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Sample records for ja ld mai

  1. LD or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Lyndal; And Others

    The booklet, designed to accompany a videotape, explains the similarities and differences among students with learning problems, specific learning disabilities (LD), mild mental retardation, or behavioral disorders. Specific implications for special education in Illinois are outlined. The underlying problem of over-identification of LD students is…

  2. LD in AD 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bert Kruger

    The author discusses potential problems and benefits for learning disabled (LD) students in the year 2000. Considered are developments in three areas: human engineering (such as the role of amniocentesis in prevention of disabilities), education (including new audiovisual technology and a restructuring of secondary education), and human…

  3. [Why should LD be discussed now?].

    PubMed

    Futakami, S

    1999-05-01

    The term learning disability was first used in 1962 by Kirk S A in his textbook. In Japan the term was adopted as a substitute term for MBD in the 1970s. At present many professionals, especially on education and psychology, are interested with LD. The role of child neurologist is discussed here from three viewpoint: the term and definition, LD as a brain dysfunction, and LD in the child neurology. For collaboration with education and psychology, child neurologist should know more about LD and make efforts to find the etiology and mechanism of LD. PMID:10355261

  4. Complement binding to Leishmania donovani promastigotes (LD)

    SciTech Connect

    Puentes, S.M.; Bates, P.A.; Dwyer, D.M.; Joiner, K.A.

    1986-03-01

    To study the binding and processing of C3 on LD, parasites in various phases of growth were incubated in human serum deficient in complement component 8 containing /sup 125/I-C3. Uptake of /sup 125/I-C3 is rapid, peaking at 1.7-2.1 x 10/sup 6/ C3 molecules bound per parasite at 15 minutes for all growth phases, and decreases thereafter with continued incubation. One half of total C3 bound is spontaneously released by 90 minutes of incubation with all LD phases and occurs at a similar rate for LD washed free of serum and incubated at 37/sup 0/ C in buffer. As assessed by SDS-PAGE autoradiography, C3 on the surface of LD is present as C3b (36 to 50%) and iC3b (50 to 65%), linked covalently via a bond resistant to hydroxylamine treatment, presumably an amide linkage. Immunoblot analysis of purified membranes from serum-incubated LD, using rabbit antibody to C3 and LD surface constituents, strongly suggests that a major C3 acceptor is the LD acid phosphatase (AP). These results, in conjunction with recent studies, suggest a previously unrecognized role of AP as a C3 acceptor and, thus, as a molecule potentially involved in parasite binding and uptake.

  5. Biochemical Properties and Mechanism of Action of Enterocin LD3 Purified from Enterococcus hirae LD3.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aabha; Tiwari, Santosh Kumar; Netrebov, Victoria; Chikindas, Michael L

    2016-09-01

    Enterocin LD3 was purified using activity-guided multistep chromatography techniques such as cation-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The preparation's purity was tested using reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The specific activity was tested to be 187.5 AU µg(-1) with 13-fold purification. Purified enterocin LD3 was heat stable up to 121 °C (at 15 psi pressure) and pH 2-6. The activity was lost in the presence of papain, reduced by proteinase K, pepsin and trypsin, but was unaffected by amylase and lipase, suggesting proteinaceous nature of the compound and no role of carbohydrate and lipid moieties in the activity. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis of purified enterocin LD3 resolved m/z 4114.6, and N-terminal amino acid sequence was found to be H2NQGGQANQ-COOH suggesting a new bacteriocin. Dissipation of membrane potential, loss of internal ATP and bactericidal effect were recorded when indicator strain Micrococcus luteus was treated with enterocin LD3. It inhibited Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including human pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, E. coli (urogenic, a clinical isolate) and Vibrio sp. These properties of purified enterocin LD3 suggest its applications as a food biopreservative and as an alternative to clinical antibiotics. PMID:27145777

  6. Syntactic Complexity in Written Expression of LD College Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Susan A.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-three college students in a Learning Disabilities (LD) program were compared with thirty-three non-LD peers in syntactic complexity of their writing. LD Ss did not differ significantly on the Syntactic Density Scoring (SDS) procedure for the corrected SDS (CSDS) score, but they did differ on two variables thought to be more sensitive…

  7. Plantaricin LD1: a bacteriocin produced by food isolate of Lactobacillus plantarum LD1.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aabha; Tiwari, Santosh Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Plantaricin LD1, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum LD1, was characterized for biochemical and antimicrobial properties. Bacteriocin showed stability at high temperatures (100 °C for 20 min and 121 °C for 15 min under 15 psi pressure), in a pH range of 2.0-8.0 and also in the presence of organic solvents, surfactants and detergents. The crude preparation was not affected by catalase, amylase and lipase but activity was reduced in the presence of pepsin, trypsin and proteinase K showing proteinaceous nature of the compound. The molecular weight of bacteriocin was found to be ∼6.5 kDa, and antimicrobial activity was confirmed by bioassay. It inhibited not only related strains but also other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria such as Lactobacillus curvatus NRRL B-4562, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NRRL B-1821, Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354, Enterobacter cloacae NRRL B-14298, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, urogenic Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri and Vibrio sp. These properties of plantaricin LD1 suggest its applications not only in food safety but in therapeutics as well. PMID:24522411

  8. Integration Options For The OSI LD1200

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Louis G.

    1987-01-01

    Optical drives have unique characteristics that lend themselves to applications that previously were difficult or impossible to satisfy. Obvious examples are: a. Removable storage of huge volumes of data - Transportability - Jukebox use - Security b. Write once - Audit trails that cannot be erased c. Long lasting archives - Do not need to be rewritten every few years - Not vulnerable to magnetic fields - Randomly accessible This paper identifies some features and algorithms that provide high efficiency in achieving the benefits listed above. These features are used in some of the subsystems in which the OSI LD1200 is integrated. Gaining the benefits of optical disks by integrating them into an existing computer system was hampered because existing software drivers were designed for magnetic disk drives. Existing drivers assume the ability to update a file--including the directory--by rewriting in the same sector. The requirement for new and/or modified host adapters and software drivers has provided opportunities for existing adapter houses as well as for new entrepreneurs. This has led to subsystems in which different characteristics of optical drives are emphasized and has resulted in a wide variety of capabilities available for use in applications.

  9. Explanatory Style and College Students with ADHD and LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmulsky, Solvegi; Gobbo, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study uses the Attribution Style Questionnaire (ASQ) to measure the causal thinking of 42 college students with diagnosed language-based learning disabilities (LD), ADHD, or co-occurring ADHD and LD. Attribution style, or explanatory style, is a term used to describe the tendencies of individuals to think that the causes of…

  10. 7 CFR 1737.32 - Loan Design (LD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.32 Loan Design (LD). (a) A loan application requires... plan, see 7 CFR part 1751, subpart B). (b) Because of the importance and complexity of the engineering... to perform both services. See 7 CFR 1753.17. (c) An LD for initial loans or for any exchange...

  11. [Acute toxicity testing (LD50) of Chinese mineral drugs].

    PubMed

    Yue, W; Liu, W H; Wang, L F; Fu, S X; Li, Y S; Kong, Z K; Tang, Z X; Chen, Z L

    1989-02-01

    Acute toxicity and LD50 of 62 mineral drugs were determined by ig, ip or iv in mice, in order to provide some guidelines for safety in clinical use, as well as for pharmacological and toxicological studies. In the present investigation, the difference in the acute toxicity and LD50 between raw drugs and medicines prepared by roasting is explained. PMID:2506896

  12. Social Information Processing and Emotional Understanding in Children with LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauminger, Nirit; Edelsztein, Hany Schorr; Morash, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed to comprehensively examine social cognition processes in children with and without learning disabilities (LD), focusing on social information processing (SIP) and complex emotional understanding capabilities such as understanding complex, mixed, and hidden emotions. Participants were 50 children with LD (age range 9.4-12.7;…

  13. Common Core State Standards, Writing, and Students with LD: Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Steve; Harris, Karen R.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the Common Core State Standards as they apply to writing and students with learning disabilities (LD). We first consider why the implementation of these standards is advantageous to writing instruction for students with LD as well as the challenges in implementing them. Next, we make the following four recommendations in…

  14. Wage Differentials between College Graduates with and without LD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, David L.; Verbeek, Roelant L.

    2002-01-01

    This study compared employment and wage figures for 97 college graduates previously diagnosed with learning disabilities (LD) and 1,130 comparison adults. The observed lower wages for individuals with LD were found to be primarily due to differences in productivity, although the possibility that some of this differential is due to discrimination…

  15. One method to uniformize LD Gaussian beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xu

    2001-10-01

    The uniformization of Gaussian beam intensity is necessary in many applications. In active night-vision, monitoring targets especially requires this. IR semiconductor laser is widely used in the area because of its low power-consumption and small size. But the effects of the product are restrained due to system output Gaussian beam of ununiform intensity. The essay discusses a former system design and then gives an improved experimental scheme with some exciting results. The previous structure was as follows. High power SQW-LD beam was coupled to a plastic optical fiber (POF) directly, and then output through a lens. With its angle varied, targets ranged from 60 to 100 meters can be monitored. But unfortunately there were interference speckles folded on the target. An experimental system based on the thoughts of fiber transmission and complex filter was designed to improve the distribution of Gaussian beam intensity, with the result that the relatively well-distributed beam was got. Laser wavefront propagated through a very small pinhole whose diameter was 20 micrometers or so. The pinhole acted as an amplitude filter. Then the beam was coupled directly into a multi-mode quartz fiber whose core/cladding layer diameter parameter was 50/125micrometers . It conveyed laser beam about 200 mm. At the end of the fiber, several phase plates stood. Laser beam transmitted through the fiber was then phase-filtered and at last beam-expanded by a lens to illuminate the target. The more plates you used, the more uniform the illuminated picture was on condition the beam intensity was so strong that the CCD device could respond to.

  16. Mai-Mai militia and sexual violence in Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Guy, Kitwe Mulunda

    2014-01-01

    This article sets the reasons for the brutal violence against women. It focuses on three field sites providing insight into Mai-Mai motivations and their attitudes toward sexual violence. According to most sources, 5.5 million people have died since the beginning of the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in 1994, and rape is used as a weapon of destruction. More than 15,000 rapes were reported in the DRC in the last year--accounts of these rapes include descriptions of horrific acts, such as mutilation and the killing of unborn children. The sexual violence is so severe in the DRC that some have described rape in the country as the worst in the world. Sexual violence has long lasting consequences and far-reaching impacts on individual survivors, their families, and their communities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. PMID:25585492

  17. Lo/Ld phase coexistence modulation induced by GM1.

    PubMed

    Puff, Nicolas; Watanabe, Chiho; Seigneuret, Michel; Angelova, Miglena I; Staneva, Galya

    2014-08-01

    Lipid rafts are assumed to undergo biologically important size-modulations from nanorafts to microrafts. Due to the complexity of cellular membranes, model systems become important tools, especially for the investigation of the factors affecting "raft-like" Lo domain size and the search for Lo nanodomains as precursors in Lo microdomain formation. Because lipid compositional change is the primary mechanism by which a cell can alter membrane phase behavior, we studied the effect of the ganglioside GM1 concentration on the Lo/Ld lateral phase separation in PC/SM/Chol/GM1 bilayers. GM1 above 1mol % abolishes the formation of the micrometer-scale Lo domains observed in GUVs. However, the apparently homogeneous phase observed in optical microscopy corresponds in fact, within a certain temperature range, to a Lo/Ld lateral phase separation taking place below the optical resolution. This nanoscale phase separation is revealed by fluorescence spectroscopy, including C12NBD-PC self-quenching and Laurdan GP measurements, and is supported by Gaussian spectral decomposition analysis. The temperature of formation of nanoscale Lo phase domains over an Ld phase is determined, and is shifted to higher values when the GM1 content increases. A "morphological" phase diagram could be made, and it displays three regions corresponding respectively to Lo/Ld micrometric phase separation, Lo/Ld nanometric phase separation, and a homogeneous Ld phase. We therefore show that a lipid only-based mechanism is able to control the existence and the sizes of phase-separated membrane domains. GM1 could act on the line tension, "arresting" domain growth and thereby stabilizing Lo nanodomains. PMID:24835016

  18. Accuracy of Class.LD2: An Expert System for Classifying Learning Disabled Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martindale, Elizabeth S.; And Others

    The study evaluated the accuracy of Class.LD2, a computerized expert system for classifying learning disabled (LD) students. Of 264 student files, 78 files were chosen based on disagreement between multidisciplinary team and Class.LD2 decisions regarding eligibility for LD placement. These 78 cases were evaluated by three individuals expert in LD…

  19. 7 CFR 1737.32 - Loan Design (LD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... plan, see 7 CFR part 1751, subpart B). (b) Because of the importance and complexity of the engineering... to perform both services. See 7 CFR 1753.17. (c) An LD for initial loans or for any exchange areas... first financed facilities to serve the community, see 7 CFR 1735.13(d). (ix) Prior loan project....

  20. 7 CFR 1737.32 - Loan Design (LD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loan Design (LD). 1737.32 Section 1737.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Preloan Studies-Area Coverage Survey and...

  1. 7 CFR 1737.32 - Loan Design (LD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... plan, see 7 CFR part 1751, subpart B). (b) Because of the importance and complexity of the engineering... to perform both services. See 7 CFR 1753.17. (c) An LD for initial loans or for any exchange areas... first financed facilities to serve the community, see 7 CFR 1735.13(d). (ix) Prior loan project....

  2. 7 CFR 1737.32 - Loan Design (LD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... plan, see 7 CFR part 1751, subpart B). (b) Because of the importance and complexity of the engineering... to perform both services. See 7 CFR 1753.17. (c) An LD for initial loans or for any exchange areas... first financed facilities to serve the community, see 7 CFR 1735.13(d). (ix) Prior loan project....

  3. Visualization of Learning Scenarios with UML4LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laforcade, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Present Educational Modelling Languages are used to formally specify abstract learning scenarios in a machine-interpretable format. Current tooling does not provide teachers/designers with some graphical facilities to help them in reusing existent scenarios. They need human-readable representations. This paper discusses the UML4LD experimental…

  4. Classroom Behavior Patterns of EMH, LD, and EH Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, James D.; Forman, Susan G.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated whether classroom teachers could differentiate among educable mentally handicapped (EMH), learning disabled (LD), and emotionally handicapped (EH) students based on perceptions of classroom behavior patterns. Ratings from classroom behavior inventory scales revealed that EMH students were distinguished by low intelligence, creativity,…

  5. AOTV Low L/D Preliminary Aeroheating Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, C. D.

    1983-01-01

    The aerothermal environment to a configuration with a brake face which exhibits a low lift to drag ratio (L/D) of below 0.75 is emphasized. The five times geosynchronous (5 x Geo) orbit entry was selected as the design trajectory. The available data base and math model is discussed. The resulting preliminary design environment is documented. Recommendations as to how the design environment may be improved through technological advances are given.

  6. Characteristics and use of the Illumina BovineLD BeadChip

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genotypic information from the 6,909-SNP Illumina BovineLD (LD) Genotyping BeadChip, which replaced the Illumina GoldenGate Bovine3K (3K) Genotyping BeadChip, have been included in US genomic evaluations since November 2011. Of 73 LD single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) not used in genomic evaluati...

  7. Inclusion of Intrinsic Processing Difficulties in LD Diagnostic Models: A Critical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Vincent J.; Burns, Matthew K.

    2002-01-01

    The use of the processing component for learning disabilities (LD) definitions is discussed by examining its theoretical basis, large-scale implementation, and researched classroom effectiveness. Results indicate the processing definition of LD does not differentiate students with LD from low achievers, is inconsistently implemented, and does not…

  8. Understanding School Dropout for Urban, Ethnic Minority Teenage Mothers with Learning Disabilities (LD). Disability Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Ritzler, Tina; Balcazar, Fabricio E.; McDonald, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    Youth who experience either LD or teenage motherhood often drop out of school. Further, about 50% of young girls with LD become mothers by their early 20s compared to 28% of young women in the general population. There is therefore a high likelihood that teenage mothers with LD will drop out of school. Dropping out of school is of concern because…

  9. Investigating MAI's Precision: Single Interferogram and Time Series Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechor Ben Dov, N.; Herring, T.

    2010-12-01

    Multiple aperture InSAR (MAI) is a technique to obtain along-track displacements from InSAR phase data. Because InSAR measurements are insensitive to along-track displacements, it is only possible to retrieve them using none-interferometric approaches, either pixel-offset tracking or using data from different orbital configurations and assuming continuity/ displacement model. These approaches are limited by precision and data acquisition conflicts, respectively. MAI is promising in this respect as its precision is better than the former and its data is available whether additional acquisitions are there or not. Here we study the MAI noise and develop a filter to reduce it. We test the filtering with empirical noise and simulated signal data. Below we describe the filtered results single interferogram precision, and a Kalman filter approach for MAI time series. We use 14 interferograms taken over the larger Los Angeles/San Gabrial Mountains area in CA. The interferograms include a variety of decorrelation sources, both terrain-related (topographic variations, vegetation and agriculture), and imaging-related (spatial and temporal baselines of 200-500m and 1-12 months, respectively). Most of the pixels are in the low to average coherence range (below 0.7). The data were collected by ESA and made available by the WInSAR consortium. We assume the data contain “zero” along-track signal (less then the theoretical 4 cm for our coherence range), and use the images as 14 dependent realizations of the MAI noise. We find a wide distribution of phase values σ = 2-3 radians (wrapped). We superimpose a signal on our MAI noise interferograms using along-track displacement (-88 - 143 cm) calculated for the 1812 Wrightwood earthquake. To analyze single MAI interferograms, we design an iterative quantile-based filter and test it on the noise+signal MAI interferograms. The residuals reveal the following MAI noise characteristics: (1) a constant noise term, up to 90 cm (2) a

  10. [Original meaning of mai and its academic evolution].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingwen; Tian, Yanpeng; Guo, Yan; Wang, Chaoyang; Liu, Qingguo

    2015-06-01

    Mai is the important concept in TCM and this term has been found in the early classic work of TCM. With the development and perfection of TCM theory, the original meaning of mai is "blood vessels entirely distrusted in the body". In five dynasties, the meaning of it was supplemented as "distribution of qi and blood in five zang and six fu organs to the four extremities", in which, not only blood but also qi has been included. With the constant understanding on mai, qi and blood, the unique concept of meridian and collateral is gradually generated. In terms of the modern study on the original meaning of mai and the academic evolution of meridian and collateral, it is discovered that qi is predominated and distributed in meridian and collateral as compared with blood. It is very significant to study the original meaning and academic evolution of mai, as well as the origin of the concept of meridian and collateral and to provide the reference support for the terminology standardization and basic study. PMID:26480573

  11. Distinct Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) Runs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Microsatellite Markers; Implications for Use of Mixed Marker Haplotypes in LD-based Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-A; Sohn, Kwang-Min; Cho, Seung-Hee; Hwang, Hyokkee; Kim, Sun Woo; Won, Hong-Hee; Kim, Hee-Jin; Kim, Min Ji; Cho, Sang Sun; Park, Jun Hee

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that the haplotypic relationship between microsatellite markers and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is of considerable importance, as microsatellite markers can potentially be incorporated into haplotypes containing SNPs to increase marker density across a region of interest. However, SNPs and microsatellite markers have different mutation rates and durations, and it is conceivable that the linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns between the genetic markers may considerably differ. We assessed the LD patterns using 1,661 SNPs and 65 microsatellite markers along chromosome 22 and investigated whether common patterns of LD between the two genetic markers are deduced from the results. The results demonstrated that the patterns of LD among microsatellite markers varied considerably and the LD runs of SNPs and microsatellite markers showed distinct patterns. Microsatellite markers have a much higher mutation rate and the evolution of microsatellite markers is a more complex process which has distinct mutation properties from those of SNPs. We consider that these might contribute to the different LD patterns between the two genetic markers. Therefore, it would seem inadvisable to make assumptions about persistence of LD across even a relatively small genetic distance among microsatellite markers and to construct mixed marker haplotypes/LD maps employing microsatellite markers. PMID:17596648

  12. Vanadium removal from LD converter slag using bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Mirazimi, S M J; Abbasalipour, Z; Rashchi, F

    2015-04-15

    Removal of vanadium from Linz-Donawits (LD) converter slag was investigated by means of three different species of microbial systems: Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (autotrophic bacteria), Pseudomonas putida (heterotrophic bacteria) and Aspergillus niger (fungi). The bioleaching process was carried out in both one-step and two-step process and the leaching efficiencies in both cases were compared. Formation of inorganic and organic acids during the leaching process caused mobilization of vanadium. In order to reduce toxic effects of the metal species on the above mentioned microorganisms, a prolonged adaptation process was performed. Both bacteria, A. thiooxidans and P. putida were able to remove more than 90% of vanadium at slag concentrations of 1-5 g L(-1) after 15 days. Also, the maximum achievable vanadium removal in the fungal system was approximately 92% at a slag concentration of 1 g L(-1) after 22 days. PMID:25697901

  13. GIT1 Paxillin-binding Domain Is a Four-helix Bundle, and It Binds to Both Paxillin LD2 and LD4 Motifs*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ziwei M.; Simmerman, Joseph A.; Guibao, Cristina D.; Zheng, Jie J.

    2008-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 1 (GIT1) is a multidomain protein that plays an important role in cell adhesion, motility, cytoskeletal remodeling, and membrane trafficking. GIT1 mediates the localization of the p21-activated kinase (PAK) and PAK-interactive exchange factor to focal adhesions, and its activation is regulated by the interaction between its C-terminal paxillin-binding domain (PBD) and the LD motifs of paxillin. In this study, we determined the solution structure of rat GIT1 PBD by NMR spectroscopy. The PBD folds into a four-helix bundle, which is structurally similar to the focal adhesion targeting and vinculin tail domains. Previous studies showed that GIT1 interacts with paxillin through the LD4 motif. Here, we demonstrated that in addition to the LD4 motif, the GIT1 PBD can also bind to the paxillin LD2 motif, and both LD2 and LD4 motifs competitively target the same site on the PBD surface. We also revealed that paxillin Ser272 phosphorylation does not influence GIT1 PBD binding in vitro. These results are in agreement with the notion that phosphorylation of paxillin Ser272 plays an essential role in regulating focal adhesion turnover. PMID:18448431

  14. Disruption of the lipid-transporting LdMT-LdRos3 complex in Leishmania donovani affects membrane lipid asymmetry but not host cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Weingärtner, Adrien; Drobot, Björn; Herrmann, Andreas; Sánchez-Cañete, María P; Gamarro, Francisco; Castanys, Santiago; Günther Pomorski, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance and regulation of the asymmetric lipid distribution across eukaryotic plasma membranes is governed by the concerted action of specific membrane proteins controlling lipid movement across the bilayer. Here, we show that the miltefosine transporter (LdMT), a member of the P4-ATPase subfamily in Leishmania donovani, and the Cdc50-like protein LdRos3 form a stable complex that plays an essential role in maintaining phospholipid asymmetry in the parasite plasma membrane. Loss of either LdMT or LdRos3 abolishes ATP-dependent transport of NBD-labelled phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine from the outer to the inner plasma membrane leaflet and results in an increased cell surface exposure of endogenous PE. We also find that promastigotes of L. donovani lack any detectable amount of phosphatidylserine (PS) but retain their infectivity in THP-1-derived macrophages. Likewise, infectivity was unchanged for parasites without LdMT-LdRos3 complexes. We conclude that exposure of PS and PE to the exoplasmic leaflet is not crucial for the infectivity of L. donovani promastigotes. PMID:20865154

  15. Disruption of the Lipid-Transporting LdMT-LdRos3 Complex in Leishmania donovani Affects Membrane Lipid Asymmetry but Not Host Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Weingärtner, Adrien; Drobot, Björn; Herrmann, Andreas; Sánchez-Cañete, María P.; Gamarro, Francisco; Castanys, Santiago; Günther Pomorski, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance and regulation of the asymmetric lipid distribution across eukaryotic plasma membranes is governed by the concerted action of specific membrane proteins controlling lipid movement across the bilayer. Here, we show that the miltefosine transporter (LdMT), a member of the P4-ATPase subfamily in Leishmania donovani, and the Cdc50-like protein LdRos3 form a stable complex that plays an essential role in maintaining phospholipid asymmetry in the parasite plasma membrane. Loss of either LdMT or LdRos3 abolishes ATP-dependent transport of NBD-labelled phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine from the outer to the inner plasma membrane leaflet and results in an increased cell surface exposure of endogenous PE. We also find that promastigotes of L. donovani lack any detectable amount of phosphatidylserine (PS) but retain their infectivity in THP-1-derived macrophages. Likewise, infectivity was unchanged for parasites without LdMT-LdRos3 complexes. We conclude that exposure of PS and PE to the exoplasmic leaflet is not crucial for the infectivity of L. donovani promastigotes. PMID:20865154

  16. Strengths-based Assessment Differences across Students with LD and EBD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert; Epstein, Michael H.; Pastor, Dena A.; Ryser, Gail R.

    2000-01-01

    A study used the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (BERS) with 129 students (ages 7-18) with learning disabilities (LD), 145 with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), and 144 typical students. BERS discriminated among students with LD and EBD and controls and was able to classify students with EBD and controls. (Contains references.)…

  17. Ten Years of Research: A Systematic Review of Three Refereed LD Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Laura; Williams, Jacob; Miciak, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Content analyses of journals in the field of LD provide a means of surveying research and publication trends, the knowledge of which may inform policy and practice related to future research agendas. As the first decade of the current millennium was particularly contentious for the field of LD, we felt that a content review would be timely. In…

  18. Can Social Stories Enhance the Interpersonal Conflict Resolution Skills of Children with LD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyva, Efrosini; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    Since many children with learning disabilities (LD) face interpersonal conflict resolution problems, this study examines the efficacy of social stories in helping them choose more appropriate interpersonal conflict resolution strategies. A social story was recorded and played to the 31 children with LD in the experimental group twice a week for a…

  19. Computer Literate LD Students Shine at Lakewood Elementary School in Silicon Valley, CA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messinger, Mildred

    1983-01-01

    In Sunnyvale, California (the computer industry's "Silicon Valley") two teachers of elementary learning disabled (LD) students took a course in microcomputers, acquired three microcomputers with a grant, and trained the students to use computer-assisted instruction, with such results as that in one year, 37 LD students tutored 100 primary…

  20. Recognizing Non-Verbal Social Cues Promotes Social Performance in LD Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Alicia; Sharon, Assia

    2013-01-01

    The research examined whether an educational intervention could enhance the ability of learning disabled (LD) adolescents to recognize non-verbal emotional messages and thus their social functioning. Most LD children have problems recognizing non-verbal cues, particularly emotional ones, and have social difficulties. The study examined the…

  1. Psychometric Approaches to the Identification of LD: IQ and Achievement Scores Are Not Sufficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis,David J; Fletcher,Jack M.; Stuebing,Karla K.; Lyon,G. Reid; Shaywitz,Bennett A; Shaywitz,Sally E.

    2005-01-01

    Simulated data were used to demonstrate that groups formed by imposing cut-points based on either discrepancy or low-achievement definitions of learning disabilities (LD) are unstable over time. Similar problems were demonstrated in longitudinal data from the Connecticut Longitudinal Study, where 39% of the children designated as having LD in…

  2. Effects of Low-Dose Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR-ld) on Working Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klatt, Maryanna D.; Buckworth, Janet; Malarkey, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has produced behavioral, psychological, and physiological benefits, but these programs typically require a substantial time commitment from the participants. This study assessed the effects of a shortened (low-dose [ld]) work-site MBSR intervention (MBSR-ld) on indicators of stress in healthy working…

  3. Refining Diagnoses: Applying the DC-LD to an Irish Population with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felstrom, A.; Mulryan, N.; Reidy, J.; Staines, M.; Hillery, J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders for use with adults with learning disabilities/mental retardation (DC-LD) is a diagnostic tool developed in 2001 to improve upon existing classification systems for adults with learning disability. The aim of this study was to apply the classification system described by the DC-LD to a…

  4. Introducing Algebra through the Graphical Representation of Functions: A Study among LD Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauriol, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study evaluates the impact of a new Algebra 1 course at a High School for language-based learning-disabled (LD) students. The new course prioritized the teaching of relationship graphs and functions as an introduction to algebra. Across three studies, the dissertation documents and evaluates the progress made by LD high school…

  5. Discriminative Effectiveness of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for LD Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Richard D.; Lorion, Raymond P.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery's utility in distinguishing between 30 male adolescents diagnosed as learning disabled (LD) and 30 matched non-LD students indicated that the battery correctly classified 90 percent of the sample with 6.7 percent false positives and 13.3 percent false negatives. (Author/DB)

  6. The Relation of LD and Gender with Emotional Intelligence in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiff, Henry B.; Hatzes, Nanette M.; Bramel, Michael H.; Gibbon, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the relation of learning disabilities (LD) and gender with emotional intelligence (as measured by the Emotional Quotient Inventory) in 128 college students. Analyses indicated significant differences between students with and without LD on stress management and adaptability, between men and women students on interpersonal…

  7. Comparison study on effectiveness of pentoxifyllin with LD to prevent recurrent endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Ghahiri, Ataollah; Najafian, Aida; Ghasemi, Mojdeh; Najafian, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Background: About 75% of the symptomatic patients who involved with endometriosis have pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea. Pentoxifyllin is one of the drugs that according to its mechanism could be effective for pain relief of endometriosis which has been used for endometriosis treatment recently. Objective: We conducted a comparative study for detecting the effect of pentoxifylin (as an immonomodelator) in preventing recurrence endometriotic pain with pentoxifylin plus a combined contraceptive pill with low dose estrogen (LD) and also the LD pill alone. Materials and Methods: This was a comparative clinical trial on 83 patients with the chief complaint (CC) of pain (dysmenorrheal /or pelvic pain) and with the end diagnosis of endometriosis, in an operative laparoscopy. Patients, dividing to 3 groups, were treated with pentoxifylin, pentoxifylin+LD and LD alone for 10 months. The severity of pain (dismenorhea and/or pelvic pain) was detected by visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after the treatment. The severity of endometriosis in the patients was: I in class I and II in class II and III in class III. The groups were matched for the pain. The number of the patients in group 1, 2 and 3 were 28, 28 and 27 respectively. Results: The pain was reduced in the groups of pentoxifylin+LD (p<0.001) and LD alone (p=0.00). The pain relief was not significant in the group of pentoxifylin alone (p=0.136). After treatment, the severity of pain was not significantly different between the LD group and the LD+penthoxyfillin group, but there was difference between these two groups and the group of penthoxyfillin alone. Conclusion: This study showed that penthoxyfillin actually could not have any effect on the pain relief of endometriosis. It also made it clear that penthoxyfillin could not increase the efficacy of LD when used with this medication. PMID:25242996

  8. The LD50 associated with exposure to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Fujita, S; Kato, H; Schull, W J

    1991-03-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to estimate the distance at which 50% of the individuals exposed to the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki died, ostensibly from their exposure to ionizing radiation. It is difficult to convert most of these distance estimates to a dose-related LD50, since radiation shielding was ignored. The recent reassessment of the atomic bomb radiation dosimetry has provided an opportunity for the estimation of the bone marrow LD50. There is a surprising concordance in the various estimates that have been made given the different groups of survivors involved and the methods used to estimate the LD50/60. PMID:1762100

  9. Individual and combined effects of LD and ADHD on computerized neurocognitive concussion test performance: evidence for separate norms.

    PubMed

    Elbin, R J; Kontos, Anthony P; Kegel, Nate; Johnson, Eric; Burkhart, Scott; Schatz, Philip

    2013-08-01

    Decreased neurocognitive performance in individuals with self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disability (LD) is well documented in the neuropsychological research literature. Previous studies employing paper-and-pencil neurocognitive assessments report lower performance in individuals with ADHD and LD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of a self-reported diagnosis of LD, ADHD, and combined LD/ADHD on baseline computerized neurocognitive testing (CNT) used for the concussion assessment. Results revealed athletes with a self-reported diagnosis of LD, ADHD, and/or combined LD/ADHD demonstrated lower performance on baseline CNT and reported larger numbers of symptoms than did control athletes without these diagnoses. These findings provide evidence for the development of separate normative data for athletes with LD, ADHD, and LD/ADHD diagnoses on CNT batteries commonly used for concussion management. PMID:23608188

  10. LdFlabarin, a New BAR Domain Membrane Protein of Leishmania Flagellum

    PubMed Central

    Thonnus, Magali; Salin, Bénédicte; Boissier, Fanny; Blancard, Corinne; Sauvanet, Cécile; Metzler, Christelle; Espiau, Benoît; Sahin, Annelise; Merlin, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    During the Leishmania life cycle, the flagellum undergoes successive assembly and disassembly of hundreds of proteins. Understanding these processes necessitates the study of individual components. Here, we investigated LdFlabarin, an uncharacterized L. donovani flagellar protein. The gene is conserved within the Leishmania genus and orthologous genes only exist in the Trypanosoma genus. LdFlabarin associates with the flagellar plasma membrane, extending from the base to the tip of the flagellum as a helicoidal structure. Site-directed mutagenesis, deletions and chimera constructs showed that LdFlabarin flagellar addressing necessitates three determinants: an N-terminal potential acylation site and a central BAR domain for membrane targeting and the C-terminal domain for flagellar specificity. In vitro, the protein spontaneously associates with liposomes, triggering tubule formation, which suggests a structural/morphogenetic function. LdFlabarin is the first characterized Leishmania BAR domain protein, and the first flagellum-specific BAR domain protein. PMID:24086735

  11. PLC Software Program for Leak Detector Station A1 SALW-LD-ST-A1

    SciTech Connect

    KOCH, M.R.

    2001-01-25

    This document describes the software program for the programmable logic controller for the leak detector station ''SALW-LD-ST-A1''. The appendices contains a copy of the printout of the software program.

  12. Potential of the insect growth regulator, fluazuron, in the control of Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae): determination of the LD95 and LD50.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa; Calligaris, Izabela Braggião; Roma, Gislaine Cristina; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Pizano, Marcos Aparecido; Camargo Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2012-05-01

    Conventional pesticides have suffered two main drawbacks: (a) broad spectrum of action and (b) selection of target species resistant to the different active ingredients. Thus compounds that are less harmful to the environment and to human health, more specific and that do not induce resistance need to be developed. One alternative are insect growth regulators, such as fluazuron. The present study examined the efficacy of fluazuron (active ingredient of the acaricide Acatak®) and the sensitivity of Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs exposed to different doses of this chemical, and determined the lethal doses of fluazuron: 95% - LD(95) and 50% - LD(50). Different doses of fluazuron were applied in duplicates on the dorsal region of hosts ("pour on"). Distilled water was used in the control group. On the first day after the treatment with fluazuron, hosts were artificially infested with R. sanguineus nymphs. After engorgement, nymphs were removed, placed on Petri dishes, identified, and maintained in BOD incubator for 15days. Dead R. sanguineus nymphs after the treatment with 13 different doses of fluazuron were quantified and the LD(95) was estimated to be 100mg/kg and LD(50), 19.544mg/kg (12.478-22.636), with a confidence interval of 95%. Nymphs of R. sanguineus were sensitive to fluazuron at various levels, indicating that this insect growth regulator (IGR) may be used to control this parasite in this stage of its biological cycle, reducing the significant damage it causes. PMID:22465612

  13. A Dynamic Simulation Model of the Management Accounting Information Systems (MAIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos; Bekiaris, Michail G.; Zounta, Stella

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the factors which determine the problems and the advantages on the design of management accounting information systems (MAIS). A simulation is carried out with a dynamic model of the MAIS design.

  14. Analysis of airborne MAIS imaging spectrometric data for mineral exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jinnian; Zheng Lanfen; Tong Qingxi

    1996-11-01

    The high spectral resolution imaging spectrometric system made quantitative analysis and mapping of surface composition possible. The key issue will be the quantitative approach for analysis of surface parameters for imaging spectrometer data. This paper describes the methods and the stages of quantitative analysis. (1) Extracting surface reflectance from imaging spectrometer image. Lab. and inflight field measurements are conducted for calibration of imaging spectrometer data, and the atmospheric correction has also been used to obtain ground reflectance by using empirical line method and radiation transfer modeling. (2) Determining quantitative relationship between absorption band parameters from the imaging spectrometer data and chemical composition of minerals. (3) Spectral comparison between the spectra of spectral library and the spectra derived from the imagery. The wavelet analysis-based spectrum-matching techniques for quantitative analysis of imaging spectrometer data has beer, developed. Airborne MAIS imaging spectrometer data were used for analysis and the analysis results have been applied to the mineral and petroleum exploration in Tarim Basin area china. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Effect of Xin Mai Jia on atherosclerosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Pan, G P; Jia, M; Wang, Q Q; Guo, Z G; Zhao, F R; Lei, G L; Wan, G R; Wan, G M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the therapeutic effect of Xin Mai Jia (XMJ) on atherosclerosis (AS) in rats. Rat models of AS were established by peritoneally injecting vitamin D, feeding a high-fat diet, and inducing balloon injuries in rats. The stomachs of the rats were irrigated continuously for 10 weeks with XMJ. Blood lipid- and hemorheology-related indices of blood samples were detected. Pathological changes in the right common carotid arterial tissues were also determined. The protein expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, angio-tensin-1, and endothelin-1 were determined by western blotting. XMJ reduced cholesterol, trigylecride, and low-density lipoprotein levels as well as blood viscosity, sedimentation, and hematocrit. Furthermore, XMJ alleviated vascular endothelial injury and reduced/eliminated atherosclerotic plaques. In contrast, XMJ significantly increased the endothelium-dependent relaxing response of the AS rat models. The western blotting results showed that XMJ upregulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase but downregulated angiotensin-1 and endothelin-1. XMJ prevented the development of AS by regulating blood lipid levels, hemorheology, and vascular function. PMID:26125801

  16. Chemical and mineralogical characterizations of LD converter steel slags: A multi-analytical techniques approach

    SciTech Connect

    Waligora, J.; Bulteel, D.; Degrugilliers, P.; Damidot, D.; Potdevin, J.L.; Measson, M.

    2010-01-15

    The use of LD converter steel slags (coming from Linz-Donawitz steelmaking process) as aggregates in road construction can in certain cases lead to dimensional damage due to a macroscopic swelling that is the consequence of chemical reactions. The aim of this study was to couple several analytical techniques in order to carefully undertake chemical and mineralogical characterizations of LD steel slags and identify the phases that are expected to be responsible for their instability. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalyses revealed that LD steel slags mainly contain calcium silicates, dicalcium ferrites, iron oxides and lime. However, as a calcium silicate phase is heterogeneous, Raman microspectrometry and transmitted electron microscopy had to be used to characterize it more precisely. Results showed that lime is present under two forms in slag grains: some nodules observed in the matrix whose size ranges from 20 to 100 {mu}m and some micro-inclusions, enclosed in the heterogeneous calcium silicate phase whose size ranges from 1 to 3 {mu}m. It was also established that without the presence of magnesia, lime is expected to be the only phase responsible for LD steel slags instability. Nevertheless, the distribution of lime between nodules and micro-inclusions may play a major role and could explain that similar amounts of lime can induce different instabilities. Thus, it appears that lime content of LD steel slags is not the only parameter to explain their instability.

  17. Constructing a Genome-Wide LD Map of Wild A. gambiae Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohong; Afrane, Yaw A.; Yan, Guiyun; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae is the major malaria vector in Africa. Examining the molecular basis of A. gambiae traits requires knowledge of both genetic variation and genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) map of wild A. gambiae populations from malaria-endemic areas. We sequenced the genomes of nine wild A. gambiae mosquitoes individually using next-generation sequencing technologies and detected 2,219,815 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 88% of which are novel. SNPs are not evenly distributed across A. gambiae chromosomes. The low SNP-frequency regions overlay heterochromatin and chromosome inversion domains, consistent with the lower recombinant rates at these regions. Nearly one million SNPs that were genotyped correctly in all individual mosquitoes with 99.6% confidence were extracted from these high-throughput sequencing data. Based on these SNP genotypes, we constructed a genome-wide LD map for wild A. gambiae from malaria-endemic areas in Kenya and made it available through a public Website. The average size of LD blocks is less than 40 bp, and several large LD blocks were also discovered clustered around the para gene, which is consistent with the effect of insecticide selective sweeps. The SNPs and the LD map will be valuable resources for scientific communities to dissect the A. gambiae genome. PMID:26421280

  18. Dengue Virus Capsid Protein Binding to Hepatic Lipid Droplets (LD) Is Potassium Ion Dependent and Is Mediated by LD Surface Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Filomena A.; Carneiro, Fabiana A.; Martins, Ivo C.; Assunção-Miranda, Iranaia; Faustino, André F.; Pereira, Renata M.; Bozza, Patricia T.; Castanho, Miguel A. R. B.; Mohana-Borges, Ronaldo; Da Poian, Andrea T.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) affects millions of people, causing more than 20,000 deaths annually. No effective treatment for the disease caused by DENV infection is currently available, partially due to the lack of knowledge on the basic aspects of the viral life cycle, including the molecular basis of the interaction between viral components and cellular compartments. Here, we characterized the properties of the interaction between the DENV capsid (C) protein and hepatic lipid droplets (LDs), which was recently shown to be essential for the virus replication cycle. Zeta potential analysis revealed a negative surface charge of LDs, with an average surface charge of −19 mV. The titration of LDs with C protein led to an increase of the surface charge, which reached a plateau at +13.7 mV, suggesting that the viral protein-LD interaction exposes the protein cationic surface to the aqueous environment. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based force spectroscopy measurements were performed by using C protein-functionalized AFM tips. The C protein-LD interaction was found to be strong, with a single (un)binding force of 33.6 pN. This binding was dependent on high intracellular concentrations of potassium ions but not sodium. The inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase in DENV-infected cells resulted in the dissociation of C protein from LDs and a 50-fold inhibition of infectious virus production but not of RNA replication, indicating a biological relevance for the potassium-dependent interaction. Limited proteolysis of the LD surface impaired the C protein-LD interaction, and force measurements in the presence of specific antibodies indicated that perilipin 3 (TIP47) is the major DENV C protein ligand on the surface of LDs. PMID:22130547

  19. Lymantria dispar iflavirus 1 (LdIV1), a new model to study iflaviral persistence in lepidopterans.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Krueger, Elizabeth N; Harrison, Robert L; Toth, Amy L; Miller, W Allen; Bonning, Bryony C

    2014-10-01

    The cell line IPLB-LD-652Y, derived from the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), is routinely used to study interactions between viruses and insect hosts. Here we report the full genome sequence and biological characteristics of a small RNA virus, designated Lymantria dispar iflavirus 1 (LdIV1), that was discovered to persistently infect IPLB-LD-652Y. LdIV1 belongs to the genus Iflavirus. LdIV1 formed icosahedral particles of approx. 30 nm in diameter and contained a 10, 044 nt polyadenylated, positive-sense RNA genome encoding a predicted polyprotein of 2980 aa. LdIV1 was induced by a viral suppressor of RNA silencing, suggesting that acute infection is restricted by RNA interference (RNAi). We detected LdIV1 in all tested tissues of gypsy-moth larvae and adults, but the virus was absent from other L. dispar-derived cell lines. We confirmed LdIV1 infectivity in two of these cell lines (IPLB-LD-652 and IPLB-LdFB). Our results provide a novel system to explore persistent infections in lepidopterans and a new model for the study of iflaviruses, a rapidly expanding group of viruses, many of which covertly infect their hosts. PMID:24986084

  20. Knockdown of a nutrient amino acid transporter gene LdNAT1 reduces free neutral amino acid contents and impairs Leptinotarsa decemlineata pupation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Kai-Yun; Guo, Wen-Chao; Ahmat, Tursun; Li, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    A Leptinotarsa decemlineata SLC6 NAT gene (LdNAT1) was cloned. LdNAT1 was highly expressed in the larval alimentary canal especially midgut. LdNAT1 mRNA levels were high right after the molt and low just before the molt. JH and a JH analog pyriproxyfen activated LdNAT1 expression. RNAi of an allatostatin gene LdAS-C increased JH and upregulated LdNAT1 transcription. Conversely, silencing of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT decreased JH and reduced LdNAT1 expression. Moreover, 20E and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide repressed LdNAT1 expression, whereas a decrease in 20E by RNAi of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene LdSHD and disruption of 20E signaling by knockdown of LdE75 and LdFTZ-F1 activated LdNAT1 expression. Thus, LdNAT1 responded to both 20E and JH. Moreover, knockdown of LdNAT1 reduced the contents of cysteine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine and serine in the larval bodies and increased the contents of these amino acids in the larval feces. Furthermore, RNAi of LdNAT1 inhibited insulin/target of rapamycin pathway, lowered 20E and JH titers, reduced 20E and JH signaling, retarded larval growth and impaired pupation. These data showed that LdNAT1 was involved in the absorption of several neutral amino acids critical for larval growth and metamorphosis. PMID:26657797

  1. LD Score regression distinguishes confounding from polygenicity in genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan K; Loh, Po-Ru; Finucane, Hilary K; Ripke, Stephan; Yang, Jian; Patterson, Nick; Daly, Mark J; Price, Alkes L; Neale, Benjamin M

    2015-03-01

    Both polygenicity (many small genetic effects) and confounding biases, such as cryptic relatedness and population stratification, can yield an inflated distribution of test statistics in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, current methods cannot distinguish between inflation from a true polygenic signal and bias. We have developed an approach, LD Score regression, that quantifies the contribution of each by examining the relationship between test statistics and linkage disequilibrium (LD). The LD Score regression intercept can be used to estimate a more powerful and accurate correction factor than genomic control. We find strong evidence that polygenicity accounts for the majority of the inflation in test statistics in many GWAS of large sample size. PMID:25642630

  2. The impact of the Flynn effect on LD diagnoses in special education.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Tomoe; Ceci, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Because of the Flynn effect, IQ scores rise as a test norm ages but drop on the introduction of a newly revised test norm. The purpose of the current study was to determine the impact of the Flynn effect on learning disability (LD) diagnoses, the most prevalent special education diagnosis in the United States. Using a longitudinal sample of 875 school children who were initially diagnosed with LD on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), children experienced a significant decline in IQ when retested on the third edition of the WISC (WISC-III) compared to peers who were tested on the WISC-R twice. Furthermore, results from logistic regression analyses revealed that the probability of a rediagnosis of LD on reevaluation significantly decreased, in part, because of this decline on the WISC-III. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for both basic research and educational policy. PMID:21193595

  3. Comorbidity of LD and ADHD: implications of DSM-5 for assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    DuPaul, George J; Gormley, Matthew J; Laracy, Seth D

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disability (LD) can co-occur for a significant minority of children with each disorder. A total of 17 studies (2001-2011) examining ADHD-LD comorbidity were reviewed, revealing a higher mean comorbidity rate (45.1%) than has been obtained previously. Higher comorbidity may be the result of including students with writing disorders, not just reading and/or math disabilities. Proposed DSM-5 criteria for both disorders will likely affect comorbidity rates; however, it is unclear whether such rates will increase or decrease. Regardless of the specific impact of DSM revisions, academic skill and/or performance deficits should be assessed for students with ADHD as part of screening, comprehensive evaluation, and treatment monitoring. Comprehensive intervention services for students with comorbid ADHD and LD will require empirically supported treatment strategies that address both disorders and that are implemented across school and home settings. PMID:23144063

  4. DNA sequence of a gene encoding a BALB/c mouse Ld transplantation antigen.

    PubMed

    Moore, K W; Sher, B T; Sun, Y H; Eakle, K A; Hood, L

    1982-02-01

    The sequence of a gene, denoted 27.5, encoding a transplantation antigen for the BALB/c mouse has been determined. Gene transfer studies and comparison of the translated sequence with the partial amino acid sequence of the Ld transplantation antigen establish that gene 27.5 encodes an Ld polypeptide. A comparison of the gene 27.5 sequence with several complementary DNA sequences suggests that the BALB/c mouse may contain a number of closely related L-like genes. Gene 27.5 has eight exons that correlate with the structural domains of the transplantation antigen. PMID:7058332

  5. Critical slowing down and critical exponents in LD/PIN optically-bistable semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Lichen; Guo Yili

    1988-04-01

    Critical slowing down for LD/PIN bistable optical semiconductor lasers and the critical exponents ..gamma.. for this system have been experimentally investigated. The experimental value ..gamma..approx.0.53 is basically in agreement with the theoretically predicted value of 0.5.

  6. Pluralizing Methodologies in the Field of LD: From "What Works" to What Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Beth A.; Gallagher, Deborah; Connor, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The field of learning disabilities (LD) has a complex and complicated history. Tensions over definitions, eligibility criteria, service delivery models, and best practices, as well as epistemological debates, have been a part of that history from its inception. Given our collective struggles, as well as the current realities facing the field,…

  7. Mathematics Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities (LD) in Secondary School: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jonté A.; Wang, Jun; Brownell, Mary T.; Gagnon, Joseph Calvin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our literature review was to extend and update Maccini, Mulcahy, and Wilson's (2007) review of the literature on mathematics interventions for secondary students with learning disabilities (LD). An extensive search of the research literature netted 15 research studies that focused on mathematics interventions for secondary students…

  8. The Emotional Exhaustion Aspect of Burnout and Stressors in Resource LD Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Catherine A.

    This study sought to develop a clearer understanding of the correlates of the emotional exhaustion aspect of burnout among learning disabilities (LD) teachers in resource programs. Specifically, the study examined the relationship between the emotional aspect of burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and: (1) background…

  9. The acute lethal dose 50 (LD50) of caffeine in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Richard H

    2016-10-01

    An acute LD50 is a statistically derived amount of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of the animals when given by a specified route as a single dose and the animals observed for a specified time period. Although conducting routine acute toxicity testing in rodents has been criticized, it can serve useful functions and also have practical implications. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) will reflect the acute toxicity of a substance and may require workers to wear protective gear, if appropriate, based on the LD50. There is no information in the scientific published literature which calculates a mean LD50 and standard deviation for caffeine administered orally to rats, using studies performed under good laboratory practice (GLP) or equivalent. This report does that and should be useful to manufacturers, packagers, transporters and regulators of this material. Using data from studies that are reproducible and reliable, the most accurate estimate of the acute LD50 of caffeine administered orally in male albino rats is hereby reported to be 367/mg/kg. PMID:27461039

  10. Orthographic Processing and Reading Comprehension among Arabic Speaking Mainstream and LD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbeheri, Gad; Everatt, John; Mahfoudhi, Abdessatar; Al-Diyar, Mosaad Abu; Taibah, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    Two cohorts of mainstream children (grades 2-5) and one cohort of children with learning disabilities (LD; grades 3-5), all Arabic speaking children in Kuwait, were given measures of reading comprehension fluency and orthographic discrimination to assess the relationship between the two. Additional measures of phonological processing (decoding and…

  11. Mothers of Children with LD and ADHD: Empowerment through Online Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margalit, Malka; Raskind, Marshall H.

    2009-01-01

    Mothers of children with learning disabilities (LD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were notified of the possibility that their online community was going to be closed. They immediately responded with messages about the significance of the community to their lives and distress that the site would not continue to be available.…

  12. Comorbid LD and ADHD in Childhood: Socioemotional and Behavioural Adjustment and Parents' Positive and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined how vulnerability and protective factors at the individual level (child's disabilities; patterns of attachment), and at the family level (fathers'/mothers' affect), help explain differences in socioemotional and behavioural adjustment among children aged 8-12 years with comorbid learning disability (LD) and attention…

  13. A Review of Story Mapping Instruction for Secondary Students with LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Richard T.; Paal, Michael; Hintz, Anna-Maria; Cornelius-Freyre, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a review on the effectiveness of story mapping to improve the reading comprehension skills of middle and high school (Grades 6-12) students with learning disabilities (LD). An extensive review of the special education research-base revealed twelve (N = 12) story mapping intervention studies that met our…

  14. Perceptions of Adolescent Girls with LD Regarding Self-Determination and Postsecondary Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Audrey A.

    2007-01-01

    Existing research has documented disparate outcomes between young women and men with disabilities in many transition domains, including employment, postsecondary education, and parenting. Similarly, students with learning disabilities (LD) have unique postsecondary transition needs. Promoting self-determination and active participation in…

  15. The Impact of the Flynn Effect on LD Diagnoses in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaya, Tomoe; Ceci, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Because of the Flynn effect, IQ scores rise as a test norm ages but drop on the introduction of a newly revised test norm. The purpose of the current study was to determine the impact of the Flynn effect on learning disability (LD) diagnoses, the most prevalent special education diagnosis in the United States. Using a longitudinal sample of 875…

  16. Linear-dichroic infrared spectral (IR-LD) analysis of codeine and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, Bojidarka; Kolev, Tsonko; Bakalska, Rumyana

    2007-05-01

    By means of IR-LD spectroscopy of oriented as suspension in nematic liquid crystal solids, a detailed IR-bands assignment and a stereo-structural prediction of codeine, codeinone and N-norcodeine have been carried out. The data are compared with known crystallographic ones of codeine and codeinone obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction.

