need for a phylogenetically-based classification scheme. Nematode model species do not represent the diversity of transposable elements in the phylum. PMID:25197791

  12. The evolution of parasitism in Nematoda.

    PubMed

    Blaxter, Mark; Koutsovoulos, Georgios

    2015-02-01

    Nematodes are abundant and diverse, and include many parasitic species. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have shown that parasitism of plants and animals has arisen at least 15 times independently. Extant nematode species also display lifestyles that are proposed to be on the evolutionary trajectory to parasitism. Recent advances have permitted the determination of the genomes and transcriptomes of many nematode species. These new data can be used to further resolve the phylogeny of Nematoda, and identify possible genetic patterns associated with parasitism. Plant-parasitic nematode genomes show evidence of horizontal gene transfer from other members of the rhizosphere, and these genes play important roles in the parasite-host interface. Similar horizontal transfer is not evident in animal parasitic groups. Many nematodes have bacterial symbionts that can be essential for survival. Horizontal transfer from symbionts to the nematode is also common, but its biological importance is unclear. Over 100 nematode species are currently targeted for sequencing, and these data will yield important insights into the biology and evolutionary history of parasitism. It is important that these new technologies are also applied to free-living taxa, so that the pre-parasitic ground state can be inferred, and the novelties associated with parasitism isolated. PMID:24963797

  13. A transcriptomic analysis of the phylum Nematoda.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, John; Mitreva, Makedonka; Whitton, Claire; Thomson, Marian; Daub, Jennifer; Martin, John; Schmid, Ralf; Hall, Neil; Barrell, Bart; Waterston, Robert H; McCarter, James P; Blaxter, Mark L

    2004-12-01

    The phylum Nematoda occupies a huge range of ecological niches, from free-living microbivores to human parasites. We analyzed the genomic biology of the phylum using 265,494 expressed-sequence tag sequences, corresponding to 93,645 putative genes, from 30 species, including 28 parasites. From 35% to 70% of each species' genes had significant similarity to proteins from the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. More than half of the putative genes were unique to the phylum, and 23% were unique to the species from which they were derived. We have not yet come close to exhausting the genomic diversity of the phylum. We identified more than 2,600 different known protein domains, some of which had differential abundances between major taxonomic groups of nematodes. We also defined 4,228 nematode-specific protein families from nematode-restricted genes: this class of genes probably underpins species- and higher-level taxonomic disparity. Nematode-specific families are particularly interesting as drug and vaccine targets. PMID:15543149

  14. Mating pheromones of Nematoda: olfactory signaling with physiological consequences.

    PubMed

    Leighton, Daniel Hw; Sternberg, Paul W

    2016-06-01

    Secreted pheromones have long been known to influence mating in the phylum Nematoda. The study of nematode sexual behavior has greatly benefited in the last decade from the genetic and neurobiological tools available for the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, as well as from the chemical identification of many pheromones secreted by this species. The discovery that nematodes can influence one another's physiological development and stress responsiveness through the sharing of pheromones, in addition to simply triggering sexual attraction, is particularly striking. Here we review recent research on nematode mating pheromones, which has been conducted predominantly on C. elegans, but there are beginning to be parallel studies in other species. PMID:27213246

  15. Potential Conservation of Circadian Clock Proteins in the phylum Nematoda as Revealed by Bioinformatic Searches

    PubMed Central

    Romanowski, Andrés; Garavaglia, Matías Javier; Goya, María Eugenia; Ghiringhelli, Pablo Daniel; Golombek, Diego Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Although several circadian rhythms have been described in C. elegans, its molecular clock remains elusive. In this work we employed a novel bioinformatic approach, applying probabilistic methodologies, to search for circadian clock proteins of several of the best studied circadian model organisms of different taxa (Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, Neurospora crassa, Arabidopsis thaliana and Synechoccocus elongatus) in the proteomes of C. elegans and other members of the phylum Nematoda. With this approach we found that the Nematoda contain proteins most related to the core and accessory proteins of the insect and mammalian clocks, which provide new insights into the nematode clock and the evolution of the circadian system. PMID:25396739

  16. An emerging example of tritrophic coevolution between flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) on Myrtaceae host plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...

  17. Aprocta cylindrica (Nematoda) infection in a European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) in Britain.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Katie M; Harris, Eileen; Pocknell, Ann M; John, Shinto K; Macgregor, Shaheed K; Cunningham, Andrew A; Lawson, Becki

    2014-10-01

    A European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) found dead in England had marked blepharitis and periocular alopecia associated with Aprocta cylindrica (Nematoda: Aproctidae) and concurrent mixed fungal infections. Aprocta cylindrica should be considered a differential diagnosis in periocular abnormalities of robins and other insectivorous, migratory passerines in Western Europe. PMID:25121405

  18. Teaching Population Growth Using Cultures of Vinegar Eels, "Turbatrix aceti" (Nematoda)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    A simple laboratory exercise is presented that follows the population growth of the common vinegar eel, "Turbatrix aceti" (Nematoda), in a microcosm using a simple culture medium. It lends itself to an exercise in a single semester course. (Contains 4 figures.)

  19. Nematoda from the terrestrial deep subsurface of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgonie, G.; García-Moyano, A.; Litthauer, D.; Bert, W.; Bester, A.; van Heerden, E.; Möller, C.; Erasmus, M.; Onstott, T. C.

    2011-06-01

    Since its discovery over two decades ago, the deep subsurface biosphere has been considered to be the realm of single-cell organisms, extending over three kilometres into the Earth's crust and comprising a significant fraction of the global biosphere. The constraints of temperature, energy, dioxygen and space seemed to preclude the possibility of more-complex, multicellular organisms from surviving at these depths. Here we report species of the phylum Nematoda that have been detected in or recovered from 0.9-3.6-kilometre-deep fracture water in the deep mines of South Africa but have not been detected in the mining water. These subsurface nematodes, including a new species, Halicephalobus mephisto, tolerate high temperature, reproduce asexually and preferentially feed upon subsurface bacteria. Carbon-14 data indicate that the fracture water in which the nematodes reside is 3,000-12,000-year-old palaeometeoric water. Our data suggest that nematodes should be found in other deep hypoxic settings where temperature permits, and that they may control the microbial population density by grazing on fracture surface biofilm patches. Our results expand the known metazoan biosphere and demonstrate that deep ecosystems are more complex than previously accepted. The discovery of multicellular life in the deep subsurface of the Earth also has important implications for the search for subsurface life on other planets in our Solar System.

  20. Nematoda from the terrestrial deep subsurface of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Borgonie, G; García-Moyano, A; Litthauer, D; Bert, W; Bester, A; van Heerden, E; Möller, C; Erasmus, M; Onstott, T C

    2011-06-01

    Since its discovery over two decades ago, the deep subsurface biosphere has been considered to be the realm of single-cell organisms, extending over three kilometres into the Earth's crust and comprising a significant fraction of the global biosphere. The constraints of temperature, energy, dioxygen and space seemed to preclude the possibility of more-complex, multicellular organisms from surviving at these depths. Here we report species of the phylum Nematoda that have been detected in or recovered from 0.9-3.6-kilometre-deep fracture water in the deep mines of South Africa but have not been detected in the mining water. These subsurface nematodes, including a new species, Halicephalobus mephisto, tolerate high temperature, reproduce asexually and preferentially feed upon subsurface bacteria. Carbon-14 data indicate that the fracture water in which the nematodes reside is 3,000-12,000-year-old palaeometeoric water. Our data suggest that nematodes should be found in other deep hypoxic settings where temperature permits, and that they may control the microbial population density by grazing on fracture surface biofilm patches. Our results expand the known metazoan biosphere and demonstrate that deep ecosystems are more complex than previously accepted. The discovery of multicellular life in the deep subsurface of the Earth also has important implications for the search for subsurface life on other planets in our Solar System. PMID:21637257

  1. Molecular characterization of Thelastomatoidea (Nematoda: Oxyurida) from cockroaches in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jex, A R; Hu, M; Rose, H A; Schneider, M; Cribb, T H; Gasser, R B

    2006-07-01

    A molecular approach was used to genetically characterize 5 species (Aoruroides queenslandensis, Blattophila sphaerolaima, Cordonicola gibsoni, Desmicola ornata and Leidynemella fusiformis) belonging to the superfamily Thelastomatoidea (Nematoda: Oxyurida), a group of pinworms that parasitizes terrestrial arthropods. The D3 domain of the large subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (LSU) was sequenced for individual specimens, and the analysis of the sequence data allowed the genetic relationships of the 5 species to be studied. The sequence variation in the D3 domain within individual species (0-1.8%) was significantly less than the differences among species (4.3-12.4%). Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and neighbour-joining, tree-building methods, established relationships among the 5 species of Thelastomatoidea and Oxyuris equi (a species of the order Oxyurida). The molecular approach employed provides the prospect for developing DNA tools for the specific identification of the Thelastomatoidea, irrespective of developmental stage and sex, as a basis for systematic, ecological and/or population genetic investigations of members within this superfamily. PMID:16563200

  2. Species of Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) in wildlife: A review.

    PubMed

    Spratt, David M

    2015-08-01

    Twenty-one species of Angiostrongylus plus Angiostrongylus sp. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) are known currently in wildlife. These occur naturally in rodents, tupaiids, mephitids, mustelids, procyonids, felids, and canids, and aberrantly in a range of avian, marsupial and eutherian hosts including humans. Adults inhabit the pulmonary arteries and right atrium, ventricle and vena cava, bronchioles of the lung or arteries of the caecum and mesentery. All species pass first-stage larvae in the faeces of the host and all utilise slugs and/or aquatic or terrestrial snails as intermediate hosts. Gastropods are infected by ingestion or penetration of first-stage larvae; definitive hosts by ingestion of gastropods or gastropod slime. Transmission of at least one species may involve ingestion of paratenic hosts. Five developmental pathways are identified in these life cycles. Thirteen species, including Angiostrongylus sp., are known primarily from the original descriptions suggesting limited geographic distributions. The remaining species are widespread either globally or regionally, and are continuing to spread. Small experimental doses of infective larvae (ca. 20) given to normal or aberrant hosts are tolerated, although generally eliciting a granulomatous histopathological response; large doses (100-500 larvae) often result in clinical signs and/or death. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are established zoonoses causing neurological and abdominal angiostrongliasis respectively. The zoonotic potential of A. mackerrasae, A. malaysiensis and A. siamensis particularly warrant investigation. Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurs in domestic animals, mammalian and avian wildlife and humans in the metropolitan areas of Brisbane and Sydney, Australia, where it has been suggested that tawny frogmouths and brushtail possums may serve as biosentinels. A major conservation issue is the devastating role A. cantonensis may play around zoos and fauna parks where captive

  3. Species of Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) in wildlife: A review

    PubMed Central

    Spratt, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-one species of Angiostrongylus plus Angiostrongylus sp. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) are known currently in wildlife. These occur naturally in rodents, tupaiids, mephitids, mustelids, procyonids, felids, and canids, and aberrantly in a range of avian, marsupial and eutherian hosts including humans. Adults inhabit the pulmonary arteries and right atrium, ventricle and vena cava, bronchioles of the lung or arteries of the caecum and mesentery. All species pass first-stage larvae in the faeces of the host and all utilise slugs and/or aquatic or terrestrial snails as intermediate hosts. Gastropods are infected by ingestion or penetration of first-stage larvae; definitive hosts by ingestion of gastropods or gastropod slime. Transmission of at least one species may involve ingestion of paratenic hosts. Five developmental pathways are identified in these life cycles. Thirteen species, including Angiostrongylus sp., are known primarily from the original descriptions suggesting limited geographic distributions. The remaining species are widespread either globally or regionally, and are continuing to spread. Small experimental doses of infective larvae (ca. 20) given to normal or aberrant hosts are tolerated, although generally eliciting a granulomatous histopathological response; large doses (100–500 larvae) often result in clinical signs and/or death. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are established zoonoses causing neurological and abdominal angiostrongliasis respectively. The zoonotic potential of A. mackerrasae, A. malaysiensis and A. siamensis particularly warrant investigation. Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurs in domestic animals, mammalian and avian wildlife and humans in the metropolitan areas of Brisbane and Sydney, Australia, where it has been suggested that tawny frogmouths and brushtail possums may serve as biosentinels. A major conservation issue is the devastating role A. cantonensis may play around zoos and fauna parks where

  4. Revision of the Australasian genus Fergusobia (Nematoda: Neotylenchida), with molecular phylogeny, and descriptions of clades and associated Fergusonina fly larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a mutualistic association with Fergusonina flies, Fergusobia nematodes form galls on Myrtaceous hosts. The genus Fergusobia (Nematoda: Neotylenchida) is revised, an emended diagnosis of the genus is presented, and its putative phylogeny is discussed. There is molecular and morphological evidence ...

  5. A new species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) infecting Dermatonotus muelleri (Anura: Microhylidae) from Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araujo Filho, João A; Brito, Samuel V; Almeida, Waltécio De O; Morais, Drausio H; Ávila, Robson W

    2015-01-01

    Parapharyngodon silvoi n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) is described from the large and small intestine of the Muller's termite frog Dermatonotus muelleri (Boettger, 1885) from the biome Caatinga, Exu municipality, Pernambuco State, Brazil, Dermatonotus muelleri is a fossorial species with a specialized termite diet, and feeding and reproductive behavior occurring only during the wet season. The new species is distinguished from other species of the genus Parapharyngodon by showing ovary not coiled around the esophagus, morphology of anterior cloacal lip, spicule size and number of caudal papillae. PMID:26623864

  6. Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) in Duttaphrynus himalayanus (Amphibia, Anura) from Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Anjum N; Bursey, Charles R

    2014-03-01

    Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) from the large intestine of Duttaphrynus himalayanus (Amphibia, Anura) from Dehradun, India is described and illustrated. Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. represents the 21st species assigned to the genus and the 9th species from the Oriental biogeographical region. Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. differs from the previously described Oriental species in number and position of rosette papillae; it is the only species possessing 24 or more rosette papillae to have 4 postcloacal papillae. In addition, a list of species assigned to Cosmocercoides is provided; however, C. fotedari Arya, 1992 is removed from the genus and until further study is considered a species inquirenda. PMID:24570052

  7. New species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) in Phymaturus spp. (Iguania: Liolaemidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ramallo, Geraldine; Bursey, Charles; Castillo, Gabriel; Acosta, Juan Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Parapharyngodon sanjuanensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestines of Phymaturus punae and Phymaturus williamsi (Squamata: Liolaemidae) from province of San Juan, Argentina, is described and illustrated. Parapharyngodon sanjuanensis sp. nov. is the 54th species assigned to the genus and the 8th from the Neotropical region. It differs from other species in the genus in that males possess 8 caudal papillae, 6 of which are large and pedunculate, 2 are small, almost inconspicuous; anterior lip echinate, posterior lip bilobate; females possess prominent vulva and short stiff tail spike. PMID:27447208

  8. New species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) in Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae) from Grenada, West Indies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bursey, Charles; Drake, Michael; Cole, Rebecca; Sterner, Mauritz, III; Pinckney, Rhonda; Zieger, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Parapharyngodon grenadaensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestine of the cane toad, Rhinella marina, is described and illustrated. Parapharyngodon grenadaensis n. sp. is the 48th species assigned to the genus and the 16th species from the Neotropical region. It differs from other species in the genus by possessing 4 pairs of caudal papillae, an echinate anterior cloacal lip, and a blunt spicule of 67–104 μm. This is only the second report of R. marina harboring a species of Parapharyngodon.

  9. HISTOPATHOLOGY OF GASTRIC WALL IN CHINESE ALLIGATOR ALLIGATOR SINENSIS INFECTED WITH ORTLEPPASCARIS SINENSIS (NEMATODA: ASCARIDOIDEA).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinhong; Wang, Shaosheng; Tu, Genjun; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Xiaobing; Li, Chaopin

    2015-01-01

    Crocodiles are susceptible to infection with a wide array of external and internal gastrointestinal helminths, yet little is known on the histopathology following infection or the effects of these parasites. The present study was aimed at evaluating the impact of infection by Ortleppascaris sinensis (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) on the stomach of captive Alligator sinensis. The histological examination of the stomach revealed presence of superficial ulcer in mucous layer and granulomatous inflammation in submucous layer at entire gastric walls of the Alligator sinensis. Our findings also confirm that development of Ortleppascaris sinensis is in close association with the wall of the stomach. PMID:26319836

  10. Synonymy of Longibucca eptesica with Longibucca lasiura (Nematoda: Rhabditoidea) and new host and geographic records.

    PubMed

    Measures, L N

    1994-06-01

    The genus Longibucca Chitwood, 1933 (Nematoda: Rhabditoidea) is reviewed based on examination of museum and adult specimens collected from 4 species of bats (Myotis lucifugus, Myotis ciliolabrum, Eptesicus fuscus, and Lasionycteris noctivagans) in Alberta, Canada. Two species are considered valid, namely Longibucca vivipara Chitwood, 1933, and Longibucca lasiura McIntosh and Chitwood, 1934. Longibucca eptesica Elsea, 1953 is considered a synonym of L. lasiura. New hosts of Longibucca lasiura include Pipistrellus subflavus, Lasionycteris noctivagans, and Myotis ciliolabrum. New geographic ranges of Longibucca lasiura are Virginia, U.S.A., Canada, and western North America. PMID:8195954

  11. [Presence of a new Trichostrongyloidea (Nematoda) Nochtia (Nochtia) atelerixi n. sp. in an Erinacoidea (Insectivora) in Togo].

    PubMed

    Quentin, J C; Durette-Desset, M C

    1982-12-01

    Nochtia (Nochtia) atelerixi n. sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongyloidea) of Ethiopian Erinacoidea. - Nochtia (Nochtia) atelerixi n. sp. is found in the intestine of the hedgehog Atelerix albiventris in Togo. It is distinguished from the two other congeneric species parasite of asiatic Primates, N. (N.) nochti Travassos et Vogelsang, 1929 and N. (N.) tani Le Van Hoa, 1966, mainly by the highest number of cuticular crests and spicules with six tips. PMID:6926936

  12. On a new species of Aplectana (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) from Kulti, Burdwan, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Sou, Sujan K; Sow, Kanchan K; Nandi, Anadi P

    2014-10-01

    During routine survey for amphibian nematodes from coalfield areas of West Bengal, India 7 male and 12 female nematodes were recovered from the rectum of one out of three Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1899) examined for helminth infection from Kulti, Burdwan. On examination the recovered nematodes were found to belong to a new species of the genus Aplectana (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) and the name Aplectana duttaphryni sp. nov. is proposed for them. This species is most similar to those species which possess gubernaculum but differs from all by distribution pattern of caudal papillae. Aplectana duttaphryni sp. nov. represents 49(th) species assigned to the genus, but only the 4(th) species reported from Oriental realm and second from India. PMID:25236282

  13. Ancylostoma (Ancylostoma) buckleyi (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae): new wild host and distribution expansion.

    PubMed

    Scioscia, Nathalia Paula; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín; Denegri, Guillermo María

    2016-06-01

    Here we report the occurrence of Ancylostoma (Ancylostoma) buckleyi (Le Roux and Biocca, 1957) (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) in the small intestine of Pampas foxes (Lycalopex gymnocercus) (Mammalia: Canidae). This fox is the most abundant native carnivore in southern South America, where it inhabits grasslands, open woodlands and areas highly modified by extensive ranching and agricultural activities. Material from 80 foxes in rural areas of southern Buenos Aires province, Argentina was examined. The intestinal tracts were carefully removed from each carcass and subsequently isolated by ligatures (pylorus and rectum). Examination of the intestinal content was performed using the sedimentation and counting technique. Four foxes (5%) were found to be parasitized with adult specimens of A. buckleyi. This is the first report of Ancylostoma (A.) buckleyi in Argentina and adds L. gymnocercus as new host of this nematode species. PMID:27276669

  14. Ancylostoma (Ancylostoma) buckleyi (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae): new wild host and distribution expansion.

    PubMed

    Scioscia, Nathalia Paula; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín; Denegri, Guillermo María

    2016-06-01

    Here we report the occurrence of Ancylostoma (Ancylostoma) buckleyi (Le Roux and Biocca, 1957) (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) in the small intestine of Pampas foxes (Lycalopex gymnocercus) (Mammalia: Canidae). This fox is the most abundant native carnivore in southern South America, where it inhabits grasslands, open woodlands and areas highly modified by extensive ranching and agricultural activities. Material from 80 foxes in rural areas of southern Buenos Aires province, Argentina was examined. The intestinal tracts were carefully removed from each carcass and subsequently isolated by ligatures (pylorus and rectum). Examination of the intestinal content was performed using the sedimentation and counting technique. Four foxes (5%) were found to be parasitized with adult specimens of A. buckleyi. This is the first report of Ancylostoma (A.) buckleyi in Argentina and adds L. gymnocercus as new host of this nematode species. PMID:27334825

  15. The genome of Romanomermis culicivorax: revealing fundamental changes in the core developmental genetic toolkit in Nematoda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The genetics of development in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been described in exquisite detail. The phylum Nematoda has two classes: Chromadorea (which includes C. elegans) and the Enoplea. While the development of many chromadorean species resembles closely that of C. elegans, enoplean nematodes show markedly different patterns of early cell division and cell fate assignment. Embryogenesis of the enoplean Romanomermis culicivorax has been studied in detail, but the genetic circuitry underpinning development in this species has not been explored. Results We generated a draft genome for R. culicivorax and compared its gene content with that of C. elegans, a second enoplean, the vertebrate parasite Trichinella spiralis, and a representative arthropod, Tribolium castaneum. This comparison revealed that R. culicivorax has retained components of the conserved ecdysozoan developmental gene toolkit lost in C. elegans. T. spiralis has independently lost even more of this toolkit than has C. elegans. However, the C. elegans toolkit is not simply depauperate, as many novel genes essential for embryogenesis in C. elegans are not found in, or have only extremely divergent homologues in R. culicivorax and T. spiralis. Our data imply fundamental differences in the genetic programmes not only for early cell specification but also others such as vulva formation and sex determination. Conclusions Despite the apparent morphological conservatism, major differences in the molecular logic of development have evolved within the phylum Nematoda. R. culicivorax serves as a tractable system to contrast C. elegans and understand how divergent genomic and thus regulatory backgrounds nevertheless generate a conserved phenotype. The R. culicivorax draft genome will promote use of this species as a research model. PMID:24373391

  16. On the Extent and Origins of Genic Novelty in the Phylum Nematoda

    PubMed Central

    Wasmuth, James; Schmid, Ralf; Hedley, Ann; Blaxter, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Background The phylum Nematoda is biologically diverse, including parasites of plants and animals as well as free-living taxa. Underpinning this diversity will be commensurate diversity in expressed genes, including gene sets associated specifically with evolution of parasitism. Methods and Findings Here we have analyzed the extensive expressed sequence tag data (available for 37 nematode species, most of which are parasites) and define over 120,000 distinct putative genes from which we have derived robust protein translations. Combined with the complete proteomes of Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae, these proteins have been grouped into 65,000 protein families that in turn contain 40,000 distinct protein domains. We have mapped the occurrence of domains and families across the Nematoda and compared the nematode data to that available for other phyla. Gene loss is common, and in particular we identify nearly 5,000 genes that may have been lost from the lineage leading to the model nematode C. elegans. We find a preponderance of novelty, including 56,000 nematode-restricted protein families and 26,000 nematode-restricted domains. Mapping of the latest time-of-origin of these new families and domains across the nematode phylogeny revealed ongoing evolution of novelty. A number of genes from parasitic species had signatures of horizontal transfer from their host organisms, and parasitic species had a greater proportion of novel, secreted proteins than did free-living ones. Conclusions These classes of genes may underpin parasitic phenotypes, and thus may be targets for development of effective control measures. PMID:18596977

  17. New species of Bakeria (Nematoda; Strongylida; Molineidae), new species of Falcaustra (Nematoda; Ascaridida; Kathlaniidae) and other helminths in Cnemaspis mcguirei (Sauria; Gekkonidae) from Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Grismer, L Lee

    2014-10-01

    Two new nematode species, Bakeria schadi sp. nov. and Falcaustra malaysiaia sp. nov. from the gastrointestinal tract of McGuire's rock gecko, Cnemaspis mcguirei (Sauria: Gekkonidae) collected in Peninsular Malaysia are described. The two species now assigned to Bakeria are separated on the bases of male bursa type and location of the excretory pore: type II in B. schadi sp. nov. and type I in B. bakeri; location of excretory pore, anterior to nerve ring in B. schadi sp. nov. and posterior to nerve ring in B. bakeri. Falcaustra malaysiaia sp. nov. is most similar to F. chabaudi, F. concinnae, F. condorcanquii, F. barbi, F. dubia, and F. tchadi in that these 7 species possess 1 pseudosucker, 1 median papilla plus 10 pairs caudal papillae, and spicules with lengths between 1 and 2 mm. F. barbi and F. tchadi lack adcloacal papillae; the remaining 5 species possess 1 pair of adcloacal papillae. Falcaustra chabaudi is known from Nearctic salamanders; F. concinnae from Nearctic turtles; F. condorcanquii from Neotropical frogs, F. dubia from Oriental frogs, and F. malaysiaia sp. nov. from Oriental geckos. Two additional species of Nematoda were found, Cosmocerca ornata and Meteterakis singaporensis. Cnemaspis mcguirei represents a new host record for Cosmocerca ornata and Meteterakis singaporensis. PMID:25236275

  18. An 18S ribosomal DNA barcode for the study of Isomermis lairdi, a parasite of the blackfly Simulium damnosum s.l.

    PubMed

    Crainey, J L; Wilson, M D; Post, R J

    2009-09-01

    The mermithid parasite, Isomermis lairdi Mondet, Poinar & Bernadou (Nematoda: Mermithidae), is known to have a major impact on populations of Simulium damnosum s.l. Theobald (Diptera: Simuliidae) and on their efficiency as vectors of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) (Nematoda: Filarioidea). However, the value of I. lairdi and other mermithid parasites as potential means of integrated vector control has not been fully realized. This is partly because traditional taxonomic approaches have been insufficient for describing and analysing important aspects of their biology and host range. In total, rDNA barcode sequences have been obtained from over 70 I. lairdi mermithids found parasitizing S. damnosum s.l. larvae in three different rivers. No two sequences were found to vary by more than 0.5%, and cytospecies identification of mermithid hosts revealed that I. lairdi with identical rDNA barcodes can parasitize multiple cytoforms of the S. damnosum complex, including S. squamosum (Enderlein). Phylogenetic analysis using a partial sequence from the 18S ribosomal DNA barcode, grouped I. lairdi in a monophyletic group with Gastromermis viridis Welch (Nematoda: Mermithidae) and Isomermis wisconsinensis Welch (Nematoda: Mermithidae). PMID:19712154

  19. Discovery of new Ohbayashinema spp. (nematoda: heligomosomoidea) in Ochotona princeps and O. cansus (lagomorpha: ochotonidae) from western North America and central Asia, with considerations of historical biogeography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new species of Ohbayashinema (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea) are described from localities in western North America and central Asia. Two of these species, Ohbayashinema nearctica n. sp and O. aspeira n. sp. are parasitic in American pika, Ochotona princeps. Ohbayashinema nearctica is differentiat...

  20. Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of Serratia marcescens Strain MCB, Associated with Oscheius sp. MCB (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) Isolated from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Vincent M.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report on the draft genome sequence of Serratia marcescens strain MCB associated with Oscheius sp. MCB (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) isolated from South African soil. S. marcescens strain MCB has 5,304,212-bp genome size with 4,877 genes and a G+C content of 59.1%. PMID:25237022

  1. A new species of Biacantha (Nematoda: Molineidae), a parasite of the common vampire bat from the Yungas, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, Mirna C; Ramallo, Geraldine; Claps, Lucía E; Miotti, M Daniela

    2012-12-01

    A new species of Biacantha Wolfgang, 1954 (Nematoda: Molineidae), is described from the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus Geoffroy and St. Hilaire, 1810, from northwest Argentina. Biacantha normaliae n. sp. Oviedo, Ramallo, and Claps, is characterized by the disposition and number of ridges of the synlophe, the excretory pore located on a knob, 2 lateral processes on the tail of females, the male caudal bursa morphology, and lack of gubernaculum. This is the first species of nematode described in a vampire bat from Argentina. PMID:22924934

  2. A new species of Spauligodon (Nematoda; Oxyuroidea; Pharyngodonide) and other Helminths in Ptychozoon Kuhli (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from East Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Lee Grismer, L

    2016-06-01

    Spauligodon geckonis sp. nov. from the intestines of Ptychozoon kuhli (Gekkonidae) from East Malaysia is described and illustrated. Spauligodon geckonis sp. nov. represents the 52nd species assigned to the genus and the third species from the Oriental Region. The new species is separated from congeners by the unique combination of aspinose filamentous tail and spicule in the male and spinose filamentous tail and fusiform, two knobbed eggs in the female. Gravid individuals 3 species of Nematoda, Meteterakis singaporensis, Physalopteroides grismeri, and Skrjabinelazia machidai, as well as larvae assignable to the Ascaridae were also found. PMID:27078659

  3. The occurrence and pathogenicity of Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea) in birds of prey from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, M; D'Alessio, N; Di Prisco, F; Kinsella, J M; Barca, L; Degli Uberti, B; Restucci, B; Martano, M; Troisi, S; Galiero, G; Veneziano, V

    2016-05-01

    The air sacs of free-ranging birds of prey (n= 652) from southern Italy, including 11 species of Accipitriformes and six of Falconiforms, were examined for infections with Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea). Of the 17 species of birds examined, 25 of 31 (80.6%) peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) from Calabria Region and a single northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) from Campania Region were infected with S. tendo, suggesting a strong host specificity for the peregrine falcon. The northern goshawk and 18 of 25 infected peregrine falcons showed cachexia and all infected birds had bone fractures. At gross examination, air sacculitis and pneumonia were the most common lesions in infected birds. Microscopically, the air-sac walls showed thickening of the smooth muscle cells, resulting in a papillary appearance, along with hyperplasia of the mesothelium and epithelium, and foci of plasma cell infiltration and macrophages associated with several embryonated eggs and adult parasites. Extensive areas of inflammation were found in the lungs, characterized by lymphocytes, macrophages and fibroblasts surrounding embryonated eggs. The northern goshawk also had detachment of the dextral lung with several necrotic foci. In this case, the death of the bird was directly attributed to S. tendo infection. Lesions and pathological changes observed here suggest that S. tendo can cause disease. PMID:25772632

  4. Trichuris spp. (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from two rodents, Mastomys natalensis and Gerbilliscus vicinus in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ribas, Alexis; López, Sergi; Makundi, Rhodes H; Leirs, Herwig; de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy

    2013-10-01

    During a survey of the helminth community of several rodent species in the Morogoro region (Tanzania), Trichuris whipworms (Nematoda: Trichuridae) were found in the ceca of the Natal multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis and a gerbil, Gerbilliscus vicinus (both Rodentia: Muridae). The taxonomic literature regarding Trichuris from African native rodents describes 10 species, but includes few metric and morphologic characters that discriminate between some of the pairs. The whipworms we sampled in Tanzanian Natal multimammate mice and gerbils were morphologically identified, respectively, as Trichuris mastomysi Verster, 1960 and Trichuris carlieri Gedoelst, 1916 sensu lato, but with characters that overlap or partially overlap with the cosmopolitan Murinae whipworm, Trichuris muris , already reported from several rodents in Africa. To clarify our identification, we sequenced the ITS-1, 5.8S, and ITS-2 ribosomal DNA region of the worms' nuclear genome. The genetic analyses clearly distinguish the whipworms we found in M. natalensis from those found in the gerbil, and both of these from T. muris whipworm reference sequences. The overlap of morphological characters between rodent whipworms suggests that reports of T. muris from rodent species not closely related to Murinae in other parts of Africa should be treated with caution. PMID:23560615

  5. Uncinaria sanguinis sp. n. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) from the endangered Australian sea lion, Neophoca cinerea (Carnivora: Otariidae).

    PubMed

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Slapeta, Jan; Gray, Rachael

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the identity of hookworms parasitising the Australian sea lion, Neophoca cinerea (Péron), from three colonies in South Australia, Australia. The Australian sea lion is at risk of extinction because its population is small and genetically fragmented. Using morphological and molecular techniques, we describe a single novel species, Uncinaria sanguinis sp. n. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae). The new species is most similar to hookworms also parasitic in otariid hosts, Uncinaria lucasi Stiles, 1901 and Uncinaria hamiltoni Baylis, 1933. Comparative morphometrics offered limited utility for distinguishing between species within this genus whilst morphological features and differences in nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences delineated U. sanguinis sp. n. from named congeners. Male specimens of U. sanguinis sp. n. differ from U. lucasi and U. hamiltoni by relatively shorter anterolateral and externodorsal rays, respectively, and from other congeners by the relative lengths and angulations of bursal rays, and in the shape of the spicules. Female specimens of U. sanguinis sp. n. are differentiated from Uncinaria spp. parasitic in terrestrial mammals by differences in vulval anatomy and the larger size of their eggs, although are morphologically indistinguishable from U. lucasi and U. hamiltoni. Molecular techniques clearly delimited U. sanguinis sp. n. as a distinct novel species. Obtaining baseline data on the parasites of wildlife hosts is important for the investigation of disease and the effective implementation and monitoring of conservation management. PMID:25065131

  6. First description of Onchocerca jakutensis (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Felix; Manzanell, Ralph; Mathis, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Twenty-seven species of the genus Onchocerca (Nematoda; Filarioidea) can cause a vector-borne parasitic disease called onchocercosis. Most Onchocerca species infect wild and domestic ungulates or the dog, and one species causes river blindness in humans mainly in tropical Africa. The European red deer (Cervus e. elaphus) is host to four species, which are transmitted by blackflies (simuliids) or biting midges (ceratopogonids). Two species, Onchocerca flexuosa and Onchocerca jakutensis, produce subcutaneous nodules, whereas Onchocerca skrjabini and Onchocerca garmsi live free in the hypodermal serous membranes. During the hunting season, September 2013, red deer (n = 25), roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus, n = 6) and chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra, n = 7), all shot in the Grisons Region (Switzerland) were investigated for the presence of subcutaneous nodules which were enzymatically digested, and the contained Onchocerca worms were identified to species by light and scanning electron microscopy as well as by PCR/sequencing. In addition, microfilariae from skin samples were collected and genetically characterized. Neither nodules nor microfilariae were discovered in the roe deer and chamois. Adult worms were found in 24% of red deer, and all of them were identified as O. jakutensis. Two morphologically different microfilariae were obtained from five red deer, and genetic analysis of a skin sample of one red deer indicated the presence of another Onchocerca species. This is the first report of O. jakutensis in Switzerland with a prevalence in red deer similar to that in neighbouring Germany. PMID:27617204

  7. Trichuris colobae n. sp. (Nematoda: Trichuridae), a new species of Trichuris from Colobus guereza kikuyensis.

    PubMed

    Cutillas, Cristina; de Rojas, Manuel; Zurita, Antonio; Oliveros, Rocío; Callejón, Rocío

    2014-07-01

    In the present work, a morphological and biometrical study of whipworms Trichuris Roederer, 1761 (Nematoda: Trichuridae) parasitizing Colobus guereza kikuyensis has been carried out. Biometrical and statistical data showed that the mean values of individual variables between Trichuris suis and Trichuris sp. from C. g. kikuyensis differed significantly (P < 0.001) when Student's t test was performed: seven male variables (width of esophageal region of body, maximum width of posterior region of body, width in the place of junction of esophagus and the intestine, length of bacillary stripes, length of spicule, length of ejaculatory duct, and distance between posterior part of testis and tail end of body) and three female variables (width of posterior region of body, length of bacillary stripes, and distance of tail end of body and posterior fold of seminal receptacle). The combination of these characters permitted the discrimination of T. suis with respect to Trichuris sp. from C. g. kikuyensis, suggesting a new species of Trichuris. Furthermore, males of Trichuris sp. from C. g. kikuyensis showed a typical subterminal pericloacal papillae associated to a cluster of small papillae that were absent in males of T. suis, while females of Trichuris from Colobus appeared with a vulval region elevated/over-mounted showing a crater-like appearance. The everted vagina showed typical triangular sharp spines by optical microscopy and SEM. Thus, the existence of a new species of Trichuris parasitizing C. g. kikuyensis has been proposed. PMID:24853537

  8. Xiphinema bernardi n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from the Great Smoky Mountain National Park.

    PubMed

    Robbins, R T; Bae, Chang-Hwan; Ye, Weimin; Pedram, Majid

    2009-06-01

    In October 1985 during a survey of fauna of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Ernest Bernard recovered a limited number of specimens of a non-described species of Xiphinema (Nematoda: Longidoridae) and sent them to the senior author. The species is distinct from other species by its large size and having Z-organs in the genital tract. During July 2006, Dr. Bernard's survey crew took samples in the area where the species was first found and was successful in finding it again. Without Dr. Bernard's efforts, this species could not have been described and thus the new species is named X. bernardi n. sp. in his honor. Several female and juvenile specimens of the new species were recovered in a sample from a mixed forest of maple, hemlock, and silverbell. It is distinct from all others in Xiphinema group 4 species (with Z-organs) by having a longer total stylet length, 259.8 to 284.2 μm vs < 253 μm for all other species in this group. Xiphinema bernardi n. sp. is distinctive because of its long body length (4.45 to 6.00 mm), tail shape, and c' ratio. Of the group 4 species, it most closely resembles X. phoenicis. Second, third and fourth stage juvenile descriptions and morphometrics are included. The polytomous key code for X. bernardi n. sp. is A4-B1-C6-D56-E56-F(4)5-G4-H2-I34-J5-K?-L1. Molecular approaches using the internal transcribed spacer 1 sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA suggested that X. bakeri and X. diversicaudatum are the most closely related species from the species examined. PMID:22661783

  9. Analysis of the Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger Gene Family within the Phylum Nematoda

    PubMed Central

    He, Chao; O'Halloran, Damien M.