  17. The Content-based Reading Approaches (COBRA) Model in the ELL and LD Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pei-Yi

    2010-01-01

    The Content-based Reading Approaches (COBRA) framework, constructed by Heerman (2002), was made up of the instructional goals designed for reading-learning integrations in subject matter classrooms. ELL and LD students often fail to have sufficient reading skills to succeed within their different academic subjects, consequently it is important for…

  18. The Leishmania donovani histidine acid ecto-phosphatase LdMAcP: insight into its structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Papadaki, Amalia; Politou, Anastasia S.; Smirlis, Despina; Kotini, Maria P.; Kourou, Konstadina; Papamarcaki, Thomais; Boleti, Haralabia

    2015-01-01

    Acid ecto-phosphatase activity has been implicated in Leishmania donovani promastigote virulence. In the present study, we report data contributing to the molecular/structural and functional characterization of the L. donovani LdMAcP (L. donovani membrane acid phosphatase), member of the histidine acid phosphatase (HAcP) family. LdMAcP is membrane-anchored and shares high sequence identity with the major secreted L. donovani acid phosphatases (LdSAcPs). Sequence comparison of the LdMAcP orthologues in Leishmania sp. revealed strain polymorphism and species specificity for the L. donovani complex, responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (Khala azar), proposing thus a potential value of LdMAcP as an epidemiological or diagnostic tool. The extracellular orientation of the LdMAcP catalytic domain was confirmed in L. donovani promastigotes, wild-type (wt) and transgenic overexpressing a recombinant LdMAcP–mRFP1 (monomeric RFP1) chimera, as well as in transiently transfected mammalian cells expressing rLdMAcP–His. For the first time it is demonstrated in the present study that LdMAcP confers tartrate resistant acid ecto-phosphatase activity in live L. donovani promastigotes. The latter confirmed the long sought molecular identity of at least one enzyme contributing to this activity. Interestingly, the L. donovani rLdMAcP–mRFP1 promastigotes generated in this study, showed significantly higher infectivity and virulence indexes than control parasites in the infection of J774 mouse macrophages highlighting thereby a role for LdMAcP in the parasite's virulence. PMID:25695743

  19. The Leishmania donovani histidine acid ecto-phosphatase LdMAcP: insight into its structure and function.

    PubMed

    Papadaki, Amalia; Politou, Anastasia S; Smirlis, Despina; Kotini, Maria P; Kourou, Konstadina; Papamarcaki, Thomais; Boleti, Haralabia

    2015-05-01

    Acid ecto-phosphatase activity has been implicated in Leishmania donovani promastigote virulence. In the present study, we report data contributing to the molecular/structural and functional characterization of the L. donovani LdMAcP (L. donovani membrane acid phosphatase), member of the histidine acid phosphatase (HAcP) family. LdMAcP is membrane-anchored and shares high sequence identity with the major secreted L. donovani acid phosphatases (LdSAcPs). Sequence comparison of the LdMAcP orthologues in Leishmania sp. revealed strain polymorphism and species specificity for the L. donovani complex, responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (Khala azar), proposing thus a potential value of LdMAcP as an epidemiological or diagnostic tool. The extracellular orientation of the LdMAcP catalytic domain was confirmed in L. donovani promastigotes, wild-type (wt) and transgenic overexpressing a recombinant LdMAcP-mRFP1 (monomeric RFP1) chimera, as well as in transiently transfected mammalian cells expressing rLdMAcP-His. For the first time it is demonstrated in the present study that LdMAcP confers tartrate resistant acid ecto-phosphatase activity in live L. donovani promastigotes. The latter confirmed the long sought molecular identity of at least one enzyme contributing to this activity. Interestingly, the L. donovani rLdMAcP-mRFP1 promastigotes generated in this study, showed significantly higher infectivity and virulence indexes than control parasites in the infection of J774 mouse macrophages highlighting thereby a role for LdMAcP in the parasite's virulence. PMID:25695743

  20. Profiles of Elementary-Age English Language Learners with Reading-Related Learning Disabilities (LD) Identified as Speech and Language Impaired Prior to, at, or after Identification as LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Belinda Maria Despujols

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the characteristics of 14 English Language Learners classified as having learning disabilities (LD) who were also identified as having speech and language impairments (SI) prior to, at, or after initial identification as LD. Data were collected under the auspices of a longitudinal study, Bilingual Exceptional Students:…

  1. Lymantria dispar iflavirus 1 (LdIV1), a new model to study iflaviral persistence in lepidopterans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cell line IPLB-LD-652Y derived from the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Linn.) is routinely used to study insect virus-host interactions. Here we report the full genome sequence and biological characteristics of a small RNA virus, designated Lymantria dispar iflavirus 1 (LdIV1), that was discovere...

  2. Impact of the Personal Strengths Program on Self-Determination Levels of College Students with LD and/or ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Jennie L.; Allsopp, David H.; Ferron, John M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of The Personal Strengths Program (PSP) on seven college students with learning disabilities and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (LD/ADHD) using a multiple baseline design. Students with LD/ADHD experience increased challenges in school settings and decreased post-secondary outcomes when compared with…

  3. Using Prompt Fading to Teach Self-Questioning to Fifth Graders with LD: Effects on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Christina A.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Cullen, Jennifer M.; Sawyer, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Students with LD who struggle with reading comprehension can benefit from instruction on how to read strategically. One strategy that has been demonstrated to increase reading comprehension is self-questioning. In this study, two fifth graders with LD were taught to self-generate questions using a prompt fading procedure. The participants were…

  4. A Synthesis on the Research of the Comorbidity of ADHD and LD in Korea: Perspective and Trend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongil; Koh, Eunyoung; Jeong, Sora; Lee, Kijyung; Kim, Boongnyun; Kim, Ienai

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD) are the most commonly diagnosed childhood disorders, and they frequently co-occur with each other. It has been found that students with comorbidity of ADHD and LD experience more difficulties in school. Even though the research interests in the comorbidity of ADHD and…

  5. A Multi-Trait, Multi-Method Analysis of the Bayesian Screening Instrument and Test Battery for LD Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, Gordon R.; And Others

    The reliability and validity of the Modified Component Disability Checklist were examined with five secondary learning disabled (LD) teachers, 21 low achieving students, and 21 LD students in grades 7, 8, and 9. During Phase I, teachers matched the component disability to the target behavior; and in Phase II teachers were told to judge each target…

  6. 3D-MRI rendering of the anatomical structures related to acupuncture points of the Dai mai, Yin qiao mai and Yang qiao mai meridians within the context of the WOMED concept of lateral tension: implications for musculoskeletal disease

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Roy; Rudisch, Ansgar; Kremser, Christian; Moncayo, Helga

    2007-01-01

    Background A conceptual model of lateral muscular tension in patients presenting thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) has been recently described. Clinical improvement has been achieved by using acupuncture on points belonging to the so-called extraordinary meridians. The aim of this study was to characterize the anatomical structures related to these acupuncture points by means of 3D MRI image rendering relying on external markers. Methods The investigation was carried out the index case patient of the lateral tension model. A licensed medical acupuncture practitioner located the following acupuncture points: 1) Yin qiao mai meridian (medial ankle): Kidney 3, Kidney 6, the plantar Kidney 6 (Nan jing description); 2) Yang qiao mai meridian (lateral ankle): Bladder 62, Bladder 59, Bladder 61, and the plantar Bladder 62 (Nan jing description); 3) Dai mai meridian (wait): Liver 13, Gall bladder 26, Gall bladder 27, Gall bladder 28, and Gall bladder 29. The points were marked by taping a nitro-glycerin capsule on the skin. Imaging was done on a Siemens Magnetom Avanto MR scanner using an array head and body coil. Mainly T1-weighted imaging sequences, as routinely used for patient exams, were used to obtain multi-slice images. The image data were rendered in 3D modus using dedicated software (Leonardo, Siemens). Results Points of the Dai mai meridian – at the level of the waist – corresponded to the obliquus externus abdominis and the obliquus internus abdominis. Points of the Yin qiao mai meridian – at the medial side of the ankle – corresponded to tendinous structures of the flexor digitorum longus as well as to muscular structures of the abductor hallucis on the foot sole. Points of the Yang qiao mai meridian – at the lateral side of the ankle – corresponded to tendinous structures of the peroneus brevis, the peroneous longus, and the lateral surface of the calcaneus and close to the foot sole to the abductor digiti minimi. Conclusion This non

  7. Knockdown of a putative insulin-like peptide gene LdILP2 in Leptinotarsa decemlineata by RNA interference impairs pupation and adult emergence.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kai-Yun; Zhu, Tao-Tao; Guo, Wen-Chao; Ahmat, Tursun; Li, Guo-Qing

    2016-05-01

    Five insulin-like peptide LdILP genes were identified in Leptinotarsa decemlineata. All of them contained three exons and two introns, with three genes tandemly arrayed and well separated from the other two. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the three LdILPs from three tandemly-arrayed genes grouped with TcILP1, whereas the other two resembled with TcILP2 and TcILP4 from Tribolium castaneum. Thus, the five LdILP genes were provisionally named LdILP1a, LdILP1b, LdILP1c, LdILP2 and LdILP4. LdILP2 was widely expressed in several tissues such as the brain-corpora cardiaca-corpora allata (BR-CC-CA) complex, gut and fat body. In contrast, LdILP1a and LdILP1b were only transcribed in BR-CC-CA, LdILP4 was in ovaries, and LdILP1c was in both BR-CC-CA and ovaries. Ingestion of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeting LdILP2 (dsLdILP2-1 and dsLdILP2-2) specifically knocked down LdILP2 and upregulated the transcription of both LdInR and Ld4EBP, indicating insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway (IIS) was inhibited. Approximately 50% of the LdILP2 RNAi larvae did not normally pupate and about 50% of the LdILP2 RNAi pupae did not emerge. Moreover, silencing LdILP2 reduced the expression of a juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis gene, lowered JH titer and disturbed JH signaling. Finally, knocking down LdILP2 inhibited an ecdysteroidogenesis gene, decreased 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) titer, and repressed the expression of two 20E-response genes LdHR3 and LdFTZ-F1. Thus, the IIS pathway is involved in larval-pupal metamorphosis by modification of both JH and 20E signaling in L. decemlineata. PMID:26812356

  8. An LD50 model for predicting psychotropic drug toxicity using biopartitioning micellar chromatography.

    PubMed

    Quiñones-Torrelo, C; Sagrado-Vives, S; Villanueva-Camañas, R M; Medina-Hernández, M J

    2001-02-01

    The LD50 determination is the main way to measure the acute toxicity of all types of substances. At the present time, however, there is increasing opposition to the use of living animals in research and testing activities from animal rights groups as well as some scientists. Nevertheless, the need to have a tool for estimating the potential toxicity of new compounds for human consumption has encouraged the development of alternative methods. Under adequate conditions, the partitioning in micellar liquid chromatography can describe the drug biopartitioning. We have named this chromatographic system biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC). In this paper, an LD50 QRAR model developed for psychotropic drugs from their retention data in BMC, is described. The model's ability to predict new psychotropic drug toxicity is statistically proved. PMID:11180298

  9. Treatment of LD100 Escherichia coli septic shock with netilmicin and methylprednisolone in baboons.

    PubMed

    Flournoy, D J; Archer, L T; Beller, B K; Passey, R; Hinshaw, L B

    1986-01-01

    Treatment efficacy with netilmicin sulphate/methylprednisolone sodium succinate in a severe septic shock baboon model, using an LD100 of live Escherichia coli, was evaluated. All the animals treated with both netilmicin and methylprednisolone were permanent (greater than or equal to 7 days) survivors, whereas none of the untreated baboons lived more than 24 hours. These results indicate that, in a baboon model, netilmicin is an effective alternative to gentamicin (with methylprednisolone) in the treatment of severe septic shock. PMID:3526104

  10. A novel technique to achieve strong colliding-pulse effect in CPM QW LD

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Hongbo; Li Yudong; Hu Lizhong; Wang Yiding; Yu Guanghui; Chen Songyan; Zhang Yuxian; Liu Shiyong

    1996-12-31

    The authors introduce in this paper a novel structure to achieve ultrashort optical pulse in colliding-pulse mode-locking (CPM) quantum well laser diodes. Two modulation segments have been introduced symmetrically around the center saturable absorber and the 5-segment CPM-LD is thus fabricated. By changing the injected current on the modulation segments separately, the FWHM of optical has been shortened from 1.6 ps, narrowest pulse width without modulation segments, to 0.96 ps.

  11. Complete genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis LD33, a bacteriocin-producing strain.

    PubMed

    Yuehua, Jiao; Lanwei, Zhang; Fei, Liu; Huaxi, Yi; Xue, Han

    2016-06-10

    Enterococcus faecalis LD33 strain was originally isolated from traditional naturally fermented cream in Inner Mongolia of China. Its complete genome sequence was carried out using the Illumina Hiseq and the PacBio RSII platform. The genome only has a circular chromosome and a GC content of 37.58%. Other core information shown in the genome sequencing results further insight on this bacterium's genetic elements for bacteriocin production and the genes related to respiratory chain. PMID:27090021

  12. Thrombolytic effects of Douchi Fibrinolytic enzyme from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Today, thrombosis is one of the most widely occurring diseases in modern life. Drugs with thrombolytic functions are the most effective methods in the treatment of thrombosis. Among them, Douchi fibrinolytic enzyme (DFE) is a promising agent. DFE was isolated from Douchi, a typical and popular soybean-fermented food in China, and it can dissolve fibrin directly and efficiently. A strain, Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 produced DFE with high fibrinolytic activity has been isolated in our lab previously. Results In the study, thrombolytic effect of DFE from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 was studied in vitro and in vivo systematically. The results showed that DFE played a significant role in thrombolysis and anticoagulation in vitro. And the thrombolytic effects correlated with DFE in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, the acute toxicity assay showed that DFE had no obvious acute toxicity to mice. Test of carrageenan-induced thrombosis in mice indicated that the DFE significantly prevented tail thrombosis, and arterial thrombosis model test indicated that Douchi fibrinolytic enzyme DFE had thrombolytic effect on carotid thrombosis of rabbits in vivo. Other results in vivo indicated that DFE could increase bleeding and clotting time obviously. Conclusions The DFE isolated from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 has obvious thrombolytic effects in vitro and in vivo. This function demonstrates that this enzyme can be a useful tool for preventing and treating clinical thrombus. PMID:22748219

  13. Self-efficacy from the perspective of adolescents with LD and their specialist teachers.

    PubMed

    Klassen, Robert M; Lynch, Shane L

    2007-01-01

    This study used qualitative methodology to investigate the self-efficacy beliefs of early adolescents with learning disabilities (LD). We conducted a series of focus group interviews with 28 Grade 8 and 9 students with LD and individual interviews with 7 specialist LD teachers. Content analyses of the student and teacher data resulted in 2 a priori and 3 inductive themes: self-efficacy, calibration and levels of self-efficacy, students' self-awareness, attributions for failure, and problems and solutions. The students viewed themselves as low in self-efficacy and generally accurate in the calibration of their efficacy and performance, whereas the teachers viewed the students as overconfident about academic tasks. In contrast to the teachers, the students viewed verbal persuasion as a valued source of self-efficacy. Students attributed their failures to lack of effort, whereas their teachers attributed student failure to uncontrollable deficits. Problems and solutions related to student motivation were discussed from student and teacher perspectives. PMID:18064976

  14. Epoxy matrix composites filled with micro-sized LD sludge: wear characterization and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, Abhilash; Satapathy, Alok

    2016-02-01

    Owing to the very high cost of conventional filler materials in polymer composites, exploring the possibility of using low cost minerals and industrial wastes for this purpose has become the need of the hour. In view of this, the present work includes the development and the wear performance evaluation of a new class of composites consisting of epoxy and microsized LD sludge. LD sludge or the Linz-Donawitz Sludge (LDS) are the fine solid particles recovered after wet cleaning of the gas emerging from LD convertors during steel making. Epoxy composites filled with different proportions (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt %) of LDS are fabricated by conventional hand lay-up technique. Dry sliding wear trials are performed on the composite specimens under different test conditions as per ASTM G 99 following a design of experiment approach based on Taguchi's orthogonal arrays. The Taguchi approach leads to the recognition of most powerful variables that predominantly control the wear rate. This parametric analysis reveals that LDS content and sliding velocity affects the specific wear rate more significantly than normal load and sliding distance. Furthermore with increase in LDS content specific wear rate of the composite decreases for a constant sliding velocity. The sliding wear behavior of these composites under an extended range of test conditions is predicted by a model based on the artificial neural network (ANN).

  15. LD50 and repellent effects of essential oils from Argentinian wild plant species on Varroa destructor.

    PubMed

    Ruffinengo, Sergio; Eguaras, Martin; Floris, Ignazio; Faverin, Claudia; Bailac, Pedro; Ponzi, Marta

    2005-06-01

    The repellent and acaricidal effects of some essential oils from the most typical wild plant species of northern Patagonia, Argentina, on Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman were evaluated using a complete exposure test. Honey bees, Apis mellifera L., and mites (five specimens of each per dish) were introduced in petri dishes having different oil concentrations (from 0.1 to 25 micro per cage). Survival of bees and mites was registered after 24, 48, and 72 h. An attraction/repellence test was performed using a wax tube impregnated with essential oil and another tube containing wax only. The lowest LD50 values for mites were registered for Acantholippia seriphioides (A. Gray) Mold. (1.27 microl per cage) and Schinus molle L. (2.65 microl per cage) after 24 h, and for Wedelia glauca (Ortega) O. Hoffm. ex Hicken (0.59 microl per cage) and A. seriphioides (1.09 microl per cage) after 72 h of treatment. The oil with the highest selectivity ratio (A. mellifera LD50/V. destructor LD50) was the one extracted from S. molle (>16). Oils of Lippia junelliana (Mold.) Troncoso, Minthostachys mollis (HBK) Grieseb., and Lippia turbinata Grieseb. mixed with wax had repellent properties. None of the oils tested had attractive effects on Varroa mites. PMID:16022288

  16. An electrodynamics-Langevin dynamics (ED-LD) approach to simulate metal nanoparticle interactions and motion.

    PubMed

    Sule, N; Rice, S A; Gray, S K; Scherer, N F

    2015-11-16

    Understanding the formation of electrodynamically interacting assemblies of metal nanoparticles requires accurate computational methods for determining the forces and propagating trajectories. However, since computation of electromagnetic forces occurs on attosecond to femtosecond timescales, simulating the motion of colloidal nanoparticles on milliseconds to seconds timescales is a challenging multi-scale computational problem. Here, we present a computational technique for performing accurate simulations of laser-illuminated metal nanoparticles. In the simulation, we self-consistently combine the finite-difference time-domain method for electrodynamics (ED) with Langevin dynamics (LD) for the particle motions. We demonstrate the ED-LD method by calculating the 3D trajectories of a single 100-nm-diameter Ag nanoparticle and optical trapping and optical binding of two and three 150-nm-diameter Ag nanoparticles in simulated optical tweezers. We show that surface charge on the colloidal metal nanoparticles plays an important role in their optically driven self-organization. In fact, these simulations provide a more complete understanding of the assembly of different structures of two and three Ag nanoparticles that have been observed experimentally, demonstrating that the ED-LD method will be a very useful tool for understanding the self-organization of optical matter. PMID:26698479

  17. A Modular Artificial Intelligence Inference Engine System (MAIS) for support of on orbit experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, Thomas M., III

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a Modular Artificial Intelligence Inference Engine System (MAIS) support tool that would provide health and status monitoring, cognitive replanning, analysis and support of on-orbit Space Station, Spacelab experiments and systems.

  18. Theoretical Accuracy of Along-Track Displacement Measurements from Multiple-Aperture Interferometry (MAI)

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyung-Sup; Lee, Won-Jin; Zhang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of precise along-track displacements has been made with the multiple-aperture interferometry (MAI). The empirical accuracies of the MAI measurements are about 6.3 and 3.57 cm for ERS and ALOS data, respectively. However, the estimated empirical accuracies cannot be generalized to any interferometric pair because they largely depend on the processing parameters and coherence of the used SAR data. A theoretical formula is given to calculate an expected MAI measurement accuracy according to the system and processing parameters and interferometric coherence. In this paper, we have investigated the expected MAI measurement accuracy on the basis of the theoretical formula for the existing X-, C- and L-band satellite SAR systems. The similarity between the expected and empirical MAI measurement accuracies has been tested as well. The expected accuracies of about 2–3 cm and 3–4 cm (γ = 0.8) are calculated for the X- and L-band SAR systems, respectively. For the C-band systems, the expected accuracy of Radarsat-2 ultra-fine is about 3–4 cm and that of Sentinel-1 IW is about 27 cm (γ = 0.8). The results indicate that the expected MAI measurement accuracy of a given interferometric pair can be easily calculated by using the theoretical formula. PMID:25251408

  19. Theoretical accuracy of along-track displacement measurements from multiple-aperture interferometry (MAI).

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyung-Sup; Lee, Won-Jin; Zhang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of precise along-track displacements has been made with the multiple-aperture interferometry (MAI). The empirical accuracies of the MAI measurements are about 6.3 and 3.57 cm for ERS and ALOS data, respectively. However, the estimated empirical accuracies cannot be generalized to any interferometric pair because they largely depend on the processing parameters and coherence of the used SAR data. A theoretical formula is given to calculate an expected MAI measurement accuracy according to the system and processing parameters and interferometric coherence. In this paper, we have investigated the expected MAI measurement accuracy on the basis of the theoretical formula for the existing X-, C- and L-band satellite SAR systems. The similarity between the expected and empirical MAI measurement accuracies has been tested as well. The expected accuracies of about 2-3 cm and 3-4 cm (γ = 0.8) are calculated for the X- and L-band SAR systems, respectively. For the C-band systems, the expected accuracy of Radarsat-2 ultra-fine is about 3-4 cm and that of Sentinel-1 IW is about 27 cm (γ = 0.8). The results indicate that the expected MAI measurement accuracy of a given interferometric pair can be easily calculated by using the theoretical formula. PMID:25251408

  20. High Density LD-Based Structural Variations Analysis in Cattle Genome

    PubMed Central

    Salomon-Torres, Ricardo; Matukumalli, Lakshmi K.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Villa-Angulo, Carlos; Gonzalez-Vizcarra, Víctor M.; Villa-Angulo, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Genomic structural variations represent an important source of genetic variation in mammal genomes, thus, they are commonly related to phenotypic expressions. In this work, ∼770,000 single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes from 506 animals from 19 cattle breeds were analyzed. A simple LD-based structural variation was defined, and a genome-wide analysis was performed. After applying some quality control filters, for each breed and each chromosome we calculated the linkage disequilibrium (r2) of short range (≤100 Kb). We sorted SNP pairs by distance and obtained a set of LD means (called the expected means) using bins of 5 Kb. We identified 15,246 segments of at least 1 Kb, among the 19 breeds, consisting of sets of at least 3 adjacent SNPs so that, for each SNP, r2 within its neighbors in a 100 Kb range, to the right side of that SNP, were all bigger than, or all smaller than, the corresponding expected mean, and their P-value were significant after a Benjamini-Hochberg multiple testing correction. In addition, to account just for homogeneously distributed regions we considered only SNPs having at least 15 SNP neighbors within 100 Kb. We defined such segments as structural variations. By grouping all variations across all animals in the sample we defined 9,146 regions, involving a total of 53,137 SNPs; representing the 6.40% (160.98 Mb) from the bovine genome. The identified structural variations covered 3,109 genes. Clustering analysis showed the relatedness of breeds given the geographic region in which they are evolving. In summary, we present an analysis of structural variations based on the deviation of the expected short range LD between SNPs in the bovine genome. With an intuitive and simple definition based only on SNPs data it was possible to discern closeness of breeds due to grouping by geographic region in which they are evolving. PMID:25050984

  1. Temperature distribution of laser crystal in LD end-pumped Nd:YAG/LBO blue laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Yibo; Li, Simian; Jia, Liping; Kang, Junjian

    2012-11-01

    In this study, LD end-pumped Nd:YAG/LBO solid state blue laser is realized by even hollow cavity. A thermal distribution model of Nd:YAG crystal is established. Based on the calculation, the temperature distribution of laser crystal is obtained. The results show that the temperature decreases from the pump end to the launch end exponentially. When the pumping power is 10 W and the radius of pumping beams is 240μm, a biggest output power 1.06 W of blue light is achieved, giving an optical conversion efficiency of 10.6%.

  2. Estimation of ED50 or LD50 using a programmable pocket calculator.

    PubMed

    Mehta, S C; Jain, D K; Gupta, C K

    1991-01-01

    A program is developed for estimation of median effective dose (ED50 or LD50), using the hand-held programmable pocket calculator HP41CV. The well-known Finney's algorithm of probit analysis is used. Input of data is simple, but is restricted to a maximum of 15 groups. The program structure makes use of the technique of indirect addressing for storage, and statistical register manipulation for weighted regression. The ability of the calculator to give sufficiently precise results can be exploited in other similar situations. PMID:1914446

  3. Lateral directional requirements for a low L/D aeromaneuvering orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, J. D.; Spratlin, K. M.; Skalecki, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    The lateral-directional aerodynamics and control requirements for a low L/D (0.3) aeromaneuvering orbital transfer vehicle are evaluated. A lateral directional RCS control concept that permits a linearized analysis is utilized to evaluate the effect of Dutch Roll frequency and damping on the atmospheric guidance and control performance. The bank rate and acceleration requirements for acceptable performance are defined and the sensitivity to a parameter similar to the lateral control departure parameter but involving the RCS jets is evaluated.

  4. Infection dynamics and molecular identification of metacercariae in cyprinoids from Chiang Mai and Sakon Nakhon Provinces.

    PubMed

    Wongsawad, Pheravut; Wongsawad, Chalobol

    2011-01-01

    The infection dynamics of metacercariae were assessed in cyprinoid fish (cyprinoids) from Chiang Mai and Sakon Nakhon Provinces, Thailand, during October 2008 to September 2009. The samples were collected during 3 seasons from rivers and local markets. Metacercarial infection was determined by acid-pepsin digestion and confirmed using HAT-RAPD PCR method. Thirteen and 16 species of cyprinoids were collected from Chiang Mai and Sakon Nakhon with overall prevalences of metacercarial infection of 84.5 and 47.6%, respectively. Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchoides sp, and Centrocestus caninus were found in Chiang Mai and 4 species of metacercariae: H. taichui, Haplorchoides sp, O. viverrini and an unknown trematode species in Sakon Nakhon. H. taichui and Haplorchoides sp metacercariae in 3 species of cyprinoids (Henicorhynchus siamensis, Cyclocheilichthys armatus, Amblyrhynchichthy truncatus) had the highest prevalence (100%) in Chiang Mai, while the highest prevalence (100%) of metacercaria in Sakon Nakhon was Haplorchoides sp in 1 species of cyprinoids (Cyclocheilichthys armatus). The overall prevalence from Chiang Mai Province was highest in the rainy season (95.6%), lower in the hot-dry season (88.1%) and lowest in the cool season (72.5%). In Sakon Nakhon Province the highest prevalence was in the hot-dry season (52.7%), and lower in the rainy and cool season, 44.4% and 43.5%, respectively. The HAT-RAPD profiles confirmed the identity of metacercariae and adult stage of H. taichui, Haplorchoides sp, C. caninus and O. viverrini. PMID:21323165

  5. Computer Supported Indexing: A History and Evaluation of NASA's MAI System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.

    1997-01-01

    Computer supported or machine aided indexing (MAI) can be categorized in multiple ways. The system used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI) is described as semantic and computational. It's based on the co-occurrence of domain-specific terminology in parts of a sentence, and the probability that an indexer will assign a particular index term when a given word or phrase is encountered in text. The NASA CASI system is run on demand by the indexer and responds in 3 to 9 seconds with a list of suggested, authorized terms. The system was originally based on a syntactic system used in the late 1970's by the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC). The NASA mainframe-supported system consists of three components: two programs and a knowledge base (KB). The evolution of the system is described and flow charts illustrate the MAI procedures. Tests used to evaluate NASA's MAI system were limited to those that would not slow production. A very early test indicated that MAI saved about 3 minutes and provided several additional terms for each document indexed. It also was determined that time and other resources spent in careful construction of the KB pay off with high-quality output and indexer acceptance of MAI results.

  6. 17 CFR 249.1310 - Form MA-I, for providing information regarding natural person municipal advisors, and for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting Form MA-I, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Form MA-I, for providing... Regarding Certain Natural Persons § 249.1310 Form MA-I, for providing information regarding natural...

  7. 17 CFR 240.15Ba1-5 - Amendments to Form MA and Form MA-I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shall promptly amend the information contained in its Form MA (17 CFR 249.1300): (1) At least annually... information contained in Form MA-I (17 CFR 249.1310) by filing an amended Form MA-I whenever the information... registered municipal advisor shall file all amendments to Form MA (17 CFR 249.1300) and Form MA-I (17 CFR...

  8. Effectiveness of steroid/antibiotic treatment in primates administered LD100 Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hinshaw, L B; Beller-Todd, B K; Archer, L T; Benjamin, B; Flournoy, D J; Passey, R; Wilson, M F

    1981-07-01

    Early aggressive therapy with maintenance infusions of methylprednisolone sodium succinate and gentamicin sulfate significantly increases the probability for survival of baboons given LD100 Escherichia coli. The present study was designed to determine if baboons would recover when initiation of treatment was delayed until they had sustained E. coli-induced systemic hypotension for a period of approximately three hours. Sixteen adult baboons were each administered a two-hour infusion of LD100 E. coli. All eight untreated animals died within 42 hours. Five of the eight baboons treated after approximately three hours of hypotension with methylprednisolone sodium succinate and gentamicin sulfate survived. Treated animals had significantly higher blood glucose and insulin levels and lower blood urea nitrogen concentrations than baboons receiving E. coli alone. E. coli blood concentrations were lower in the treated than in the untreated baboon group by the sixth hour (less than 0.02). Heart rates increased in all animals but were not as high in the treated baboons. Both groups experienced similar decreases in mean systemic arterial pressure, PCO2, base excess, leukocyte, lymphocyte, and platelet concentrations, and increases in creatinine and lactate concentrations. Data from the present study indicate that the probability of recovery from shock is significantly increased even when initiation of steroid/antibiotic therapy is postponed until baboons have experienced sustained systemic hypotension. PMID:7018430

  9. Why are students with LD depressed? A goal orientation model of depression vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Sideridis, Georgios D

    2007-01-01

    The thesis of the present study was that failure in achievement tasks may constitute a stress factor that can trigger a depression episode, particularly for students with learning disabilities (LD), and that a particular motivational pattern may constitute a cognitive diathesis for depression. Participants were 104 students referred for LD who were drawn from a pool of approximately 900 students from Grades 5 and 6. Students were challenged with a series of difficult math exercises, and their achievement behaviors were examined as a function of achievement goal orientations. Results from structural equation modeling provided empirical support of the contention that performance-avoidance goals may account for a series of negative cognitions and affect. Direct positive paths linked performance-avoidance goals to anxiety, depression, and negative affect; negative paths were revealed with regard to self-esteem and positive affect. Thus, performance-avoidance goals may possess elements of the diathesis mechanism described by Dykman, constituting a vulnerability factor that triggers the mechanism of depression when negative events are in place. PMID:18064978

  10. Discovery of novel anti-leishmanial agents targeting LdLip3 lipase.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, Saravanan; Saudagar, Prakash; Dubey, Vikash Kumar; Patra, Sanjukta

    2014-04-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease, caused by several species of Leishmania. Being an opportunistic lipid-scavenging pathogen, Leishmania relies extensively on lipid metabolism especially for host-pathogen interaction, utilizing host lipids for energy and virulence. The rational approach is to target lipid metabolism of the pathogen focusing lipid-catabolizing lipases. The LdLip3 lipase is considered as drug target as it is constitutively expressed in both promastigote and amastigote forms. Since the LdLip3 structure is not known, we modeled its three-dimensional structure to implement structure-based drug discovery approach. Similarity-based virtual screening was carried out to identify potential inhibitors utilizing NCI diversity set on ZINC database including natural products. Implementing computational and experimental approaches, four anti-leishmanial agents were discovered. The screened molecules ZINC01821375, ZINC04008765, ZINC06117316 and ZINC12653571 had anti-leishmanial activity with IC50 (% viable promastigotes vs. concentration) of 5.2±1.8μM, 13.1±2.6μM, 9.4±2.6μM and 17.3±3.1μM, respectively. The molecules showed negligible toxicity toward mouse macrophages. Based on the contact footprinting analysis, new molecules were designed with better predicted free energy of binding than discovered anti-leishmanial agents. Further validation for the therapeutic utility of discovered molecules can be carried out by the research community to combat leishmaniasis. PMID:24530543

  11. Multifunctional coating MAI D5 intended for the protection of refractory materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhestkov, B. E.; Terent'eva, V. S.

    2010-01-01

    A thin-layer heterophase MAI D5 coating intended for the protection of carbon-containing composite materials (C-C-, C-SiC-, SiC-SiC-composite material) and refractory metal-based alloys against high-temperature gas corrosion and erosion is tested. The coating is formed from a specially developed Si-Ti-Mo-B-Y microcomposition powder material. A new approach to creating self-healing heterophase coatings is used. At operating temperatures, the structure and phase composition of the MAI D5 coating provides rapid self-healing of random defects on the coating surface and in the base material owing to the presence of a silicon-containing eutectic, which favors rapid recovery of a protective amorphous silica layer consumed during operation. Under operating conditions, the coating undergoes self-organization to form a multilayer system with a number of functional oxide micro-, submicro-, and nanolayers. Samples with the MAI D5 coating are subjected to combined tests on bench plants located at MAI and TsAGI under conditions emulating the re-entry of a hypersonic aircraft, when its surface temperature reaches 2400 K. Certification tests are performed in wind tunnels located at TsAGI during a simultaneous action of a hypersonic dissociated-air flow and mechanical loads. The protection of heat-loaded structural elements in space vehicles made of ultrahigh-temperature materials against high-temperature gas corrosion and erosion by the MAI D5 coating in hypersonic dissociated-air flows is shown to be efficient.

  12. Synthesis of a novel cytokine and its gene (LD78) expressions in hematopoietic fresh tumor cells and cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamura, Y; Hattori, T; Obaru, K; Sakai, K; Asou, N; Takatsuki, K; Ohmoto, Y; Nomiyama, H; Shimada, K

    1989-01-01

    The gene coding for the protein LD78 was isolated from stimulated human tonsillar lymphocytes by differential hybridization. The gene product consisted of 92 amino acids with characteristics of cytokines. LD78 gene transcripts were detected in eight of eight fresh samples of cells from patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) by Northern blot analysis. ANLL cells with monocytic features gave the strongest bands. RNA transcripts were found in two of three samples of cells from patients with adult T cell leukemia (ATL), eight of nine samples from patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) of B cell lineage, and one of the three samples from patients with T cell ALL. KG-1, HL-60, HUT 102, MT-2, and MJ cell lines expressed the LD78 gene constitutively. The LD78 protein was detected in culture supernatants and cell lysates of HUT 102, MT-2, MJ, and fresh ATL cells by Western blot analysis. This protein was not found in culture supernatants or cell lysates of monocytic leukemia cells and HL-60 cells, although LD78 transcripts were found in those cells. The discrepancy between gene and protein expression might be explained by the stability of the mRNA. Thus, the protein may be involved in the neoplastic transformation of hematopoietic cells. Images PMID:2687328

  13. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder/learning disabilities (ADHD/LD): parental characterization and perception.

    PubMed

    Brook, Uzi; Boaz, Mona

    2005-04-01

    Sixty-six parents of adolescents (mean age, 14.8 years), who attended special education classes and who were diagnosed as having attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder/learning disabilities (ADHD/LD), were interviewed. The comorbidity of the ADHD group included emotional lability and/or depression, 70%; oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), 67%; obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 44%; addiction to buying, 44%; and aggressiveness, 62%. Twenty-one percent were either involved in the past or presently using drugs. Nine percent had attempted suicide. According to their parents, the main characteristic of these adolescents was low self-image. Parents enumerated five negative characteristics: impulsiveness; nervousness; angered easily ('short fused'); aggressiveness with cursing and outbursts; and impaired sociability with impoliteness. PMID:15797157

  14. LD-cladding-pumped 50 pm linewidth Tm 3+ -doped silica fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Yunjun, Zhang; Baoquan, Yao; Youlun, Ju; Hui, Zhou; Yuezhu, Wang

    2008-05-26

    We report on a Tm(3+)-doped fiber laser source operating at 1936.4 nm with a very narrow linewidth (50 pm) laser output. Up to 2.4 W cw laser power was obtained from an 82 cm long Tm(3+)-doped multimode-core fiber cladding pumped by a 792 nm laser diode (LD). The fiber laser cavity included a high-reflective dichroic and a low-reflective FBG output coupler. The multimode fiber Bragg grating (FBG) transmission spectrum and output laser spectrum were measured. By adjusting the distance between the dichroic and the Tm(3+)-doped fiber end, the multipeak laser spectrum changed to a single-peak laser spectrum. PMID:18545481

  15. Polymorphs of Aspirin Solid-state IR-LD spectroscopic and quantitative determination in solid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, Bojidarka B.

    2006-12-01

    Solid-state linear-dichroic infrared (IR-LD) spectroscopy, using an orientation technique as a suspension in nematic liquid crystal, has been carried out of Aspirin polymorphs (forms I and II). Reducing-difference procedure for polarized IR-spectra interpretation has been applied for structural analysis of both modifications and the data have been compared with known crystallographic ones. A vibration assignment of forms I and II has been included and on this basis, a quantitative determination by FT-IR spectra for form I in mixtures with second one has been presented, using intensity ratio of 1606 cm -1 peak (characteristic for both forms) to 599 cm -1 one (attributed to form I). The obtained reliability is 99.78%.

  16. Two phase choke flow in tubes with very large L/D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Simoneau, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Data were obtained for two phase and gaseous choked flow nitrogen in a long constant area duct of 16200 L/D with a diverging diffuser attached to the exit. Flow rate data were taken along five isotherms (reduced temperature of 0.81, 0.96, 1.06, 1.12, and 2.34) for reduced pressures to 3. The flow rate data were mapped in the usual manner using stagnation conditions at the inlet mixing chamber upstream of the entrance length. The results are predictable by a two phase homogeneous equilibrium choking flow model which includes wall friction. A simplified theory which in essence decouples the long tube region from the high acceleration choking region also appears to predict the data resonably well, but about 15 percent low.

  17. Two phase choke flow in tubes with very large L/D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Simoneau, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Two phase and gaseous choked flow data for fluid nitrogen were obtained for a test section which was a long constant area duct of 16 200 L/D with a diverging diffuser attached to the exit. Flow rate data were taken along five isotherms (reduced temperature of 0.81, 0.96, 1.06, 1.12, and 2.34) for reduced pressures to 3. The flow rate data were mapped in the usual manner using stagnation conditions at the inlet mixing chamber upstream of the entrance length. The results are predictable by a two-phase homogeneous equilibrium choking flow model which includes wall fraction. A simplified theory which in essence decouples the long tube region from the high acceleration choking region also appears to predict the data reasonably well, but about 15 percent low.

  18. Investigations on the heating effect of PE-LD induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Oehm, Lukas; Bach, Sascha; Majschak, Jens-Peter

    2016-08-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound is widely applied in tissue treatment as well as for heating of solid polymer materials. Previous studies investigating the heating effect in polymer materials utilized sound transmission through water or other fluids at low HIFU power. In this study, the ultrasonic transducer possesses a solid sound conductor made of aluminum and a high HIFU power of above 100W was applied to heat solid PE-LD samples. Temperature measurements were performed by calibrated non-invasive infrared thermal imaging. A strong heating effect with heating above melting temperature and evaporation temperature within less than 1s of irradiation was observed. Furthermore, the acoustic coupling defined by the force applied by the ultrasonic applicator to the polymer material was found to be fundamental to induce the heating effect. This investigation reveals HIFU for new applications in the field of polymer processing. PMID:27208613

  19. Molecular characterization and LD(50) identify virulent isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis from adult sepsis.

    PubMed

    Herndona, B L; Bialkowska-Hobrzanska, H; Dall, L

    2000-02-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis plays an important role in infections of patients with implanted prosthetic devices. The exact clinical significance of recovered S. epidermidis from clinical specimens is difficult to assess, as they are inhabitants of the normal skin. In this study, 11 adults with clinical sepsis and blood cultures that grew only S. epidermidis were the host population. Bacterial virulence in vivo was determined by using the mouse LD(50) assay where the intravenous lethality was determined for each patient isolate. Bacterial dose (CFU x 10(9)) that produced lethality in 50% of the animals at 12 h was the value used for comparison. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used for identification of individual strains and their clonal organization. Confirmation of species assignment was done by RFLP analysis of 16S + 23S rRNA gene regions (ribotyping). Plasmid profile analysis was also conducted. Four of 11 blood isolates from adults with S. epidermidis sepsis had indistinguishable or closely related DNA patterns and were considered clone A. The same clone was previously seen to account for the majority of sepsis in a neonatal intensive care unit. There were significant differences in virulence characteristics of the S. epidermidis isolates. Clone A isolates produced lethality by LD(50) in mice at a dose averaging 2.35; clone B isolate at a dose of 2.54, and the remaining isolates, representing six distinct clones, were lethal to mice at significantly larger doses (3.51-5.17, average 4.16). These data suggest that individual clones of S. epidermidis isolated from septic adults have detectable differences in virulence as defined by an animal bioassay, and the more virulent clone is widespread. PMID:10705046

  20. Screening for specific learning difficulties (SpLD): the impact upon the progression of pre-registration nursing students.

    PubMed

    Wray, Jane; Aspland, Jo; Taghzouit, Jayne; Pace, Kerry; Harrison, Paula

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the impact of screening pre-registration nursing students for an SpLD at entry to an education programme, and the provision of specialist support for those identified as 'at risk'. Progression was monitored using a multiple method approach. 242 (98%) students completed and returned the Adult Dyslexia Check List (ADCL). 69 scored 7 or above (28.5% of responses) and 36 (52%) went on for further assessment. 48% of students who scored 7+ did not go on to contact Disability Services at all. 11% of the cohort was formally identified as having a SpLD at the end of the year compared to 3.9% of students with a declared disability entering pre-registration nurse education in 2007. 54% of the students who scored 7+ successfully progressed into year two, compared with 41% of students with SpLD from a previous cohort. PMID:21353730

  1. Human Health Impact of Fluoride in Groundwater in the Chiang Mai Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Y.; Takizawa, S.; Wattanachira, S.; Wongrueng, A.; Ibaraki, M.

    2005-12-01

    Chiang Mai Basin, in Northern Thailand, is known as a fluorotic area. Groundwater of the Chiang Mai Basin has been gradually replaced by contaminated surface water since the 1980's. People have been exposed to fluoride contaminated groundwater since that time. As a result, harmful health effects on dental and skeletal growth were observed in the 90's. These include dental and skeletal fluorosis. Dental fluorosis is characterized by yellow or white spots on teeth and pitting or mottled enamel, consequently causing the teeth to look unsightly. Skeletal fluorosis leads to changes in bone structure, making them extremely weak and brittle. The most severe form of this is known as ``crippling skeletal fluorosis,'' a condition that can cause immobility, muscle wasting, and neurological problems related to spinal cord compression. This study focuses on the problematic issue of the Chiang Mai Basin's groundwater from the viewpoint of fluoride occurrence and current health impacts. Chiang Mai and Lamphun Provinces comprise the Chiang Mai Basin. Fluoride rich granites or fluorite deposits are scattered across the mountainside of the Lamphun Province. Tropical savanna climate conditions with seasonal monsoons bring more than 1,000 mm of annual precipitation, which can prompt weathering of minerals containing fluoride. The Ping River dominates the Basin, and the main eastern tributary of the Ping River runs through the Lamphun Province. The Basin has geological units composed of lower semi-consolidated Tertiary fluvial and upper unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium deposits. The main aquifers are in the upper unconsolidated unit. High fluoride concentrations tend to be observed in the aquifer located in lower part of this unconsolidated unit. We have been investigating two areas in the Basin. These two locations are similar with respect to geological and hydrological settings. However, one area in which groundwater is Ca-bicarbonate dominant has a low fluoride occurrence

  2. An optical pulse width modulation generator based on the injection-locking property of single mode FP-LD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Quoc Hoai; Nakarmi, Bikash; Won, Yong Hyub

    2013-03-01

    A novel simple optical pulse width modulation generator (OPWMG) based on injection-locking property of a single mode FP-LD (SMFP-LD) has been proposed and experimentally verified. The OPWMG consists of a SMFP-LD (which acts as comparator), an optical sinusoidal wave source (analog input), and a continuous optical beam (control signal). The power required for fully injection-locking the SMFP-LD acts as the referent power whereas the combination power of continuous optical beam and analog optical sinusoidal signals work as control signals for changing the duty cycle of the proposed OPWMG. The presence of only continuous optical beam is not sufficient to suppress the dominant mode of SMFP-LD with high ON/OFF contrast ratio; however, the application of additional sinusoidal wave of constant amplitude and frequency, the dominant mode of SMFP-LD can be suppressed for the certain time window. Since, injection-locking power is dependent with the combined power of input injected continuous beam and sinusoidal optical wave, the time window of injection-locking can be varied by changing input beam power which provides different duty cycle of 13% to 68% at the output. Current available schemes for generating PWM signals are in electrical domain, hence, they need to convert electrical signals into optical domain by using expensive O/E converters for application in optical control and signal processing. The proposed OPWMG scheme has several advantages, such as low cost, low power consumption (~0.5 mW) which can be used for various applications where the effect of EMI/EMR is considered as an important factor such as control circuit for high voltage converters in power plant and electrical vehicles.

  3. Lactate dehydrogenase (LD), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) isoenzymatic patterns in Iraqi children with visceral leishmaniasis before and after treatment with stibogluconate.

    PubMed

    Taher, Jasim Hameed; Al-Mulla Hummadi, Yassir Mustafa Kamal; Al-Bashir, Nada Muhammed Taha; Al-Araji, Ali Shaalan

    2016-06-01

    The mean levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase enzymes exhibited a significant elevation in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients compared to the control. There was no significant change in relation to the sex and age. ALP isoenzymes revealed three banding patterns which differ from the three zymodems which were obtained from control group. These differences may be due to isoenzymes activity of patients with VL before and after therapy. Lactate dehydrogenase (LD) isoenzymes revealed five banding patterns differ from the five normal zymodems. These differences mainly occurred due to LD isoenzymes activity in patients with VL before and after therapy. PMID:27413293

  4. A synthesis of spelling and reading interventions and their effects on the spelling outcomes of students with LD.

    PubMed

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Vaughn, Sharon; Wexler, Jade; Swanson, Elizabeth A; Edmonds, Meghan; Kim, Ae-Hwa

    2006-01-01

    Previous research studies examining the effects of spelling and reading interventions on the spelling outcomes of students with learning disabilities (LD) are synthesized. An extensive search of the professional literature between 1995 and 2003 yielded a total of 19 intervention studies that provided spelling and reading interventions to students with LD and measured spelling outcomes. Findings revealed that spelling outcomes were consistently improved following spelling interventions that included explicit instruction with multiple practice opportunities and immediate corrective feedback after the word was misspelled. Furthermore, evidence from spelling interventions that employed assistive technology aimed at spelling in written compositions indicated positive effects on spelling outcomes. PMID:17165620

  5. [Predictive validity of the Movement Assessment of Infants (MAI) for Brazilian preterm children].

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Ana Amélia; Magalhães, Lívia C; Amorim, Regina Helena C; Paixão, Maria Lúcia; Mancini, Marisa C; Rossi, Luciana D F

    2004-12-01

    The predictive validity of the Movement Assessment of Infants (MAI) for the detection of cerebral palsy was analyzed in 89 Brazilian infants, born with gestational age < or = 32 weeks and weight < or = 1500 g. The infants were assessed with the MAI at 4 and 8 months, corrected ages, and were submitted to a neurological evaluation between the ages 2 and 7 years old. Estimates of sensibility (0.61 - 1.0), specificity (0.79 - 0.95), positive predictive value (0.48 - 0.73) and negative predictive value (0.79 - 1.0) were calculated at 4 and 8 months, for risk points > or = 13 and > or = 10. The best predictive values were obtained at 8 months, with a cut off > or = 13 risk points. A less restrictive criteria (> or = 10 points) might be useful for the prediction of motor coordination problems at school age. PMID:15608968

  6. Differentiating Literacy Growth of ELL Students with LD from Other High-Risk Subgroups and General Education Peers: Evidence from Grades 3-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solari, Emily J.; Petscher, Yaacov; Folsom, Jessica Sidler

    2014-01-01

    The authors used a large data set (N = 1,011,549) to examine literacy growth over a single school year comparing general education (GenEd) students to three high-risk subgroups: English language learners (ELL), those with a specific learning disability (LD), and those identified as both LD and ELL (LD-ELL) in students in Grades 3-10. The authors…

  7. Comparing Potential with Achievement: Rationale and Procedures for Objectively Analyzing Achievement-Aptitude Discrepancies in LD Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Gerald S.; And Others

    A critical review of the literature dealing with quantification of achievement-aptitude differences for identifying learning disabled (LD) readers revealed that methods developed to date suffer from grave inadequacies. Among the methods considered were those of the following individuals: G. Bond and M. Tinker, M. Monroe, A. Harris and E. Sipay, H.…

  8. Processing Patterns of ADHD, ADHD-I, and ADHD/LD Children on the LET-II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Raymond E.

    This paper discusses the findings from a study that investigated the information processing characteristics of 93 children (ages 8-16) who have been diagnosed as having either attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only, ADHD-Predominately Inattentive Type, and combined ADHD and learning disabilities (LD). Thirty-nine average students,…

  9. Virtual Connections, Personal Resources, Loneliness, and Academic Self-Efficacy among College Students with and without LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharabi, Adi; Sade, Sarit; Margalit, Malka

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the study were first to compare the social and academic well-being (loneliness and academic self-efficacy (ASE) among college students with and without learning disabilities (LD), as well as three personal strengths (hope, optimism and sense of coherence (SOC). The second goal was to identify the predicting factors to their loneliness…

  10. A Synthesis of Spelling and Reading Interventions and Their Effects on the Spelling Outcomes of Students with LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Vaughn, Sharon; Wexler, Jade; Swanson, Elizabeth A.; Edmonds, Meghan; Kim, Ae-Hwa

    2006-01-01

    Previous research studies examining the effects of spelling and reading interventions on the spelling outcomes of students with learning disabilities (LD) are synthesized. An extensive search of the professional literature between 1995 and 2003 yielded a total of 19 intervention studies that provided spelling and reading interventions to students…

  11. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus plantarum LD1 Isolated from Batter of Dosa, a South Indian Fermented Food.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aabha; Tiwari, Santosh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum LD1 was isolated from dosa batter and identified by biochemical, physiological and genetic methods. Species level identification was done by 16S rDNA amplification and sequencing. The probiotic potential of strain LD1 was assessed by different standard parameters. Cell surface hydrophobicity was recorded to be 62% with SAT value <0.007 M. Seventy-eight percent of viable count was found after treatment with simulated gastric juice containing pepsin (pH 2.0). Bile salt tolerance and bile salt hydrolase activity were also demonstrated by strain LD1. The culture supernatant was able to inhibit food-borne as well as clinical pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, urogenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio sp. Strain LD1 was found to be sensitive to most of the antibiotics used in the study. Since strain has been isolated from food source that is most typical of Southern India, it would be safe for further consumption in probiotic products. PMID:24676724

  12. Teaching Business Law to Non-Law Students, Culturally and Linguistically Diverse ("CaLD") Students, and Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kariyawasam, Kanchana; Low, Hang Yen

    2014-01-01

    This paper is largely based on the experience of teaching law to students with non-legal background in business schools, with a focus on internationalisation and the large class lecture format. Business schools often consist of large classes which include a significant proportion of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CaLD) students. Teaching a…

  13. Graphic Organizers and Their Effects on the Reading Comprehension of Students with LD: A Synthesis of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, A-H.; Vaughn, S.; Wanzek, J.; Wei, S.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research studies examining the effects of graphic organizers on reading comprehension for students with learning disabilities (LD) are reviewed. An extensive search of the professional literature between 1963 and June 2001 yielded a total of 21 group design intervention studies that met the criteria for inclusion in the synthesis. Using…

  14. Molecular dissection and expression of the LdK39 kinesin in the human pathogen, Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Gerald, Noel J; Coppens, Isabelle; Dwyer, Dennis M

    2007-02-01

    In this study we show for the first time the intracellular distribution of a K39 kinesin homologue in Leishmania donovani, a medically important parasite of humans. Further, we demonstrated that this motor protein is expressed in both the insect and mammalian developmental forms (i.e. promastigote and amastigotes) of this organism. Moreover, in both of these parasite developmental stages, immunofluorescence indicated that the LdK39 kinesin accumulated at anterior and posterior cell poles and that it displayed a peripheral localization consistent with the cortical cytoskeleton. Using a molecular approach, we identified, cloned and characterized the first complete open reading frame for the gene (LdK39) encoding this large (> 358 kDa) motor protein in L. donovani. Based on these observations, we subsequently used a homologous episomal expression system to dissect and express the functional domains that constitute the native molecule. Cell fractionation experiments demonstrated that LdK39 was soluble and that it bound to detergent-extracted cytoskeletons of these parasites in an ATP-dependent manner. The cumulative results of these experiments are consistent with LdK39 functioning as an ATP-dependent kinesin which binds to and travels along the cortical cytoskeleton of this important human pathogen. PMID:17257310

  15. Helping Students with Disabilities Transition to College: 21 Tips for Students with LD and/or ADD/ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Making the transition from high school to college poses challenges for most students. Moving from a secure, regulated world of secondary education into an unfamiliar environment requiring greater independence can be a destabilizing experience. For students with learning disabilities (LD) and/or Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), managing this…

  16. Some aspects of a free jet phenomena to 105 L/D in a constant area duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Under certain conditions, inlets with a Borda type geometry were shown to exhibit sufficiently strong separation effects to permit the working fluid to flow through the duct as if it were a free jet. Mass limiting flow data and associated pressure profiles for tubes of 14, 53, 64, 73, and 105 L/D with a Borda type inlet were taken to determine bounds of the free jet phenomena. For a given tube roughness, the limits appear to be one dimensional and dependent only on inlet stagnation conditions. For smooth tubes the upper L/D boundary is related by P sub R roughly equal to CT to the 17th power and sub R, C roughly equal to 00017 (L/D) to the 2.5 power where F sub R = P/P sub c is reduced pressure and T sub R = T/T sub c is reduced temperature. The lower bound appears to be saturation conditions at the inlet. Similar free jet effects were found for fluid hydrogen indicating that fluid jetting may be common to all fluids. While limited data on surface roughness show a decrease in the upper L/D limit, nevertheless fluid jetting still occurred.

  17. The Baseplate of Lactobacillus delbrueckii Bacteriophage Ld17 Harbors a Glycerophosphodiesterase.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Anneleen; Sadovskaya, Irina; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Blangy, Stéphanie; Spinelli, Silvia; Casey, Eoghan; Mahony, Jennifer; Noben, Jean-Paul; Dal Bello, Fabio; Cambillau, Christian; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2016-08-01

    Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases (GDPDs; EC 3.1.4.46) typically hydrolyze glycerophosphodiesters to sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (Gro3P) and their corresponding alcohol during patho/physiological processes in bacteria and eukaryotes. GDPD(-like) domains were identified in the structural particle of bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) specifically infecting Gram-positive bacteria. The GDPD of phage 17 (Ld17; GDPDLd17), representative of the group b Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Ldb)-infecting bacteriophages, was shown to hydrolyze, besides the simple glycerophosphodiester, two complex surface-associated carbohydrates of the Ldb17 cell envelope: the Gro3P decoration of the major surface polysaccharide d-galactan and the oligo(glycerol phosphate) backbone of the partially glycosylated cell wall teichoic acid, a minor Ldb17 cell envelope component. Degradation of cell wall teichoic acid occurs according to an exolytic mechanism, and Gro3P substitution is presumed to be inhibitory for GDPDLd17 activity. The presence of the GDPDLd17 homotrimer in the viral baseplate structure involved in phage-host interaction together with the dependence of native GDPD activity, adsorption, and efficiency of plating of Ca(2+) ions supports a role for GDPDLd17 activity during phage adsorption and/or phage genome injection. In contrast to GDPDLd17, we could not identify any enzymatic activity for the GDPD-like domain in the neck passage structure of phage 340, a 936-type Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bacteriophage. PMID:27268053

  18. Structure and Function of a Novel ld-Carboxypeptidase A Involved in Peptidoglycan Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Das, Debanu; Hervé, Mireille; Elsliger, Marc-André; Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Grant, Joanna C.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Knuth, Mark W.; Klock, Heath E.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Deacon, Ashley M.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 50% of cell wall peptidoglycan in Gram-negative bacteria is recycled with each generation. The primary substrates used for peptidoglycan biosynthesis and recycling in the cytoplasm are GlcNAc-MurNAc(anhydro)-tetrapeptide and its degradation product, the free tetrapeptide. This complex process involves ∼15 proteins, among which the cytoplasmic enzyme ld-carboxypeptidase A (LdcA) catabolizes the bond between the last two l- and d-amino acid residues in the tetrapeptide to form the tripeptide, which is then utilized as a substrate by murein peptide ligase (Mpl). LdcA has been proposed as an antibacterial target. The crystal structure of Novosphingobium aromaticivorans DSM 12444 LdcA (NaLdcA) was determined at 1.89-Å resolution. The enzyme was biochemically characterized and its interactions with the substrate modeled, identifying residues potentially involved in substrate binding. Unaccounted electron density at the dimer interface in the crystal suggested a potential site for disrupting protein-protein interactions should a dimer be required to perform its function in bacteria. Our analysis extends the identification of functional residues to several other homologs, which include enzymes from bacteria that are involved in hydrocarbon degradation and destruction of coral reefs. The NaLdcA crystal structure provides an alternate system for investigating the structure-function relationships of LdcA and increases the structural coverage of the protagonists in bacterial cell wall recycling. PMID:24123814

  19. Measurements in film cooling flows: Hole L/D and turbulence intensity effects

    SciTech Connect

    Burd, S.W.; Kaszeta, R.W.; Simon, T.W.

    1996-12-31

    Hot-wire anemometry of simulated film cooling was used to study the influence of freestream turbulence intensity and film cooling hole length-to-diameter ratio on mean velocity and turbulence intensity. Measurements were made in the zone where the coolant and freestream flows mix. Flow from one row of film cooling holes with a streamwise injection of 35{degree} and no lateral injection and with a coolant- to-freestream flow velocity ratio of 1.0 was investigated under freestream turbulence levels of 0.5 and 12%. Coolant-to-freestream density ratio was unity. Two length-to-diameter ratios for the film cooling holes, 2.3 and 7.0, are tested. Results show that under low freestream turbulence conditions, pronounced differences exist in the flowfield between L/D=7.0 and 2.3; the differences are less prominent at high freestream turbulence intensities. Generally, short-L/D injection results in ``jetting`` of the coolant further into the freestream flow and enhanced mixing. Other changes in the flowfield attributable to a rise in freestream turbulence intensity to engine- representative conditions are documented. 15 figs, 2 tabs, refs.

  20. Key inventions in the history of nitride-based blue LED and LD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasaki, Isamu

    2007-03-01

    It was quite difficult to grow high quality single crystals of nitrides and impossible to control their electric conduction. These problems prevented the development of nitride-based devices for many years. In 1986, a dramatic improvement in the crystalline quality of GaN was achieved by use of low-temperature-deposited (LT) buffer layer technology in metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. In 1989, the high quality GaN enabled us to produce p-type conduction in nitrides and to control the conductivity of n-type nitrides. These achievements led to the invention of the world's first GaN p-n junction blue/UV LED in 1989. Room temperature UV stimulated emission, which is indispensable for laser operation, was also achieved in 1990 by use of high quality GaN films grown with the LT-buffer layers. These breakthroughs inspired nitride researchers around the world to greater efforts, and eventually led to the commercialization of high-performance blue LEDs and long-life violet LDs as well as the development of nitride-based devices such as high-speed transistors. Furthermore, unique properties such as a large piezoelectric effect were also clarified due to the marked improvements in crystal quality of nitrides. In this paper, key inventions during the development of nitride-based blue LED and LD are reviewed and a recent advance in UV devices is also described.

  1. Welding Induced Alignment Distortion in Dual-in-Line LD Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Shi, Frank G.

    2007-11-11

    The tolerance for the movement of a single mode fiber relative to the laser is extremely tight, a submicron movement can often lead to a significant misalignment and thus the reduction in the power coupled into the fiber. Among various fiber pigtailing assembly technologies, pulsed laser welding is the method with submicron accuracy and is most conducive to automation. However, the melting-solidification process during laser welding can often distort the pre-achieved fiber-optic alignment. This Welding-Induced-Alignment-Distortion (WIAD) is a serious concern and significantly affects the yield for single mode fiber pigtailing to a semiconductor laser. In this paper, effect of laser welding sequence on WIAD in a dual-in-line packager is numerically investigated by means of Finite Element Method (FEM). Optimal welding sequence may minimize WIAD in dual-in-line package. Additionally, unsymmetrical space between fiber and U-channel induced by laser welding of U-channel–to-plate in DIP LD packages is found to have obvious effect on WIAD.

  2. A low timing jitter picosecond microchip laser pumped by pulsed LD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sha; Wang, Yan-biao; Feng, Guoying; Zhou, Shou-huan

    2016-07-01

    SESAM passively Q-switched microchip laser is a very promising instrument to replace mode locked lasers to obtain picosecond pulses. The biggest drawback of a passively Q-switched microchip laser is its un-avoided large timing jitter, especially when the pump intensity is low, i.e. at low laser repetition rate range. In order to obtain a low timing jitter passively Q-switched picosecond microchip laser in the whole laser repetition rate range, a 1000 kHz pulsed narrow bandwidth Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) stablized laser diode was used as the pump source. By tuning the pump intensity, we could control the output laser frequency. In this way, we achieved a very low timing jitter passively Q-switched picosecond laser at 2.13 mW, 111.1 kHz. The relative timing jitter was only 0.0315%, which was around 100 times smaller compared with a cw LD pumped microchip working at hundred kilohertz repetition rate frequency range.

  3. ReVeaLD: a user-driven domain-specific interactive search platform for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Maulik R; Zeginis, Dimitris; Hasnain, Ali; Decker, Stefan; Deus, Helena F

    2014-02-01

    Bioinformatics research relies heavily on the ability to discover and correlate data from various sources. The specialization of life sciences over the past decade, coupled with an increasing number of biomedical datasets available through standardized interfaces, has created opportunities towards new methods in biomedical discovery. Despite the popularity of semantic web technologies in tackling the integrative bioinformatics challenge, there are many obstacles towards its usage by non-technical research audiences. In particular, the ability to fully exploit integrated information needs using improved interactive methods intuitive to the biomedical experts. In this report we present ReVeaLD (a Real-time Visual Explorer and Aggregator of Linked Data), a user-centered visual analytics platform devised to increase intuitive interaction with data from distributed sources. ReVeaLD facilitates query formulation using a domain-specific language (DSL) identified by biomedical experts and mapped to a self-updated catalogue of elements from external sources. ReVeaLD was implemented in a cancer research setting; queries included retrieving data from in silico experiments, protein modeling and gene expression. ReVeaLD was developed using Scalable Vector Graphics and JavaScript and a demo with explanatory video is available at http://www.srvgal78.deri.ie:8080/explorer. A set of user-defined graphic rules controls the display of information through media-rich user interfaces. Evaluation of ReVeaLD was carried out as a game: biomedical researchers were asked to assemble a set of 5 challenge questions and time and interactions with the platform were recorded. Preliminary results indicate that complex queries could be formulated under less than two minutes by unskilled researchers. The results also indicate that supporting the identification of the elements of a DSL significantly increased intuitiveness of the platform and usability of semantic web technologies by domain users

  4. Phospholipid translocation and miltefosine potency require both L. donovani miltefosine transporter and the new protein LdRos3 in Leishmania parasites.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Victoria, F Javier; Sánchez-Cañete, María P; Castanys, Santiago; Gamarro, Francisco

    2006-08-18

    The antitumor drug miltefosine has been recently approved as the first oral drug active against visceral leishmaniasis. We have previously identified the L. donovani miltefosine transporter (LdMT) as a P-type ATPase involved in phospholipid translocation at the plasma membrane of Leishmania parasites. Here we show that this protein is essential but not sufficient for the phospholipid translocation activity and, thus, for the potency of the drug. Based on recent findings in yeast, we have identified the putative beta subunit of LdMT, named LdRos3, as another protein factor required for the translocation activity. LdRos3 belongs to the CDC50/Lem3 family, proposed as likely beta subunits for P4-ATPases. The phenotype of LdRos3-defective parasites was identical to that of the LdMT-/-, including a defect in the uptake of 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl-amino)-phosphatidylserine, generally considered as not affected in Lem3p-deficient yeast. Both LdMT and LdRos3 normally localized to the plasma membrane but were retained inside the endoplasmic reticulum in the absence of the other protein or when inactivating point mutations were introduced in LdMT. Modulating the expression levels of either protein independently, we show that any one of them could behave as the protein limiting the level of flippase activity. Thus, LdMT and LdRos3 seem to form part of the same translocation machinery that determines flippase activity and miltefosine sensitivity in Leishmania, further supporting the consideration of CDC50/Lem3 proteins as beta subunits required for the normal functioning of P4-ATPases. PMID:16785229

  5. Exploring spatial patterns and hotspots of diarrhea in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chaikaew, Nakarin; Tripathi, Nitin K; Souris, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is a major public health problem in Thailand. The Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, has been trying to monitor and control this disease for many years. The methodology and the results from this study could be useful for public health officers to develop a system to monitor and prevent diarrhea outbreaks. Methods The objective of this study was to analyse the epidemic outbreak patterns of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province, Northern Thailand, in terms of their geographical distributions and hotspot identification. The data of patients with diarrhea at village level and the 2001–2006 population censuses were collected to achieve the objective. Spatial analysis, using geographic information systems (GIS) and other methods, was used to uncover the hidden phenomena from the data. In the data analysis section, spatial statistics such as quadrant analysis (QA), nearest neighbour analysis (NNA), and spatial autocorrelation analysis (SAA), were used to identify the spatial patterns of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province. In addition, local indicators of spatial association (LISA) and kernel density (KD) estimation were used to detect diarrhea hotspots using data at village level. Results The hotspot maps produced by the LISA and KD techniques showed spatial trend patterns of diarrhea diffusion. Villages in the middle and northern regions revealed higher incidences. Also, the spatial patterns of diarrhea during the years 2001 and 2006 were found to represent spatially clustered patterns, both at global and local scales. Conclusion Spatial analysis methods in GIS revealed the spatial patterns and hotspots of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province from the year 2001 to 2006. To implement specific and geographically appropriate public health risk-reduction programs, the use of such spatial analysis tools may become an integral component in the epidemiologic description, analysis, and risk assessment of diarrhea. PMID:19552822

  6. Helping Students with LD to Succeed: The Role of Teachers' Hope, Sense of Coherence and Specific Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Uzi; Einav, Michal; Raskind, Ilana; Ziv, Orit; Margalit, Malka

    2013-01-01

    Teachers play a critical role in facilitating the academic achievements of students with learning disabilities (LD). The personal resources of teachers, such as sense of coherence (SOC) and hopeful thinking, may predict self-perception of the competency and efficacy they possess to help students with LD acquire needed learning skills. Several…

  7. Diagnosis and Treatment of Reading Disabilities Based on the Component Model of Reading: An Alternative to the Discrepancy Model of LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron, P. G.; Joshi, R. Malatesha; Gooden, Regina; Bentum, Kwesi E.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, learning disabilities (LD) are diagnosed on the basis of the discrepancy between students' IQ and reading achievement scores. Students diagnosed with LD often receive remedial instruction in resource rooms. The available evidence suggests that the educational policy based on this discrepancy model has not yielded satisfactory results.…

  8. The Effects of a Growth Mindset Intervention on the Beliefs about Intelligence, Effort Beliefs, Achievement Goal Orientations, and Academic Self-Efficacy of LD Students with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldridge, Mary Caufield

    2010-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a "growth mindset" intervention on the beliefs about intelligence, effort beliefs, achievement goals, and academic self-efficacy of learning disabled (LD) students with reading difficulties. The treatment group consisted of 12 high school LD students with reading difficulties. This…

  9. Effects of a Computerized Working Memory Training Program on Working Memory, Attention, and Academics in Adolescents with Severe LD and Comorbid ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, S. A.; Chaban, P.; Martinussen, R.; Goldberg, R.; Gotlieb, H.; Kronitz, R.; Hockenberry, M.; Tannock, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Youths with coexisting learning disabilities (LD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for poor academic and social outcomes. The underlying cognitive deficits, such as poor working memory (WM), are not well targeted by current treatments for either LD or ADHD. Emerging evidence suggests that WM might be…

  10. Links among Social Status, Service Delivery Mode, and Service Delivery Preference in LD, Low-Achieving, and Normally Achieving Elementary-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Mare, Lucy; de la Ronde, Marie

    2000-01-01

    Relations among social status, current service delivery, and service delivery preferences were examined in 42 students with learning disabilities (LD), 40 low-achieving, and 42 average/high-achieving students in grades 2-4 and 6-7. Most students preferred pullout service to in-class service. Only among LD students were self- and peer-rated social…

  11. Technical note: Characteristics and use of the Illumina BovineLD and GeneSeek Genomic Profiler low-density bead chips for genomic evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The GeneSeek Genomic Profiler (GGP) BeadChip, which became available commercially in February 2012, is based on the Illumina BovineLD Genotyping BeadChip with 1,745 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genomic evaluation and SNPs for proprietary single-gene tests. The BovineLD chip ...

  12. Characterization and localization of ORFF gene from the LD1 locus of Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Jain, Manju; Madhubala, Rentala

    2008-06-15

    The Leishmania genome project has identified new genes at a rapid rate. The 32.8-megabase haploid genome of Leishmania major (Friedlin strain) is published and the comparative analysis of genome sequences of two other species, Leishmania infantum and Leishmanai braziliensis has been done. The haploid genome of Leishmania major (Friedlin strain) has around 8272 protein-coding genes, of which only 36% can be ascribed a putative function. Out of these open reading frames around 910 Leishmania major genes have no orthologs in the other two Tritryp genomes. These "Leishmania -restricted" genes hold a potential as novel drug targets and potential vaccine candidates. Open reading frame, ORFF, is a single copy gene located on the chromosome 35 as a part of the multigene LD1 locus. Indirect immunofluorescence study and creation of ORFF-GFP fusion showed that ORFF is localized in the DNA containing compartments of Leishmania donovani, the nucleus and the kinetoplast. In order to characterize ORFF gene of L. donovani, we have created ORFF over-expressors and single allele deletion mutants by homologous replacement strategy. ORFF is likely to be an important gene for the parasite growth since results from over-expression studies and characterization of ORFF heterozygous knockout mutants reveal marked alterations in the cell cycle phenotype compared to the wild-type parasites. Flowcytometry based cell cycle analysis showed selective increase in the DNA synthetic phase of the ORFF over-expressors and a subversion of the same in heterozygous knockouts of ORFF suggesting its potential role in cell cycle progression. PMID:18423903

  13. Internal Flow Analysis of Large L/D Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubacher, Brian A.

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) internal ballistic performance has been analyzed and predicted with either zero-dimensional (volume filling) codes or one-dimensional ballistics codes. One dimensional simulation of SRM performance is only necessary for ignition modeling, or for motors that have large length to port diameter ratios which exhibit an axial "pressure drop" during the early burn times. This type of prediction works quite well for many types of motors, however, when motor aspect ratios get large, and port to throat ratios get closer to one, two dimensional effects can become significant. The initial propellant grain configuration for the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) was analyzed with 2-D, steady, axi-symmetric computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The results of the CFD analysis show that the steady-state performance prediction at the initial burn geometry, in general, agrees well with 1-D transient prediction results at an early time, however, significant features of the 2-D flow are captured with the CFD results that would otherwise go unnoticed. Capturing these subtle differences gives a greater confidence to modeling accuracy, and additional insight with which to model secondary internal flow effects like erosive burning. Detailed analysis of the 2-D flowfield has led to the discovery of its hidden 1-D isentropic behavior, and provided the means for a thorough and simplified understanding of internal solid rocket motor flow. Performance parameters such as nozzle stagnation pressure, static pressure drop, characteristic velocity, thrust and specific impulse are discussed in detail and compared for different modeling and prediction methods. The predicted performance using both the 1-D codes and the CFD results are compared with measured data obtained from static tests of the RSRM. The differences and limitations of predictions using ID and 2-D flow fields are discussed and some suggestions for the design of large L/D motors and

  14. Improving the Sensitivity of Matrix-Assisted Ionization (MAI) Mass Spectrometry Using Ammonium Salts.

    PubMed

    Chubatyi, Nicholas D; McEwen, Charles N

    2015-10-01

    In matrix-assisted ionization (MAI), analyte incorporated in a small molecule matrix is introduced into an aperture linking atmospheric pressure with the vacuum of a mass spectrometer. Gas-phase analyte ions are spontaneously produced without use of a laser or high voltage. Here we investigate analyte and background ion abundances upon addition of ammonium salts to various MAI matrix/analyte solutions. Regardless of the ammonium salt or matrix used, chemical background ions are suppressed and/or analyte ion abundance improved for basic small molecules, peptides, and proteins. Background ion abundances increase with increasing inlet temperature, but are suppressed with addition of any of a variety of ammonium salts without much effect on the total ion abundances of the analyte ions. However, at lower inlet temperature using the matrices 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, 1,2-dicyanobenzene, and 3-nitrobenzonitrile (3-NBN), analyte ion abundance increases and any chemical background decreases upon addition of ammonium salt. The improvement in sensitivity using 3-NBN with ammonium salt allows full acquisition mass spectra consuming as little as 1 fmol of ubiquitin. More complete peptide coverage for 100 fmol of a BSA tryptic digest, and increased sensitivity of drugs spiked in urine and saliva were observed after ammonium salt addition to the 3-NBN matrix. PMID:26122522

  15. STIGMA, SOCIAL SUPPORT, AND TREATMENT ADHERENCE AMONG HIV-POSITIVE PATIENTS IN CHIANG MAI, THAILAND

    PubMed Central

    Li, Michael Jonathan; Murray, Jordan Keith; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Wiwatanadate, Phongtape

    2016-01-01

    Our study assessed the influence of HIV-related stigma on treatment adherence among people living with HIV in Chiang Mai, Thailand, and whether social support had a moderating effect on this relationship. We recruited 128 patients living with HIV from Sansai Hospital, a community hospital in Chiang Mai, Thailand, and collected data through structured interviews. All forms of HIV-related stigma considered in this study (personalized experience, disclosure, negative self-image, and public attitudes) were negatively correlated with adherence to anti-retroviral regimens. Multiple linear regression indicated that total HIV-related stigma was more predictive of treatment adherence than any individual stigma type, after adjusting for socio-demographic and health characteristics. Tests of interaction showed that social support did not appear to moderate the association between HIV stigma and treatment adherence. Our findings suggest that community and government efforts to improve public perceptions about people living with HIV might promote treatment adherence behaviors among HIV-positive patients. PMID:25299810

  16. Stigma, social support, and treatment adherence among HIV-positive patients in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Li, Michael Jonathan; Murray, Jordan Keith; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Wiwatanadate, Phongtape

    2014-10-01

    Our study assessed the influence of HIV-related stigma on treatment adherence among people living with HIV in Chiang Mai, Thailand, and whether social support had a moderating effect on this relationship. We recruited 128 patients living with HIV from Sansai Hospital, a community hospital in Chiang Mai, Thailand, and collected data through structured interviews. All forms of HIV-related stigma considered in this study (personalized experience, disclosure, negative self-image, and public attitudes) were negatively correlated with adherence to anti-retroviral regimens. Multiple linear regression indicated that total HIV-related stigma was more predictive of treatment adherence than any individual stigma type, after adjusting for socio-demographic and health characteristics. Tests of interaction showed that social support did not appear to moderate the association between HIV stigma and treatment adherence. Our findings suggest that community and government efforts to improve public perceptions about people living with HIV might promote treatment adherence behaviors among HIV-positive patients. PMID:25299810

  17. DISCRIMINATION 28S RIBOSOMAL GENE OF TREMATODE CERCARIAE IN SNAILS FROM CHIANG MAI PROVINCE, THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Wongsawad, Chalobol; Wongsawad, Pheravut; Sukontason, Kom; Phalee, Anawat; Noikong-Phalee, Waraporn; Chai, Jong Yil

    2016-03-01

    Trematode cercariae are commonly found in many freshwater gastropods. These cercariae can serve to identify the occurrence of such trematodes as Centrocestus formosanus, Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchoides sp, and Stellantchasmus falcatus, which are important parasites in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. As the species of these cercariae cannot be identified accurately based on morphology, this study employed sequencing of a fragment of 28S ribosomal DNA and phylogenetic analysis to identify the trematode cercariae found in freshwater gastropods in Chiang Mai Province. Eight types of trematode cercariae were identified, namely, distome cercaria (grouped with Philophthalmus spp clade), echinostome cercaria (grouped with Echinostoma spp clade), furcocercous cercaria (grouped with Posthodiplostomum sp/Alaria taxideae/Hysteromorpha triloba clade), monostome cercaria (grouped with Catatropis indicus clade), parapleurolophocercous cercaria (grouped with Haplorchoides sp clade), pleurolophocercous cercaria (grouped with Centrocestusformosanus clade), transversotrema cercaria (grouped with Transversotrema spp clade), and xiphidiocercaria (grouped with Prosthodendrium spp clade). These results provide important information that can be used for identifying these parasites in epidemiological surveys. PMID:27244956

  18. Design of LD in-band direct-pumping side surface polished micro-rod Nd:YVO4 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen-Qi, Zhang; Fei, Wang; Qiang, Liu; Ma-Li, Gong

    2016-02-01

    To diminish the thermal load, two ways, that is, in-band direct pumping and micro-rod crystal, could be adopted at the same time. The efficiency of LD in-band direct-pumping side surface polished micro-rod Nd:YVO4 laser is numerically analyzed. By optimizing parameters such as crystal length, laser mode radius, pump beam radius, doping concentration and crystal cross-section size, the overall efficiency can reach over 50%. It is found that with micro-rod crystal implemented in the laser oscillator, high overall efficiency LD in-band direct-pumping Nd:YVO4 laser could be realized. High efficiency combined with low thermal load makes this laser an outstanding scheme for building high-power Nd:YVO4 lasers.

  19. Albrecht Unsöld: a Pioneer in the Interpretation of the Origin of the Cosmic Radio Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielebinski, Richard

    2012-09-01

    Albrecht Unsöld was born 20th April 1905 in Bohlheim (Württenberg) and died in 1995 in Kiel. He was appointed in 1932 at the age of only 26 to the Chair of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics at the University of Kiel. This appointment initiated a very successful development of the studies of stellar atmospheres in Kiel under his life-long direction. Unsöld developed an active cooperation with astronomers in the USA. During a Rockefeller Foundation fellowship he used the Mount Wilson 100'' telescope for spectral work. A major book published by him (Unsöld, 1938) ``Physik der Sternatmosphären (mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Sonne)'' dealt with stellar atmospheres and became a classic in this research area. Prof. Unsöld kept the good contacts to colleagues in the USA having a visiting professor appointment in Chicago in 1939. At the Yerkes Observatory, working with Otto Struve (1888--1956), he became familiar with the observations of Karl Jansky (1905--1950) and Grote Reber (1911--2002). He immediately realised the close connection between the observed radio waves and the stellar atmospheres research. The origin of the radio emission observed by Jansky and Reber at first eluded interpretation. The major conclusion in the early days was that `the black-body radiation theory failed to account for Jansky's observations by a factor of 104 in the most favourable case'. Unsöld started his investigations based on the data available to him in 1940, at first trying to bring the free-free emission to explain the radio observations. Unsöld from that time on began to use the Effective Temperature definition as obtained from the Rayleigh--Jeans approximation. This was a great step forward, going away from the intensity definitions (mVolts/m) used by radio engineers up to that time. A paper submitted in 1944 to the German journal `Die Naturwissenschaften' was published only in 1946. In this paper the conclusion is drawn that only electron temperatures of some 100,000 K

  20. Levodropropizine (LD) activity in allergic asthmatic patients, challenged with ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, metacholine and allergen-induced bronchospasm.

    PubMed

    Bossi, R; Banfi, P; Filipazzi, V; Castelli, C; Braga, P C

    1994-04-01

    The antitussive compound Levodropropizine (LD) is active in animal bronchoconstriction induced by histamine and capsaicin and in man protects from bronchoconstriction induced by capsaicin. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of action of LD given at 60 mg t.i.d. as oral drops, for 8 days by means of specific bronchial challenges (allergens) and of aspecific challenges acting via different receptors and fibers (i.e. metacholine via cholinergic receptors and ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (UNDW) via histamine and neuropeptide release). The study design is randomized, double-blind, cross-over versus placebo in 30 allergic asthmatic patients. Baseline bronchial tone and bronchoconstrictor response to metacholine (MCh) were not modified by active treatment nor by placebo. On the contrary, in airway responsiveness to UNDW, the active treatment showed an antagonist effect against induced bronchoconstriction of 59% [activity ratio (AR) as antilog = 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.54; p < or = 0.05] in comparison to no effect for placebo. Similarly, in airway responsiveness to specific allergen, active treatment antagonized the bronchoconstrictor effect of grass pollen by 83% and of various allergens (dermatophagoides and grass pollen) by 72%, i.e. AR of 0.17 (95% confidence interval 0.045-0.65; p < 0.01) and of 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.07-1.04; p < 0.05), respectively. No antagonist effect was evident with placebo at all times. Besides inhibiting cough, LD is also partially effective in inhibiting bronchial hyperreactive response against specific allergen and UNDW bronchoconstriction. Hence, LD might act by partly inhibiting histamine and neuropeptide release. PMID:10184318

  1. In planta gene expression analysis of Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae, African strain MAI1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bacterial leaf blight causes significant yield losses in rice crops throughout Asia and Africa. Although both the Asian and African strains of the pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), induce similar symptoms, they are nevertheless genetically different, with the African strains being more closely related to the Asian X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc). Results Changes in gene expression of the African Xoo strain MAI1 in the susceptible rice cultivar Nipponbare were profiled, using an SSH Xoo DNA microarray. Microarray hybridization was performed comparing bacteria recovered from plant tissues at 1, 3, and 6 days after inoculation (dai) with bacteria grown in vitro. A total of 710 bacterial genes were found to be differentially expressed, with 407 up-regulated and 303 down-regulated. Expression profiling indicated that less than 20% of the 710 bacterial transcripts were induced in the first 24 h after inoculation, whereas 63% were differentially expressed at 6 dai. The 710 differentially expressed genes were one-end sequenced. 535 sequences were obtained from which 147 non-redundant sequences were identified. Differentially expressed genes were related to metabolism, secretion and transport, pathogen adherence to plant tissues, plant cell-wall degradation, IS elements, and virulence. In addition, various other genes encoding proteins with unknown function or showing no similarity to other proteins were also induced. The Xoo MAI1 non-redundant set of sequences was compared against several X. oryzae genomes, revealing a specific group of genes that was present only in MAI1. Numerous IS elements were also found to be differentially expressed. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed 86% of the identified profile on a set of 14 genes selected according to the microarray analysis. Conclusions This is the first report to compare the expression of Xoo genes in planta across different time points during infection. This work shows that as-yet-unidentified and

  2. Effective L/D: A Theoretical Approach to the Measurement of Aero-Structural Efficiency in Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    There are many trade-offs in aircraft design that ultimately impact the overall performance and characteristics of the final design. One well recognized and well understood trade-off is that of wing weight and aerodynamic efficiency. Higher aerodynamic efficiency can be obtained by increasing wing span, usually at the expense of higher wing weight. The proper balance of these two competing factors depends on the objectives of the design. For example, aerodynamic efficiency is preeminent for sailplanes and long slender wings result. Although the wing weight-drag trade is universally recognized, aerodynamic efficiency and structural efficiency are not usually considered in combination. This paper discusses the concept of "aero-structural efficiency," which combines weight and drag characteristics. A metric to quantify aero-structural efficiency, termed effective L/D, is then derived and tested with various scenarios. Effective L/D is found to be a practical and robust means to simultaneously characterize aerodynamic and structural efficiency in the context of aircraft design. The primary value of the effective L/D metric is as a means to better communicate the combined system level impacts of drag and structural weight.

  3. Comparison of ASAT, CK, CK-MB, and LD for the estimation of acute myocardial infarct size in man.

    PubMed

    Grande, P; Christiansen, C; Alstrup, K

    1983-03-14

    The purpose of this study was to set up a simple and reliable procedure for estimating acute myocardial infarct (AMI) size by measuring serum enzymes in a few daily blood samples. Peak enzyme values and estimated infarct size from one, two, or three daily samples of aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB, and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) were compared with the extent of myocardial necrosis measured at autopsy in 22 patients who died from AMI. The correlation between the extent of the necrosis measured and peak serum enzymes from one daily blood sample was highest for CK-MB (r = 0.78) and LD (r = 0.73) compared to CK (r = 0.68) and ASAT (r = 0.67). To obtain a significant correlation, however, two patients had to be excluded from the ASAT and LD analyses. No significant improvement was obtained by more frequent blood sampling. Estimation of infarct size did not improve the correlation significantly for any enzyme, although the coefficient of correlation for CK-MB increased slightly (r = 0.83). Serum CK-MB determination provides a semiquantitative estimate of infarct size, but the other enzymes may give erroneous estimates owing to lesser cardiospecificity. PMID:6851141

  4. A Network of Kalman Filters for MAI and ISI Compensation in a Non-Gaussian Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayadi, Bessem; Marcos, Sylvie

    2005-12-01

    This paper develops a new multiuser detector based on a network of kalman filters (NKF) dealing with multiple access-interference (MAI), intersymbol Interference (ISI), and an impulsive observation noise. The two proposed schemes are based on the modeling of the DS-CDMA system by a discrete-time linear system that has non-Gaussian state and measurement noises. By approximating the non-Gaussian densities of the noises by a weighted sum of Gaussian terms and under the common MMSE estimation criterion, we first derive an NKF detector. This version is further optimized by introducing a feedback exploiting the ISI interference structure. The resulting scheme is an NKF detector based on a likelihood ratio test (LRT). Monte-Carlo simulations have shown that the NKF and the NKF based on LRT detectors significantly improve the efficiency and the performance of the classical Kalman algorithm.

  5. Albrecht Unsöld: his role in the interpretation of the origin of cosmic radio emission and in the beginning of radio astronomy in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielebinski, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Albrecht Unsöld's career spanned over 50 years at the beginning of the 20th century. In this period atomic physics made great advances and Unsöld applied this to astrophysical questions. He came in contact with the early radio astronomy observations and devoted part of his career to the interpretation of the origin of cosmic radio waves. Although hampered by the post-war situation, Unsöld's contributions to the interpretation of cosmic radio waves were important.

  6. Parasitic and bacterial contamination in collards using effluent from treated domestic wastewater in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Keawvichit, R; Wongworapat, K; Putsyainant, P; Silprasert, A; Karnchanawong, S

    2001-01-01

    Thailand often has inadequate water supply for agriculture during the dry season. The reuse of treated wastewater treatment plants could solve this problem. Treatment of domestic wastewater of Chiang Mai municipality by the aerated lagoon system (AL) releases more than 25,000 m3 of treated water everyday. The reuse of wastewater in agriculture is an efficient use of water, especially in tropical countries or in drought zones. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the possibility of using treated wastewater in growing edible vegetables, ie collards (kale), without pathogenic parasite and bacterial contamination. Collards (Brassica oleracea var acephala) were grown using either the treated wastewater from the aerated lagoon system (AL) or ground water (GW). Three cropping times were scheduled in February, May and July, 2000. Samples of water from AL system and GW were taken two times per month (the consecutive weeks) from February to July and examined for bacteria and parasites. Irrigation water (IW) that was normally used in agriculture was also collected, at the same time of the AL and GW collection, for bacteria and parasite investigation. A soil sample was taken before and after each crop for parasite examination. Collards were also collected at the end of the crop for parasite investigation. The results showed that GW seems to be a clean water since no pathogenic bacteria were found although small amount of Escherichia coli was noted in May. For AL and IW, similar number and types of bacteria were found. They were Aeromonas sobria, A. hydrophila, E. coli, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, non-pathogenic type of Vibrio cholerae. The small number of Salmonella enteritidis gr E was found in AL in April. After investigating 12 samples in 6 months of each kind of water, ie GW, Al, and IW, no parasite was found. Only unidentified free living nematodes were found in IW but those parasites are non pathogenic. A small number of unidentified free

  7. Associations between damage location and five main body region injuries of MAIS 3–6 injured occupants

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Youming; Cao, Libo; Kan, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the damage location distribution of five main body region injuries of maximum abbreviated injury score (MAIS) 3–6 injured occupants for nearside struck vehicle in front-to-side impact crashes. Design and setting MAIS 3–6 injured occupants information was extracted from the US-National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System in the year 2007; it included the head/face/neck, chest, pelvis, upper extremity and lower extremity. Struck vehicle collision damage was classified in a three-dimensional system according to the J224 Collision Deformation Classification of SAE Surface Vehicle Standard. Participants Nearside occupants seated directly adjacent to the struck side of the vehicle with MAIS 3–6 injured, in light truck vehicles–passenger cars (LTV–PC) side impact crashes. Outcome measures Distribution of MAIS 3–6 injured occupants by body regions and specific location of damage (lateral direction, horizontal direction and vertical direction) were examined. Injury risk ratio was also assessed. Results The lateral crush zone contributed to MAIS 3–6 injured occupants (n=705) and 50th centile injury risks when extended into zone 3. When the crush extended to zone 4, the injury risk ratio of MAIS 3–6 injured occupants approached 81%. The horizontal crush zones contributing to the highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3–6 occupants were zones ‘D’ and ‘Y’, and the injury risk ratios were 25.4% and 36.9%, respectively. In contrast, the lowest injury risk ratio was 5.67% caused by zone ‘B’. The vertical crush zone which contributed to the highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3–6 occupants was zone ‘E’, whose injury risk ratio was 58%. In contrast, the lowest injury risk ratio was 0.14% caused by zone ‘G+M’. Conclusions The highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3–6 injured occupants caused by crush intrusion between 40 and 60 cm in LTV–PC nearside impact collisions and the damage region of the struck

  8. Effects and mechanism of Xin Mai Jia in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, FAN-RONG; LU, JUN-XIU; JIA, MEI; YIN, YA-LING; QI, HENG-TIAN; ZHU, MO-LI; MA, LI-JUAN; QIU, LE-LE; WAN, GUANG-MING; WAN, GUANG-RUI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Xin Mai Jia (XMJ) on atherosclerosis (AS) in rabbits and to explore the underlying mechanisms in order to provide experimental evidence for the clinical application of XMJ. An intraperitoneal injection of vitamin D3, combined with a high-fat diet and sacculus injury, was utilized to establish the AS rabbit model. Following the oral administration of lovastatin, Zhibituo and different dosages of XMJ, respectively, blood was drawn from each rabbit for the detection of blood rheological indicators, such as serum lipids. The pathological changes in the right common carotid artery were observed. Vascular function experiments and the expression detection of common carotid artery-related proteins by immunohistochemistry were conducted. XMJ was observed to decrease the blood lipid levels of the AS rabbits; increase the concentration of high-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein A; decrease blood viscosity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and hematocrit; elevate the levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Na+/H+ exchanger 1 in vascular tissues and decrease the levels of angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (AT-1) and endothelin-1 (ET-1). In conclusion, XMJ was shown to lower the blood lipid levels of the experimental AS rabbits, improve the abnormal changes in hemorheology, increase the eNOS content in the vascular tissue, decrease the AT-1 and ET-1 levels and increase the endothelium-dependent vasodilation reaction. XMJ therefore has an anti-AS effect. PMID:26640529

  9. Sexual identities and lifestyles among non-heterosexual urban Chiang Mai adolescents: implications for health

    PubMed Central

    Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Banwell, Cathy; Carmichael, Gordon; Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; Sleigh, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon quantitative and qualitative data we explore perspectives on and experiences of sexual lifestyles and relationships among more than 1,750 adolescents aged 17-20 years who reside in urban Chiang Mai, Thailand. We focus on respondents’ representations and understandings of their sexual/gender identities derived mainly from in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, supplemented with observations and field notes. Our results show that while many young Thais described themselves as heterosexual males or females others described themselves as gay, kathoey, tom, dii, bisexual or something else. Some were still questioning their own identities. The terms gay, kathoey, tom and dii are commonly used by these Thais to describe a range of sexual/gender identities relating to persons who are sexually or romantically attracted to the same biological sex. We use case studies to illustrate the distinctive characterizations, sexual lifestyles and relationships of each of these identities. We conclude that the sexual lifestyles encountered among Northern Thai non-heterosexual adolescents could lead to negative health consequences and indicated a need for improved relationship education, counselling and sensitive sexual health services. PMID:20665299

  10. Molecular identification of larval trematode in intermediate hosts from Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chuboon, Suksan; Wongsawad, Chalobol

    2009-11-01

    Snail and fish intermediate hosts were collected from rice fields in 3 districts; Mueang, Mae Taeng and Mae Rim of Chiang Mai Province during April-July 2008. For identification of larval trematode infection, standard (cracked for snail and enzymatically digested for fish) and molecular methods were performed. The results showed that three types of cercariae were found, pleurolophocercus, cotylocercous, and echinostome among 4 species of snail with a prevalence of 29, 23 and 3% respectively. Melanoides tuberculata snail was the most susceptible host for cercariae infection. Four species of metacercariae, Haplorchis taichui, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Haplorchoides sp and Centrocestus caninus, were found with a prevalence of 67, 25, 60 and 20%, respectively. The Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis) was the most susceptible fish host for H. taichui, and half- beaked fish (Dermogenys pusillus) for S. falcatus metacercariae infection, whereas Haplorchoides sp and C. caninus were concomitantly found in Puntius brevis. HAT-RAPD profile confirmed that pleurolophocercus cercariae found in Melanoides tuberculata from Mae Taeng District belonged to H. taichui and in Tarebia granifera from Mueang District were S. falcatus. PMID:20578455

  11. Coital Experience Among Adolescents in Three Social-Educational Groups in Urban Chiang Mai, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Carmichael, Gordon; Banwell, Cathy; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This article compares coital experience of Chiang Mai 17–20-year-olds who were: (1) out-of-school; (2) studying at vocational schools; and (3) studying at general schools or university. Four-fifths, two-thirds and one-third, respectively, of males in these groups had had intercourse, compared to 53, 62 and 15 per cent of females. The gender difference for general school/university students, but not vocational school students, probably reflects HIV/AIDS refocusing male sexual initiation away from commercial sex workers. Vocational school females may have been disproportionately affected. Loss of virginity was associated, for both sexes, with social-educational background and lifestyle, and was less likely in certain minority ethnic groups. Among males, it was also associated with age and parental marital dissolution, and among females, with independent living and parental disharmony. Within social-educational groups, lifestyle variables dominated, but among general school/university students, parental marital dissolution (for males) and disharmony (for females) were also important, and Chinese ethnicity deterred male sexual experimentation. PMID:22754584

  12. Acute air pollution-related symptoms among residents in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wiwatanadate, Phongtape

    2014-01-01

    Open burnings (forest fires, agricultural, and garbage burnings) are the major sources of air pollution in Chiang Mai, Thailand. A time series prospective study was conducted in which 3025 participants were interviewed for 19 acute symptoms with the daily records of ambient air pollutants: particulate matter less than 10 microm in size (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3). PM10 was positively associated with blurred vision with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.009. CO was positively associated with lower lung and heart symptoms with adjusted ORs of 1.137 and 1.117. NO2 was positively associated with nosebleed, larynx symptoms, dry cough, lower lung symptoms, heart symptoms, and eye irritation with the range of adjusted ORs (ROAORs) of 1.024 to 1.229. SO2 was positively associated with swelling feet, skin symptoms, eye irritation, red eyes, and blurred vision with ROAORs of 1.205 to 2.948. Conversely, O3 was negatively related to running nose, burning nose, dry cough, body rash, red eyes, and blurred vision with ROAORs of 0.891 to 0.979. PMID:24645417

  13. Forensic and phylogeographic characterization of mtDNA lineages from northern Thailand (Chiang Mai).

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Bettina; Bodner, Martin; Amory, Sylvain; Fendt, Liane; Röck, Alexander; Horst, David; Horst, Basil; Sanguansermsri, Torpong; Parson, Walther; Brandstätter, Anita

    2009-11-01

    The immigration of diverse ethnic groups over the past centuries from surrounding countries into Thailand left footprints in the genetic composition of Thai mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages. The entire mtDNA control region (1,122 bp) was typed in 190 unrelated male volunteers from the northern Thailand province of Chiang Mai following highest quality standards. For a more precise haplogroup classification, selected single nucleotide polymorphisms from the mtDNA coding region were genotyped. We found several new, so far undescribed mtDNA lineages. Quasi-median networks were constructed for visualisation of character conflicts. The data were put into population-genetic relationships with other Southeast Asian populations. Although the frequencies of the Thai haplogroups were characteristic for Southeast Asia in terms of haplotype composition and genetic structure, the Thai population was significantly different from other Southeast Asian populations. This necessitates establishing regional databases, especially for forensic applications. The population data have been submitted to the EMPOP database (www.empop.org) and will be available on publication. PMID:19727793

  14. Measurement of slow-moving along-track displacement from an efficient multiple-aperture SAR interferometry (MAI) stacking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jo, Min-Jeong; Jung, Hyung-Sup; Won, Joong-Sun; Poland, Michael; Miklius, Asta; Lu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-aperture SAR interferometry (MAI) has demonstrated outstanding measurement accuracy of along-track displacement when compared to pixel-offset-tracking methods; however, measuring slow-moving (cm/year) surface displacement remains a challenge. Stacking of multi-temporal observations is a potential approach to reducing noise and increasing measurement accuracy, but it is difficult to achieve a significant improvement by applying traditional stacking methods to multi-temporal MAI interferograms. This paper proposes an efficient MAI stacking method, where multi-temporal forward- and backward-looking residual interferograms are individually stacked before the MAI interferogram is generated. We tested the performance of this method using ENVISAT data from Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, where displacement on the order of several centimeters per year is common. By comparing results from the proposed stacking methods with displacements from GPS data, we documented measurement accuracies of about 1.03 and 1.07 cm/year for the descending and ascending tracks, respectively—an improvement of about a factor of two when compared with that from the conventional stacking approach. Three-dimensional surface-displacement maps can be constructed by combining stacked InSAR and MAI observations, which will contribute to a better understanding of a variety of geological phenomena.

  15. Measurement of slow-moving along-track displacement from an efficient multiple-aperture SAR interferometry (MAI) stacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Min-Jeong; Jung, Hyung-Sup; Won, Joong-Sun; Poland, Michael P.; Miklius, Asta; Lu, Zhong

    2015-05-01

    Multiple-aperture SAR interferometry (MAI) has demonstrated outstanding measurement accuracy of along-track displacement when compared to pixel-offset-tracking methods; however, measuring slow-moving (cm/year) surface displacement remains a challenge. Stacking of multi-temporal observations is a potential approach to reducing noise and increasing measurement accuracy, but it is difficult to achieve a significant improvement by applying traditional stacking methods to multi-temporal MAI interferograms. This paper proposes an efficient MAI stacking method, where multi-temporal forward- and backward-looking residual interferograms are individually stacked before the MAI interferogram is generated. We tested the performance of this method using ENVISAT data from Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i, where displacement on the order of several centimeters per year is common. By comparing results from the proposed stacking methods with displacements from GPS data, we documented measurement accuracies of about 1.03 and 1.07 cm/year for the descending and ascending tracks, respectively—an improvement of about a factor of two when compared with that from the conventional stacking approach. Three-dimensional surface-displacement maps can be constructed by combining stacked InSAR and MAI observations, which will contribute to a better understanding of a variety of geological phenomena.

  16. Relationship of serum gentamicin levels and methylprednisolone sodium succinate treatment in baboons challenged with Escherichia coli LD100.

    PubMed

    Flournoy, D J; Beller, B K; Archer, L T; Hinshaw, L B

    1983-01-01

    Serum gentamicin bioassay determinations were performed on 15 adult baboons that had been challenged with an infusion of live Escherichia coli sufficient to kill all of the individuals (LD100) and then treated with either methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) (administered early in some animals and late in others) and gentamicin sulfate (GS) or with GS only. Initial peak gentamicin levels in all three groups were similar; however, subsequent valley levels revealed that when MPSS treatment was delayed or omitted, gentamicin concentrations remained elevated. PMID:6347383

  17. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Ld-Clad-Pumped All-Fiber Tm3+-Doped Silica Fiber Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun-Jun; Song, Shi-Fei; Tian, Yi; Wang, Yue-Zhu

    2009-08-01

    The CW 39.4 W all-fiber LD-clad-pumped Tm3+-doped fiber laser output is reported with a slope efficiency of 34% in respect to the pump power. The all-fiber laser is made up by progressively splicing the pigtail fiber, matched FBG fiber and Tm-doped fiber. The reflective FBG and Tm-doped fiber end fresnel reflection build up the laser resonance cavity. Due to the multi-mode FBG as the reflective mirror, the output laser spectrum is multi-peaks at high power output, whereas the total spectrum width is less than 2nm at nearly 1.94 μm.

  18. [The version and academic characteristics of Mai jue kan wu (Correcting Errors in Pulse Study in Verse)].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianjü; Hu, Fanglin; Xiang, Chen

    2014-09-01

    Mai jue kan wu (Correcting Errors in Pulse Study in Verse) was written by Dai Qizong of the Yuan Dynasty without block-printing when completed. It was reviewed and checked by Wang Ji, attached with the main discourses on pulse taking from various scholars of pulse taking and Jiao shi huo mai lun (On Pulse-taking with Corrections on Its Popular Difficult Issues) and was block-printed in 1523. This book corrects the fallacies on the descriptions of pulse shape and pulse body reflecting its underlying diseases appeared in Mai jue (Pulse Study in Verse), refutes its classification of the so-called "Seven exterior", "Eight interior" and "Nine dao (channels)". It also creates the measures for the studies of pulse-taking, including "differentiating, combining, doubling, comparing and classifying". PMID:25579217

  19. Hydrogeological features and environmental impacts of geothermal waters in the Yıldız River Basin (Sivas, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Keskin, Tülay Ekemen; Kaçaroğlu, Fikret

    2015-02-01

    The study area, located in the Yıldız River Basin (Sivas), has eight geothermal waters, which are used for balneotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the natural and/or anthropogenic water pollution in terms of drinking and irrigation water in the Sıcak Çermik, Uyuz Çermiği, and Hamzaşeyh Çermiği geothermal areas. Na+, Cl-, SO4(-2), B, Mn, Fe, As, and Se concentrations of the geothermal waters generally exceed the upper limits stated in the Turkish Standards for Water Intended for Human Consumption and World Health Organization regulations. Based on the irrigation water classification by the U.S. Salinity Laboratory Diagram, it is concluded that these waters may have hazardous levels of salinity and sodium when used as irrigation water. Wastewater from these health and tourism centers is discharged into the Yıldız River and to agricultural land. This procedure causes increase in the concentrations of major and minor elements and negatively affects the river water quality. PMID:25790518

  20. Analysis of ligand-protein exchange by Clustering of Ligand Diffusion Coefficient Pairs (CoLD-CoP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, David A.; Chantova, Mihaela; Chaudhry, Saadia

    2015-06-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool in describing protein structures and protein activity for pharmaceutical and biochemical development. This study describes a method to determine weak binding ligands in biological systems by using hierarchic diffusion coefficient clustering of multidimensional data obtained with a 400 MHz Bruker NMR. Comparison of DOSY spectrums of ligands of the chemical library in the presence and absence of target proteins show translational diffusion rates for small molecules upon interaction with macromolecules. For weak binders such as compounds found in fragment libraries, changes in diffusion rates upon macromolecular binding are on the order of the precision of DOSY diffusion measurements, and identifying such subtle shifts in diffusion requires careful statistical analysis. The "CoLD-CoP" (Clustering of Ligand Diffusion Coefficient Pairs) method presented here uses SAHN clustering to identify protein-binders in a chemical library or even a not fully characterized metabolite mixture. We will show how DOSY NMR and the "CoLD-CoP" method complement each other in identifying the most suitable candidates for lysozyme and wheat germ acid phosphatase.

  1. Automation and Control of an Imaging Internal Laser Desorption Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometer (I2LD-FTMS)

    SciTech Connect

    McJunkin, Timothy R; Tranter, Troy Joseph; Scott, Jill Rennee

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes the automation of an imaging internal source laser desorption Fourier transform mass spectrometer (I2LD-FTMS). The I2LD-FTMS consists of a laser-scanning device [Scott and Tremblay, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 2002, 73, 1108–1116] that has been integrated with a laboratory-built FTMS using a commercial data acquisition system (ThermoFinnigan FT/MS, Bremen, Germany). A new user interface has been developed in National Instrument's (Austin, Texas) graphical programming language LabVIEW to control the motors of the laser positioning system and the commercial FTMS data acquisition system. A feature of the FTMS software that allows the user to write macros in a scripting language is used creatively to our advantage in creating a mechanism to control the FTMS from outside its graphical user interface. The new user interface also allows the user to configure target locations. Automation of the data analysis along with data display using commercial graphing software is also described.

  2. Mars Aerocapture Analysis For MESUR/Mars-Pathfinder Aeroshells Using Un-modulated Control in Low L/D Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wercinski, Paul F.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Aerocapture scenarios are examined to determine the feasibility of using MESUR/Mars Pathfinder aeroshell designs to capture spacecraft aerodynamically into Mars orbit. Using lift over drag (L/D) ratios up to 0.3, entry trajectories were simulated over a range of entry vehicle masses and entry velocities. Entry corridor widths were calculated for undershoot and overshoot trajectories yielding Mars parking orbits having periods from 2 to 20 hours. For entries with L/D = 0.3, entry corridor widths of about 1.2 degrees are possible over entry velocities from 5.5 to 9.0 km/sec. The design constraints for an aeroshell used for orbital aerocapture are less severe than a ballistic entry for a surface lander mission such as Mars Pathfinder, because the aerothermodynamic heating and deceleration loads are smaller. The mass savings from aerocapture orbit insertion versus propulsive insertion into Mars orbit could result in significantly reducing program costs and increasing mission capabilities.

  3. The comparative study of Yaz and Ovocept-ld on patients with simple ovarian cysts referring to Iran-Isfahan Shariati Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Riahinejad, Soheyla; Pour, Azam Foroughi; Dehghani, Leila; Hajizadeh, Saadat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Functional ovarian cysts include follicular, corpus luteum, and theca lutein cysts are the most common adnexal masses (about 50%) in women of reproductive age. Treatment with the combined monophasic oral contraceptives reduces functional ovarian cysts. Yaz (drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol) is a low-dose combined oral contraceptive pill containing 20 μg ethinyl estradiol and 3 mg drospirenone. In addition to contraceptive effects, Yaz has anti-mineralocorticoid and anti-adrenergic effects. Ovocept- low-dose LD is also a low-dose combined oral contraceptive drug containing 30 μg ethinyl estradiol and 3 mg norgestrol. Ovocept-LD has some side-effects such as weight gain, spotting, breast tenderness, nausea, and headache. Materials and Methods: Being a clinical study, the present research was carried out on 42 patients with the simple ovarian cysts from 2010 to 2012. 84 Patients were assigned to A and B groups. Group A received Yaz once a day for a period of 28 days and group B received Ovocept-LD once a day for a period of 21 days. After treating by Yaz and Ovocept-LD, Cysts were evaluated by ultrasound. Results were analyzed by the SPSS software. A P < 0.05 was considered the significance threshold. Results: Obtained results indicated that both Yaz and Ovocept-LD had an effect on the simple ovarian cysts. Statistical tests, however, has shown that the effect of Yaz has been significantly more than that of Ovocept-LD. Conclusion: Given the faster and better recovery effect, and the lesser side effects of Yaz as compared to Ovocept-LD, it is recommended to use Yaz for the simple ovarian cysts. PMID:25337535

  4. Segregative clustering of Lo and Ld membrane microdomains induced by local pH gradients in GM1-containing giant vesicles: a lipid model for cellular polarization.

    PubMed

    Staneva, Galya; Puff, Nicolas; Seigneuret, Michel; Conjeaud, Hélène; Angelova, Miglena I

    2012-11-27

    Several cell polarization processes are coupled to local pH gradients at the membrane surface. We have investigated the involvement of a lipid-mediated effect in such coupling. The influence of lateral pH gradients along the membrane surface on lipid microdomain dynamics in giant unilamellar vesicles containing phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, cholesterol, and the ganglioside GM1 was studied. Lo/Ld phase separation was generated by photosensitization. A lateral pH gradient was established along the external membrane surface by acid local microinjection. The gradient promotes the segregation of microdomains: Lo domains within an Ld phase move toward the higher pH side, whereas Ld domains within an Lo phase move toward the lower pH side. This results in a polarization of the vesicle membrane into Lo and Ld phases poles in the axis of the proton source. A secondary effect is inward tubulation in the Ld phase. None of these processes occurs without GM1 or with the analog asialo-GM1. These are therefore related to the acidic character of the GM1 headgroup. LAURDAN fluorescence experiments on large unilamellar vesicles indicated that, with GM1, an increase in lipid packing occurs with decreasing pH, attributed to the lowering of repulsion between GM1 molecules. Packing increase is much higher for Ld phase vesicles than for Lo phase vesicles. It is proposed that the driving forces for domain vectorial segregative clustering and vesicle polarization are related to such differences in packing variations with pH decrease between the Lo and Ld phases. Such pH-driven domain clustering might play a role in cellular membrane polarization processes in which local lateral pH gradients are known to be important, such as migrating cells and epithelial cells. PMID:23121205

  5. Seasonal bloom dynamics and ecophysiology of the freshwater sister clade of SAR11 bacteria ‘that rule the waves' (LD12)

    PubMed Central

    Salcher, Michaela M; Pernthaler, Jakob; Posch, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Alphaproteobacteria are common members of marine bacterioplankton assemblages, but are believed to be rare in lacustrine systems. However, uncultured Alphaproteobacteria of the freshwater LD12 lineage form a tight monophyletic sister group with the numerically dominant bacteria in marine epipelagic waters, the SAR11 clade or genus Pelagibacter. Comparative rRNA sequence analysis reveals a global occurrence of LD12 bacteria in freshwater systems. The association of genotypic subclades with single-study systems moreover suggests a regional diversification. LD12 bacteria exhibit distinct and annually recurring spatio-temporal distribution patterns in prealpine lakes, as assessed by seasonally resolved vertical profiling and high-throughput cell counting. During the summer months, these ultramicrobacteria can form cell densities in the surface (epilimnetic) water layers that are comparable to those of their marine counterparts (>5 × 108 cells per l). LD12 bacteria had a pronounced preference for glutamine and glutamate over 7 other amino acids in situ, and they exhibited substantially higher uptake of these two substrates (and glycine) than the microbial assemblage in general. In addition, members of LD12 were also able to exploit other monomeric sources of organic carbon such as glucose, fructose or acetate. LD12 seemed to follow an oligotrophic lifestyle with slow but efficient uptake already at low substrate concentrations. Thus, LD12 bacteria do not only share phenotypic and metabolic traits with Pelagibacter, but also seem to thrive in the analogous spatiotemporal niche in freshwaters. The two groups together form one of the rare monophyletic lineages of ultramicrobacteria that have successfully traversed the barrier between marine and freshwater habitats. PMID:21412347

  6. MAI (Multi-Dimensional Activity Based Integrated Approach): A Strategy for Cognitive Development of the Learners at the Elementary Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basantia, Tapan Kumar; Panda, B. N.; Sahoo, Dukhabandhu

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive development of the learners is the prime task of each and every stage of our school education and its importance especially in elementary state is quite worth mentioning. Present study investigated the effectiveness of a new and innovative strategy (i.e., MAI (multi-dimensional activity based integrated approach)) for the development of…

  7. Genetic Diversity of Norovirus and Sapovirus in Hospitalized Infants with Sporadic Cases of Acute Gastroenteritis in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Hansman, Grant S.; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Maneekarn, Niwat; Peerakome, Supatra; Khamrin, Pattara; Tonusin, Supin; Okitsu, Shoko; Nishio, Osamu; Takeda, Naokazu; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Stool specimens from hospitalized infants with sporadic gastroenteritis in Chiang Mai, Thailand, between July 2000 and July 2001 were examined for norovirus and sapovirus by reverse transcription-PCR and sequence analysis. These viruses were identified in 13 of 105 (12%) specimens. One strain was found to be a recombinant norovirus. PMID:15004104

  8. Application of an extension of the MAI method to the Acapulco City, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, M.; Aguirre, J.