    2014-01-01

    Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are low affinity, high capacity transporters that rapidly transport calcium at the plasma membrane, mitochondrion, endoplasmic (and sarcoplasmic) reticulum, and the nucleus. Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are widely expressed in diverse cell types where they contribute homeostatic balance to calcium levels. In animals, Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are divided into three groups based upon stoichiometry: Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCX), Na+/Ca2+/K+ exchangers (NCKX), and Ca2+/Cation exchangers (CCX). In mammals there are three NCX genes, five NCKX genes and one CCX (NCLX) gene. The genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains ten Na+/Ca2+ exchanger genes: three NCX; five CCX; and two NCKX genes. Here we set out to characterize structural and taxonomic specializations within the family of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers across the phylum Nematoda. In this analysis we identify Na+/Ca2+ exchanger genes from twelve species of nematodes and reconstruct their phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships. The most notable feature of the resulting phylogenies was the heterogeneous evolution observed within exchanger subtypes. Specifically, in the case of the CCX exchangers we did not detect members of this class in three Clade III nematodes. Within the Caenorhabditis and Pristionchus lineages we identify between three and five CCX representatives, whereas in other Clade V and also Clade IV nematode taxa we only observed a single CCX gene in each species, and in the Clade III nematode taxa that we sampled we identify NCX and NCKX encoding genes but no evidence of CCX representatives using our mining approach. We also provided re-annotation for predicted CCX gene structures from Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Caenorhabditis japonica by RT-PCR and sequencing. Together, these findings reveal a complex picture of Na+/Ca2+ transporters in nematodes that suggest an incongruent evolutionary history of proteins that provide central control of calcium dynamics. PMID:25397810

  10. Analysis of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger gene family within the phylum Nematoda.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; O'Halloran, Damien M

    2014-01-01

    Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are low affinity, high capacity transporters that rapidly transport calcium at the plasma membrane, mitochondrion, endoplasmic (and sarcoplasmic) reticulum, and the nucleus. Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are widely expressed in diverse cell types where they contribute homeostatic balance to calcium levels. In animals, Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are divided into three groups based upon stoichiometry: Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCX), Na+/Ca2+/K+ exchangers (NCKX), and Ca2+/Cation exchangers (CCX). In mammals there are three NCX genes, five NCKX genes and one CCX (NCLX) gene. The genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains ten Na+/Ca2+ exchanger genes: three NCX; five CCX; and two NCKX genes. Here we set out to characterize structural and taxonomic specializations within the family of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers across the phylum Nematoda. In this analysis we identify Na+/Ca2+ exchanger genes from twelve species of nematodes and reconstruct their phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships. The most notable feature of the resulting phylogenies was the heterogeneous evolution observed within exchanger subtypes. Specifically, in the case of the CCX exchangers we did not detect members of this class in three Clade III nematodes. Within the Caenorhabditis and Pristionchus lineages we identify between three and five CCX representatives, whereas in other Clade V and also Clade IV nematode taxa we only observed a single CCX gene in each species, and in the Clade III nematode taxa that we sampled we identify NCX and NCKX encoding genes but no evidence of CCX representatives using our mining approach. We also provided re-annotation for predicted CCX gene structures from Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Caenorhabditis japonica by RT-PCR and sequencing. Together, these findings reveal a complex picture of Na+/Ca2+ transporters in nematodes that suggest an incongruent evolutionary history of proteins that provide central control of calcium dynamics. PMID:25397810

  11. The caudal bursa in the Heligmonellidae (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina). Characterization and hypothesis on its evolution

    PubMed Central

    Durette-Desset, M.C.; Digiani, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    The different patterns of the caudal bursa of the Heligmonellidae (Nematoda) are redefined, taking into account the grouping of rays 2-6 and the sequence of origin of these rays from their common trunk. The type of symmetry of the caudal bursa is also redefined. The following patterns were observed and characterized: the basic patterns: types 2-3, 2-2-1, 1-3-1 and 1-4 and the intermediary patterns: type 2-3 tending to type 2-2-1, type 2-2-1 tending to type 1-3-1, type 1-3-1 tending to type 1-4 and type 2-2-1 tending to type 1-4. An evolutionary interpretation of the patterns is attempted and seems to follow the direction: 2-3 to 2-2-1 to 1-3-1 to 1-4. Seven atypical patterns are described. The caudal bursae were classified based on their symmetry: subsymmetrical, dissymmetrical and asymmetrical. Independently of the type of symmetry, the two latero-ventral lobes may have the same or different patterns. The type of symmetry, the ratio between the two latero-ventral lobes and a characteristic pattern were utilized to characterize the caudal bursae at the level of the genus and the subfamily. The combination of the right/left ratio and the type of symmetry gives heterogeneous results, with no real association between these characters. The most conspicuous asymmetries and dissymmetries were found among the Nippostrongylinae. The most frequent pattern in the Heligmonellidae is the basic type 2-2-1; types 1-3-1 and 1-4 are less frequent but are characteristic of several genera; type 1-4 is absent from the Heligmonellinae. Whatever the pattern, in the Heligmonellidae rays 4 and 5 are the last to diverge from the common trunk of rays 2-6. PMID:22314236

  12. Prevalence and Morphological Characterization of Cheilospirura hamulosa, Diesing, 1861 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea), from Partridges in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Maryam; Rouhani, Soheila; Mobedi, Iraj; Rostami, Ali; Khazan, Hoshang; Ahoo, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-01-01

    This study reports data on the prevalence, morphology, and morphometry of the nematode Cheilospirura hamulosa on the basis of light and stereoscopic microscopy and also camera lucida. Specimens were recovered after necropsies of 100 partridges (Alectoris chukar) from Taleqan County in Alborz Province, Iran. The prevalence of C. hamulosa in partridges was of 30% with a mean intensity of 3.9 and range of infection of 1–12. The mean length and width of females were 17.5 ± 2.14 and 0.39 ± 0.04 mm, while those of males were 12.2 ± 0.67 and 0.3 ± 0.06 mm, respectively. The characteristic digitiform tail was observed in females, and the unequal spicules, caudal alae, and ten pairs of caudal papillae were seen in males. The taxonomic characteristic longitudinal cordons and muscular and glandular oesophagus were observed in both sexes. Ratio between cordons and body length in males and females was 1 : 1.33 and 1 : 1.68, respectively. Ratio between long and short spicules in males was 1 : 2.3. The average size of embryonated eggs was 51.25 × 29.5 μm. In the present study, C. hamulosa (Nematoda: Acuarioidea) is recorded for the first time from partridges in Iran. Therefore, the morphological characters described in this study will be useful in the future diagnostic and taxonomic studies of Acuarioidea family. PMID:26693346

  13. Descriptions of Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina) from Haryana, India

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, V. V. S.; Somvanshi, Vishal S.; Bajaj, Harish K.

    2015-01-01

    Two different nematodes were isolated from the bark of Albizia lebbeck trees; one from insect infested and another from noninfested, healthy tree. Based on the biological, morphological, and molecular evidences, the nematodes are described as Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina). Deladenus albizicus n. sp., isolated from insect-infested tree, multiplied on the fungus Nigrospora oryzae. Myceliophagous females of this nematode reproduced by parthenogenesis and spermathecae were indistinct. Infective females, readily produced in the cultures, are dorsally curved. Only one type of males containing small-sized sperms in their genital tracts were produced in the culture. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.75 to 1.71 mm, a = 32.3 to 50.8, b = 9.3 to 11.2, b’ = 5.2 to 7.3, c = 27.2 to 35.6, V = 91.0 to 93.3, c’ = 2.0 to 2.9, stylet = 11 to 12 µm, excretory pore in the region of median pharyngeal bulb, 43 to 47 µm anterior to hemizonid. Deladenus processus n. sp., isolated from bark of healthy A. lebbeck tree, was cultured on Alternaria alternata. Myceliophagous females reproduced by amphimixis and their spermathecae contained rounded sperms. Infective females were never produced, even in old cultures. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.76 to 0.99 mm, a = 34 to 49, b = 13.3 to 17.7, b’ = 3.8 to 5.8, c = 19.6 to 22.8, V = 92.2 to 93.5, c’ = 2.7 to 3.5, stylet = 6 to 7 µm, excretory pore in the proximity of hemizonid, tail conoid, tapering from both sides to a long pointed central process. It is proposed to classify Deladenus species in three groups: durus, siricidicola, and laricis groups based on female and spermatogonia dimorphism, mode of reproduction, and insect parasitism. PMID:25861116

  14. Syphacia (Syphacia) maxomyos sp. n. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Maxomys spp. (Rodentia: Muridae) from Sulawesi and Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Kartika; Hasegawa, Hideo; Fitriana, Yuli Sulistya; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko

    2015-10-01

    The present report describes Syphacia (Syphacia) maxomyos sp. n. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from two species of spiny rats, Maxomys musschenbroekii from Sulawesi and M. whiteheadi from Sumatra. It is characterized by a cephalic plate extending laterally with dorsoventral constriction and stumpy eggs with an operculum rim reaching pole. It is readily distinguishable by the former feature from all of hitherto known representatives of this genus in Indonesia, but it resembles parasites in Murini and Hydromyni rodents in continental Asia and Sahul. This is the first Syphacia species distributed in both the Sunda Shelf and Sulawesi with the exception of Syphacia muris, a cosmopolitan pinworm found in rodents of the of genus Rattus. It is surmised that S. maxomyos is specific to Maxomys and that it was introduced to Sulawesi by dispersal of some Maxomys from the Sunda Shelf. PMID:26062434

  15. Maturation feeding and transmission of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) by Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) inoculated with Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes).

    PubMed

    Maehara, Noritoshi; He, Xueyou; Shimazu, Mitsuaki

    2007-02-01

    We examined the amount of maturation feeding and transmission of pinewood nematodes, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae), to healthy pine (Pinus spp.) trees by pine sawyer Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) adults infected with Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes). Inoculated beetles fed less than noninoculated beetles, probably because feeding by inoculated beetles began to decrease at about 4 d postinoculation and inoculated beetles ceased to feed for several days before their death. In inoculated beetles carrying >1,000 nematodes, some beetles died before nematode departure. The remaining heavily nematode-infested beetles lived until the beginning of nematode departure, but they had stopped feeding, preventing the nematodes from entering pine twigs. We suggest that microbial control of pine sawyer adults by B. bassiana may be effective in preventing transmission of pine wilt disease to healthy pine trees. PMID:17370808

  16. A new species of Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Sooretamys angouya Fischer, 1814 (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Robles, María del Rosario; Panisse, Guillermo; Navone, Graciela Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) hugoti n. sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) is described from the cecum of Sooretamys angouya (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae: Oryzomyini) captured in Formosa Province, Argentina. The diagnosis of the subgenus is emended, and the new species is separated from eight congeners by the distribution of submedian papillae and amphids, shape of the cephalic plate, presence of deirids, absence of cervical and lateral alae, length of the spicule, structure of the accessory hook of the gubernaculum and distance of excretory pore and vulva from the anterior extremity. The analysis suggests that S. (Se.) oryzomyos should be removed from Seuratoxyuris and redesignated as S. (Syphacia) oryzomyos n. comb. To date, of the species of Syphacia found in South and North American, 7 parasitize Oryzomyini rodents, of which two are distributed in Argentina. The present study constitutes the first record of the subgenus Seuratoxyuris from Argentina and the third record of a Syphacia species from rodents of the tribe Oryzomyini. PMID:24995650

  17. Further description of Aspidodera raillieti (Nematoda: Aspidoderidae) from Didelphis marsupialis (Mammalia: Didelphidae) by light and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chagas-Moutinho, V A; Oliveira-Menezes, A; Cárdenas, M Q; Lanfredi, R M

    2007-10-01

    Nematodes of the family Aspidoderidae (Nematoda: Heterakoidea) Freitas 1956 are widely distributed from Americas. The species of the genus Aspidodera Railliet and Henry 1912 are parasites of mammals of the orders Edentata, Marsupialia, and Rodentia. In the present work, Aspidodera raillieti (L. Travassos, Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 5(3):271-318, 1913), collected from the large intestine of Didelphis marsupialis (Mammalia: Didelphidae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, is redescribed. The association of light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed a detailed analysis of the morphology and ultrastructure of this nematode. Some taxonomic features, such as cephalic region, topography of the cuticle, sucker, spicules, posterior end of males, localization of vulva, the anus, and posterior end of females were observed. Important structures such as amphid, details of cephalic region, phasmid, and number and localization of caudal papillae are documented by SEM, for the first time adding characters to identify this species. Colombia is a new geographical record for A. raillieti. PMID:17622560

  18. New species of Oswaldofilaria (Nematoda; Filarioidea; Onchocercidae) and other helminths in Acanthosaura cardamomensis (Sauria; Agamidae) from Indochina Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Grismer, Lee L

    2014-03-01

    Oswaldofilaria acanthosauri sp. nov. from the body cavity of the Cardamom Mountain horned agamid, Acanthosaura cardamomensis (Sauria: Agamidae), collected in Pursat Province, Cambodia is described. Of the 14 species assigned to Oswaldofilaria, O. acanthosauri sp. nov. is most similar to those species with spicular ratio of less than 2, namely, O. brevicaudata and O. chlamydosauri. Oswaldofilaria acanthosauri sp. nov. is easily separated from these 2 species in that O. brevicaudata is a South American species and in O. chlamydosauri the distal ends of the spicules are pointed not blunt. Mature individuals of 2 additional species of Nematoda, Meteterakis singaporensis and Orneoascaris sandoshami, as well as larvae assignable to Ascariidae were found. Acanthosaura cardamomensis represents a new host record for Meteterakis singaporensis, Orneoascaris sandoshami and Ascariidae (larvae). PMID:26204027

  19. Codon usage patterns in Nematoda: analysis based on over 25 million codons in thirty-two species

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background Codon usage has direct utility in molecular characterization of species and is also a marker for molecular evolution. To understand codon usage within the diverse phylum Nematoda, we analyzed a total of 265,494 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from 30 nematode species. The full genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae were also examined. A total of 25,871,325 codons were analyzed and a comprehensive codon usage table for all species was generated. This is the first codon usage table available for 24 of these organisms. Results Codon usage similarity in Nematoda usually persists over the breadth of a genus but then rapidly diminishes even within each clade. Globodera, Meloidogyne, Pristionchus, and Strongyloides have the most highly derived patterns of codon usage. The major factor affecting differences in codon usage between species is the coding sequence GC content, which varies in nematodes from 32% to 51%. Coding GC content (measured as GC3) also explains much of the observed variation in the effective number of codons (R = 0.70), which is a measure of codon bias, and it even accounts for differences in amino acid frequency. Codon usage is also affected by neighboring nucleotides (N1 context). Coding GC content correlates strongly with estimated noncoding genomic GC content (R = 0.92). On examining abundant clusters in five species, candidate optimal codons were identified that may be preferred in highly expressed transcripts. Conclusion Evolutionary models indicate that total genomic GC content, probably the product of directional mutation pressure, drives codon usage rather than the converse, a conclusion that is supported by examination of nematode genomes. PMID:26271136

  20. Moving towards a complete molecular framework of the Nematoda: a focus on the Enoplida and early-branching clades

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The subclass Enoplia (Phylum Nematoda) is purported to be the earliest branching clade amongst all nematode taxa, yet the deep phylogeny of this important lineage remains elusive. Free-living marine species within the order Enoplida play prominent roles in marine ecosystems, but previous molecular phylogenies have provided only the briefest evolutionary insights; this study aimed to firmly resolve internal relationships within the hyper-diverse but poorly understood Enoplida. In addition, we revisited the molecular framework of the Nematoda using a rigorous phylogenetic approach in order to investigate patterns of early splits amongst the oldest lineages (Dorylaimia and Enoplia). Results Morphological identifications, nuclear gene sequences (18S and 28S rRNA), and mitochondrial gene sequences (cox1) were obtained from marine Enoplid specimens representing 37 genera. The 18S gene was used to resolve deep splits within the Enoplia and evaluate the branching order of major clades in the nematode tree; multiple phylogenetic methods and rigorous empirical tests were carried out to assess tree topologies under different parameters and combinations of taxa. Significantly increased taxon sampling within the Enoplida resulted in a well-supported, robust phylogenetic topology of this group, although the placement of certain clades was not fully resolved. Our analysis could not unequivocally confirm the earliest splits in the nematode tree, and outgroup choice significantly affected the observed branching order of the Dorylaimia and Enoplia. Both 28S and cox1 were too variable to infer deep phylogeny, but provided additional insight at lower taxonomic levels. Conclusions Analysis of internal relationships reveals that the Enoplia is split into two main clades, with groups consisting of terrestrial (Triplonchida) and primarily marine fauna (Enoplida). Five independent lineages were recovered within the Enoplida, containing a mixture of marine and terrestrial species

  1. Syphacia sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) in coprolites of Kerodon rupestris Wied, 1820 (Rodentia: Caviidae) from 5,300 years BP in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Mônica Vieira de; Sianto, Luciana; Chame, Marcia; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Araújo, Adauto

    2012-06-01

    We present the results of paleoparasitological analyses in coprolites of Kerodon rupestris, rodent endemic to rocky areas of Brazil's semiarid region. The coprolites were collected from excavations at the archaeological site of Toca dos Coqueiros, in the National Park of Serra da Capivara, southeastern of state of Piauí. Syphacia sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) eggs were identified in coprolites dated at 5,300 ± 50 years before present. This is the first record of the genus Syphacia in rodent coprolites in the Americas. PMID:22666866

  2. Description and molecular characterisation of Cloacina johnstoni sp. nov. (Nematoda: Strongyloidea) from the wallaroo, Macropus robustus (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) and relationships with the synhospitalic species C. macropodis.

    PubMed

    Shuttleworth, Mary; Jabbar, Abdul; Beveridge, Ian

    2016-09-01

    Cloacina johnstoni sp. nov. (Nematoda: Strongyloidea) is described from the sacculated forestomach of the wallaroo, Macropus robustus (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) from Australia. It resembles the synhospitalic species Cloacina macropodis but differs from it principally in the shape of the cephalic papillae. The two species are also distinguishable based on differences in the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Cloacina johnstoni commonly co-occurs in the same individual host as C. macropodis but has a more restricted geographical distribution. PMID:27169862

  3. Habronema muscae (Nematoda: Habronematidae) larvae: developmental stages, migration route and morphological changes in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Amado, Sávio; Silveira, Andrea Kill; Vieira, Flávio Dias; Traversa, Donato

    2014-01-01

    The present paper describes the morphological modifications occurring during the larval development of Habronema muscae (Nematoda: Habronematidae) in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), along with the reactions caused by parasitism and the migration route of the nematodes inside the flies. Houseflies were reared on faeces of a H. muscae-infected horse, then dissected and processed by histology. The experimental part of the study was performed in 1996 in the Parasitological Experimental Station W.O. Neitz, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Three different larval stages of H. muscae were recovered, measured and described. The encapsulation of larval nematodes was found in the third larval instar (L3) of M. domestica and cryptocephalic pupa. The mature capsules were observed in dipteran L3, pupae and mainly adults. In 1day-old or more M. domestica adults an active rupturing of capsules by H. muscae L3 and the migration to the head through the circulatory system and insect hemocoel were observed. Infective H. muscae L3s remained exclusively in the head of adult 5days-old or more M. domestica. PMID:24269197

  4. New evidence on a cold case: trophic transmission, distribution and host-specificity in Hedruris spinigera (Nematoda: Hedruridae).

    PubMed

    Luque, José L; Vieira, Fabiano M; Herrmann, Kristin; King, Tania M; Poulin, Robert; Lagrue, Clément

    2010-09-01

    The life cycle of Hedruris spinigera Baylis, 1931 (Nematoda: Hedruridae) is determined here with the first formal identification of the parasite's intermediate host: the crustacean amphipod Paracorophium excavatum Thomson. Adult H. spinigera are redescribed from specimens collected from the stomach of fishes, Retropinna retropinna (Richardson) and Aldrichettaforsteri (Valenciennes), from Lake Waihola, New Zealand. Immature adults of the parasite collected from intermediate hosts (P. excavatum) are also described for the first time. The prevalence, abundance and intensity of infection of H. spinigera in several fish species are quantified along with the occurrence of P. excavatum, the parasite's intermediate host, in fish stomach contents. Although H. spinigera's transmission mode (trophic transmission) and fish diet potentially expose all fish species to infection, some level of host specificity must exist as parasite prevalence, abundance and intensity of infection vary greatly between potential definitive host species. We suggest here that the anatomy of the fish digestive tract and especially that of the stomach plays an important role in host suitability for H. spinigera. While P. excavatum is the only intermediate host in Lake Waihola, H. spinigera was found in six different fish species: Aldrichetta forsteri, Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns), Retropinna retropinna, Rhombosolea retiaria Hutton, Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus and Salmo trutta Linnaeus; although typical hedrurid attachment and mating positions were observed only in R. retropinna and A. forsteri. The limited distribution of H. spinigera is most likely due to that of its different host species (intermediate and definitive), all inhabitants of coastal fresh and brackish waters. PMID:20941914

  5. Gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers Epinephelus spp. (Osteichthyes: Serranidae) in the Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Manoharan, Jayaraman

    2014-10-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new and one specifically not identified gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of marine fishes of the genus Epinephelus Bloch (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Bay of Bengal, off the eastern coast of India: P. indica sp. nov. (male and females) from the honeycomb grouper E. merra Bloch, P. tropica sp. nov. (males and females) from the duskytail grouper E. bleekeri (Vaillant) and Philometra sp. (only females) from the cloudy grouper E. erythrurus (Valenciennes). Philometra indica is mainly characterized by the length of spicules 192-195 μm and the gubernaculum 84 μm, the distal tip of the gubernaculum without a dorsal protuberance, and by the presence of five pairs of caudal papillae. Philometra tropica is mainly characterized by the spicules conspicuously ventrally distended at their posterior halves, the distal tip of the gubernaculum with a dorsal protuberance, and the presence of three pairs of caudal papillae. PMID:25236267

  6. Two new species of philometrid nematodes (Nematoda: Philometridae) in Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Kartika; Palm, Harry W

    2013-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopy, two new species of philometrid nematodes, Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. and Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea: Philometridae) are described from Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia. Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. was isolated from the fins of E. coioides. The new species can be distinguished from the most closely related S. eichleri Parukhin, 1971 by a larger total body length and the site of infection in the host. The new species differs from S. centropomi (Caballero, 1974) also in the larger body size of the gravid females and the site of infection in the host. S. en-dangae sp. nov. differs from S. pacifica (Moravec, Santana-Pineros, Gonzales-Solis & Torres-Huerta, 2007) in the struc-ture and arrangement of the spines on the middle part of the body, the infection site of the worm, the type host and the zoogeographical host distribution. Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. differs from all other Philometra spp. congeners so far recorded from Ephinepelus groupers in the total body length and the site of infection. This is the first opercula-infecting species of Philometra described from the fish family Serranidae. PMID:24699571

  7. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequence of Spirocerca lupi (Nematoda, Spirurida): avenues for potential implications.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Donato; Costanzo, Francesca; Iorio, Raffaella; Aroch, Itamar; Lavy, Eran

    2007-05-31

    Canine spirocercosis is a life-threatening parasitosis caused by Spirocerca lupi (Nematoda, Spirurida) that is presently emerging in several countries. This study characterised an informative region within the mitochondrial (mtDNA) gene encoding for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) of S. lupi by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-coupled sequencing. Specimens from five different countries in Europe, Asia and Africa were examined and two different sequence variants of cox1 (i.e. haplotypes) were determined, displaying nucleotidic variation at 6 of 689 positions. All of these positions were invariable among all the parasite individuals from Europe (haplotype 1) and among the African and Asian individuals (haplotype 2), but differed between Europe and Asia/Africa. The S. lupi cox1 sequences were consistent with those of other common Spirurida previously reported at both nucleotidic and phylogenetic levels. This study provides molecular information essential for identification of the nematode, irrespective of its life cycle stage. Crucial implications for the specific molecular diagnosis of clinical spirocercosis and investigation of the evolution, population genetics, ecology and epidemiology of S. lupi are discussed. PMID:17428608

  8. A new species of Potoroxyuris (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from the woylie Bettongia penicillata (Marsupialia: Potoroidae) from southwestern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Russell P; Elliot, Aileen D

    2016-12-01

    Potoroxyuris keninupensis n.sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) is described based on specimens recovered from the caecum and colon of two woylies, Bettongia penicillata (Marsupialia: Potoroidae) from Western Australia. Only one other species of Potoroxyuris has been described previously, Potoroxyuris potoroo (Johnston and Mawson, 1939) Mawson, 1964, from Potorous tridactylus. The new species is most easily differentiated from P. potoroo by the shape of the pharyngeal lobes. The pharyngeal lobes of P. keninupensis n. sp. are widest at the base while those of P. potoroo are widest at the tip. The genus Potoroxyuris most closely resembles Macropoxyuris based especially on structures of the caudal end of males. The other three genera of oxyurids known to infect Australian marsupials have longer caudal alae, and more caudal papillae than these two genera. The genus Potoroxyuris has previously been defined by the characteristic that the pharyngeal lobes protrude through the oral opening. However, the pharyngeal lobes of P. keninupensis n. sp. do not quite protrude, so the definition of the genus should be modified as follows. The genus Potoroxyuris can be easily differentiated from Macropoxyuris by the following differences in the morphology of the buccal cavity. The pharyngeal lobes of Potoroxyuris almost reach the oral opening, or protrude beyond it, whereas those of Macropoxyuris only reach to about the anterior third of the buccal cavity. The buccal cavity of Potoroxyuris is poorly cuticularized compared to Macropoxyuris and other genera of oxyurids known from Australian marsupials, and does not contain inter-radial lamellae. PMID:27437181

  9. Distribution of Thelastomatoid Nematodes (Nematoda: Oxyurida) in Endemic and Introduced Cockroaches on the Galápagos Island Archipelago, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Sinnott, Devinn; Carreno, Ramon A; Herrera, Henri

    2015-08-01

    The thelastomatoid pinworm fauna (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) was surveyed in 3 endemic species and 6 introduced species of cockroach hosts (Insecta: Blattaria) in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. A total of 658 host specimens were examined from preserved collections that had been collected between 1966 and 2003 from 7 islands in the archipelago. Eight species of pinworms were identified from these cockroach hosts, including the dominant species Cephalobellus ovumglutinosus and a Severianoia sp. as well as Leidynema appendiculata, Hammerschmidtiella diesingi, an unidentified Cephalobellus species resembling Cephalobellus magalhaesi, an unidentified Protrellus species closely resembling Protrellus shamimi, and an undescribed Blattophila sp. Five new host records are identified for C. ovumglutinosus including the endemic Galápagos cockroaches Chorisoneura carpenteri, Ischnoptera snodgrassii, and Ischnoptera santacruzensis. These endemics were also infected with an undescribed Blatticola sp. Other species recorded resemble known pinworms from other hosts around the world. Prevalence between islands and between host species was variable, but total prevalence for individual pinworm species was consistently low (<10%). A single host specimen examined was infected with more than 1 pinworm species; otherwise only a single species was observed in each infected host. At least 1 introduced pinworm species carried to the islands via invasive cockroach hosts was present in endemic host species, but several globally widespread introduced pinworm species were absent from endemic cockroaches. Santa Cruz was inhabited by the greatest number of pinworm species, likely due to a higher rate of invasive host introduction. This survey, the first from this region, showed that the distribution and transmission of pinworms in the Galápagos Islands is complex and may provide future models of invertebrate dispersal and speciation in an ecosystem already rich with examples of

  10. Deep subsurface mine stalactites trap endemic fissure fluid Archaea, Bacteria, and Nematoda possibly originating from ancient seas.

    PubMed

    Borgonie, Gaëtan; Linage-Alvarez, Borja; Ojo, Abidemi; Shivambu, Steven; Kuloyo, Olukayode; Cason, Errol D; Maphanga, Sihle; Vermeulen, Jan-G; Litthauer, Derek; Ralston, Colin D; Onstott, Tullis C; Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara; Van Heerden, Esta

    2015-01-01

    Stalactites (CaCO3 and salt) from water seeps are frequently encountered in ceilings of mine tunnels whenever they intersect water-bearing faults or fractures. To determine whether stalactites could be mineralized traps for indigenous fracture water microorganisms, we analyzed stalactites collected from three different mines ranging in depth from 1.3 to 3.1 km. During sampling in Beatrix gold mine (1.4 km beneath the surface), central South Africa, CaCO3 stalactites growing on the mine tunnel ceiling were collected and observed, in two cases, to contain a living obligate brackish water/marine nematode species, Monhystrella parvella. After sterilization of the outer surface, mineral layers were physically removed from the outside to the interior, and DNA extracted. Based upon 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya in different combinations were detected for each layer. Using CT scan and electron microscopy the inner structure of CaCO3 and salt stalactites were analyzed. CaCO3 stalactites show a complex pattern of lamellae carrying bacterially precipitated mineral structures. Nematoda were clearly identified between these layers confirming that bacteria and nematodes live inside the stalactites and not only in the central straw. Salt stalactites exhibit a more uniform internal structure. Surprisingly, several Bacteria showing highest sequence identities to marine species were identified. This, together with the observation that the nematode M. parvella recovered from Beatrix gold mine stalactite can only survive in a salty environment makes the origin of the deep subsurface colonization enigmatic. The possibility of a Permian origin of fracture fluids is discussed. Our results indicate stalactites are suitable for biodiversity recovery and act as natural traps for microorganisms in the fissure water long after the water that formed the stalactite stopped flowing. PMID:26441844

  11. Integrated taxonomy: traditional approach and DNA barcoding for the identification of filarioid worms and related parasites (Nematoda)

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Emanuele; Barbuto, Michela; Bain, Odile; Galimberti, Andrea; Uni, Shigehiko; Guerrero, Ricardo; Ferté, Hubert; Bandi, Claudio; Martin, Coralie; Casiraghi, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    Background We compared here the suitability and efficacy of traditional morphological approach and DNA barcoding to distinguish filarioid nematodes species (Nematoda, Spirurida). A reliable and rapid taxonomic identification of these parasites is the basis for a correct diagnosis of important and widespread parasitic diseases. The performance of DNA barcoding with different parameters was compared measuring the strength of correlation between morphological and molecular identification approaches. Molecular distance estimation was performed with two different mitochondrial markers (coxI and 12S rDNA) and different combinations of data handling were compared in order to provide a stronger tool for easy identification of filarioid worms. Results DNA barcoding and morphology based identification of filarioid nematodes revealed high coherence. Despite both coxI and 12S rDNA allow to reach high-quality performances, only coxI revealed to be manageable. Both alignment algorithm, gaps treatment, and the criteria used to define the threshold value were found to affect the performance of DNA barcoding with 12S rDNA marker. Using coxI and a defined level of nucleotide divergence to delimit species boundaries, DNA barcoding can also be used to infer potential new species. Conclusion An integrated approach allows to reach a higher discrimination power. The results clearly show where DNA-based and morphological identifications are consistent, and where they are not. The coherence between DNA-based and morphological identification for almost all the species examined in our work is very strong. We propose DNA barcoding as a reliable, consistent, and democratic tool for species discrimination in routine identification of parasitic nematodes. PMID:19128479

  12. Deep subsurface mine stalactites trap endemic fissure fluid Archaea, Bacteria, and Nematoda possibly originating from ancient seas

    PubMed Central

    Borgonie, Gaëtan; Linage-Alvarez, Borja; Ojo, Abidemi; Shivambu, Steven; Kuloyo, Olukayode; Cason, Errol D.; Maphanga, Sihle; Vermeulen, Jan-G; Litthauer, Derek; Ralston, Colin D.; Onstott, Tullis C.; Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara; Van Heerden, Esta

    2015-01-01

    Stalactites (CaCO3 and salt) from water seeps are frequently encountered in ceilings of mine tunnels whenever they intersect water-bearing faults or fractures. To determine whether stalactites could be mineralized traps for indigenous fracture water microorganisms, we analyzed stalactites collected from three different mines ranging in depth from 1.3 to 3.1 km. During sampling in Beatrix gold mine (1.4 km beneath the surface), central South Africa, CaCO3 stalactites growing on the mine tunnel ceiling were collected and observed, in two cases, to contain a living obligate brackish water/marine nematode species, Monhystrella parvella. After sterilization of the outer surface, mineral layers were physically removed from the outside to the interior, and DNA extracted. Based upon 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya in different combinations were detected for each layer. Using CT scan and electron microscopy the inner structure of CaCO3 and salt stalactites were analyzed. CaCO3 stalactites show a complex pattern of lamellae carrying bacterially precipitated mineral structures. Nematoda were clearly identified between these layers confirming that bacteria and nematodes live inside the stalactites and not only in the central straw. Salt stalactites exhibit a more uniform internal structure. Surprisingly, several Bacteria showing highest sequence identities to marine species were identified. This, together with the observation that the nematode M. parvella recovered from Beatrix gold mine stalactite can only survive in a salty environment makes the origin of the deep subsurface colonization enigmatic. The possibility of a Permian origin of fracture fluids is discussed. Our results indicate stalactites are suitable for biodiversity recovery and act as natural traps for microorganisms in the fissure water long after the water that formed the stalactite stopped flowing. PMID:26441844

  13. Identification and Prevalence of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) among Wild Boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) from Southwestern Regions of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Ahn, Ah-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Joo, Kyoung-Woong; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the first record of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) recovered in wild boars from southwestern regions of Korea. Gastrointestinal tracts of 111 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted from mountains in Suncheon-si, Gwangyang-si, and Boseong-gun between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. G. samoensis, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the small intestine of 51 (45.9%) wild boars. Worms were found from 7 of 28 wild boars (25.0%) from Suncheon-si, 40 of 79 (50.6%) from Gwangyang-si, and all 4 (100%) from Boseong-gun. The length of adult females was 7.2±0.5 mm, and the thickest part of the body measured the average 0.47±0.03 mm, while those of males were 6.52±0.19 and 0.37±0.02 mm, respectively. The buccal cavity was equipped with a pair of large and bicuspid subventral lancets near the base of the capsule. The average length of spicules of males was 0.45±0.02 mm. By the present study, G. samoensis is recorded for the first time in southwestern regions of Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic and taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes in both domestic and wild pigs. The infection of G. samoensis apparently did not elicit pathologic lesions, as revealed by macroscopic observation during the autopsy of all wild boars in this study. PMID:26537041

  14. First record of larvae of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae) with zoonotic potential in the pirarucu Arapaima gigas (Osteichthyes: Arapaimidae) from South America.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Porto, S M; Cárdenas, M Q; Martins, M L; Oliveira, J K Q; Pereira, J N; Araújo, C S O; Malta, J C O

    2015-11-01

    Third-stage larvae (L3) of Hysterothylacium sp. were collected by the first time in juveniles of pirarucu Arapaima gigas farmed in the Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas state. Ninety-eight (98) out of 100 examined fish showed to be parasitized. Five hundred and ninety larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. were collected from the intestines, stomach and pyloric caeca. The mean intensity of parasite indexes was 6.02 (±5.75) ranging from 1 to 40 larvae per host and the mean abundance was 5.9 (±5.76). The A. gigas is the new host record for larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. in Brazil, and this is the first record of larvae of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae) with zoonotic potential in the pirarucu from South America. PMID:26675898

  15. A new species of Spinicauda (Nematoda: Heterakidae) and other endoparasites in Platymantis pelewensis (Anura: Ranidae) from the Palau Islands, Republic of Belau, Oceanica.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R

    2004-12-01

    Spinicauda fisheri n. sp. from the intestine of Platymantis pelewensis collected in the Palau Islands, Republic of Belau, is described and illustrated. Spinicauda fisheri represents the 12th species assigned to the genus and the first from Oceanica. It is most similar to Spinicauda spinicauda in that the tail ends in a filament, but it has 19 pairs of caudal papillae as compared with 5 pairs in S. spinicauda. In addition to S. fisheri, 2 species of Cestoda, cysticercoids of Joyeuxiella sp. and tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides sp., 2 species of Nematoda, Oswaldocruzia bakeri and Physocephalus sp. (larvae in cysts), 1 species of Acanthocephala, Acanthocephalus bufonis, and 1 species of Pentastomida, nymphs of Kiricephalus pattoni were identified. PMID:15715239

  16. A review of Gongylonema spp. (Nematoda: Gongylonematidae) in North American rodents with description of a new species from the cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus (Mammalia: Cricetidae).