    2001-12-01

    The site effects and the source parameters, are inverted from a Fourier displacement spectra of seismograms that are corrected by geometrical spreading and regional attenuation valid for south center of Mexico(Ordaz and Singh, 1992). We used Genetic Algorithms (GA) to perform the non-linear inversion, like in the MAI method (Moya et al., 2000) . The GA have proved to produce better results than other traditional methods which are frequently trapped in a local minimum. GA is a method that mimics the evolution laws in living creatures. The best individuals reproduce and develop themselves with every generation. In our case each individual correspond to one source and the genes correspond to the source parameters. As in nature, the best source remain and are improved with each iteration. We assume that the site effect at each station are the same independently of the earthquake, because of that we can search for the combination of sources that can produce the smaller standard deviation of the estimated site effects from the different Fourier displacement earthquake spectra. Then we use the obtained site effects to generate a Fourier displacement spectra of an earthquake scenario. With this, we are able to compute the response spectra by means of random vibration theory (Reinoso et al., 1990). We apply this method to four stations located in the Acapulco City, Mexico, that recorded four earthquakes with epicenter located in the Guerrero Subduction Zone. The site effect estimated for one of the stations, called ACAZ, shows a good agreement with the estimated by Chávez-García et al. (1994) using spectral ratios between the ACAZ station and a rock reference site. Also we compare the response spectra from other earthquake, obtained by the former method and the response spectra computed using the acceleration record. We find an acceptable correlation between them. Chávez-García, J. Cuenca y M. Cárdenas (1994), "Estudio complementario de efectos de sitio en Acapulco

  9. Dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rakchanok, Noochpoung; Amporn, Dejpitak; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2010-02-01

    The aims of this study were to identify dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant women, and to compare it with those in non-pregnant women in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Data were collected from 197 women (94 pregnant and 103 non-pregnant) from June to August, 2008. Dental caries and gingivitis was defined clinically according to the World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria. Over 74.0% of pregnant women had caries, and 86.2% had gingivitis. There were significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women with regard to dental caries (p < 0.001) and gingivitis (p = 0.021). The pregnant women were 2.9 times more likely to suffer from dental caries (95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.6-5.4), and 2.2 times more (95% CI, 1.1-4.7) from gingivitis compared to non-pregnant women. Farmers (Odd ratio (OR), 7.0; 95% CI, 1.8-26.3), high school graduation (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.2-7.3), and universal health insurance coverage (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0-4.3) were significant predictors for gingivitis. Only high school graduates were found to be significant predictors of dental caries with an OR of 2.8 (95% CI, 1.2-6.3). Poor oral hygiene (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-6.5), lack of knowledge (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.6-6.3), and poor oral hygiene habits (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.1-8.6) were important risk factors for dental caries. Similarly, inadequate oral hygiene status (OR, 24.8; 95% CI, 5.5-112.2), and poor oral health habits (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.1-25.2) were found to be significant risk factors for gingivitis among pregnant women indicating, that most women should be trained in proper oral hygiene practices. Community awareness programs should be conducted to increase women's awareness of such hygienic practices. PMID:20229702

  10. Evaluation of a peer network intervention trial among young methamphetamine users in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Susan G; Sutcliffe, Catherine; Srirojn, Bangorn; Latkin, Carl A; Aramratanna, Apinun; Celentano, David D

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1990s, there has been a proliferation of methamphetamine use in Thailand, particularly among young people. Simultaneously, risky sexual behaviors among this population have increased. This study examined the effects of a peer network intervention and a life-skills intervention on methamphetamine and HIV risk behaviors among 18-25 year olds in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Between April 2005 and June 2007, we conducted a randomized behavioral trial to compare the efficacy of a peer educator, network-oriented intervention with a best practice, life-skills curriculum on methamphetamine use, sexual behaviors, and incident sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Follow-up occurred at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12 months. Both conditions consisted of seven, 2h, small group sessions. Longitudinal analyses of the three outcomes were conducted by fitting repeated measures logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations. Participants (N=983) attended a median of six sessions, with no differences between arms. At each follow-up visit, retention was greater than 85%. Participants were 75% male and were a median of 19 years old. Over time, participants in both conditions showed a significant and dramatic decline in self-reported methamphetamine use (99% at baseline vs. 53% at 12 months, p<0.0001) and significant increase in consistent condom use (32% baseline vs. 44% at 12 months, p<0.0001). Incident STIs were common, with no differences between arms. Chlamydia had the highest incidence rate, 9.85/100 person years and HIV had a low incidence rate of 0.71/100 person years. Among young Thais, we found that a peer educator, network-oriented intervention was associated with reductions in methamphetamine use, increases in condom use, and reductions in incident STIs over 12 months. We also found parallel reductions with the life-skills condition. To our knowledge, this is the first such trial targeting this population. Small group interventions are an effective means of

  11. Influences of pump beam distribution on thermal lensing spherical aberration in an LD end-pumped Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiao-lu; Li, Bing-bin; Guo, Zhen; Wang, Shi-yu; Cai, De-fang; Wen, Jian-guo

    2009-12-01

    A numerical investigation is made on the thermal lensing and spherical aberration effect in an LD end-pumped Nd:YAG laser. Based on the finite element method (FEM), the laser rod temperature distribution is calculated and the focal length of the thermal lens is deduced, the influences of pump beam on the thermal lensing spherical aberration are mainly studied. The results show the thermal lens which focal length varied with the radial coordinate r is not an ideal lens. Given the heat dissipation boundary conditions, the radial dependent focal length will be shortened when the pump power raised or the waist radius of the pump beam reduced, meanwhile the radial differences of the focal length will decrease when the pump power increased. For a Super-Gaussian profile pump beam, the higher the exponent number, the more similar to flat top the pump beam is, and the less the radial differences of the focal length are.

  12. Aerobraking of a low L/D manned vehicle from Geo return to rendezvous with the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, J. D.; Cerimele, C. J.; Spratlin, K.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a study of the airbraking portion of the flight of an Apollo class vehicle designed for a sortie from the Orbiter to Geo and return to Leo for Orbiter retrieval are presented. An ablative heat shield would be used on the vehicle to shed velocity to speeds commensurate with Orbiter rendezvous. A reference design was selected for a spacecraft configuration with an L/D ratio of 0.3 and a weight to lift surface ratio of 236 lb/sq ft. Atmospheric guidance would consist of using the bank angle for altitude and inclination angle control and an equilibrium bank angle was defined. The vehicle would have a maximum temperature, considering a reference sphere, of 4800 F and a peak load of about 2 g. Atmospheric exit parameters were also determined, together with minimum delta-V for rendezvous.

  13. Abortive infection of Lutzomyia longipalpis insect vectors by aflagellated LdARL-3A-Q70L overexpressing Leishmania amazonensis parasites.

    PubMed

    Cuvillier, Armelle; Miranda, Jose Carlos; Ambit, Audrey; Barral, Aldina; Merlin, Gilles

    2003-10-01

    Leishmania donovani ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 3A (LdARL-3A) is a small G protein isolated from the protozoan parasite L. donovani with no defined physiological function. Previously [Cuvillier, A., Redon, F., Antoine, J.-C., Chardin, P., DeVos, T., and Merlin, G. (2000) J Cell Sci 113: 2065-2074] we have shown that overexpression in L. amazonensis promastigotes of the mutated protein LdARL-3A-Q70L, which remains constitutively associated with GTP, leads to the disappearance of the flagellum but does not impair cell viability or growth. Here we report that parasites overexpressing LdARL-3A-Q70L can invade in vitro cultivated macrophages to the same extent as control cells, demonstrating that the flagellum is not necessary for attachment to or engulfment into macrophages. These infections are productive because amastigotes differentiate and multiply. However, aflagellated LdARL-3A-Q70L-overexpressing Leishmania promastigotes could not survive in experimentally infected Lutzomyia longipalpis insect vectors, in contrast to untransfected or native LdARL-3A-overexpressing cells. Overexpression of the native and mutated proteins did not modify in vitro procyclic to metacyclic lipophosphoglycan maturation or differentiation from procyclic to metacyclic promastigotes, nevertheless there is a block in transmission of Leishmania. Better understanding of LdARL-3A pathways, notably those regarding flagellum biogenesis, may lead to the future development of Leishmania-specific drugs, which may stop parasite transmission in nature without affecting other species. PMID:12969377

  14. Emerging toxicity of 5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane (MDAI): Pharmacokinetics, behaviour, thermoregulation and LD50 in rats.

    PubMed

    Páleníček, Tomáš; Lhotková, Eva; Žídková, Monika; Balíková, Marie; Kuchař, Martin; Himl, Michal; Mikšátková, Petra; Čegan, Martin; Valeš, Karel; Tylš, Filip; Horsley, Rachel R

    2016-08-01

    MDAI (5,6-Methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane) has a reputation as a non-neurotoxic ecstasy replacement amongst recreational users, however the drug has been implicated in some severe and lethal intoxications. Due to this, and the fact that the drug is almost unexplored scientifically we investigated a broad range of effects of acute MDAI administration: pharmacokinetics (in sera, brain, liver and lung); behaviour (open field; prepulse inhibition, PPI); acute effects on thermoregulation (in group-/individually-housed rats); and systemic toxicity (median lethal dose, LD50) in Wistar rats. Pharmacokinetics of MDAI was rapid, maximum median concentration in serum and brain was attained 30min and almost returned to zero 6h after subcutaneous (sc.) administration of 10mg/kg MDAI; brain/serum ratio was ~4. MDAI particularly accumulated in lung tissue. In the open field, MDAI (5, 10, 20 and 40mg/kg sc.) increased exploratory activity, induced signs of behavioural serotonin syndrome and reduced locomotor habituation, although by 60min some effects had diminished. All doses of MDAI significantly disrupted PPI and the effect was present during the onset of its action as well as 60min after treatment. Unexpectedly, 40mg/kg MDAI killed 90% of animals in the first behavioural test, hence LD50 tests were conducted which yielded 28.33mg/kg sc. and 35mg/kg intravenous but was not established up to 40mg/kg after gastric administration. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) with brain oedema was concluded as a direct cause of death in sc. treated animals. Finally, MDAI (10, 20mg/kg sc.) caused hyperthermia and perspiration in group-housed rats. In conclusion, the drug had fast pharmacokinetics and accumulated in lipohilic tissues. Behavioural findings were consistent with mild, transient stimulation with anxiolysis and disruption of sensorimotor processing. Together with hyperthermia, the drug had a similar profile to related entactogens, especially 3

  15. Differentiating literacy growth of ELL students with LD from other high-risk subgroups and general education peers: evidence from grades 3-10.

    PubMed

    Solari, Emily J; Petscher, Yaacov; Folsom, Jessica Sidler

    2014-01-01

    The authors used a large data set (N = 1,011,549) to examine literacy growth over a single school year comparing general education (GenEd) students to three high-risk subgroups: English language learners (ELL), those with a specific learning disability (LD), and those identified as both LD and ELL (LD-ELL) in students in Grades 3-10. The authors were particularly interested in whether variability existed between initial status and the growth trajectories of the three high-risk groups on measures of spelling, fluency, and reading comprehension across the school year and whether this variability was differentiated because of socioeconomic status (SES) as defined by free and reduced lunch (FRL) status. Results indicate that all high-risk groups began the year at substantially lower levels than their GenEd peers, with the largest differences seen between the LD-ELL students and the other subgroups. Further results suggest that students who are in the high-risk subgroups and also qualify for FRL perform significantly worse than their peers in similar risk status groups who do not qualify for FRL, demonstrating the significant impact of SES on academic outcomes for all groups. PMID:23124380

  16. Understanding the importance of conservative hypothetical protein LdBPK_070020 in Leishmania donovani and its role in subsistence of the parasite.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Ruchika; Kumar, Ritesh; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Selvaraj, Chandrabose; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2016-04-15

    The genome of Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, codes for approximately 65% of both conserved and non-conserved hypothetical proteins. Studies on 'conserved hypothetical' proteins are expected to reveal not only new and crucial aspects of Leishmania biochemistry, but it could also lead to discovery of novel drug candidates. Conserved hypothetical protein, LdBPK_070020, is a 31.14 kDa protein, encoded by an 810 bp gene. BLAST analysis of LdBPK_070020, performed against NCBI non-redundant database, showed 80-99% similarity with conserved hypothetical proteins of Leishmania belonging to other species. Using homologues recombination method, we have performed gene knockout of LdBPK_070020 and effects of the same were investigated on the parasite. The gene knocked out strain shows significant retardation in growth with respect to wild type. Detailed biochemical studies indicated towards important role of LdBPK_070020 in the parasite survival and growth. PMID:26926257

  17. Mediating factors of a school-based multi-component smoking prevention intervention: the LdP cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Carreras, G; Bosi, S; Angelini, P; Gorini, G

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors mediating the effects of Luoghi di Prevenzione (LdP) smoking prevention intervention based on social competence and social influence approaches, and characterized by peer-led school-based interventions, out-of-school workshops, school lessons, and by enforcing the school anti-smoking policy. Students aged 14-15 years in 13 secondary schools in Reggio Emilia, Italy (989 students) were randomly assigned to the LdP intervention or a control condition. The baseline and follow-up surveys were carried out before and 18 months after the intervention, respectively.The outcomes were cigarette daily and frequent smoking and smoking at school. Multilevel multiple mediation analyses were carried out in order to study effect mediation. The mediators were normative perception, positive and negative beliefs, refusal skills for smoking, social acceptability perception, risk perception, smoking knowledge and awareness about dangers of second-hand smoking.The intervention effects were explained by the social influence component through the mediator refusal skills for smoking. The programme also showed to significantly increase risk perception and smoking knowledge, even though these mediators had no effect on smoking. Moreover, LdP intervention directly reduced smoking in school areas. Future interventions should maintain and strengthen the LdP social influence component and the part regarding the school anti-smoking policy. PMID:27288347

  18. Prevention or amelioration of morphologic lesions in LD100 E coli-shocked baboons with steroid/antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Archer, L T; Kosanke, S D; Beller, B K; Passey, R B; Hinshaw, L B

    1983-01-01

    We have documented the effectiveness of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) and gentamicin sulfate (GS) therapy for LD100 E coli-induced shock in the baboon. We sequentially delayed initiation of MPSS infusion from 30 to 120 min and then to 240 min after onset of a 2-h E coli infusion. Treatment resulted in 100%, 85%, and 65% survival respectively. In this study we evaluated tissue taken at autopsy in the three MPSS/GS treatment studies including untreated baboons and those treated with GS only. When animals died (3-49 h) or were sacrificed (7-71 days), tissues were removed, coded, and prepared for histopathologic evaluation by light microscopy. On the basis of morphologic changes animals split into two groups: baboons with little or no tissue alterations (survivors), and those with multiple organ damage (nonsurvivors). Combinations of mild to massive congestion, edema, hemorrhage, fibrin thrombi, increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), and necrosis of the adrenal glands, liver, kidneys, lungs, and spleen of nonsurvivors were prevented or ameliorated in the MPSS/GS-treated surviving baboons. Data demonstrate the MPSS/GS therapy prevents or reverses the multiple organ damage and increases survival in lethal septic shock. PMID:6349298

  19. Kilohertz high power extracavity KGW yellow raman lasers based on pulse LD side-pumped ceramic Nd: YAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Y.; Chen, X. M.; Guo, J. X.; Zhang, H. L.; Bai, J. T.; Ren, Z. Y.

    2012-03-01

    We report an efficient operation of a kilohertz nanosecond extracavity KGd(WO4)2 (KGW) crystal Raman yellow laser, which is pumped by a 532 nm lasers based on pulse laser diode (LD) side-pumped ceramic Nd: YAG, BBO electro-optical Q-switched and LBO crystal extracavity frequency doubling. With the 5 W, 10 ns and 1 kHz output power pumped at 532 nm, we obtained 2.58 W, 7.4 ns, 1 kHz second Stokes Raman laser output at 579.54 nm for 768 cm-1 Raman shift of KGW crystal, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 51.4%. By changing the KGW crystal orientation, we further obtained 3.18 W, 7.8 ns, 1 kHz Raman pulses at 588.33 nm for 901 cm-1 Raman shift, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 63.3%. The beam quality factors M2 of 579.54 and 588.33 nm were ( M {/x-579.54 2} = 5.829, M {/y-579.54 2} = 6.336) and ( M {/x-588.33 2} = 6.405, M {/y-588.33 2} = 6.895), respectively.

  20. LD-end-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YAG ceramic laser with single wall carbon nanotube saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. Y.; Bo, Y.; Zong, N.; Wang, Y. G.; Jiang, B. X.; Pan, Y. B.; Niu, G.; Fan, Z. W.; Peng, Q. J.; Cui, D. F.; Xu, Z. Y.

    2012-10-01

    We report on a LD-end-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YAG ceramic laser by using a novel single wall carbon nanotube saturable absorber (SWCNT-SA). The SWCNT wafer was fabricated by electric Arc discharge method on quartz substrate with absorption wavelength of 1064 nm. We firstly investigated the continuous wave (CW) laser performance and scattering properties of Nd:YAG ceramic sample. For the case of passively Q-switched operation, a maximum output power of 376 mW was obtained at an incident pump power of 8.68 W at 808 nm, corresponding to an optical-optical conversion efficiency of 4.3%. The repetition rate as the increase of pump power varied from 14 to 95 kHz. The minimum pulse duration of 1.2 μs and maximum pulse energy of 4.5 μJ was generated at a repetition rate of 31.8 kHz.

  1. LdARL-3A, a Leishmania promastigote-specific ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein, is essential for flagellum integrity.

    PubMed

    Cuvillier, A; Redon, F; Antoine, J C; Chardin, P; DeVos, T; Merlin, G

    2000-06-01

    The small G protein-encoding LdARL-3A gene, a homologue of the human ARL-3 gene, was isolated from Leishmania donovani, and its protein product characterised. It is unique in the Leishmania genome and expressed only in the extracellular promastigote insect form, but not in the intracellular amastigote mammalian form, as shown by northern blots and western blots developed with a specific anti-C terminus immune serum. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy revealed distinct labelled spots regularly distributed on the plasma membrane, including the part lining the flagellum and the flagellar pocket. By transfection experiments, it was found that wild-type LdARL-3A-overexpressing promastigotes reached higher densities in culture, but released significantly less secreted acid phosphatase in the extracellular medium than the parental strain. When LdARL-3A blocked under the GDP-bound 'inactive' form or with an inactivated potential myristoylation site was overexpressed, the cells displayed an apparent wild-type phenotype, but died earlier in the stationary phase; in contrast to parental cells, they showed a diffuse pattern of fluorescence labelling in the cytoplasm and on the cell membrane. Strikingly, when a constitutively 'active' form of LdARL-3A (blocked under the GTP-bound form) was overexpressed, the promastigotes were immobile with a very short flagellum, a slow growth rate and a low level of acid phosphatase secretion; the length of the flagellum was inversely proportional to mutant protein expression. We concluded that LdARL-3A could be an essential gene involved in flagellum biogenesis; it may provide new approaches for control of the parasite at the insect stage. PMID:10806117

  2. Effect of water/fuel emulsions and a cerium-based combustion improver additive on HD and LD diesel exhaust emissions.

    PubMed

    Farfaletti, Arianna; Astorga, Covadonga; Martini, Giorgio; Manfredi, Urbano; Mueller, Anne; Rey, Maria; De Santi, Giovanni; Krasenbrink, Alois; Larsen, Bo R

    2005-09-01

    One of the major technological challenges for the transport sector is to cut emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) simultaneously from diesel vehicles to meet future emission standards and to reduce their contribution to the pollution of ambient air. Installation of particle filters in all existing diesel vehicles (for new vehicles, the feasibility is proven) is an efficient but expensive and complicated solution; thus other short-term alternatives have been proposed. It is well known that water/diesel (W/ D) emulsions with up to 20% water can reduce PM and NOx emissions in heavy-duty (HD) engines. The amount of water that can be used in emulsions for the technically more susceptible light-duty (LD) vehicles is much lower, due to risks of impairing engine performance and durability. The present study investigates the potential emission reductions of an experimental 6% W/D emulsion with EURO-3 LD diesel vehicles in comparison to a commercial 12% W/D emulsion with a EURO-3 HD engine and to a Cerium-based combustion improver additive. For PM, the emulsions reduced the emissions with -32% for LD vehicles (mass/km) and -59% for the HD engine (mass/ kWh). However, NOx emissions remained unchanged, and emissions of other pollutants were actually increased forthe LD vehicles with +26% for hydrocarbons (HC), +18% for CO, and +25% for PM-associated benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalents (TEQ). In contrast, CO (-32%), TEQ (-14%), and NOx (-6%) were reduced by the emulsion for the HD engine, and only hydrocarbons were slightly increased (+16%). Whereas the Cerium-based additive was inefficient in the HD engine for all emissions except for TEQ (-39%), it markedly reduced all emissions for the LD vehicles (PM -13%, CO -18%, HC -26%, TEQ -25%) except for NOx, which remained unchanged. The presented data indicate a strong potential for reductions in PM emissions from current diesel engines by optimizing the fuel composition. PMID:16190241

  3. LD-Aminopterin in the Canine Homologue of Human Atopic Dermatitis: A Randomized, Controlled Trial Reveals Dosing Factors Affecting Optimal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zebala, John A.; Mundell, Alan; Messinger, Linda; Griffin, Craig E.; Schuler, Aaron D.; Kahn, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Options are limited for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) who do not respond to topical treatments. Antifolate therapy with systemic methotrexate improves the disease, but is associated with adverse effects. The investigational antifolate LD-aminopterin may offer improved safety. It is not known how antifolate dose and dosing frequency affect efficacy in AD, but a primary mechanism is thought to involve the antifolate-mediated accumulation of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR). However, recent in vitro studies indicate that AICAR increases then decreases as a function of antifolate concentration. To address this issue and understand how dosing affects antifolate efficacy in AD, we examined the efficacy and safety of different oral doses and schedules of LD-aminopterin in the canine model of AD. Methods and Findings This was a multi-center, double-blind trial involving 75 subjects with canine AD randomized to receive up to 12 weeks of placebo, once-weekly (0.007, 0.014, 0.021 mg/kg) or twice-weekly (0.007 mg/kg) LD-aminopterin. The primary efficacy outcome was the Global Score (GS), a composite of validated measures of disease severity and itch. GS improved in all once-weekly cohorts, with 0.014 mg/kg being optimal and significant (43%, P<0.01). The majority of improvement was seen by 8 weeks. In contrast, GS in the twice-weekly cohort was similar to placebo and worse than all once-weekly cohorts. Adverse events were similar across all treated cohorts and placebo. Conclusions Once-weekly LD-aminopterin was safe and efficacious in canine AD. Twice-weekly dosing negated efficacy despite having the same daily and weekly dose as effective once-weekly regimens. Optimal dosing in this homologue of human AD correlated with the concentration-selective accumulation of AICAR in vitro, consistent with AICAR mediating LD-aminopterin efficacy in AD. PMID:25255447

  4. Spatial Correlation Analysis between Particulate Matter 10 (PM10) Hazard and Respiratory Diseases in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trang, N. Ha; Tripathi, N. K.

    2014-11-01

    Every year, during dry season, Chiang Mai and other northern provinces of Thailand face the problem of haze which is mainly generated by the burning of agricultural waste and forest fire, contained high percentage of particulate matter. Particulate matter 10 (PM10), being very small in size, can be inhaled easily to the deepest parts of the human lung and throat respiratory functions. Due to this, it increases the risk of respiratory diseases mainly in the case of continuous exposure to this seasonal smog. MODIS aerosol images (MOD04) have been used for four weeks in March 2007 for generating the hazard map by linking to in-situ values of PM10. Simple linear regression model between PM10 and AOD got fair correlation with R2 = 0.7 and was applied to transform PM10 pattern. The hazard maps showed the dominance of PM10 in northern part of Chiang Mai, especially in second week of March when PM10 level was three to four times higher than standard. The respiratory disease records and public health station of each village were collected from Provincial Public Health Department in Chiang Mai province. There are about 300 public health stations out of 2070 villages; hence thiessen polygon was created to determine the representative area of each public health station. Within each thiessen polygon, respiratory disease incident rate (RDIR) was calculated based on the number of patients and population. Global Moran's I was computed for RDIR to explore spatial pattern of diseases through four weeks of March. Moran's I index depicted a cluster pattern of respiratory diseases in 2nd week than other weeks. That made sense for a relationship between PM10 and respiratory diseases infections. In order to examine how PM10 affect the human respiratory system, geographically weighted regression model was used to observe local correlation coefficient between RDIR and PM10 across study area. The result captured a high correlation between respiratory diseases and high level of PM10 in

  5. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function Patterns in Workers Exposed to Wood Smoke and Cooking Oil Fumes (Mai Suya) in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adewole, OO; Desalu, OO; Nwogu, KC; Adewole, TO; Erhabor, GE

    2013-01-01

    Background: ‘Mai suya’ is a common job in the most northern Nigeria in which there is significant exposures to wood smoke and oil fumes. The respiratory impact of these dual exposures on workers engaged in this work has not been previously documented, hence this study was carried out. Aim: The aim is to study the prevalence, patterns and respiratory function assessment among this group. Subject and Methods: This is a case controlled study involving mai suya and workers who are not exposed to wood smoke and oil fumes in an occupational setting. All consenting mai suya and matched controls were recruited. Both groups underwent an interviewer administered questionnaire followed by on spot spirometric test measuring forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Results are presented using descriptive statistics. Chi square was used to test for association between respiratory symptoms and the job categories. Student's t-test was used to compare values of continuous variables. Odd ratios were determined for the risk of respiratory symptoms and exposure to wood smoke and oil fumes. Results: Both groups are similar in their demographic characters except in their smoking status, so current smokers were excluded from further analysis. The test group had significantly increased occurrence of chest tightness: 59% (19/32), nasal congestion: 37% (12/32), cough: 32% (10/32), and wheeze: 12% (4/32) compared with the control group, odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval CI (0.1-5.8), P value 0.04, OR 1.2,95% CI (1.04-1.8), P value = 0.02, OR 0.9 95% CI (0.9-1.4), P value = 0.3, and OR 1.2,95% CI (1-1.3), P value = 0.04, respectively. Occurrences of some respiratory symptoms were associated with duration on the job, while a positive family history of asthma is not associated with increased occurrence of symptoms. The mean (SD) FEV1 and FVC were significantly lower among the test group compared with the control

  6. Lead and cadmium in leaves of deciduous trees in Beijing, China: development of a metal accumulation index (MAI).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Ju; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ding, Hui

    2007-01-01

    Lead and cadmium uptake was investigated for common deciduous street trees in Beijing in this study. Species having Cd accumulation included Populus tomentosa, Sophora japonica and Catalpa speciosa. P. tomentosa had the highest ratios between leaf and soil Cd (0.848), followed by S. japonica (0.536), C. speciosa (0.493), Paulownia tomentosa (0.453) and Juglans regia (0.415). Pb levels were high in leaves of C. speciosa, J. regia and Pa. tomentosa. S. japonica had the highest ratio between leaf Pb and soil Pb (0.146), followed by Pa. tomentosa (0.143), Ginko biloba (0.103) and C. speciosa (0.095). A predictive foliar metal accumulation index (MAI) was developed and C. speciosa was calculated to have the highest MAI value (53.8). This suggests that C. speciosa would be a good choice for planting in areas of Beijing where soil contamination with Cd and Pb may be a problem. PMID:16797111

  7. Experimental and Clinical Advances in Immunotherapy Strategies for Spinal Cord Injury Target on MAIs and Their Receptors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiu-Min; Wei, Jing-Xiang; Xiao, Lan; Shu, Ya-Hai; Wang, Yong-Tang

    2016-01-01

    In the injured adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), the failure of axonal regeneration is thought to be attributed, at least in part, to various myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs), such as Nogo, myelinassociated glycoprotein (MAG), and oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) around the damaged site. Interestingly, these three structurally different inhibitors share two common receptors, Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) and paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), and transduce the inhibitory signal into neurons via their complex combinant and co-receptors, such as p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), Nogo receptor-interacting protein 1 (LINGO-1), and TROY. Accordingly, targeting of the whole myelin or just portions by immunization has been proved to be neuroprotective and is able to promote regeneration in the injured spinal cords. In the past few years, vaccine approaches were initially achieved and could induce the production of antibodies against inhibitors in myelin to block the inhibitory effects and promote functional recovery in spinal cord injury (SCI) models by immunizing with MAIs, such as purified myelin, spinal cord homogenates, or their receptors with the concept of protective autoimmunity formulated. However, for safety consideration, further work is necessary before the immunotherapy strategies can be adopted to treat human injured spinal cords. PMID:26635269

  8. The nature and impact of chronic stressors on refugee children in Ban Mai Nai Soi camp, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sarah; Murray, Laura K; Puffer, Eve S; Larsen, Jillian; Bolton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Refugee camps are replete with risk factors for mental health problems among children, including poverty, disruption of family structure, family violence and food insecurity. This study, focused on refugee children from Burma, in Ban Mai Nai Soi camp in Thailand, sought to identify the particular risks children are exposed to in this context, and the impacts on their mental health and psychosocial well-being. This study employed two qualitative methods--free list interviews and key informant interviews--to identify the main problems impacting children in Ban Mai Nai Soi camp and to explore the causes of these problems and their impact on children's well-being. Respondents in free list interviews identified a number of problems that impact children in this context, including fighting between adults, alcohol use by adults and children, and child abuse and neglect. Across the issues, the causes included economic and social conditions associated with living in the camp and changes in family structures. Children are chronically exposed to stressors during their growth and development in the camp environment. Policies and interventions in areas of protracted displacement in camp-based settings should work to address these stressors and their impacts at community, household and individual levels. PMID:23886374

  9. YiQiFuMai Powder Injection Ameliorates Cerebral Ischemia by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Neuronal Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    YiQiFuMai (YQFM) powder injection as a modern preparation derived from Sheng Mai San, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, its neuroprotective effect and underlying mechanism in cerebral ischemia remain to be explored. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of YQFM on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated neuronal apoptosis in the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion- (MCAO-) injured mice and the oxygen-glucose deprivation- (OGD-) induced pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. The results showed that single administration of YQFM (1.342 g/kg, i.p.) could reduce the brain infarction and improve the neurological deficits and the cerebral blood flow (CBF) after MCAO for 24 h in mice. Moreover, incubation with YQFM (100, 200, and 400 μg/mL) could increase the cell viability, decrease the caspase-3 activity, and inhibit the cell apoptosis in OGD-induced PC12 cells for 12 h. In addition, YQFM treatment could significantly modulate cleaved caspase-3 and Bcl-2 expressions and inhibit the expressions of ER stress-related marker proteins and signaling pathways in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, our findings provide the first evidence that YQFM ameliorates cerebral ischemic injury linked with modulating ER stress-related signaling pathways, which provided some new insights for its prevention and treatment of cerebral ischemia diseases. PMID:27087890

  10. Diurnal variation, vertical distribution and source apportionment of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Chiang-Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt

    2013-01-01

    Diurnal variation of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated by collecting PM10 at three different sampling altitudes using high buildings in the city center of Chiang-Mai, Thailand, during the relatively cold period in late February 2008. At site-1 (12 m above ground level), B[a]P concentrations ranged from 30.3 -1,673 pg m-3 with an average of 506±477 pg m-3, contributing on average, 8.09±8.69% to ?PAHs. Ind and B[b]F concentrations varied from 54.6 to 4,579 pg m-3 and from 80.7 to 2,292 pg m-3 with the highest average of 1,187±1,058 pg m-3 and 963±656 pg m-3, contributing on average, 19.0±19.3% and 15.4±12.0% to ?PAHs, respectively. Morning maxima were predominantly detected in all observatory sites, which can be described by typical diurnal variations of traffic flow in Chiang-Mai City, showing a morning peak between 6 AM. and 9 AM. Despite the fact that most monitoring sites might be subjected to specific-site impacts, it could be seen that PAH profiles in Site-1 and Site-2 were astonishingly homogeneous. The lack of differences suggests that the source signatures of several PAHs become less distinct possibly due to the impacts of traffic and cooking emissions from ground level. PMID:23679286

  11. LD pumped high-repetition-rate high-power 532nm Nd:YAG/LBO solid state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pingxue; Liu, Dongyu; Chi, Junjie; Yang, Chun; Zhao, Ziqiang; Hu, Haowei; Zhang, Guangju; Yao, Yifei

    2013-09-01

    Diode pumped solid state 532 nm green laser is widely required for many industrial, medical and scientific applications. Among most of these applications, high power quasi-continuous-wave (QCW) green laser output is demanded. This can be efficiently achieved through a diode-side-pumped acoustic-optic Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with an intracavity second harmonic generation (SHG). In our experiment, LBO crystal is used for the second harmonic generation of high-average-power lasers of near infrared (NIR) range, though its effective NLO coefficient deff is relatively small. It is because of its high damage threshold (greater than 2.5 GW/cm2), large acceptance angle, small walk-off angle, and the nonhygroscopic characteristic. In this paper, we reported a high-repetition-rate high-power diode-side-pumped AO Q-switched Nd:YAG 532 nm laser. A plane-plane cavity with two rods, two AO Q-switches and the type II critical phase-matched LBO at room temperature were employed. Under the LD pump power of 480 W, 95.86 W at 1064 nm wavelength was achieved when the repetition rate was 15 kHz, and the 532 nm average output power of 44.77 W was obtained, with a pulse width of 111.7 ns, corresponding to an optical to optical conversion efficiency of 46.7% from 1064 nm to 532 nm. The 532 nm average output power was 40.10 W at a repetition rate of 10 kHz with a pulse width of 78.65 ns. The output characteristics of the SHG varying with the pumping current and the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of the laser were also investigated. Further improvement of the SHG is under study.

  12. Affinity-matured recombinant immunotoxin targeting gangliosides 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6'-isoLD1 on malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Hailan; Kuan, Chien-Tsun; Chandramohan, Vidya; Keir, Stephen T; Pegram, Charles N; Bao, Xuhui; Månsson, Jan-Eric; Pastan, Ira H; Bigner, Darell D

    2013-01-01

    About 60 percent of glioblastomas highly express the gangliosides 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1 on the cell surface, providing ideal targets for brain tumor immunotherapy. A novel recombinant immunotoxin, DmAb14m-(scFv)-PE38KDEL (DmAb14m-IT), specific for the gangliosides 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1, was constructed with improved affinity and increased cytotoxicity for immunotherapeutic targeting of glioblastoma. We isolated an scFv parental clone from a previously established murine hybridoma, DmAb14, that is specific to both 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1. We then performed in vitro affinity maturation by CDR hotspot random mutagenesis. The binding affinity and specificity of affinity-matured DmAb14m-IT were measured by surface-plasmon resonance, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemical analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity of DmAb14m-IT was measured by protein synthesis inhibition and cell death assays in human cell lines expressing gangliosides 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1 (D54MG and D336MG) and xenograft-derived cells (D2224MG). As a result, the KD of DmAb14m-IT for gangliosides 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1 was 2.6 × 10−9M. Also, DmAb14m-IT showed a significantly higher internalization rate in cells expressing 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1. The DmAb14m-IT IC50 was 80 ng/mL (1194 pM) on the D54MG cell line, 5 ng/ml (75 pM) on the D336MG cell line, and 0.5 ng/ml (7.5 pM) on the D2224MG xenograft-derived cells. There was no cytotoxicity on ganglioside-negative HEK293 cells. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the specific apparent affinity of DmAb14m-IT with 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1. In conclusion, DmAb14m-IT showed specific binding affinity, a significantly high internalization rate, and selective cytotoxicity on glioma cell lines and xenograft-derived cells expressing 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1, thereby displaying robust therapeutic potential for testing the antitumor efficacy of DmAb14m-IT at the preclinical level and

  13. Cysteine Cross-linking Defines the Extracellular Gate for the Leishmania donovani Nucleoside Transporter 1.1 (LdNT1.1)*

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Raquel; Shinde, Ujwal; Landfear, Scott M.

    2012-01-01

    Equilibrative nucleoside transporters are a unique family of proteins that enable uptake of nucleosides/nucleobases into a wide range of eukaryotes and internalize a myriad of drugs used in the treatment of cancer, heart disease, AIDs, and parasitic infections. In previous work we generated a structural model for such a transporter, the LdNT1.1 nucleoside permease from the parasitic protozoan Leishmania donovani, using ab initio computation. The model suggested that aromatic residues present in transmembrane helices 1, 2, and 7 interact to form an extracellular gate that closes the permeation pathway in the inward-open conformation. Mutation of residues Phe-48TM1 and Trp-75TM2 abrogated transport activity, consistent with such prediction. In this study cysteine mutagenesis and oxidative cross-linking were combined to analyze proximity relationships of helices 1, 2, and 7 in LdNT1.1. Disulfide bond formation between introduced paired cysteines at the interface of such helices (A61CTM1/F74CTM2, A61CTM1/G350CTM7, and F74CTM2/G350CTM7) was analyzed by transport measurement and gel mobility shifts upon oxidation with Cu (II)-(1,10-phenanthroline)3. In all cases cross-linking inhibited transport. However, if LdNT1.1 ligands were included during cross-linking, inhibition of transport was reduced, suggesting that ligands moved the three gating helices apart. Moreover, all paired cysteine mutants exhibited a mobility shift upon oxidation, corroborating the formation of a disulfide bond. These data support the notion that helices 1, 2, and 7 constitute the extracellular gate of LdNT1.1, thus further validating the computational model and the previously demonstrated importance of F48TM1 and Trp-75TM2 in tethering together helices that are part of the gate. PMID:23150661

  14. A new forest-dwelling Bent-toed Gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) from Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kunya, Kirati; Sumontha, Montri; Panitvong, Nonn; Dongkumfu, Wuttipong; Sirisamphan, Thana; Pauwels, Olivier S G

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new forest-dwelling Cyrtodactylus from Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov. is characterized by a maximum known SVL of 87.3 mm; 18 to 20 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles; a continuous series of 34 to 37 enlarged femoro-precloacal scales, including four to six pitted (female) or pore-bearing (male) scales on each femur separated by a diastema from five pitted (females) or pore-bearing (male) precloacal scales; no precloacal groove or depression; transversely enlarged subcaudal scales; and three to five irregular beige dorsal bands between limb insertions. The discovery of a new reptile endemic to Doi Inthanon reinforces the high importance of this mountain in terms of biodiversity conservation. PMID:25661232

  15. Serotype- and virulence-associated gene profile of Streptococcus suis isolates from pig carcasses in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wongsawan, Kanruethai; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Tharavichitkul, Prasit

    2015-02-01

    In this present study, the serotype of 40 Streptococcus suis isolates from submaxillary glands of pig carcasses sold in wet markets in Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand, was investigated. Eleven serotypes, including types 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 17, 21, 22 and 31, were found in the isolates by a Multiplex PCR combined with serum agglutination. Of the eleven serotypes present, type 3 was the most prevalent, while types 2, 4, 5 and 21 were of primary interest due to their human isolate serotype. The mrp+/epf - /sly - genotype was found to be the most prevalent genotype. This study indicates the importance of effective control of human S. suis infection due to raw pork or pig carcass handling in northern Thailand. PMID:25367105

  16. Visceral pentastomiasis caused by Armillifer armillatus in a captive striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) in Chiang Mai Night Safari, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Dechkajorn, Sakorn; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Boonsri, Kittikorn; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Wannasan, Anchalee; Chailangkarn, Sasisophin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda

    2016-02-01

    Visceral pentastomiasis (porocephalosis) caused by Armillifer armillatus larvae was incidentally diagnosed in a female striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) of unknown age which died unexpectedly in 2013. The hyena had been imported from Tanzania 8years earlier and have been since then in a zoo in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. Pathological examination revealed visceral nymph migrans of pentastomes throughout the intestine, liver, diaphragm, omentum and mesentery, spleen, kidneys, and urinary bladder. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing that targeted the pentastomid-specific 18S rRNA gene determined 100% identity with reference sequence for A. armillatus, suggesting that its ova can infect the hyena to serve as an intermediate host for the parasite. Further studies to identify the source of infection, its risk factors, and host range for A. armillatus are important to determine its zoonotic potential and to better prevent and manage the disease to protect animal and human health. PMID:26460150

  17. Comparison of knowledge, attitudes, experience, and opinions between teachers and guardians regarding the emergency contraceptive pill in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sripichyakan, Kasara; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat

    2006-03-01

    Teachers and guardians (parents or authorized persons) are expected to collaborate in educating female students about emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) but it is unknown whether they have similar perspectives on ECPs. This study aimed to compare their knowledge, attitudes, experience, and opinions regarding ECPs. Questionnaires were distributed to 720 female teachers and guardians of eight randomly selected high schools and vocational schools in Chiang Mai, Thailand. There were significantly more teachers who knew about the existence of ECPs than guardians. More guardians reported some accurate information regarding ECPs than did teachers. More teachers than guardians believed that the use of ECPs was not morally wrong. Both teachers and guardians had similar experience with ECP use and similar agreement in teaching female adolescents about ECPs. The teachers and guardians had some different opinions on teaching barriers. It is suggested that both teachers and guardians are suited to teach female adolescents about ECPs, but they need preparation in different aspects. PMID:16451426

  18. Crystal Structure of Barley Limit Dextrinase-Limit Dextrinase Inhibitor (LD-LDI) Complex Reveals Insights into Mechanism and Diversity of Cereal Type Inhibitors*

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Marie S.; Vester-Christensen, Malene B.; Jensen, Johanne M.; Hachem, Maher Abou; Henriksen, Anette; Svensson, Birte

    2015-01-01

    Molecular details underlying regulation of starch mobilization in cereal seed endosperm remain unknown despite the paramount role of this process in plant growth. The structure of the complex between the starch debranching enzyme barley limit dextrinase (LD), hydrolyzing α-1,6-glucosidic linkages, and its endogenous inhibitor (LDI) was solved at 2.7 Å. The structure reveals an entirely new and unexpected binding mode of LDI as compared with previously solved complex structures of related cereal type family inhibitors (CTIs) bound to glycoside hydrolases but is structurally analogous to binding of dual specificity CTIs to proteases. Site-directed mutagenesis establishes that a hydrophobic cluster flanked by ionic interactions in the protein-protein interface is vital for the picomolar affinity of LDI to LD as assessed by analysis of binding by using surface plasmon resonance and also supported by LDI inhibition of the enzyme activity. A phylogenetic analysis identified four LDI-like proteins in cereals among the 45 sequences from monocot databases that could be classified as unique CTI sequences. The unprecedented binding mechanism shown here for LDI has likely evolved in cereals from a need for effective inhibition of debranching enzymes having characteristic open active site architecture. The findings give a mechanistic rationale for the potency of LD activity regulation and provide a molecular understanding of the debranching events associated with optimal starch mobilization and utilization during germination. This study unveils a hitherto not recognized structural basis for the features endowing diversity to CTIs. PMID:25792743

  19. Crystal structure of barley limit dextrinase-limit dextrinase inhibitor (LD-LDI) complex reveals insights into mechanism and diversity of cereal type inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Møller, Marie S; Vester-Christensen, Malene B; Jensen, Johanne M; Hachem, Maher Abou; Henriksen, Anette; Svensson, Birte

    2015-05-15

    Molecular details underlying regulation of starch mobilization in cereal seed endosperm remain unknown despite the paramount role of this process in plant growth. The structure of the complex between the starch debranching enzyme barley limit dextrinase (LD), hydrolyzing α-1,6-glucosidic linkages, and its endogenous inhibitor (LDI) was solved at 2.7 Å. The structure reveals an entirely new and unexpected binding mode of LDI as compared with previously solved complex structures of related cereal type family inhibitors (CTIs) bound to glycoside hydrolases but is structurally analogous to binding of dual specificity CTIs to proteases. Site-directed mutagenesis establishes that a hydrophobic cluster flanked by ionic interactions in the protein-protein interface is vital for the picomolar affinity of LDI to LD as assessed by analysis of binding by using surface plasmon resonance and also supported by LDI inhibition of the enzyme activity. A phylogenetic analysis identified four LDI-like proteins in cereals among the 45 sequences from monocot databases that could be classified as unique CTI sequences. The unprecedented binding mechanism shown here for LDI has likely evolved in cereals from a need for effective inhibition of debranching enzymes having characteristic open active site architecture. The findings give a mechanistic rationale for the potency of LD activity regulation and provide a molecular understanding of the debranching events associated with optimal starch mobilization and utilization during germination. This study unveils a hitherto not recognized structural basis for the features endowing diversity to CTIs. PMID:25792743

  20. Design Documentation for JaWE2Openflow Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, N; Barter, R H

    2004-07-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has chosen CIGNEX Technologies, Inc. (CIGNEX) to design and develop the JaWE2Openflow conversion software. This document was created by CIGNEX as a project deliverable.

  1. RuBPCase activase mediates growth-defense tradeoffs: Silencing RCA redirects JA flux from JA-Ile to MeJA to attenuate induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sirsha; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary RuBPCase activase (RCA), an abundant photosynthetic protein is strongly down-regulated in response to Manduca sexta’s oral secretion (OS) in Nicotiana attenuata. RCA-silenced plants are impaired not only in photosynthetic capacity and growth, but also in jasmonic acid (JA)-isoleucine (Ile) signaling, and herbivore resistance mediated by JA-Ile dependent defense traits. These responses are consistent with a resource-based growth-defense trade-off. Since JA+Ile-supplementation of OS restored WT levels of JA-Ile, defenses and resistance to M. sexta, but OS supplemented individually with JA- or Ile did not, the JA-Ile deficiency of RCA-silenced plants could not be attributed to lower JA or Ile pools or JAR4/6 conjugating activity. Similar levels of JA-Ile derivatives after OS elicitation indicated unaltered JA-Ile turnover and lower levels of other JA-conjugates ruled out competition from other conjugation reactions. RCA-silenced plants accumulated more methyl jasmonate (MeJA) after OS elicitation, which corresponded with increased jasmonate methyltransferase (JMT) activity. RCA-silencing phenocopies JMT over-expression, wherein elevated JMT activity redirects OS-elicited JA flux towards inactive MeJA, creating a JA sink which depletes JA-Ile and its associated defense responses. Hence RCA plays an additional non-photosynthetic role in attenuating JA-mediated defenses and their associated costs potentially allowing plants to anticipate resource-based constraints on growth before they actually occur. PMID:24491116

  2. Protective effect of the extract of Yi-Qi-Fu-Mai preparation on hypoxia-induced heart injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ya-Qian; Ju, Ai-Chun; Liu, Chun-Hua; Wang, Ting; Yu, Bo-Yang; Qi, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Yi-Qi-Fu-Mai (YQFM) is extensively used clinically to treat cardiovascular diseases in China. To explore the anti-hypoxia effect of the extract of YQFM preparation (EYQFM), the EYQFM (1.4, 2.8, and 5.5 g·kg(-1)·d(-1)) was assessed for its heart-protective effect in a chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) animal model (oxygen pressure 7%-8%, 20 min per day) for 28 days of treatment. Betaloc (0.151 6 g·kg(-1)·d(-1)) was used as a positive control. The histopathological analyses of heart in CIH mice were conducted. Several cardiac state parameters, such as left ventricular ejection fractions (EF), stroke volume (SV), expression of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. The results showed that treatment with EYQFM markedly reversed swelling of the endothelial cells and vacuolization in the heart when compared with the model group. Further study demonstrated that EYQFM significantly improved ventricular myocardial contractility by increasing EF and SV. In addition, EYQFM inhibited the activity of CK, LDH, decreased the level of MDA and improved SOD activity. The results demonstrated that EYQFM significantly improved the tolerability of myocardium to hypoxia and ameliorated the cardiac damage in the CIH model. PMID:27473956

  3. Protective Effects of Sheng-Mai-San on Right Ventricular Dysfunction during Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Cheng-Zhi; Mo, Wei-Lan; Zhuang, Xian-Fei; Yan, Yong-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and failure contribute to the increasing morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases; however, current treatment strategies are grossly inadequate. Sheng-Mai-San (SMS) has been used to treat heart diseases for hundreds of years in China, and its protective effects on RV have not been observed. The present study was to investigate the protective effects of SMS aqueous extract on RV dysfunction in chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) mice model. The results showed that CIH mice model presented RV dysfunction and maladaptive compensation after 28-day-CIH and SMS treatment significantly reversed these changes. Diastolic function of RV was restored and systolic dysfunction was attenuated, including elevation of RV stroke volume and fractional shortening, as well as pulmonary circulation. Structurally, SMS treatment inhibited RV dilation, cardiomyocytes vacuolization, ultrastructure abnormalities, and the expression of cleaved caspase-3. Of importance, SMS showed remarkable antioxidant activity by decreasing the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), increasing the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), as well as inhibiting the overexpression of 3-NT in RV. Our results indicate that SMS preserve RV structure and function in CIH-exposed mice by involving regulation in both ROS and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS) production. PMID:27073402

  4. Le syndrome de la pince aorto-mésentérique: rare, mais pensez-y

    PubMed Central

    Tidjane, Anisse; Tabeti, Benali; Benmaarouf, Noureddine; Boudjenan, Nabil; Bouziane, Chaouky; Kessai, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Le syndrome de la pince aorto-mésentérique «SPAM » ou syndrome de Wilkie, est une obstruction duodénale secondaire à une pince anatomiquement acquise qui résulte de la compression du troisième duodénum par l'artère mésentérique supérieure « AMS » en avant, et l'aorte en arrière suite à la disparition du tissu graisseux périvasculaire. Les états de dénutrition avancés en sont souvent la cause, et le SPAM se manifeste cliniquement par des vomissements, des plénitudes et des douleurs post prandiales. Le traitement est médical, mais en cas d’échec la chirurgie s'impose. Nous rapportons un cas de SPAM survenu chez un patient âgé de 78 ans présentant une broncho-pneumopathiechronique obstructive, une démence sénile et une anorexie, consultant pour vomissements répétés remontant à plus d'une semaine. PMID:25018797

  5. Genetic population structure of polychaeta Neanthes glandicincta (Nereididae) of the Mai Po Inner Deep Bay Ramsar Site, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ping-Ping; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    Neanthes glandicincta (Nereididae, Polychaeta) is the first numerically dominant benthic infauna in the Mai Po international Ramsar site, Hong Kong and also an economically important species for food source of birds and fishes. In present study, highly conserved nuclear ribosomal DNA (SSU and LSU rDNA) and mitochondrial COI gene were employed to study the population structure of N. glandicincta in the subtropical mudflat. The specimens were collected from five localities in February 2006, February-August 2007 and preserved at -80 °C, methanol or formalin, respectively. DNA extraction efficiency was the highest in fresh materials and lowest in formalin-fixed samples. The 18S (1774 bp), 28S D1 (383 bp) and COI genes were sequenced and analyzed. Both 18S and 28S D1 rDNA were highly conserved and showed no difference among the populations, whereas COI gene exhibited relatively high-level intraspecific polymorphism (2.2 %). The population from onshore and near mangrove station was phylogenetic different from other sites, indicating restricted gene exchange between the region of river mouth and mangrove forest. The mangrove may form a barrier for the dispersal of pelagic/benthic larvae of the population, which indicates that the population genetic difference is related to different habitats. PMID:25967938

  6. Pallisentis rexus from the Chiang Mai Basin, Thailand: ultrastructural studies on egg envelope development and the mechanism of egg expansion.

    PubMed

    Wongkham, W; Whitfield, P J

    2004-03-01

    Pallisentis rexus Wongkham & Whitfield, 1999 (Eoacanthocephala: Quadrigyridae) infects the freshwater snakehead fish, Channa striata, in the Chiang Mai Basin, Thailand. All stages of egg development within the body cavity of the female parasite were observed, using transmission electron microscopy. Changes in mature eggs after contact with water were also investigated. The mature egg has five egg envelopes separated from each other by four gaps. The fertilization membrane, which is formed first, is pushed centrifugally by other, subsequently formed, envelopes and gaps, which produces a final total shell thickness of 8-36 microm around the acanthor. The disappearance of the outermost layer and the unpleating of an adjacent inner layer causes the expansion of eggs on contact with water. The volume of an expanded egg is approximately 27 times that of an unexpanded one, but the density of eggs is reduced from a value greater than water to one almost equal to water. This is believed to aid the dispersion of eggs. PMID:14972041

  7. Sensitivity of species to chemicals: dose-response characteristics for various test types (LC(50), LR(50) and LD(50)) and modes of action.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A Jan; Awkerman, Jill A; de Zwart, Dick; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2013-11-01

    While variable sensitivity of model species to common toxicants has been addressed in previous studies, a systematic analysis of inter-species variability for different test types, modes of action and species is as of yet lacking. Hence, the aim of the present study was to identify similarities and differences in contaminant levels affecting cold-blooded and warm-blooded species administered via different routes. To that end, data on lethal water concentrations LC50, tissue residues LR50 and oral doses LD50 were collected from databases, each representing the largest of its kind. LC50 data were multiplied by a bioconcentration factor (BCF) to convert them to internal concentrations that allow for comparison among species. For each endpoint data set, we calculated the mean and standard deviation of species' lethal level per compound. Next, the means and standard deviations were averaged by mode of action. Both the means and standard deviations calculated depended on the number of species tested, which is at odds with quality standard setting procedures. Means calculated from (BCF) LC50, LR50 and LD50 were largely similar, suggesting that different administration routes roughly yield similar internal levels. Levels for compounds interfering biochemically with elementary life processes were about one order of magnitude below that of narcotics disturbing membranes, and neurotoxic pesticides and dioxins induced death in even lower amounts. Standard deviations for LD50 data were similar across modes of action, while variability of LC50 values was lower for narcotics than for substances with a specific mode of action. The study indicates several directions to go for efficient use of available data in risk assessment and reduction of species testing. PMID:23932508

  8. A Holocene Lake Record from Laguna Del Maule (LdM) in the Chilean Andes: Climatic and Volcanic Controls on Lake Depositional Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero-Garces, B. L.; Frugone Alvarez, M.; Barreiro-Lostres, F.; Carrevedo, M. L.; Latorre Hidalgo, C.; Giralt, S.; Maldonado, A.; Bernárdez, P.; Prego, R.; Moreno-Caballud, A.

    2014-12-01

    Central Chile is a tectonically active, drought-prone region sensitive to latitudinal variations in large-scale cold fronts associated with fluctuations of the Pacific subtropical high. Holocene high-resolution records of climate and volcanic events could help inform more on the frequency of extensive droughts as well as volcanic and seismic hazards. LdM is a high altitude, volcanic lake located in the Transition Southern Volcanic Zone (~36°S, 2200 m.a.s.l). The LdM volcanic field is a very seismically and volcanically active zone in the Andes, with several caldera-forming eruptions over the last 1.5 Ma, and intense postglacial activity. In 2013, we recovered over 40 m of sediment cores at four sites of LdM and collected > 20 km of seismic lines. The cores were imaged, their physical and geochemical properties analysed with a Geotek MSCL and XRF scanner respectively, and sampled for TOC, TIC, TS, TN, BioSi, and bulk mineralogy. The chronology was constructed with a Bayesian age-depth model including 210Pb-137Cs, the Quizapú volcanic ash (1932 AD) and 17 AMS 14C dates. The 4.8 m long composite sequence spans the Late glacial and Holocene.Sediments are massive to banded, quartz and plagioclase-rich silts with variable diatom (BioSi, 15- 30 %) and organic matter content (TOC, 1-5 %). Four main units have been defined based on sedimentological and geochemical composition. The transition from Unit 4 to 3 is ascribed to the onset of the Holocene; Unit 2 spans the mid Holocene, and Unit 1 the last 4 ka. Higher (lower) TOC, Br/Ti and Fe/Mn ratios in units 1 and 3 (2 and 4) suggest higher (lower) organic productivity in the lake and dominant oxic (anoxic) conditions at the bottom of the lake. Up to 17 ash and lapilli layers mark volcanic events, mostly grouped in units 1 and 3. Periods of higher lake productivity (units 1 and 3) are synchronous to higher frequency of volcanic events. Some climate transitions (LIA, 4ka, 8ka and 11ka) are evident in the LdM sequence

  9. Recent HIV Testing Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in Bangkok and Chiang Mai: HIV Testing and Prevention Strategies Must Be Enhanced in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lisa G; Steinhaus, Mara C; Sass, Justine; Sirinirund, Petchsri; Lee, Catherine; Benjarattanaporn, Patchara; Gass, Robert

    2016-09-01

    HIV infection among men who have sex with men, particularly in Thai urban settings and among younger cohorts, is escalating. HIV testing and counseling (HTC) are important for prevention and obtaining treatment and care. We examine data from a 2013 survey of males, 15-24 years, reporting past-year sex with a male and living in Bangkok or Chiang Mai. Almost three quarters of young MSM (YMSM) in Bangkok and only 27 % in Chiang Mai had an HIV test in the previous year. Associations for HIV testing varied between cities, although having employment increased the odds of HIV testing for both cities. In Bangkok, family knowledge of same sex attraction and talking to parents/guardians about HIV/AIDS had higher odds of HIV testing. Expanded HTC coverage is needed for YMSM in Chiang Mai. All health centers providing HTC, including those targeting MSM, need to address the specific needs of younger cohorts. PMID:26884309

  10. Changes in urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels in cancer patients after treatment with Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang.

    PubMed

    Lai, Tung-Yuan; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2016-04-01

    Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang (SMD-2; shā shēn mài dōng tāng) is a Chinese medicinal herb (CMH; zhōng cǎo yào) used to treat symptoms associated with cancer therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of SMD-2 on the levels of urinary copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in lung cancer patients and head and neck cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. Forty-two head and neck cancer patients and 10 lung cancer patients participated in our clinical trial. Each patient received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks. In addition, each patient was treated with SMD-2 for 8 weeks, including 2 weeks prior to and after the chemoradiotherapy treatment. Comparison of urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu at three time points in the two types of cancer were assessed using the generalized estimating equations (GEEs). After the patients received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks, SMD-2 treatment was found to be associated with a significant decrease in urinary Cu levels, whereas urinary Zn and Se levels increased significantly. In addition, the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu in the urine samples of these patients also increased significantly. Both the urinary Zn levels and the ratio of Zn to Cu in head and neck cancer patients were significantly higher than in lung cancer patients. Urinary Zn and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu, but not urinary Cu levels, increased significantly during and after treatment when assessed using the GEE model. The SMD-2 treatments significantly increased Zn and Se levels in the urine of head and neck cancer patients. Increased Zn and Se levels in urine strengthened immune system. PMID:27114935

  11. Aerosol transport from Chiang Mai, Thailand to Mt. Lulin, Taiwan - Implication of aerosol aging during long-range transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Ming-Tung; Lee, Chung-Te; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Engling, Guenter; Chang, Shih-Yu; Chang, Shuenn-Chin; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; Chang, You-Jia; Hong, Guo-Jun

    2016-07-01

    The transport of biomass burning (BB) aerosol from Indochina may cause a potential effect on climate change in Southeast Asia, East Asia, and the Western Pacific. Up to now, the understanding of BB aerosol composition modification during long-range transport (LRT) is still very limited due to the lack of observational data. In this study, atmospheric aerosols were collected at the Suthep/Doi Ang Khang (DAK) mountain sites in Chiang Mai, Thailand and the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (Mt. Lulin) in central Taiwan from March to April 2010 and from February to April 2013, respectively. During the study period, an upwind and downwind relationship between the Suthep/DAK and Lulin sites (2400 km apart) was validated by backward trajectories. Comprehensive aerosol properties were resolved for PM2.5 water-soluble inorganic ions, carbonaceous content, water-soluble/insoluble organic carbon (WSOC/WIOC), dicarboxylic acids and their salts (DCAS), and anhydrosugars. A Modification Factor (MF) is proposed by employing non-sea-salt potassium ion (nss-K+) or fractionalized elemental carbon evolved at 580 °C after pyrolized OC correction (EC1-OP) as a BB aerosol tracer to evaluate the mass fraction changes of aerosol components from source to receptor regions during LRT. The MF values of nss-SO42-, NH4+, NO3-, OC1 (fractionalized organic carbon evolved from room temperature to 140 °C), OP (pyrolized OC fraction), DCAS, and WSOC were above unity, which indicated that these aerosol components were enhanced during LRT as compared with those in the near-source region. In contrast, the MF values of anhydrosugars ranged from 0.1 to 0.3, indicating anhydrosugars have degraded during LRT.

  12. Contents and mass balances of cadmium and arsenic in a wastewater-fed fish pond of Hoang Mai, Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Marcussen, Helle; Ha, Le Thai; Polprasert, Chongrak; Holm, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater-fed aquatic production has been practiced since the 1960s in peri-urban Hanoi. Wastewater is used as a cheap and reliable source of both water and nutrients but there is a risk that it may lead to accumulation of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the production systems and produce and thereby constitute a food safety risk. This study investigates the cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) concentrations in water, sediment, plant and fish of a wastewater fed-fish pond in Hoang Mai district, Hanoi, Vietnam. Cd concentrations in the water were lower than the Vietnamese quality guidelines (0.8-1.8 μg Cd/L) for protection of aquatic life but As concentrations in inlet and outlet water of 44.3 and 21.3 μg/L, respectively both were higher that the guidelines (20 μg As/L) and may cause toxicity to fish in the pond and the surrounding vegetable farms using the outlet water for irrigation. The concentrations of Cd and As in fish and Cd in water spinach did not constitute a food safety risk. However, As concentrations in water spinach may be of concern. A mass balance estimate for the fish pond showed that about 12% of the incoming As accumulate in suspended particular matters, 40% settle down to the sediment, less than 0.1% accumulate in the fish and water spinach and 48% overflow with the pond effluent. The concentrations of Cd were too low to make a mass balance for the fish pond. PMID:22934996

  13. Alcohol intoxication in road traffic accidents leads to higher impact speed difference, higher ISS and MAIS, and higher preclinical mortality.

    PubMed

    Stübig, Timo; Petri, Maximilian; Zeckey, Christian; Brand, Stephan; Müller, Christian; Otte, Dietmar; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol is one of the most important personal risk factors for serious and fatal injuries, contributing to approximately one third of all deaths from accidents. It is also described that alcohol intoxication leads to a higher mortality in the clinical course. In this study, we hypothesized that alcohol intoxication leads to different accident kinematics, a higher ISS (Injury Severity Score), and higher preclinical mortality compared to sober patients. A technical and medical investigation of alcohol intoxicated road users was performed on the scene of the crash and at the primary admitting hospital. Alcohol testing was performed with either breath alcohol tests or measurement of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in a standard laboratory test. Between 1999 and 2010, 37,635 road traffic accidents were evaluated by the Accident Research Unit. Overall 20,741 patients were injured, 2.3% of the patients were killed. Among the injured patients, 2.2% with negative BAC were killed, compared to 4.6% fatal injuries in patients with a positive BAC (p < 0.0001). Of the patients with a positive BAC, 8.0% were severely injured, compared to 3.6% in the BAC negative group (p < 0.0001). Regarding the relative speed at impact (Δv for motorized drivers, vehicle collision speed for pedestrians and bikers), there was a significant higher difference for BAC positive patients (30 ± 20) compared to the BAC negative patients (25 ± 19, p < 0.0001). Alcohol intoxication in trauma patients leads to higher preclinical mortality, higher impact speed difference, and higher injury severity. The subgroup analysis for different alcohol concentrations shows no difference in ISS, MAIS, and relative speed, but a correlation of increasing age of patients with higher alcohol concentrations. PMID:22819121

  14. Changes in urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels in cancer patients after treatment with Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tung-Yuan; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang (SMD-2; 沙參麥冬湯 shā shēn mài dōng tāng) is a Chinese medicinal herb (CMH; 中草藥 zhōng cǎo yào) used to treat symptoms associated with cancer therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of SMD-2 on the levels of urinary copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in lung cancer patients and head and neck cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. Forty-two head and neck cancer patients and 10 lung cancer patients participated in our clinical trial. Each patient received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks. In addition, each patient was treated with SMD-2 for 8 weeks, including 2 weeks prior to and after the chemoradiotherapy treatment. Comparison of urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu at three time points in the two types of cancer were assessed using the generalized estimating equations (GEEs). After the patients received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks, SMD-2 treatment was found to be associated with a significant decrease in urinary Cu levels, whereas urinary Zn and Se levels increased significantly. In addition, the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu in the urine samples of these patients also increased significantly. Both the urinary Zn levels and the ratio of Zn to Cu in head and neck cancer patients were significantly higher than in lung cancer patients. Urinary Zn and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu, but not urinary Cu levels, increased significantly during and after treatment when assessed using the GEE model. The SMD-2 treatments significantly increased Zn and Se levels in the urine of head and neck cancer patients. Increased Zn and Se levels in urine strengthened immune system. PMID:27114935

  15. Reduction of mode partition noise of FP-LD by using Mach-Zehnder interferometer for RSOA-based DWDM applications.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sang-Hwa; Moon, Sang-Rok; Kye, Myeonggyun; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2016-06-27

    We investigate reduction of mode partition noise of a spectrally sliced Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) for application to seeded DWDM systems. The proposed scheme for the noise reduction incorporates a fiber-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA). The MZI enables to reduce a relative intensity noise (RIN) more than 3 dB with better noise distributions. Experimental results of 10-Gb/s signal transmission exhibit a considerable bit-error-rate (BER) reduction by three orders of magnitude at the given received power. After the noise reduction, the FP-LD is applied to a 10-Gb/s DWDM system as a seed-light-source. In a local-seeding scheme, return-to-zero (RZ) and carrier-suppressed (CS)-RZ signal formats are compared as a function of transmission distance. Furthermore, a back-reflection induced impairment is evaluated in a remote-seeding scheme. We also count the number of useable channels to show the feasibility of DWDM transmission. PMID:27410602

  16. The west side story: MEFV haplotype in Spanish FMF patients and controls, and evidence of high LD and a recombination "hot-spot" at the MEFV locus.

    PubMed

    Aldea, Anna; Calafell, Francesc; Aróstegui, Juan I; Lao, Oscar; Rius, Josefa; Plaza, Susana; Masó, Montserrat; Vives, Jordi; Buades, Joan; Yagüe, Jordi

    2004-04-01

    Mutations at the MEFV gene cause, with various degrees of penetrance, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). This disease is more prevalent in the Middle East than elsewhere, and most studies have focused on those populations. However, FMF occurs also in the Western Mediterranean and these populations should be taken into account for a complete view of FMF. We have analyzed intragenic MEFV SNPs in Spanish and Chueta (descendants of converted Jews) FMF patients and controls, and this constitutes the first systematic survey of normal MEFV SNP haplotype structure and variability. Our findings have allowed us to systematize the nomenclature of MEFV haplotypes and show that there is strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) at the MEFV locus and an intragenic recombination hot spot. The high local LD, regardless the recombination hot spot, is responsible for the limited diversity of the MEFV control haplotypes found in the Spanish population and it suggests that it may be a common feature to all Mediterranean populations. The MEFV mutation spectrum in Spain is quite diverse, and similar to those of France and Italy. On the contrary, the Chueta spectrum was poorer and closer to that of North African Jews, suggesting a direct connection with the Jewish diaspora. PMID:15024744

  17. 1.5-μm and 10-Gb s-1 etched mesa buried heterostructure DFB-LD for datacenter networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Oh Kee; Lee, Chul Wook; Leem, Young Ahn; Kim, Ki Soo; Oh, Su Hwan; Nam, Eun Soo

    2015-10-01

    We report a 1.5 μm and 10 Gb s-1 etched mesa buried heterostructure λ/4-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) for the low-cost application of WDM-based datacenter networks. To reduce the threshold current and improve the modulation bandwidth in a conventional p-/n-/p-InP current blocking structure, a thin undoped-InP (u-InP) layer was inserted between the side walls of the active region and the p-InP layer (i.e., a u-/p-/n-/p-InP structure), and the region containing the active region and the current blocking structures was etched in a mesa form (i.e., an etched mesa). From this work, it was found that a 300 μm long anti-reflection (AR)-AR DFB-LD with a mesa width of 8 μm is reduced by about 25% while a side mode suppression ratio is >50 dB and a 3 dB bandwidth is >10 GHz at a current of 40 mA; in addition, it shows a clear eye-opening with a dynamic extinction ratio of >4.5 dB at 10 Gb s-1, and a power penalty of <1 dB after a 2 km transmission.

  18. Effects and safety profile of betahistine in patients in the Russian contingent of OSVaLD, an open-label observational study in vestibular vertigo

    PubMed Central

    Morozova, Svetlana Vyacheslavovna; Alekseeva, Natalia Stepanovna; Lilenko, Sergey Vasilyevich; Matsnev, Eduard Ivanovich; Melnikov, Oleg Anatol’evich

    2015-01-01

    Background We report here data from the >200 patients recruited in Russia to take part in OSVaLD, a 12-week, open-label, post-marketing surveillance study of the response to betahistine 48 mg/day in vertigo of peripheral vestibular origin carried out in a total of 13 countries. Methods The primary efficacy endpoint was change in the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI; 100-point scale). Changes in Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36, version 2 (SF-36v2®) scores were a priori secondary Outcomes. Results Total DHI score improved by 43 points during betahistine treatment. This aggregate improvement was equally distributed across the three domains of the DHI (physical, emotional, and functional; P<0.0001 for main and subscore changes from baseline). Statistically significant improvements versus baseline were also observed in mean HADS scores for anxiety and depression (both P<0.0001), and in the Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scores of the SF-36v2 (both P<0.0001 versus baseline). Only one suspected adverse drug reaction was recorded in the Russian safety population (n=204), indicating that betahistine was well tolerated in those patients. Conclusion Betahistine 48 mg/day was associated with clear improvements in well-configured and widely validated measures of health-related quality of life and an encouraging tolerability profile in patients in Russia who took part in OSVaLD. PMID:25653552

  19. “Evaluation of a peer network intervention trial among young methamphetamine users in Chiang Mai, Thailand”

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, Catherine; Srirojn, Bangorn; Latkin, Carl A; Aramratanna, Ajpinun; Sherman, Susan G

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1990s, there has been a proliferation of methamphetamine use in Thailand, particularly among young people. Simultaneously, risky sexual behaviors among this population have increased. This study examined the effects of a peer network intervention and a life skills intervention on methamphetamine and HIV risk behaviors among 18–25 year olds in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Between April 2005 and June 2007, we conducted a randomized behavioral trial to compare the efficacy of a peer educator, network-oriented intervention with a best practice, life-skills curriculum on methamphetamine use, sexual behaviors, and incident sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Follow-up occurred at three, six, nine, and twelve months. Both conditions consisted of seven, two hour, small group sessions. Longitudinal analyses of the three outcomes were conducted by fitting repeated measures logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations. Participants (N=983) attended a median of six sessions, with no differences between arms. At each follow-up visit, retention was greater than 85%. Participants were 75% male and were a median of 19 years old. Over time, participants in both conditions showed a significant and dramatic decline in self-reported methamphetamine use (99% at baseline versus 53% at 12-months, p<0.0001) and significant increase in consistent condom use (32% baseline versus 44% at 12 months, p<0.0001). Incident STIs were common, with no differences between arms. Chlamydia had the highest incidence rate, 9.85/100 person-years and HIV had a low incidence rate of 0.71/100 person-years. Among young Thais, we found that a peer educator, network-oriented intervention was associated with reductions in methamphetamine use, increases in condom use, and reductions in incident STIs over 12 months. We also found parallel reductions with the life skills condition. To our knowledge, this is the first such trial targeting this population. Small group interventions are an

  20. Herbal medicine (Gan Mai Da Zao decoction) for depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Jun, Ji Hee; Choi, Tae-Young; Lee, Ju Ah; Yun, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this review was to analyze the trial data on the efficacy and safety of Gan Mai Da Zao (GMDZ) decoction for depression. PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE, AMED, Korea Med, DBPIA, OASIS, RISS, KISS, CNKI, Wan Fang Database, and VIP were searched through to May 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing GMDZ decoction for any type of depression were considered. All RCTs of GMDZ decoction or modified GMDZ decoction were included. Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Meta-analysis was used for the pooled data. A total of 298 potentially relevant studies were identified, and 13 RCTs met our inclusion criteria. All of the included RCTs had a high risk of bias across their domains. Three RCTs failed to show favorable effects of GMDZ decoction on response rate or HAMD score in major depression. One RCT showed a beneficial effect of GMDZ decoction on response rate in post-surgical depression, while another failed to do so. Two studies showed favorable effects on response rate in post-stroke depression, while another two failed to do so. A meta-analysis, however, showed that GMDZ decoction produced better response rates than anti-depressants in post-stroke depression (RR: 1.17, I(2)=15%). One trial failed to show any beneficial effects of GMDZ decoction on response rate or HAMD score in depression in an elderly sample. Two trials tested GMDZ decoction in combination with anti-depressants but failed to show effects on response rate in major depression, while another did show beneficial effects on response rate in post-stroke depression. In summary, our systematic review and meta-analysis failed to provide evidence of the superiority of GMDZ decoction over anti-depressant therapies for major depression, post-surgical depression, or depression in the elderly, although there was evidence of an effect in post-stroke depression. The quality of evidence for this finding was low, however, because of a high risk of bias. PMID:25262476

  1. Petrological Features of The Post-Collisional Volcanics on the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone at Around Almus and Yıldızeli Regions, NE Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göçmengil, G.; Karacik, Z.; Genç, Ş. C.

    2014-12-01

    Following the closure of the northern Neo-Tethyan ocean, post-collisional magmatism developed both on the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ) and the northern (Pontides) and southern (Kırşehir block) continents. Cenozoic volcanics (particularly Middle to Upper Eocene) from the Almus and Yıldızeli regions (NE, Turkey) have poorly known and exposed along the northern and southern part of the IAESZ respectively. In this presentation; we present geological, geochemical and isotopic data of these volcanic rocks to characterize the petrological evolution and petrogenesis on the different tectonic blocks. Almus region, have a composite basement of Mesozoic metamorphic and ophiolitic rocks. Volcanic and sedimentary units of the Middle Eocene covering the basement units have a stratigraphic sequence of: a basal conglomerate; fossiliferous sandstone/shale; epiclastic rocks; auto-brecciated lavas with basalt/basaltic andesite lava flows. All these units are cut by trachyte stocks. Besides, basement of Yıldızeli region consisting of Cretaceous Kırşehir block metamorphics with IAESZ melangé and flysch units. Volcanic and sedimentary units covers the basement are trachyte-trachyandesite lavas; fossiliferous limestone; basalt/basaltic andesite lava flows; pyroclastic units with dacitic lavas. Basalt/basaltic andesites from Almus region are sub-alkaline/mildly alkaline and display middle to high-K character. REE data display relative enrichments in LILE (Sr, K, Rb, Ba, Th) together with negative anomalies of Nb, Ta and P. Trachyte stocks are shoshonitic and display LILE enrichment together with negative patters of Nb, Ta, P and Eu. Besides, trachyte-trachyandesite and basalt/basaltic andesite from Yıldızeli region are sub-alkaline/mildly alkaline with middle-K to shoshonitic character. REE patterns show enrichments in LILE and depletion of Nb, Ta, P and Ti for both rock suites. The 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios of volcanic rocks from both regions, range from 0

  2. Characterization of plant-growth-promoting effects and concurrent promotion of heavy metal accumulation in the tissues of the plants grown in the polluted soil by Burkholderia strain LD-11.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gui-Hai; Tian, Hui-Hui; Liu, Hai-Ying; Fan, Xian-Wei; Liang, Yu; Li, You-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Plant-growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria especially with the resistance to multiple heavy metals are helpful to phytoremediation. Further development of PGP bacteria is very necessary because of the extreme diversity of plants, soils, and heavy metal pollution. A Burkholderia sp. strain, numbered LD-11, was isolated, which showed resistances to multiple heavy metals and antibiotics. It can produce indole-3-acetic acid, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase and siderophores. Inoculation with the LD-11 improved germination of seeds of the investigated vegetable plants in the presence of Cu, promoted elongation of roots and hypocotyledonary axes, enhanced the dry weights of the plants grown in the soils polluted with Cu and/or Pb, and increased activity of the soil urease and the rhizobacteria diversity. Inoculation with the LD-11 significantly enhanced Cu and/or Pb accumulation especially in the roots of the plants grown in the polluted soils. Notably, LD-11 could produce siderophores in the presence of Cu. Conclusively, the PGP effects and concurrent heavy metal accumulation in the plant tissues results from combined effects of the above-mentioned multiple factors. Cu is an important element that represses production of the siderophore by the bacteria. Phytoremediation by synergistic use of the investigated plants and the bacterial strain LD-11 is a phytoextraction process. PMID:23819291

  3. Animal mortality resulting from uniform exposures to photon radiations: Calculated LD/sub 50/s and a compilation of experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Wells, S.M.; Young, R.W.

    1986-12-01

    Studies conducted during the 1950s and 1960s of radiation-induced mortality to diverse animal species under various exposure protocols were compiled into a mortality data base. Some 24 variables were extracted and recomputed from each of the published studies, which were collected from a variety of available sources, primarily journal articles. Two features of this compilation effort are (1) an attempt to give an estimate of the uniform dose received by the bone marrow in each treatment so that interspecies differences due to body size were minimized and (2) a recomputation of the LD/sub 50/ where sufficient experimental data are available. Exposure rates varied in magnitude from about 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup 3/ R/min. This report describes the data base, the sources of data, and the data-handling techniques; presents a bibliography of studies compiled; and tabulates data from each study. 103 refs., 44 tabs.

  4. A spot-size converter-integrated 1.3 µm TM mode LD for coupling with surface-plasmon polariton waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Joong-Seon; Kim, Kisoo; Park, Suntak; Kim, Jin Tae; Lee, Jong-Moo; Kim, Min-su; Park, Seung Koo; Ju, Jung Jin

    2010-03-01

    A 1.3 µm transverse magnetic (TM) mode laser diode (LD) with a spot-size converter was fabricated and its various characteristics were investigated. At 100 mA, the power ratio of 33 dB was obtained between TM and TE mode using 0.68% tensile strained quantum wells. The device shows far field angles of 10.4° and 11.7° in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, resulting in 3.1 dB coupling loss with a surface-plasmon polariton (SPP) waveguide (WG). The 3 dB alignment tolerance with the SPP-WG is 7.2 µm and 6.8 µm, respectively. 3 dB bandwidth is 6.3 GHz and clear eye-opening is confirmed under 7 Gbps NRZ transmission.

  5. Inactivation of the miltefosine transporter, LdMT, causes miltefosine resistance that is conferred to the amastigote stage of Leishmania donovani and persists in vivo.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Karin; Pérez-Victoria, F Javier; Stettler, Marianne; Sánchez-Cañete, María P; Castanys, Santiago; Gamarro, Francisco; Croft, Simon L

    2007-09-01

    Miltefosine (hexadecylphosphocholine) is the first oral antileishmanial drug. In this study, we addressed the question whether miltefosine-resistant Leishmania donovani promastigotes transform to miltefosine-resistant amastigotes. A promastigote line, M-mutR, showed defective internalisation of miltefosine owing to mutations in LdMT, similar to previously described resistant lines. M-mutR parasites were infective to macrophages in vitro as well as in BALB/c mice in vivo. There was good correlation of in vitro resistance indices between promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. Most importantly, M-mutR parasites retained the resistant phenotype in vivo, with no decrease of hepatic burden in BALB/c mice following miltefosine treatment up to 30 mg/kg (ca. 90% inhibition in wild-type infections). No cross-resistance to other antileishmanial drugs was observed in M-mutR amastigotes. PMID:17628445

  6. Study on the laser crystal thermal compensation of LD end-pumped Nd:YAG 1319 nm/1338 nm dual-wavelength laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, R.; Wu, C. T.; Yu, M.; Yu, K.; Wang, C.; Jin, G. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal model of laser diode (LD) end-pumped Nd: YAG was established. We analyzed the thermal effect of the crystal during the generation of 1319 nm/1338 nm dual-wavelength laser. Together with the bonded and non-bonded Nd:YAG crystal characteristics, we proposed to consider the bonded crystal’s internal temperature distribution of the three axes abc for the first time. The results showed that, compared with the non-bonded crystals, the bonded crystals could effectively reduce the crystal temperature. It provided a theoretical basis to solve the problem related to the thermal effect of the laser crystal and improve the laser output performance. The Nd:YAG laser crystal thermal model in this article could be widely applicable to similar laser crystals. The results provide a method to analyze and evaluate bonding crystal thermal compensation effectiveness by establishing the Nd:YAG crystal’s temperature distribution.

  7. Mapping the distribution of mangrove species in the Core Zone of Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve, Hong Kong, using hyperspectral data and high-resolution data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Mingming; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Wang, Zongming; Song, Kaishan; Ren, Chunying

    2014-12-01

    Mangrove species compositions and distributions are essential for conservation and restoration efforts. In this study, hyperspectral data of EO-1 HYPERION sensor and high spatial resolution data of SPOT-5 sensor were used in Mai Po mangrove species mapping. Objected-oriented method was used in mangrove species classification processing. Firstly, mangrove objects were obtained via segmenting high spatial resolution data of SPOT-5. Then the objects were classified into different mangrove species based on the spectral differences of HYPERION image. The classification result showed that in the top canopy, Kandelia obovata and Avicennia marina dominated Mai Po Marshes Natural Reserve, with area of 196.8 ha and 110.8 ha, respectively, Acanthus ilicifolius and Aegiceras corniculatum were mixed together and living at the edge of channels with an area of 11.7 ha. Additionally, mangrove species shows clearly zonations and associations in the Mai Po Core Zone. The overall accuracy of our mangrove map was 88% and the Kappa confidence was 0.83, which indicated great potential of using hyperspectral and high-resolution data for distinguishing and mapping mangrove species.

  8. Coordinate expression of AOS genes and JA accumulation: JA is not required for initiation of closing layer in wound healing tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wounding induces a series of coordinated physiological responses essential for protection and healing of the damaged tissue. Wound-induced formation of jasmonic acid (JA) is important in defense responses in leaves, but comparatively little is known about the induction of JA biosynthesis and its ro...

  9. LD or Not LD: That's Not the Question!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.; Algozzine, Bob

    1983-01-01

    The authors suggest that the confusion and controversy over definitions of learning disabilities have been unproductive. They review findings on the assessment decision making process and emphasize the need for a new perspective on assessment and intervention. (CL)

  10. Technology, Mathematics PS/RTI, and Students with LD: What Do We Know, What Have We Tried, and What Can We Do to Improve Outcomes Now and in the Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsopp, David H.; Alvarez McHatton, Patricia; Farmer, Jennie L.

    2010-01-01

    Effective integration of technology within mathematics problem solving/response to instruction (PS/RTI) for students with/at risk for identification of learning disabilities (LD) is the focus of this article. The discussion is situated within the current context of mathematics PS/RTI, the literature base relative to technology integration in…

  11. Reliability and Validity of the HoNOS-LD and HoNOS in a Sample of Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability and Severe Emotional and Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenneij, Nienke; Didden, Robert; Veltkamp, Eline; Koot, Hans M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, psychometric properties of the Health of the Nation Outcome scales (HoNOS) and Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for People with Learning Disabilities (HoNOS-LD) were investigated in a sample (n = 79) of (young) adults with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) and severe behavior and mental health problems who were…

  12. Knitted polylactide 96/4 L/D structures and scaffolds for tissue engineering: Shelf life, in vitro and in vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Ellä, Ville; Annala, Tuija; Länsman, Satu; Nurminen, Manu; Kellomäki, Minna

    2011-01-01

    This study covers the whole production cycle, from biodegradable polymer processing to an in vivo tissue engineered construct. Six different biodegradable polylactide 96/4 L/D single jersey knits were manufactured using either four or eight multifilament fiber batches. The properties of those were studied in vitro for 42 weeks and in 0- to 3-year shelf life studies. Three types (Ø 12, 15 and 19 mm) of cylindrical scaffolds were manufactured from the knit, and the properties of those were studied in vitro for 48 weeks. For the Ø 15 mm scaffold type, mechanical properties were also studied in a one-year in vivo experiment. The scaffolds were implanted in the rat subcutis. All the scaffolds were g-irradiated prior to the studies. In vitro, all the knits lost 99% of their mechanical strength in 30 weeks. In the three-year follow up of shelf life properties, there was no decrease in the mechanical properties due to the storage time and only a 12% decrease in molecular weight. The in vitro and in vivo scaffolds lost their mechanical properties after 1 week. In the case of the in vivo samples, the mechanical properties were restored again, stepwise, by the presence of growing/maturing tissue between weeks 3 and 12. Faster degradation was observed with in vitro scaffolds compared to in vivo scaffolds during the one-year follow up. PMID:23507732

  13. Short pulse width UV laser at 355 nm based on pulse LD side-pumped ceramic Nd:YAG and BBO electro-optical Q-switched

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Y.; Chen, X. M.; Lu, B. L.; Ren, Z. Y.; Bai, J. T.

    2012-02-01

    355 nm UV laser was obtained with a pulse width of less than 5 ns and a peak power at megawatt level by adopting the 808 nm pulse laser diode (LD) side-pumped ceramic Nd:YAG and BBO crystal electrooptical Q-switched. The single-pulse energy was measured to be 24.3 mJ with 4.86 ns pulse width and 5.11 MW peak power at a repetition rate of 1Hz under a 120 A pump current. Using a volume of beam splitting mirrors, wavelength outputs at 1064, 532, and 355 nm pulse laser was obtained simultaneously with a respective average output power of 656.6, 357.1, and 260.5 mW, the beam quality factor M 2 are ( M {/x - 1064 2} = 5.83, M {/y - 1064 2} = 5.61), ( M {/x - 532 2} = 4.25, M {/y - 532 2} = 4.08) and ( M {/x - 355 2} = 6.32, M {/y - 355 2} = 6.15), corresponding to a conversion efficiency at 11% from 1064 to 355 nm.

  14. Effects and tolerability of betahistine in patients with vestibular vertigo: results from the Romanian contingent of the OSVaLD study

    PubMed Central

    Băjenaru, Ovidiu; Roceanu, Adina Maria; Albu, Silviu; Zainea, Viorel; Pascu, Alexandru; Georgescu, Mădălina Gabriela; Cozma, Sebastian; Mărceanu, Luigi; Mureşanu, Dafin Fior

    2014-01-01

    Background and methods An efficacy population of 245 patients with vertigo of peripheral vestibular origin was recruited in Romania as part of a 3-month multinational, post-marketing surveillance study of open-label betahistine 48 mg/day (OSVaLD). Endpoints were changes in the Dizziness Handicap Index (primary endpoint), Medical Outcome Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36v2®), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results During treatment, the total Dizziness Handicap Index score improved by 41 points (on a 100-point scale). Statistically significant improvements of 12–14 points were recorded in all three domains of the Dizziness Handicap Index scale (P<0.0001). Betahistine therapy was also accompanied by progressive improvements in mean Hospital Anxiety and Depression anxiety and depression scores (P<0.0001) and significant improvements in both the physical and mental component summary of the SF-36v2 (P<0.0001). Betahistine was well tolerated, with only one suspected adverse drug reaction recorded in the Romanian safety population (n=259). Conclusion Betahistine 48 mg/day was associated with improvements in multiple measures of health-related quality of life and had a good tolerability profile in these Romanian patients with recurrent peripheral vestibular vertigo. PMID:25506241

  15. A catalytic biofuel production strategy involving separate conversion of hemicellulose and cellulose using 2-sec-butylphenol (SBP) and lignin-derived (LD) alkylphenol solvents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghoon; Han, Jeehoon

    2016-03-01

    A strategy in which the hemicellulose and cellulose fractions of lignocellulosic biomass are converted separately to jet fuel-range liquid hydrocarbon fuels (butene oligomers) through catalytic processes is developed. Dilute sulfuric acid (SA)-catalyzed pretreatment fractionates the first biomass into cellulose and hemicellulose-derived xylose, and these are then converted separately to levulinic acid (LA) using 2-sec-butylphenol (SBP) and lignin-derived (LD) alkylphenol solvents, respectively. LA is upgraded catalytically to butene oligomers via γ-valerolactone (GVL) and butene intermediates. Separation subsystems are designed to recover the alkylphenol solvents and biomass-derived intermediates (LA and GVL) for combination with the catalytic conversion subsystems of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. In addition, a heat exchanger network (HEN) design is presented to satisfy the energy requirements of the integrated process from combustion of biomass residues (degradation products). Finally, a technoeconomic analysis shows that the proposed process ($3.37/gallon of gasoline) is an economically competitive alternative to current biofuel production approaches. PMID:26765845

  16. High-power LD side-pump Nd: YAG regenerative amplifier at 1 kHz repetition rate with volume Bragg gratings (VBG) for broadening and compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Ming-Liang; Chen, Li-Yuan; Chen, Meng; Li, Gang

    2016-05-01

    Pulse width of 8.7 ps was broadened to 102.2, 198 ps with single and double pass the VBG respectively. When the 102.2 ps pulse was injected into 1 kHz repetition rate of LD side-pump Nd: YAG regenerative amplifier (RA), pulse width of 87.5 ps at 1 kHz was obtained with the pulse energy of 9.4 mJ, the beam quality of M^2 factor was 1.2. The pulse width was compressed to 32.7 ps with a single pass VBG and the pulse energy reduced to 8.8 mJ, and the power density was up to 15.2 GW/cm2, the stability for pulse to pulse rms is about 0.6 %, beam pointing was about 35 μrad. In addition, when 198 ps pulse was injected into RA, pulse width of 156 ps was obtained which energy was 9.6 mJ, the pulse width was compressed to 38 ps by double passing the VBG, the pulse energy decreased to 8.5 mJ. Chirped VBG is a new way to obtain high-intensity picosecond pulse laser system simple and smaller.

  17. Investigation of Ionospheric Disturbances Using Radio and Optical Observations in South-East Asia -- The Initial Results of the ASI and FPI Observations in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, M.; Nagatsuma, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Komonjinda, S.; Komolmis, T.; Somboon, E.; Tsugawa, T.; Maruyama, T.; Murata, K. T.

    2010-12-01

    For the purpose of monitoring and forecasting equatorial ionospheric disturbances, SEALION (SouthEast Asia Low-latitude IOnospheric Network) has been developed since 2003 as a cooperation project by National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL) in Thailand, Chiang Mai University (CMU) in Thailand, National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN) in Indonesia, Hanoi Institute of Geophysics (HIG), Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology in Vietnam, Center for Space Science and Applied Research (CSSAR), Chinese Academy of Sciences in China, Kyoto University in Japan, and Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STEL), Nagoya University in Japan. SEALION consists of five ionosondes, four GPS receivers, two GPS scintillation monitors, and a magnetometer. As a part of this project, we newly installed an all-sky imager (ASI) and a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) at Sirindhorn observatory in Chiang Mai (18.8N, 98.9E, Dip lat. 13.1), Thailand. This site is located near conjugate to EAR site in Kototabang, Indonesia. One of main targets of the ASI observation is the large-scale wave structure (LSWS) with wavelengths of 100-1000 km. The LSWS is thought to be connected to the generation mechanism of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPB). The optical observations in Chiang Mai started in February 2010, and we have detected several ionospheric disturbance events with these instruments In this paper, we will show the initial results of the optical observations from Sirindhorn observatory, and discuss the features of ionospheric disturbances in Southeast Asia.

  18. Source indicators of biomass burning associated with inorganic salts and carboxylates in dry season ambient aerosol in Chiang Mai Basin, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ying I.; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; Chotruksa, Auranee; Wu, Hsin-Ching; Kuo, Su-Ching

    2013-10-01

    PM10 aerosol was collected between February and April 2010 at an urban site (CMU) and an industrial site (TOT) in Chiang Mai, Thailand, and characteristics and provenance of water-soluble inorganic species, carboxylates, anhydrosugars and sugar alcohols were investigated with particular reference to air quality, framed as episodic or non-episodic pollution. Sulfate, a product of secondary photochemical reactions, was the major inorganic salt in PM10, comprising 25.9% and 22.3% of inorganic species at CMU and TOT, respectively. Acetate was the most abundant monocarboxylate, followed by formate. Oxalate was the dominant dicarboxylate. A high acetate/formate mass ratio indicated that primary traffic-related and biomass-burning emissions contributed to Chiang Mai aerosols during episodic and non-episodic pollution. During episodic pollution carboxylate peaks indicated sourcing from photochemical reactions and/or directly from traffic-related and biomass burning processes and concentrations of specific biomarkers of biomass burning including water-soluble potassium, glutarate, oxalate and levoglucosan dramatically increased. Levoglucosan, the dominant anhydrosugar, was highly associated with water-soluble potassium (r = 0.75-0.79) and accounted for 93.4% and 93.7% of anhydrosugars at CMU and TOT, respectively, during episodic pollution. Moreover, levoglucosan during episodic pollution was 14.2-21.8 times non-episodic lows, showing clearly that emissions from biomass burning are the major cause of PM10 episodic pollution in Chiang Mai. Additionally, the average levoglucosan/mannosan mass ratio during episodic pollution was 14.1-14.9, higher than the 5.73-7.69 during non-episodic pollution, indicating that there was more hardwood burning during episodic pollution. Higher concentrations of glycerol and erythritol during episodic pollution further indicate that biomass burning activities released soil biota from forest and farmland soils.

  19. Integrated Analysis of the 12th January 2010, Mw 7.0, Haiti Earthquake Using InSAR, MAI, GPS, and Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, J. M.; Jung, H.; Funning, G. J.; Ferreira, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Haiti earthquake, Mw 7.0, 12th January 2010, caused widespread destruction and resulted in more than 230,000 deaths. It is believed to have occurred on previously unknown fault(s), raising many questions concerning the tectonics and seismic hazard in this region. While accurate source models are key for robust seismic hazard assessments, existing source models for the Haiti earthquake from various datasets - geodetic (Calais et al., 2010), seismic (Nettles and Hjorjleifsdottir, 2010) and a combination of the two (Hayes et al., 2010) - show discrepancies, particularly concerning the fault geometry. We investigate these discrepancies using multiple aperture InSAR (MAI) data, along with seismo-geodetic analyses based on a new joint earthquake source inversion approach. Similar to previous geodetic models of this event, this study includes measurements of horizontal and line of sight displacement from GPS and InSAR data, respectively. However, we also extract further horizontal (along-track) measurements from the InSAR data using an updated MAI processing flow, incorporating flat-Earth and topographic phase corrections (Jung et al., 2009) . Despite the additional geodetic measurements, part of the signal is underwater, and thus seismic data (teleseismic long-period body and surface waves) are also included to further constrain the source parameters. We carry out geodetic and seismic-only inversions, as well as novel joint inversions taking, for the first time, realistic 3D Earth structure into account when modelling the seismic data. Initial results suggest that the addition of MAI and GPS data to the source inversions helps better constrain the strike and dip angle. However, the dip of our model is shallower (52°) than existing source models (60° - 70°) and the best fitting fault is buried ~ 4 km deeper than previously reported. We explore and discuss the implications of these findings in terms of earthquake slip distribution, mechanism and its tectonic context.

  20. Effect of MeJA treatment on polyamine, energy status and anthracnose rot of loquat fruit.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shifeng; Cai, Yuting; Yang, Zhenfeng; Joyce, Daryl C; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-02-15

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on changes in polyamines content and energy status and their relation to disease resistance was investigated. Freshly harvested loquat fruit were treated with 10 μmol l(-1) MeJA and wound inoculated with Colletotrichum acutatum spore suspension (1.0 × 10(5) spores ml(-1)) after 24h, and then stored at 20 °C for 6 days. MeJA treatment significantly reduced decay incidence. MeJA treated fruit manifested higher contents of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) compared with the control fruit, during storage. MeJA treatment also maintained higher levels of adenosine triphosphate, and suppressed an increase in adenosine monophosphate content in loquat fruit. These results suggest that MeJA treatment may inhibit anthracnose rot by increasing polyamine content and maintaining the energy status. PMID:24128452

  1. Speaking for Students with LD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Linda Feldmeier

    The explanation of the anomalies that learning disabled students present depends on the discourse in which educators and researchers locate learning disabilities. The field of learning disabilities is a discipline in the midst of a paradigm shift in which the new discourses are incompatible with the field's basic tenets and assumptions.…

  2. Synthesis, structural characterization and biological activity of two diastereomeric JA-Ile macrolactones.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Aleman, Guillermo H; Machado, Ricardo A R; Görls, Helmar; Baldwin, Ian T; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-06-01

    Jasmonates are phytohormones involved in a wide range of plant processes, including growth, development, senescence, and defense. Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile, 2), an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA, 1), has been identified as a bioactive endogenous jasmonate. However, JA-Ile (2) analogues trigger different responses in the plant. ω-Hydroxylation of the pentenyl side chain leads to the inactive 12-OH-JA-Ile (3) acting as a “stop” signal. On the other hand, a lactone derivative of 12-OH-JA (5) (jasmine ketolactone, JKL) occurs in nature, although with no known biological function. Inspired by the chemical structure of JKL (6) and in order to further explore the potential biological activities of 12-modified JA-Ile derivatives, we synthesized two macrolactones (JA-Ile-lactones (4a) and (4b)) derived from 12-OH-JA-Ile (3). The biological activity of (4a) and (4b) was tested for their ability to elicit nicotine production, a well-known jasmonate dependent secondary metabolite. Both macrolactones showed strong biological activity, inducing nicotine accumulation to a similar extent as methyl jasmonate does in Nicotiana attenuata leaves. Surprisingly, the highest nicotine contents were found in plants treated with the JA-Ile-lactone (4b), which has (3S,7S) configuration at the cyclopentanone not known from natural jasmonates. Macrolactone (4a) is a valuable standard to explore for its occurrence in nature. PMID:25806705

  3. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses. PMID:25790868

  4. Seasonal variation, risk assessment and source estimation of PM 10 and PM10-bound PAHs in the ambient air of Chiang Mai and Lamphun, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pengchai, Petch; Chantara, Somporn; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; Wangkarn, Sunanta; Tengcharoenkul, Urai; Rayanakorn, Mongkon

    2009-07-01

    Daily PM10 concentrations were measured at four sampling stations located in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces, Thailand. The sampling scheme was conducted during June 2005 to June 2006; every 3 days for 24 h in each sampling period. The result revealed that all stations shared the same pattern, in which the PM10 (particulate matters with diameter of less than 10 microm) concentration increased at the beginning of dry season (December) and reached its peak in March before decreasing by the end of April. The maximum PM10 concentration for each sampling station was in the range of 140-182 microg/m(3) which was 1.1-1.5 times higher than the Thai ambient air quality standard of 120 microg/m(3). This distinctly high concentration of PM10 in the dry season (Dec. 05-Mar. 06) was recognized as a unique seasonal pattern for the northern part of Thailand. PM10 concentration had a medium level of negative correlation (r = -0.696 to -0.635) with the visibility data. Comparing the maximum PM10 concentration detected at each sampling station to the permitted PM10 level of the national air quality standard, the warning visibility values for the PM10 pollution-watch system were determined as 10 km for Chiang Mai Province and 5 km for Lamphun Province. From the analysis of PM10 constituents, no component exceeded the national air quality standard. The total concentrations of PM10-bond polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are calculated in terms of total toxicity equivalent concentrations (TTECs) using the toxicity equivalent factors (TEFs) method. TTECs in Chiang Mai and Lamphun ambient air was found at a level comparable to those observed in Nagasaki, Bangkok and Rome and at a lower level than those reported at Copenhagen. The annual number of lung cancer cases for Chiang Mai and Lamphun Provinces was estimated at two cases/year which was lower than the number of cases in Bangkok (27 cases/year). The principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores (PCA

  5. Peptidoglycan ld-Carboxypeptidase Pgp2 Influences Campylobacter jejuni Helical Cell Shape and Pathogenic Properties and Provides the Substrate for the dl-Carboxypeptidase Pgp1*

    PubMed Central

    Frirdich, Emilisa; Vermeulen, Jenny; Biboy, Jacob; Soares, Fraser; Taveirne, Michael E.; Johnson, Jeremiah G.; DiRita, Victor J.; Girardin, Stephen E.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Gaynor, Erin C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of Campylobacter jejuni as a pathogen, little is known about the fundamental aspects of its peptidoglycan (PG) structure and factors modulating its helical morphology. A PG dl-carboxypeptidase Pgp1 essential for maintenance of C. jejuni helical shape was recently identified. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the CJJ81176_0915 gene product as co-occurring with Pgp1 in several organisms. Deletion of cjj81176_0915 (renamed pgp2) resulted in straight morphology, representing the second C. jejuni gene affecting cell shape. The PG structure of a Δpgp2 mutant showed an increase in tetrapeptide-containing muropeptides and a complete absence of tripeptides, consistent with ld-carboxypeptidase activity, which was confirmed biochemically. PG analysis of a Δpgp1Δpgp2 double mutant demonstrated that Pgp2 activity is required to generate the tripeptide substrate for Pgp1. Loss of pgp2 affected several pathogenic properties; the deletion strain was defective for motility in semisolid agar, biofilm formation, and fluorescence on calcofluor white. Δpgp2 PG also caused decreased stimulation of the human nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (Nod1) proinflammatory mediator in comparison with wild type, as expected from the reduction in muropeptide tripeptides (the primary Nod1 agonist) in the mutant; however, these changes did not alter the ability of the Δpgp2 mutant strain to survive within human epithelial cells or to elicit secretion of IL-8 from epithelial cells after infection. The pgp2 mutant also showed significantly reduced fitness in a chick colonization model. Collectively, these analyses enhance our understanding of C. jejuni PG maturation and help to clarify how PG structure and cell shape impact pathogenic attributes. PMID:24394413

  6. Preliminary Results on the Mechanics of the Active Mai'iu Low Angle Normal Fault (Dayman Dome), Woodlark Rift, SE Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, T. A.; Boulton, C. J.; Mizera, M.; Webber, S. M.; Oesterle, J.; Ellis, S. M.; Norton, K. P.; Wallace, L. M.; Biemiller, J.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid slip on the Mai'iu low-angle normal fault (LANF) has exhumed a smooth, corrugated fault surface contiguous for >24 km up-dip, rising from near sea level to ~2900 m. The fault emerges from the ground dipping ~21° N and flattens over the crest of the dome to dip south. Geomorphic analysis reveals a progressive back-tilting of the surface during exhumation accompanied by cross-cutting antithetic-sense high-angle faults—features that we attribute to "rolling-hinge" deformation of a once more steeply-dipping fault. Near the scarp base, the footwall exposes mafic mylonites that deformed at ~400-450°C. The younger Mai'iu fault cross-cuts this ductile mylonite zone, with most brittle slip being localized into a ~20 cm-thick, gouge-filled core. Near the range front, active faults bite across both the hangingwall and footwall of the Mai'iu fault and record overprinting across a dying, shallow (<~1 km deep) part of the fault by more optimally oriented, steeper faults. Such depth-dependent locking up of the fault suggests it weakens primarily by friction reduction rather than cohesion loss. Outcrop-scale fractures in the exhumed footwall reflect formation in an Andersonian stress regime. Previous campaign GPS data suggest the fault slips at up to ~1 cm/yr. To improve resolution and test for aseismic creep, we installed 12 GPS sites across the fault trace in 2015. Quantitative XRD indicates the gouges were derived primarily from mafic footwall, containing up to 65% corrensite and saponite. Hydrothermal friction experiments on two gouges from a relict LANF strand were done at varying normal stresses (30-120 MPa), temperatures (50-200oC), and sliding velocities (0.3-100 μm/s). Results reveal very weak frictional strength (μ=0.13-0.15 and 0.20-0.28) and velocity-strengthening behavior conducive to fault creep. At the highest temperatures (T≥150oC) and lowest sliding velocities (<3 μm/s), a transition to velocity-weakening behavior indicates the potential for

  7. Assessment of contamination and misclassification biases in a randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention to reduce HIV risk behaviors among drug users and risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Nicole; Donnell, Deborah; Ou, San-San; Celentano, David D; Aramrattana, Apinun; Davis-Vogel, Annet; Metzger, David; Latkin, Carl

    2015-10-01

    Controlled trials of HIV prevention and care interventions are susceptible to contamination. In a randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention among people who inject drugs and their risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand, we tested a contamination measure based on recall of intervention terms. We assessed the recall of test, negative and positive control terms among intervention and control arm participants and compared the relative odds of recall of test versus negative control terms between study arms. The contamination measures showed good discriminant ability among participants in Chiang Mai. In Philadelphia there was no evidence of contamination and little evidence of diffusion. In Chiang Mai there was strong evidence of diffusion and contamination. Network structure and peer education in Chiang Mai likely led to contamination. Recall of intervention materials can be a useful method to detect contamination in experimental interventions. PMID:25935214

  8. Assessment of contamination and misclassification biases in a randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention to reduce HIV risk behaviors among drug users and risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Nicole; Donnell, Deborah; Ou, San-san; Celentano, David D.; Aramrattana, Apinun; Davis-Vogel, Annet; Metzger, David; Latkin, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Context Controlled trials of educational interventions are susceptible to contamination. Objectives To test a contamination measure based on recall of terms. Main study A randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention among 1,123 injection drug users and risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand. Methods We assessed the recall of test, negative and positive control terms by intervention and control arm participants and compared the relative odds (OR) of recall of test vs. negative control terms between study arms. Results The contamination measure showed good discriminant ability only among participants from Chiang Mai. In Philadelphia there was no evidence of contamination and little evidence of diffusion. In Chiang Mai there was evidence of diffusion and contamination of 4 of 5 terms tested. Conclusions Network structure and peer education in Chiang Mai likely led to contamination. Recall of intervention materials can be a useful method to detect contamination in trials of educational interventions. PMID:25935214

  9. [The campaign of returning to the ancient in sphygmology in the Republican Period as viewed from Mai xue cong shu (Series of Pulse Taking)].

    PubMed

    Han, Sujie; Hu, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    From the Southern and Northern Dynasties to the beginning of the Northern Song Dynasty, the models of "master and apprentice" and "physician of long family tradition for generations" were the main ways for teaching medical knowledge. With the rapid amassment of medical books in the Due to the rapid transmission of western science and technology into China in the Republican period, the art of pulse taking had been treated as unscientific. Yao Xinyuan advocated the recovery of ancient pulse taking of the three-portion approach, i.e., taking the pulses at the neck, hands, and feet for comparison. To spread this idea, Yao and Zhang Ziying compiled the Mai xue cong shu (Series of Pulse Taking) in 1937-1947. Altogether 4 issues were published carrying 29 articles concerning the theoretical exploration, experimental research, and clinical practice. Their thinking and approaches were influential to the study and development of modern sphygmology. PMID:26268252

  10. My space, my body, my sexual subjectivity: social media, sexual practice and parental control among teenage girls in urban Chiang Mai.