    PubMed

    Kinsella, John M; Robles, Maria Del Rosario; Preisser, Whitney C

    2016-01-01

    Gongylonema archboldi n. sp. (Nematoda: Gongylonematidae) is described from tunnels in the gastric mucosa of the stomach of the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) from Highlands County, Florida, U.S.A. Measurements are also given for specimens from cotton mice (Peromyscus gossypinus), oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus), Florida mice (Podomys floridanus), and golden mice (Ochrotomys nuttalli) from the same locality. Additional specimens were collected from the cotton rat and the rice rat (Oryzomys palustris) from Berry Island, San Patricio County, Texas. The new species is differentiated from congeners by a combination of the following characters: length of the left spicule, length and shape of the gubernaculum, distribution of cuticular bosses, length of esophagus, and distance of the vulva from the posterior end. The status of the genus Gongylonema in North American rodents is reviewed. PMID:27394819

  17. Geocenamus angelescresti n. sp., a Diagnostic Key and Compendium to the Species of the Genus Geocenamus Thorne &Malek, 1968 (Nematoda: Belonolaimidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chitambar, John J.; Ferris, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Geocenamus angelescresti n. sp. (Nematoda: Belonolaimidae) was found in rhizosphere of Pinus ponderosa and Arctostaphylos patula growing along Angeles Crest Highway in the San Gabriel mountains of California. The nematode species is characterized by a round-to-hexagonal labial disc with six bulging sectors, lateral sectors of first labial annule smaller than the submedian sectors, six to eight labial annules, distinct deirids, stylet length (45-57 µm), body length (666-996 µm), lateral field with or without areolation of outer bands on tail, and a rounded, smooth tail terminus. Geocenamus angelescresti n. sp. most closely resembles G. superbus but differs from it by a shorter stylet (45-57 µm vs. 67 µm), shorter body length (666-996 µm vs. 1,200 µm), bulged sectors and smaller diameter of the labial disc (2.3-2.8 µm vs. 4.0 µm, round, smooth), longer female tail (54-68 µm vs. 41 µm), and a narrower tail terminus. An emended description of the genus and a list of valid species are provided. Geocenamus arcticus (Mulvey, 1969) Tarjan 1973 and G. uralensis Baydulova 1983 are proposed as junior synonyms of G. tenuidens Thorne &Malek 1968. An identification key to 12 species of Geocenamus and a compendium of important diagnostic morphological characters used in the identification of species are included. PMID:19262887

  18. Seven new and four known species of the genus Acantholaimus (Nematoda: Chromadoridae) from the abyssal manganese nodule field (Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, North-Eastern Tropical Pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miljutina, Maria A.; Miljutin, Dmitry M.

    2012-09-01

    The descriptions of seven new and supplemental descriptions of four known species of the genus Acantholaimus (Nematoda: Chromadoridae) from about 5,000 m depth in the abyssal manganese nodule field of the French Claim of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (north-eastern tropical Pacific) are given. A. arthrochaeta sp. n. differs from other Acantholaimus species in having jointed cephalic setae. A. barbatus sp. n. is characterized by long cephalic setae and the presence of numerous somatic setae at the level of the pharynx. A. cornutus sp. n. possesses strong onchia and rugae and short cephalic setae. A. robustus sp. n. is characterized by a very large body size, two very large onchia, strongly developed rugae, and cervical setae grouped in threes. A. sieglerae sp. n. is a comparatively small species, though with very large onchia. A. tchesunovi sp. n. can be differentiated from the other species by the lateral differentiation of the body cuticle, consisting of 6-7 longitudinal rows of pores. A. veitkoehlerae sp. n. has a narrow elongate anterior end, two cervical setae, and strong onchia. A. angustus and A. occultus were found about 5,200 km from their type localities in the Peru Basin, south-east Pacific. A. iubilus and A. maks were previously found in different parts of the Atlantic and in the Peru Basin.

  19. Philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) from fishes of Lake Turkana, Kenya, including two new species of Philometra and erection of Afrophilometra gen. n.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Charo-Karisa, Harrison; Jirků, Miloslav

    2009-03-01

    The following four species (only females available) of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) were recorded from freshwater fishes of Lake Turkana, northwestern Kenya in 2007-2008: Philometra bagri (Khalil, 1965) from the subcutaneous tissue around the mouth, on gill covers and the fin base of the bayad Bagrus bajad (Forsskål) (Bagridae: Siluriformes), Philometra lati sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the Nile perch Lates niloticus (Linnaeus) (Latidae: Perciformes), Philometra spiriformis sp. n. from capsules on the inner surface of gill covers of L. niloticus and Afrophilometra hydrocyoni (Fahmy, Mandour et El-Nafar, 1976) comb. n. from the fins of Hydrocynus forskahlii (Cuvier) (Alestidae: Characiformes). The new species P. lati is characterized mainly by the presence of distinct oesophageal teeth, absence of large cephalic lobes and caudal projections, and by a combination of other features. Philometra spiriformis differs from all congeners principally in the spirally coiled body and from individual species by a combination of other morphological features. The already known species P. bagri and A. hydrocyoni are redescribed based on light and scanning electron microscopy; findings of both these species in Kenya represent new geographical records. PMID:19391330

  20. Description of two free-living nematode species of Halomonhystera disjuncta complex (Nematoda: Monhysterida) from two peculiar habitats in the sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchesunov, Alexei V.; Portnova, Daria A.; van Campenhout, Jelle

    2015-03-01

    Morphological descriptions of two Halomonhystera species (Nematoda, Monhysterida) are presented ( Halomonhystera hermesi and Halomonhystera socialis). Halomonhystera hermesi sp. n. occurs in a dense monospecific and homogeneous population on bacterial mats in the Håkon Mosby mud volcano in the Barents Sea at a depth of 1,280 m. The species is an endemic lineage distinctly separated from other shallow-water cryptotaxa of the Halomonhystera disjucta species complex on the base of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I (genetic divergence 19.6-23.8 %) and nuclear genetic markers, and on the base of morphometrics by Van Campenhout et al. (2014). H. socialis (Bütschli 1874) is redescribed on the basis of White Sea specimens. This species dwells in mass on the detached kelp accumulation in the upper sublittoral. H. socialis is differentiated from other species of the Halomonhystera disjuncta complex morphometrically by a larger body size and by genetic divergence in nuclear markers. The genus Halomonhystera Andrássy 2006 is redefined, and its morphospecies list is reviewed. Species H. bathislandica (Riemann 1995) comb. n., H. fisheri (Zekely et al. 2006) comb. n., H. islandica (De Coninck 1943) comb. n. and H. vandoverae (Zekely et al. 2006) comb. n. are transferred to Halomonhystera from Thalassomonhystera; H. paradisjuncta (de Coninck 1943) comb. n., H. rotundicapitata (Filipjev 1922) comb. n. and H. taurica (Tsalolikhin 2007) comb. n. transferred to Halomonhystera from Geomonhystera. Halomonhystera ambiguoides (Bütschli 1874) is considered as species inquirenda because of incompleteness of its diagnosis.

  1. Two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Diggles, Ben K

    2014-09-01

    Based on light and electron microscopical studies, two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia (near Darwin): Philometra carangis n. sp. from the bluespotted trevally Caranx bucculentus Alleyne & Macleay (Carangidae) and P. carponotati n. sp. from the Spanish flag snapper Lutjanus carponotatus (Richardson) (Lutjanidae). Philometra carangis is mainly characterised by the length of the spicules (153-189 µm), the presence of a distinct dorsal protuberance consisting of two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, a pair of large post-cloacal papillae and the body length of the males (3.22-4.15 mm). Philometra carponotati is distinguished from other congeneric species parasitising lutjanids by the length of the spicules and gubernaculum (225-252 and 99-117 µm, respectively), the absence of a dorsal protuberance on the distal lamellar part of the gubernaculum, the presence of a U-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, a pair of large post-cloacal papillae and the body length of the male (3.74-4.31 mm). Besides the recently established Philometra zabidii Moravec & Diggles, 2014 (based on a single female), these two newly described nematodes are the only nominal gonad-infecting species of Philometra known to parasitise marine fishes in Australian waters. PMID:25079814

  2. New host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies of Angiostrongylus spp (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) in rodents from Argentina with updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment.

    PubMed

    Robles, María del Rosario; Kinsella, John M; Galliari, Carlos; Navone, Graciela T

    2016-03-01

    To date, 21 species of the genus Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) have been reported around the world, 15 of which are parasites of rodents. In this study, new host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies of Angiostrongylus spp in sigmodontine rodents from Argentina, with an updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment, are provided. Records of Angiostrongylus costaricensis from Akodon montensis and Angiostrongylus morerai from six new hosts and geographical localities in Argentina are reported. The gross and histopathologic changes in the lungs of the host species due to angiostrongylosis are described. Published records of the genus Angiostrongylus from rodents and patterns of host specificity are presented. Individual Angiostrongylus species parasitise between one-19 different host species. The most frequent values of the specificity index (STD) were between 1-5.97. The elevated number of host species (n = 7) of A. morerai with a STD = 1.86 is a reflection of multiple systematic studies of parasites from sigmodontine rodents in the area of Cuenca del Plata, Argentina, showing that an increase in sampling effort can result in new findings. The combination of low host specificity and a wide geographic distribution of Angiostrongylus spp indicates a troubling epidemiological scenario although, as yet, no human cases have been reported. PMID:26982178

  3. New host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies of Angiostrongylus spp (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) in rodents from Argentina with updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment

    PubMed Central

    Robles, María del Rosario; Kinsella, John M; Galliari, Carlos; Navone, Graciela T

    2016-01-01

    To date, 21 species of the genus Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) have been reported around the world, 15 of which are parasites of rodents. In this study, new host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies of Angiostrongylus spp in sigmodontine rodents from Argentina, with an updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment, are provided. Records of Angiostrongylus costaricensis from Akodon montensis andAngiostrongylus morerai from six new hosts and geographical localities in Argentina are reported. The gross and histopathologic changes in the lungs of the host species due to angiostrongylosis are described. Published records of the genus Angiostrongylus from rodents and patterns of host specificity are presented. Individual Angiostrongylusspecies parasitise between one-19 different host species. The most frequent values of the specificity index (STD) were between 1-5.97. The elevated number of host species (n = 7) of A. morerai with a STD = 1.86 is a reflection of multiple systematic studies of parasites from sigmodontine rodents in the area of Cuenca del Plata, Argentina, showing that an increase in sampling effort can result in new findings. The combination of low host specificity and a wide geographic distribution of Angiostrongylus spp indicates a troubling epidemiological scenario although, as yet, no human cases have been reported. PMID:26982178

  4. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers (Serranidae) off Tunisia, with a key to Philometra species infecting serranid gonads.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Chaabane, Amira; Justine, Jean-Lou; Neifar, Lassad

    2016-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of nematode specimens (males and mature females) collected from the ovary of groupers (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Tunis and Sfax), two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) are reported: Philometra inexpectata n. sp. from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra and P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) from the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. The new species is mainly characterized by the length of equally long spicules (147-165 μm), the gubernaculum (63-93 μm long) bearing at the tip two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, the presence of a pair of large caudal papillae located posterior to the cloaca and by the body length of the males (1.97-2.43 mm). Philometra inexpectata n. sp. is the fifth known gonad-infecting philometrid species parasitizing serranid fishes in the Mediterranean region. The males of P. jordanoi were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time; this detailed study revealed some new taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and arrangement of cephalic and caudal papillae, presence of amphids and phasmids and mainly the lamellate structures at the posterior end of the gubernaculum. A key to gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitic in serranid fishes is provided. PMID:26956219

  5. [Spermiogenesis and the function of the vaginal sac in Ichthyocephalus anadenoboli. n. sp. (Rhigonematidae; Nematoda), a parasite of Anadenobolus politus (Porat) (Rhinocricidae; Diplopoda) in Guadeloupe].

    PubMed

    van Waerebeke, D; Adamson, M L; Kermarrec, A

    1984-01-01

    Ichthyocephalus anadenoboli n. sp. ( Rhigonematidae ; Nematoda) from Anadenobolus politus ( Porat ) ( Rhinocricidae ; Diplopoda ) from Guadeloupe is described. The new species most closely resembles I. egleri since both sexes are of approximately the same size and the spicules are markedly unequal; it is distinguished in having a much longer right spicule, by the form of the extremity of the left spicule and by the presence of a vaginal sac opening into the vagina at its junction with the uteri. In addition certain aspects of spermiogenesis in the new species are studied. Maturation of spermatids occurs in two phases, one in the testis and seminal receptacle of males, the second in the vaginal sac in females. The second phase involves profound changes in form as well as nuclear transformation. It is suggested that the vaginal sac observed in certain species of Rhigonema as well as the " bourse copulatrice " of certain Tetrameres spp. and Maupasina weissi , like that of Ichthyocephalus anadenoboli , are specialized to accommodate the final stages of spermiogenesis. PMID:6547037

  6. Three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) parasitic in Lutjanus spp. (Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico off Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Bakenhaster, Micah; Fajer-Avila, Emma J

    2014-08-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes of the genus Lutjanus Bloch (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico: P. longispicula sp. n. from the ovary of the northern red snapper L. campechanus (Poey) (type host) and silk snapper L. vivanus (Cuvier); P. latispicula sp. n. from the ovary and rarely testes of the grey snapper L. griseus (Linnaeus); and P. synagridis sp. n. (only males available) from the ovary of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus). These species are mainly characterised by the lengths of spicules (378-690 microm, 135-144 microm and 186-219 microm, respectively) and spicule shapes, structure of the distal portion of the gubernaculum and the structure of the male caudal end. These are the first valid, nominal species of gonad-infecting philometrids reported from fishes of the family Lutjanidae in the western Atlantic region. PMID:25185406

  7. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers (Serranidae) off Tunisia, with a key to Philometra species infecting serranid gonads

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of nematode specimens (males and mature females) collected from the ovary of groupers (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Tunis and Sfax), two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) are reported: Philometra inexpectata n. sp. from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra and P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) from the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. The new species is mainly characterized by the length of equally long spicules (147–165 μm), the gubernaculum (63–93 μm long) bearing at the tip two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, the presence of a pair of large caudal papillae located posterior to the cloaca and by the body length of the males (1.97–2.43 mm). Philometra inexpectata n. sp. is the fifth known gonad-infecting philometrid species parasitizing serranid fishes in the Mediterranean region. The males of P. jordanoi were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time; this detailed study revealed some new taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and arrangement of cephalic and caudal papillae, presence of amphids and phasmids and mainly the lamellate structures at the posterior end of the gubernaculum. A key to gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitic in serranid fishes is provided. PMID:26956219

  8. A new heligmonellid (Nematoda) from Sylvilagus floridanus (Leporidae) in Costa Rica, with some comments on species of Paraheligmonella Durette-Desset, 1971.

    PubMed

    Digiani, María Celina; Carreño, Ramón A; Durette-Desset, Marie-Claude

    2009-06-01

    Paraheligmonella kinsellai n. sp. (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae: Heligmonellinae) is described from the small intestine of a cottontail rabbit Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen, 1890) (Leporidae) from Costa Rica. The new species is similar to P. romerolagi (Gibbons and Kumar, 1980), parasitic in Romerolagus diazi from Mexico and to P. lamothei Digiani, Carreño, and Durette-Desset, 2008, parasitic in Sylvilagus floridanus from Costa Rica, by the characters of the synlophe at mid-body, i.e., 14 cuticular ridges and a single axis of orientation inclined at 30 degrees to the sagittal axis in both sexes. The males of the new species are distinguished from those of P. romerolagi by a caudal bursa that is not bell-shaped, a bursal pattern of type 2-3 with a tendency to 2-2-1, and a genital cone that is not hypertrophied. They are also distinguished from the males of P. lamothei by having the same bursal pattern in both lobes (in P. lamothei the pattern is 2-2-1 on the right lobe and 2-3, with a tendency to 2-2-1, on the left lobe), rays 3 are much longer than rays 2, rays 2 and 3 diverging more proximally, and rays 8 are longer than the dorsal ray. The females of the new species also differ from those of P. lamothei by the shape of the posterior extremity (long and strongly curved vs. short and nearly straight) and by the synlophe at the ovejector level (ridge no. 1' hypertrophied and remaining ridges reduced vs. ventral ridges hypertrophied and dorso-lateral ridges reduced). PMID:19071967

  9. Unravelling the Biodiversity and Molecular Phylogeny of Needle Nematodes of the Genus Longidorus (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Olive and a Description of Six New Species

    PubMed Central

    Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Palomares-Rius, Juan E.; Castillo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The genus Longidorus includes a remarkable group of invertebrate animals of the phylum Nematoda comprising polyphagous root-ectoparasites of numerous plants including several agricultural crops and trees. Damage is caused by direct feeding on root cells as well as by transmitting nepoviruses that cause disease on those crops. Thus, correct identification of Longidorus species is essential to establish appropriate control measures. We provide the first detailed information on the diversity and distribution of Longidorus species infesting wild and cultivated olive soils in a wide-region in southern Spain that included 159 locations from which 449 sampling sites were analyzed. The present study doubles the known biodiversity of Longidorus species identified in olives by including six new species (Longidorus indalus sp. nov., Longidorus macrodorus sp. nov., Longidorus onubensis sp. nov., Longidorus silvestris sp. nov., Longidorus vallensis sp. nov., and Longidorus wicuolea sp. nov.), two new records for wild and cultivate olives (L. alvegus and L. vineacola), and two additional new records for wild olive (L. intermedius and L. lusitanicus). We also found evidence of some geographic species associations to western (viz. L. alvegus, L. intermedius, L. lusitanicus, L. onubensis sp. nov., L. vineacola, L. vinearum, L. wicuolea sp. nov.) and eastern distributions (viz. L. indalus sp. nov.), while only L. magnus was detected in both areas. We developed a comparative study by considering morphological and morphometrical features together with molecular data from nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (D2–D3 expansion segments of 28S, ITS1, and partial 18S). Results of molecular and phylogenetic analyses confirmed the morphological hypotheses and allowed the delimitation and discrimination of six new species of the genus described herein and four known species. Phylogenetic analyses of Longidorus spp. based on three molecular markers resulted in a general consensus of these species

  10. New tissue-dwelling species of Philometra Costa, 1845 and Philometroides Yamaguti, 1935 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

    2016-09-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new species of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from females collected in marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia: Philometra gracilis n. sp. and Philometroides branchiarum n. sp. from tissues behind the gills and gill arches, respectively, of the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) (Lutjanidae), and Philometroides stomachicus n. sp. from the stomach wall of the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Lacépède) (Sciaenidae). Philometra gracilis differs from other congeners described from the Lutjanidae mainly in the presence of large caudal projections, short gravid females (28-42 mm long), the oesophageal gland extending anteriorly far anterior to the level of the nerve-ring, the site in the host and its geographical distribution. Philometroides branchiarum is mainly characterised by the possession of conspicuous, sclerotised oesophageal teeth and very short gravid females (6-8 mm long), whereas P. stomachicus can be differentiated by the body length of gravid females (85-90 mm), the length of the oesophagus (2.67 mm) representing 3% of the body length, the maximum width/body length ratio of gravid females (1:28-32), cuticular bosses densely distributed throughout the body but absent from the oesophageal region, the absence of oesophageal teeth and caudal projections, and the site in the host. The presence of P. gracilis and P. branchiarum in L. johnii and that of P. stomachicus in P. diacanthus confirm the possibility of the coexistence of more philometrid species in different sites within sympatric specimens of one and the same definitive host. PMID:27522363

  11. Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda, Anisakidae) with a new host record from the common sole Solea solea (Soleidae) and its role as a biological indicator of pollution.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Morsy, Kareem; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Saleh, Rehab

    2015-02-01

    Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda, Anisakidae) was isolated from the intestine of the common sole Solea solea (Family, Soleidae) collected from coasts along Alexandria City at the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt, during the period from May to September 2013. Light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that this nematode parasite belongs to the family Anisakidae in the genus Hysterothylacium. The type species is named H. aduncum, based on the presence of three interlocked lips with the interlabium in between, the presence of cephalic papillae, and large numbers of caudal papillae in males. Body measurements showed that the male worms were smaller than females measuring 13.9-18 mm (16.2 ± 0.2) in length and 0.26-0.34 mm (0.30 ± 0.01) in width. Females measured 20.5-24.5 mm (22.7 ± 0.2) in length and 0.41-0.52 mm (0.45 ± 0.01) in width. The morphological characteristics of this species was confirmed by molecular analysis of 18S rDNA for these parasites followed by comparison between sequence data for them with those obtained from the Genbank showing that H. aduncum is deeply embedded in the genus Hysterothylacium with a sequence similarity between 95.5-94.3 % with close relationships to other H. aduncum specimens and Hysterothylacium sp.. Furthermore, it was shown that this parasitic nematode is able to accumulate larger concentrations of heavy metals such as Fe, Cu, Cd, and Ni within its tissues than of its host fish and thus it can be used as a useful bio-indicator of water pollution. PMID:25468378

  12. Two new species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from Mycteroperca spp. (Serranidae) in the North-West Atlantic and northern Gulf of Mexico, USA.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Adams, Douglas H

    2016-06-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from two species of Mycteroperca Gill (Serranidae), marine perciform fishes, in coastal waters off Florida, USA: Philometra deburonae n. sp. from the inner side of operculum of the yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa (L.) and P. incognita n. sp. from the ovary of the gag M. microlepis (Goode & Bean). Philometra deburonae n. sp. is mainly characterised by the body length of males (1.90-2.38 mm), the length of the spicules (78-84 µm) and gubernaculum (54 µm) and the presence of small outer cephalic papillae, a pair of fairly large caudal projections and the oesophageal gland extending anteriorly beyond the nerve-ring in subgravid females. Philometra incognita n. sp. is distinguished by the caudal mound consisting of two lateral reniform parts widely separated dorsally from each other, the absence of a pair of large papillae situated posteriorly to the cloaca, the shape and structure of the distal end of the gubernaculum plus the lengths of the spicules (117-141 µm) and gubernaculum (60-81 µm) in the male, the absence of caudal projections and the comparatively large larvae in the uterus (660-675 µm long) of the gravid female, as well as, the body length of both males (2.45-3.11 mm) and gravid females (120-180 mm). The present descriptions of an additional two new philometrids increases the number of recorded nominal species of Philometra parasitising groupers (Serranidae) in the Gulf of Mexico to nine. PMID:27221001

  13. Molecular genetic conspecificity of Spiculopteragia houdemeri (Schwartz, 1926) and S. andreevae (Dróżdż, 1965) (Nematoda: Ostertagiinae) from wild ruminants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sultan, K; Omar, M; Makouloutou, P; Kaneshiro, Y; Saita, E; Yokoyama, M; Suzuki, K; Hosoi, E; Sato, H

    2014-03-01

    Male dimorphism of the subfamily Ostertagiinae (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) is a well-known phenomenon, and two or more morphotypes of a single species have previously been described as different species. Two Spiculopteragia spp., S. houdemeri (syn. S. yamashitai) and S. andreevae (syn. Rinadia andreevae) recorded in Asian cervids and wild bovids, are considered to represent major and minor morphs of S. houdemeri, respectively, based solely on their co-occurrence in the same host individual along with monomorphic females. In this study, males of morph houdemeri ( = S. houdemeri) and morph andreevae ( = S. andreevae) as well as females with three different vulval ornamentations were collected from sika deer (Cervus nippon) and Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus) distributed on the mainland of Japan. Morphologically characterized worms were subjected to molecular genetic analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA gene and a partial region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene of mitochondrial DNA. Of 181 collected sika deer, 177 (97.8%) and 73 (40.3%) deer harboured males of morphs houdemeri and andreevae, respectively. Worm numbers of the former morph were found to range between 1 and 444 per individual, whereas only 1-25 worms per individual were detected for the latter morph. Five out of six serows harboured 47-71 or 2-9 males of morphs houdemeri and andreevae per individual, respectively. Females with one or two vulval flaps were predominant, but there was a substantial presence of flapless females in both host species. All the morphs of male and female adults had an identical genetic background, thus directly confirming the morphological polymorphism of S. houdemeri. PMID:23168162

  14. Redescription, generic allocation and synonymy of Decorataria magnilabiata (Molin, 1860) n. comb. (Nematoda: Spirurida: Acuariidae), a parasite of the roseate spoonbill Platalea ajaja L. (Aves: Threskiornithidae) in South America.

    PubMed

    Mutafchiev, Yasen; Georgiev, Boyko B

    2011-09-01

    Decorataria magnilabiata (Molin, 1860) n. comb. is proposed for Dispharagus magnilabiatus Molin, 1860 [= Acuaria (Cheilospirura) magnilabiata (Molin, 1860) Railliet, Henry & Sisoff, 1912; Cheilospirura magnilabiata (Molin, 1860) Stiles & Hassall, 1920; Dispharynx magnilabiata (Molin, 1860) Gendre, 1920] (Nematoda, Spirurida, Acuariidae), a parasite of the roseate spoonbill Platalea ajaja L. (Ciconiiformes, Threskiornithidae) known from Brazil, France (bird in captivity), Argentina and Cuba. The species is redescribed and illustrated on the basis of the type-series (from Brazil) in the Helminthological Collection of the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. Syncuaria diacantha Petter, 1961 [= Decorataria diacantha (P.) Skryabin, Sobolev & Ivashkin, 1965], originally described from Platalea ajaja in France (bird in captivity), is recognised as a junior synonym of Decorataria magnilabiata (new synonymy). PMID:21805387

  15. Discovery of new Ohbayashinema spp. (Nematoda: Heligmosomoidea) in Ochotona princeps and Ochotona cansus (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) from western North America and Central Asia, with considerations of historical biogeography.

    PubMed

    Durette-Desset, M-C; Galbreath, K E; Hoberg, E P

    2010-06-01

    Three new species of Ohbayashinema (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea) are described from localities in western North America and central Asia. Two of these species, Ohbayashinema nearctica n. sp. and Ohbayashinema aspeira n. sp., are parasitic in American pika, Ochotona princeps. Ohbayashinema nearctica is differentiated from the 5 known species of the genus parasitic in Ochotonidae from the Old World by very long spicules and an oblique axis of orientation for the ridges composing the synlophe. Ohbayashinema aspeira, described only from females, is similar to Oh. nearctica based on the number of cuticular ridges at the mid-body. It is mainly differentiated by an uncoiled anterior extremity and by near equal dimensions of the vestibule and the uterus. The third species, Ohbayashinema patriciae n. sp., is parasitic in Gansu pika, Ochotona cansus , from China. It is similar to Ohbayashinema erbaevae parasitic in Ochotona dauurica from Buriatia and Ohbayashinema ochotoni in Ochotona macrotis from Nepal, based on the length of the spicules and the ratio of spicule length to body length. It differs from the former species by possessing a smaller number of cuticular ridges and in the comparative length of the vestibule and infundibulum. Related to Oh. ochotoni by an identical number of cuticular ridges at the mid-body, it differs from this species in having smaller ridges in the dorsal rather than ventral field and in the dimensions of the dorsal ray where rays 9 are less than rays 10. Species of Ohbayashinema appear to be host-specific among the Ochotonidae but had not been previously reported in pikas from the Nearctic. Although much remains to be demonstrated about the diversity for helminths in pikas, it is apparent that factors associated with the assembly and structure of parasite faunas have been complex, involving episodic processes for geographic and host colonization along with coevolutionary mechanisms. Understanding the historical factors, particularly climate

  16. New records of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off Iraq, with the erection of two new species and the first description of the male of Philometroides eleutheronemae Moravec & Manoharan, 2013.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Ali, Atheer H; Abed, Jasim M; Shaker, Sara J

    2016-02-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following five species of philometrid nematodes (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes from off Basrah, southern Iraq (Arabian Gulf): Philometra iraqiensis n. sp. (females) from the abdominal cavity and ovary of the Klunzinger's mullet Liza klunzingeri (Day) (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae), P. megalaspidis n. sp. (females) from the ovary of the torpedo scad Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Carangidae), Philometra sp. 1 (females) from the ovary of the greater lizardfish Saurida tumbil (Bloch) (Aulopiformes: Synodontidae), Philometra sp. 2 (females) from the ovary of the bartail flathead Platycephalus indicus (Linnaeus) (Scorpaeniformes: Platycephalidae) and Philometroides eleutheronemae Moravec & Manoharan, 2013 (male and females) from the ovary of the fourfinger threadfin Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw) (Perciformes: Polynemidae). The new species are characterised mainly by the body length, the length and structure of the oesophagus and caudal end and by the family of their fish hosts. The male and the gravid female of P. eleutheronemae are described for the first time; the finding of this species in Iraqi waters represents the first record of this nematode in the region of the Arabian (=Persian) Gulf. PMID:26790678

  17. Descriptions of Philometra aenei n. sp. and P. tunisiensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from Epinephelus spp. off Tunisia confirm a high degree of host specificity of gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 in groupers (Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-02-01

    Based on light and electron microscopical studies of males and mature females, two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of groupers, Epinephelus spp. (Perciformes; Serranidae), in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Sfax): Philometra aenei n. sp. from the white grouper E. aeneus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire) and P. tunisiensis n. sp. from the goldblotch grouper E. costae (Steindachner). Identification of both fish hosts was confirmed by barcoding of the infected fish specimens. Philometra aenei is mainly characterised by the length of conspicuously distended spicules (108-123 µm), the presence of a distinct dorsal barb at the middle region of the gubernaculum and a distinct protuberance consisting of two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field at its distal tip, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity and by the body length of the males (2.34-3.05 mm). The male of this species was found to possess minute deirids in the cervical region, which is quite exceptional within the Philometridae. Philometra tunisiensis is distinguished from other gonad-infecting congeneric species parasitising serranids by the length of the needle-like spicules and gubernaculum (201-219 and 78-87 µm, respectively), spicule length representing 9-11% of body length, the gubernaculum/spicules length ratio of 1:2.52-2.77, the length of oesophagus in the male comprising 15-16% of the body length, the absence of a dorsal protuberance on the distal lamellar part of the gubernaculum and a pair of large papillae posterior to the cloaca, a dorsally interrupted mound on the male caudal extremity and the body length of the male (2.01-2.42 mm). The presence of three morphologically very different species of Philometra in congeneric hosts in the Mediterranean Sea confirms a high degree of host specificity of these gonad-infecting nematodes parasitising groupers. PMID:26790677

  18. A revision of the genus Paracanthonchus (Cyatholaimidae, Nematoda) with a tabular key to species and a description of P. mamubiae sp. n. from the deep North-Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miljutina, Maria A.; Miljutin, Dmitry M.

    2015-01-01

    The species-rich genus of marine free-living nematodes, Paracanthonchus Mikoletzky 1924 (Nematoda: Cyatholaimidae), is revised. The genus numbers 72 valid species; twenty are indicated as species inquirenda because of poor descriptions and/or doubtful placement in the genus. Species of the genus were described from all oceans and latitudes. Of valid species, 64 ones (90%) were described from the tidal or upper subtidal zones, four species were recorded from the medium or lower shelf, and three species are abyssal. Thirty one species (43%) are known from Europe and the Northern Africa; 19 and 9 ones were described from South and North America (respectively); 8 ones were recorded from Asia; and 6 ones from the Australian region. The type species, Paracanthonchus caecus Mikoletzky 1924 has been recorded by a number of authors from various oceans around the World, yet many of these specimens have only roughly resembled the type description. Evidently, this species represents a complex of closely related species. Possibly, the same situation is in some other Paracanthonchus species, the repeated findings of which have no strong resemblance to type specimens. A tabular key to species is provided. A new abyssal species Paracanthonchus mamubiae from the Zenkevich Rise (North-Western Pacific, off North Japan, 5350 m depth) is described. The new species is characterized by: the tail, which is long with a thin, cylindrical terminal section; the absence of lateral differentiation of the cuticle; the presence of two groups of lateral pores (level of posterior part of pharynx and in cloacal region); one large dorsal tooth and two pairs of small subventral teeth combined with pharyngostomal cuticular ridges forming two denticles which may appear as a third pair of subventral teeth; 3-5 indistinct tubular preanal supplements; and a massive, proximally paired gubernaculum possessing broad flattened plates on each distal end. Each flattened gubernacular plate bears numerous (50

  19. Criconematina (nematoda: tylenchida) from the Aleutian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    A new genus (Cerchnotocriconema) and three new species (C. psephinum, Hemicycliophora anchitkaensis, and Paratylenchus amundseni) are described from Adak and Amchitka Islands in the Aleutian chain. The new genus differs from all other criconematid genera in having irregular, convex sculpturing consisting of small, oval plates on the anterior and posterior regions of each annule, with the mid-annular region minutely punctate or dentate. H. amchitkaensis n. sp. resembles H. sinilis Thorne and H. zuckermani Brzeski, but has only one head annule, instead of two. P. amundseni n. sp., which has a stylet 17 to 19 ..mu..m long, is similar to P. tatea Wu and Townsend and P. labiosus Anderson and Kimpinski, but differs by the presence of males and the possession of conoid-truncate lip region, functional spermatheca, and long male tail (c = 8.5 to 9.5). Seriespinula seymouri Wu (Mehta and Raski), Nothocriconema longulum (Gunhold) De Grisse and Loof, and Macroposthonia xenoplax (Raski) De Grisse and Loof are also reported from the islands.

  20. MOLECULAR VIEW OF THE SUPERFAMILY DIOCTOPHYMATOIDEA (NEMATODA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monophyly of the superfamily Dioctophymatoidea using 3 constituent genera was tested using a multilocus analysis of DNA sequence variation. Phylogenetic reconstruction involved maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference of 18s nuclear DNA (786 bp segment) and mitochondrial cytochro...

  1. A cladistic analysis of the Trichostrongyloidea (Nematoda).

    PubMed

    Durette-Desset, M C; Hugot, J P; Darlu, P; Chabaud, A G

    1999-07-01

    A morphologically based cladistic analysis of 40 genera included within the Trichostrongyloidea (Amidostomatidae, Dromaeostrongylidae and Trichostrongylidae) is proposed. Two genera were used as outgroups, one from the Strongylina and the other from the Ancylostomatina. Seven genera do not appear in the matrix because some significant morphological characters remain unknown for these genera. Nonetheless, except for Moguranema which is excluded as incertae sedis, a likely systematic position could be assigned to them based on the morphological characters that are known. The classification which best fits the consensus tree is composed of three families. In adding the genera not included in the tree, we obtain: (i) Trichostrongylidae with three sub-families, Amidostomatinae (four genera), Filarinematinae (three genera) and Trichostrongylinae (five genera); (ii) Haemonchidae with two sub-families: Ostertagiinae (eight genera) and Haemonchinae (five genera); (iii) Cooperiidae with three sub-families: Libyostrongylinae (five genera), Obeliscoidinae n. subfam. (five genera) and Cooperiinae (ten genera). Dromaeostrongylus and Ortleppstrongylus, whose females have a caudal spine, are excluded from the Trichostrongyloidea and are placed in the Molineoidea. The hypotheses relating to the evolutionary history of the Trichostrongyloidea are: the origin of the superfamily could have occurred during the upper Cretaceous period. The two most ancient sub-families (Amidostomatinae and Filarinematinae) would be of Gwondwanan origin and evolved during the Paleocene period within Neotropical aquatic birds and within the Australian marsupials. The Trichostrongylinae would have arisen during the Eocene period within birds and then adapted to diverse archaic mammals in the Neotropical region on one hand and in the Nearctic region, on the other hand and lastly adapted to the Lagomorpha and subsequently to the Ruminantia. In both families originating from the Trichostrongylidae, the adaptation to the Lagomorpha may have taken place during the Oligocene but in a different way. In the Haemonchidae, the Ostertagiinae may have passed directly from the Neartic region to Europe. In the Cooperiidae, the adaptation to Lagomorpha may have occurred either within the Libyostrongylinae which may have remained in the Ethiopian region since the Paleocene, or, more likely, by the passage of the Obeliscoidinae from the Nearctic region to the Asian, through the Bering strait. In all cases, the adaptation of the Trichostrongyloidea of Lagomorpha to Ruminants apparently took place during the Miocene, mainly in the Palearctic and the Ethiopian regions. PMID:10501617

  2. The complete mitochondrial genomes of three parasitic nematodes of birds: a unique gene order and insights into nematode phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Analyses of mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences in recent years challenge the current working hypothesis of Nematoda phylogeny proposed from morphology, ecology and nuclear small subunit rRNA gene sequences, and raise the need to sequence additional mt genomes for a broad range of nematode lineages. Results We sequenced the complete mt genomes of three Ascaridia species (family Ascaridiidae) that infest chickens, pigeons and parrots, respectively. These three Ascaridia species have an identical arrangement of mt genes to each other but differ substantially from other nematodes. Phylogenetic analyses of the mt genome sequences of the Ascaridia species, together with 62 other nematode species, support the monophylies of seven high-level taxa of the phylum Nematoda: 1) the subclass Dorylaimia; 2) the orders Rhabditida, Trichinellida and Mermithida; 3) the suborder Rhabditina; and 4) the infraorders Spiruromorpha and Oxyuridomorpha. Analyses of mt genome sequences, however, reject the monophylies of the suborders Spirurina and Tylenchina, and the infraorders Rhabditomorpha, Panagrolaimomorpha and Tylenchomorpha. Monophyly of the infraorder Ascaridomorpha varies depending on the methods of phylogenetic analysis. The Ascaridomorpha was more closely related to the infraorders Rhabditomorpha and Diplogasteromorpha (suborder Rhabditina) than they were to the other two infraorders of the Spirurina: Oxyuridorpha and Spiruromorpha. The closer relationship among Ascaridomorpha, Rhabditomorpha and Diplogasteromorpha was also supported by a shared common pattern of mitochondrial gene arrangement. Conclusions Analyses of mitochondrial genome sequences and gene arrangement has provided novel insights into the phylogenetic relationships among several major lineages of nematodes. Many lineages of nematodes, however, are underrepresented or not represented in these analyses. Expanding taxon sampling is necessary for future phylogenetic studies of nematodes with mt genome

  3. Prevalence and Molecular Identification of Nematode and Dipteran Parasites in an Australian Alpine Grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis)

    PubMed Central

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Byatt, Lachlan J.; Hill, Nichola J.; Bartolini, Remo J.; Hose, Grant C.; Herberstein, Marie E.; Power, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    In alpine Australia, Orthoptera are abundant, dominant herbivores, important prey species, and hosts for parasites and parasitoids. Despite the central role of orthopterans in alpine ecosystems, the impact of parasites on orthopteran populations is under-explored. In this study we describe the relationship between parasite prevalence and host sex, body size and year of collection. We accessed an existing, preserved collection of 640 Kosciuscola tristis collected from across its range between 2007 and 2011. Upon dissection we collected juvenile parasites and used molecular tools to identify them to three families (Nematoda; Mermithidae, and Arthropoda: Diptera: Tachinidae and Sarcophagidae). The prevalence of nematodes ranged from 3.5% to 25.0% and dipterans from 2.4% to 20.0%. Contrary to predictions, we found no associations between parasite prevalence and grasshopper sex or size. Although there was an association between prevalence of both nematodes and dipterans with year of collection, this is likely driven by a small sample size in the first year. Our results provide a foundation for future studies into parasite prevalence within the alpine environment and the abiotic factors that might influence these associations. PMID:25919745

  4. Mitochondrial Genome Supports Sibling Species of Angiostrongylus costaricensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Goh, Share-Yuan; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chow, Wan-Loo; Chan, Kok-Gan; Abrahams-Sandi, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a zoonotic parasitic nematode that causes abdominal or intestinal angiostrongyliasis in humans. It is endemic to the Americas. Although the mitochondrial genome of the Brazil taxon has been published, there is no available mitochondrial genome data on the Costa Rica taxon. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of the Costa Rica taxon and its genetic differentiation from the Brazil taxon. The whole mitochondrial genome was obtained from next-generation sequencing of genomic DNA. It had a total length of 13,652 bp, comprising 36 genes (12 protein-coding genes—PCGs, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes) and a control region (A + T rich non-coding region). It is longer than that of the Brazil taxon (13,585 bp). The larger mitogenome size of the Costa Rica taxon is due to the size of the control region as the Brazil taxon has a shorter length (265 bp) than the Costa Rica taxon (318 bp). The size of 6 PCGs and the start codon for ATP6, CYTB and NAD5 genes are different between the Costa Rica and Brazil taxa. Additionally, the two taxa differ in the stop codon of 6 PCGs. Molecular phylogeny based on 12 PCGs was concordant with two rRNA, 22 tRNA and 36 mitochondrial genes. The two taxa have a genetic distance of p = 16.2% based on 12 PCGs, p = 15.3% based on 36 mitochondrial genes, p = 13.1% based on 2 rRNA genes and p = 10.7% based on 22 tRNA genes, indicating status of sibling species. The Costa Rica and Brazil taxa of A. costaricensis are proposed to be accorded specific status as members of a species complex. PMID:26230642

  5. A MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY FOR THE PROTOSTRONGYLIDAE (NEMATODA: METASTRONGYLINA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protostrongylids, a putative monophyletic group among the lungworms (Metastrongylina: Metastrongyloidea), are economically important pathogens infecting domestic and free-ranging ungulate and leporid hosts throughout the world. Here, we reconstruct a molecular phylogeny based on ribosomal DNA (28S) ...

  6. Description of Globodera ellingtonae n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Handoo, Zafar A.; Carta, Lynn K.; Skantar, Andrea M.; Chitwood, David J.

    2012-01-01

    A new species of cyst nematode, Globodera ellingtonae, is described from soil collected from a field in Oregon. Second-stage juveniles (J2) of the species are characterized by body length of 365-515 μm, stylet length of 19-22.5 μm, basal knobs rounded posteriorly and pointed anteriorly, tail 39-55 μm, hyaline tail terminus 20-32.5 μm, and tail tapering uniformly but abruptly narrowing and constricted near the posterior third of the hyaline portion, ending with a peg-like, finely rounded to pointed terminus. Cysts are spherical to sub-spherical, dark to light brown and circumfenestrate and cyst wall pattern is ridge-like with heavy punctations. Males have a stylet length of 21-25 μm and spicule length of 30-37 μm with a pointed thorn-like tip. Females have a stylet length of 20-22.5 μm, one head annule and labial disc, heavy punctations on the cuticle, and short vulval slit 7.5-8 μm long. Morphologically this new, round-cyst species differs from the related species G. pallida, G. rostochiensis, G. tabacum complex and G. mexicana by its distinctive J2 tail, and by one or another of the following: shorter mean stylet length in J2, females and males; number of refractive bodies in the hyaline tail terminus of J2; cyst morphology including Granek’s ratio; number of cuticular ridges between the anus and vulva; and in the shape and length of spicules in males. Its relationship to these closely related species are discussed. Based upon analysis of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, G. ellingtonae n. sp. is distinct from G. pallida, G. rostochiensis, G. tabacum and G. mexicana. Bayesian and Maximum Parsimony analysis of cloned ITS rRNA gene sequences indicated three clades, with intraspecific variability as high as 2.8%. In silico analysis revealed ITS restriction fragment length polymorphisms for enzymes Bsh 1236I, Hinf I, and Rsa I that overlap patterns for other Globodera species. PMID:23483076

  7. Nematoda of Kinosternon scorpioides (Testudines: Kinosternidae) from Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viana, Diego C; Rodrigues, João Fabrício M; Madelaire, Carla B; Clara, Ana; Santos, G; Sousa, Alana L

    2016-02-01

    The scorpion mud turtle (Kinosternon scorpioides) is a small freshwater turtle broadly distributed in South America and commonly consumed in some Brazilian regions. This study aimed to identify the species of helminths that parasitize the digestive tract of K. scorpioides and report infection parameters such as parasite prevalence, mean intensity of the infection, abundance, and the relationship between these nematodes and host body size in this species. We captured 20 adult male K. scorpioides, and 6 animals had nematodes in their gastrointestinal tract. These animals had Serpinema magathi (prevalence = 0.3) and Spiroxys figueiredoi (prevalence = 0.25). There were no correlations between the number of total parasites and carapace length (rs = 0.17, n = 6, P = 0.74) or the length of the gastrointestinal tract (rs = 0.18, n = 6, P = 0.73). PMID:26485115

  8. Armless mitochondrial tRNAs in Enoplea (Nematoda)

    PubMed Central

    Jühling, Frank; Pütz, Joern; Florentz, Catherine; Stadler, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of metazoan animal typically encodes 22 tRNAs. Nematode mt-tRNAs normally lack the T-stem and instead feature a replacement loop. In the class Enoplea, putative mt-tRNAs that are even further reduced have been predicted to lack both the T- and the D-arm. Here we investigate these tRNA candidates in detail. Three lines of computational evidence support that they are indeed minimal functional mt-tRNAs: (1) the high level of conservation of both sequence and secondary structure, (2) the perfect preservation of the anticodons, and (3) the persistence of these sequence elements throughout several genome rearrangements that place them between different flanking genes. PMID:23018779

  9. Sectonema caobangense sp. n. from Vietnam (Nematoda, Dorylaimida, Aporcelaimidae).

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Ortega, Sergio; Duong Nguyen, Thi Anh; Abolafia, Joaquín; Bonkowski, Michael; Peña-Santiago, Reyes

    2016-06-01

    Sectonema caobangense sp. n. from evergreen forest soil in Vietnam is described, including scanning electron micrograph (SEM) observations and D2-D3 LSU rDNA analysis. The new species is characterized by its 3.12 to 5.80 mm long body, lip region offset by deep constriction and 21 to 23 μm broad, mural tooth 13 to 14 μm long at its ventral side, 940 to 1,112 μm long neck, pharyngeal expansion occupying 61% to 69% of total neck length, uterus a long simple tube-like structure 292 to 363 μm long or 2.7 to 2.9 times the corresponding body diameter, pars refringens vaginae well developed, V = 48 to 56, short (36-51 μm, c = 77-132, c' = 0.5-0.8) and rounded tail, 87 to 99 μm long spicules, and four or five irregularly spaced ventromedian supplements bearing hiatus. Sectonema caobangense sp. n. differs from the typical pattern of Sectonema in the nature of the stomatal protrusible structure, bearing a mural tooth attached to the ventral side of the stoma. Molecular data obtained and the derived evolutionary trees support a close phylogenetic relationship with other Sectonema species. PMID:27418702

  10. First report of Xiphinema rivesi (Nematoda, Longidoridae) in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dagger nematode Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso 1969 transmits several viruses in North America and Europe (2), causing severe yield reduction in crops. During a routine survey of cherry orchards suffering from cherry rasp leaf disease caused by Cherry rasp leaf virus (CRLV) (genus Cheravirus) in Che...

  11. Sectonema caobangense sp. n. from Vietnam (Nematoda, Dorylaimida, Aporcelaimidae)

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Ortega, Sergio; Duong Nguyen, Thi Anh; Abolafia, Joaquín; Bonkowski, Michael; Peña-Santiago, Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Sectonema caobangense sp. n. from evergreen forest soil in Vietnam is described, including scanning electron micrograph (SEM) observations and D2-D3 LSU rDNA analysis. The new species is characterized by its 3.12 to 5.80 mm long body, lip region offset by deep constriction and 21 to 23 μm broad, mural tooth 13 to 14 μm long at its ventral side, 940 to 1,112 μm long neck, pharyngeal expansion occupying 61% to 69% of total neck length, uterus a long simple tube-like structure 292 to 363 μm long or 2.7 to 2.9 times the corresponding body diameter, pars refringens vaginae well developed, V = 48 to 56, short (36–51 μm, c = 77–132, c′ = 0.5–0.8) and rounded tail, 87 to 99 μm long spicules, and four or five irregularly spaced ventromedian supplements bearing hiatus. Sectonema caobangense sp. n. differs from the typical pattern of Sectonema in the nature of the stomatal protrusible structure, bearing a mural tooth attached to the ventral side of the stoma. Molecular data obtained and the derived evolutionary trees support a close phylogenetic relationship with other Sectonema species. PMID:27418702

  12. Five new species of the genus Tripylella (Nematoda: Enoplida: Tripylidae).

    PubMed

    Prado-Vera, Ignacio Cid Del; Ferris, Howard; Nadler, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Five new species of the genus Tripylella are described, two from México, one from Fátima, Portugal, one from Quito, Ecuador, and one from California, USA. Tripylella mexicana sp. n. is characterized by its short body (average 0.74 mm), short pharynx (average 161 μm), short tail (average 117 μm), presence of an excretory pore and small setae distributed sparsely along the body, the presence of body pores, the posterior position of the subventral teeth in relation to the small dorsal tooth with all teeth in contiguous stomal chambers, the finely-striated cuticle with many anastomoses, the non-protruding vulval lips, and the presence of sclerotized pieces in the vulval region. Tripylella muscusi sp. n. is characterized by its body length (average 0.94 mm), pharynx length (average 201 μm), tail length (average 140 μm), the anterior position of the subventral teeth in relation to the small dorsal tooth in a single stomal chamber, the presence of an excretory pore, the presence of body pores and sparse somatic setae, the finely-striated cuticle with sparse anastomoses, protruding vulval lips and sclerotized oval-shaped pieces present in the vulval region. Tripylella quitoensis sp. n. is characterized by the short body length (average 0.72 mm), the short outer labial setae, the short pharynx (average 175 μm), the location of the anterior subventral teeth and posterior dorsal tooth in the same stomal chamber, the short tail (average 98 μm), the apparent absence of an excretory pore, presence of body pores, presence of somatic setae, a finely-striated cuticle, non-protruding vulval lips, and very small oval sclerotized pieces in the vulva. Tripylella fatimaensis sp. n. is characterized by the short body, (average 0.74 mm) long, by the length of the pharynx (average 180 μm), the length of the tail (average 110 μm) and in the length of its reduced diameter portion, 45-58 μm, the presence of an excretory pore, body pores and three pairs of caudal setae (one pair each latero-ventral, latero-dorsal and ventral). Tripylella dentata sp. n. is characterized, and differs from all the species of the genus, by the presence of two adjacent stomal chambers, with two large teeth, one dorsal and one ventral, in the posterior stomal chamber and two subventral teeth in the anterior smaller chamber, short body (average 0.85 mm), pharynx length (average 209 μm), tail length (average 115 μm), the apparent absence of an excretory pore, the presence of two cervical setae in a lateral position, and by the presence of conspicuous pores along the body. PMID:27394860

  13. Book review: Systematics of Cyst Nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cyst nematodes are an important group of plant-parasitic nematodes that cause billions of dollars in economic damage to crops every year. This article reviews a recently published, two-volume monograph that describes the morphological and molecular characteristics of these agriculturally signif...

  14. Three new species of heteroderoidea (nematoda) from the Aleutian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, E.C.

    1981-10-01

    Three new species of Heteroderoidea are described from Adak and Amchitka Islands in the Aleutian chain. Second-stage juveniles of Thecavermiculatus crassicrustata, n. sp., differ from those of T. gracililancea Robbins by having longer stylets (40 to 50 ..mu..m vs 19 to 22 ..mu..m). The female of T. crassicrustata has a longer neck, a more posterior excretory pore, and lacks a posterior protuberance. Meloidodera eurytyla, n. sp., differs from other Meloidodera spp. in that second-stage juveniles have longer stylets (32 to 35 ..mu..m) and much more massive styletknobs, while males have a longitudinally striated basal head annule. Meloidogyne subarctica, n. sp., can be separated from other Meloidogyne spp. by combinations of the following characteristics: perineal pattern with large oval areas in the tail region devoid of striae, arch with few unbroken striae; female excretory pore 1.5 to 2.5 x the stylet length from the anterior end; haploid chromosome number = 18; the spermatheca filled with sperm; stylet length of second-stage juveniles 13.5 to 15.4 ..mu..m.

  15. Description of Globodera ellingtonae n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of cyst nematode, Globodera ellingtoni, is described from soil collected from a field with a cropping history including potatoes in Oregon. It is characterized in having second-stage juveniles (J2) with a body length of 450 um (365-515), stylet length of 20.9 um (19-22.5) with basal kn...

  16. Description of Globodera ellingtonae n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Oregon.

    PubMed

    Handoo, Zafar A; Carta, Lynn K; Skantar, Andrea M; Chitwood, David J

    2012-03-01

    A new species of cyst nematode, Globodera ellingtonae, is described from soil collected from a field in Oregon. Second-stage juveniles (J2) of the species are characterized by body length of 365-515 μm, stylet length of 19-22.5 μm, basal knobs rounded posteriorly and pointed anteriorly, tail 39-55 μm, hyaline tail terminus 20-32.5 μm, and tail tapering uniformly but abruptly narrowing and constricted near the posterior third of the hyaline portion, ending with a peg-like, finely rounded to pointed terminus. Cysts are spherical to sub-spherical, dark to light brown and circumfenestrate and cyst wall pattern is ridge-like with heavy punctations. Males have a stylet length of 21-25 μm and spicule length of 30-37 μm with a pointed thorn-like tip. Females have a stylet length of 20-22.5 μm, one head annule and labial disc, heavy punctations on the cuticle, and short vulval slit 7.5-8 μm long. Morphologically this new, round-cyst species differs from the related species G. pallida, G. rostochiensis, G. tabacum complex and G. mexicana by its distinctive J2 tail, and by one or another of the following: shorter mean stylet length in J2, females and males; number of refractive bodies in the hyaline tail terminus of J2; cyst morphology including Granek's ratio; number of cuticular ridges between the anus and vulva; and in the shape and length of spicules in males. Its relationship to these closely related species are discussed. Based upon analysis of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, G. ellingtonae n. sp. is distinct from G. pallida, G. rostochiensis, G. tabacum and G. mexicana. Bayesian and Maximum Parsimony analysis of cloned ITS rRNA gene sequences indicated three clades, with intraspecific variability as high as 2.8%. In silico analysis revealed ITS restriction fragment length polymorphisms for enzymes Bsh 1236I, Hinf I, and Rsa I that overlap patterns for other Globodera species. PMID:23483076

  17. Reproduction in Strongyloides (Nematoda): a life between sex and parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Streit, A

    2008-03-01

    Nematodes of the genus Strongyloides parasitize the small intestines of vertebrates. In addition to a parasitic life-cycle, which is generally considered to be parthenogenetic, Strongyloides can also have a facultative, free-living generation involving male and female worms. The purpose of the present article was to review the literature on the modes of reproduction, the routes of development in the two generations of Strongyloides, discuss the controversial opinions in the literature regarding these aspects and point to new opportunities for addressing key questions in relation to the biology of reproduction of members of the genus employing genetic and genomic tools. PMID:18076772

  18. Halicephalobus gingivalis (Nematoda) infection in a Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi).

    PubMed

    Isaza, R; Schiller, C A; Stover, J; Smith, P J; Greiner, E C

    2000-03-01

    A 6-yr-old female Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) with a disseminated rhabditiform nematode infection is described. Antemortem clinical signs were limited to blindness and abnormal behavior believed to be caused by a recurrent nematode-induced uveitis. Histologic examination of the kidneys, heart, eyes, uterus, and lymph nodes revealed granulomas containing multiple sections of rhabditiform nematodes. Most of the recovered nematodes were larval stages with only a few adult females noted. The adults measured 243-297 microm x 11-16 microm (x = 269 x 14 microm). The distinctive rhabditiform esophagi had corpus:isthmus:bulb proportions of 19:11:5. On the basis of adult morphology, the nematode was identified as Halicephalobus gingivalis. This is the first report of this parasite in a zebra and indicates that this parasitic granulomatous disease should be considered in zebras with neurologic disease. PMID:10884129

  19. Rapid counting of nematoda in salmon by peptic digestion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, Joseph A.; Chakravarti, Diptiman; Uzmann, J.R.; Hesselholt, M.N.

    1961-01-01

    The population of Anisakis sp., larvae in chum salmon appears to be concentrated in the ventral section of the fish, that is, below the lateral line, which ಟ್ಗ that only the ventral quarters of the fish need to be examined for estimating infection intensity.

  20. Rapid counting of nematoda in salmon by peptic digestion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, Joseph A.; Chakravarti, Diptiman; Uzmann, Joseph R.; Hesselholt, M.N.

    1958-01-01

    The population of Anisakis sp., larvae in chum salmon appears to be concentrated in the ventral section of the fish, that is, below the lateral line, which ಟ್ಗ that only the ventral quarters of the fish need to be examined for estimating infection intensity.

  1. [Effects of temperature on the viability and infectivity of preparasitic larvae of Romanomermis yuanenesis].

    PubMed

    Peng, Y; Song, J; Platzer, E G

    1996-03-01

    Romanomermis yuanenesis (Mermithidae: Nematoda) was found in Henan, China (Song and Peng, 1987), which has a broad host range in Culicinae mosquito and has been used successfully in field test for control of culex tritaeniorhynchus, culex fatigans and Aedes albopictus in Sichuan, Yunnan, Guangxi and Henan Provinces. This study was attempted to determine the viability and infectivity of preparasitic larvae in various temperatures. The cultures containing R. yuanenesis eggs were flooded 2h with distilled water, filtered and blocked with 1% agarose. Put the filter paper into water, then the motile preparasites separated from the unhatched eggs and got through the agarose membrane into water. About 200ml water containing preparasites free from eggs were held at 26 degrees C-28 degrees C, 16 degrees C-18 degrees C and -2 degrees C to 2 degrees C for test. The motility or lack of motility was used as the criterion to distinguish the living and dead nematodes. The rate of infection of mosquitoes and the rate of parasitism of nematodes were used to show the infectivity of the preserved preparasites. The results showed that at -2 degrees C to 2 degrees C, more than 90% of preparasitic larvae of R. yuanenesis survived for 8 days and the rate of mosquito infection was 87.5% to 100%, but at 26 degrees C-28 degrees C and 16 degrees C-18 degrees C the survival times of 90% preparasites were only 24 hours and 48 hours respectively. It indicates the low temperature preservation may prolong the survival time and keep the infectivity of these preparasitic larvae. PMID:9208610

  2. Description of Trischistoma abharensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Trischistomatidae) and first record of Tripylella intermedia (Bütschli, 1873) Brzeski & Winiszewska-Ślipinska, 1993 (Nematoda: Tripylidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Ramezan; Eskandari, Ali; Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Zhao, Zeng Qi; Álvarez-Ortega, Sergio; Nadirkhanloo, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Two populations of the genera Trischistoma and Tripylella were recovered from the rhizosphere of grapevines and mosses growing on alder trees in Zanjan and Guilan provinces, respectively, Iran. The nematodes were identified as Trischistoma abharensis n. sp. and Tripylella intermedia, respectively. Trischistoma abharensis n. sp. is characterized by having females with body length 1069-1322 μm, presence of sparse somatic setae on the sublateral body, absence of ventromedian cervical setae, a distinct dorsal tooth directed anteriorly, absence of post-vulval uterine sac, and tail with one pair of subdorsal caudal setae. Males were not found. Tripylella intermedia is characterised by having females with body length 905-990 μm, annulated cuticle, stoma with two chambers: with dorsal tooth lying in posterior buccal chamber, and one large subventral and one small subventral tooth, respectively lying in posterior and anterior buccal chambers, cardiac glands large, composed of six fused cells, and tail 121-155 μm long, ventrally bent, anterior half broad, then suddenly narrowing, with posterior half tapered narrowly and cylindrically. The phylogenetic relationships of both species were analysed using sequences of the partial small subunit (SSU) and D2/D3 expansion segments of large subunit (partial LSU) of ribosomal RNA genes and are discussed. PMID:26250191

  3. Pasteuria endospores from Heterodera cajani (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) exhibit inverted attachment and altered germination in cross-infection studies with Globodera pallida (Nematoda: Heteroderidae).

    PubMed

    Mohan, Sharad; Mauchline, Tim H; Rowe, Janet; Hirsch, Penny R; Davies, Keith G

    2012-03-01

    The Pasteuria group of Gram-positive, endospore-forming bacteria are parasites of invertebrates and exhibit differences in host specificity. We describe a cross-infection study between an isolate of Pasteuria from pigeon pea cyst nematode, Heterodera cajani, which also infects the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, from the United Kingdom. A proportion of the attached endospores, 13% on H. cajani and 22% on G. pallida adhere to the cuticle in an inverted orientation. Inverted and conventionally attached endospores germinated and produced bacillus-like rods that completed their life cycle in < 15 weeks within females of G. pallida. This is the first example in which the life cycle of a Pasteuria population was systematically followed in two different nematode genera. A 1430-base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the Pasteuria isolate from H. cajani revealed 98.6% similarity to the orthologous gene in Pasteuria nishizawae. Additionally, their respective endospore sizes were not significantly different, in contrast their host ranges are. Potential reasons for this remain unclear and are discussed. PMID:22092805

  4. Redescriptions of genera Raphidascaris Railliet et Henry, 1915 and Paranisakis Baylis, 1923 (Nematoda: Heterocheilidae), and Paracamallanus Yorke and Maplestone, 1926 (Nematoda: Camallanidae) from fish of Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, I R; Rao, K H; Shyamasundari, K

    1989-01-01

    The present paper deals with the redescriptions of the species of a nematode of the families, Heterocheilidae Railliet et Henry, 1915 and Camallanidae Railliet et Henry, 1915 from the intestine and stomach of marine fishes, Epinephelus areolatus (Forskål), Tachysurus tenuispinis (Day), Johnius diacantus (Lecépède), Ilisha filigera (Valenciennes), Pomadasys maculatus (Blooch). Dasyatis (Himantura) uarnak (Forskål), Pterois russelli Bennett, Scoliodon sorrakowah (Cuvier) and Carangoides malabaricus Bloch and Schneider from Visakhapatnam and Kakinada (Andhra Pradesh). Most of the characters tally with Raphidascaris chirocentri Yamaguti, 1935, Paranisakis pastinacae (Rud., 1819) Baylis, 1936 and Paracamallanus theraponis Kalyankar, 1970, but differs from it body measurements, oesophagus length, location of the nerve ring, length of the tridents, possession of striations, shape and position of the vulvar process and size of the eggs. Except for these minor variations, in all other characters there is agreement with above species. Because of the non-availability of the male, it is not possible to assign the present specimens to any of the known species of the genus Raphidascaris, Paranisakis and Paracamallanus. Hence these are referred as Raphidascaris sp., Paranisakis sp. and Paracamallanus sp. Dasyatis uarnak, Pterois russelli, Scoliodon sorrakowah and Carangoides malabaricus are new host records. Visakhapatnam and Kakinada are the new locality records. PMID:2487509

  5. Redescription of Neocamallanus singhi (Nematoda: Camallanidae) with a note on related species.

    PubMed

    De, N C; Majumdar, G

    1984-01-01

    The present paper deals with the redescription of the nematode Neocamallanus singhi Ali, 1957 based on specimens collected from the fish, Channa striata from Burdwan, West Bengal, India. Comparative study of this species with other related forms described from freshwater fishes of India and Pakistan indicates that Neocamallanus bengalensis Soota et Chaturvedi, 1971 and N. ophicephali Rehana et Bilquees, 1972 are synonyms of N. singhi. PMID:6745795

  6. Schulzia chiribita n. sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea) parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian) from Peru.

    PubMed

    Durette-Desset, M C; Florindez, D T; Morales, E

    2000-03-01

    A third species of the genus Schulzia Travassos, 1937 a parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian, Leptodactylidae) originating from Peru is described. By the pattern of the caudal bursa, the specimens are closely related to the two other species. They are distinguished from Schulzia uzu Lent & Santos, 1989, parasite from Atelopus oxyrhynchus in Venezuela, by the shape of the ovejector and from Schulzia travassosi Durette-Desset, Baker & Vaucher, 1985, parasite from Bufo crucifer in Brasil, Bufo granulosus and Leptodactylus bufonius in Paraguay, by the shape of the spicules. The presence of a new species in Peru points out the wide geographic distribution of the genus in the Neotropical region. PMID:10743644

  7. Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Diplogastridae), an Associate of Dorcus Stag Beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Natsumi; Ragsdale, Erik J.; Susoy, Vladislav; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2014-01-01

    A new species of diplogastrid nematode, Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp., was isolated from adults of the stag beetle Dorcus ritsemae (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) that were purchased from a pet shop in Japan. Leptojacobus n. gen. is circumscribed by a very thin, delicate body and by a small stoma with minute armature. A combination of other stomatal characters, namely the division of the cheilostom into adradial plates, the symmetry of the subventral stegostomatal sectors, and the presence of a thin, conical dorsal tooth, further distinguishes Leptojacobus n. gen. from other genera of Diplogastridae. Phylogenetic analysis of nearly full-length SSU rRNA sequences support the new species, together with an isolate identified previously as Koerneria luziae, to be excluded from a clade including all other molecularly characterized diplogastrids with teeth and stomatal dimorphism. Therefore, the new species will be of importance for reconstruction of ancestral character histories in Diplogastridae, a family circumscribed by a suite of feeding-related novelties. PMID:24644371

  8. Paurodontella parapitica n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina, Sphaerularioidea) from Kermanshah Province, Western Iran.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Mehrab; Heydari, Ramin; Ye, Weimin

    2016-06-01

    Paurodontella parapitica n. sp., collected from the rhizosphere of an apple tree in Kermanshah province, western Iran, is described. The new species is characterized by a body length of 505 to 723 µm (females) and 480 to 600 µm (males), lip region continuous by depression; 7 to 8 μm broad, 3 to 4 µm high, stylet length 7 to 9 µm or 1 to 1.3 times the lip region diameter, short postuterine sac of 4 to 6 μm long, lateral fields with five to six incisures; outer incisures crenated and inner incisures weakly crenated, excretory pore situated 90 to 100 µm from anterior end; functional males common in the population, with spicules 24 to 26 μm long. Tail of both sexes similar, almost straight and elongate-conoid. The new species resembles in morphology and morphometrics to four known species of the genus, namely P. apitica, P. minuta, P. myceliophaga, and P. sohailai. The results of phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of D2/D3 expansion region of 28S rRNA gene revealed this genus is polyphyletic in four different clades in Tylenchid. PMID:27418704

  9. Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) baiomydis n. sp. (Nematoda: Rictulariidae), a parasite of Baiomys taylori (Cricetidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lynggaard, Christina; García-Prieto, Luis; Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen; Osorio-Sarabia, David

    2014-01-01

    Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) baiomydis n. sp., an intestinal parasite of the northern pygmy mouse, Baiomys taylori (Cricetidae), collected in La Yerbabuena, Colima, Mexico, is described herein. Specimens were studied using light and scanning electronic microscopy. This is the 19th species of the subgenus Paucipectines described worldwide and the fourth collected in Mexico. It is differentiated from the remaining species in the subgenus by having 25 perioral denticles, arranged in a triangle (seven on each lateroventral margin, and eleven on the dorsal margin), and 10 pairs of caudal papillae. PMID:25375029

  10. Description of Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) from Jammu and Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ali Asghar; Vaid, Shavish; Hussain, Abid; Ahmad, Rakeeb

    2015-01-01

    Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. from humus in Jammu and Kashmir, India, is described and illustrated. The new genus is characterized by a small body; slightly setoff labial region; long tubular gymnostom; prominently cuticularized cheilostom; absence of glottoid apparatus; monoprodelphic reproductive system; vulva (V) = 81 to 84; spicules with trifurcated distal ends, simple gubernaculum, peloderan bursa with eight pairs of bursal papillae arranged in 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 arrangement. PMID:26941466

  11. Cosmopolitanism and Biogeography of the Genus Manganonema (Nematoda: Monhysterida) in the Deep Sea

    PubMed Central

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Vanreusel, Ann; Danovaro, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary The deep sea comprises more than 60% of the Earth surface, and likely represents the largest reservoir of as yet undiscovered biodiversity. Nematodes are the most abundant taxon on Earth and are particularly abundant and diverse in the deep sea. Nevertheless, knowledge of their biogeography especially in the deep sea is still at its infancy. This article explores the distribution of the genus Manganonema in the deep Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea providing new insights about this apparently rare deep-sea genus. Abstract Spatial patterns of species diversity provide information about the mechanisms that regulate biodiversity and are important for setting conservation priorities. Present knowledge of the biogeography of meiofauna in the deep sea is scarce. This investigation focuses on the distribution of the deep-sea nematode genus Manganonema, which is typically extremely rare in deep-sea sediment samples. Forty-four specimens of eight different species of this genus were recorded from different Atlantic and Mediterranean regions. Four out of the eight species encountered are new to science. We report here that this genus is widespread both in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. These new findings together with literature information indicate that Manganonema is a cosmopolitan genus, inhabiting a variety of deep-sea habitats and oceans. Manganonema shows the highest diversity at water depths >4,000 m. Our data, therefore, indicate that this is preferentially an abyssal genus that is able, at the same time, to colonize specific habitats at depths shallower than 1,000 m. The analysis of the distribution of the genus Manganonema indicates the presence of large differences in dispersal strategies among different species, ranging from locally endemic to cosmopolitan. Lacking meroplanktonic larvae and having limited dispersal ability due to their small size, it has been hypothesized that nematodes have limited dispersal potential. However, the investigated deep-sea nematodes were present across different oceans covering macro-scale distances. Among the possible explanations (hydrological conditions, geographical and geological pathways, long-term processes, specific historical events), their apparent preference of colonizing highly hydrodynamic systems, could suggest that these infaunal organisms are transported by means of deep-sea benthic storms and turbidity currents over long distances. PMID:26486501

  12. Deladenus valveus n. sp. (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) in Dunnage Wood from South Korea Intercepted in Ningbo, China

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Vanja; Gu, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Deladenus valveus n. sp., isolated from packaging wood originated from South Korea and intercepted in Ningbo, P.R. China, is described and illustrated. Both mycetophagous and infective forms were recovered and are described. The new species D. valveus n. sp. resembles other Deladenus species in which the excretory pore is situated anterior to the hemizonid: in mycetophagous females, the excretory pore is 59 to 74 μm from the anterior end and 37 to 54 μm anterior to the hemizonid. The new species is characterized by the presence of a distinct valve at the esophago-intestinal junction in mycetophagous females and by a degenerate esophagus in mycetophagous males, both of which characters are reported for the first time in a species of Deladenus. PMID:24987163

  13. Molecular separation of Oesophagostomum stephanostomum and Oesophagostomum bifurcum (Nematoda: Strongyloidea) from non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Gasser, R B; Woods, W G; Huffman, M A; Blotkamp, J; Polderman, A M

    1999-07-01

    The ITS-2 sequences for adult specimens of Oesophagostomum stephanostomum from the common chimpanzee and Oesophagostomum bifurcum from the Mona monkey were determined. For both species, the length and GC content of the ITS-2 sequences were 216 bp and 43%, respectively. While there was no unequivocal sequence difference among individual worms representing each of the two species, five (2.3%) interspecific nucleotide differences were detected. These differences were associated with the presence of unique restriction sites in the ITS-2 sequence of 0. stephanostomum for multiple endonucleases of diagnostic value for the differentiation of the two taxa by restriction analysis. Pairwise comparisons of the ITS-2 sequences of O. stephanostomum and O. bifurcum with published ITS-2 sequences for five different congeners indicated that these species from the subgenus Conoweberia are closely related, in accordance with previous morphological studies. PMID:10501618

  14. Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) Versus Rhabdias paraensis (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae): Expanding the View on a Natural Infection.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos; da Silva, Djane Clarys Baia; Feitosa, Lucas Aristóteles das Neves; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; de Vasconcelos Melo, Francisco Tiago

    2016-06-01

    Amphibian and reptile lungs are frequently infected with Rhabdias parasites, and this condition ultimately leads to reduced survival, performance, and growth because of granulomatous inflammation, nodule formation, and nematodal pneumonia onset. Here we investigate the histopathological features of naturally infected Rhinella marina by the lung nematode Rhabdias paraensis. A total of 10 host animals were captured in peridomiciliar areas in the eastern Brazilian Amazon, and anatomic-histological analyses were performed on both the infected and non-infected lungs of these amphibians. Helminths were usually found within the secondary and primary septa of infected lungs whereas parasites were not detected within vessels or adhering to tissues. In addition, we observed discrete erythrocytes, diapedesis foci, few granulocytes and erythrocytes in the interseptal spaces, discrete cell infiltration, and a small number of melanomacrophages, and no granulomas or cysts were observed. New aspects related to changes in tissue and helminth-host interactions are discussed for the relationship of R. paraensis × Rhi. marina from the Amazon region. PMID:26959813

  15. The Behavior Response of Amphipods Infected by Hedruris suttonae (Nematoda) and Pseudocorynosoma sp. (Acanthocephala).