    PubMed

    Fongkaew, Warunee; Fongkaew, Kangwan

    2016-01-01

    This ethnographic study conducted among young women aged 18-21 years in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand, explored the parental control mechanisms imposed by Thai middle-class families on the sexuality of their daughters. It addressed the ways in which young women tactically use the social media in order to negotiate the sexual controls they encountered in everyday life. Taking the teenage girls' point of view, this paper argues that, as active agents, young women achieve a certain level of sexual autonomy and construct their own sexual selves in modern northern Thai society, despite their parents' attempts to prevent this. The paper highlights the ways in which social media are used by Thai girls in order to achieve such a goal. Research findings should inform the development of future programmes on sexual health promotion, parental skills and sexual communication between Thai parents and their children. PMID:26489939

  11. YiQiFuMai powder injection ameliorates blood–brain barrier dysfunction and brain edema after focal cerebral ischemia–reperfusion injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Guosheng; Ye, Xinyi; Xu, Yingqiong; Yin, Mingzhu; Chen, Honglin; Kou, Junping; Yu, Boyang

    2016-01-01

    YiQiFuMai powder injection (YQFM) is a modern preparation derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Sheng-Mai-San. YQFM is widely used in clinical practice in the People’s Republic of China, mainly for the treatment of microcirculatory disturbance-related diseases. However, little is known about its role in animals with ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of YQFM on brain edema and blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction induced by cerebral ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent right middle cerebral artery occlusion for 1 hour with a subsequent 24-hour reperfusion to produce I/R injury. YQFM (three doses: 0.336, 0.671, and 1.342 g/kg) was then given intraperitoneally (IP). The results demonstrated that YQFM significantly decreased infarct size, improved neurological deficits, reduced brain water content, and increased cerebral blood flow after I/R injury. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose micro-positron emission tomography imaging and hematoxylin and eosin staining results indicated that YQFM is able to ameliorate brain metabolism and histopathological damage after I/R. Moreover, YQFM administration reduced BBB leakage and upregulated the expression of zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin, which was confirmed by Evans Blue extravasation, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence assay. Our findings suggest that YQFM provides protection against focal cerebral I/R injury in mice, possibly by improving BBB dysfunction via upregulation of the expression of tight junction proteins. PMID:26834461

  12. Atmospheric pollutants in Chiang Mai (Thailand) over a five-year period (2005-2009), their possible sources and relation to air mass movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantara, Somporn; Sillapapiromsuk, Sopittaporn; Wiriya, Wan

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring and analysis of the chemical composition of air pollutants were conducted over a five-year period (2005-2009) in the sub-urban area of Chiang Mai, Thailand. This study aims to determine the seasonal variation of atmospheric ion species and gases, examine their correlations, identify possible sources and assess major air-flow patterns to the receptor. The dominant gas and particulate pollutants were NH3 (43-58%) and SO42- (39-48%), respectively. The annual mean concentrations of NH3 (μg m-3) in descending order were 4.08 (2009) > 3.32 (2007) > 2.68 (2008) > 2.47 (2006) and 1.87 (2005), while those of SO42- (μg m-3) were 2.60 (2007) > 2.20 (2006) > 1.95 (2009) > 1.75 (2008) and 1.26 (2005). Concentrations of particulate ions were analyzed by principle component analysis to find out the possible sources of air pollutants in this area. The first component of each year had a high loading of SO42- and NH4+, which probably came from fuel combustion and agricultural activity, respectively. K+, a tracer of biomass burning, also contributed to the first or the second components of each year. Concentrations of NH4+ and SO42- were well correlated (r > 0.777, p < 0.01), which lead to the conclusion that (NH4)2SO4 was a major compound present in this area. The 3-day backward trajectories of air mass arriving at Chiang Mai from 2005 to 2009 were analyzed using the hybrid single particle langrangian integrated trajectory (HYSPLIT) model and grouped by cluster analysis. The air mass data was analyzed for the dry season (n = 18; 100%). The trajectory of air mass in 2005 mainly originated locally (67%). In 2006, the recorded data showed that 56% of air mass was emitted from the western continental region of Thailand. In 2007, the percent ratios from the western and eastern continental areas were equal (39%). In 2008, 67% originated from the western continental area. In 2009, the recorded air mass mainly came from the western continental area (72%). In conclusion, the

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Testing among Young People Enrolled in Non-Formal Education Centers in Urban Chiang Mai, Thailand: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Musumari, Patou Masika; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Yungyuankul, Sawang; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Suguimoto, S. Pilar; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro; Chariyalertsak, Suwat

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV testing is the gateway to HIV prevention, treatment, and care. Despite the established vulnerability of young Thai people to HIV infection, studies examining the prevalence and correlates of HIV testing among the general population of Thai youth are still very limited. This study investigates socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors associated with HIV testing among young Thai people enrolled in Non-formal Education Centers (NFEC) in urban Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand. Methods This was a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among young unmarried Thai youth—between the ages of 15 and 24—who were enrolled in NFEC in urban Chiang Mai. Multiple logistic regressions were used to identify correlates of “ever tested for HIV” among the sexually active participants. Findings Of the 295 sexually active participants, 27.3% reported “ever tested for HIV;” 65.4% “did not consistently use condom;” and 61.7% “had at least 2 lifetime partners.” We found that “self-efficacy” (AOR, 4.92; CI, 1.22–19.73); “perception that it is easy to find a location nearby to test for HIV” (AOR, 4.67; CI, 1.21–18.06); “having at least 2 lifetime sexual partners” (AOR, 2.05; CI, 1.09–3.85); and “ever been pregnant or made someone pregnant” (AOR, 4.06; CI, 2.69–9.15); were associated with increased odds of having ever been tested. On the other hand, “fear of HIV test results” (AOR, 0.21; CI, 0.08–0.57) was associated with lower odds of ever having been tested for HIV. Conclusion The main finding is that a substantially high proportion of Thai youth is engaged in risky sexual behaviors—yet reports low rates of ever having been tested for HIV. This highlights an urgent need to develop appropriate interventions—based on the identified correlates of HIV testing. There is also an urgent need to enhance HIV testing and to promote safer sexual behaviors among young Thai people—particularly those who are out

  14. Maize MeJA-responsive proteins identified by high-resolution 2-DE PAGE.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuliang; Pennerman, Kayla K; Yang, Fengshan; Yin, Guohua

    2015-12-01

    Exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is well-known to induce plant defense mechanisms effective against a wide variety of insect and microbial pests. High-resolution 2-DE gel electrophoresis was used to discover changes in the leaf proteome of maize exposed to MeJA. We sequenced 62 MeJA-responsive proteins by tandem mass spectroscopy, and deposited the mass spectra and identities in the EMBL-EBI PRIDE repository under reference number PXD001793. An analysis and discussion of the identified proteins in relation to maize defense against Asian corn borer is published by Zhang et al. (2015) [1]. PMID:26509185

  15. SEXUAL PRACTICES AMONG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN IN CHIANG MAI, THAILAND: PART OF THE ANTIRETROVIRAL PRE-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS TRIAL.

    PubMed

    Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Amico, K Rivet; Guptarak, Marisa; Saokhieo, Pongpun; Sangangamsakun, Thirayut; Songsupa, Radchanok; McMahan, Vanessa; Grant, Robert

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to gain a better understanding of the association between participation in a blinded antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) clinical trial and sexual practices among men who have sex with men and transgender women. This study utilized both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Data included reported PrEP medication adherence and sexual behavior among 114 study participants. Forty-six participants took part in qualitative data collection, 32 were interviewed and 14 participated in one of three focus group discussions. The average percentage of study medication adherence, number of sex partners and rates of sex without a condom were calculated. For qualitative data, content analysis was used to identify repeated normative themes, some of which arose spontaneously from interview interactions. Participants at the Chiang Mai site reported good adherence to the study medication. The sexual risk behavior of these participants had decreased by their final study visit; this was unrelated to level of adherence. Qualitative findings describe sexual practices that were highly contextual; participants used risk assessments to determine sex practices. Condoms were used with casual partners but not necessarily with primary partners. Our findings suggest that while PrEP is an exciting new development for HIV prevention, it must be paired with behavioral interventions to fully address sexual risk among this population. Interventions should provide this population with skills to negotiate condom use with their primary partners as well as in situations in which their sexual partners do not support condom use. PMID:27405136

  16. Coseismic and postseismic slip models of the 2011 Van earthquake, Turkey, from InSAR, offset-tracking, MAI, and GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chisheng; Ding, Xiaoli; Li, Qingquan; Shan, Xinjian; Zhu, Wu; Guo, Bo; Liu, Peng

    2015-11-01

    We derived the coseismic and postseismic slip models of the 2011 Van earthquake from multi-source geodetic datasets, including interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), multi-aperture InSAR (MAI), offset-tracking, and GPS measurements. The constrained least squares algorithm and Laplacian smoothing were used to estimate and regularize the slip distribution. The coseismic slip model suggested two nearly W-E striking segment faults breaking during the Van event. Two main slip concentrations were found to to be located at depths ranging from 7 km to 20 km. The estimated moment reached 6.08 × 1019 Nm (equal to an Mw 7.19 event). A stress change analysis showed that the main shock imposed an up to ∼5 bars stress load on the causative fault of the 9 November aftershock, implying a triggering mechanism between the two events. The postseismic slips of the Van earthquake were dominated by shallow left-lateral and deep thrust components. The slips distributed in most of the unruptured area of the fault plane. The accumulated postseismic moment reached 2.04 × 1019 Nm, which was about 34% of the main shock moment. We conclude that the future seismic hazard will be relatively low in this area.

  17. Field evaluation of G10, a celery (Apium graveolens)-based topical repellent, against mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tuetun, B; Choochote, W; Pongpaibul, Y; Junkum, A; Kanjanapothi, D; Chaithong, U; Jitpakdi, A; Riyong, D; Wannasan, A; Pitasawat, B

    2009-02-01

    The potential of G10, a celery (Apium graveolens)-based topical product, as a repellent against natural mosquito populations was evaluated in comparison to commercial (Insect Block 28) and standard (25% DEET) repellents in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand. These repellent products afforded encouragingly excellent personal protection against a broad range of mosquito species belonging to various genera, including Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Culex, and Mansonia. No mosquito bite was observed on the volunteers treated with G10 and Insect Block 28 throughout the field study, whereas two species, i.e., six A. barbirostris and two A. subalbatus, came to bite or land on 25% DEET-treated volunteers. Thus, it can be concluded that while G10 and Insect Block 28 exhibited similarly powerful repellent activities with complete (100%) protection, 25% DEET was effective in minimizing bites with 99.68% protection. G10 formula was also studied for physical properties and biological stability after being kept under two conditions; a heating and cooling cycle, and varying temperature and time storage. Most samples of stored G10 not only demonstrated a similarity in appearance and physical properties, but also provided comparable repellency to that of the fresh preparation. These findings encourage commercial development of G10 formula as an alternative to conventional synthetic repellents. PMID:18853188

  18. Cocktail of Four Active Components Derived from Sheng Mai San Inhibits Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced PC12 Cell Apoptosis Linked with the Caspase-3/ROCK1/MLC Pathway.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kai; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Huana; Song, Yunfei; Cao, Zhengyu; Kou, Junping; Yu, Boyang

    2015-12-01

    SMXZF, a combination of four active components including ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Rg1, schizandrin, and DT-13 (6:9:5:4) that is derived from Sheng Mai San, has previously been shown to exhibit a neuroprotective effect against focal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Due to the key role of oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis in the pathogenesis of stroke, we examined the effect of SMXZF in oxidative stress responses and related signaling pathways in differentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Our results showed that incubation with 100 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for 12 hr could reduce cell viability and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity with an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In contrast, SMXZF alleviated oxidative stress by reducing the over-production of ROS and MDA in parallel to concentration dependently increasing SOD activity. In addition, SMXZF significantly attenuated H2O2-induced caspase-3 cleavage, Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase-1 (ROCK1) activation, and myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation. Inhibiting either caspase-3 or ROCK1 mimicked the effect. Consequently, our results suggest that SMXZF inhibits H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis linked with the caspase-3/ROCK1/MLC pathway, which has also been confirmed to be a positive feedback loop in oxidative stress-injured PC12 cells. These findings support the pharmacological potential of SMXZF for neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. PMID:26058543

  19. Protection of Tong-Sai-Mai Decoction against Apoptosis Induced by H2O2 in PC12 Cells: Mechanisms via Bcl-2-Mitochondria-ROS-INOS Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Maxwell Kim Kit; Lu, Yin; Di, Liu-qing; Xu, Hui-qin

    2014-01-01

    Tong-Sai-Mai decoction (TSM) is a Chinese materia medica polyherbal formulation that has been applied in treating brain ischemia for hundreds of years. Because it could repress the oxidative stress in in vivo studies, now we focus on the in vitro studies to investigate the mechanism by targeting the oxidative stress dependent signaling. The relation between the neurogenesis and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production remains largely unexamined. PC12 cells are excitable cell types widely used as in vitro model for neuronal cells. Most marker genes that are related to neurotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell cycles are expressed at high levels in these cells. The aim of the present study is to explore the cytoprotection of TSM against hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced apoptosis and the molecular mechanisms underlying PC12 cells. Our findings revealed that TSM cotreatment with H2O2 restores the expression of bcl-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (INOS), and mitochondria membrane potential. Meanwhile, it reduces intracellular [Ca2+] concentration, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and the expression of caspase-3 and bax. The results of the present study suggested that the cytoprotective effects of the TSM might be mediated, at least in part, by the bcl-2-mitochondria-ROS-INOS pathway. Due to its nontoxic characteristics, TSM could be further developed to treat the neurodegenerative diseases which are closely associated with the oxidative stress. PMID:25404948

  20. Mutations in jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine-12-hydroxylases suppress multiple JA-dependent wound responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Arati N; Zhang, Tong; Kwasniewski, Misha; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Saito, Kazuki; Koo, Abraham J

    2016-09-01

    Plants rapidly perceive tissue damage, such as that inflicted by insects, and activate several key defense responses. The importance of the fatty acid-derived hormone jasmonates (JA) in dictating these wound responses has been recognized for many years. However, important features pertaining to the regulation of the JA pathway are still not well understood. One key unknown is the inactivation mechanism of the JA pathway and its relationship with plant response to wounding. Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 enzymes in the CYP94 clade metabolize jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), a major metabolite of JA responsible for many biological effects attributed to the JA signaling pathway; thus, CYP94s are expected to contribute to the attenuation of JA-Ile-dependent wound responses. To directly test this, we created the double and triple knock-out mutants of three CYP94 genes, CYP94B1, CYP94B3, and CYP94C1. The mutations blocked the oxidation steps and caused JA-Ile to accumulate 3-4-fold the WT levels in the wounded leaves. Surprisingly, over accumulation of JA-Ile did not lead to a stronger wound response. On the contrary, the mutants displayed a series of symptoms reminiscent of JA-Ile deficiency, including resistance to wound-induced growth inhibition, decreased anthocyanin and trichomes, and increased susceptibility to insects. The mutants, however, responded normally to exogenous JA treatments, indicating that JA perception or signaling pathways were intact. Untargeted metabolite analyses revealed >40% reduction in wound-inducible metabolites in the mutants. These observations raise questions about the current JA signaling model and point toward a more complex model perhaps involving JA derivatives and/or feedback mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:26968098

  1. Continuous Dust Formation in SNe 2010jl and 2011ja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafton, Kelsie; Clayton, Geoffrey; Andrews, Jennifer; Barlow, Michael; De Looze, Ilse

    2016-08-01

    Studies in the last 10 years of dust formation in core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) have found only small amounts, ~0.001 solar masses. This is far less than the amount needed to account for the large masses of dust seen in some high redshift galaxies. However, the recent discovery of ~1 solar mass of cold dust in the ejecta of SN 1987A has has caused a complete re-evaluation of dust formation in CCSNe. It has been suggested that the CCSNe are continuously forming dust so that by the time they are about 25 years old they will have dust masses similar to SN 1987A. However, there is a wide time gap between the CCSNe that have been studied recently and SN 1987A. We plan to use the sensitivity of Spitzer to detect dust emission from CCSNe 5 or more years after explosion. Radiative transfer models will be used to estimate the dust masses. This proposal is to continue our study of two interesting SNe 2010jl and 2011ja. These observations are part of a long term study requiring multiple epochs of Spitzer observations to look for evidence of continuous dust formation. These observations will help shed light on the mystery of dust in SN 1987A.

  2. Piloting a manualised weight management programme (Shape Up-LD) for overweight and obese persons with mild-moderate learning disabilities: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background National obesity rates have dramatically risen over the last decade. Being obese significantly reduces life expectancy, increases the risk of a range of diseases, and compromises quality of life. Costs to both the National Health Service and society are high. An increased prevalence of obesity in people with learning disabilities has been demonstrated. The consequences of obesity are particularly relevant to people with learning disabilities who are already confronted by health and social inequalities. In order to provide healthcare for all, and ensure equality of treatment for people with learning disabilities, services must be developed specifically with this population in mind. The aim of this project is to pilot the evaluation of a manualised weight management programme for overweight and obese persons with mild-moderate learning disabilities (Shape Up-LD). Methods/Design An individually randomised, controlled pilot trial in 60 overweight and obese (body mass index ≥ 25) adults (age ≥ 18) with mild-moderate learning disabilities and their carers will be carried out, comparing “Shape Up-LD” with usual care. The manualised Shape Up-LD intervention will involve 12 weekly sessions, which include healthy eating messages, advice on physical activity and use of behaviour change techniques to help people manage their weight. Assessments of participants will be conducted at baseline, 12 weeks and 6 months. Service users and their carers and service providers will also give their perspectives on the experience of Shape Up-LD in qualitative interviews at 12 weeks. Feasibility outcomes will include recruitment rates, loss to follow-up, compliance rates, completion rates, collection of information for a cost-effectiveness analysis and an estimation of the treatment effect on weight. Discussion The findings from this study will inform our preparation for a definitive randomised controlled trial to test the efficacy of the programme with respect to weight

  3. Shared binding sites in Lepidoptera for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins.

    PubMed

    Herrero, S; González-Cabrera, J; Tabashnik, B E; Ferré, J

    2001-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis toxins act by binding to specific target sites in the insect midgut epithelial membrane. The best-known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis toxins is reduced binding to target sites. Because alteration of a binding site shared by several toxins may cause resistance to all of them, knowledge of which toxins share binding sites is useful for predicting cross-resistance. Conversely, cross-resistance among toxins suggests that the toxins share a binding site. At least two strains of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) with resistance to Cry1A toxins and reduced binding of Cry1A toxins have strong cross-resistance to Cry1Ja. Thus, we hypothesized that Cry1Ja shares binding sites with Cry1A toxins. We tested this hypothesis in six moth and butterfly species, each from a different family: Cacyreus marshalli (Lycaenidae), Lobesia botrana (Tortricidae), Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), Pectinophora gossypiella (Gelechiidae), P. xylostella (Plutellidae), and Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae). Although the extent of competition varied among species, experiments with biotinylated Cry1Ja and radiolabeled Cry1Ac showed that Cry1Ja and Cry1Ac competed for binding sites in all six species. A recent report also indicates shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins in Heliothis virescens (Noctuidae). Thus, shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A occur in all lepidopteran species tested so far. PMID:11722929

  4. Shared Binding Sites in Lepidoptera for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ja and Cry1A Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Salvador; González-Cabrera, Joel; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Ferré, Juan

    2001-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis toxins act by binding to specific target sites in the insect midgut epithelial membrane. The best-known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis toxins is reduced binding to target sites. Because alteration of a binding site shared by several toxins may cause resistance to all of them, knowledge of which toxins share binding sites is useful for predicting cross-resistance. Conversely, cross-resistance among toxins suggests that the toxins share a binding site. At least two strains of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) with resistance to Cry1A toxins and reduced binding of Cry1A toxins have strong cross-resistance to Cry1Ja. Thus, we hypothesized that Cry1Ja shares binding sites with Cry1A toxins. We tested this hypothesis in six moth and butterfly species, each from a different family: Cacyreus marshalli (Lycaenidae), Lobesia botrana (Tortricidae), Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), Pectinophora gossypiella (Gelechiidae), P. xylostella (Plutellidae), and Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae). Although the extent of competition varied among species, experiments with biotinylated Cry1Ja and radiolabeled Cry1Ac showed that Cry1Ja and Cry1Ac competed for binding sites in all six species. A recent report also indicates shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins in Heliothis virescens (Noctuidae). Thus, shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A occur in all lepidopteran species tested so far. PMID:11722929

  5. Update from the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM).

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hajime

    2013-12-01

    The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) was established in 2005 to promote the use of alternatives to animal testing in regulatory studies, thereby replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, according to the Three Rs principles. JaCVAM assesses the utility, limitations and suitability for use in regulatory studies, of test methods needed to determine the safety of chemicals and other materials. JaCVAM also organises and performs validation studies of new test methods, when necessary. In addition, JaCVAM co-operates and collaborates with similar organisations in related fields, both in Japan and internationally, which also enables JaCVAM to provide input during the establishment of guidelines for new alternative experimental methods. These activities help facilitate application and approval processes for the manufacture and sale of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, pesticides, and other products, as well as for revisions to standards for cosmetic products. In this manner, JaCVAM plays a leadership role in the introduction of new alternative experimental methods for regulatory acceptance in Japan. PMID:24512226

  6. The efficacy of a network intervention to reduce HIV risk behaviors among drug users and risk partners in Chiang Mai, Thailand and Philadelphia, US

    PubMed Central

    Latkin, Carl; Donnell, Deborah; Metzger, David; Sherman, Susan; Aramrattna, Apinun; Davis-Vogel, Annet; Quan, Vu Minh; Gandham, Sharavi; Vongchak, Tasanai; Perdue, Tom; Celentano, David

    2009-01-01

    Objectives This HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) study assessed the efficacy of a network oriented peer education intervention to promote HIV risk reduction among injection drug users and their drug and sexual network members in Chiang Mai, Thailand and Philadelphia, US. Methods We enrolled 414 networks with 1123 participants, with 204 networks randomized to the treatment condition and 210 to the control. The experimental intervention consisted of six 2-hour small group peer-educator sessions and two booster sessions. Follow-up visits occurred every six months for up to 30 months. Results The number of participants reporting injection risk behaviors dropped dramatically between baseline and follow-up in both sites and both arms. The networks in the experimental condition in Philadelphia sustained statistically significant reductions in high risk injection behaviors: a 46% reduction in sharing cottons, 44% reduction in sharing cookers, 47% reduction in front and back loading and 51% reduction in injecting with people not known very well. There were no significant effects associated with the intervention on risk behaviors in Thailand. Conclusions The study results demonstrates that not only can IDUs reduce their own injection risk behaviors, but they can also engage in the critical community role of assisting their injection network members to reduce HIV injection risk behaviors. This HIV Prevention Trials Network study assessed the efficacy of a network-oriented peer education intervention promoting HIV risk reduction among injection drug users and their drug and sexual network members in Chiang Mai, Thailand and Philadelphia, USA. The study was designed to test impact on HIV infection, but the infection rate was low and study was terminated early. This paper reports efficacy on outcomes of self-reported HIV risk behaviors. We enrolled 414 networks with 1123 participants. The experimental intervention consisted of six small group peer-educator training sessions

  7. University Cooperation Platform (UCP) between Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel (Germany) and Chiang Mai University (Thailand): implementation of image-guided gynecological brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Galalae, Razvan; Tharavichitkul, Ekkasit; Wanwilairat, Somsak; Chitapanarux, Imjai; Kimmig, Bernhard; Dunst, Jürgen; Lorvidhaya, Vicharn

    2015-02-01

    Starting in 1999, the University Cooperation Platform (UCP) implemented an exchange program of researchers and clinicians/physicists between the Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel in Germany and Chiang Mai University in Thailand, to initiate a sustainable base for long-term development of image-guided brachytherapy and in general for high-technology radiotherapy in Chiang Mai. A series of UCP protocols, based constructively on each other, were performed and evaluated at intermediate term follow-up. The first protocol, addressing computed tomography (CT)-optimized brachytherapy for advanced cervical cancer (n = 17), showed a significant reduction of D2cc for the bladder and sigmoid (p < 0.001) while maintaining a very high dose in D90 high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) in comparison with standard point-based planning. In addition, after a follow-up of 19 months no tumor relapse was observed. The second UCP protocol, testing the impact of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance (n = 15) in patients with cervical cancer, proved significantly smaller D2cc doses for the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid (p = 0.003, p = 0.015, and p = 0.012), and secured highly curative mean doses in D90 HR-CTV of 99.2 Gy. The acute and late toxicity was excellent without any observed grade 3 or higher morbidity. In the third protocol, the combination of image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) and whole pelvis intensity-modulated external beam radiotherapy (WP-IMRT) (n = 15) reaffirmed the significant reduction of D2cc doses for the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid (p = 0.001 or p < 0.001) along with high equivalent dose at 2 Gy (EQD2) in the HR-CTV, and demonstrated very low acute therapy-related toxicity in absence of grade 3 morbidity. The implementation of transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) was the focus of the fourth UCP project aiming a more generous potential use of image-guidance on long-term, and enhancing the quality of soft tissue assessment complementary to conventionally planned

  8. University Cooperation Platform (UCP) between Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel (Germany) and Chiang Mai University (Thailand): implementation of image-guided gynecological brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tharavichitkul, Ekkasit; Wanwilairat, Somsak; Chitapanarux, Imjai; Kimmig, Bernhard; Dunst, Jürgen; Lorvidhaya, Vicharn

    2015-01-01

    Starting in 1999, the University Cooperation Platform (UCP) implemented an exchange program of researchers and clinicians/physicists between the Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel in Germany and Chiang Mai University in Thailand, to initiate a sustainable base for long-term development of image-guided brachytherapy and in general for high-technology radiotherapy in Chiang Mai. A series of UCP protocols, based constructively on each other, were performed and evaluated at intermediate term follow-up. The first protocol, addressing computed tomography (CT)-optimized brachytherapy for advanced cervical cancer (n = 17), showed a significant reduction of D2cc for the bladder and sigmoid (p < 0.001) while maintaining a very high dose in D90 high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) in comparison with standard point-based planning. In addition, after a follow-up of 19 months no tumor relapse was observed. The second UCP protocol, testing the impact of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance (n = 15) in patients with cervical cancer, proved significantly smaller D2cc doses for the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid (p = 0.003, p = 0.015, and p = 0.012), and secured highly curative mean doses in D90 HR-CTV of 99.2 Gy. The acute and late toxicity was excellent without any observed grade 3 or higher morbidity. In the third protocol, the combination of image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) and whole pelvis intensity-modulated external beam radiotherapy (WP-IMRT) (n = 15) reaffirmed the significant reduction of D2cc doses for the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid (p = 0.001 or p < 0.001) along with high equivalent dose at 2 Gy (EQD2) in the HR-CTV, and demonstrated very low acute therapy-related toxicity in absence of grade 3 morbidity. The implementation of transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) was the focus of the fourth UCP project aiming a more generous potential use of image-guidance on long-term, and enhancing the quality of soft tissue assessment complementary to conventionally planned

  9. Distribution and length of osteophytes in the lumbar vertebrae and risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a study of dry bones from Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chanapa, Patcharin; Yoshiyuki, Tohno; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2014-09-01

    Vertebral osteophytes are a characteristic feature of intervertebral disc degeneration. In the lumbar spinal region, the two major structures in close proximity anterior to the spine are the inferior vena cava and the abdominal aorta, both of which have been reported to be affected by osteophytes. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution, classification and lengths of osteophytes in the lumbar vertebrae. One hundred and eighty lumbar columns of 90 males and 90 females from Chiang Mai, Thailand, in the age range 15 to 96 years (mean age, 63 years) were collected. The measuring length of osteophytes was assessed on vertebral body and articular facet. Statistical analysis was performed by descriptive analysis, chi-square and Pearson Correlation. Lumbar osteophytes were presented in 175 specimens (97.2%), 88 males and 87 females. The highest frequency was at L4, most were on the superior, inferior surface of body and articular facet (39.7%, 38.4%, and 22%), respectively. The greatest mean length was 3.47±2.21 mm at L5, and the longest length of anterior superior surface of body was 28.56 mm. The osteophyte length was significantly correlated directly with age (P<0.01), and males were significantly greater than females (P<0.05). The highest prevalence of osteophytes was on the anterior side of superior surface of body (30.4%), and the classification was traction. It can be proposed that the abdominal aorta could be damaged, especially a risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm. PMID:25276474

  10. An integrated pathway interaction network for the combination of four effective compounds from ShengMai preparations in the treatment of cardio-cerebral ischemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Lv, Yan-ni; Tan, Yi-sha; Shen, Kai; Zhai, Ke-feng; Chen, Hong-lin; Kou, Jun-ping; Yu, Bo-yang

    2015-01-01

    Aim: SMXZF (a combination of ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Rg1, schizandrin and DT-13) derived from Chinese traditional medicine formula ShengMai preparations) is capable of alleviating cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice. In this study we used network pharmacology approach to explore the mechanisms of SMXZF in the treatment of cardio-cerebral ischemic diseases. Methods: Based upon the chemical predictors, such as chemical structure, pharmacological information and systems biology functional data analysis, a target-pathway interaction network was constructed to identify potential pathways and targets of SMXZF in the treatment of cardio-cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, the most related pathways were verified in TNF-α-treated human vascular endothelial EA.hy926 cells and H2O2-treated rat PC12 cells. Results: Three signaling pathways including the NF-κB pathway, oxidative stress pathway and cytokine network pathway were demonstrated to be the main signaling pathways. The results from the gene ontology analysis were in accordance with these signaling pathways. The target proteins were found to be associated with other diseases such as vision, renal and metabolic diseases, although they exerted therapeutic actions on cardio-cerebral ischemic diseases. Furthermore, SMXZF not only dose-dependently inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB, p50, p65 and IKKα/β in TNF-α-treated EA.hy926 cells, but also regulated the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in H2O2-treated PC12 cells. Conclusion: NF-κB signaling pathway, oxidative stress pathway and cytokine network pathway are mainly responsible for the therapeutic actions of SMXZF against cardio-cerebral ischemic diseases. PMID:26456587

  11. Preliminary Study of Ground Movement in Prone Landslide Area by Means of MAI InSAR A Case Study: Ciloto, West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayati, Noorlaila; Riedel, Björn; Niemeier, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Ciloto is one of the most prone landslide hazard areas in Indonesia. Several landslides in 2012 and 2013 had been recorded in Ciloto and damaged infrastructure around the area. Investigating the history of ground movement along slope area before the landslide happened could support the hazard mitigation in the future. Considering to an efficient surveying method, space-borne SAR processing is the one appropriate way to monitor the phenomenon in past years. The purpose of this study is detecting ground movement using multi-temporal synthetic aperture radar images. We use 13 ALOS PALSAR images from 2007 to 2009 with combination Fine Beam Single (FBS) and Fine Beam Double (FBD) polarization to investigate the slow movement on slope topography. MAI (Multiple Aperture Interferometry) InSAR method is used to analyze the ground movement from both line-of-sight and along-track direction. We split the synthetic aperture into two-looking aperture so that along-track displacement could be created by the difference of forward-backward looking interferograms. With integration of both methods, we could more precisely detect the movement in prone landslide area and achieve two measurements produced by the same interferogram. However, InSAR requires smaller baseline and good temporal baseline between master and slave images to avoid decorellation. There are only several pairs that meet the condition of proper length and temporal baseline indeed the location is also on the agriculture area where is mostly covered by vegetation. The result for two years observation shows that there is insignificant slow movement along slope surface in Ciloto with -2 - -7 cm in range looks or line of sight and 9-40 cm in along track direction. Based on geometry SAR , the most visible detecting of displacement is on the north-west area due to utilization of ascending SAR images.

  12. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures – Paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the severity of dental fluorosis in selected populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand with different exposures to fluoride and to explore possible risk indicators for dental fluorosis. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8–13 years. For each child the fluoride content of drinking and cooking water samples were assessed. Digital images were taken of the maxillary central incisors for later blind scoring for TF index (10% repeat scores). Interview data explored previous cooking and drinking water use, exposure to fluoride, infant feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices. Results Data from 560 subjects were available for analysis (298 M, 262 F). A weighted kappa of 0.80 was obtained for repeat photographic scores. The prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) for subjects consuming drinking and cooking water with a fluoride concentration of <0.9 ppm was 10.2%. For subjects consuming drinking and cooking water >0.9 ppm F the prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) rose to 37.3%. Drinking and cooking water at age 3, water used for infant formula and water used for preparing infant food all demonstrated an increase in fluorosis severity with increase in water fluoride level (p < 0.001). The probability estimate for the presentation of aesthetically significant fluorosis was 0.53 for exposure to high fluoride drinking (≥0.9 ppm) and cooking water (≥1.6 ppm). Conclusions The consumption of drinking water with fluoride content >0.9 ppm and use of cooking water with fluoride content >1.6 ppm were associated with an increased risk of aesthetically significant dental fluorosis. Fluoride levels in the current drinking and cooking water sources were strongly correlated with fluorosis severity. Further work is needed to explore fluorosis risk in relation to total fluoride intake from all sources including food preparation. PMID:22720834

  13. Salmonella in pork retail outlets and dissemination of its pulsotypes through pig production chain in Chiang Mai and surrounding areas, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Patchanee, Prapas; Tansiricharoenkul, Kankanok; Buawiratlert, Tunyamai; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Angchokchatchawal, Kittipat; Yamsakul, Panuwat; Yano, Terdsak; Boonkhot, Phacharaporn; Rojanasatien, Suvichai; Tadee, Pakpoom

    2016-08-01

    Salmonella spp. is acknowledged as a significant zoonotic foodborne pathogen throughout the world. Contaminated pork consumption is considered as a main cause of human salmonellosis. In the later stage of the pig production chain, poor hygiene and unsuitable storage conditions in retail outlets are considered to be key factors linked to the risk of Salmonella infection. The purpose of current study, which was conducted throughout April 2014 to September 2014, was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. in pork sold at the retail stage in wet markets and supermarkets in the Chiang Mai urban area of Thailand. Additionally, clonal relations between Salmonella strains described in this study and those identified in earlier study from the same geographical area were considered. It is provided as a means of contributing to current knowledge regarding Salmonella epidemiology with an ultimate aim of improved food security and consumer protection in this region. From a total of 82 pork samples analyzed in this study, 41% were positive for Salmonella, with prevalence of 73.2% from wet markets (n=30/41) and 9.8% from supermarkets (n=4/41). Twelve Salmonella serovars were identified, S. Rissen being the most commonly encountered. Antibiotic resistance of the isolates was highest for ampicillin and tetracycline (53%), followed by streptomycin (44%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and subsequent geographical distribution analysis indicated that the clonal Salmonella strains originated from multiple sources had been spread over a wide area. The existence of a common pig supply chain "farm-slaughterhouse-retail" transmission route is inferred. Continuous monitoring of Salmonella along the entire production chain is needed to reduce contamination loads and to ensure the safety of pork products for end consumers. PMID:27435652

  14. Influence factors and gene expression patterns during MeJa-induced gummosis in peach.

    PubMed

    Li, Minji; Liu, Meiyan; Peng, Futian; Fang, Long

    2015-06-15

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in gummosis in peach. Mechanical damage, methyl jasmonate (MeJa), and ethylene can induce gummosis on peach shoots in the field. In this study, we used MeJa (2%, w/w) to induce gummosis on current-year shoots in peach on high temperature (35°C). Based on the experimental model, we studied the influence of factors on the development of peach gummosis. Our experimental results showed that high temperature could promote gummosis development induced by MeJa. Exogenous CaCl2 treatment reduced the degree of gummosis by increasing the calcium content in shoots, which is conducive to the synthesis and maintenance of the cell wall. Using digital gene expression (DGE), 3831 differentially expressed genes were identified in the MeJa treatment versus the control. By analyzing changes in gene expression associated with cell wall degradation, genes encoding pectin methylesterase (PME) and endo-polygalacturonase (PG) were found to be significantly induced, suggesting that they are key enzymes in cell wall degradation that occurs during MeJa-induced gummosis. Genes for glycosyltransferase (GT) and cellulose synthase (CS) were also significantly upregulated by MeJa. This result suggests that MeJa treatment not only promotes the degradation of polysaccharides to destroy the cell wall, but also promotes the synthesis of new polysaccharides. We also analyzed changes in gene expression associated with sugar metabolism, senescence, and defense. MeJa treatment affected the expression of genes related to sugar metabolism and promoted plant senescence. Among the defense genes, the expression pattern of phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL) suggested that PAL may play an important role in protecting against the effects of MeJa treatment. Our experimental results showed that MeJa treatment can promote the biosynthesis and signal transduction of ethylene in peach shoots; they can induce gummosis on peach shoots respectively, and there are overlaps between

  15. Using Modified J-A model in MMM detection at elastic stress stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, MingXiu; Xu, MinQiang; Li, JianWei; Xing, HaiYan

    2012-06-01

    In order to propel the development of metal magnetic memory (MMM) technique in fatigue damage detection, a modified Jiles-Atherton (J-A) model is constructed to describe MMM mechanism in elastic stress stage. The MMM phenomenon is discussed from the view of energy minimum theory and equivalent magnetic field theory, the modified J-A model is constructed based on the energy balance in the process of magnetisation and the idea of J-A model, and the new model is used to simulate magnetomechanical effect by Matlab and compare with experimental results. It is shown that the forming process of MMM field is cyclic magnetisation in the range of equivalent magnetic field and the MMM field moves irreversibly towards a local equilibrium state ? . ? is the intermediate state with some pinning before M reaches the anhysteretic magnetisation state ? . The ? curve is a loop around the ? curve, and it changes with ? , H and the type of stress cycle. The modified J-A model that is suited for MMM detection is constructed by replacing ? in J-A model with ? and changing some parameters, and it can describe magnetisation features in tension, release processes better and explain the changes in the sign of ? that have been observed in experiments more reasonably. The modified J-A model can simulate the process of MMM field to become steady and the MMM field variation at fatigue process theoretically by changing model parameters, which is confirmed by experimental results. The results of theoretical research, simulation analysis and experiment verification all indicate that the modified J-A model can be used to describe MMM mechanism in elastic stress stage and analyse MMM field changes at fatigue process.

  16. Quantification of PAHs and oxy-PAHs on airborne particulate matter in Chiang Mai, Thailand, using gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walgraeve, Christophe; Chantara, Somporn; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; De Wispelaere, Patrick; Demeestere, Kristof; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2015-04-01

    An analytical method using gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 12 oxygenated PAHs (of which 4 diketones, 3 ketones, 4 aldehydes and one anhydride) on atmospheric particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10). The magnetic sector mass spectrometer was run in multiple ion detection mode (MID) with a mass resolution above 10 000 (10% valley definition) and allows for a selective accurate mass detection of the characteristic ions of the target analytes. Instrumental detection limits between 0.04 pg and 1.34 pg were obtained for the PAHs, whereas for the oxy-PAHs they ranged between 0.08 pg and 2.13 pg. Pressurized liquid extraction using dichloromethane was evaluated and excellent recoveries ranging between 87% and 98% for the PAHs and between 74% and 110% for 10 oxy-PAHs were obtained, when the optimum extraction temperature of 150 °C was applied. The developed method was finally used to determine PAHs and oxy-PAHs concentration levels from particulate matter samples collected in the wet season at 4 different locations in Chiang Mai, Thailand (n = 72). This study brings forward the first concentration levels of oxy-PAHs in Thailand. The median of the sum of the PAHs and oxy-PAHs concentrations was 3.4 ng/m3 and 1.1 ng/m3 respectively, which shows the importance of the group of the oxy-PAHs as PM10 constituents. High molecular weight PAHs contributed the most to the ∑PAHs. For example, benzo[ghi]perylene was responsible for 30-44% of the ∑PAHs. The highest contribution to ∑oxy-PAHs came from 1,8-napthalic anhydride (26-78%), followed by anthracene-9,10-dione (4-27%) and 7H-benzo[de]anthracene-7-one (6-26%). Indications of the degradation of PAHs and/or formation of oxy-PAHs were observed.

  17. Predictors of incident and recurrent participation in the sale or delivery of drugs for profit among young methamphetamine users in Chiang Mai Province Thailand, 2005-2006

    PubMed Central

    Latimore, Amanda D.; Rudolph, Abby; German, Danielle; Sherman, Susan G.; Srirojn, Bangorn; Aramrattana, Apinun; Celentano, David D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite Thailand’s war on drugs, methamphetamine (“yaba” in Thai) use and the drug economy both thrive. This analysis identifies predictors of incident and recurrent involvement in the sale or delivery of drugs for profit among young Thai yaba users. Methods Between April 2005 and June 2006, 983 yaba users, ages 18-25, were enrolled in a randomized behavioral intervention in Chiang Mai Province (415 index and 568 of their drug network members). Questionnaires administered at baseline, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits assessed socio-demographic factors, current and prior drug use, social network characteristics, sexual risk behaviors and drug use norms. Exposures were lagged by three months (prior visit). Outcomes included incident and recurrent drug economy involvement. Generalized linear mixed models were fit using GLIMMIX (SAS v9.1). Results Incident drug economy involvement was predicted by yaba use frequency (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]:1.05; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.10), recent incarceration (AOR: 2.37; 95%CI: 1.07, 5.25) and the proportion of yaba-using networks who quit recently (AOR: .34; 95%CI: .15, .78). Recurrent drug economy involvement was predicted by age (AOR: 0.81; 95% CI: .68, .96), frequency of yaba use (AOR: 1.06; 95%CI: 1.02, 1.09), drug economy involvement at the previous visit (AOR: 2.61; CI: 1.59, 4.28), incarceration in the prior three months (AOR: 2.29; 95%CI: 1.07, 4.86), and the proportion of yaba-users in his/her network who quit recently (AOR: .38; 95%CI: .20, .71). Conclusion Individual drug use, drug use in social networks and recent incarceration were predictors of incident and recurrent involvement in the drug economy. These results suggest that interrupting drug use and/or minimizing the influence of drug-using networks may help prevent further involvement in the drug economy. The emergence of recent incarceration as a predictor for both models highlights the need for more appropriate drug

  18. A balanced JA/ABA status may correlate with adaptation to osmotic stress in Vitis cells.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmed; Seo, Mitsunori; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kamiya, Yuji; Nick, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Water-related stress is considered a major type of plant stress. Osmotic stress, in particular, represents the common part of all water-related stresses. Therefore, plants have evolved different adaptive mechanisms to cope with osmotic-related disturbances. In the current work, two grapevine cell lines that differ in their osmotic adaptability, Vitis rupestris and Vitis riparia, were investigated under mannitol-induced osmotic stress. To dissect signals that lead to adaptability from those related to sensitivity, osmotic-triggered responses with respect to jasmonic acid (JA) and its active form JA-Ile, abscisic acid (ABA), and stilbene compounds, as well as the expression of their related genes were observed. In addition, the transcript levels of the cellular homeostasis gene NHX1 were examined. The data are discussed with a hypothesis suggesting that a balance of JA and ABA status might correlate with cellular responses, either guiding cells to sensitivity or to progress toward adaptation. PMID:26277753

  19. Characterization of molecular mass ranges of two coal tar distillate fractions (creosote and anthracene oils) and aromatic standards by LD-MS, GC-MS, probe-MS and size-exclusion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    T.J. Morgan; A. George; P. A'lvarez; M. Millan; A.A. Herod; R. Kandiyoti

    2008-09-15

    Laser-desorption mass spectrometry (LD-MS) method development was undertaken to improve estimates of mass ranges for complex hydrocarbon mixtures. A creosote oil, an anthracene oil, and a mixture of known polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were examined. The formation of cluster ions was possible without overloading the detector system. These multimer ions overlapped with higher-mass ion signals from the sample. However, careful balancing of sample concentration, laser power, total ion current, and delayed ion extraction appears to show high-mass materials without generating high-mass multimer (artifact) ions. It is possible to suppress the formation of cluster ions by keeping low target concentrations and, consequently, low gas phase concentrations formed by the laser pulse. The principal method used in this work was the fractionation of samples by planar chromatography followed by successive LD-MS analysis of the separated fractions directly from the chromatographic plates. This method separated the more abundant small molecules from the less abundant large molecules to permit the generation of their mass spectra independently, as well as reducing the concentration of sample by spreading over the PC-plate. The technique demonstrably suppressed multimer formation and greatly improved the reproducibility of the spectra. Results showed the presence of molecule ions in the ranges m/z 1000-2000 for the anthracene oil sample and m/z 600-1500 for the creosote oil sample, tailing off to m/z about 5,000. The creosote oil contained significantly less of this high-mass material than the anthracene oil sample, and in both cases, high-mass material was only present in low quantities. The method outlined in the paper appears directly applicable to the characterization of heavier coal and petroleum derived fractions. 44 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Dermal sensitization potential of ja-2 solid propellant in guinea pigs. Report for 4 April-9 May 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.M.; Brown, L.D.; Korte, D.W.

    1989-11-01

    JA-2 Solid Propellant was evaluated for its potential to produce dermal sensitization in male guinea pigs. The Buehler test, which utilizes repeated closed patch inductions with the test compound, was used for this evaluation. No evidence that JA-2 Solid Propellant induced sensitization was obtained in the study.

  1. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis. PMID:26484871

  2. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA).

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengquan; Li, Yan; Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis. PMID:26484871

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae UCD-JA29 Isolated from a Patient with Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Alexiev, Alexandra; Coil, David A.; Jospin, Guillaume; Adams, Jason Y.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the 6,155,188-bp draft genome sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae UCD-JA29, isolated from blood cultures from a patient with sepsis at the University of California, Davis Medical Center in Sacramento, California, USA. PMID:27151785

  4. Integrated metabolomic and proteomic analysis reveals systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Md; Prasuna, M Lakshmi; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch Venkata

    2015-02-01

    Aromatic amines are widely distributed in the environment and are major environmental pollutants. Although degradation of aromatic amines is well studied in bacteria, physiological adaptations and stress response to these toxic compounds is not yet fully understood. In the present study, systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress were deciphered using metabolite and iTRAQ-labeled protein profiling. Strain JA2 tolerated high concentrations of aniline (30 mM) with trace amounts of aniline being transformed to acetanilide. GC-MS metabolite profiling revealed aniline stress phenotype wherein amino acid, carbohydrate, fatty acid, nitrogen metabolisms, and TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle) were modulated. Strain JA2 responded to aniline by remodeling the proteome, and cellular functions, such as signaling, transcription, translation, stress tolerance, transport and carbohydrate metabolism, were highly modulated. Key adaptive responses, such as transcription/translational changes, molecular chaperones to control protein folding, and efflux pumps implicated in solvent extrusion, were induced in response to aniline stress. Proteo-metabolomics indicated extensive rewiring of metabolism to aniline. TCA cycle and amino acid catabolism were down-regulated while gluconeogenesis and pentose phosphate pathways were up-regulated, leading to the synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances. Furthermore, increased saturated fatty acid ratios in membranes due to aniline stress suggest membrane adaptation. The present study thus indicates that strain JA2 employs multilayered responses: stress response, toxic compound tolerance, energy conservation, and metabolic rearrangements to aniline. PMID:25388363

  5. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de Los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  6. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T.; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  7. Physiological Characteristics and Production of Folic Acid of Lactobacillus plantarum JA71 Isolated from Jeotgal, a Traditional Korean Fermented Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid, one of the B group of vitamins, is an essential substance for maintaining the functions of the nervous system, and is also known to decrease the level of homocysteine in plasma. Homocysteine influences the lowering of the cognitive function in humans, and especially in elderly people. In order to determine the strains with a strong capacity to produce folic acid, 190 bacteria were isolated from various kinds of jeotgal and chungkuk-jang. In our test experiment, JA71 was found to contain 9.03μg/mL of folic acid after 24 h of incubation in an MRS broth. This showed that JA71 has the highest folic acid production ability compared to the other lactic acid bacteria that were isolated. JA71 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by the result of API carbohydrate fermentation pattern and 16s rDNA sequence. JA71 was investigated for its physiological characteristics. The optimum growth temperature of JA71 was 37℃, and the cultures took 12 h to reach pH 4.4. JA71 proved more sensitive to bacitracin when compared with fifteen different antibiotics, and showed most resistance to neomycin and vancomycin. Moreover, it was comparatively tolerant of bile juice and acid, and displayed resistance to Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus with restraint rates of 60.4%, 96.7%, and 76.2%, respectively. These results demonstrate that JA71 could be an excellent strain for application to functional products. PMID:26760752

  8. Physiological Characteristics and Production of Folic Acid of Lactobacillus plantarum JA71 Isolated from Jeotgal, a Traditional Korean Fermented Seafood.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun-Young; Do, Jeong-Ryong; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Kee-Sung; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid, one of the B group of vitamins, is an essential substance for maintaining the functions of the nervous system, and is also known to decrease the level of homocysteine in plasma. Homocysteine influences the lowering of the cognitive function in humans, and especially in elderly people. In order to determine the strains with a strong capacity to produce folic acid, 190 bacteria were isolated from various kinds of jeotgal and chungkuk-jang. In our test experiment, JA71 was found to contain 9.03μg/mL of folic acid after 24 h of incubation in an MRS broth. This showed that JA71 has the highest folic acid production ability compared to the other lactic acid bacteria that were isolated. JA71 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by the result of API carbohydrate fermentation pattern and 16s rDNA sequence. JA71 was investigated for its physiological characteristics. The optimum growth temperature of JA71 was 37℃, and the cultures took 12 h to reach pH 4.4. JA71 proved more sensitive to bacitracin when compared with fifteen different antibiotics, and showed most resistance to neomycin and vancomycin. Moreover, it was comparatively tolerant of bile juice and acid, and displayed resistance to Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus with restraint rates of 60.4%, 96.7%, and 76.2%, respectively. These results demonstrate that JA71 could be an excellent strain for application to functional products. PMID:26760752

  9. Analysis of Sheng-Mai-San, a Ginseng-Containing Multiple Components Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Physical Examination by Electron and Light Microscopies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Yi; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Sheng-Mai-San is a multi-component traditional Chinese herbal preparation. Due to the fact granulated additives, such as starch, carboxymethyl cellulose, lactose and raw herbal powder may alter the content of the bioactive markers in the herbal products, a developed ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of ginsenoside Rb₁, Rb₂, Rc, Rd, Re, Rg₁, Rh₁, compound K, ophiopogonin D and schizandrin from the Sheng-Mai-San herbal formulation. Besides, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of the herbal granular powders. Light microscopy with Congo red and iodine-KI reagent staining was used to identify the cellulose fiber and cornstarch added to pharmaceutical herbal products. The swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), and crude fiber analysis were used to determine the contents of cellulose fiber and cornstarch in pharmaceutical herbal products. In this study, we developed a novel skill to assess the quantification of appended cornstarch in pharmaceutical herbal products using Aperio ImageScope software. Compared with the traditional cornstarch analysis, our analysis method is a rapid, simple and conversion process which could be applied to detect the percentage of added cornstarch in unknown powder products. The various range of the herbal content for the five pharmaceutical manufacturers varied by up to several hundreds-fold. The physical examination reveals that the morphology of the herbal pharmaceutical products is rough and irregular with sharp layers. This study provides a reference standard operating procedure guide for the quality control of the Chinese herbal pharmaceutical products of Sheng-Mai-San. PMID:27598107

  10. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  11. Development of an Orientia tsutsugamushi Lc-1 Murine Intraperitoneal Challenge Model for Scrub Typhus: Determination of Murine Lethal Dose (MuLD50), Tissue Bacterial Loads, and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lurchachaiwong, Woradee; McCardle, Wesley; Chan, Teik-Chye; Schuster, Anthony L; Richards, Allen L

    2015-09-01

    Currently, no vaccine has been developed to protect humans from naturally acquired heterologous Orientia tsutsugamushi infections. To enhance the validity of vaccine candidates, we are developing a murine chigger challenge model with the O. tsutsugamushi Lc-1-infected Leptotrombidium chiangraiensis Line-1. To this end, an intraperitoneal (i.p.) murine challenge model using an O. tsutsugamushi Lc-1 isolate was developed for eventual validation of the chigger challenge model. We have determined that the murine lethal dose that kills 50% of the challenged mice (MuLD50) of a liver/spleen homogenate developed from O. tsutsugamushi Lc-1-infected ICR Swiss mice to be 10(-6.9). Employing different inoculum doses of this homogenate, the bacterial load using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was determined to range from 60 to 1.6 × 10(5) genome equivalent copies (GEC)/μL of liver and 33.4 to 2.2 × 10(5) GEC/μL of spleen tissue. The clinical outcomes relative to homogenate dose levels followed a dose-dependent pattern. The successful development and characterization of the O. tsutsugamushi Lc-1 i.p. challenge model will assist in the development and validation of a mouse chigger challenge scrub typhus model. PMID:26378973

  12. Assessment of the predictive capacity of the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity test method to identify substances not classified for acute oral toxicity (LD50>2000 mg/kg): results of an ECVAM validation study.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Pilar; Cole, Thomas; Curren, Rodger; Gibson, Rosemary M; Liebsch, Manfred; Raabe, Hans; Tuomainen, Anita M; Whelan, Maurice; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka

    2013-04-01

    Assessing chemicals for acute oral toxicity is a standard information requirement of regulatory testing. However, animal testing is now prohibited in the cosmetics sector in Europe, and strongly discouraged for industrial chemicals. Building on the results of a previous international validation study, a follow up study was organised to assess if the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity assay could identify substances not requiring classification as acute oral toxicants under the EU regulations. Fifty-six coded industrial chemicals were tested in three laboratories, each using one of the following protocols: the previously validated protocol, an abbreviated version of the protocol and the protocol adapted for an automation platform. Predictions were very similar among the three laboratories. The assay exhibited high sensitivity (92-96%) but relatively low specificity (40-44%). Three chemicals were under predicted. Assuming that most industrial chemicals are not likely to be acutely toxic, this test method could prove a valuable component of an integrated testing strategy, a read-across argument, or weight-of-evidence approach to identify non toxic chemicals (LD50>2000 mg/kg). However, it is likely to under predict chemicals acting via specific mechanisms of action not captured by the 3T3 test system, or which first require biotransformation in vivo. PMID:23246604

  13. Physiological impacts of ABA-JA interactions under water-limitation.

    PubMed

    de Ollas, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    Plant responses to drought stress depend on highly regulated signal transduction pathways with multiple interactions. This complex crosstalk can lead to a physiological outcome of drought avoidance or tolerance/resistance. ABA is the principal mediator of these responses due to the regulation of stomatal closure that determines plant growth and survival, but also other strategies of drought resistance such as osmotic adjustment. However, other hormones such as JA seem responsible for regulating a subset of plant responses to drought by regulating ABA biosynthesis and accumulation and ABA-dependent signalling, but also by ABA independent pathways. Here, we review recent reports of ABA-JA hormonal and molecular interactions within a physiological framework of drought tolerance. Understanding the physiological significance of this complex regulation offers opportunities to find strategies of drought tolerance that avoid unwanted side effects that limit growth and yield, and may allow biotechnological crop improvement. PMID:27299601

  14. New Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony (JA-ABC5) Algorithm with Application for Reactive Power Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The standard artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm involves exploration and exploitation processes which need to be balanced for enhanced performance. This paper proposes a new modified ABC algorithm named JA-ABC5 to enhance convergence speed and improve the ability to reach the global optimum by balancing exploration and exploitation processes. New stages have been proposed at the earlier stages of the algorithm to increase the exploitation process. Besides that, modified mutation equations have also been introduced in the employed and onlooker-bees phases to balance the two processes. The performance of JA-ABC5 has been analyzed on 27 commonly used benchmark functions and tested to optimize the reactive power optimization problem. The performance results have clearly shown that the newly proposed algorithm has outperformed other compared algorithms in terms of convergence speed and global optimum achievement. PMID:25879054

  15. A self-adaptive genetic algorithm to estimate JA model parameters considering minor loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hai-liang; Wen, Xi-shan; Lan, Lei; An, Yun-zhu; Li, Xiao-ping

    2015-01-01

    A self-adaptive genetic algorithm for estimating Jiles-Atherton (JA) magnetic hysteresis model parameters is presented. The fitness function is established based on the distances between equidistant key points of normalized hysteresis loops. Linearity function and logarithm function are both adopted to code the five parameters of JA model. Roulette wheel selection is used and the selection pressure is adjusted adaptively by deducting a proportional which depends on current generation common value. The Crossover operator is established by combining arithmetic crossover and multipoint crossover. Nonuniform mutation is improved by adjusting the mutation ratio adaptively. The algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of one kind of silicon-steel sheet's hysteresis loops, and the results are in good agreement with published data.