    PubMed

    Casalins, Laura M; Brugni, Norma L; Rauque, Carlos A

    2015-12-01

    The manipulation of intermediate host behavior may increase chances of parasite transmission to the definitive host. In freshwater environments of the Neotropical Region, studies on behavioral manipulations by parasites are rare, and the majority of these consider only a single parasite species and/or 1 life stage of a particular parasite species. In Andean Patagonian lakes of Argentina, the amphipod Hyalella patagonica is infected by larvae of the fish nematode Hedruris suttonae and by the bird acanthocephalan Pseudocorynosoma sp. The 3 objectives of the present study were to determine whether H. suttonae and Pseudocorynosoma sp. differ in their effects on behavior of H. patagonica , whether such modification is associated with parasite development, and to assess the associations between behavioral traits. From naturally parasitized amphipods, activity (swimming levels) and phototaxis (light preference) was measured. Only in phototaxis trials did larvae of H. suttonae induce significantly higher levels of photophilia, suggesting that they are manipulative. Scores of activity and phototaxis were positive and significantly related for non-parasitized female amphipods and for amphipods parasitized by larvae of Pseudocorynosoma sp. but were not associated in amphipods parasitized with larvae of H. suttonae (infective and non-infective), suggesting that infection separated the relationship between these variables. PMID:26295566

  16. A new molineid (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina) parasite of Dasypus hybridus (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ezquiaga, María C; Digiani, María C; Navone, Graciela T

    2012-12-01

    Delicata abbai n. sp. collected from the small intestine of the southern long-nosed armadillo, Dasypus hybridus, from Argentina is herein described. This new species is characterized by vulvar opening within second half of body length, female tail conical, ending bluntly with a terminal spine, complex spicules, presence of a bursal membrane supported by 2 small rays, and a synlophe with bilateral symmetry and 26 cuticular ridges. By the morphology of the caudal bursa, caudal end of female, and shape of spicules, the new species resembles Delicata cameroni Travassos, 1935 and Delicata variabilis Travassos, 1935 . However, it differs from D. cameroni by having rays 5 and 6 diverging more proximally, rays 8 shorter than the dorsal ray, and spicules with a different shape. Delicata abbai n. sp. is distinguished from D. variabilis mainly by the spicules, which have a different shape and proportion of their constitutive parts. This is the first report of a species of Delicata in Argentina. PMID:22663347

  17. Four events of host switching in Aspidoderidae (Nematoda) involve convergent lineages of mammals.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, F Agustín; Gardner, Scott L; Navone, Graciela; Ortí, Guillermo

    2012-12-01

    The Great American Interchange resulted in the mixing of faunistic groups with different origins and evolutionary trajectories that underwent rapid diversification in North and South America. As a result, groups of animals of recent arrival converged into similar habits and formed ecological guilds with some of the endemics. We present a reconstruction of the evolutionary events in Aspidoderidae, a family of nematodes that infect mammals that are part of this interchange, i.e., dasypodids, opossums, and sigmodontine, geomyid, and hystricognath rodents. By treating hosts as discrete states of character and using parsimony and Bayesian inferences to optimize these traits into the phylogeny of Aspidoderidae, we reconstructed Dasypodidae (armadillos) as the synapomorphic host for the family. In addition, 4 events of host switching were detected. One consisted of the switch from dasypodids to hystricognath rodents, and subsequently to geomyid rodents. The remaining set of events consisted of a switch from dasypodids to didelphid marsupials and then to sigmodontine rodents. The reconstruction of the ancestral distribution suggests 3 events of dispersal into the Nearctic. Two of these invasions would suggest that 2 different lineages of dasypodid parasites entered the Northern Hemisphere at different times, which is consistent with the presence of 2 lineages of armadillos in Mexico. PMID:22663159

  18. Global assessment of molecularly identified Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in their teleost intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Thomas; Hailer, Frank; Palm, Harry W; Klimpel, Sven

    2013-05-01

    Here, we present the ITS ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence data on 330 larvae of nematodes of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 collected from 26 different bony fish species from 21 sampling locations and different climatic zones. New host records are provided for Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) sensu stricto (s.s.) and A. pegreffli Campana-Rouget et Biocca, 1955 from Anoplopoma fimbria (Pallas) (Santa Barbara, East Pacific), A. typica (Diesing, 1860) from Caesio cuning (Bloch), Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) and Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus) (Indonesia, West Pacific), A. simplex s.s. from Cololabis saira (Brevoort) (Hawaii, Central Pacific), A. simplex C of Nascetti et al. (1986) from Sebastolobus alascanus Bean (Santa Barbara, East Pacific) and A. physeteris Baylis, 1923 from Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson (Namibia, East Atlantic). Comparison with host records from 60 previous molecular studies of Anisakis species reveals the teleost host range so far recorded for the genus. Perciform (57 species) and gadiform (21) fishes were the most frequently infected orders, followed by pleuronectiforms (15) and scorpaeniforms (15). Most commonly infected fish families were Scombridae (12), Gadidae (10), Carangidae (8) and Clupeidae (7), with Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus) alone harbouring eight Anisakis species. Different intermediate host compositions implicate differing life cycles for the so far molecularly identified Anisakis sibling species. PMID:23724731

  19. A new method for loading Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) on adult Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Togashi, Katsumi

    2004-06-01

    A new method was developed for loading the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle, on the beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope. Postdiapause beetle larvae were sterilized with 70 and 99.9% aqueous ethanol and placed singly in flasks where B. xylophilus reproduced on the fungus Ophiostoma minus (Hedgcock) H. et P. Sydow that had been grown on autoclaved barley grain and Pinus densifiora Sieb. et Zucc. wood chips. The fungus produced a large nematode population that developed to a high proportion of third-stage dispersal juveniles that molted to the fourth-stage dispersal juveniles. The survival rate was 80%, and the mean nematode load was 10,096. It took a mean of 5 wk to obtain the nematode-infested beetles after the initiation of nematode rearing. PMID:15279275

  20. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Rice White Tip Nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Danlei; Wang, Zhiying; Dong, Airong; Chen, Qiaoli; Liu, Xiaohan

    2014-01-01

    Background The rice white tip nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi, a devastating nematode whose genome has not been sequenced, is distributed widely throughout almost all the rice-growing regions of the world. The aims of the present study were to define the transcriptome of A. besseyi and to identify parasite-related, mortality-related or host resistance-overcoming genes in this nematode. Methodology and Principal Findings Using Solexa/Illumina sequencing, we profiled the transcriptome of mixed-stage populations of A. besseyi. A total of 51,270 transcripts without gaps were produced based on high-quality clean reads. Of all the A. besseyi transcripts, 9,132 KEGG Orthology assignments were annotated. Carbohydrate-active enzymes of glycoside hydrolases (GHs), glycosyltransferases (GTs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs) and carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) were identified. The presence of the A. besseyi GH45 cellulase gene was verified by in situ hybridization. Given that 13 unique A. besseyi potential effector genes were identified from 41 candidate effector homologs, further studies of these homologs are merited. Finally, comparative analyses were conducted between A. besseyi contigs and Caenorhabditis elegans genes to look for orthologs of RNAi phenotypes, neuropeptides and peptidases. Conclusions and Significance The present results provide comprehensive insight into the genetic makeup of A. besseyi. Many of this species' genes are parasite related, nematode mortality-related or necessary to overcome host resistance. The generated transcriptome dataset of A. besseyi reported here lays the foundation for further studies of the molecular mechanisms related to parasitism and facilitates the development of new control strategies for this species. PMID:24637831

  1. Two new species of Rhabdias (Nematoda: Rhabditida: Rhabdiasidae) in anuran hosts from Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Anjum N; Bursey, Charles R; Bhutia, Pasang T

    2013-04-01

    Rhabdias himalayanus n. sp. from the lungs of Duttaphrynus himalayanus and Rhabdias dehradunensis n. sp. from the lungs of Nanorana minica from Dehradun, India are described and figured. Of the 3 previously described Indian species, Rhabdias himalayanus n. sp. is most similar to Rhabdias shortii in having a cylindrical corpus, inflated cuticle, and conical tail; it differs from R. shortii in having greater body measurements, longer esophagus, larger eggs, and a different pattern of cuticle inflation at the vulva and tail region. Rhabdias dehradunensis n. sp. is most similar to Rhabdias bulbicauda in that both possess a swollen posterior end; it differs from R. bulbicauda by having a subterminal anus, a prominent tail, and a postequatorial vulva. PMID:23020804

  2. Nematicidal Activity of Cassia and Cinnamon Oil Compounds and Related Compounds toward Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jeong-Ok; Lee, Sang-Myung; Moon, Yil-Seong; Lee, Sang-Gil; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-01-01

    The nematicidal activity of two cassia, Cinnamomum cassia, oils (Especial and true), four cinnamon, Cinnamomum zey-lanicum, oils (technical, #500, bark and green leaf), and their compounds (e.g., trans-cinnamaldehyde and trans-cinnamic acid) toward adult Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was examined by a direct contact bioassay. Results were compared with those of 34 related compounds. As judged by 24-hour LC50 values, two cassia oils (0.084–0.085 mg/ml) and four cinnamon oils (0.064–0.113 mg/ml) were toxic toward adult B. xylophilus. Of 45 test compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde (0.061 mg/ml) was the most active nematicide, followed by ethyl cinnamate, α-methyl-trans-cinnamaldehyde, methyl cinnamate and allyl cinnamate (0.114–0.195 mg/ml). Potent nematicidal activity was also observed with 4-methoxycinnamonitrile, trans-4-methoxycinnamaldehyde, trans-2-methoxy-cinnamaldehyde, ethyl α-cyanocinnamate, cinnamonitrile and cinnamyl bromide (0.224–0.502 mg/ml). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups, saturation and carbon skeleton, appear to play a role in determining the toxicities to adult B. xylophilus. Cassia and cinnamon oils and test compounds described merit further study as potential nematicides or leads for the control of pine wilt disease caused by B. xylophilus. PMID:19259472

  3. Nematicidal Activity of Cassia and Cinnamon Oil Compounds and Related Compounds toward Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae).

    PubMed

    Kong, Jeong-Ok; Lee, Sang-Myung; Moon, Yil-Seong; Lee, Sang-Gil; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-03-01

    The nematicidal activity of two cassia, Cinnamomum cassia, oils (Especial and true), four cinnamon, Cinnamomum zey-lanicum, oils (technical, #500, bark and green leaf), and their compounds (e.g., trans-cinnamaldehyde and trans-cinnamic acid) toward adult Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was examined by a direct contact bioassay. Results were compared with those of 34 related compounds. As judged by 24-hour LC(50) values, two cassia oils (0.084-0.085 mg/ml) and four cinnamon oils (0.064-0.113 mg/ml) were toxic toward adult B. xylophilus. Of 45 test compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde (0.061 mg/ml) was the most active nematicide, followed by ethyl cinnamate, alpha-methyl-trans-cinnamaldehyde, methyl cinnamate and allyl cinnamate (0.114-0.195 mg/ml). Potent nematicidal activity was also observed with 4-methoxycinnamonitrile, trans-4-methoxycinnamaldehyde, trans-2-methoxy-cinnamaldehyde, ethyl alpha-cyanocinnamate, cinnamonitrile and cinnamyl bromide (0.224-0.502 mg/ml). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups, saturation and carbon skeleton, appear to play a role in determining the toxicities to adult B. xylophilus. Cassia and cinnamon oils and test compounds described merit further study as potential nematicides or leads for the control of pine wilt disease caused by B. xylophilus. PMID:19259472

  4. Pathogenicity of Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema glaseri (Nematoda:Steinernematidae) to Ixodes Scapularis (Acari:Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhioua, E.; LeBrun, R.A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Aeschliman, A.

    1995-01-01

    The entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and S. glaseri (Steiner) are pathogenic to engorged adult, blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis (Say), but not to unfed females, engorged nymphs, or engorged larvae. Nematodes apparently enter the tick through the genital pore, thus precluding infection of immature ticks. The timing of tick mortality, and overall mortality after 17 d, did not differ between infections by S. carpocapsae and S. glaseri. These nematodes typically do not complete their life cycles or produce infective juveniles in I. scapularis. However, both species successfully produced infective juveniles when the tick body was slit before nematode infection. Mortality of engorged I. scapularis females infected by S. carpocapsae was greater than uninfected controls, but did not vary significantly with nematode concentration (50-3,000 infective juveniles per 5-cm-diameter petri dish). The LC50 was 347.8 infective juveniles per petri dish (5 ticks per dish). Hatched egg masses of infected ticks weighed less than those of uninfected controls. Mortality of infected ticks was greatest between 20 and 30?C, and was lower at 15?C.

  5. Nematicidal and Propagation Activities of Thyme Red and White Oil Compounds toward Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae).

    PubMed

    Kong, Jeong-Ok; Park, Il-Kwbon; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Shin, Sang-Cheol; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-09-01

    The toxic and propagation effects on Bursaphelenchus xylophilus of 28 Thymus vulgaris red oil and white oil compounds were examined using direct contact and cotton ball bioassays. Results were compared with those of the trunk-injection nematicides emmamectin benzoate, levamisol hydrochloride and morantel tartrate. In direct contact bioassays, geraniol (LC(50), 0.47 mg/ml) was the most toxic compound, followed by thymol (1.08 mg/ml), carvacrol (1.23 mg/ml) and terpinen-4-ol (2.61 mg/ml). In cotton ball tests with 20 inactive compounds at 2 mg/cotton ball, p-cymene significantly inhibited propagation (propagation ratio [PR] 8), compared with the castor oil-ethanol-treated control (PR 56). Propagation stimulation was observed with (-)-caryophyllene oxide, (+)-ledene, (+)- and (-)-limonene, linalool oxide, beta-myrcene, (-)-alpha-phellandrene, (+)-alpha-pinene and gamma-terpinene (PR 63-100). The other 10 compounds exhibited low to moderate levels of propagation inhibition (PR 36-56). At 0.1 mug/cotton ball, emmamectin benzoate and morantel tartrate exhibited complete suppression of propagation, whereas a very low level of propagation inhibition was obtained from levamisol hydrochloride (PR 6). In conclusion, propagation-stimulating compounds can exist in plants in addition to nematicidal compounds, and careful use of plant preparations containing high quantities of these compounds is mandatory. PMID:19259493

  6. Morphological and molecular characterization of Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Sicily

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. parasitizing roots of lentil in Sicily, Italy, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by a high lip region with three annuli, stylet mean length of 16 micrometers with anteriorly flattened knobs, cylindrical body with a relatively anterior vulva, l...

  7. Ethmolaimus riparius sp. n. and Paramononchus major sp. n. (Nematoda) from Lake Baikal, Russia.

    PubMed

    Gagarin, Vladimir G; Naumova, Tatyana V

    2016-01-01

    Two new nematode species found in Lake Baikal (Russia) are described and illustrated. Ethmolaimus riparius sp. n. is morphologically close to E. pilosus Shoshin, 1998 and E. lanatus Shoshin, 1998. The new species differs from E. pilosus by the longer and thinner body (L = 1228-1501 µm, a = 26-34 vs L = 720-1070 µm, a = 19-23), larger stoma (26-32 µm long vs 19-24 µm long), longer spicules and gubernaculum (45-50 µm long and 21-25 µm long vs accordingly 32-37 µm long and 8 µm long). E. riparius sp. n. differs from E. lanatus by the longer body (L = 1228-1501 µm vs L = 680-1180), shorter cephalic setae (its length is equal 1.1-1.4 labial region diameter vs 1.6-2.1 labial region diameter) and longer spicules and gubernaculum (45-50 µm long and 21-25 µm long vs accordingly 25-30 µm long and 7-8 µm long). Paramononchus major sp. n is close to P. orientalis Gagarin & Naumova, 2012, but differs from it by the longer body (L = 5926-7820 µm vs L = 3081-3778 µm), longer spicules (410-475 µm long vs 208-238 µm long) and larger number of precloacal supplements (52-61 vs 21-24). Keys for the identification of valid species of the genera Ethmolaimus and Paramononchus are given. PMID:27394603

  8. Dogielophis, a replacement name for Dogielina Sobolev 1950 (Nematoda) non Bogdanowicz & Woloszynova 1949 (Foraminifera).

    PubMed

    Doweld, Alexander B

    2016-01-01

    The generic name Dogielina was proposed by Sobolev (in Skrjabin & al. 1950: 68; for Physaloptera inexpectata Dogiel & Bychowsky 1939: 93, type species by original designation) for a parasitic nematode of the fishes from the western shores of the Caspian Sea (Sara Island) of the former USSR (now Azerbaijan: Sarı adası, Nərimanabad). However, this name is already preoccupied by a fossil Foraminifera Dogielina Bogdanowicz & Woloszynova (1949: 185), published earlier in the same year (see note on publication dates below), which is in active current use in palaeontology and even served as a basis for a specific geological Dogielina sarmatica biozone in the Upper Miocene stratigraphy of Eurasia (Krézsek & Filipescu 2005). Besides this earliest generic name, a later homonym is also known in Protista: Dogielina Raabe (1959: 448) [Infusoria]. PMID:27395113

  9. Paurodontella parapitica n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina, Sphaerularioidea) from Kermanshah Province, Western Iran

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili, Mehrab; Heydari, Ramin; Ye, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Paurodontella parapitica n. sp., collected from the rhizosphere of an apple tree in Kermanshah province, western Iran, is described. The new species is characterized by a body length of 505 to 723 µm (females) and 480 to 600 µm (males), lip region continuous by depression; 7 to 8 μm broad, 3 to 4 µm high, stylet length 7 to 9 µm or 1 to 1.3 times the lip region diameter, short postuterine sac of 4 to 6 μm long, lateral fields with five to six incisures; outer incisures crenated and inner incisures weakly crenated, excretory pore situated 90 to 100 µm from anterior end; functional males common in the population, with spicules 24 to 26 μm long. Tail of both sexes similar, almost straight and elongate-conoid. The new species resembles in morphology and morphometrics to four known species of the genus, namely P. apitica, P. minuta, P. myceliophaga, and P. sohailai. The results of phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of D2/D3 expansion region of 28S rRNA gene revealed this genus is polyphyletic in four different clades in Tylenchid. PMID:27418704

  10. Two new species of Chromadoridae (Chromadorida: Nematoda) from the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Gao, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Chromadoridae, a family of free-living marine nematodes, are described from intertidal sediments of the East China Sea. Ptycholaimellus pirus sp. nov. is characterized by having a cuticle with six longitudinal rows of double dots and long somatic setae, relatively long cephalic setae, a pear-shaped terminal pharyngeal bulb occupying less than 30% of pharyngeal length, and an elongate conical tail. The new species is distinguished from all related species by the unique character of the cuticle, with six longitudinal rows of horizontal double dots, and the pear-shaped terminal pharyngeal bulb. Hypodontolaimus ventrapophyses sp. nov. is characterized by having a cylindrical body with a slightly expanded anterior end and a conical tail, a homogeneous cuticle with lateral differentiation of two longitudinal rows of larger dots, a well developed pharynx with oval-shaped buccal bulb and terminal bulb, and a large ventral gland. Males have slender, strongly curved spicules and a gubernaculum with a ventral apophysis, and precloacal supplements are absent. The new species differs from all related species in this genus by the structure of the gubernaculum, which has a ventral apophysis. PMID:27470838

  11. A new species of Parodontophora (Nematoda: Axonolaimidae) from the intertidal zone of the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haixia; Huang, Yong

    2016-02-01

    This study described a new species of free-living nematode discovered in the intertidal mudflat of Ximen Island, East China Sea. The new species, designated Parodontophora longiamphidata sp. nov., was characterized by a cylindrical body with tapering extremeties; cuticle smooth without somatic setae; four short cephalic setae; cylindrical buccal cavity with six clawlike teeth at the top of stoma; pharynx cylindrical with widened base; amphidial fovea crook-shaped with elongated scalariform branch extending past level of base of pharynx and ventral gland; ventral gland cell long-oval shaped located posterior to pharyngo-intestinal junction; excretory pore at level of middle of buccal cavity; tail conico-cylindrical with enlarged tip; three caudal gland cells, male spicules arched with cephalic proximal end and tapered distal end; gubernaculum with dorso-caudal apophysis; female with two opposed outstretched ovaries; and vulva at slightly post-midpoint of body length. This new species was close to P. wuleidaowanensis Zhang, 2005 and P. polita Gerlach, 1955 in terms of long amphidial fovea branch. The newly found species was easily distinguishable from the two documented; its amphidial fovea branch (255-290 µm versus 72-106 and 125-150 µm) was obviously longer. Key to the Parodontophora species with a longer amphidial fovea branch was given.

  12. Cyathoshiva amaleshi gen. n. sp. n. (Nematoda: Cyatholaimidae) from the coast of India.

    PubMed

    Datta, Tridip Kumar; Miljutin, Dmitry M; Chakraborty, Susanta Kumar; Mohapatra, Anil

    2016-01-01

    A new genus, Cyathoshiva, of free-living marine nematodes from the subfamily Cyatholaiminae (family Cyatholaimidae, order Chromadorida), is described from the Indian coast. The new genus differs from other known Cyatholaiminae genera in having a unique combination of morphological characters: buccal cavity with well-developed dorsal tooth and two subventral teeth, proximally unpaired gubernaculum and non-cup shaped supplements. The type species Cyathoshiva amaleshi gen. n. sp. n. is characterized by having multispiral amphids with 4.5 turns, punctated cuticle with a weak lateral differentiation, a conical tail, three supplements possessing both tubular and setoid parts, and a gubernaculum with a serrated and dentate distal end. PMID:27395607

  13. A new species of the genus Discolaimus Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida: Qudsianematidae) from Qinghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Jia; Yan, Lin; Xu, Chun-Ling; Wang, Ke; Jin, Sheng-Ying; Xie, Hui

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the family Qudsianematidae Jairajpuri, 1965 collected from soil from Qinghai Province, China is described as Discolaimus anemaqen n. sp. It is mainly characterized by having a disc-like lip region with six labial sectors separated by six Y-shaped radial grooves; amphid fovea an inverted-stirrup shape; odontostyle aperture 53-59% of its length; anterior part of pharynx with two swellings, basal part expanded gradually with a sheath of tissue visible ventrally and at the base; no groups of large cells observed in cardiac region; female genital system amphidelphic; tail dorsally convex, conoid, with flat ventral side and bluntly rounded terminus, and males not found. The new species is close to D. major Thorne, 1939, D. similis Thorne, 1939 and D. silvicolus Sauer & Annells, 1985 in most measurements, but can be differentiated from them by lip morphology, pharynx structure, body size, and tail shape. A key to the species of Discolaimus is also provided. PMID:27394329

  14. One new and three known species of Geocenamus Thorne & Malek, 1968
    (Nematoda: Merliniidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Reza; Karegar, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Soil samples collected from different plants and localities in Iran yielded one new and three known species of the genus Geocenamus with tessellated cuticle. Geocenamus conicaudatus n. sp. is characterised by a hemispherical cephalic region, set-off from the rest of body by a constriction, a slender stylet 17-20 µm long with laterally directed knobs, coarsely annulated cuticle with 32-34 longitudinal striae and a conical tail with smooth, finely rounded terminus. Morphological and molecular studies on the populations of G. paniculoides and G. tartuensis indicated that G. paniculoides may be considered as a valid species. Intraspecific variability of some characters of 30 Iranian populations of G. rugosus were studied. An identification key to 32 valid species of the genus Geocenamus is given. PMID:27395998

  15. The diet of Enoplus brevis (Nematoda) in a supralittoral salt marsh of the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellwig-Armonies, Monika; Armonies, Werner; Lorenzen, Sievert

    1991-09-01

    The gut content of nearly 2000 specimens of Enoplus brevis was quantitatively analysed. E. brevis is an opportunistic omnivore. Main food categories found were cyanobacteria, diatoms, oligochaetes, nematodes, and rotifers. With a few exceptions, the diet of females and males was identical. Predominantly, juveniles fed on cyanobacteria and adults on animal prey. Experiments revealed that living oligochaetes are attacked and preyed upon. The quantities of the food categories eaten by Enoplus varied according to their ambient abundance, both temporarily and spatially on a small scale. At least the nematode prey was strongly selected: some species were significantly preferred and others avoided.

  16. Host status and damage potential of Paratrichodorus renifer and Pratylenchus penetrans (Nematoda) to blueberry (Vaccinium spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stubby root nematodes (Paratrichodorus species) and root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus species) have been associated with blueberry in most blueberry-growing regions of North America. Relatively little is known, however, of the host status and pathogenicity of these nematodes to blueberry. We per...

  17. Pseudolella major sp. nov. (Axonolaimidae, Nematoda) from the intertidal zone of the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunming; Huang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    A new species of free-living nematode, Pseudolella major sp. nov. is described from the intertidal mudflats of Ximen Island in the East China Sea. Pseudolella major sp. nov. is characterized as follows: body length ~1 300 μm; short cephalic setae, 2-3 μm long; amphidial fovea loop-shaped with elongated ventral branch; ventral branch 50-60 μm long and extending past the base of buccal cavity; buccal cavity cylindrical with arching or spherical base; three heavy outwardly-curving odontia with blunt tips located at anterior of buccal cavity; pharynx short with posterior bulb; ventral gland cell elongate oval-shaped, located posterior to pharyngo-intestinal junction; excretory pore situated at the level of the middle of buccal cavity; tail conical to cylindrical; spicules arched, with double-cephalate proximal end; gubernaculum with a strong dorsal caudal apophysis.

  18. The occurance of Pterygodermatites nycticebi (Nematoda: Rictulariidae) in a captive slow loris, Nycticebus coucang

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuggle, B.N.; Beehler, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Adult and immature rictulariid nematodes were recovered at necropsy from the small intestine of an adult slow loris, Nycticebus coucang, from the Milwaukee County Zoo in Wisconsin. The lumen of the entire small intestine was packed with more than 100 nematodes, the intestinal wall appeared thickened and the mucosal surface contained numerous petechial hemorrhagic foci. The cause of death was diagnosed as a septicemia and possible lupus erythematosis.

  19. Surgical extraction of intraocular Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) in a horse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Case Description – A 4-year-old Hanoverian horse from Wisconsin presented for evaluation of a worm-like structure in the anterior chamber of the right eye. Clinical Findings – Ophthalmic examination of the right eye revealed a white, thin, mobile parasite, presumably a nematode, present in the ventr...

  20. Survey of entomopathogenic nematodes from the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae (Nematoda: Rhabditida) in Colima, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in the Families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae was conducted on the coast of the State of Colima, Mexico, to determine their occurrence, recovery frequency, and predominant plant species in disturbed and undisturbed habitats. Nineteen soil samples...

  1. Population Dynamics and Description of Ptycholaimellus hibernus n. sp. (Nematoda: Chromadoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Eskin, Richard A.; Hopper, Bruce E.

    1985-01-01

    Ptycholaimellus hibernus n. sp. from the muddy subtidal of North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina, is described and a key to the genus is provided. P. hibernus differs from all other species of Ptycholaimellus by the shape of the gubernaculum. Ptycholaimellus sp. 2 Hopper 1969 is synonymized with P. ponticus. The abundance of P. hibernus, measured over a 3-year period, is greatest from January to March, coinciding with minimal annual water temperatures (10-15 C). P. hibernus abundance was significantly (negatively) correlated with water temperature and (positively) with the depth of the anoxic sediment layer. PMID:19294055

  2. Population Dynamics and Description of Ptycholaimellus hibernus n. sp. (Nematoda: Chromadoridae).

    PubMed

    Eskin, R A; Hopper, B E

    1985-01-01

    Ptycholaimellus hibernus n. sp. from the muddy subtidal of North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina, is described and a key to the genus is provided. P. hibernus differs from all other species of Ptycholaimellus by the shape of the gubernaculum. Ptycholaimellus sp. 2 Hopper 1969 is synonymized with P. ponticus. The abundance of P. hibernus, measured over a 3-year period, is greatest from January to March, coinciding with minimal annual water temperatures (10-15 C). P. hibernus abundance was significantly (negatively) correlated with water temperature and (positively) with the depth of the anoxic sediment layer. PMID:19294055

  3. Pan-Nematoda Transcriptomic Elucidation of Essential Intestinal Functions and Therapeutic Targets With Broad Potential.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Rosa, Bruce A; Jasmer, Douglas P; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-09-01

    The nematode intestine is continuous with the outside environment, making it easily accessible to anthelmintics for parasite control, but the development of new therapeutics is impeded by limited knowledge of nematode intestinal cell biology. We established the most comprehensive nematode intestinal functional database to date by generating transcriptional data from the dissected intestines of three parasitic nematodes spanning the phylum, and integrating the results with the whole proteomes of 10 nematodes (including 9 pathogens of humans or animals) and 3 host species and 2 outgroup species. We resolved 10,772 predicted nematode intestinal protein families (IntFams), and studied their presence and absence within the different lineages (births and deaths) among nematodes. Conserved intestinal cell functions representing ancestral functions of evolutionary importance were delineated, and molecular features useful for selective therapeutic targeting were identified. Molecular patterns conserved among IntFam proteins demonstrated large potential as therapeutic targets to inhibit intestinal cell functions with broad applications towards treatment and control of parasitic nematodes. PMID:26501106

  4. Molecular detection of Setaria tundra (Nematoda: Filarioidea) and an unidentified filarial species in mosquitoes in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the potential vector role of Culicidae mosquitoes in Germany is very scanty, and until recently it was generally assumed that they are not involved in the transmission of anthroponotic or zoonotic pathogens in this country. However, anticipated changes in the course of global warming and globalization may alter their status. Methods We conducted a molecular mass screening of mosquitoes for filarial parasites using mitochondrial 12S rRNA-based real-time PCR. Results No parasites causing disease in humans such as Dirofilaria spp. were detected in about 83,000 mosquitoes tested, which had been collected in 2009 and 2010 in 16 locations throughout Germany. However, minimum infection rates of up to 24 per 1000 mosquitoes were revealed, which could be attributed to mosquito infection with Setaria tundra and a yet unidentified second parasite. Setaria tundra was found to be widespread in southern Germany in various mosquito species, except Culex spp. In contrast, the unidentified filarial species was exclusively found in Culex spp. in northern Baden-Württemberg, and is likely to be a bird parasite. Conclusions Although dirofilariasis appears to be emerging and spreading in Europe, the absence of Dirofilaria spp. or other zoonotic filariae in our sample allows the conclusion that the risk of autochthonous infection in Germany is still very low. Potential vectors of S. tundra in Germany are Ochlerotatus sticticus, Oc. cantans, Aedes vexans and Anopheles claviger. Technically, the synergism between entomologists, virologists and parasitologists, combined with state-of-the-art methods allows a very efficient near-real-time monitoring of a wide spectrum of both human and veterinary pathogens, including new distribution records of parasite species and the incrimination of their potential vectors. PMID:22236560

  5. The importance of host ecology in thelastomatoid (Nematoda: Oxyurida) host specificity.

    PubMed

    Jex, Aaron R; Schneider, Margaret A; Cribb, Thomas H

    2006-09-01

    An experimental investigation of host specificity within the Thelastomatoidea is presented by means of a comparison of the thelastomatoids of two panesthiine cockroaches, Panesthia cribrata and P. tryoni tryoni, with those of other log-dwelling arthropods and those of leaf litter dwelling arthropods found near by. 145 log-dwelling and leaf-litter dwelling arthropods, representing adjacent ecological niches, were collected from Lamington National Park, Queensland, Australia. A high degree of thelastomatoid species sharing (19 incidences from 26 specimens) occurs between log-dwelling arthropods and the two cockroach species. No overlap in thelastomatoid fauna was observed between the log dwelling and leaf-litter dwelling groups. Our results suggest that host specificity of thelastomatoids is largely dictated by host ecology. PMID:16675294

  6. Taxonomic and Molecular Identification of Mesocriconema and Criconemoides Species (Nematoda: Criconematidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, Marco A.; Robbins, Robert T.; Szalanski, Allen L.

    2012-01-01

    Populations of Mesocriconema curvatum, M. kirjanovae, M. onoense, M. ornatum, M. sphaerocephala, M. surinamense, M. vadense, M. xenoplax, and Criconemoides informis from different geographical areas in the continental United States were characterized morphologically and molecularly. A new ring nematode from Washington County, Arkansas, is also described and named Mesocriconema ozarkiense n. sp., This new species is characterized by females with small flattened submedian lobes, lower than or at the same level as the labial disc, vagina straight, very well developed spermatheca without sperm, no more than one anastomoses, L=379-512 μm, V=89-93, stylet length = 49-61 μm, R=107-119, annuli with slightly crenate margins on tail portion and a simple anterior vulval lip. The molecular characterization of M. ozarkiense n. sp. using the ITS rRNA gene sequence and the phylogenesis relationship of this new species with the ring nematodes included in this study are provided. PMID:23482878

  7. Mexiconema africanum sp. n. (Nematoda: Daniconematidae) from the catfish Auchenoglanis occidentalis from Lake Turkana, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Jirků, Miloslav; Charo-Karisa, Harrison; Masová, Sárka

    2009-10-01

    A new species of dracunculoid nematode, Mexiconema africanum sp. n. (Daniconematidae), is described from the abdominal cavity and the intestine (rarely also the gall bladder) of the catfish Auchenoglanis occidentalis (Valenciennes) (Claroteidae, Siluriformes) from Lake Turkana, Kenya. The new species differs from two other congeners mainly in the absence of two large cell nuclei in the glandular oesophagus, presence of well-developed lateral cephalic elevations, more numerous (14) cephalic papillae and a much longer body of the gravid female (18-22 mm); from Mexiconema cichlasomae Moravec, Vidal and Salgado Maldonado, 1992 also in less numerous (two) caudal processes and a different arrangement of genital papillae in the male. M. africanum is the first representative of the dracunculoid family Daniconematidae described from Africa. PMID:19536564

  8. Two new species of Parasaveljevia Wieser, 1953 (Thoracostomopsidae, Nematoda) from Argentinean coasts (Chubut, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Pastor, Catalina; Lo Russo, Virginia; Villares, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Two new Parasavaljevia species are described, one from Puerto Madryn, and one from El Límite beach, San Jorge Gulf, Chubut Province, Argentina. The two species are characterised by a combination of characters. Parasavaljevia uncinoa n. sp. is characterised by having a long rectangular cirrus, positioned at the level of the inner labial setae, rectangular mandibles with prominent lateral hooks bearing denticles in three lines of nine each, and six cephalic setae of the same length, inserted at the anterior end of a small head capsule. Parasavaljevia limitense n. sp. is characterized by having a cirrus posterior positioned, between the labial and cephalic setae, rectangular-arched mandibles bearing denticles in five lines of ten each in a gradient of sizes; a small buccal cavity, small cephalic capsule and abundant cervical setae (4+10). An emendation of the genus diagnosis and a new key are given and discussed. PMID:26624196

  9. Two new species of Parasaveljevia Wieser, 1953 (Thoracostomopsidae, Nematoda) from Argentinean coasts (Chubut, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Pastor, Catalina; Russo, Virginia Lo; Villares, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Two new Parasavaljevia species are described, one from Puerto Madryn, and one from El Límite beach San Jorge Gulf, Chubut Province, Argentina. The two species are characterised by a combination of characters. Parasavaljevia uncinoa n. sp. is characterised by having a long rectangular cirrus, positioned at the level of the inner labial setae, rectangular mandibles with prominent lateral hooks bearing denticles in three lines of nine each and six cephalic setae of the same length, inserted at the anterior end of a small head capsule. Parasavaljevia limitense n. sp. is characterized by having a cirrus posterior positioned, between labial and cephalic setae, rectangular-arched mandibles bearing denticles in five lines of ten each in a gradient of sizes; small buccal cavity, small cephalic capsule and abundant cervical setae (4+10). An emendation of the genus diagnosis and a new key are given and discussed. PMID:26623591

  10. Dujardinascaris gigantea sp. n. (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the critically endangered crocodile Alligator sinensis Fauvel (Reptilia: Crocodylia).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-Hong; Li, Liang; Guo, Yan-Ning; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2015-03-01

    The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis Fauvel (Reptilia: Crocodylia) is considered as one of the most critically endangered species of the 23 extant crocodiles. However, our knowledge of the helminth parasites of this rare animal is completely lacking. During a helminthological survey of reptiles in China, we found a new ascaridoid nematode, Dujardinascaris gigantea sp. n. from A. sinensis. The morphology of D. gigantea sp. n. was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The new species was also characterised using molecular methods by sequencing and analysing the small ribosomal DNA (18S) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2). PMID:24924435

  11. New isolate of Mononchoides composticola Steel, Moens, Scholaert, Boshoff, Houthoofd & Bert, 2011 (Nematoda: Neodiplogasteridae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Shokoohi, Ebrahim; Seddiqi, Elahe; Panahi, Hadi; Abolafia, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Mononchoides composticola was isolated during a survey on free living nematodes from vermicompost in Iran. This population of M. composticola is characterised by a dorsal claw-like tooth; 7-9 µm long and 3-5 µm wide, 14-15 finely visible longitudinal ridges on the cuticle, in which each ridge comprises two lines, long spicules (39-45 μm long), a short gubernaculum (15-17 µm or less than half of the spicule length), two pairs of precloacal papillae, five pairs of postcloacal papillae, papillae (v3) comprising three small papillae, and a long filiform tail (418-654 μm in females, 382-455 μm in males). Molecular analysis of M. composticola based on sequence of the 18S rDNA placed it close to M. composticola (GU943511; GU943512; from Belgium) and M. striatus (AY593924; from The Netherlands) in a well supported clade (1.00 posterior probability). Measurements, illustrations, LM and SEM pictures, and the phylogenetic position of M. composticola are given. PMID:26624707

  12. New cystidicolid species (Nematoda) from Galaxias platei (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) in Patagonian freshwater environments.

    PubMed

    Brugni, Norma L; Viozzi, Gustavo P

    2008-08-01

    During a parasitological survey of Galaxias platei Steindachner, 1898, from Patagonian Andean Lakes, a new species of Cystidicolidae was found in the stomach of fish. The new species was described using light and scanning electron microscopy; the species has characteristics of Ascarophis and is distinguishable from other species by a combination of the following features: well-developed pseudolabia with T-shaped inner extensions, bifurcate deirids, small ratio GE:ME, small left spicule, small ratio LS:RS, and larvigerous eggs with thick and fine filaments in both poles. Intraspecific variation in the morphology of larvigerous eggs was studied. This is the first species of Ascarophis described from freshwater fishes. PMID:18576739

  13. Pan-Nematoda Transcriptomic Elucidation of Essential Intestinal Functions and Therapeutic Targets With Broad Potential

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Rosa, Bruce A.; Jasmer, Douglas P.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    The nematode intestine is continuous with the outside environment, making it easily accessible to anthelmintics for parasite control, but the development of new therapeutics is impeded by limited knowledge of nematode intestinal cell biology. We established the most comprehensive nematode intestinal functional database to date by generating transcriptional data from the dissected intestines of three parasitic nematodes spanning the phylum, and integrating the results with the whole proteomes of 10 nematodes (including 9 pathogens of humans or animals) and 3 host species and 2 outgroup species. We resolved 10,772 predicted nematode intestinal protein families (IntFams), and studied their presence and absence within the different lineages (births and deaths) among nematodes. Conserved intestinal cell functions representing ancestral functions of evolutionary importance were delineated, and molecular features useful for selective therapeutic targeting were identified. Molecular patterns conserved among IntFam proteins demonstrated large potential as therapeutic targets to inhibit intestinal cell functions with broad applications towards treatment and control of parasitic nematodes. PMID:26501106

  14. Spontaneous cure after natural infection with Gnathostoma turgidum (Nematoda) in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed

    Torres-Montoya, Hilario; Galaviz-Renteria, Xochilth; Castillo-Ureta, Hipólito; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Nawa, Yukifumi; Bojorquez-Contreras, Angel; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Díaz-Camacho, Sylvia; Rocha-Tirado, Rodrigo; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2014-04-01

    Seasonality of the nematode Gnathostoma turgidum in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in the wild has been reported; however, the mechanisms involved in deworming are unknown. We monitored the parasitologic and biologic changes in four Virginia opossums naturally infected with G. turgidum by coproparasitologic examination and abdominal ultrasonography. Eggs became detectable in the feces of opossums in May, peaked in July and August, and suddenly decreased in October. Adults of G. turgidum were expelled in the feces mainly in September. Ultrasonography of the liver showed slight damage during May. Lesions in the stomach appeared in April and persisted until September. The abnormalities of the liver and stomach were resolved in November. These data suggest that G. turgidum is likely expelled as a result of host immunologic mechanisms, although termination of a natural life span cannot be definitively excluded. PMID:24506422

  15. Prevalence and abundance of equine strongyles (Nematoda: Strongyloidea) in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Mfitilodze, M W; Hutchinson, G W

    1990-08-01

    A postmortem survey of 57 horses in tropical northern Queensland revealed 41 (89%) infected with intestinal strongyles. Thirty-five strongyle species (8 large strongyles and 27 small strongyles [Cyathostominae]) were recorded of which 9 species are reported from Australia for the first time. The 14 most prevalent small strongyles were Cyathostomum catinatum (in 76% of horses), Cyathostomum coronatum (65%), Cyathostomum pateratum (33%), Cyathostomum labiatum (30%), Cylicostephanus calicatus (70%), Cylicostephanus longibursatus (67%), Cylicostephanus goldi (43%), Cylicostephanus minutus (26%), Cylicocylus nassatus (67%), Cylicocyclus leptostomus (41%), Cylicocylus insigne (41%), Cylicocyclus radiatus (33%), Cylicocyclus brevicapsulates (22%), and Poteriostomum imperidentum (24%). The remaining cyathostomes were each found in less than 15% of horses. The 4 most common large strongyles were Triodontophorus serratus (30%), Strongylus vulgaris (28%), Strongylus equinus, and Strongylus edentatus (both 22%). The number of species of small strongyles per horse showed a marked variation (mean 10.3, range 2-21) but bore no relationship to either the total number of strongyles per horse, age, sex, and breed of horse, or season. Total number of strongyles per horse (mean 15,890, range 20-165,000) was less than in recent surveys in Europe and the U.S.A. Most horses had low worm burdens, whereas a very small number were heavily infected. Ninety-seven per cent of the total strongyle counts were small strongyles. Strongylus species contributed just over 1%. Small numbers of large strongyles per horse were usual with T. serratus (mean 570), S. vulgaris (mean 330), and S. equinus (mean 330) the most numerous.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2380857

  16. Strongylus asini (Nematoda, Strongyloidea): genetic relationships with other Strongylus species determined by ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Hung, G C; Jacobs, D E; Krecek, R C; Gasser, R B; Chilton, N B

    1996-12-01

    Genomic DNA was isolated from adult Strongylus asini collected from zebra. The second ribosomal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) was amplified and sequenced using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based techniques. The DNA sequence was compared with previously published data for 3 related Strongylus species. A PCR-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism method allowed the 4 species to be differentiated unequivocally. The ITS-2 sequence of S. asini was found to be more similar to those of S. edentatus (87.1%) and S. equinus (95.3%) than to that of S vulgaris (73.9%). This result confirms that S. Asini and S vulgaris represent separate species and supports the retention of the 4 species within 1 genus. PMID:9024894

  17. Four new Paramphimonhystrella species (Nematoda: Xyalidae) from the continental slope of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Four new Paramphimonhystrella species are described from the continental slope of New Zealand. P. glossalga n. sp. is characterised by presence of twelve lips, large buccal cavity, males with short, heavily cuticularised spicules joined distally, and females with large postvulvar sac and hammer-shaped cuticularised piece immediately posterior to vagina. P. barbula n. sp. is characterised by narrow buccal cavity, oval-shaped amphids, conico-cylindrical tail with swollen appearance due to conspicuously enlarged caudal gland, and males with long slender spicules and small gubernaculum. P. scutula n. sp. is characterised by a lozenge-shaped buccal cavity, males with scythe-shaped spicules, females with vulva at almost two thirds of body length from anterior, and a hammer-shaped cuticularised piece immediately posterior to vagina. P. echinocauda n. sp. is characterised by buccal cavity with cylindrical anterior portion and funnel-shaped posterior portion, distal tip of slender spicules with three pointed projections, thin gubernaculum, and tail with several long setae in middle portion, two lateral setae near tail tip and one terminal seta. The presence of a hammer-shaped cuticularised piece in two species of the genus is recorded for the first time; the function of this structure is unknown. The genus diagnosis is emended and a key to all known Paramphimonhystrella species (seven in total) is provided. The present study provides the first record of the genus outside the type locality (Yellow Sea) and extends its depth distribution from <150 m to 1350 m. PMID:24943443

  18. Resolving phylogenetic incongruence to articulate homology and phenotypic evolution: a case study from Nematoda.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, Erik J; Baldwin, James G

    2010-05-01

    Modern morphology-based systematics, including questions of incongruence with molecular data, emphasizes analysis over similarity criteria to assess homology. Yet detailed examination of a few key characters, using new tools and processes such as computerized, three-dimensional ultrastructural reconstruction of cell complexes, can resolve apparent incongruence by re-examining primary homologies. In nematodes of Tylenchomorpha, a parasitic feeding phenotype is thus reconciled with immediate free-living outgroups. Closer inspection of morphology reveals phenotypes congruent with molecular-based phylogeny and points to a new locus of homology in mouthparts. In nematode models, the study of individually homologous cells reveals a conserved modality of evolution among dissimilar feeding apparati adapted to divergent lifestyles. Conservatism of cellular components, consistent with that of other body systems, allows meaningful comparative morphology in difficult groups of microscopic organisms. The advent of phylogenomics is synergistic with morphology in systematics, providing an honest test of homology in the evolution of phenotype. PMID:20106846

  19. Philometra ovata (Nematoda: Philometroidea): a potential sentinel species of heavy metal accumulation.

    PubMed

    Barus, V; Jarkovský, J; Prokes, M

    2007-04-01

    To assess the bioindicator value of parasites, the concentrations of six heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni and Zn) were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry in gravid females of the nematode Philometra ovata, body cavity parasites of gudgeon (Gobio gobio) and muscle samples of infected and uninfected hosts. The concentration of heavy metals was significantly higher in specimens of P. ovata compared to the host muscle tissue. The parasite-to-muscle ratio of heavy metals varied from 3.2 to 121.7, in increasing concentrations for Cr, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn. The presence of parasites did not influence the heavy metal content of the hosts, and no significant differences were found between muscle tissues of parasitized and non-parasitized fishes. The bioconcentration factor (BF = Cparasite/Csediment)varied between 0.4 and 25.8, in increasing order for Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni and Cr. These results indicate that P. ovata may serve as sensitive indicator species of heavy metal pollution in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:17149604

  20. Philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) in carangid and serranid fishes off New Caledonia, including three new species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A recent examination of newly obtained specimens of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) parasitising carangid and serranid fishes off New Caledonia, South Pacific, revealed the presence of several nematodes of the genus Philometra Costa, 1845, including three new species: P. austropacifica n. sp. (males and females) from the ovary of Alepes vari (Carangidae), P. piscaria n. sp. (males) from the ovary of Epinephelus coioides (Serranidae), and P. selaris n. sp. (males) probably from the abdominal cavity (found in washings) of Selar crumenophthalmus (Carangidae). The new species are characterised mainly by the length and structure of the spicules and gubernaculum, body size, their location in the host and the type of host. Philometra austropacifica n. sp. is the first known nominal gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitising a carangid fish. In addition, the gravid female of P. fasciati Moravec & Justine, 2008 from the ovary of Epinephelus fasciatus (Serranidae) is described for the first time. Carangid host fish were identified by both morphology and DNA barcoding. PMID:24836940

  1. Philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) in carangid and serranid fishes off New Caledonia, including three new species.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2014-01-01

    A recent examination of newly obtained specimens of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) parasitising carangid and serranid fishes off New Caledonia, South Pacific, revealed the presence of several nematodes of the genus Philometra Costa, 1845, including three new species: P. austropacifica n. sp. (males and females) from the ovary of Alepes vari (Carangidae), P. piscaria n. sp. (males) from the ovary of Epinephelus coioides (Serranidae), and P. selaris n. sp. (males) probably from the abdominal cavity (found in washings) of Selar crumenophthalmus (Carangidae). The new species are characterised mainly by the length and structure of the spicules and gubernaculum, body size, their location in the host and the type of host. Philometra austropacifica n. sp. is the first known nominal gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitising a carangid fish. In addition, the gravid female of P. fasciati Moravec & Justine, 2008 from the ovary of Epinephelus fasciatus (Serranidae) is described for the first time. Carangid host fish were identified by both morphology and DNA barcoding. PMID:24836940

  2. Experimental heteroxenous cycle of Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909 (Nematoda: Ascarididae) in white mice and in cats.

    PubMed

    Volcan, G S; Medrano, C E; Payares, G

    1992-01-01

    Reports of natural infections of sylvatic carnivores by adult worms of species similar to Lagochilascaris minor in the Neotropical region led to attempts to establish experimental cycles in laboratory mice and in cats. Also, larval development was seen in the skeletal muscle of an agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) infected per os with incubated eggs of the parasite obtained from a human case. In cats, adult worms develop and fertile eggs are expelled in the feces; in mice, larval stages of the parasite develop, and are encapsulate in the skeletal muscle, and in the adipose and subcutaneous connective tissue. From our observations, we conclude that the larva infective for the mouse is the early 3rd stage, while for the final host the infective form is the later 3rd stage. A single moult was seen in the mouse, giving rise to a small population of 4th stage larvae, long after the initial infection. PMID:1343667

  3. Toxocara cati (Nematoda: Ascarididae) in Didelphis albiventris (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) from Brazil: a case of pseudoparasitism.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Melo, Alan Lane de

    2014-01-01

    Eggs of Toxocara cati were found in the feces of Didelphis albiventris from a peridomestic urban environment in Brazil. Negative fecal tests following short-term captivity of the opossums, as well as the absence of ascaridids during necropsy, suggest the occurrence of pseudoparasitism. Implications of the findings for the epidemiology of toxocariasis are discussed. PMID:25517533

  4. Description of Pratylenchus gutierrezi n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Coffee in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Golden, A. Morgan; López Ch., Róger; Vílchez R., Hernán

    1992-01-01

    A lesion nematode, Pratylenchus gutierrezi n. sp., collected from the roots of coffee in the Central Plateau of Costa Rica, is described and illustrated. Its relationships to Pratylenchus flakkensis, P. similis, and P. gibbicaudatus, the only other species of the genus having two head annules, males, or spermatheca with sperm, and an annulated tail terminus, is discussed. Other distinctive characters are its posterior vulva (mean of 80%); its prominently rounded stylet knobs, low head, and subcylindrical tail. SEM observations provide additional details of females and males, especially face views, which show for the first time sexual dimorphism. PMID:19282999

  5. Paracomesoma minor sp. n. and Microlaimus validus sp. n. (Nematoda) from the coast of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gagarin, Vladimir G; Tu, Nguyen Dinh

    2014-01-01

    Two nematode species isolated from sediments of the littoral zone of South China Sea on the coast of Vietnam are described and illustrated. Paracomesoma minor sp. n. is closely related to P. elegans Gagarin & Thanh, 2009 and P. lissum Gagarin & Thanh, 2009. It differs from the former species in the shorter body, longer and more slender tail, longer cephalic setae and shorter spicules, and from the latter species in the shorter body, longer cephalic setae, presence of cervical setae and smaller number of precloacal supplements in males. Microlaimus validus sp. n. is morphologically closest to M. citrus Gerlach, 1959 and M. nanus Blome, 1982 and differs from both species in the longer body, relatively shorter pharynx and relatively shorter and thicker tail.  PMID:25284664

  6. An entomoparasitic adult form in Bursaphelenchus doui (Nematoda: Tylenchomorpha) associated with Acalolepta fraudatrix.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, Natsumi; Maehara, Noritoshi; Aikawa, Takuya; Nakamura, Katsunori

    2013-10-01

    The nematode family Aphelenchoididae (Rhabditida: Tylenchomorpha) includes species with various feeding habitats. Bursaphelenchus, a member of the family, has for a long time been considered as a home for plant parasitic or mycophagous species (or both). However, recent intensive biological studies on the family revealed that the genus contains several insect parasitic species. Dauer juveniles of Bursaphelenchus doui were isolated from Acalolepta fraudatrix during a field study of longhorn beetle-Bursaphelenchus nematode associations. Two different insect-associated forms, an "entomoparasitic adult form" and a regular dauer juvenile, were isolated from a single individual beetle in a subsequent laboratory investigation of the B. doui-A. fraudatrix relationship. Thus these 2 distinct, insect-associated forms were confirmed to occur simultaneously. The entomoparasitic form is morphologically similar to that of Bursaphelenchus luxuriosae, with a dome-shaped head and vacuole-like spots assumed to be an internal structure of sensory organ, a stylet, a metacorpus (median bulb), and a moderately-developed and seemingly fully functional reproductive system. It is distinguishable from B. luxuriosae based on male spicule morphology and female tail morphology. A degenerate ingestive-digestive system distinguishes the entomoparasitic form from the propagative form and, unlike dauer juveniles, it has a moderately-developed reproductive system. The presence of this characteristic parasitic adult form is known only in these 2 Bursaphelenchus species. However, these 2 species did not form a clear monophyletic clade within the Bursaphelenchus xylophilus group and, thus, this characteristic parasitic form may occur independently in each species. PMID:23656462

  7. Macroposthonia sicula n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae), a Parasite of Olive Trees in Sicily

    PubMed Central

    Vovlas, N.

    1982-01-01

    Macroposthonia sicula n.sp. collected from rhizosphere and roots of olive (Olea europaea L.) at Kamarina, Sicily, Italy, is described and illustrated. It is distinguished from the related species (M. sphaerocephala and M. maskaka) by the longer styler and the characteristic narrowing postvulval portion of the body. PMID:19295680

  8. Molecular arguments for considering Hysterothylacium fabri (Nematoda: Anisakidae) a complex of sibling species.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sánchez, Joaquina; Díaz, Mónica; Artacho, M Elena; Valero, Adela

    2003-02-01

    The existence of sibling species is widespread among nematodes and the recognition of these has important epidemiological implications. In an attempt to establish whether this is the case for Hysterothylacium fabri, which is present in many Mediterranean fish species, we studied its genetic diversity and analysed its population structure. To do this, we used 266 fourth stage larvae of H. fabricollected from three different host species and used two different methods for characterising genetic variability: isoenzyme electrophoresis and RAPD. The four isoenzyme loci studied are polymorphic, with five or six alleles at each. Significant differences in the deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg law were detected, especially at the PGM locus. A total of 92.1% of the markers revealed by the RAPD technique were polymorphic, demonstrating a great diversity. The UPGMA dendrogram revealed the existence of four genetic groups. Values of Nei's genetic distance, gene flow and the existence of different fixed alleles, together with the deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg law detected in the isoenzyme study, suggest that H. fabri is a complex comprising at least three sibling species with little host specificity, at least in the case of the most abundant species. PMID:12541064

  9. The phylogenetic relationships of endemic Australasian trichostrongylin families (Nematoda: Strongylida) parasitic in marsupials and monotremes.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Neil B; Huby-Chilton, Florence; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Beveridge, Ian

    2015-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the endemic (or largely endemic) Australasian trichostrongylin nematode families Herpetostrongylidae, Mackerrastrongylidae and Nicollinidae as well as endemic trichostrongylin nematodes currently placed in the families Trichostrongylidae and Molineidae were examined using the complete large subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA gene. The Herpetostrongylinae proved to be monophyletic. However, representatives of the Nicollinidae nested with the Herpetostrongylinae. The Mackerrastrongylidae was also a monophyletic group and included Peramelistrongylus, currently classified within the Trichostrongylidae. The Globocephaloidinae, currently considered to be a subfamily of the Herpetostrongylidae, was excluded from the family in the current analysis. Ollulanus and Libyostrongylus, included for the first time in a molecular phylogenetic analysis, were placed within the Trichostrongylidae. This study provided strong support for the Herpetostrongylidae (including within it the Nicollinidae, but excluding the Globocephaloidinae) and the Mackerrastrongylidae as monophyletic assemblages. Additional studies are required to resolve the relationships of the remaining endemic Australasian trichostrongylin genera. PMID:26156243

  10. Morphometrical and genetic comparison of two nematode species: H. spumosa and H. dahomensis (Nematoda, Heterakidae).

    PubMed

    Ribas, Alexis; de Bellocq, Jöelle Gouy; Ros, Albert; Ndiaye, Papa Ibnou; Miquel, Jordi

    2013-09-01

    Heterakis is a genus of parasitic nematodes, the majority of which are found in ground-feeding birds and only rarely in mammals. The best-known species is Heterakis spumosa, a parasite associated with the cosmopolitan invasive rodent Rattus rattus of Asiatic origin. Heterakis dahomensis was described in 1911 as a parasite of the Gambian giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus) from Benin (Africa), subsequently synonymized to H. spumosa by Hall (1916). The study of helminths in African rodents is scarce and patchy. Since the original description of H. dahomensis, there have been only a few reports from Africa of species belonging to the genus Heterakis and the validity of this species has never in fact been confirmed or rejected. In the present study individual Heterakis spp. were collected from C. gambianus from Senegal. The morphological data taken point to differences between Heterakis dahomensis and H. spumosa, specifically in the number of tail papillae in males and in the vulva cuticular processes of females. In addition, molecular data revealed differences between these taxa and so H. dahomensis should be considered as a valid species. Moreover, recent changes in the systematics of the genus Cricetomys mean that it is now necessary to study the morphology and genetics of the Heterakis specimens collected from Cricetomys spp. (previously assigned to C. gambianus) in order to determine their taxonomic status as either H. dahomensis o H. spumosa. PMID:23990438

  11. Differential chromatin amplification and chromosome complements in the germline of Strongyloididae (Nematoda).

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Arpita; Holz, Anja; Rödelsperger, Christian; Harbecke, Dorothee; Streit, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    Nematodes of the genus Strongyloides are intestinal parasites of vertebrates including man. Currently, Strongyloides and its sister genus Parastrongyloides are being developed as models for translational and basic biological research. Strongyloides spp. alternate between parthenogenetic parasitic and single free-living sexual generations, with the latter giving rise to all female parasitic progeny. Parastrongyloides trichosuri always reproduces sexually and may form many consecutive free-living generations. Although the free-living adults of both these species share a superficial similarity in overall appearance when compared to Caenorhabditis elegans, there are dramatic differences between them, in particular with respect to the organization of the germline. Here we address two such differences, which have puzzled investigators for several generations. First, we characterize a population of non-dividing giant nuclei in the distal gonad, the region that in C. elegans is populated by mitotically dividing germline stem cells and early meiotic cells. We show that in these nuclei, autosomes are present in higher copy numbers than X chromosomes. Consistently, autosomal genes are expressed at higher levels than X chromosomal ones, suggesting that these worms use differential chromatin amplification for controlling gene expression. Second, we address the lack of males in the progeny of free-living Strongyloides spp. We find that male-determining (nullo-X) sperm are present in P. trichosuri, a species known to produce male progeny, and absent in Strongyloides papillosus, which is consistent for a species that does not. Surprisingly, nullo-X sperm appears to be present in Strongyloides ratti, even though this species does not produce male progeny. This suggests that different species of Strongyloides employ various strategies to prevent the formation of males in the all-parasitic progeny of the free-living generation. PMID:26205504

  12. First report of parasitism by Hexametra boddaertii (Nematoda: Ascaridae) in Oxyrhopus guibei (Serpentes: Colubridae).

    PubMed

    Peichoto, María E; Sánchez, Matías N; López, Ariel; Salas, Martín; Rivero, María R; Teibler, Pamela; Toledo, Gislayne de Melo; Tavares, Flávio L

    2016-07-15

    The current study summarizes the postmortem examination of a specimen of Oxyrhopus guibei (Serpentes, Colubridae) collected in Iguazu National Park (Argentina), and found deceased a week following arrival to the serpentarium of the National Institute of Tropical Medicine (Argentina). Although the snake appeared to be in good health, a necropsy performed following its death identified the presence of a large number of roundworms in the coelomic cavity, with indications of peritonitis and serosal adherence. Additional observations from the necropsy revealed small calcifications in the mesothelium of the coelomic cavity; solid and expressive content in the gallbladder; massive gastrointestinal obstruction due to nematodes; and lung edema and congestion. Histopathological analyses of lung sections also showed proliferative heterophilic and histiocytic pneumonia. Parasites isolated from both the intestine and coelomic cavity were identified as Hexametra boddaertii by a combination of light and scanning electron microscopic examination. Results from this necropsy identify O. guibei as a new host for H. boddaertii, and is the first report of a natural infection by Hexametra in Argentina. Since Hexametra parasites may contribute to several pathological conditions in humans, and with the recent availability of O. guibei specimens through the illegal pet trade, it is necessary to consider the possibility of zoonotic helminth transmission of Hexametra from snake to human. PMID:27270391

  13. Lagochilascaris minor (Nematoda: Ascarididae) from a Wild Cougar ( Puma concolor ) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Falcón-Ordaz, Jorge; Iturbe-Morgado, José Carlos; Rojas-Martínez, Alberto Enrique; García-Prieto, Luis

    2016-07-01

    We document parasitation of a wild cougar ( Puma concolor ) by the nematode Lagochilascaris minor in Hidalgo State, Mexico. This finding contributes to our understanding of the epidemiology of this zoonotic agent in Mexico. PMID:27310170

  14. Studies on ascaridid, oxyurid and enoplid nematodes (Nematoda) from fishes of the Okavango River, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Van As, Liesl L

    2015-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, eight species (five adult and three larval) of nematodes belonging to the Ascaridida, Oxyurida and Enoplida were collected from fishes of the Okavango River, Botswana, namely Falcaustra similis Moravec et Van As, 2004, Atractidae gen. sp. (only female) (both Cosmocercoidea), Cucullanus sp. (only female) (Seuratoidea), Cithariniella longicaudata sp. n., Synodontisia annulata sp. n. (both Oxyuroidea), Contracaecum sp. third-stage larvae, third-stage larvae of Galeiceps sp. (both Ascaridoidea) and Eustrongylides sp. fourth-stage larvae (Dioctophymatoidea). The new species Citharinella longicaudata (type host Schilbe intermedius Rüppel) is mainly characterised by the shape and size of cephalic papillae and the spicule 108 µm long, and Synodontisia annulata (type host S. intermedius) by the shape of cephalic papillae, body length of gravid females (4.88-5.33 mm) and a short spicule (66 µm long). The female specimen of Cucullanus sp. from Tilapia sparmanni Smith markedly differs from congeners parasitising inland fishes in Africa by the elongate pseudobuccal capsule and by the excretory pore far posterior to the oesophago-intestinal junction; apparently, it belongs to an undescribed species. Galeiceps larvae parasitising fishes are described for the first time. Cithariniella gonzalezi Van Waerebeke, Chabaud, Bain et Georges, 1988 is considered a junior synonym of C. khalili Petter, Vassiliadès et Troncy, 1972, and the previous records of Cithariniella citharini Khalil, 1964 from Synodontis spp. in Egypt concern, in fact, Cithariniella khalili Petter, Vassiliadès et Troncy, 1972. The specimens of Cithariniella reported by Koubková et al. (2010) from Paradistichodus dimidiatus (Pellegrin) in Senegal and misidentified as C. gonzalesi Van Waerebeke, Chabaud, Bain et Georges, 1988 are considered to represent a new species, C. koubkovae sp. n.; this is established by reference to the description and drawings provided by Koubková et al. (2010). PMID:26278193

  15. Collagenolytic activity related to metalloproteases (and serine proteases) in the fish parasite Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda: Anisakidae).

    PubMed

    Malagón, David; Adroher, Francisco Javier; Díaz-López, Manuel; Benítez, Rocío

    2010-06-11

    Proteases play a vital role in both the life cycle of parasites and the parasite-host relationship and are considered important virulence factors. In the present study, the presence of proteases with collagenolytic activity was investigated in the fish nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum during in vitro development. Collagenolytic activity was found in all studied developmental stages of the nematode (third [L3] and fourth [L4] larval stages and adults). In L3, the activity was maximum at pH 6.5 and, in the other stages, at 7.0. Pepsin is known to favour in vitro development of the worm, but, in this study, collagenolytic activity was shown to be significantly greater when no pepsin was added to the culture medium (at pH 6.5, p = 0.011). At pH 7.0, most activity was observed in the immature adult, after the final moult, suggesting that the collagenolytic activity may be involved in remodelling of the cuticle and in sexual maturity. On the other hand, at pH 6.5, activity may be related to tissue migration by L3 within the host. Using specific inhibitors, it was demonstrated that most of the collagenolytic activity detected in all the developmental stages was due to metalloproteases (40 to 100%), although serine proteases were also detected in L4 and adults (10 to 30%). PMID:20662369

  16. Molecular and morphological characterization of Contracaecum pelagicum (Nematoda) parasitizing Spheniscus magellanicus (Chordata) from Brazilian waters.

    PubMed

    Borges, Juliana Novo; Santos, Helena Lúcia Carneiro; Brandão, Martha Lima; dos Santos, Everton Gustavo Nunes; de Miranda, Daniele Ferreira; Balthazar, Daniel de Almeida; Luque, José Luis; Santos, Cláudia Portes

    2014-03-01

    Three new sequences of Mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase subunit 2 (mtDNA cox-2) from C. pelagicum parasite of Spheniscus magellanicus, the Magelanicus penguin, were determined from Brazilian waters. The sequences presented 99 and 98% of similarity with C. pelagicum sequences from Argentina, deposited on GenBank for the same genetic region and with a strong statistical support inferred from the phylogenetic tree. The morphological and ultrastructural studies that were carried out confirmed the genetic analysis. PMID:24728364

  17. Halomonhystera parasitica n. sp. (Nematoda: Monhysteridae), a parasite of Talorchestia brito (Crustacea: Talitridae) in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George; Duarte, Daniella; Santos, Maria João

    2010-01-01

    Halomonhystera parasitica n. sp. (Monhysterida: Monhysteridae) is described from the body-cavity and under the dorsal plates of the sandy beach amphipod Talorchestia brito Stebbing (Crustacea: Talitridae) in Portugal. The new species differs from previously described members of the genus by a combination of the following characters: four medium-sized cephalic setae; base of stoma with three blunt denticles; posterior dilated portion of stoma absent; amphids small, with width less than quarter of corresponding body width; amphids located less than two labial widths from anterior extremity; uterine eggs elliptical and unembryonated; gubernaculum lacks caudal process; and male tail with two separated pairs of postcloacal papillae and a single subterminal seta-like papilla. This is the first representative of the family Monhysteridae parasitic in the body-cavity of crustaceans. Approximately 48% of the amphipods examined contained various stages of H. parasitica. PMID:20012518

  18. Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) in the Ryukyu Islands tree rat (Diplothrix legata).

    PubMed

    Okano, Tsukasa; Haga, Atsushi; Mizuno, Eriko; Onuma, Manabu; Nakaya, Yumiko; Nagamine, Takashi

    2014-04-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic nematode with rodents serving as natural definitive hosts. We report A. cantonensis in the Ryukyu Islands tree rat (Diplothrix legata, Thomas, 1906), a native endangered species in Japan. Adult and larvae of A. cantonensis were macroscopically, histologically, and genetically detected in three tree rats collected between August 2011 and January 2012 in the Yambaru area of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Pathologic observations of the lungs of rats showed that infection may be lethal. We also conducted a retrospective genetic survey of helminths parasitic in lung in cryopreserved lung samples of Ryukyu Islands tree rats collected between 2007 and 2011 in the Yambaru area and found A. cantonensis DNA in one of 29 samples, which was collected in December 2010. PMID:24499332

  19. Aspidoderidae from North America, with the description of a new species of Aspidodera (Nematoda: Heterakoidea).

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ruiz, F Agustín; Gardner, Scott L; Varela-Stokes, Andrea S

    2006-08-01

    Aspidodera sogandaresi n. sp. (Heterakoidea: Aspidoderidae) from Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 is herein described. This nematode occurs in armadillos from as far south as the canal zone of Panama, north through central Mexico, and into the southern United States. Previously identified as Aspidodera fasciata (Schneider, 1866), this new species has blunt projections on the lips and lateral expansions at the distal tips of the spicules, whereas A. fasciata has conspicuous digitiform projections on the lips, and a terminal round expansion at the tips of the spicules. Other species of the family present in North America include Aspidodera binansata Railliet and Henry, 1913; Aspidodera vazi Proença, 1937; and Lauroia trinidadensis Cameron, 1939. PMID:16995403

  20. Sphaerularia bombi (Nematoda: Sphaerulariidae) parasitizing Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in southern South America.