  16. Real Audiences and Contexts for LD Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stires, Susan

    1983-01-01

    The process/conference model of writing instruction is described for intermediate-level learning disabled students. Students proceed through several stages of writing (rehearsal, drafting, revising, editing, and rewriting) during which they have conferences with the teacher and eventually publish their writing. (CL)

  17. Crosscutting Runtime Adaptations of LD Execution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarraonandia, Telmo; Dodero, Juan Manuel; Fernandez, Camino

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a mechanism for the introduction of small variations in the original learning design process defined in a particular Unit of Learning (UoL). The objective is to increase the UoL reusability by offering the designers an alternative to introduce slight variations on the original design instead of creating a new…

  18. LD Students and the Ancient Mariner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Barbara L.

    1988-01-01

    Synectics, the making of analogies, was used with learning disabled high school seniors to provide them with a creative process that aids in developing a deeper understanding of literature. After studying Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner," the students completed a six-step process and produced a short writing assignment. (VW)

  19. Biofeedback and Academic Attainment of LD Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, John L.; Russell, Harold

    1980-01-01

    The study focused on effects of electromyographic (EMG) muscle relaxation training on academic abilities of four learning disabled boys (8 to 13 years old). Ss learned to voluntarily control and decrease forearm muscular tension; and this apparently resulted in an increase in cognitive efficiency, at least as it relates to basic academic areas of…

  20. Strategies for Teaching Handwriting to LD Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Dorothy

    Six strategies for teaching handwriting skills to learning disabled elementary students are presented, along with a rationale and illustrated step-by-step teaching procedures for each. Skills addressed include the following: (1) improving eye-hand coordination through dot-to-dot alphabet letter tracing; (2) teaching basic strokes in manuscript…

  1. Organizing Communication for the LD Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Joan; Safran, Stephen P.

    1985-01-01

    A model depicting teacher-to-teacher communication can serve as a guide for special class teachers to systematize and streamline communication with regular teachers of mainstreamed learning disabled students. (CL)

  2. Biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using Pichia fermentans JA2 and their antimicrobial property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Ritika; Reddy, Arpita; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    The development of eco-friendly alternative to chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great challenge among researchers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial study and synergistic effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against clinical pathogens using Pichia fermentans JA2. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated using Pichia fermentans JA2 isolated from spoiled fruit pulp bought in Vellore local market. The crystalline and stable metallic nanoparticles were characterized evolving several analytical techniques including UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction pattern analysis and FE-scanning electron microscope with EDX-analysis. The biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial property against medically important Gram positive, Gram negative and fungal pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the biosynthesized nanoparticles were also evaluated for their increased antimicrobial activities with various commercially available antibiotics against clinical pathogens. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles inhibited most of the Gram negative clinical pathogens, whereas zinc oxide nanoparticles were able to inhibit only Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The combined effect of standard antibiotic disc and biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles enhanced the inhibitory effect against clinical pathogens. The biological synthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles is a novel and cost-effective approach over harmful chemical synthesis techniques. The metallic nanoparticles synthesized using Pichia fermentans JA2 possess potent inhibitory effect that offers valuable contribution to pharmaceutical associations.

  3. Identification of schisandrin as a vascular endothelium protective component in YiQiFuMai Powder Injection using HUVECs binding and HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Tan, Yi-Sha; Chen, Hong-Lin; Yan, Yan; Zhai, Ke-Feng; Li, Da-Peng; Kou, Jun-Ping; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2015-09-01

    YiQiFuMai Powder Injection (YQFM) is a re-developed preparation based on the well-known traditional Chinese medicine formula Sheng-mai-san. It has been widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular disease with definite clinical efficacy in China, but its bioactive molecules remain obscure. In this study, an effective method has been employed as a tool for screening active components in YQFM, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS). Nine compounds, which could interact with HUVECs, were identified as ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd, 20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rk1/Rg5 and schisandrin by comparing with reference substances or literature. In vitro assays showed that schisandrin at concentrations of 10-100 μM protected HUVECs from hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury, increased cell viability, nitric oxide (NO) content and decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, malonaldehyde (MDA) content and ROS generation. Moreover, schisandrin pretreatment inhibited cell apoptosis, as evidenced by inhibiting activation of caspase-3 and increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. These data indicate that HUVECs biospecific extraction coupled with HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis is a reliable method for screening potential bioactive components from traditional Chinese medicines. Meanwhile, the vascular endothelium protective property of schisandrin might be beneficial for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26452526

  4. Simultaneous Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Multiple Chemical Constituents in YiQiFuMai Injection by Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunhua; Ju, Aichun; Zhou, Dazheng; Li, Dekun; Kou, Junping; Yu, Boyang; Qi, Jin

    2016-01-01

    YiQiFuMai injection (YQFM) is a modern lyophilized powder preparation derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Sheng-mai san (SMS) used for treating cardiovascular diseases, such as chronic heart failure. However, its chemical composition has not been fully elucidated, particularly for the preparation derived from Ophiopogon japonicus. This study aimed to establish a systematic and reliable method to quickly and simultaneously analyze the chemical constituents in YQFM by ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-IT-TOF/MS). Sixty-five compounds in YQFM were tentatively identified by comparison with reference substances or literature data. Furthermore, twenty-one compounds, including three ophiopogonins, fifteen ginsenosides and three lignans were quantified by UFLC-IT-TOF/MS. Notably, this is the first determination of steroidal saponins from O. japonicus in YQFM. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra- and inter-day precision, reproducibility and stability were <4.9% and all analytes showed good linearity (R² ≥ 0.9952) and acceptable recovery of 91.8%-104.2% (RSD ≤ 5.4%), indicating that the methods were reliable. These methods were successfully applied to quantitative analysis of ten batches of YQFM. The developed approach can provide useful and comprehensive information for quality control, further mechanistic studies in vivo and clinical application of YQFM. PMID:27213307

  5. Silencing of the Baculovirus Op-iap3 Gene by RNA Interference Reveals that It Is Required for Prevention of Apoptosis during Orgyia pseudotsugata M Nucleopolyhedrovirus Infection of Ld652Y Cells†

    PubMed Central

    Means, John C.; Muro, Israel; Clem, Rollie J.

    2003-01-01

    The Op-iap3 gene from the baculovirus Orgyia pseudotsugata M nucleopolyhedrovirus (OpMNPV) inhibits apoptosis induced by a mutant of Autographa californica MNPV (AcMNPV) that lacks the antiapoptotic gene p35, as well as apoptosis induced by a wide range of other stimuli in both mammalian and insect cells. However, the role of Op-iap3 during OpMNPV infection has not been previously examined. To determine the function of the Op-IAP3 protein during OpMNPV infection, we used RNA interference (RNAi) to silence Op-iap3 expression during OpMNPV infection of Ld652Y cells. Infected cells treated with Op-iap3 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) did not accumulate detectable Op-iap3 mRNA, confirming that the Op-iap3 gene was effectively silenced. Op-IAP3 protein was found to be a component of the budded virion; however, in OpMNPV-infected cells treated with Op-iap3 dsRNA, the Op-IAP3 protein that was introduced by the inoculum virus decreased to almost undetectable levels by 12 h after dsRNA addition. Apoptosis was observed in infected cells treated with Op-iap3 dsRNA beginning at 12 h, and by 48 h, almost all of the cells had undergone apoptosis. These results show for the first time that Op-IAP3 is necessary to prevent apoptosis during OpMNPV infection. In addition, our results demonstrate that the RNAi technique can be an effective tool for studying baculovirus gene function. PMID:12663755

  6. Study design and rationale for investigating phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension due to chronic obstructive lung disease: the TADA-PHiLD (TADAlafil for Pulmonary Hypertension associated with chronic obstructive Lung Disease) trial.

    PubMed

    Maron, Bradley A; Goldstein, Ronald H; Rounds, Sharon I; Shapiro, Shelley; Jankowich, Matthew; Garshick, Eric; Moy, Marilyn L; Gagnon, David; Choudhary, Gaurav

    2013-12-01

    In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), moderate or severe pulmonary hypertension (COPD-PH) is associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality. Despite this, approaches to treatment and the efficacy of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition (PDE-5i) in COPD-PH are unresolved. We present the clinical rationale and study design to assess the effect of oral tadalafil on exercise capacity, cardiopulmonary hemodynamics, and clinical outcome measures in COPD-PH patients. Male and female patients 40-85 years old with GOLD stage 2 COPD or higher and pulmonary hypertension diagnosed on the basis of invasive cardiac hemodynamic assessment (mean pulmonary artery pressure [mPAP] >30 mmHg, pulmonary vascular resistance [PVR] >2.5 Wood units, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≤18 mmHg at rest) will be randomized at a 1∶1 ratio to receive placebo or oral PDE-5i with tadalafil (40 mg daily for 12 months). The primary end point is change from baseline in 6-minute walk distance at 12 months. The secondary end points are change from baseline in PVR and mPAP at 6 months and change from baseline in peak volume of oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) during exercise at 12 months. Changes in systemic blood pressure and/or oxyhemoglobin saturation (Sao2) at rest and during exercise will function as safety outcome measures. TADA-PHiLD (TADAlafil for Pulmonary Hypertension assocIated with chronic obstructive Lung Disease) is the first sufficiently powered randomized clinical trial testing the effect of PDE-5i on key clinical and drug safety outcome measures in patients with at least moderate PH due to COPD. PMID:25006405

  7. Elevated CO2 Influences Nematode-Induced Defense Responses of Tomato Genotypes Differing in the JA Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yucheng; Yin, Jin; Cao, Haifeng; Li, Chuanyou; Kang, Le; Ge, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations can affect the induced defense of plants against chewing herbivores but little is known about whether elevated CO2 can change the induced defense of plants against parasitic nematodes. This study examined the interactions between the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and three isogenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) genotypes grown under ambient (390 ppm) and elevated (750 ppm) CO2 in growth chambers. In a previous study with open-top chambers in the field, we reported that elevated CO2 increased the number of nematode-induced root galls in a JA-defense-dominated genotype but not in a wild-type or JA-defense-recessive genotype. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that elevated CO2 will favor the salicylic acid (SA)-pathway defense but repress the jasmonic acid (JA)-pathway defense of plants against plant-parasitic nematodes. Our data showed that elevated CO2 reduced the JA-pathway defense against M. incognita in the wild-type and in a genotype in which defense is dominated by the JA pathway (a JA-defense-dominated genotype) but up-regulated the SA-pathway defense in the wild type and in a JA-defense-recessive genotype (jasmonate-deficient mutant). Our results suggest that, in terms of defense genes, secondary metabolites, and volatile organic compounds, induced defense of nematode-infected plants could be affected by elevated CO2, and that CO2-induced changes of plant resistance may lead to genotype-specific responses of plants to nematodes under elevated CO2. The changes in resistance against nematodes, however, were small relative to those reported for chewing insects. PMID:21629688

  8. MAIS: An Educational Alternative of ICAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    The Minnesota Adaptive Instructional System research program investigates variables and conditions that improve learning through adaptive instructional strategies. The macro- level component of the system includes a learner model, knowledge base, and expert tutor model. At the micro-level there are nine variables which form the possible…

  9. Rice Rab11 is required for JA-mediated defense signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Min Ji; Lee, Yun mi; Son, Young Sim; Im, Chak Han; Yi, Young Byung; Rim, Yeong Gil; Bahk, Jeong Dong; Heo, Jae Bok

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •OsRab11 interacts with OsOPR8. •OsOPR8 is localized in the cytosol and peroxisome. •OsRab11 enhances the NADPH consumption by OsOPR8. •Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing OsRab11 represents a pathogen-resistant phenotype. -- Abstract: Rab proteins play an essential role in regulating vesicular transport in eukaryotic cells. Previously, we characterized OsRab11, which in concert with OsGAP1 and OsGDI3 regulates vesicular trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane or vacuole. To further elucidate the physiological function of OsRab11 in plants, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens using OsRab11 as bait. OsOPR8 was isolated and shown to interact with OsRab11. A co-immunoprecipitation assay confirmed this interaction. The green fluorescent protein-OsOPR8 fusion product was targeted to the cytoplasm and peroxisomes of protoplasts from Arabidopsis thaliana. OsOPR8 exhibited NADPH-dependent reduction activity when 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CyHE) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) were supplied as possible substrates. Interestingly, NADPH oxidation by OsOPR8 was increased when wild-type OsRab11 or the constitutively active form of OsRab11 (Q78L) were included in the reaction mix, but not when the dominant negative form of OsRab11 (S28N) was included. OsRab11 was expressed broadly in plants and both OsRab11 and OsOPR8 were induced by jasmonic acid (JA) and elicitor treatments. Overexpressed OsRab11 transgenic plants showed resistance to pathogens through induced expression of JA-responsive genes. In conclusion, OsRab11 may be required for JA-mediated defense signaling by activating the reducing activity of OsOPR8.

  10. Medical Research and Evaluation Facility (MREF) and studies supporting the medical chemical defense program. Determination of the minimum effective pyridostigmine pretreatment dose in monkeys challenged with 5 x LD50 Soman and treated with atropine/2-PAM. Final report, 22 October 1992-31 August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C.T.; Menton, R.G.; Kiser, R.C.; Hayes, T.L.; Matthews, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    This task was conducted to determine the minimum dose of pyridostigmine (PYR), and the associated level of erythrocyte acetycholinesterase inhibition (AChE-I), that provides protection from 5 X 48-br GD LD50 of untreated monkeys. Monkeys were injected im with GD and treated with 0.4 mg atropine (ATR) free base and 25.7 mg pralidoxime (2-PAM) per kg BW.

  11. Novel JAZ co-operativity and unexpected JA dynamics underpin Arabidopsis defence responses to Pseudomonas syringae infection.

    PubMed

    de Torres Zabala, Marta; Zhai, Bing; Jayaraman, Siddharth; Eleftheriadou, Garoufalia; Winsbury, Rebecca; Yang, Ron; Truman, William; Tang, Saijung; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Grant, Murray

    2016-02-01

    Pathogens target phytohormone signalling pathways to promote disease. Plants deploy salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defences against biotrophs. Pathogens antagonize SA immunity by activating jasmonate signalling, for example Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 produces coronatine (COR), a jasmonic acid (JA) mimic. This study found unexpected dynamics between SA, JA and COR and co-operation between JAZ jasmonate repressor proteins during DC3000 infection. We used a systems-based approach involving targeted hormone profiling, high-temporal-resolution micro-array analysis, reverse genetics and mRNA-seq. Unexpectedly, foliar JA did not accumulate until late in the infection process and was higher in leaves challenged with COR-deficient P. syringae or in the more resistant JA receptor mutant coi1. JAZ regulation was complex and COR alone was insufficient to sustainably induce JAZs. JAZs contribute to early basal and subsequent secondary plant defence responses. We showed that JAZ5 and JAZ10 specifically co-operate to restrict COR cytotoxicity and pathogen growth through a complex transcriptional reprogramming that does not involve the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors MYC2 and related MYC3 and MYC4 previously shown to restrict pathogen growth. mRNA-seq predicts compromised SA signalling in a jaz5/10 mutant and rapid suppression of JA-related components on bacterial infection. PMID:26428397

  12. The tomato res mutant which accumulates JA in roots in non-stressed conditions restores cell structure alterations under salinity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Abellan, José O; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Lopez-Berenguer, Carmen; Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Angosto, Trinidad; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Olmos, Enrique; Bolarin, Maria C

    2015-11-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a wide spectrum of plant biological processes, from plant development to stress defense responses. The role of JA in plant response to salt stress is scarcely known, and even less known is the specific response in root, the main plant organ responsible for ionic uptake and transport to the shoot. Here we report the characterization of the first tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant, named res (restored cell structure by salinity), that accumulates JA in roots prior to exposure to stress. The res tomato mutant presented remarkable growth inhibition and displayed important morphological alterations and cellular disorganization in roots and leaves under control conditions, while these alterations disappeared when the res mutant plants were grown under salt stress. Reciprocal grafting between res and wild type (WT) (tomato cv. Moneymaker) indicated that the main organ responsible for the development of alterations was the root. The JA-signaling pathway is activated in res roots prior to stress, with transcripts levels being even higher in control condition than in salinity. Future studies on this mutant will provide significant advances in the knowledge of JA role in root in salt-stress tolerance response, as well as in the energy trade-off between plant growth and response to stress. PMID:25582191

  13. Determination of Two-Liquid Mixture Composition by Assessing Dielectric Parameters 1. Precise Measuring System / Divu Šķidrumu Maisījuma Sastāva Noteikšana, Izvērtējot to Dielektriskos Parametrus 1. Precīza Mērīšanas Sistēma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilitis, O.; Shipkovs, P.; Merkulovs, D.

    2013-08-01

    Concentration measurements are important in bioethanol industries, in the R&D areas, for chemical, medical and microbiological analyses and processing as well as for diagnostics, manufacturing, etc. The overview shows development of the structural design of a system for measuring the concentration of solutions and mixtures consisting of two dielectric liquids. The basic principles of the system's design are given along with relevant equations. The concentration of dielectric liquids is measured using devices with capacitive sensors (1-300 pF). The operational frequency of the developed measuring system is 100.000 kHz. Configuration of the system excludes some errors usually arising at measurements, and broadens its applicability. For testing, the system was calibrated for measuring the concentration of anhydrous ethanol + de-ionized water mixture. Experimental results have shown a stable resolution of ±0.005 pF at measuring the sensor capacitance and a reproducible resolution better than ±0.01% at measuring the ethanol volume concentration Rakstā esam parādījuši iespējas izveidot augstas precizitātes, kompaktu, lētu un ērtu lietošanai dielektrisku šķidrumu mērīšanas sistēmu koncentrācijas noteikšanai. Šī sistēma ir piemērojama kapacitīviem sensoriem, kuru kapacitāte ir atkarīga no sensora izveidojuma kā arī mērāmā šķidruma dielektriskās konstantes vērtības, un kapacitāte var tikt noteikta pie frekvences 100,000 kHz robežās no 1 F līdz 300 pF. Mērīšanas sistēmas pārbaudei, sistēma tika kalibrēta etanola koncentrācijas mērīšanai tilpuma procentos sertificēta bezūdens etanola un dejonizēta ūdens maisījumiem. Pārbaužu rezultāti pierādīja, ka sensora kapacitātes vērtības ir stabili nosakāmas ar izšķirtspēju ne mazāku par ±0,005 pF. Sensora kapacitāšu vērtībām atbilstošā etanola tilpuma koncentrācijas atkārtojamu mērījumu izšķirtspēja visā mērīšanas diapazonā nebija mazāka par ±0

  14. Early dust formation and a massive progenitor for SN 2011ja?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, J. E.; Krafton, Kelsie M.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Montiel, E.; Wesson, R.; Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Barlow, M. J.; Matsuura, M.; Drass, H.

    2016-04-01

    SN 2011ja was a bright (I = -18.3) Type II supernova occurring in the nearby edge on spiral galaxy NGC 4945. Flat-topped and multipeaked H α and H β spectral emission lines appear between 64 and 84 d post-explosion, indicating interaction with a disc-like circumstellar medium inclined ˜45° from edge-on. After day 84, an increase in the H- and K-band flux along with heavy attenuation of the red wing of the emission lines are strong indications of early dust formation, likely located in the cool dense shell created between the forward shock of the SN ejecta and the reverse shock created as the ejecta plows into the existing circumstellar material. Radiative transfer modelling reveals both ≈1 × 10-5 M⊙ of pre-existing dust located ˜1016.7 cm away and up to ≈6 × 10-4 M⊙ of newly formed dust. Spectral observations after 1.5 yr reveal the possibility that the fading SN is located within a young (3-6 Myr) massive stellar cluster, which when combined with tentative 56Ni mass estimates of 0.2 M⊙ may indicate a massive (≥25 M⊙) progenitor for SN 2011ja.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhodomicrobium udaipurense JA643T with Special Reference to Hopanoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Tushar, L.; Sasikala, Ch.; Ramana, Ch. V.

    2014-01-01

    Hopanoids are present in vast amounts as integral components of bacteria and plants with their primary function to strengthen rigidity of the plasma membrane. To establish their roles more precisely, we conducted sequencing of the whole genome of Rhodomicrobium udaipurense JA643T isolated from a fresh water stream of Udaipur in Himachal Pradesh, India, by using the Illumina HiSeq pair end chemistry of 2 × 100 bp platform. Determined genome showed a high degree of similarity to the genome of R. vannielii ATCC17100T and the 13.7 million reads generated a sequence of 3,649,277 bp possessing 3,611 putative genes. The genomic data were subsequently investigated with respect to genes involved in various features. The machinery required for the degradation of aromatic compounds and resistance to solvents as well as all that required for photosynthesis are present in this organism. Also, through extensive functional annotation, 18 genes involved in the biosynthesis of hopanoids are predicted, namely those responsible for the synthesis of diploptene, diplopterol, adenosylhopane, ribosylhopane, aminobacteriohopanetriol, glycosyl group containing hopanoids and unsaturated hopanoids. The hopanoid biosynthetic pathway was then inferred based on the genes identified and through experimental validation of individual hopanoid molecules. The genome data of R. udaipurense JA643T will be useful in understanding the functional features of hopanoids in this bacterium. PMID:25117430

  16. Analysis of methane-producing and metabolizing archaeal and bacterial communities in sediments of the northern South China Sea and coastal Mai Po Nature Reserve revealed by PCR amplification of mcrA and pmoA genes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhichao; Chen, Jing; Cao, Huiluo; Han, Ping; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Communities of methanogens, anaerobic methanotrophic archaea and aerobic methanotrophic bacteria (MOB) were compared by profiling polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified products of mcrA and pmoA genes encoded by methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit and particulate methane monooxygenase alpha subunit, respectively, in sediments of northern South China Sea (nSCS) and Mai Po mangrove wetland. Community structures representing by mcrA gene based on 12 clone libraries from nSCS showed separate clusters indicating niche specificity, while, Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales clades 1,2, and Methanomassiliicoccus-like groups of methanogens were the most abundant groups in nSCS sediment samples. Novel clusters specific to the SCS were identified and the phylogeny of mcrA gene-harboring archaea was updated. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect mcrA gene abundance in all samples: similar abundance of mcrA gene in the surface layers of mangrove (3.4∼3.9 × 10(6) copies per gram dry weight) and of intertidal mudflat (5.5∼5.8 × 10(6) copies per gram dry weight) was observed, but higher abundance (6.9 × 10(6) to 1.02 × 10(8) copies per gram dry weight) was found in subsurface samples of both sediment types. Aerobic MOB were more abundant in surface layers (6.7∼11.1 × 10(5) copies per gram dry weight) than the subsurface layers (1.2∼5.9 × 10(5) copies per gram dry weight) based on pmoA gene. Mangrove surface layers harbored more abundant pmoA gene than intertidal mudflat, but less pmoA genes in the subsurface layers. Meanwhile, it is also noted that in surface layers of all samples, more pmoA gene copies were detected than the subsurface layers. Reedbed rhizosphere exhibited the highest gene abundance of mcrA gene (8.51 × 10(8) copies per gram dry weight) and pmoA gene (1.56 × 10(7) copies per gram dry weight). This study investigated the prokaryotic communities responsible for methane cycling in both marine and coastal wetland

  17. Analysis of methane-producing and metabolizing archaeal and bacterial communities in sediments of the northern South China Sea and coastal Mai Po Nature Reserve revealed by PCR amplification of mcrA and pmoA genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhichao; Chen, Jing; Cao, Huiluo; Han, Ping; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Communities of methanogens, anaerobic methanotrophic archaea and aerobic methanotrophic bacteria (MOB) were compared by profiling polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified products of mcrA and pmoA genes encoded by methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit and particulate methane monooxygenase alpha subunit, respectively, in sediments of northern South China Sea (nSCS) and Mai Po mangrove wetland. Community structures representing by mcrA gene based on 12 clone libraries from nSCS showed separate clusters indicating niche specificity, while, Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales clades 1,2, and Methanomassiliicoccus-like groups of methanogens were the most abundant groups in nSCS sediment samples. Novel clusters specific to the SCS were identified and the phylogeny of mcrA gene-harboring archaea was updated. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect mcrA gene abundance in all samples: similar abundance of mcrA gene in the surface layers of mangrove (3.4∼3.9 × 106 copies per gram dry weight) and of intertidal mudflat (5.5∼5.8 × 106 copies per gram dry weight) was observed, but higher abundance (6.9 × 106 to 1.02 × 108 copies per gram dry weight) was found in subsurface samples of both sediment types. Aerobic MOB were more abundant in surface layers (6.7∼11.1 × 105 copies per gram dry weight) than the subsurface layers (1.2∼5.9 × 105 copies per gram dry weight) based on pmoA gene. Mangrove surface layers harbored more abundant pmoA gene than intertidal mudflat, but less pmoA genes in the subsurface layers. Meanwhile, it is also noted that in surface layers of all samples, more pmoA gene copies were detected than the subsurface layers. Reedbed rhizosphere exhibited the highest gene abundance of mcrA gene (8.51 × 108 copies per gram dry weight) and pmoA gene (1.56 × 107 copies per gram dry weight). This study investigated the prokaryotic communities responsible for methane cycling in both marine and coastal wetland ecosystems, showing

  18. Temporal frequency of knockdown resistance mutations, F1534C and V1016G, in Aedes aegypti in Chiang Mai city, Thailand and the impact of the mutations on the efficiency of thermal fogging spray with pyrethroids.

    PubMed

    Plernsub, Suriya; Saingamsook, Jassada; Yanola, Jintana; Lumjuan, Nongkran; Tippawangkosol, Pongsri; Walton, Catherine; Somboon, Pradya

    2016-10-01

    In Thailand, control of dengue outbreaks is currently attained by the use of space sprays, particularly thermal fogging using pyrethroids, with the aim of killing infected Aedes mosquito vectors in epidemic areas. However, the principal dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, is resistant to pyrethroids conferred mainly by mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, F1534C and V1016G, termed knockdown resistance (kdr). The objectives of this study were to determine the temporal frequencies of F1534C and V1016G in Ae. aegypti populations in relation to pyrethroid resistance in Chiang Mai city, and to evaluate the impact of the mutations on the efficacy of thermal fogging with the pyrethroid deltamethrin. Larvae and pupae were collected from several areas around Chiang Mai city during 2011-2015 and reared to adulthood for bioassays for deltamethrin susceptibility. These revealed no trend of increasing deltamethrin resistance during the study period (mortality 58.0-69.5%, average 62.8%). This corresponded to no overall change in the frequencies of the C1534 allele (0.55-0.66, average 0.62) and G1016 allele (0.34-0.45, average 0.38), determined using allele specific amplification. Only three genotypes of kdr mutations were detected: C1534 homozygous (VV/CC); G1016/C1534 double heterozygous (VG/FC); and G1016 homozygous (GG/FF) indicating that the F1534C and V1016G mutations occurred on separate haplotypic backgrounds and a lack of recombination between them to date. The F1 progeny females were used to evaluate the efficacy of thermal fogging spray with Damthrin-SP(®) (deltamethrin+S-bioallethrin+piperonyl butoxide) using a caged mosquito bioassay. The thermal fogging spray killed 100% and 61.3% of caged mosquito bioassay placed indoors and outdoors, respectively. The outdoor spray had greater killing effect on C1534 homozygous and had partially effect on double heterozygous mosquitoes, but did not kill any G1016 homozygous mutants living outdoors. As this selection

  19. Banana fruit VQ motif-containing protein5 represses cold-responsive transcription factor MaWRKY26 involved in the regulation of JA biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yu-Jie; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Han, Yan-Chao; Shan, Wei; Fan, Zhong-Qi; Xu, Qun-Gang; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2016-01-01

    Most harvested fruits and vegetables are stored at low temperature but many of them are highly sensitive to chilling injury. Jasmonic acid (JA), a plant hormone associated with various stress responses, is known to reduce chilling injury in fruits. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in relation to cold response of fruits. Here, we show the involvement of a Group I WRKY transcription factor (TF) from banana fruit, MaWRKY26, in regulating JA biosynthesis. MaWRKY26 was found to be nuclear-localized with transcriptional activation property. MaWRKY26 was induced by cold stress or by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which enhances cold tolerance in banana fruit. More importantly, MaWRKY26 transactivated JA biosynthetic genes MaLOX2, MaAOS3 and MaOPR3 via binding to their promoters. Further, MaWRKY26 physically interacted with a VQ motif-containing protein MaVQ5, and the interaction attenuated MaWRKY26-induced transactivation of JA biosynthetic genes. These results strongly suggest that MaVQ5 might act as a repressor of MaWRKY26 in activating JA biosynthesis. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in response to cold stress and a better understanding of the molecular aspects of chilling injury in banana fruit. PMID:27004441

  20. Banana fruit VQ motif-containing protein5 represses cold-responsive transcription factor MaWRKY26 involved in the regulation of JA biosynthetic genes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yu-Jie; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Han, Yan-Chao; Shan, Wei; Fan, Zhong-Qi; Xu, Qun-Gang; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2016-01-01

    Most harvested fruits and vegetables are stored at low temperature but many of them are highly sensitive to chilling injury. Jasmonic acid (JA), a plant hormone associated with various stress responses, is known to reduce chilling injury in fruits. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in relation to cold response of fruits. Here, we show the involvement of a Group I WRKY transcription factor (TF) from banana fruit, MaWRKY26, in regulating JA biosynthesis. MaWRKY26 was found to be nuclear-localized with transcriptional activation property. MaWRKY26 was induced by cold stress or by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which enhances cold tolerance in banana fruit. More importantly, MaWRKY26 transactivated JA biosynthetic genes MaLOX2, MaAOS3 and MaOPR3 via binding to their promoters. Further, MaWRKY26 physically interacted with a VQ motif-containing protein MaVQ5, and the interaction attenuated MaWRKY26-induced transactivation of JA biosynthetic genes. These results strongly suggest that MaVQ5 might act as a repressor of MaWRKY26 in activating JA biosynthesis. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in response to cold stress and a better understanding of the molecular aspects of chilling injury in banana fruit. PMID:27004441

  1. A Cursive Handwriting Skills Program for LD Students To Be Used by Regular and LD Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Ida L.

    Many learning disabled students attending Avocado Elementary School in Homestead, Florida, were unable to write legibly when taught with available cursive handwriting programs. To redress the problem, a complete, sequential cursive handwriting program was devised for use with learning disabled and other students. The program combined tracing and…

  2. HiJaK: the high-resolution J, H and K spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, Philip S.; Hall, Zachary J.; Veyette, Mark J.

    2014-08-01

    We present the science drivers, design requirements and a preliminary design for a high-resolution, broad- bandwidth, slit-fed cross-dispersed near-infrared spectrometer for 5-meter-class telescopes. Our concept, called the High-Resolution J, H and K Spectrometer, or HiJaK, utilizes an R6 echelle in a white-pupil design to achieve high resolution in a compact configuration with a 2048 x 2048 pixel infrared detector. We present a preliminary ray-traced optical design matched to the new 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope in Happy Jack, Arizona. We also discuss mechanical and cryogenic options to house our optical design.

  3. 3-D movement mapping of the alpine glacier in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau by integrating D-InSAR, MAI and Offset-Tracking: Case study of the Dongkemadi Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jun; Li, Zhi-Wei; Li, Jia; Zhang, Lei; Ding, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Jian-Jun; Sun, Qian

    2014-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) movements of the Dongkemadi Glacier in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau over 2007-2010 are fully determined by using L-band Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) ascending and C-band Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT) Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) descending acquisitions. In order to yield an optimal 3-D solution, a variance component estimation (VCE) algorithm is applied to weigh the D-InSAR and MAI measurements derived from PALSAR data and the Offset-Tracking measurements from ASAR data under the scheme of weighted least squares adjustment. By exploiting the InSAR measurements themselves to determine the weights iteratively, the presented approach results in an accuracy of centimeter to decimeter per year for all the three velocity vectors. The horizontal component shows that the four main tributary streams in the Dongkemadi Glacier are all flowing from the central area of the glacier to its surroundings, along the steepest slope descent direction and with a rate up to about 5 m/yr. The glacier thickening or thinning is resolved from the vertical component by subtracting the down-slope movement. A number of interesting accumulation and ablation areas are also detected, with vertical variations of 1-2 m/yr, as a result of the horizontal glacier movement or the existence of concave terrain. This can be used as a good indication of the ice dynamics and the location of the subglacial water in the alpine glacier.

  4. A combination of four effective components derived from Sheng-mai san attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in PC12 cells through inhibiting Akt and MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guo-Sheng; Li, Shao-Xia; Wang, Yan; Xu, Ying-Qiong; Lv, Yan-Ni; Kou, Jun-Ping; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2016-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether a combination of four effective components derived from Sheng-mai san (SMXZF; ginsenoside Rb1: ginsenoside Rg1: DT-13: Schizandrol A as 6 : 9 : 4 : 5) could attenuate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury in PC12 cells, focusing on the Akt and MAPK pathways . The PC12 cells were exposed to H2O2 (400 μmol·L(-1)) for 1 h in the presence or absence of SMXZF pre-treatment for 24 h. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. The efflux of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the intracellular content of malondialdehyde (MDA), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and caspase-3 were also determined. Cell apoptosis was measured by Hoechst 33342 staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining method. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, Akt, and MAPKs were detected by Western blotting analyses. SMXZF pretreatment significantly increased the cell viability and SOD activity and improved the cell morphological changes, while reduced the levels of LDH and MDA at the concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 10 μg·mL(-1). SMXZF also inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. Moreover, SMXZF reduced the activity of caspase-3, up-regulated the protein ratio of Bcl-2 and Bax and inhibited the expression of cleaved caspase-3, p-Akt, p-p38, p-JNK and p-ERK1/2 in H2O2-induced PC12 cells. Co-incubation of Akt inhibitor or p38 inhibitor partly attenuated the protection of SMXZF against H2O2-injured PC12 cells. In conclusion, our findings suggested that SMXZF attenuated H2O2-induced injury in PC12 cells by inhibiting Akt and MAPKs signaling pathways, which might shed insights on its neuroprotective mechanism. PMID:27507201

  5. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 Are New Targets of JAZ Repressors Negatively Regulating JA Responses

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Sandra; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Fernández, Guillermo M.; Díez-Díaz, Monica; Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; López-Vidriero, Irene; Godoy, Marta; Fernández-Barbero, Gemma; Van Leene, Jelle; De Jaeger, Geert; Franco-Zorrilla, José Manuel; Solano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Cell reprogramming in response to jasmonates requires a tight control of transcription that is achieved by the activity of JA-related transcription factors (TFs). Among them, MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 have been described as activators of JA responses. Here we characterized the function of bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 that conform a phylogenetic clade closely related to MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4. We found that these bHLHs form homo- and heterodimers and also interact with JAZ repressors in vitro and in vivo. Phenotypic analysis of JA-regulated processes, including root and rosette growth, anthocyanin accumulation, chlorophyll loss and resistance to Pseudomonas syringae, on mutants and overexpression lines, suggested that these bHLHs are repressors of JA responses. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 are mainly nuclear proteins and bind DNA with similar specificity to that of MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4, but lack a conserved activation domain, suggesting that repression is achieved by competition for the same cis-regulatory elements. Moreover, expression of bHLH017 is induced by JA and depends on MYC2, suggesting a negative feed-back regulation of the activity of positive JA-related TFs. Our results suggest that the competition between positive and negative TFs determines the output of JA-dependent transcriptional activation. PMID:24465948

  6. The interaction of an electrothermal plasma with JA2 solid propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Michael David

    Electrothermal plasmas are being studied as an ignition mechanism for solid propellants in large caliber guns. Benefits of electrothermal plasma ignition over conventional primer charge ignition include a reduction of ignition delay and delay jitter (bootstrapping) and compensation for the variable burn rate of propellants at different initial temperatures. When JA2 solid propellant is exposed to plasma radiation alone, significant decomposition results. This radiative interaction is a possible mechanism that causes the bootstrapping and temperature compensation. In addition, the effects of plasma radiation exposure have the potential to increase the propellant burn rate. To characterize this radiation interaction, PLIF imaging of NO, a JA2 decomposition product, was conducted at the propellant surface. Also, simultaneous high speed video of the propellant surface and scattering of ejected particles has been performed. During the radiation interaction scattering particles and NO appeared between 100 and 150 mus after the beginning of the discharge and propagated away from the propellant surface. This ejected material appeared in identifiable structures that are irregular in shape and distribution. This suggests that the material was ejected at semi-discrete locations on the surface rather than diffused uniformly from the surface. During the plasma firing the propellant surface changed markedly by forming irregularly shaped decomposition structures that grew in size over the course of the discharge. No correlation was observed between the structure of the ejected material and the decomposition structures formed on the propellant surface during the discharge. After the plasma discharge, the propellant continued to react, with bubbles forming on the surface up to 9 ms after the discharge finished. These bubbles are probably the largest decomposition structures in images taken of the propellant surface minutes after radiation exposure. The delayed reaction of the

  7. Improvement of banana cv. Rasthali (Silk, AAB) against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (VCG 0124/5) through induced mutagenesis: Determination of LD50 specific to mutagen, explants, toxins and in vitro and in vivo screening for Fusarium wilt resistance.

    PubMed

    Saraswathi, M S; Kannan, G; Uma, S; Thangavelu, R; Backiyarani, S

    2016-05-01

    Shoot tips and in vitro grown proliferating buds of banana cv. Rasthali (Silk, AAB) were treated with various concentrations and durations of chemical mutagens viz., EMS, NaN3 and DES. LD50 for shoot tips based on 50% reduction in fresh weight was determined as 2% for 3 h, 0.02% for 5 h and 0.15% for 5 h, while for proliferating buds, they were 0.6% for 30 min, 0.01% for 2 h and 0.06% for 2 h for the mutagens EMS, NaN3 and DES, respectively. Subsequently, the mutated explants were screened in vitro against fusarium wilt using selection agents like fusaric acid and culture filtrate. LD50 for in vitro selection agents calculated based on 50% survival of explants was 0.050 mM and 7% for fusaric acid and culture filtrate, respectively and beyond which a rapid decline in growth was observed. This was followed by pot screening which led to the identification of three putative resistant mutants with an internal disease score of 1 (corm completely clean, no vascular discolouration). The putative mutants identified in the present study have also been mass multiplied in vitro. PMID:27319054

  8. Observatio of HF noise in an intense aurora by the sounding rocket S-310JA-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Nomura, Y.

    1982-09-01

    Observation of noise in the frequency range from 0.6 to 7.6 MHz has been made in an auroral plasma up to approximately 220 km by an instrument (PWN-H) on board the S-310JA-7 sounding rocket. This rocket was launched at 1915:50 UT on March 27, 1978 from Syowa Station in Antarctica, just prior to an intense auroral substorm (magnetic H component decrease = -700 nT and 30 MHz CNA = -5 dB). The observed HF emissions are classified into three types according to their frequency ranges and spectral shape; (1) High level and narrow band signals whose frequencies are nearly equal to nf(ce) or (n + 1/2)f(ce), where n is an integer and f(ce) is the electron gyrofrequency. (2) A low level broad band emission whose upper-limiting frequency is below the local electron plasma frequency. (3) Signals at frequencies below f(ce). Excitation mechanism of these waves in the aurora is discussed.

  9. Seed Germination Ecology of Feather Lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Bhagirath S.

    2013-01-01

    Feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes] is a C4 grass weed that has the ability to grow in both lowland and upland conditions. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and screenhouse to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination, emergence, and growth of this weed species. Germination in the light/dark regime was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (98%) than at 35/25 °C (83%) or 25/15 °C (62%). Germination was completely inhibited by darkness. The osmotic potential and sodium chloride concentrations required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.7 MPa and 76 mM, respectively. The highest seedling emergence (69%) was observed from the seeds sown on the soil surface and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried at depths of 0.5 cm or more. The use of residue as mulches significantly reduced the emergence and biomass of feather lovegrass seedlings. A residue amount of 0.5 t ha-1 was needed to suppress 50% of the maximum seedlings. Because germination was strongly stimulated by light and seedling emergence was the highest for the seeds sown on the soil surface, feather lovegrass is likely to become a problematic weed in zero-till systems. The knowledge gained from this study could help in developing effective and sustainable weed management strategies. PMID:24255700

  10. Children with learning disabilities in the paediatric clinic, Hospital Tuanku Ja'afar Seremban: an overview.

    PubMed

    Mariana, A M Aina; Wong, S L

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to document the prevalence of learning disability among the children attending the Paediatric Clinic in Hospital Tuanku Ja'afar Seremban. The demographic distribution of these patients; the age of detection of the problem; the associated medical conditions and types of intervention received by these patients were documented. Patients who were between the ages of five to twelve years were included in the study. Learning disability was divided into three categories: speech and articulation problems, academic skills disorder and other categories which included developmental delay. Children with cerebral palsy were excluded from the study. Out of 1320 patients screened, 355 were found to have learning disorders. Majority were Malays, with the male to female ratio of 1.9:1. Most of the patients stayed in Seremban. The learning problem was most commonly detected at the age of 4 years and below. The commonest type of learning disorder was developmental delay, followed by academic skills disorder, speech and academic skills problems and speech disorders. Problems that were detected early were speech problems and developmental delay. Majority of the children had associated medical conditions. Most of the patients received some form of intervention but 11.3% did not attend any intervention program at all. A strategy should be formulated and implemented to help this group of children. PMID:22390107

  11. Seed germination ecology of feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes].

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Bhagirath S

    2013-01-01

    Feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes] is a C4 grass weed that has the ability to grow in both lowland and upland conditions. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and screenhouse to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination, emergence, and growth of this weed species. Germination in the light/dark regime was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (98%) than at 35/25 °C (83%) or 25/15 °C (62%). Germination was completely inhibited by darkness. The osmotic potential and sodium chloride concentrations required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.7 MPa and 76 mM, respectively. The highest seedling emergence (69%) was observed from the seeds sown on the soil surface and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried at depths of 0.5 cm or more. The use of residue as mulches significantly reduced the emergence and biomass of feather lovegrass seedlings. A residue amount of 0.5 t ha(-1) was needed to suppress 50% of the maximum seedlings. Because germination was strongly stimulated by light and seedling emergence was the highest for the seeds sown on the soil surface, feather lovegrass is likely to become a problematic weed in zero-till systems. The knowledge gained from this study could help in developing effective and sustainable weed management strategies. PMID:24255700

  12. Elevated CO2 Reduces the Resistance and Tolerance of Tomato Plants to Helicoverpa armigera by Suppressing the JA Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Qin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Kang, Le; Wang, Chenzhu; Li, Chuanyou; Ge, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Both resistance and tolerance, which are two strategies that plants use to limit biotic stress, are affected by the abiotic environment including atmospheric CO2 levels. We tested the hypothesis that elevated CO2 would reduce resistance (i.e., the ability to prevent damage) but enhance tolerance (i.e., the ability to regrow and compensate for damage after the damage has occurred) of tomato plants to the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The results showed that elevated CO2 reduced resistance by decreasing the jasmonic acid (JA) level and activities of lipoxygenase, proteinase inhibitors, and polyphenol oxidase in wild-type (WT) plants infested with H. armigera. Consequently, the activities of total protease, trypsin-like enzymes, and weak and active alkaline trypsin-like enzymes increased in the midgut of H. armigera when fed on WT plants grown under elevated CO2. Unexpectedly, the tolerance of the WT to H. armigera (in terms of photosynthetic rate, activity of sucrose phosphate synthases, flower number, and plant biomass and height) was also reduced by elevated CO2. Under ambient CO2, the expression of resistance and tolerance to H. armigera was much greater in wild type than in spr2 (a JA-deficient genotype) plants, but elevated CO2 reduced these differences of the resistance and tolerance between WT and spr2 plants. The results suggest that the JA signaling pathway contributes to both plant resistance and tolerance to herbivorous insects and that by suppressing the JA signaling pathway, elevated CO2 will simultaneously reduce the resistance and tolerance of tomato plants. PMID:22829948

  13. Cyclic lipopeptide iturin A structure-dependently induces defense response in Arabidopsis plants by activating SA and JA signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Yumi; Shiraishi, Soma; Kondo, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Shoko; Aoki, Yoshinao; Suzuki, Shunji

    2015-05-15

    Iturin A is the most well studied antifungal cyclic lipopeptide produced by Bacillus species that are frequently utilized as biological control agents. Iturin A not only shows strong antifungal activity against phytopathogens but also induces defense response in plants, thereby reducing plant disease severity. Here we report the defense signaling pathways triggered by iturin A in Arabidopsis salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)-insensitive mutants. Iturin A activated the transcription of defense genes PR1 and PDF1.2 through the SA and JA signaling pathways, respectively. The role of iturin A as an elicitor was dependent on the cyclization of the seven amino acids and/or the β-hydroxy fatty acid chain. The iturin A derivative peptide, NH2-(L-Asn)-(D-Tyr)-(D-Asn)-(L-Gln)-(L-Pro)-(D-Asn)-(L-Ser)-COOH, completely suppressed PR1 and PDF1.2 gene expression in wild Arabidopsis plants. The identification of target molecules binding to iturin A and its derivative peptide is expected to shed new light on defense response in plants through the SA and JA signaling pathways. PMID:25842204

  14. A bHLH-Type Transcription Factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1, Acts as a Repressor to Negatively Regulate Jasmonate Signaling in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Herde, Marco; Koo, Abraham J.K.; Moreno, Javier E.; Suzuki, Kaoru; Howe, Gregg A.; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones that regulate the balance between plant growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although recent studies have uncovered the mechanisms for JA-induced responses in Arabidopsis thaliana, the mechanisms by which plants attenuate the JA-induced responses remain elusive. Here, we report that a basic helix-loop-helix–type transcription factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), acts as a transcriptional repressor and negatively regulates JA signaling. Gain-of-function transgenic plants expressing the chimeric repressor for JAM1 exhibited substantial reduction of JA responses, including JA-induced inhibition of root growth, accumulation of anthocyanin, and male fertility. These plants were also compromised in resistance to attack by the insect herbivore Spodoptera exigua. Conversely, jam1 loss-of-function mutants showed enhanced JA responsiveness, including increased resistance to insect attack. JAM1 and MYC2 competitively bind to the target sequence of MYC2, which likely provides the mechanism for negative regulation of JA signaling and suppression of MYC2 functions by JAM1. These results indicate that JAM1 negatively regulates JA signaling, thereby playing a pivotal role in fine-tuning of JA-mediated stress responses and plant growth. PMID:23673982

  15. DnaJA1/Hsp40 Is Co-Opted by Influenza A Virus To Enhance Its Viral RNA Polymerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Mengmeng; Wei, Candong; Zhao, Lili; Wang, Jingfeng; Jia, Qiannan; Wang, Xue

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of influenza A virus is a heterotrimeric complex composed of the PB1, PB2, and PA subunits. The interplay between host factors and the three subunits of the RdRp is critical to enable viral RNA synthesis to occur in the nuclei of infected cells. In this study, we newly identified host factor DnaJA1, a member of the type I DnaJ/Hsp40 family, acting as a positive regulator for influenza virus replication. We found that DnaJA1 associates with the bPB2 and PA subunits and enhances viral RNA synthesis both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, DnaJA1 could be translocated from cytoplasm into the nucleus upon influenza virus infection. The translocation of DnaJA1 is specifically accompanied by PB1-PA nuclear import. Interestingly, we observed that the effect of DnaJA1 on viral RNA synthesis is mainly dependent on its C-terminal substrate-binding domain and not on its typical J domain, while the J domain normally mediates the Hsp70-DnaJ interaction required for regulating Hsp70 ATPase activity. Therefore, we propose that DnaJA1 is co-opted by the influenza A virus to enter the nucleus and to enhance its RNA polymerase activity in an Hsp70 cochaperone-independent manner. IMPORTANCE The interplay between host factors and influenza virus RNA polymerase plays a critical role in determining virus pathogenicity and host adaptation. In this study, we newly identified a host protein, DnaJA1/Hsp40, that is co-opted by influenza A virus RNA polymerase to enhance its viral RNA synthesis in the nuclei of infected cells. We found that DnaJA1 associates with both PB2 and PA subunits and translocates into the nucleus along with the nuclear import of the PB1-PA dimer during influenza virus replication. Interestingly, the effect of DnaJA1 is mainly dependent on its C-terminal substrate-binding domain and not on its typical J domain, which is required for its Hsp70 cochaperone function. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a member of the

  16. LD50 value, phototoxicity and convulsion induction test of the new quinolone antibacterial agent (S)-10-[(S)-(8-amino-6-azaspiro[3,4]octan-6-yl)]-9-fluoro-2, 3-dihydro-3-methyl-7-oxo-7H-pyrido[1,2,3-de][1,4]benzoxazine-6-carboxyl ic acid hemihydrate in laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, K; Akahane, K; Nomura, M; Kato, M

    1996-06-01

    (S)-10-[(S)-(8-Amino-6-azaspiro[3,4]octan-6-yl)]-9-fluoro-2, 3-dihydro-3-methyl-7-oxo-7H-pyrido[1,2,3-de][1,4]benzoxazine-6-carboxyli c acid hemihydrate (CAS 151390-79-3, DV-7751a) a new quinolone antibacterial agent, was examined for LD50 value, phototoxicity and convulsion inducing potential in laboratory animals. A single oral administration of DV-7751a induced soft stool in rats at 1000 and 2000 mg/ kg and in monkeys at 250 mg/kg and vomiting in monkeys at 500 mg/kg or more. A single intravenous administration caused a decrease in locomotor activity, respiratory depression, convulsion, pulmonary edema and death in rats and mice. The LD50 values with oral administration were more than 2000 mg/ kg for rats and mice and more than 250 mg/kg for monkeys, and those with intravenous administration were 164.3 mg/kg for rats of both sexes at an injection rate of 2 ml/min, 118.8 mg/kg for male rats and 104 to 125 mg/kg for female rats at 0.5 ml/min, and 184.7 mg/kg for male mice and 187.4 mg/kg for female mice. DV-7751a showed very weak phototoxicity in mice after single oral administration of 600 mg/kg, followed by UVA irradiation, but no convulsion after oral administration of 200 or 1000 mg/kg in combination with 4-biphenylacetic acid at 400 mg/kg. PMID:8767355

  17. ABA Is an Essential Signal for Plant Resistance to Pathogens Affecting JA Biosynthesis and the Activation of Defenses in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Adie, Bruce A.T.; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Pérez-Pérez, Manuel M.; Godoy, Marta; Sánchez-Serrano, José-J.; Schmelz, Eric A.; Solano, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana defense response to the damping-off oomycete pathogen Pythium irregulare show that resistance to P. irregulare requires a multicomponent defense strategy. Penetration represents a first layer, as indicated by the susceptibility of pen2 mutants, followed by recognition, likely mediated by ERECTA receptor-like kinases. Subsequent signaling of inducible defenses is predominantly mediated by jasmonic acid (JA), with insensitive coi1 mutants showing extreme susceptibility. In contrast with the generally accepted roles of ethylene and salicylic acid cooperating with or antagonizing, respectively, JA in the activation of defenses against necrotrophs, both are required to prevent disease progression, although much less so than JA. Meta-analysis of transcriptome profiles confirmed the predominant role of JA in activation of P. irregulare–induced defenses and uncovered abscisic acid (ABA) as an important regulator of defense gene expression. Analysis of cis-regulatory sequences also revealed an unexpected overrepresentation of ABA response elements in promoters of P. irregulare–responsive genes. Subsequent infections of ABA-related and callose-deficient mutants confirmed the importance of ABA in defense, acting partly through an undescribed mechanism. The results support a model for ABA affecting JA biosynthesis in the activation of defenses against this oomycete. PMID:17513501

  18. An Arabidopsis Plasma Membrane Proton ATPase Modulates JA Signaling and Is Exploited by the Pseudomonas syringae Effector Protein AvrB for Stomatal Invasion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhaoyang; Wu, Yujiao; Yang, Yongqing; Du, Minmin; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Guo, Yan; Li, Chuanyou; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2015-07-01

    Stomata are natural openings through which many pathogenic bacteria enter plants. Successful bacterial pathogens have evolved various virulence factors to promote stomatal opening. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas syringae type III effector protein AvrB induces stomatal opening and enhances bacterial virulence in a manner dependent on RPM1-INTERACTING4 (RIN4), which promotes stomatal opening by positively regulating the Arabidopsis plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (AHA1), which is presumed to directly regulate guard cell turgor pressure. In support of a role of AHA1 in AvrB-induced stomatal opening, AvrB enhances ATPase activity in plants. Unexpectedly, AHA1 promotes the interaction between the jasmonate (JA) receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and enhances JA signaling. JA signaling is required for optimum stomatal infection in AHA1-active plants. Similarly, AvrB also induces the COI1-JAZ9 interaction and the degradation of multiple JAZ proteins. AvrB-induced stomatal opening and virulence require the canonical JA signaling pathway, which involves the COI1 and NAC transcription factors. The findings thus point to a previously unknown pathway exploited by P. syringae that acts upstream of COI1 to regulate JA signaling and stomatal opening. PMID:26198069

  19. The Lipoxygenase Gene Family in Poplar: Identification, Classification, and Expression in Response to MeJA Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhu; Chen, Xue; Yan, Hanwei; Li, Weiwei; Li, Yuan; Cai, Ronghao; Xiang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are important dioxygenases in cellular organisms. LOXs contribute to plant developmental processes and environmental responses. However, a systematic and comprehensive analysis has not been focused on the LOX gene family in poplar. Therefore, in the present study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the LOX gene family in poplar. Results Using bioinformatics methods, we identified a total of 20 LOX genes. These LOX genes were clustered into two subfamilies. The gene structure and motif composition of each subfamily were relatively conserved. These genes are distributed unevenly across nine chromosomes. The PtLOX gene family appears to have expanded due to high tandem and low segmental duplication events. Microarray analysis showed that a number of PtLOX genes have different expression pattern across disparate tissues and under various stress treatments. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis was further performed to confirm the responses to MeJA treatment of the 20 poplar LOX genes. The results show that the PtLOX genes are regulated by MeJA (Methyl jasmonate) treatment. Conclusions This study provides a systematic analysis of LOX genes in poplar. The gene family analysis reported here will be useful for conducting future functional genomics studies to uncover the roles of LOX genes in poplar growth and development. PMID:25928711

  20. A maize jasmonate Zim-domain protein, ZmJAZ14, associates with the JA, ABA, and GA signaling pathways in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaojin; Yan, Shengwei; Sun, Cheng; Li, Suzhen; Li, Jie; Xu, Miaoyun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Shaojun; Zhao, Qianqian; Li, Ye; Fan, Yunliu; Chen, Rumei; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) is an important signaling molecule involved in the regulation of many physiological and stress-related processes in plants. Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins have been implicated in regulating JA signaling pathways and the cross talk between various phytohormones. Maize is not only an important cereal crop, but also a model plant for monocotyledon studies. Although many JAZ proteins have been characterized in Arabidopsis and rice, few reports have examined the function of JAZ proteins in maize. In this report, we examined the phylogenetic relationship and expression pattern of JAZ family genes in maize. In addition, a tassel and endosperm-specific JAZ gene, ZmJAZ14, was identified using microarray data analysis and real-time RT-PCR, and its expression was induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG), jasmonate (JA), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellins (GAs). ZmJAZ14 was shown to be localized in the nucleus and possessed no transcriptional activating activity, suggesting that it functions as a transcriptional regulator. We found that overexpression of ZmJAZ14 in Arabidopsis enhanced plant tolerance to JA and ABA treatment, as well as PEG stress, while it promoted growth under GA stimulus. Moreover, ZmJAZ14 interacted with a subset of transcription factors in Arabidopsis, and the accumulation of several marker genes involved in JA, ABA, and GA signaling pathways were altered in the overexpression lines. These results suggest that ZmJAZ14 may serve as a hub for the cross talk among the JA, ABA, and GA signaling pathways. Our results can be used to further characterize the function of JAZ family proteins in maize, and the gene cloned in this study may serve as a candidate for drought tolerance and growth promotion regulation in maize. PMID:25807368

  1. The JaICA-genox oxidative stress profile--an overview on the profiling technique in the oxidative stress assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Ochi, H; Cheng, R Z; Kantha, S S; Takeuchi, M; Ramarathnam, N

    2000-01-01

    It is widely accepted that oxidative stress (OS) is a major causative factor for many of the age-related dysfunctions and specific diseases. Since the oxidative stress state (OSS) of an individual depends on hereditary, dietary, and environmental factors, there is a large heterogeneity in the population that may be related to disease incidence and longevity. Hence there is a need to assess how well an individual is coping against OS. The Japan Institute for the Control of Aging (JaICA) and Genox have jointly developed a profiling technique to measure the "Oxidative Stress Profiles (JaICA-Genox OSP)" of individuals and laboratory test animals. The JaICA-Genox OSP consists of about 45 different assays measuring the levels of oxidative damage in lipids and nucleic acids, and the antioxidant defenses in the serum. In addition, several bio-markers for cardiovascular disease risk are also measured, and assays to measure specific age- and sex-related hormones in the serum and urine, and race elements in serum, urine, and drinking water are also undertaken. This overview discusses the designing of the JaICA-Genox OSP and its application in the testing of human subjects. PMID:11237182

  2. An ABA-increased interaction of the PYL6 ABA receptor with MYC2 Transcription Factor: A putative link of ABA and JA signaling.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Fernando; Yazaki, Junshi; Lee, Melissa; Takahashi, Yohei; Kim, Alice Y; Li, Zixing; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Ecker, Joseph R; Schroeder, Julian I

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that mediates abiotic stress tolerance and regulates growth and development. ABA binds to members of the PYL/RCAR ABA receptor family that initiate signal transduction inhibiting type 2C protein phosphatases. Although crosstalk between ABA and the hormone Jasmonic Acid (JA) has been shown, the molecular entities that mediate this interaction have yet to be fully elucidated. We report a link between ABA and JA signaling through a direct interaction of the ABA receptor PYL6 (RCAR9) with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MYC2. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in yeast two hybrid assays and the interaction is enhanced in the presence of ABA. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in planta based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation of the proteins. Furthermore, PYL6 was able to modify transcription driven by MYC2 using JAZ6 and JAZ8 DNA promoter elements in yeast one hybrid assays. Finally, pyl6 T-DNA mutant plants show an increased sensitivity to the addition of JA along with ABA in cotyledon expansion experiments. Overall, the present study identifies a direct mechanism for transcriptional modulation mediated by an ABA receptor different from the core ABA signaling pathway, and a putative mechanistic link connecting ABA and JA signaling pathways. PMID:27357749

  3. An ABA-increased interaction of the PYL6 ABA receptor with MYC2 Transcription Factor: A putative link of ABA and JA signaling

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Fernando; Yazaki, Junshi; Lee, Melissa; Takahashi, Yohei; Kim, Alice Y.; Li, Zixing; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Ecker, Joseph R.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that mediates abiotic stress tolerance and regulates growth and development. ABA binds to members of the PYL/RCAR ABA receptor family that initiate signal transduction inhibiting type 2C protein phosphatases. Although crosstalk between ABA and the hormone Jasmonic Acid (JA) has been shown, the molecular entities that mediate this interaction have yet to be fully elucidated. We report a link between ABA and JA signaling through a direct interaction of the ABA receptor PYL6 (RCAR9) with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MYC2. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in yeast two hybrid assays and the interaction is enhanced in the presence of ABA. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in planta based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation of the proteins. Furthermore, PYL6 was able to modify transcription driven by MYC2 using JAZ6 and JAZ8 DNA promoter elements in yeast one hybrid assays. Finally, pyl6 T-DNA mutant plants show an increased sensitivity to the addition of JA along with ABA in cotyledon expansion experiments. Overall, the present study identifies a direct mechanism for transcriptional modulation mediated by an ABA receptor different from the core ABA signaling pathway, and a putative mechanistic link connecting ABA and JA signaling pathways. PMID:27357749

  4. Integrated Performance of Next Generation High Data Rate Receiver and AR4JA LDPC Codec for Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Michael K.; Lyubarev, Mark; Nakashima, Michael A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Lee, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are the state-of-the-art in forward error correction (FEC) technology that exhibits capacity approaching performance. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has designed a family of LDPC codes that are similar in structure and therefore, leads to a single decoder implementation. The Accumulate-Repeat-by-4-Jagged- Accumulate (AR4JA) code design offers a family of codes with rates 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 and lengths 1024, 4096, 16384 information bits. Performance is less than one dB from capacity for all combinations.Integrating a stand-alone LDPC decoder with a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) receiver faces additional challenges than building a single receiver-decoder unit from scratch. In this work, we outline the issues and show that these additional challenges can be over-come by simple solutions. To demonstrate that an LDPC decoder can be made to work seamlessly with a COTS receiver, we interface an AR4JA LDPC decoder developed on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with a modern high data rate receiver and mea- sure the combined receiver-decoder performance. Through optimizations that include an improved frame synchronizer and different soft-symbol scaling algorithms, we show that a combined implementation loss of less than one dB is possible and therefore, most of the coding gain evidence in theory can also be obtained in practice. Our techniques can benefit any modem that utilizes an advanced FEC code.