    PubMed

    Plischuk, Santiago; Lange, Carlos E

    2012-08-01

    Bumble bees are some of the most important insect pollinators. However, knowledge on parasites associated to bumble bees in South America is very limited. This study reports the first isolation of a sphaerularid nematode parasitizing queens of the native bumble bee Bombus atratus in Argentina. Measurements and morphological characters of eggs, juveniles, and adults strongly suggest that the species is Sphaerularia bombi, a parasite that affects the reproduction and foraging behavior of the host. The nematode was detected in bumble bees of San Carlos de Bariloche, northwestern Patagonia region, and the surroundings of La Plata, northeastern Pampas region. Prevalence varied between 8% and 20%. PMID:22350676

  1. Use of Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis in the Taxonomy of Steinernematids (Rhabditida, Nematoda)

    PubMed Central

    Jagdale, G. B.; Gordon, R.; Vrain, T. C.

    1996-01-01

    A steinernematid nematode was isolated from soil samples collected near St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. On the basis of its morphometry and RFLPs in ribosomal DNA spacer, it was designated as a new strain, NF, of Steinernema feltiae. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis was used to separate isozymes of eight enzymes in infective juveniles of S. feltiae NF as well as four other isolates: S. feltiae Umeå strain, S. feltiae L1C strain, Steinernema carpocapsae All strain, and Steinernema riobravis TX strain. Based on comparisons of the relative electrophoretic mobilities (μ) of the isozymes, one of the eight enzymes (arginine kinase) yielded zymograms that were distinctive for each of the isolates, except for the Umeå and NF strains of S. feltiae, which had identical banding patterns. Four enzymes (fumarate hydratase, phosphoglucoisomerase, phosphoglucomutase, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase) yielded isozyme banding patterns that were characteristic for all isolates, except for the L1C and NF strains of S. feltiae, which were identical. Two enzymes (aspartate amino transferase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) yielded zymograms that permitted S. carpocapsae All strain to be discriminated from the other four isolates, while the remaining enzyme (mannose-6-phosphate isomerase) was discriminatory for S. riobravis TX strain. Except for one enzyme, the isozyme banding pattern of the NF isolate of S. feltiae was the same as in the L1C strain, isolated 13 years previously from Newfoundland. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis could prove invaluable for taxonomic identification of isolates of steinernematids, provided that a combination of enzymes is used. PMID:19277147

  2. Use of cellulose acetate electrophoresis in the taxonomy of steinernematids (rhabditida, nematoda).

    PubMed

    Jagdale, G B; Gordon, R; Vrain, T C

    1996-09-01

    A steinernematid nematode was isolated from soil samples collected near St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. On the basis of its morphometry and RFLPs in ribosomal DNA spacer, it was designated as a new strain, NF, of Steinernema feltiae. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis was used to separate isozymes of eight enzymes in infective juveniles of S. feltiae NF as well as four other isolates: S. feltiae Umeå strain, S. feltiae L1C strain, Steinernema carpocapsae All strain, and Steinernema riobravis TX strain. Based on comparisons of the relative electrophoretic mobilities (mu) of the isozymes, one of the eight enzymes (arginine kinase) yielded zymograms that were distinctive for each of the isolates, except for the Umeå and NF strains of S. feltiae, which had identical banding patterns. Four enzymes (fumarate hydratase, phosphoglucoisomerase, phosphoglucomutase, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase) yielded isozyme banding patterns that were characteristic for all isolates, except for the L1C and NF strains of S. feltiae, which were identical. Two enzymes (aspartate amino transferase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) yielded zymograms that permitted S. carpocapsae All strain to be discriminated from the other four isolates, while the remaining enzyme (mannose-6-phosphate isomerase) was discriminatory for S. riobravis TX strain. Except for one enzyme, the isozyme banding pattern of the NF isolate of S. feltiae was the same as in the L1C strain, isolated 13 years previously from Newfoundland. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis could prove invaluable for taxonomic identification of isolates of steinernematids, provided that a combination of enzymes is used. PMID:19277147

  3. Spatial distribution of subtidal Nematoda communities along the salinity gradient in southern European estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adão, Helena; Alves, Ana Sofia; Patrício, Joana; Neto, João Magalhães; Costa, Maria José; Marques, João Carlos

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the spatial distribution of subtidal nematode communities along the salinity gradients of two Portuguese estuaries exposed to different degrees of anthropogenic stress: the Mira and the Mondego. The nematode communities were mainly composed of Sabatieria, Metachromadora, Daptonema, Anoplostoma, Sphaerolaimus and Terschellingia species, closely resembling the communities of Northern European estuaries. In both estuaries, nematode density and community composition followed the salinity gradient, naturally establishing three distinct estuarine sections: (i) freshwater and oligohaline - characterised by the presence of freshwater nematodes, low nematode density and diversity; (ii) mesohaline - dominated by Terschellingia, Sabatieria and Daptonema, with low total density and diversity; and (iii) polyhaline and euhaline - where nematodes reached the highest density and diversity, and Paracomesoma, Synonchiella, and Odontophora were dominant. Despite the similarities in community composition and total nematode density, the proportion of different nematode feeding types were remarkably different in the two estuaries. In Mira, selective deposit feeders were dominant in the oligohaline section, while non-selective deposit feeders were dominant in the other sections. On the contrary, in the Mondego estuary, epigrowth-feeders and omnivores/predators were dominant in the freshwater sections and in the euhaline sector of the southern arm. Differences observed along each estuarine gradient were much stronger than overall differences between the two estuaries. In the Mondego estuary, the influence of anthropogenic stressors seemed not to be relevant in determining the nematodes' spatial distribution patterns, therefore suggesting that mesoscale variability responded essentially to natural stressors, characteristic of estuarine gradients. Nevertheless, the proportion of the different feeding types was different between the two estuaries, indicating that the response of nematode feeding guilds is able to reflect anthropogenic-induced stress and can be useful in assessing biological quality in transitional waters ecosystems.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Koerneria sudhausi (Diplogasteromorpha: Nematoda) supports monophyly of Diplogasteromorpha within Rhabditomorpha.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeho; Kim, Jiyeon; Nadler, Steven A; Park, Joong-Ki

    2016-05-01

    Testing hypotheses of monophyly for different nematode groups in the context of broad representation of nematode diversity is central to understanding the patterns and processes of nematode evolution. Herein sequence information from mitochondrial genomes is used to test the monophyly of diplogasterids, which includes an important nematode model organism. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Koerneria sudhausi, a representative of Diplogasteromorpha, was determined and used for phylogenetic analyses along with 60 other nematode species. The mtDNA of K. sudhausi is comprised of 16,005 bp that includes 36 genes (12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes) encoded in the same direction. Phylogenetic trees inferred from amino acid and nucleotide sequence data for the 12 protein-coding genes strongly supported the sister relationship of K. sudhausi with Pristionchus pacificus, supporting Diplogasteromorpha. The gene order of K. sudhausi is identical to that most commonly found in members of the Rhabditomorpha + Ascaridomorpha + Diplogasteromorpha clade, with an exception of some tRNA translocations. Both the gene order pattern and sequence-based phylogenetic analyses support a close relationship between the diplogasterid species and Rhabditomorpha. The nesting of the two diplogasteromorph species within Rhabditomorpha is consistent with most molecular phylogenies for the group, but inconsistent with certain morphology-based hypotheses that asserted phylogenetic affinity between diplogasteromorphs and tylenchomorphs. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences strongly supports monophyly of the diplogasteromorpha. PMID:26581631

  5. Heterodera thornei n. sp. (Nematoda:Heteroderidae) and a review of related species.

    PubMed

    Golden, A M; Raski, D J

    1977-04-01

    In a taxonomic review of the species of the Heterodera "cacti group," H. thornei n. sp. is described and illustrated from Miner's lettuce in California. This new species is distinguishable especially by havpunctate egg shells and a larval stylet (27 mum) and tail (56 mum) longer than other related species. Heterodera weissi is redescribed, type specimens are designated, and new data added on the basis of original and topotype specimens. New morphometric data, along with illustrations, are given for H. cacti, H. amaranthi, and H. estonica, and certain details in the original descriptions are clarified on the latter two species. Diagnoses and a key for identification of these species are given. A common name for each species is proposed when one is lacking. Previously unrecognized tooth-like structures occurring in the vulval cone top of these species and in H. schachtii are characterized and named "vulval denticles." Because of its markedly different morphology, especially in cysts, H. betulae is removed from the H. cacti group and placed alone, since it is incompatible with any of the present Heterodera "groups." Know distribution of these species is given, with the result that many new areas and countries of occurrence for some of the species are listed. PMID:19305576

  6. Taxonomic and Molecular Identification of Hemicaloosia, Hemicycliophora, Gracilacus and Paratylenchus Species (Nematoda: Criconematidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cordero López, Marco A.; Robbins, Robert T.; Szalanski, Allen L.

    2013-01-01

    Populations of Hemicycliophora epicharoides, H. gigas, H. labiata, H. pruni, H. shepherdi, H. vidua, H. zuckermani, Gracilacus straeleni, and Paratylenchus labiosus were obtained from different geographical areas in the continental United States and characterized morphological and molecularly. Two new species of Hemicycliophorinae: Hemicaloosia uarki n. sp from Pinetree, St. Francis County, Arkansas, and Hemicycliophora wyei n. sp from Wayne County, North Carolina, are also described. Hemicaloosia uarki n. sp. is characterized by having two lip annuli separated from the rest of body and directed anteriorly, a long stylet (106-124 μm), long body length (1,081-1,326 μm) and a single lateral fields demarcated by interruptions of the body annuli. Hemicycliophora wyei n. sp. showed a lateral fields demarked by two faint lines with transverse anastomoses and/or breaks of the striae; an elongated not offset conical tail with distinct annulations and a rounded tip and long vulval lips with a vulval sleeve. The molecular characterizations of the new (H. uarki n. sp. and H. wyei n. sp.) and known species of Criconematidae using the ITS1 rDNA gene sequence and the molecular phylogenetic relationships are provided. PMID:24115782

  7. Taxonomic and Molecular Identification of Bakernema, Criconema, Hemicriconemoides, Ogma and Xenocriconemella Species (Nematoda: Criconematidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, Marco A.; Robbins, Robert T.; Szalanski, Allen L.

    2012-01-01

    Populations of Bakernema inaequale, C. petasum, C. sphagni, C. mutabile, Ogma octangulare, Xenocriconemella macrodora and Hemicriconemoides chitwoodi were identified and re-described from different geographical areas in the continental United States and molecularly characterized. Two new species of spine nematodes Criconema arkaense n. sp. from Washington County and Lee County, Arkansas and Criconema warrenense n. sp from Warren, Bradley County, Arkansas are also described and named. Criconema arkaense is characterize by having a conspicuous lip region offset from the body with two annuli, short rounded tail with a thin cuticular sheath and subterminal anus. Criconema warrenense n. sp. has two lip region annuli about the same width, first annulus directed posteriorly, separated by a narrow neck annulus and a short conoid tail, unilobed non-folded annulus. The molecular characterization of Criconema arkaense and Criconema warrenense using ITS1 rDNA gene sequence and the molecular phylogenetic relationships of these new species along with the known spines nematodes are provided. PMID:23482683

  8. Heterodera thornei n. sp. (Nematoda:Heteroderidae) and a Review of Related Species

    PubMed Central

    Golden, A. Morgan; Raski, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    In a taxonomic review of the species of the Heterodera "cacti group," H. thornei n. sp. is described and illustrated from Miner's lettuce in California. This new species is distinguishable especially by havpunctate egg shells and a larval stylet (27 μm) and tail (56 μm) longer than other related species. Heterodera weissi is redescribed, type specimens are designated, and new data added on the basis of original and topotype specimens. New morphometric data, along with illustrations, are given for H. cacti, H. amaranthi, and H. estonica, and certain details in the original descriptions are clarified on the latter two species. Diagnoses and a key for identification of these species are given. A common name for each species is proposed when one is lacking. Previously unrecognized tooth-like structures occurring in the vulval cone top of these species and in H. schachtii are characterized and named "vulval denticles." Because of its markedly different morphology, especially in cysts, H. betulae is removed from the H. cacti group and placed alone, since it is incompatible with any of the present Heterodera "groups." Know distribution of these species is given, with the result that many new areas and countries of occurrence for some of the species are listed. PMID:19305576

  9. Identification of Anisakis species (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in marine fish hosts from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koinari, M; Karl, S; Elliot, A; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J

    2013-03-31

    The third-stage larvae of several genera of anisakid nematodes are important etiological agents for zoonotic human anisakiasis. The present study investigated the prevalence of potentially zoonotic anisakid larvae in fish collected on the coastal shelves off Madang and Rabaul in Papua New Guinea (PNG) where fish represents a major component of the diet. Nematodes were found in seven fish species including Decapterus macarellus, Gerres oblongus, Pinjalo lewisi, Pinjalo pinjalo, Selar crumenophthalmus, Scomberomorus maculatus and Thunnus albacares. They were identified by both light and scanning electron microscopy as Anisakis Type I larvae. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit II (cox2) gene identified all nematodes as Anisakis typica. This study represents the first in-depth characterisation of Anisakis larvae from seven new fish hosts in PNG. The overall prevalence of larvae was low (7.6%) and no recognised zoonotic Anisakis species were identified, suggesting a very low threat of anisakiasis in PNG. PMID:23290280

  10. Characterization of the heartworm Acanthocheilonema spirocauda (Leidy, 1858) Anderson, 1992 (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Leidenberger, Sonja; Boström, Sven

    2008-12-01

    The heartworm Acanthocheilonema spirocauda (Leidy, Proc Acad Nat Sci Philadelphia 10:110-112, 1858) Anderson, 1992 is described from material collected from harbour seals in Scandinavia and compared with types and other specimens described by Anderson (Can J Zool 37:481-493, 1959) from harbour seals in eastern USA. Most morphometric characters of the material from USA fall within the ranges established for the Scandinavian one. Some intraspecific variability in the organisation of papillae on the male tail was detected among the Scandinavian specimens. Differences between the specimens from Scandinavia and Eastern USA are also found in the organisation of papillae on the tail of males and females. An excretory pore was not discernible, but a clearly hemizonid-like structure is described. For the first time, scanning electron micrographs present external morphological structures of the species. PMID:18762981

  11. Phylogenetic confirmation of the genus Robbea (Nematoda: Desmodoridae, Stilbonematinae) with the description of three new species

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Jörg A.; Gruber-Vodicka, Harald R.; Leisch, Nikolaus; Zimmermann, Judith

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Stilbonematinae are a monophyletic group of marine nematodes that are characterized by a coat of thiotrophic bacterial symbionts. Among the ten known genera of the Stilbonematinae, the genus Robbea Gerlach 1956 had a problematic taxonomic history of synonymizations and indications of polyphyletic origin. Here we describe three new species of the genus, R. hypermnestra sp. nov., R. ruetzleri sp. nov. and R. agricola sp. nov., using conventional light microscopy, interference contrast microscopy and SEM. We provide 18S rRNA gene sequences of all three species, together with new sequences for the genera Catanema and Leptonemella. Both our morphological analyses as well as our phylogenetic reconstructions corroborate the genus Robbea. In our phylogenetic analysis the three species of the genus Robbea form a distinct clade in the Stilbonematinae radiation and are clearly separated from the clade of the genus Catanema, which has previously been synonymized with Robbea. Surprisingly, in R. hypermnestra sp. nov. all females are intersexes exhibiting male sexual characters. Our extended dataset of Stilbonematinae 18S rRNA genes for the first time allows the identification of the different genera, e.g. in a barcoding approach. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D37C3F5A-CF2B-40E6-8B09-3C72EEED60B0

  12. Granular Formulations of Steinernema carpocapsae (strain All) (Nematoda: Rhabditida) with Improved Shelf Life

    PubMed Central

    Connick, W. J.; Nickle, W. R.; Williams, K. S.; Vinyard, B. T.

    1994-01-01

    Shelf life (nematode survival) of Steinernema carpocapsae (strain All) nematodes at 21 C in "Pesta" granules, made by a pasta-like process, was increased from 8 to 26 weeks by incorporating low concentrations of formaldehyde. Pesta samples containing an average of 427,000 nematodes/g were prepared with wheat flour (semolina or bread flour), kaolin, bentonite, peat moss, nematode slurry, and formaldehyde (0-1.4% w/w) and were dried to a water content of 23.6-26.9%. Nematodes emerged from Pesta (S. carpocapsae) granules when placed in water or on moist filter paper. Incorporation of 0.2% w/w formaldehyde (nominal; 0.05% by analysis) was optimum for increasing nematode survival in semolina-based Pesta, and also inhibited fungal growth on the granules. Bread flour Pesta samples prepared by formaldehyde addition to the nematode slurry prior to dough preparation, rather than by addition to a mixture of dry ingredients, had longer shelf life. Nematodes recovered from granules made with 0.2% formaldehyde and stored 20 weeks at 21 C caused 100% mortality of wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae. PMID:19279903

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR STUDIES ON HETERODERA SACCHARI, H. GOLDENI, AND H. LEUCEILYMA (NEMATODA: HETERODERIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterodera sacchari, H. leuceilyma and H. goldeni are closely related members of the H. sacchari species complex, which is mainly characterized and distinguished from all other described Heterodera species by the presence of finger-like projections of the strongly developed underbridge in the vulval...

  14. Analysis of the strongylid nematodes (Nematoda: Strongylidae) community after deworming of brood horses in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, T A; Kharchenko, V A; Starovir, A I; Dvojnos, G M

    2005-08-10

    Communities of intestinal helminths in horses are commonly studied post mortem. The study objectives were here to examine the species composition of the strongylid community in brood horses in Ukraine after deworming with an aversectin drug Univerm. The site distribution of the strongylid species was analysed according to dynamics of their expulsion in faeces. Forty-four horses of different ages from Poltavska oblast (22 horses), Kyivska oblast (17 horses) and Sumska oblast (5 horses) of Ukraine were included in the study. Horses were treated with Univerm anthelmintic (0.2% aversectin) at a dose rate of 0.5mg aversectin preparation per kg body weight. Faecal sampling (200 g each) was performed at 24, 36, 48 and 60 h post treatment, and all nematodes expelled were collected and identified. The largest numbers of strongylids were expelled at 24--36 h after treatment. Twenty-five nematode species from the subfamilies Strongylinae and Cyathostominae were identified. The number of strongylid species found per horse ranged from 7 to 20, on an average 11+/-3.6 (S.D.). The number of cyathostomin species found per horse ranged from 7 to 16, on an average 10+/-2.3 (S.D.). Cylicocyclus nassatus and Cyathostomum catinatum were the most dominant species were found in 100% of horses, amounting to 36.3% and 17.6% of the total number of strongylids collected, respectively. C. longibursatus, C. ashworthi, Cylicostephanus calicatus, C. leptostomus and C. minutus were identified in more than 80% horses and represented 39.9% of the total number of strongylids collected. The dynamics of the different strongylid species expelled was irregular. Correlation between the time of cyathostomin species expulsion in faeces and their predicted localisation inside the horse intestine was found. Species mainly localised in the caecum were found in faeces later than those species localised in the dorsal and ventral colons. Larvae and adult Parascaris equorum, Oxyuris equi and botfly larvae from the genus Gasterophilus were also found in horse faeces. This investigation shows that is possible to study the horse strongylid community after deworming with aid of an aversectin drug. The results obtained here correspond to those recorded in previous autopsy surveys in other countries. PMID:15979240

  15. Further study of Contracaecum pelagicum (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in Spheniscus magellanicus (Aves: Spheniscidae) from Argentinean coasts.

    PubMed

    Garbin, Lucas E; Navone, Graciela T; Diaz, Julia I; Cremonte, Florencia

    2007-02-01

    The anisakid species Contracaecum pelagicum Johnston and Mawson, 1942, is reported for first time at 2 different sites on the Argentine coast (Peninsula Valdés, 42 degrees 04'S, 63 degrees 38'W and Mar del Plata, 38 degrees 05'S, 57 degrees 38'W), parasitizing the Magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus Foster. Morphometric analysis and further studies of adult specimens of C. pelagicum were done using light and scanning electron microscopy. The presence of bifurcated interlabia differentiates the present species from most others in the genus, except (1) from Contracaecum travassosi, which possesses higher interlabia and longer spicules, and a blunt, more constrained tail; (2) from Contracaecum rudolphii, which has longer spicules, blunter spicule tips, postparacloacal papillae with oblique disposition, and a blunter constrained tail; (3) from Contracaecum eudyptulae, which has a blunter tail and longer spicules; and (4) from Contracaecum variegatum, which possesses smaller-diameter, hooklike extensions on auricle lips, and a less robust interlabium with a more marked furrow. In this paper we present the first detailed description of C. pelagicum adults from S. magellanicus. Morphometric data between adult specimens of C. pelagicum from S. magellanicus and those from the black-browed albatross, Diomedea melanophris Temminck, from Argentinean coasts were compared. In addition, fourth-stage larvae that parasitized both hosts were assigned to a nondeterminated Contracaecum species. Ecological parameters for adults and larvae nematodes were calculated. PMID:17436954

  16. Rotylenchus castilloi n. sp. (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae), a new species with long stylet from northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Talezari, Atefeh; Pourjam, Ebrahim; Kheiri, Ahmad; Liébanas, Gracia; Aliramaji, Farzad; Pedram, Majid; Rezaee, Saeed; Atighi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Rotylenchus castilloi n. sp., a new bisexual species is described and illustrated based on morphological, morphometric and molecular data. The new species is characterised by having a hemispherical, continuous lip region with an irregular corncob-like appearance under SEM, very long stylet (62-68 µm), vulva located at 49.7-62.2% of body length from anterior end, with a protruding double epiptygma, a rounded to convex-conoid (rarely bi-lobed) tail with 8-12 annuli and specific sequences of D2-D3 segments of 28S and ITS1-rRNA genes. Differences between the new species and four other species of the genus (R. mesorobustus, R. cazorlaensis, R. magnus and R. jaeni) are discussed. Morphologically, the new species can be separated from these species mostly by its body length, lip region characters, stylet length and location of phasmid. Phylogenetic analyses using 721 bp partial sequences of D2-D3 expansion segments of the 28S and 590 bp ITS1-rRNA genes revealed the new species forming a clade with two isolates of R. eximius and two isolates of R. unisexus, two morphologically unrelated species. PMID:25781816

  17. Detection of cryptic species of Rugopharynx (Nematoda: Strongylida) from the stomachs of Australian macropodid marsupials.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Neil B; Huby-Chilton, Florence; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Beveridge, Ian

    2016-08-01

    Sequences of the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS-1 and ITS-2) were determined for species of the genus Rugopharynx and Rugonema labiatum, nematodes from the stomachs of macropodid marsupials. Phylogenetic analyses of the aligned sequence data were conducted. The relationships provided molecular support for all species currently recognised, some of which are based on minor morphological differences and on multilocus enzyme electrophoretic data, but also indicated that additional, cryptic species exist within the genus. In addition, the genus Rugonema is placed as a synonym of Rugopharynx, its sole species becoming Rugopharynx labiatum n. comb. The molecular data provided some insights into the evolution of complex buccal capsule morphologies within the genus, but there was no evidence of co-evolution between the macropodid hosts and their parasites. PMID:27330983

  18. Genetic diversity and population genetics of large lungworms (Dictyocaulus, Nematoda) in wild deer in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Ács, Zoltán; Hayward, Alexander; Sugár, László

    2016-09-01

    Dictyocaulus nematode worms live as parasites in the lower airways of ungulates and can cause significant disease in both wild and farmed hosts. This study represents the first population genetic analysis of large lungworms in wildlife. Specifically, we quantify genetic variation in Dictyocaulus lungworms from wild deer (red deer, fallow deer and roe deer) in Hungary, based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) sequence data, using population genetic and phylogenetic analyses. The studied Dictyocaulus taxa display considerable genetic diversity. At least one cryptic species and a new parasite-host relationship are revealed by our molecular study. Population genetic analyses for Dictyocaulus eckerti revealed high gene flow amongst weakly structured spatial populations that utilise the three host deer species considered here. Our results suggest that D. eckerti is a widespread generalist parasite in ungulates, with a diverse genetic backround and high evolutionary potential. In contrast, evidence of cryptic genetic structure at regional geographic scales was observed for Dictyocaulus capreolus, which infects just one host species, suggesting it is a specialist within the studied area. D. capreolus displayed lower genetic diversity overall, with only moderate gene flow compared to the closely related D. eckerti. We suggest that the differing vagility and dispersal behaviour of hosts are important contributing factors to the population structure of lungworms, and possibly other nematode parasites with single-host life cycles. Our findings are of relevance for the management of lungworms in deer farms and wild deer populations. PMID:27150969

  19. Redescription of Spirura guianensis (Nematoda: Spiruridae) from a rare South American Gracile Opossum.

    PubMed

    Torres, E J Lopes; Maldonado, A; Anjos, D H da Silva; de Souza, W; Miranda, K

    2015-10-01

    Spirura genus Blanchard, 1849 comprise of nematode parasites that infect primate and marsupial species. Although several taxonomical studies have shown that the infection by this species occurs primarily in the esophagus of primates, evidence for the occurrence of these parasites in other hosts (marsupials, rodents and bats) has become the subject of investigation by several groups. In this work, we describe the presence of Spirura guianensis Ortlepp, 1924 in the marsupial Gracilinanus agilis (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) found in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state of Brazil. Structural characteristics of this nematode were identified using light microscopy (bright field and fluorescence stereomicroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) approaches. Details of the surface topography such as cephalic projections, ventral boss, details of the caudal papillae and cuticular ornamentations were shown, providing taxonomic characteristics that may help in the establishment of diagnostic protocols. In addition, the presence of this species in a new host and new geographical area of Brazil provide grounds for a revision on the distribution of S. guianensis in South America. PMID:26187357

  20. RHABDITIS RAINAI N. SP. (NEMATODA: RHABDITIDA) ASSOCIATED WITH THE FORMOSAN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE, COPTOTERMES FORMOSANUS (ISOPTERA: RHINOTERMITIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes were discovered in the gut of sick Formosan termites (Coptotermes formosanus) in New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A. Rhabditis (Prerecditis) rainai is described as a new subgenus and species of hermaphroditic Rhabditis with a unique prerectum, four denticles at the base of the stoma, male spic...

  1. Morphological and molecular characterization of Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Sicily

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, F.; Handoo, Z. A.; Di Vito, M.

    2008-01-01

    Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. parasitizing roots of lentil in Sicily, Italy, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by a relatively high lip region with three annuli, mean stylet length of 16 μm, with anteriorly flattened knobs, cylindrical body with a relatively anterior vulva, large and ovoid spermatheca full of sperm, plump tail with truncate, irregularly annulated terminus, and by the presence of males. Molecular ITS-RFLP and sequencing analyses of the new species showed clear differences from other most morphologically similar species, such as P. thornei and P. mediterraneus. Preliminary host range tests revealed that chickpea, pea, faba bean and durum wheat are good hosts of P. lentis n. sp., whereas common bean, alfalfa and barley are less robust hosts and tomato, bell pepper, eggplant, melon and sunflower are poor hosts for the nematode. PMID:19440258

  2. Swedish Plectida (Nematoda). Part 10. The genus Deontolaimus de Man, 1880.

    PubMed

    Holovachov, Oleksandr; Boström, Sven

    2015-01-01

    The genus Deontolaimus de Man, 1880 is revised and the genus Camacolaimus de Man, 1889 is considered a junior synonym of Deontolaimus based on re-examination of type material of Camacolaimus tardus de Man, 1889 and C. barbatus Warwick, 1970. Two known and three new species of Deontolaimus are described from bottom sediments collected in marine habitats of Sweden: Deontolaimus uniformis (Cobb, 1920) comb. n., D. longicauda (de Man, 1922) comb. n., Deontolaimus catalinae sp. n., D. paraguillei sp. n. and Deontolaimus timmi sp. n. Deontolaimus catalinae sp. n. is characterized by body length of 1.3-1.7 mm; anterior-most somatic sensilla located short distance posterior to amphid; cephalic sensilla equal to 0.2 labial region diameter in length; amphidial fovea ventrally-unispiral with one turn, located in front of cephalic sensilla bases; excretory pore located short distance posterior to onchiostyle base; onchiostyle with bluntly rounded tip and subcylindrical body; male with alveolar supplements extending from anterior end to middle of body, tubular supplements absent; spicules 36-40 µm long; and didelphic female reproductive system. Deontolaimus paraguillei sp. n. is characterized by body length of 1.4-1.8 mm; anterior-most somatic sensilla located at level with onchiostyle; cephalic sensilla equal to 0.2-0.3 labial region diameter in length; amphidial fovea ventrally-unispiral with one turn, located at level with cephalic sensilla bases; excretory pore located just posterior to nerve ring level; onchiostyle with bluntly rounded tip and subcylindrical body; male with alveolar supplements extending from anterior end to about three body diameters in front of cloaca, tubular supplements absent; spicules 42-46 µm long; and didelphic female reproductive system. Deontolaimus timmi sp. n. is characterized by body length of 0.7-0.9 mm; anterior-most somatic sensilla located at level with onchiostyle; cephalic sensilla equal to 0.2-0.3 labial region diameter in length; amphidial fovea ventrally-unispiral with one turn, located just in front of cephalic sensilla bases; excretory pore located just posterior to nerve ring level; onchiostyle with triangular tip with bluntly rounded apex and strongly sclerotized dorsal edge, and subcylindrical body; male with alveolar supplements extending from anterior end to anterior part of intestine, tubular supplements absent; spicules 28 µm long; and didelphic female reproductive system. The following nomenclatorial changes are proposed: genera Acontiolaimus Filipjev, 1918, Camacolaimoides De Coninck & Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1933, Camacolaimus de Man, 1889, Digitonchus Cobb, 1920 and Ypsilon Cobb, 1920 are synonimized with the genus Deontolaimus de Man, 1880; Camacolaimus reykjanesi De Coninck, 1943 and Camacolaimus glauxicola Allgén, 1951a are considered junior synonyms of Deontolaimus papillatus de Man, 1880; Camacolaimus barbatus apud Pastor de Ward, 1984 is described as the separate species Deontolaimus catalinae sp. n.; Camacolaimus tardus apud Lorenzen, 1969 is considered to be the separate species Deontolaimus lorenzeni nom. n.; Camacolaimus tardus apud Timm, 1963 is described as the separate species Deontolaimus timmi sp. n.; Camacolaimus barbatus Warwick, 1970 is considered a junior synonym of Deontolaimus tardus (de Man, 1889) comb. n.; Camacolaimus parvus Timm, 1961 is transferred to the genus Deontolaimus as D. parvus (Timm, 1961) comb. n.; Digitonchus cylindricaudatus Chitwood, 1951 is transferred to the genus Deontolaimus as D. cylindricaudatus (Chitwood, 1951) comb. n.; Ypsilon exile Cobb, 1920 is transferred to the genus Deontolaimus as D. exilis (Cobb, 1920) comb. n.; Camacolaimus guillei de Bovee, 1977 is transferred to the genus Deontolaimus as D. guillei (de Bovee, 1977) comb. n.; Camacolaimus longicauda de Man, 1922 is transferred to the genus Deontolaimus as D. longicauda (de Man, 1922) comb. n.; Camacolaimus monhystera Gerlach, 1967 is transferred to the genus Deontolaimus as D. monhystera (Gerlach, 1967) comb. n.; Camacolaimus pontollittoralis Uzunov, 1977 is transferre

  3. Longidorus carniolensis sp. n. (Nematoda, Longidoridae) from vineyard soil in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Sirca, Saša; Urek, Gregor; Lazarova, Stela; Elshishka, Milka; Peneva, Vlada

    2011-01-01

    A new needle nematode, Longidorus carniolensissp. n., recovered from the soil around the roots of grapevine Vitis vinifera L. from Slovenia, is described and illustrated. Longidorus carniolensisis an amphimictic species, characterised by females with a moderately long (L=5.6-8.2 mm) and plump (a=51-72.4, ave. 66.3) body, assuming a spiral to C-shape when heat relaxed. Head region continuous, anteriorly almost flat, lip region 23-25 µm wide; guiding ring situated posteriorly (42-47 μm, 43-50 μm in males), odontostyle long (ave. 146.6 (136-157) μm); pharyngeal glands with normal location, their nuclei of approximately equal size; tail bluntly conoidal to almost hemispherical. Males abundant, spicules slender and long (122-145 μm), ventromedian supplements 13-17, irregularly spaced, preceded by an adanal pair. Four juvenile stages present, the first stage juvenile with bluntly conoidal tail. Codes for identifying the new species when using the key by Chen et al. (1997) are: A 56, B 4, C 4, D 1, E 4, F 35, G 1, H 1, I 2. The new species is morphologically the most similar to Longidorus poessneckensis Altherr, 1974, Longidorus macrosoma Hooper, 1961, Longidorus caespiticola Hooper, 1961, Longidorus helveticus Lamberti et al., 2001, Longidorus macroteromucronatus Altherr, 1974, Longidorus pius Barsi & Lamberti, 2001, Longidorus raskii Lamberti & Agostinelli, 1993, Longidorus kheirii Pedram et al. 2008, Longidorus silvae Roca, 1993, Longidorus iuglandis Roca et al., 1985, Longidorus vinearum Bravo & Roca, 1995 and Longidorus major Roca & d'Erico, 1987, but differs from these species either by the body and odontostyle length, position of guide ring, head region and tail shape or the shape of the first stage juvenile tail. Sequence data from the D2-D3 region of the 28S rDNA distinguishes this new species from other speciesof the genus Longidorus with known sequences. Relationships of Longidorus carniolensissp. n. with other Longidorus species based on analysis of this DNA fragment and morphology are discussed. PMID:22287876

  4. Longidorus carniolensis sp. n. (Nematoda, Longidoridae) from vineyard soil in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Širca, Saša; Urek, Gregor; Lazarova, Stela; Elshishka, Milka; Peneva, Vlada

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new needle nematode, Longidorus carniolensis sp. n., recovered from the soil around the roots of grapevine Vitis vinifera L. from Slovenia, is described and illustrated. Longidorus carniolensisis an amphimictic species, characterised by females with a moderately long (L=5.6–8.2 mm) and plump (a=51–72.4, ave. 66.3) body, assuming a spiral to C-shape when heat relaxed. Head region continuous, anteriorly almost flat, lip region 23–25 µm wide; guiding ring situated posteriorly (42–47 μm, 43–50 μm in males), odontostyle long (ave. 146.6 (136–157) μm); pharyngeal glands with normal location, their nuclei of approximately equal size; tail bluntly conoidal to almost hemispherical. Males abundant, spicules slender and long (122–145 μm), ventromedian supplements 13–17, irregularly spaced, preceded by an adanal pair. Four juvenile stages present, the first stage juvenile with bluntly conoidal tail. Codes for identifying the new species when using the key by Chen et al. (1997) are: A 56, B 4, C 4, D 1, E 4, F 35, G 1, H 1, I 2. The new species is morphologically the most similar to Longidorus poessneckensis Altherr, 1974, Longidorus macrosoma Hooper, 1961, Longidorus caespiticola Hooper, 1961, Longidorus helveticus Lamberti et al., 2001, Longidorus macroteromucronatus Altherr, 1974, Longidorus pius Barsi & Lamberti, 2001, Longidorus raskii Lamberti & Agostinelli, 1993, Longidorus kheirii Pedram et al. 2008, Longidorus silvae Roca, 1993, Longidorus iuglandis Roca et al., 1985, Longidorus vinearum Bravo & Roca, 1995 and Longidorus major Roca & d’Erico, 1987, but differs from these species either by the body and odontostyle length, position of guide ring, head region and tail shape or the shape of the first stage juvenile tail. Sequence data from the D2-D3 region of the 28S rDNA distinguishes this new species from other speciesof the genus Longidorus with known sequences. Relationships of Longidorus carniolensis sp. n. with other Longidorus species based on analysis of this DNA fragment and morphology are discussed. PMID:22287876

  5. Species composition and morphology of protostrongylids (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) in ruminants from Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Panayotova-Pencheva, Mariana Stancheva

    2011-10-01

    Lungs of 52 ruminants from different regions of Bulgaria, 16 from goats (Capra aegagrus f. domestica L.), 15 from sheep (Ovis ammon f. domestica L.), 11 from mouflons (Ovis musimon L.), and 10 from chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra L.), were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of small lungworms in these hosts. The obtained results are summarized with those of previous studies, and a picture of the present status of the species composition of protostrongylids in ruminants from Bulgaria is forwarded. Morphometric data about the species Muellerius capillaris, Cystocaulus ocreatus, Neostrongylus linearis, Protostrongylus brevispiculum, and Protostrongylus rufescens are presented. The data on the morphology of these five species are supplied for the first time both for Bulgaria and the south-east part of the European continent. PMID:21461727

  6. Does scavenging extend the host range of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Steinernematidae)?

    PubMed

    Půza, Vladimír; Mrácek, Zdenĕk

    2010-05-01

    Living and freeze-killed natural and laboratory hosts, with different susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes, were exposed to the larvae of Steinernema affine and Steinernema kraussei in two different experimental arenas (Eppendorf tubes, Petri dishes), and the success of the colonisation and eventual progeny production were observed. Both nematodes were able to colonise both living and dead larvae of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera) and adult Blatella germanica (Blattodea) even though the progeny production in dead hosts was lower on average. Living carabid beetles, Poecilus cupreus, and elaterid larvae (Coleoptera) were resistant to the infection, however, both nematodes were able to colonise and multiply in several dead P. cupreus and in a majority of dead elaterid larvae. By scavenging, EPNs can utilise cadavers of insects that are naturally resistant to EPN infection, and so broaden their host range. PMID:20085768

  7. Pathogenicity of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. glaseri (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Zhioua, E; Lebrun, R A; Ginsberg, H S; Aeschlimann, A

    1995-11-01

    The entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and S. glaseri (Steiner) are pathogenic to engorged adult, blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis (Say), but not to unfed females, engorged nymphs, or engorged larvae. Nematodes apparently enter the tick through the genital pore, thus precluding infection of immature ticks. The timing of tick mortality, and overall mortality after 17 d, did not differ between infections by S. carpocapsae and S. glaseri. These nematodes typically do not complete their life cycles or produce infective juveniles in I. scapularis. However, both species successfully produced infective juveniles when the tick body was slit before nematode infection. Mortality of engorged I. scapularis females infected by S. carpocapsae was greater than uninfected controls, but did not vary significantly with nematode concentration (50-3,000 infective juveniles per 5-cm-diameter petri dish). The LC50 was 347.8 infective juveniles per petri dish (5 ticks per dish). Hatched egg masses of infected ticks weighed less than those of uninfected controls. Mortality of infected ticks was greatest between 20 and 30 degrees C, and was lower at 15 degrees C. PMID:8551517

  8. Experimental challenge of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in rainbow trout and olive flounder.

    PubMed

    Quiazon, Karl Marx A; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2011-06-01

    The third-stage larvae of Anisakis simplex sensu lato (s.l.) are found in many marine fishes. To ensure food safety, it is important to determine whether these larvae are present in the body muscle of commercial fish species. However, there is little information regarding the tissue specificity of Anisakis and two of its sibling species, A. simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anisakis pegreffii, that are common in marine fish in Japanese waters. We orally challenged rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)), and olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck and Schlegel)) with L3 larvae of these two sibling species and monitored infection for 5weeks. In rainbow trout, A. simplex s.s., but not A. pegreffii larvae, migrated into the body muscle. A small number of freely moving A. pegreffii larvae were recovered within the body cavity. In olive flounder, A. simplex s.s. larvae were found in both the body cavity and body muscle. A. pegreffii larvae were found only in the body cavity and primarily encapsulated in lumps. Our results indicate that there are differences in the sites of infection and host specificity between the two sibling species of A. simplex s.l. PMID:21122822

  9. Distribution and species-specific occurrence of cyathostomins (Nematoda, Strongylida) in naturally infected horses from Italy, United Kingdom and Germany.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Donato; Milillo, Piermarino; Barnes, Helen; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Schurmann, Sandra; Demeler, Janina; Otranto, Domenico; Lia, Riccardo P; Perrucci, Stefania; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Beraldo, Paola; Amodie, Deborah; Rohn, Karl; Cobb, Rami; Boeckh, Albert

    2010-02-26

    A broad scale study was carried out in 2008 to evaluate the distribution and species-specific occurrence of cyathostomin populations in horse yards from Europe. In total 102 properties and 3123 horses were included in Italy (60 yards and 1646 animals), United Kingdom (22 yards and 737 animals) and Germany (20 yards and 740 animals). Individual faecal samples were examined with a McMaster technique while pooled samples were subjected to the microscopic examination of in vitro cultured larvae and to a Reverse Line Blot (RLB) assay able to molecularly identify the most diffused 13 species of cyathostomins. All yards were positive for the presence of cyathostomins both at the McMaster technique and at the microscopic examination of cultured larvae. One thousand and nine hundred thirty-one horses (61.8%) showed a positive faecal egg count, i.e. 1110 (67.4%), 463 (62.8%) and 358 (48.3%) from Italy, UK and Germany respectively. Out of the 1931 positive animals 1133 (36.3%) showed a faecal egg count per gram >150, specifically 694 (42.2%) from Italy, 237 (32.2%) from UK and 202 (27.3%) from Germany. The molecular results showed that all 13 species that can be detected by the RLB were found in each of the three countries, with a range of 3-13 species present in individual yards. The five most prevalent were Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicostephanus longibursatus, Cyathostomum catinatum, Cylicocyclus goldi and Cyathostomum pateratum. The relevance of these results and related biological and epidemiological features are discussed, together with their significance for both future studies of cyathostomins and further intervention programs aiming to control the spread of anthelmintic-resistant populations. PMID:19906489

  10. Meteterakis saotomensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Heterakidae) from Schistometopum thomense (Bocage) (Gymnophiona: Dermophiidae) on São Tomé Island.

    PubMed

    Junker, Kerstin; Mariaux, Jean; Measey, G John; Mutafchiev, Yasen

    2015-10-01

    Meteterakis saotomensis n. sp. is described from Schistometopum thomense (Bocage), a gymnophionan endemic to the oceanic island of São Tomé in the Gulf of Guinea. The specimens were assigned to Meteterakis Karve, 1930, based on the possession of a head with three rounded lips, not set-off from the body, the absence of interlabia and cordons, females with a long vagina and males with a preanal sucker, surrounded by a cuticularised rim and caudal alae that are supported by fleshy papillae. The new species is characterised by: body length 4.2-4.5 mm (males) and 5.1-6.4 mm (females); total length of oesophagus, including pharyngeal portion and oesophageal bulb, 820-856 µm (males) and 898-1,070 µm (females); length of pharynx 57-58 µm (males) and 65-68 µm (females); spicules equal, 410-521 µm long, with tessellated ornamentation throughout their length and alae, and with bevelled tip; gubernaculum or 'gubernacular mass' absent; tail length 164-176 µm (males) and 214-239 µm (females), with elongated tip; vulva at 2.3-2.8 mm from anterior end, with anterior lip forming small flap. This is the second species of Meteterakis reported from gymnophionan hosts and the first from the Afrotropical region. Selected comparative morphological data for Meteterakis spp. are presented, and data on host range and geographic distribution are updated. The name M. striaturus Oshmarin & Demshin, 1972 is corrected to M. striatura to reflect the female gender of the genus name. PMID:26358072

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Oesophagostomum dentatum (Nematoda) during Larval Transition, and the Effects of Hydrolase Inhibitors on Development

    PubMed Central

    Ondrovics, Martina; Silbermayr, Katja; Mitreva, Makedonka; Young, Neil D.; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Gasser, Robin B.; Joachim, Anja

    2013-01-01

    In this study, in vitro drug testing was combined with proteomic and bioinformatic analyses to identify and characterize proteins involved in larval development of Oesophagostomum dentatum, an economically important parasitic nematode. Four hydrolase inhibitors ο-phenanthroline, sodium fluoride, iodoacetamide and 1,2-epoxy-3-(pnitrophenoxy)-propane (EPNP) significantly inhibited (≥90%) larval development. Comparison of the proteomic profiles of the development-inhibited larvae with those of uninhibited control larvae using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and subsequent MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis identified a down-regulation of 12 proteins inferred to be involved in various larval developmental processes, including post-embryonic development and growth. Furthermore, three proteins (i.e. intermediate filament protein B, tropomyosin and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase) inferred to be involved in the moulting process were down-regulated in moulting- and development-inhibited O. dentatum larvae. This first proteomic map of O. dentatum larvae provides insights in the protein profile of larval development in this parasitic nematode, and significantly improves our understanding of the fundamental biology of its development. The results and the approach used might assist in developing new interventions against parasitic nematodes by blocking or disrupting their key biological pathways. PMID:23717515

  12. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Phasmarhabditis huizhouensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae), a New Rhabditid Nematode from South China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ren-E; Ye, Weimin; Ren, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Zhongying

    2015-01-01

    The genus Phasmarhabditis is an economically important group of rhabditid nematodes, to which the well-known slug-parasite P. hermaphrodita belongs. Despite the commercial use of Phasmarhabditis species as an attractive and promising approach for pest control, the taxonomy and systematics of this group of rhabditids are poorly understood, largely because of the lack of diagnostic morphological features and DNA sequences for distinguishing species or inferring phylogenetic relationship. During a nematode sampling effort for identifying free-living relatives of Caenorhabditis elegans in Huizhou City, Guangdong, China, a novel species belonging to the genus Phasmarhabditis was isolated from rotting leaves. Detailed morphology of the gonochoristic P. huizhouensis sp. nov. was described and illustrated. The adult female has a robust body, a relatively short and wide buccal capsule conjoined by a rhabditiform pharynx. Females are characterized by a short cupola-shaped tail end bearing a slender pointed tip, with the junction flanked by a pair of ‘rod-like’ phasmids. Males have an open peloderan bursa that is supported by 9 pairs of genital papillae and 1 terminal pair of phasmids. P. huizhouensis sp. nov. is morphologically very similar to the type species Phasmarhabditis papillosa but is distinguishable by its male caudal traits. The new species is readily differentiated from other taxa in the genus by its female tail shape. Molecular phylogenetic inferences based on small subunit (SSU) and the D2-D3 domain of large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA genes reveal that P. huizhouensis sp. nov. forms a unique branch in both phylogenies which is genetically related to P. hermaphrodita and other parasites such as Angiostoma spp. The host associations of P. huizhouensis sp. nov. and its ability to parasitize slugs are unknown. PMID:26674768

  13. Comparative life cycles and life histories of North American Rhabdias spp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae): lungworms from snakes and anurans.

    PubMed

    Langford, Gabriel J; Janovy, John

    2009-10-01

    The present study used experimental infections to compare the life cycles and life histories of 6 Rhabdias spp. infecting snakes and anurans. Free-living development of anuran lungworms was primarily limited to heterogonic reproduction, and females utilized matricidal endotoky exclusively, whereas snake lungworms primarily reproduced homogonically and, when heterogonic reproduction occurred, females used a combination of releasing eggs and matricidal endotoky. Infective snake lungworms survived for longer periods in fresh water compared to anuran worms. Infective anuran lungworms penetrated into the skin of frogs and toads; few infections resulted from per os infections. In contrast, snake lungworms were unable to penetrate skin; instead, infective juveniles penetrated into snake esophageal tissue during per os infections. Despite separate points of entry, anuran and snake lungworms both migrated and developed in the fascia, eventually penetrating into the body cavity of the host. Worms molted to adulthood inside the body cavity and subsequently penetrated into the host's lungs, where they fed on blood while becoming gravid. Adult lungworm survival varied among lungworm species, but, in general, snake lungworms were longer lived than anuran worms. Anuran lungworms were poorly suited for transmission via transport hosts, whereas snake lungworms were consistently capable of establishing infections using transport hosts. Overall, these observations suggest that snake and anuran lungworms have discrepant life cycles and life history strategies. PMID:19348516

  14. Free-living nematode species (Nematoda) dwelling in hydrothermal sites of the North Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchesunov, Alexei V.

    2015-12-01

    Morphological descriptions of seven free-living nematode species from hydrothermal sites of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are presented. Four of them are new for science: Paracanthonchus olgae sp. n. (Chromadorida, Cyatholaimidae), Prochromadora helenae sp. n. (Chromadorida, Chromadoridae), Prochaetosoma ventriverruca sp. n. (Desmodorida, Draconematidae) and Leptolaimus hydrothermalis sp. n. (Plectida, Leptolaimidae). Two species have been previously recorded in hydrothermal habitats, and one species is recorded for the first time in such an environment. Oncholaimus scanicus (Enoplida, Oncholaimidae) was formerly known from only the type locality in non-hydrothermal shallow milieu of the Norway Sea. O. scanicus is a very abundant species in Menez Gwen, Lucky Strike and Lost City hydrothermal sites, and population of the last locality differs from other two in some morphometric characteristics. Desmodora marci (Desmodorida, Desmodoridae) was previously known from other remote deep-sea hydrothermal localities in south-western and north-eastern Pacific. Halomonhystera vandoverae (Monhysterida, Monhysteridae) was described and repeatedly found in mass in Snake Pit hydrothermal site. The whole hydrothermal nematode assemblages are featured by low diversity in comparison with either shelf or deep-sea non-hydrothermal communities. The nematode species list of the Atlantic hydrothermal vents consists of representatives of common shallow-water genera; the new species are also related to some shelf species. On the average, the hydrothermal species differ from those of slope and abyssal plains of comparable depths by larger sizes, diversity of buccal structures, presence of food content in the gut and ripe eggs in uteri.

  15. Characterization of an isolate of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) from the Northern Territory, Australia, using morphology and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Sagun, John Henry; Davies, Kerrie Ann; Fontanilla, Ian Kendrich; Chan, Merab Antone; Laurente, Darren Anton

    2015-01-01

    An entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis H39, was found in Darwin, Australia. Based on morphological and morphometric similarities, and molecular characterisation, it is an isolate of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Males, hermaphrodites, females and juveniles showed important similarities on most characters that define H. bacteriophora. The morphometrics of the infective juvenile of Heterorhabditis H39 are similar to those of H. bacteriophora, including average body length (562 (537-587) vs 570 (520-600) µm), maximum body width (21 (19-22) vs 24 (21-31) µm), distance from the anterior end to the EP (96 (87-104) vs 104 (94-109) µm) and tail length (101 (94-111) vs 91 (83-99) µm). The morphology of the spicules and gubernaculum of male Heterorhabditis H39 are indistinguishable from those of H. bacteriophora. The biology and life cycle of Heterorhabditis H39 are similar to those of other Heterorhabditis species. The Neighbour-Joining Tree based on 475 nucleotides of the SSU rRNA gene showed that Heterorhabditis H39 formed a monophyletic group with other H. bacteriophora isolates with a bootstrap value of 100. Thus, phylogenetic study of SSU sequence data provided strong evidence that Heterorhabditis H39 is an isolate of H. bacteriophora. This is the first record of H. bacteriophora in northern Australia. PMID:26624648

  16. Morphological and molecular characterization of Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) from the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J H; Wang, S S; Tu, G J; Zhou, Y K; Wu, X B

    2016-05-01

    A new nematode species, Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea), is described from specimens found in the stomach and intestine of the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis Fauvel, 1879 (Crocodilian: Alligatoridae) in the National Nature Reserve of Chinese Alligator (Chinese Crocodile Lake) in Anhui Province, China. This is the first description of O. sinensis sp. nov. in both China and this crocodile host, increasing its distribution in South Asia as well as expanding the number of helminths known to infect this crocodile. The detailed description of O. sinensis sp. nov., based on light and scanning electron microscopic examination, provides new taxonomic data for this species, and we also report sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS), small subunit DNA segments (18S) and the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. PMID:25882968

  17. Chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius anthropopitheci (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), maintained for more than twenty years in captive chimpanzees in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Udono, Toshifumi

    2007-08-01

    The chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius anthropopitheci (Gedoelst, 1916), was found in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, reared in Kumamoto Primate Research Park, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co., Ltd., Kumamoto, Japan, in 2006. Because the chimpanzees in this institution originated from chimpanzees imported from Africa before 1984, it is considered that E. anthropopitheci infection has persisted for more than 20 yr in the chimpanzees. Analysis of pinworm specimens preserved in the institution revealed that transition of predominant pinworm species occurred, responding to the change of anthelmintics used for pinworm treatment. Present dominance of E. anthropopitheci is surmised to be caused by fenbendazole, which has been adopted from 2002. Scarcity of mixed infection with E. anthropopitheci and Enterobius vermicularis suggests interspecific competition between the pinworms. PMID:17918364

  18. Morphological and genetic identification of Anisakis paggiae (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in dwarf sperm whale Kogia sima from Brazilian waters.

    PubMed

    Di Azevedo, Maria Isabel N; Knoff, Marcelo; Carvalho, Vitor L; Mello, Wildon N; Lopes Torres, Eduardo J; Gomes, Delir C; Iñiguez, Alena M

    2015-03-01

    Anisakid nematodes have been identified in a wide variety of fish and marine mammal species. In Brazil, Anisakis physeteris, A. insignis, A. typica, A. nascetti, and those of the A. simplex complex have been reported infecting fishes and cetaceans. In this study, specimens collected from a dwarf sperm whale Kogia sima (Owen, 1866) stranded on the northeastern coast of Brazil were identified through morphological and genetic analyses as A. paggiae. Anisakids were examined through differential interference contrast light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphological and morphometric analysis revealed that these specimens belonged to Anisakis sp. clade II and more specifically to A. paggiae, exhibiting a violin-shaped ventriculus and 3 denticulate caudal plates, which are taxonomic characters considered unique to this species. Genetic analysis based on the mtDNA cox2 gene confirmed our identification of A. paggiae. Phylogenetic trees using both maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining methods revealed a strongly supported monophyletic clade (bootstrap support = 100%) with all available A. paggiae sequences. Integrative taxonomic analysis allowed the identification of A. paggiae for the first time in Brazilian waters, providing new data about their geographical distribution. Moreover, here we present the first SEM images of this species. PMID:25751853

  19. [VARIABILITY AND DETERMINING FACTORS OF THE BODY SIZE STRUCTURE OF THE INFRAPOPULATION OF COSMOCERCA ORNATA (NEMATODA: COSMOCERCIDAE) IN MARSH FROGS].

    PubMed

    Kirillov, A A; Kirillova, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    Variability of the body size in females of the Cosmocerca ornata (Dujardin, 1845), a parasite of marsh frogs, is studied. The influence of both biotic (age, sex and a phenotype of the host, density of the parasite population) and abiotic (a season of the year, water temperature) factors on the formation of the body size structure in the C. ornata hemipopulation (infrapopulation) is demonstrated. The body size structure of the C. ornata hemipopulation is characterized by the low level of individual variability as within certain subpopulation groups of amphibians (sex, age and phenotype), so within the population of marsh frogs as a whole. The more distinct are the differences in biology and ecology of these host subpopulations, the more pronounced is the variability in the body size of C ornata. PMID:26314157

  20. Morphological and molecular genetic diversity of Strongyluris calotis (Nematoda: Ascaridida: Heterakidae) in South East and East Asian lizards.

    PubMed

    Tran, Binh Thi; Ong, An Vinh; Luc, Pham Van; Sato, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Strongyluris calotis is a heterakid nematode in the large intestine of agamid lizards (Reptilia: Sauria: Agamidae) from the Oriental Region. The standard light microscopic definition of the species counts the "caudal papillae" as 10 pairs on male worms. However, previous work from our group using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the heterakid from agamid lizards in Japan, Taiwan, and Singapore revealed that this counting contained a pair of phasmids and that two pairs of postcloacal papillae were completely fused to form a pair of united papillae, thus resulting in "10 pairs." In the present study, we examined S. calotis specimens from the Emma Gray's forest lizard, Calotes emma (Agamidae), living in the plain forest at low altitude, and the Vietnam false bloodsucker, Pseudocalotes brevipes (Agamidae), living in the mountainous forest at high altitude in the northern part of Vietnam. Using SEM, the arrangement of caudal papillae in male worms from an Emma Gray's forest lizard was found to be comparable to classical S. calotis specimens from agamid lizards collected in Japan, Taiwan, and Singapore. However, male worms from Vietnam false bloodsuckers did not have a pair of united papillae but had 10 pairs of independent caudal papillae with a pair of phasmids. Molecular genetic analyses of the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) of worms of the classical S. calotis morphotype from Japan and Singapore and two S. calotis morphotypes from Vietnam demonstrated absolutely identical nucleotide sequences of partial 18S rDNA (at least 1764 base pairs (bp)) and 5.8S rDNA (158 bp). However, intraspecific differences were detected in other regions of the rDNA, related to the geographical distribution of hosts regardless of morphotype: 97.8-98.5 % identity (443-446 bp/453 bp) in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 region, 96.6-98.0 % identity (425-431 bp/440 bp) in the ITS-2 region, and 99.6-99.7 % identity (1149-1151 bp/1154 bp) in the 28S rDNA. Thus, in the future, taxonomic relationships of S. calotis distributed widely in the Oriental Region as well as other nominal Oriental Strongyluris spp., currently six in number, need to be extensively explored based on molecular genetic analyses in addition to intensive morphological characterization. PMID:27041339

  1. Description of Longidorus cholevae sp. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimida) from a riparian habitat in the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Peneva, Vlada K; Lazarova, Stela S; Luca, Francesca De; Brown, Derek J F

    2013-01-01

    A description is provided of Longidorus cholevae sp. n., a bisexual species associated with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) from the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria. The position of L. cholevae sp. n. among other species of the genus was elucidated by using morphological and molecular data. Phylogenetic analyses were performed of D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S rRNA and the partial ITS1 containing regions by Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The species is characterised by a female body length of 6.1-8.1 mm; long odontostyle (106-129 μm); lip region wide (21.5-24 μm) rounded and continuous with the body profile; amphidial pouches short and wide, funnel-shaped; a posteriorly situated guide ring (30-37 μm); normal arrangement of pharyngeal glands, and short bluntly rounded to hemispherical tail. Four juvenile stages indentified, first stage with elongate conoid tail. Males with 2-4 adanal pairs and a row of 11-13 single ventromedian supplements, spicules 96-120 μm long. Based both on morphological and molecular data the new species appearred to be the most similar witha group of species distributed in Europe sharing common charcters such as amphidial fovea, lip region and tail shapes, and having similar odontostyle and body length: L. poessneckensis, L. caespiticola, L. macrososma, L. helveticus, L. carniolensis and L. pius. An updated list of Longidorus species and a partial polytomous keys to the Longidorus species with long odontostyle (code A45) and short tail (code H1) are provided. PMID:24146553

  2. Redescription of Serpinema octorugatum (Baylis, 1933) nematoda: Camallanidae from the Malayan box turtle Cuora amboinensis Daudin Chelonia: Bataguridae.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R S K; Rigby, M C; Sumita, S; Sani, R A; Vidyadaran, M K; Jasni, S; Dailey, M D

    2002-09-01

    We redescribe the camallanid nematode Serpinema octorugatum (Baylis, 1933) from the box turtle Cuora amboinensis (Daudin) collected in Malaysia. In this redescription, we amend the original description by noting that there are only four cephalic papillae and that there are five pairs of post-anal papillae, and propose that the name of this species be corrected from S. octorugatus to S. octorugatum. Additionally, we removed the tissues overlying the buccal capsule and have used SEM studies to show that the peribuccal shields extend laterally from the buccal capsule, forming a surface possibly used in muscle attachment. Furthermore, we show that the supposedly non-cuticularised cylinder connecting the buccal capsule to the oesophagus in the Camallanidae is part of the buccal capsule and is, therefore, likely to be cuticularised. We also examine morphological measurements of taxonomic interest for correlations with total body length and find that many characters traditionally used for inter- and intra-specific comparisons are correlated with total body length in adult female worms. This suggests that comparisons between samples of adult female worms that do not account for the potential effect of total body length may be misleading. However, we show that some features of taxonomic interest are not correlated with total body length. PMID:12378130

  3. Molecular Characterization and Development of Real-Time PCR Assay for Pine-Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Weimin; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.

    2013-01-01

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the pine-wood nematode (PWN), is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, one of the most damaging emerging pest problems to forests around the world. It is native to North America where it causes relatively minor damage to native conifers but is labeled an EPPO-A-2 pest and a quarantine nematode for many countries outside of the United States because of its potential for destruction to their native conifers. Exports of wood logs and commodities involving softwood packaging materials now require a lab test for the presence/absence of this regulated nematode species. We characterized the DNA sequences on the ribosomal DNA small subunit, large subunit D2/D3, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit one on the aphelenchid species and described the development of a real-time-PCR method for rapid and accurate identification of PWN targeting the ITS-1. A total of 97 nematode populations were used to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of this assay, including 45 populations of B. xylophilus and 36 populations of 21 other species of Bursaphelenchus which belong to the abietinus, cocophilus, eggersi, fungivorus, hofmanni, kevini, leoni, sexdentati, and xylophilus groups and one unassigned group from a total of 13 groups in the genus Bursaphelenchus; 15 populations of Aphelenchoides besseyi, A. fragariae, Aphelenchoides species and Aphelenchus avenae; and one population of mixed nematode species from a soil sample. This assay proved to be specific to B. xylophilus only and was sensitive to a single nematode specimen regardless of the life stages present. This approach provides rapid species identification necessary to comply with the zero-tolerance export regulations. PMID:24244367

  4. A Streamlined System for Species Diagnosis in Caenorhabditis (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) with Name Designations for 15 Distinct Biological Species

    PubMed Central

    Félix, Marie-Anne; Braendle, Christian; Cutter, Asher D.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid pace of species discovery outstrips the rate of species description in many taxa. This problem is especially acute for Caenorhabditis nematodes, where the naming of distinct species would greatly improve their visibility and usage for biological research, given the thousands of scientists studying Caenorhabditis. Species description and naming has been hampered in Caenorhabditis, in part due to the presence of morphologically cryptic species despite complete biological reproductive isolation and often enormous molecular divergence. With the aim of expediting species designations, here we propose and apply a revised framework for species diagnosis and description in this group. Our solution prioritizes reproductive isolation over traditional morphological characters as the key feature in delineating and diagnosing new species, reflecting both practical considerations and conceptual justifications. DNA sequence divergence criteria help prioritize crosses for establishing patterns of reproductive isolation among the many species of Caenorhabditis known to science, such as with the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS2) DNA barcode. By adopting this approach, we provide new species name designations for 15 distinct biological species, thus increasing the number of named Caenorhabditis species in laboratory culture by nearly 3-fold. We anticipate that the improved accessibility of these species to the research community will expand the opportunities for study and accelerate our understanding of diverse biological phenomena. PMID:24727800

  5. Evidence for a new species of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845: morphological description and genetic relationships between congeners (Nematoda: Anisakidae).

    PubMed

    Mattiucci, Simonetta; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Dailey, Murray; Webb, Stephen C; Barros, Nelio B; Cianchi, Rossella; Bullini, Luciano

    2005-07-01

    In the present study, a new biological species of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845, was detected in Kogia breviceps and K. sima from West Atlantic waters (coast of Florida) on the basis of 19 (nuclear) structural genes studied by multilocus allozyme electrophoresis. Fixed allele differences at 11 enzyme loci were found between specimens of both adults and larvae of the new species and the other Anisakis spp. tested. Reproductive isolation from A. brevispiculata Dollfus, 1968 was demonstrated by the lack of hybrid or recombinant genotypes in mixed infections in K. breviceps. Genetic distance of the new species from its closest relative, A. brevispiculata, was D(Nei)=0.79. The new species is morphologically different from the other species which have been genetically characterised and from the other Anisakis retained by Davey (1971) as valid or as species inquirendae: the name of Anisakis paggiae n. sp. is proposed for the new taxon. Anisakis Type II larvae (sensu Berland, 1961) from the European hake Merluccius merluccius in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean (Galician coast) and from the scabbard fish Aphanopus carbo in Central Atlantic waters (off Madeira), were identified as A. paggiae n. sp. Its genetic relationships with respect to the seven species previously characterised (A. simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) sensu stricto), A. pegreffii Campana-Rouget & Biocca, 1955, A. simplex, (A. typica (Diesing, 1860), A. ziphidarum Paggi et al., 1998, A. physeteris Baylis, 1923 and A. brevispiculata) were also inferred. Overall, a low genetic identity was detected at allozyme level between the eight Anisakis species. Interspecific genetic identity ranged from I(Nei)=0.68, between the sibling species of the A. simplex complex, to I(Nei)=0.00 (no alleles shared at the considered loci) when A. physeteris, A. brevispiculata and the new species were compared with the other species of the genus. Concordant topologies were obtained using both UPGMA and NJ tree analyses for the considered species. In both analyses, A. paggiae n. sp. clustered with A. brevispiculata. They also indicated two main clades, the first including A. physeteris, A. brevispiculata and A. paggiae n. sp., the second containing all of the remaining species (i.e. A. simplex (s.s.), A. pegreffii, A. simplex, A. typica and A. ziphidarum). A deep separation between these two main Anisakis clades, also supported by high bootstrap values at the major nodes, was apparent. This is also supported by differences in adult and larval morphology, as well as with respect to their main definitive hosts. A morphological key for distinguishing adult A. paggiae n. sp., A. physeteris and A. brevispiculata is presented. Allozyme markers for the identification of any life-history stage of the Anisakis spp. so far studied, as well as ecological data on their definitive host preferences and geographical distribution, are updated. PMID:16025205

  6. Eustrongylides sp. (Nematoda: Dioctophymatoidea) from the stomach of a Nile crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768, in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Junker, K; Bain, O; Boomker, J

    2006-12-01

    During a study conducted between 2003 and 2005 on the diet of Nile crocodiles in Botswana, two young adult nematodes, one male and one female, belonging to the genus Eustrongylides Jägerskiöld, 1909 were recovered from the stomach contents of one of these animals. The caudal bursa of the male is present and the ejaculatory duct could be identified, but the spicule could not be seen. The vulva of the female has opened and the anus is situated on a terminal protruberance. Measurements and drawings of these specimens are provided, together with some data on the occurrence and life-cycles of members of the genus Eustrongylides in crocodilians world-wide and in African hosts in particular. Piscivorous birds are the usual final hosts of these nematodes. It is probable that the specimens described herein had developed in a paratenic fish host, and that the latter had been eaten by the crocodile. PMID:17283733

  7. Systematic position of some nearctic Heligmosomoidea (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina) from the U.S. National Parasite collection and their description.

    PubMed

    Durette-Desset, Marie-Claude; Digiani, Maria Celina

    2005-08-01

    The systematic position of some heligmosomoid nematodes from rodents, deposited in the U.S. National Parasite Collection (USNPC), is revised, mainly through the study of their synlophe, which in all cases was unknown or insufficiently described. The material was registered as different species of Longistriata Schulz, 1926, a genus whose representatives are only parasitic in Holarctic insectivores. Longistriata norvegica Dikmans, 1935, parasitic in Rattus sp. becomes a synonym of Hassalstrongylus aduncus (Chandler, 1932). Specimens registered as Longistriata dalrymplei Dikmans, 1935, from Ondatra zibethicus, are confirmed to belong to Carolinensis (Travassos, 1937). Specimens registered as Longistriata noviberiae Dikmans, 1935, parasitic in Sylvilagus floridanus alacer, were found to belong to Vexillata, and Vexillata noviberiae n. comb. is here proposed. This is the first record of a species of Vexillata in a lagomorph. Other specimens registered as Longistriata norvegica, parasitic in Geomys floridanus austrinus, were also found to be an undescribed species of Vexillata (Hall, 1916), which is named Vexillata chitwoodi n. sp. This is similar to Vexillata chabaudi Yoyotte-Vado, 1972, Vexillata petteri Durette-Desset, 1970, Vexillata scorzai Guerrero, 1984 and Vexillata tejerai Guerrero, 1984, all having the same number of cuticular ridges (4 dorsal, 5 ventral) and the division of the dorsal ray at its apex. The most related species is V. chabaudi, which is differentiated from the new species by rays 4 not curved distally, by thick rays 8, and by a dorsal ray enlarged at the level of the arising of rays 8. PMID:17089761

  8. A new species of Paracapillaria (Nematoda: Capillariidae) from the intestine of the toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Anura) from the Malayan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Modrý, David; Jirků, Miloslav

    2007-08-01

    A new species of parasitic nematode, Paracapillaria malayensis n. sp. (Capillariidae), is described from the small intestine of the toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus imported from the Malayan Peninsula to the Czech Republic. The new species differs from the only other congeneric species, Paracapillaria spratti, mainly in the shape and structure of the spicular proximal end (with a lobular rim), smaller eggs (45-51 x 21-24 microm), longer spicule (336 microm), and the number (37-38) of stichocytes in gravid females; whereas P. spratti parasitizes frogs of the Microhylidae in Papua New Guinea, P. malayensis is a parasite of Bufonidae in the Malayan Peninsula. Other Paracapillaria spp. are parasites of fishes, birds, or mammals and they mostly differ from P. malayensis in the structure of eggs and some other morphological features. PMID:17918374

  9. Pseudocapillaria yucatanensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Capillariidae) from the bagre Rhamdia guatemalensis (Pisces) from cenotes in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Scholz, T; Vivas Rodríguez, C

    1995-01-01

    A new nematode species, Pseudocapillaria yucatanensis sp. n., is described from the intestine of the freshwater pimelodid catfish Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) from cenotes (= sinkholes) in Yucatan, Mexico. It differs from other three related species parasitizing freshwater fishes mainly in possessing the spicule with a simple rim of its proximal end and a non-expanded distal end, in the length of the spicule (0.218-0.295 mm), and the size (0.050-0.060 x 0.025-0.030 mm), shape and structure of eggs, and also in the host types and geographical distribution. Pseudocapillaria yucatanensis is the first known autochtonous species of Pseudocapillaria parasitizing freshwater fishes in Mexico. PMID:9599428

  10. Deladenus cocophilus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina): A Mycetophagous and Entomoparasitic Nematode in Infested Coconut Fruits from Balochistan, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Nasira, K.; Shahina, F.; Firoza, K.

    2013-01-01

    Deladenus cocophilus n. sp. was isolated from infested coconut fruits in Winder, Balochistan, Pakistan. Descriptions are given of the entomophagous (insect-parasitic females) and mycetophagous (fungus-feeding) free-living females, males, and juveniles. The new species D. cocophilus resembles those species in which the excretory pore is situated anterior to the hemizonid, namely, D. apopkaetus Chitambar, 1991; D. leptosoma Gagarin, 2001; D. ipini Massey, 1974; D. laricis (Blinova and Korentchenko, 1986) Ebsarry, 1991; D. (siricidicola) canii Bedding, 1974; D. (s) imperialis Bedding, 1974; D. nevexii Bedding, 1974; D. (wilsoni) proximus Bedding, 1974; D. (s) rudyi Bedding, 1974; D. (s) siricidicola Bedding, 1968; D. (wilsoni) wilsoni Bedding, 1968 and D. minimus Chizhov and Sturhan, 1998. The new species differs from D. ipini in the absence of a post uterine sac vs. present; a = 17 to 30 vs. 35 to 40; stylet = 8 to 10 vs. 11 to 12 μm and vulva-anus = 21 to 28 vs. 35 to 48 μm. From D. apopkaetus it differs in tail length in female 22 to 28 vs. 31 to 43 μm and in the male it is 24 to 32 vs. 30 to 46 μm. It differs from D. leptosoma in the c ratio in females, c = 21 to 37 vs. 16 to 22, presence of 6 lines in lateral field vs. 10 lines and slightly longer spicules 16 to 18 vs. 15 to 16 μm. From D. laricis it differs in a shorter stylet length 8 to 10 vs. 11 to 12 μm; in the c ratio in males 16 to 22 vs. 22 to 35 and hemizonid from anterior end 76 to 90 vs. 90 to 119 μm. It also differs from the following species: D. (siricidicola) canii; D. (s) imperialis; D. nevexii; D. (wilsoni) proximus; D. (s) rudyi; D. (s) siricidicola; D. (wilsoni) wilsoni and D. minimus in having shorter tail length, lower values of a,b,c ratios and a slightly anteriorly located vulva in females. PMID:23833325