  5. Genome Analysis of the Biotechnologically Relevant Acidophilic Iron Oxidising Strain JA12 Indicates Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity within the Novel Genus “Ferrovum”

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Sophie R.; Poehlein, Anja; Tischler, Judith S.; González, Carolina; Ossandon, Francisco J.; Daniel, Rolf; Holmes, David S.; Schlömann, Michael; Mühling, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Members of the genus “Ferrovum” are ubiquitously distributed in acid mine drainage (AMD) waters which are characterised by their high metal and sulfate loads. So far isolation and microbiological characterisation have only been successful for the designated type strain “Ferrovum myxofaciens” P3G. Thus, knowledge about physiological characteristics and the phylogeny of the genus “Ferrovum” is extremely scarce. Objective In order to access the wider genetic pool of the genus “Ferrovum” we sequenced the genome of a “Ferrovum”-containing mixed culture and successfully assembled the almost complete genome sequence of the novel “Ferrovum” strain JA12. Phylogeny and Lifestyle The genome-based phylogenetic analysis indicates that strain JA12 and the type strain represent two distinct “Ferrovum” species. “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is characterised by an unusually small genome in comparison to the type strain and other iron oxidising bacteria. The prediction of nutrient assimilation pathways suggests that “Ferrovum” strain JA12 maintains a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle utilising carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, ammonium and urea, sulfate, phosphate and ferrous iron as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous and energy sources, respectively. Unique Metabolic Features The potential utilisation of urea by “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is moreover remarkable since it may furthermore represent a strategy among extreme acidophiles to cope with the acidic environment. Unlike other acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs “Ferrovum” strain JA12 exhibits a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle, a metabolic feature shared with the closer related neutrophilic iron oxidisers among the Betaproteobacteria including Sideroxydans lithotrophicus and Thiobacillus denitrificans. Furthermore, the absence of characteristic redox proteins involved in iron oxidation in the well-studied acidophiles Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (rusticyanin) and Acidithiobacillus

  6. Intervention Considerations in Mathematics for the LD Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Edward; Deshler, Donald D.

    1985-01-01

    Some of the major curriculum and instructional problems that precipitate failure among learning disabled adolescents are discussed. A variety of intervention strategies to increase success are then presented. (MNS)

  7. Enhancing ADHD and LD Diagnostic Accuracy Using Career Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dipeolu, Abiola; Hargrave, Stephanie; Storlie, Cassandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with mental health disorders may have work-related difficulties that impact functioning in all life domains. With limited research on the integration of career and mental health counseling, authors used a discriminant function analysis to assess the predictability of accurately identifying diagnostic categories among 258…

  8. Learning Strategies: Secondary LD Students in the Mainstream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Antoni, Alice; And Others

    The paper presents four learning strategy techniques--the SQ3R method of study, the Multipass Strategy, the Advanced Study Guide Technique, and Cognitive Mapping--for use with secondary level learning disabled students. The SQ3R method involves the five steps of survey, question, read, recite, and review. An adaption of the SQ3R method, the…

  9. Competency Testing: Will the LD Student Be Included?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Katherine M.

    1980-01-01

    The discussion of minimum competency testing (MCT) for learning disabled students focuses on advantages and disadvantages, the need for test modifications, and the importance of coordinating the child's individualized education program with MCT considerations. (CL)

  10. LD Theory and a Tale from the Town of Chelm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Gerald S.

    1989-01-01

    The author of "The Learning Mystique: A Critical Look at Learning Disabilities," responds to critical and supportive reactions (EC 220 147-152) concerning the relevance of cited issues, the role of language, heritability, scientific criteria, poor reading versus true dyslexia, and the promise of his proposed interactivity theory. (DB)

  11. The Diagnosis of LD in English Learners: Is It Nondiscriminatory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueroa, Richard A.; Newsome, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the operationalization of one of the key reforms initiated by the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (U.S. Congress, 1975) and continued through the 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (U.S. Congress, 2004)--namely, nondiscriminatory assessment. The original and current…

  12. Luminidependens (LD) is an Arabidopsis protein with prion behavior.

    PubMed

    Chakrabortee, Sohini; Kayatekin, Can; Newby, Greg A; Mendillo, Marc L; Lancaster, Alex; Lindquist, Susan

    2016-05-24

    Prion proteins provide a unique mode of biochemical memory through self-perpetuating changes in protein conformation and function. They have been studied in fungi and mammals, but not yet identified in plants. Using a computational model, we identified candidate prion domains (PrDs) in nearly 500 plant proteins. Plant flowering is of particular interest with respect to biological memory, because its regulation involves remembering and integrating previously experienced environmental conditions. We investigated the prion-forming capacity of three prion candidates involved in flowering using a yeast model, where prion attributes are well defined and readily tested. In yeast, prions heritably change protein functions by templating monomers into higher-order assemblies. For most yeast prions, the capacity to convert into a prion resides in a distinct prion domain. Thus, new prion-forming domains can be identified by functional complementation of a known prion domain. The prion-like domains (PrDs) of all three of the tested proteins formed higher-order oligomers. Uniquely, the Luminidependens PrD (LDPrD) fully replaced the prion-domain functions of a well-characterized yeast prion, Sup35. Our results suggest that prion-like conformational switches are evolutionarily conserved and might function in a wide variety of normal biological processes. PMID:27114519

  13. Promoting Error Monitoring in Middle School Students with LD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Ted R.; Polloway, Edward A.

    1993-01-01

    Middle school students with learning disabilities were successfully taught the COPS monitoring strategy to revise and correct writing mistakes. Steps in the strategy include capitalization of appropriate letters, overall appearance of paper, punctuation used correctly, and spelling accuracy. (JDD)

  14. Low L/D aerobrake test at Mach 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hair, L. M.; Engel, C. D.; Sulyma, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    An aerobraking Orbital transfer vehicle may be used to increase the Space Shuttle mission capability to and from high orbits. A Mach 10 wind-tunnel test was performed for a low lift-drag aerobrake, to define a preliminary aerothermal environment for this candidate concept. Test hardware simulated the ribs and stretched fabric of conceptual flight hardware. Pressures, paint-melting histories, and oilflow data were measured on the brake. Pressure and thermocouple heating rate data were measured on the payload. Brake peak heating is at the edge at all angles of attack, although the stagnation point is not outboard of 75 percent radius even at 20 degrees angle of attack. Brake ribs show slightly higher heating than flats, although pressures are essentially constant. Payload peak heating occurs near 12 degrees angle of attack, and is 30 percent of the sphere stagnation point heating (for a sphere of brake diameter). Payload pressure distributions follow the heating pattern. Reynolds number effects are small on the brake and large on the payload, for the range of test conditions: 0.4-1.0 million/foot.

  15. Blue laser diode (LD) and light emitting diode (LED) applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergh, Arpad A.

    2004-09-01

    The family of blue LEDs, edge emitting and surface emitting lasers, enable a number of applications. Blue lasers are used in digital applications such as optical storage in high density DVDs. The resolution of the spot size and hence the storage density is diffraction limited and is inversely proportional to the square of the wavelength of the laser. Other applications include printing, optical scanners, and high-resolution photo-lithography.As light emitters, blue LEDs are used for signaling and in direct view large area emissive displays. They are also making inroads into signage and LCD back-lighting, mobile platforms, and decorative accent lighting in curtains, furniture, etc.Blue LEDs produce white light either with phosphor wavelength converters or in combination with red and green LEDs. The full potential of LED light sources will require three devices to enable complete control over color and intensity.Sensing and medical/bio applications have a major impact on home security, on monitoring the environment, and on health care. New emerging diagnostic and therapeutic applications will improve the quality and reduce the cost of health care.

  16. Albert Einstein and LD: An Evaluation of the Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Marlin

    2000-01-01

    This article refutes claims that Albert Einstein had a learning disability and argues the claim derives its force not from evidence but from belief that the greatest among us suffer from some impairment and from desire to enhance the status of a marginalized group by including exceptional individuals. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  17. Enhancing Self-Concept of LD Adolescents: One Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Walter J.; Cushion, Marie B.

    1982-01-01

    The paper describes four approaches to developing self-esteem in learning disabled adolescents--compensatory intervention, vocational-career skills development, basic skills remediation, and peer tutoring. (SW)

  18. LD Consultant Information in Mainstreaming: Help or Hindrance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen; Barcikowski, Robert S.

    1984-01-01

    After receiving varying combinations of positive and negative communications on reading achievement, classroom behavior, and learning style from a "resource teacher" on a 12-year-old boy identified as learning disabled, 129 classroom teachers completed the "Regular Educator Expectancy Scale-Revised." Results confirmed differential influence of…

  19. Ka Whanau mai te Reo: Honouring Whanau, Upholding Reo Maori

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Nicola; Barnes, Alex; Hutchings, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This is the first report from a 3-year (2012-2015) kaupapa Maori research project that investigates how best to support the continuity of reo Maori development of whanau as they transition between kohanga reo, kura kaupapa primary, wharekura, secondary and beyond. It aims to provide useful information about the reo Maori education options that are…

  20. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system. PMID:26926691

  1. Gene-to-metabolite network for biosynthesis of lignans in MeJA-elicited Isatis indigotica hairy root cultures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruibing; Li, Qing; Tan, Hexin; Chen, Junfeng; Xiao, Ying; Ma, Ruifang; Gao, Shouhong; Zerbe, Philipp; Chen, Wansheng; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Root and leaf tissue of Isatis indigotica shows notable anti-viral efficacy, and are widely used as “Banlangen” and “Daqingye” in traditional Chinese medicine. The plants' pharmacological activity is attributed to phenylpropanoids, especially a group of lignan metabolites. However, the biosynthesis of lignans in I. indigotica remains opaque. This study describes the discovery and analysis of biosynthetic genes and AP2/ERF-type transcription factors involved in lignan biosynthesis in I. indigotica. MeJA treatment revealed differential expression of three genes involved in phenylpropanoid backbone biosynthesis (IiPAL, IiC4H, Ii4CL), five genes involved in lignan biosynthesis (IiCAD, IiC3H, IiCCR, IiDIR, and IiPLR), and 112 putative AP2/ERF transcription factors. In addition, four intermediates of lariciresinol biosynthesis were found to be induced. Based on these results, a canonical correlation analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient was performed to construct gene-to-metabolite networks and identify putative key genes and rate-limiting reactions in lignan biosynthesis. Over-expression of IiC3H, identified as a key pathway gene, was used for metabolic engineering of I. indigotica hairy roots, and resulted in an increase in lariciresinol production. These findings illustrate the utility of canonical correlation analysis for the discovery and metabolic engineering of key metabolic genes in plants. PMID:26579184

  2. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments.

    PubMed

    Rincon, J A; Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Julian, V; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Carrascosa, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system. PMID:26926691

  3. The Combined Effects of Ethylene and MeJA on Metabolic Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Catharanthus roseus Revealed by Metabolomics Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds belong to a class of secondary metabolites and are implicated in a wide range of responsive mechanisms in plants triggered by both biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study, we approached the combinational effects of ethylene and MeJA (methyl jasmonate) on phenolic compounds profiles and gene expressions in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. In virtue of a widely non-targeted metabolomics method, we identified a total of 34 kinds of phenolic compounds in the leaves, composed by 7 C6C1-, 11 C6C3-, and 16 C6C3C6 compounds. In addition, 7 kinds of intermediates critical for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and alkaloids were identified and discussed with phenolic metabolism. The combinational actions of ethylene and MeJA effectively promoted the total phenolic compounds, especially the C6C1 compounds (such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid) and C6C3 ones (such as cinnamic acid, sinapic acid). In contrast, the C6C3C6 compounds displayed a notably inhibitory trend in this case. Subsequently, the gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 5 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 41 metabolite peaks. Generally, we provide an insight into the controlling mode of ethylene-MeJA combination on phenolic metabolism in C. roseus leaves. PMID:27375495

  4. The Combined Effects of Ethylene and MeJA on Metabolic Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Catharanthus roseus Revealed by Metabolomics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds belong to a class of secondary metabolites and are implicated in a wide range of responsive mechanisms in plants triggered by both biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study, we approached the combinational effects of ethylene and MeJA (methyl jasmonate) on phenolic compounds profiles and gene expressions in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. In virtue of a widely non-targeted metabolomics method, we identified a total of 34 kinds of phenolic compounds in the leaves, composed by 7 C6C1-, 11 C6C3-, and 16 C6C3C6 compounds. In addition, 7 kinds of intermediates critical for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and alkaloids were identified and discussed with phenolic metabolism. The combinational actions of ethylene and MeJA effectively promoted the total phenolic compounds, especially the C6C1 compounds (such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid) and C6C3 ones (such as cinnamic acid, sinapic acid). In contrast, the C6C3C6 compounds displayed a notably inhibitory trend in this case. Subsequently, the gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 5 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 41 metabolite peaks. Generally, we provide an insight into the controlling mode of ethylene-MeJA combination on phenolic metabolism in C. roseus leaves. PMID:27375495

  5. The MeJA-inducible copper amine oxidase AtAO1 is expressed in xylem tissue and guard cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghuge, Sandip A; Carucci, Andrea; Rodrigues-Pousada, Renato A; Tisi, Alessandra; Franchi, Stefano; Tavladoraki, Paraskevi; Angelini, Riccardo; Cona, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Copper amine oxidases oxidize the polyamine putrescine to 4-aminobutanal with the production of the plant signal molecule hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ammonia. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene At4g14940 (AtAO1, previously referred to as ATAO1) encodes an apoplastic copper amine oxidase expressed in lateral root cap cells and developing xylem, especially in root protoxylem and metaxylem precursors. In our recent study, we demonstrated that AtAO1 expression is strongly induced in the root vascular tissues by the wound-signal hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Furthermore, we also demonstrated that the H2O2 derived by the AtAO1-driven oxidation of putrescine, mediates the MeJA–induced early protoxylem differentiation in Arabidopsis roots. H2O2 may contribute to protoxylem differentiation by signaling developmental cell death and by acting as co-substrate in peroxidase-mediated cell wall stiffening and lignin polymerization. Here, by the means of AtAO1 promoter::green fluorescent protein-β-glucuronidase (AtAO1::GFP-GUS) fusion analysis, we show that a strong AtAO1 gene expression occurs also in guard cells of leaves and flowers. The high expression levels of AtAO1 in tissues or cell types regulating water supply and water loss may suggest a role of the encoded protein in water balance homeostasis, by modulating coordinated adjustments in anatomical and functional features of xylem tissue and guard cells during acclimation to adverse environmental conditions. PMID:26241131

  6. Mineralogical characterization of tailing dams: incidence of abandoned mining works on soil pollution (Linares, Jaén)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, M. J.; Hidalgo, C.; Rey, J.; Martínez, J.

    2012-04-01

    The metallogenic district of Linares-La Carolina (Jaén, Spain) consists of dyke mineralizations mainly of galena, accompanied by blende, chalcopyrite and barite. Associated to these abandoned mines, relatively extensive areas occupied by spoil heaps and tailing impoundments exist and constitute potential sources of soil pollution by metals and semimetals. In order to analyze the pollution potential of these mining wastes, we have carried out a mineralogical and geochemical study of seven tailing dams and surrounding soils in the area. The mineralogy of the samples was studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the total metal content of samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Samples were taken from the first 30 cm of the waste piles and soil deposits and white efflorescences were also obtained from the surface of the tailings. In all analyzed heaps, high to very high total contents in Pb (1220-22890 mg/kg), Zn (150-51280 mg/kg), Mn (2658-4160 mg/kg), Ba (1026-19610 mg/kg) and Fe (19400-138000 mg/kg) were observed. The concentrations for these same elements in the studied soils range from 527-9900 mg/kg for Pb, 27-1700 mg/kg for Zn, 506-2464 mg/kg for Mn, 2832-4306 for Ba and 8642-29753 mg/kg for Fe, and these figures indicate a contamination of the soils, according to the guidelines established by the Spanish law. The XRD and SEM results indicate that the tailings are primarily constituted by gangue of the exploited mineralization: quartz, calcite, ankerite, feldspars and phyllosilicates. They are inherited, primary mineral phases. Galena, also primary, appears in low proportion, as well as lepidocrocite, melanterite and cerussite, being these three last secondary minerals and indicating a certain remobilization of metal cations, especially lead and iron. On the other hand, quartz and phyllosilicates predominate in the soils, in which, in addition, is identified a

  7. PP2C-like Promoter and Its Deletion Variants Are Induced by ABA but Not by MeJA and SA in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bhalothia, Purva; Sangwan, Chetna; Alok, Anshu; Mehrotra, Sandhya; Mehrotra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is mediated through interaction between cis regulatory elements and its cognate transcription factors. Cis regulatory elements are defined as non-coding DNA sequences that provide the binding sites for transcription factors and are clustered in the upstream region of genes. ACGT cis regulatory element is one of the important cis regulatory elements found to be involved in diverse biological processes like auxin response, salicylic acid (SA) response, UV light response, ABA response and jasmonic acid (JA) response. We identified through in silico analysis that the upstream region of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) gene has a distinct genetic architecture of ACGT elements. In the present study, the activation of the full length promoter and its deletion constructs like 900 base pair, 500 base pair, 400 base pair and NRM (Nathji Rajesh Mehrotra) were examined by stable transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana using β-glucuronidase as the reporter gene. Evaluation of deletion constructs of PP2C-like promoter was carried out in the presence of phytohormones like abscisic acid (ABA), SA and JA. Our result indicated that the full length and 900 base pair promoter-reporter constructs of PP2C-like promoter was induced in response to ABA but not to methyl jasmonate and SA. PMID:27200023

  8. GA3 and other signal regulators (MeJA and IAA) improve xanthumin biosynthesis in different manners in Xanthium strumarium L.

    PubMed

    Li, Changfu; Chen, Fangfang; Zhang, Yansheng

    2014-01-01

    Xanthanolides from Xanthium strumarium L. exhibit various pharmacological activities and these compounds are mainly produced in the glandular trichomes of aerial plant parts. The regulation of xanthanolide biosynthesis has never been reported in the literature. In this study, the effects of phytohormonal stimulation on xanthumin (a xanthanolide compound) biosynthesis, glandular trichomes and germacrene A synthase (GAS) gene expression in X. strumarium L. young leaves were investigated. The exogenous applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and gibberrellin A3 (GA3) at appropriate concentrations were all found to improve xanthumin biosynthesis, but in different ways. It was suggested that a higher gland density stimulated by MeJA (400 µM) or IAA (200 µM) treatment caused at least in part an improvement in xanthumin production, whereas GA3 (10 µM) led to an improvement by up-regulating xanthumin biosynthetic genes within gland cells, not by forming more glandular trichomes. Compared to the plants before the flowering stage, plants that had initiated flowering showed enhanced xanthumin biosynthesis, but no higher gland density, an effect was similar to that caused by exogenous GA3 treatment. PMID:25157461

  9. PP2C-like Promoter and Its Deletion Variants Are Induced by ABA but Not by MeJA and SA in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bhalothia, Purva; Sangwan, Chetna; Alok, Anshu; Mehrotra, Sandhya; Mehrotra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is mediated through interaction between cis regulatory elements and its cognate transcription factors. Cis regulatory elements are defined as non-coding DNA sequences that provide the binding sites for transcription factors and are clustered in the upstream region of genes. ACGT cis regulatory element is one of the important cis regulatory elements found to be involved in diverse biological processes like auxin response, salicylic acid (SA) response, UV light response, ABA response and jasmonic acid (JA) response. We identified through in silico analysis that the upstream region of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) gene has a distinct genetic architecture of ACGT elements. In the present study, the activation of the full length promoter and its deletion constructs like 900 base pair, 500 base pair, 400 base pair and NRM (Nathji Rajesh Mehrotra) were examined by stable transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana using β-glucuronidase as the reporter gene. Evaluation of deletion constructs of PP2C-like promoter was carried out in the presence of phytohormones like abscisic acid (ABA), SA and JA. Our result indicated that the full length and 900 base pair promoter-reporter constructs of PP2C-like promoter was induced in response to ABA but not to methyl jasmonate and SA. PMID:27200023

  10. Factors influencing the structure and spatial distribution of fishes in the headwater streams of the Jaú River in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Kemenes, A; Forsberg, B R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of spatial variation in river channels and habitats on the distribution of fish communities in the headwater streams of the Jaú River System, a blackwater tributary of the Negro River. Collections and measurements were made in 34 headwater streams during the period of November- December, 1998. Fish were captured with fish traps and hand nets along standard reaches of two meanders. Data on benthic habitat structure, stream depth and width were collected along lateral transects in each sample reach. A total of 66 fish species from 24 families were collected and classified into seven trophic guilds: allocthonous insectivore, autochthonous insectivore, general insectivore, piscivore, detritivorous planktivore, detritivorous insectivore and insectivorous piscivore. Variations in the distribution and diversity of bottom substrates were important factors influencing fish community structures in these systems. Also, variation in stream size explained the observed variability in fish communities. PMID:25627363

  11. Effects of Adding Vindoline and MeJA on Production of Vincristine and Vinblastine, and Transcription of their Biosynthetic Genes in the Cultured CMCs of Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjin; Yang, Jiazeng; Zi, Jiachen; Zhu, Jianhua; Song, Liyan; Yu, Rongmin

    2015-12-01

    Vincristine and vinblastine were found by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) in Catharanthus roseuscambial meristem cells (CMCs) jointly treated with 0.25 mM vindoline and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), suggesting that C. roseus CMCs contain a complete set of the enzymes which are in response to convert vindoline into vincristine and vinblastine. Based on the facts that the transcript levels of vindoline-biosynthetic genes (STR, SGD and D4H) were up-regulated instead of being down-regulated by adding itself to the culture, and that the transcriptional factor ORCA3 was up-regulated simultaneously, we further confirmed that the transcription of STR, SGD, D4H was manipulated by ORCA3. PMID:26882673

  12. Variability of phenotype, anthocyanin indexes, and flavonoids in accessions from a close relative of soybean, Neontonia wightii (Wright & Arn. J.A. Lackey) in the U.S. germplasm collection for potential use as a health forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A close relative of soybean, Neonotonia wightii (Wright & Arn. J.A. Lackey), is used as a ruminant feed and restores soil productivity in Brazil and Zimbabwe, respectively. Neonotonia wightii accessions were grown in a greenhouse at Griffin, Georgia, characterized for various phenotypic traits, and...

  13. Monitoring of selected priority and emerging contaminants in the Guadalquivir River and other related surface waters in the province of Jaén, South East Spain.

    PubMed

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The province of Jaén counts with four natural parks, numerous rivers, reservoirs and wetlands; moreover, it is probably the region with higher olive oil production in the world, which makes this zone a proper target to be studied based on the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/CE. The aim of this survey is to monitor a total number of 373 compounds belonging to different families (pesticides, PAHs, nitrosamines, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals and life-style compounds) in surface waters located at different points of the province of Jaén. Among these compounds some priority organic substances (regulated by the EU Directive 2008/105/EC) and pollutants of emerging concern (not regulated yet) can be found. A liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) method covering 340 compounds was developed and applied, together with a gas chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method which enabled the analysis of 63 organic contaminants (30 of these compounds are analyzed by LC-TOFMS as well). From April 2009 to November 2010 a total of 83 surface water samples were collected (rivers, reservoirs and wetlands). In this period numerous organic contaminants were detected, most of them at the ng L(-1) level. The most frequently priority substances found were chlorpyrifos ethyl, diuron and hexachlorobenzene. Within the other groups, the most frequently detected compounds were: terbuthylazine, oxyfluorfen, desethyl terbuthylazine, diphenylamine (pesticide family); fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene (PAHs group), codeine, paracetamol (pharmaceuticals compounds) and caffeine, nicotine (life-style compounds). As is could be expected, the total concentration of emerging contaminants is distinctly larger than that of priority pollutants, highlighting the importance of continuing with the study of their presence, fate and effects in aquatic environments. However, concentration levels (at the ng per liter level) are low in

  14. Molecular characterisation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- and plasmid AmpC-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from broilers in Béjaïa, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Belmahdi, Mohamed; Bakour, Sofiane; Al Bayssari, Charbel; Touati, Abdelaziz; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to characterise the molecular support of antibiotic resistance in expanded-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Escherichia coli isolates recovered from healthy broilers in Béjaïa, northeast Algeria. A total of 61 intestinal swabs from slaughtered broilers from four regions in Béjaïa locality, Algeria, were collected between February and April 2014, from which 20 ESC-resistant E. coli strains were isolated. Escherichia coli isolates were identified by classical biochemical and MALDI-TOF methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Etest methods. Screening for β-lactamases, aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME)-encoding genes and qnr determinants was performed by PCR and sequencing. Clonal relatedness was determined using molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that the isolates showed high rates of resistance (>90%) to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, aztreonam, ceftazidime, streptomycin, tobramycin, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Low rates of resistance were observed for kanamycin (35%), amikacin (30%), cefoxitin (20%) and cefotaxime (15%). Molecular characterisation revealed that all of the isolates expressed the blaTEM-1 gene. Fourteen of them harboured the blaSHV-12 gene, two harboured the blaCTX-M-1 gene and four isolates harboured blaCMY-2. Screening for AME-encoding genes demonstrated that all isolates contained the aadA gene. In addition, qnrA was detected as the quinolone resistance determinant in 13 isolates. MLST revealed four known sequence types (STs), including ST744, ST38, ST1011 and ST2179, as well as one new sequence type (ST5086). Here we report the first study describing the clonal diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmid AmpC-producing E. coli isolated from healthy broilers in Algeria. PMID:27530851

  15. Comment on ``Geoeffectiveness of Halo Coronal Mass Ejections'' by N. Gopalswamy, S. Yashiro, and S. Akiyama (J. Geophys. Res. 2007, 112, doi:10.1029/2006JA012149)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yermolaev, Yu. I.

    2008-12-01

    Comment on paper: Gopalswamy, N., S. Yashiro, and S. Akiyama (2007), Geoeffectiveness of halo coronal mass ejections, J. Geophys. Res., 112, A06112, doi:10.1029/2006JA012149 Gopalswamy et al. [2007] studied the geoeffectiveness of halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on the basis of solar observations during 1996-2005 and found that the geoeffectiveness of 229 frontside halo CMEs was 71%. Recently for observations of 305 frontside halo CMEs during 1997-2003 the geoeffectiveness was found to be 40% [Kim et al., 2005]. Complex analysis of both solar and interplanetary measurements showed that the geoeffectiveness of frontside halo CMEs is likely to be about 50% [Yermolaev et al., 2005; Yermolaev and Yermolaev, 2006]. Gopalswamy et al. [2007] did not discuss possible causes of this difference and were limited only to the general words: "The reason for the conflicting results (geoeffectiveness of CMEs ranging from 35% to more than 80%) may be attributed to the different definition of halo CMEs and geoeffectiveness." So, here we shall present our point of view on high geoeffectivenees of CME obtained in paper by Gopalswamy et al. [2007].

  16. LOW-TEMPERATURE ION TRAP STUDIES OF N{sup +}({sup 3} P{sub ja} ) + H{sub 2}(j) {yields} NH{sup +} + H

    SciTech Connect

    Zymak, I.; Hejduk, M.; Mulin, D.; Plasil, R.; Glosik, J.; Gerlich, D.

    2013-05-01

    Using a low-temperature 22-pole ion trap apparatus, detailed measurements for the title reaction have been performed between 10 K and 100 K in order to get some state specific information about this fundamental hydrogen abstraction process. The relative population of the two lowest H{sub 2} rotational states, j = 0 and 1, has been varied systematically. NH{sup +} formation is nearly thermo-neutral; however, to date, the energetics are not known with the accuracy required for low-temperature astrochemistry. Additional complications arise from the fact that, so far, there is no reliable theoretical or experimental information on how the reactivity of the N{sup +} ion depends on its fine-structure (FS) state {sup 3} P{sub ja} . Since in the present trapping experiment, thermalization of the initially hot FS population competes with hydrogen abstraction, the evaluation of the decay of N{sup +} ions over long storage times and at various He and H{sub 2} gas densities provides information on these processes. First assuming strict adiabatic behavior, a set of state specific rate coefficients is derived from the measured thermal rate coefficients. In addition, by recording the disappearance of the N{sup +} ions over several orders of magnitude, information on nonadiabatic transitions is extracted including FS-changing collisions.

  17. Impact of agricultural activity and geologic controls on groundwater quality of the alluvial aquifer of the Guadalquivir River (province of Jaén, Spain): a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorite-Herrera, Miguel; Jiménez-Espinosa, Rosario

    2008-06-01

    The alluvial aquifer of the Alto Guadalquivir River is one of the most important shallow aquifers in Jaén, Spain. It is located in the central-eastern part of the province, and its groundwater resources are used mainly for crop irrigation in an agriculture-dominated area. Hydrochemical and water-quality data obtained through a 2-year sampling (2004-2006) and analysis program indicate that nitrate pollution is a serious problem affecting groundwater due to the use of nitrogen (N)-fertilizers in agriculture. During the study, 231 water samples were collected from wells and springs to determine water chemistry and the extent of nitrate pollution. The concentration of nitrate in groundwater ranged from 1.25 to 320.88 mg/l. Considerable seasonal fluctuations in groundwater quality were observed as a consequence of agricultural practices and other factors such as annual rainfall distribution and the Guadalquivir River flow regime. The chemical composition of the water is not only influenced by agricultural practices, but also by interaction with the alluvial sediments. The dissolution of evaporites accounts for part of the Na+, K+, Cl-, SO4 2-, Mg2+, and Ca2+, but other processes, such as calcite precipitation and dedolomitization, also contribute to groundwater chemistry.

  18. Java Tomography System (JaTS), a Seismic Tomography Software Using Fresnel Volumes, a Fast Marching Eikonal Solver and a Probabilistic Reconstruction Method: Conclusive Synthetic Test Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, Sandrine; Grandjean, Gilles; Verly, Jacques

    Problems related to landscape management, natural hazards and civil engineering involve subsurface structures that can be delineated by geophysical imaging. Seismic tomography can accurately characterize a medium according to its velocity variations. Traditional seismic travel time tomography based on ray-tracing methods assumes that the waves frequency is infinite. Therefore, only the medium located along the ray path has an impact on the wave propagation. In subsurface tomography, the infinite frequency assumption does not hold, as targets have about the same size as the wavelength. The seismic waves propagation is affected not only by the medium along the shortest travel time path but also by the medium located in its vicinity. In this study, Fresnel volumes are used to determine the medium affecting the wave propagation given the seismic waves frequency. The choice of the travel time computation and reconstruction methods determines the overall efficiency and soundness of the tomography process. In this research, a second order Fast Marching eikonal solver is used for computing travel times. The Fast Marching Method is an original approach that propagates a monotonously expanding wave front in a medium. It is fast, reliable and easy to implement in both 2D and 3D. An innovative probabilistic approach enables the iterative reconstruction process based upon Fresnel volumes. This study compares the performances of JaTS, our java Fresnel volume tomography software to those of Sardine, a ray-tracing tomography software, over an unfavourable synthetic case.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... alter the DNA in cells. The strongest risk factors for developing this form of cancer are tobacco use (including smoking or using ... SA, Weinstein JN, Treviño L, Drummond JA, Muzny DM, Wu Y, Wood LD, Hruban RH, Westra WH, Koch WM, Califano JA, Gibbs RA, ...

  20. Physical and Metabolic Interactions of Pseudomonas sp. Strain JA5-B45 and Rhodococcus sp. Strain F9-D79 during Growth on Crude Oil and Effect of a Chemical Surfactant on Them

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Ward, Owen P.

    2001-01-01

    Methods to enhance crude oil biodegradation by mixed bacterial cultures, for example, (bio)surfactant addition, are complicated by the diversity of microbial populations within a given culture. The physical and metabolic interactions between Rhodococcus sp. strain F9-D79 and Pseudomonas sp. strain JA5-B45 were examined during growth on Bow River crude oil. The effects of a nonionic chemical surfactant, Igepal CO-630 (nonylphenol ethoxylate), also were evaluated. Strain F9-D79 grew attached to the oil-water interface and produced a mycolic acid-containing capsule. Crude oil emulsification and surface activity were associated with the cellular fraction. Strain JA5-B45 grew in the aqueous phase and was unable to emulsify oil, but cell-free supernatants mediated kerosene-water emulsion formation. In coculture, stable emulsions were formed and strain JA5-B45 had an affinity for the capsule produced by strain F9-D79. Igepal CO-630 inhibited F9-D79 cells from adhering to the interface, and cells grew dispersed in the aqueous phase as 0.5-μm cocci rather than 2.5-μm rods. The surfactant increased total petroleum hydrocarbon removal by strain JA5-B45 from 4 to 22% and included both saturated compounds and aromatics. In coculture, TPH removal increased from 13 to 40% following surfactant addition. The culture pH normally increased from 7.0 to between 7.5 and 8.5, although addition of Igepal CO-630 to F9-D79 cultures resulted in a drop to pH 5.5. We suggest a dual role for the nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactant in the coculture: (i) to improve hydrocarbon uptake by strain JA5-B45 through emulsification and (ii) to prevent strain F9-D79 from adhering to the oil-water interface, indirectly increasing hydrocarbon availability. These varied effects on hydrocarbon biodegradation could explain some of the known diversity of surfactant effects. PMID:11571196

  1. Comparative genomic analysis of single-molecule sequencing and hybrid approaches for finishing the Clostridium autoethanogenum JA1-1 strain DSM 10061 genome

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven D; Nagaraju, Shilpa; Utturkar, Sagar M; De Tissera, Sashini; Segovia, Simón; Mitchell, Wayne; Land, Miriam L; Dassanayake, Asela; Köpke, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium autoethanogenum strain JA1-1 (DSM 10061) is an acetogen capable of fermenting CO, CO2 and H2 (e.g. from syngas or waste gases) into biofuel ethanol and commodity chemicals such as 2,3-butanediol. A draft genome sequence consisting of 100 contigs has been published. Results A closed, high-quality genome sequence for C. autoethanogenum DSM10061 was generated using only the latest single-molecule DNA sequencing technology and without the need for manual finishing. It is assigned to the most complex genome classification based upon genome features such as repeats, prophage, nine copies of the rRNA gene operons. It has a low G + C content of 31.1%. Illumina, 454, Illumina/454 hybrid assemblies were generated and then compared to the draft and PacBio assemblies using summary statistics, CGAL, QUAST and REAPR bioinformatics tools and comparative genomic approaches. Assemblies based upon shorter read DNA technologies were confounded by the large number repeats and their size, which in the case of the rRNA gene operons were ~5 kb. CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Paloindromic Repeats) systems among biotechnologically relevant Clostridia were classified and related to plasmid content and prophages. Potential associations between plasmid content and CRISPR systems may have implications for historical industrial scale Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation failures and future large scale bacterial fermentations. While C. autoethanogenum contains an active CRISPR system, no such system is present in the closely related Clostridium ljungdahlii DSM 13528. A common prophage inserted into the Arg-tRNA shared between the strains suggests a common ancestor. However, C. ljungdahlii contains several additional putative prophages and it has more than double the amount of prophage DNA compared to C. autoethanogenum. Other differences include important metabolic genes for central metabolism (as an additional hydrogenase and the absence of a

  2. Interviewing: A Technique for Discovering LD Adolescents' Strategies for Solving Multiplication Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Edward

    1983-01-01

    The article describes the oral interview, a mathematics assessment technique in which the learning disabled adolescent's thinking stragegies are examined. Both efficient and inefficient thinking strategies related to multiplication are discussed, and implications for instruction considered. (Author/CL)

  3. Suggestions for Teaching 4th Grade LD Students the Concept of Longitude and Latitude in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Cherie M.

    The paper suggests appropriate activities for teaching learning disabled fourth graders in a regular class the concepts of geographical latitude and longitude. Application of the learning principles identified in a review of the literature suggests the need to include visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile activities of benefit to the entire…

  4. LD-pumped erbium and neodymium lasers with high energy and output beam quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabanov, Vladimir V.; Bezyazychnaya, Tatiana V.; Bogdanovich, Maxim V.; Grigor'ev, Alexandr V.; Lebiadok, Yahor V.; Lepchenkov, Kirill V.; Ryabtsev, Andrew G.; Ryabtsev, Gennadii I.; Shchemelev, Maxim A.

    2013-05-01

    Physical and fabrication peculiarities which provide the high output energy and beam quality for the diode pumped erbium glass and Nd:YAG lasers are considered. Developed design approach allow to make passively Q-switched erbium glass eye-safe portable laser sources with output energy 8 - 12 mJ (output pulse duration is less than 25 ns, pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz) and beam quality M2 less than 1.3. To reach these values the erbium laser pump unit parameters were optimized also. Namely, for the powerful laser diode arrays the optimal near-field fill-factor, output mirror reflectivity and heterostructure properties were determined. Construction of advanced diode and solid-state lasers as well as the optical properties of the active element and the pump unit make possible the lasing within a rather wide temperature interval (e.g. from minus forty till plus sixty Celsius degree) without application of water-based chillers. The transversally pumped Nd:YAG laser output beam uniformity was investigated depending on the active element (AE) pump conditions. In particular, to enhance the pump uniformity within AE volume, a special layer which practically doesn't absorb the pump radiation but effectively scatters the pump and lasing beams, was used. Application of such layer results in amplified spontaneous emission suppression and improvement of the laser output beam uniformity. The carried out investigations allow us to fabricate the solid-state Nd:YAG lasers (1064 nm) with the output energy up to 420 mJ at the pulse repetition rate up to 30 Hz and the output energy up to 100 mJ at the pulse repetition rate of of 100 Hz. Also the laser sources with following characteristics: 35 mJ, 30 Hz (266 nm); 60 mJ, 30 Hz (355 nm); 100 mJ, 30 Hz (532 nm) were manufactured on the base of the developed Nd:YAG quantrons.

  5. The LD Adolescent at Risk: Developmental Tasks, Social Competence, and Communication Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Moss A.

    1987-01-01

    Key developmental tasks of adolescence and the unique problems that face the learning-disabled adolescent are outlined, focusing on the role of social competency and communication effectiveness. Components of a comprehensive social competency training program include the nature of the learning disability, the affective-defensive pattern, adaptive…

  6. Students Teaching Texts to Students: Integrating LdL and Digital Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stymeist, David

    2015-01-01

    The arrival of the digital age has not only reshaped and refocused critical research in the humanities, but has provided real opportunities to innovate with pedagogy and classroom structure. This article describes the development of a new pedagogical model that integrates learning by teaching with student access to electronic archival resources.…

  7. Multiple folded resonator for LD pulse end pumped Q-switched Yb:YAG slab laser.

    PubMed

    Jun, Liu; Jianguo, Xin; Ye, Lang; Jiabin, Chen

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a multiple folded resonator is presented which consists of a multiple optical folding setup, a flat total reflector, a flat output coupler, a Q-switch crystal and a polarizer. By this technique, the output energy of 32.6mJ and pulse width of 13.4ns with a repetition rate of 5Hz was obtained, which is three times higher than that reported in the past publications by the use of the currently existing technique of the Q-switched slab gain lasers with the unstable resonator. The output beam with a quality of M² = 1.55 in the slow axis and M² = 1.40 in the fast axis was also obtained. PMID:25321590

  8. Applying LD Documentation Guidelines at the Postsecondary Level: Decision Making with Sparse or Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Manju; Madaus, Joseph W.; Gelbar, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    A key issue in fostering transition to postsecondary education for students with disabilities is documentation verifying the nature of the disability and supporting the need for services and reasonable accommodations. Documentation guidelines assist postsecondary disability service providers in making decisions about eligibility and reasonable…

  9. Task Analysis and Profile Construction in the Remediation of LD Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silber, Leon D.

    1982-01-01

    The author presents a task analysis model for interpreting diagnostic test performance and for planning a remedial program for learning disabled students. A survey of evaluation instruments is given for eight skill areas, including oral expression, listening comprehension, and basic reading skills. A case study illustrates the approach. (CL)

  10. A meta-analysis of single-subject-design intervention research for students with LD.

    PubMed

    Swanson, H L; Sachse-Lee, C

    2000-01-01

    This article summarizes single-subject-design intervention studies that include students with learning disabilities. Effect sizes of 85 studies were analyzed across instructional domains (e.g., reading, mathematics); sample characteristics (e.g., age, intelligence); intervention parameters (e.g., number of instructional sessions, instructional components); and methodological procedures (e.g., internal validity, treatment integrity, sample representation). The major findings were as follows: (a) All domain areas except handwriting yielded effect sizes at or above Cohen's .80 threshold for a substantial finding; (b) instructional components related to drill-repetition-practice-review, segmentation, small interactive groups, and the implementation of cues to use strategies contributed significant variance (15%) to estimates of effect size; (c) strategy instruction (SI) models better predicted effect size estimates than direct instruction (DI) models when the results were qualified by the reported intellectual and reading levels of the participants; (d) high-IQ discrepancy groups yielded lower effect sizes compared to low-IQ discrepancy groups in the domain of reading, whereas the reverse effect occurred when treatment outcomes were not reading measures; and (e) the low-IQ discrepancy groups yielded higher effect sizes for a Combined DI and SI Model when compared to competing models. The results are supportive of the pervasive influence of cognitive strategy and direct instruction models across treatment domains and of the notion that variations in sample definition moderate treatment outcomes. PMID:15505942

  11. LdShake: Learning Design Solutions Sharing and Co-Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Leo, Davinia; Romeo, Lauren; Carralero, Miguel A.; Chacon, Jonathan; Carrio, Mar; Moreno, Pau; Blat, Josep

    2011-01-01

    Two important challenges that teachers are currently facing are the sharing and the collaborative authoring of their learning design solutions, such as didactical units and learning materials. On the one hand, there are tools that can be used for the creation of design solutions and only some of them facilitate the co-edition. However, they do not…

  12. Murein structure and lack of DD- and LD-carboxypeptidase activities in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed Central

    Markiewicz, Z; Glauner, B; Schwarz, U

    1983-01-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography of a muramidase digest of murein sacculi from Caulobacter crescentus showed that the absence of D-alanine carboxypeptidase activity in the cells was reflected by a very high content of pentapeptide in the murein. Approximately half of the pentapeptide side chains were shown to contain glycine, which replaced D-alanine as the terminal amino acid. PMID:6630150

  13. Effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring on the Number of Words Spelled Correctly by Students with LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burks, M

    2004-01-01

    The author analyzed the effects that Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) had on the number of words in a spelling test that students with learning disabilities in reading and writing spelled correctly. By means of an ABAB design, she investigated using CWPT in relation to the amount of correctly spelled words. The results indicated that the number of…

  14. Differential Diagnosis of Dysgraphia, Dyslexia, and OWL LD: Behavioral and Neuroimaging Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Richards, Todd L.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    In Study 1, children in grades 4-9 (N = 88, 29 females and 59 males) with persisting reading and/or writing disabilities, despite considerable prior specialized instruction in and out of school, were given an evidence-based comprehensive assessment battery at the university while parents completed questionnaires regarding past and current history…

  15. Important Publications in the Field of LD in Light of Imminent Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, David; Boudah, Daniel; Elksnin, Linda K.; Gersten, Russell; Klingner, Janette

    2003-01-01

    This article synthesizes articles discussed as part of the research symposium at the 24th International Conference on Learning Disabilities on October 11, 2002. Topics include translating learning disability research to practice, identification of learning disabilities, special education and postmodernism, and the response to treatment model.…

  16. The botulinum toxin LD50 potency assay - another chapter, another mystery.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Andy

    2012-09-01

    Observers of the potency assay used for botulinum toxin were greeted last year with the news that one company had an alternative, non-animal alternative in place. But all was not as it seemed from the press release, and over a year later, information is still lacking. PMID:23067303

  17. Source interpretation: teaching students with and without LD to read and write historically.

    PubMed

    De La Paz, Susan; Morales, Petra; Winston, Philip M

    2007-01-01

    We review domain-specific teaching approaches for students with learning disabilities in social studies, then present De La Paz's 2005 historical reasoning strategy so that readers understand the rationale for and have information on each stage of instruction. Next, we highlight the role of self-regulation for the reasoning process. We then turn to describing the role of each teacher (Morales as the social studies educator and Winston as the special educator), first as they collaborate with De La Paz and each other, then as Morales works alone, 1 year later. Implications are given for changes in teaching. The topic of women's suffrage is used throughout the article to highlight the teaching approach and to present student work. PMID:17380988

  18. Successful Strategies for Promoting Self-Advocacy among Students with LD: The LEAD Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pocock, Al; Lambros, Stan; Karvonen, Meagan; Test, David W.; Algozzine, Bob; Wood, Wendy; Martin, James E.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes methods used by one school district to promote self-advocacy skills for students with learning disabilities. Through multicomponent group activities, students learned about their strengths and disabilities and how to advocate for educational needs and rights. Advocacy skills were applied to leadership roles, mentoring, and…

  19. Source Interpretation: Teaching Students with and without LD to Read and Write Historically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Paz, Susan; Morales, Petra; Winston, Philip M.

    2007-01-01

    We review domain-specific teaching approaches for students with learning disabilities in social studies, then present De La Paz's 2005 historical reasoning strategy so that readers understand the rationale for and have information on each stage of instruction. Next, we highlight the role of self-regulation for the reasoning process. We then turn…

  20. Knowledge Base for Automatic Generation of Online IMS LD Compliant Course Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacurar, Ecaterina Giacomini; Trigano, Philippe; Alupoaie, Sorin

    2006-01-01

    Our article presents a pedagogical scenarios-based web application that allows the automatic generation and development of pedagogical websites. These pedagogical scenarios are represented in the IMS Learning Design standard. Our application is a web portal helping teachers to dynamically generate web course structures, to edit pedagogical content…

  1. High-power LD end-pumped Tm:YAG ceramic slab laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuan; Huang, Haitao; Shen, Deyuan; Fan, Xuliang; Yao, Weichao; Zhu, Heyuan; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Dingyuan

    2015-03-01

    A high-power Tm:YAG ceramic slab laser is reported. Deliberate thermal management was made to dissipate the heat effectively and release the stress in ceramics. The influence of pump wavelength on laser performance was investigated. A maximum of 52 W output power was achieved, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 27.8 % with respect to the incident pump power. As to our knowledge, this is the highest 2-μm laser output power reported in Tm:YAG ceramic lasers. This result proves that Tm:YAG laser ceramic is a promising candidate for 2-μm high-power laser applications.

  2. Socially ADDept: Teaching Social Skills to Children with ADHD, LD, and Asperger's, Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giler, Janet Z.

    2011-01-01

    "Socially ADDept" helps educators and parents teach the hidden rules of social behavior to children with limited social skills, notably those with special needs like ADHD, learning disabilities, Asperger's and high-functioning autism, Tourette Syndrome, and nonverbal learning disabilities. The author provides all the information parents and…

  3. LD-pumped double-clad fiber single-frequency power amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wen-Feng; Yang, Su-Hui; Zhao, Chang-Ming

    2005-12-01

    Single frequency, single mode laser output from a monolithic resonator was amplified by a double-clad D-shape fiber of 4.4 meters long. When the signal laser is 200mw, up to 6.65 W single frequency laser output was obtained, slope efficiency is 30.6%. The amplifier is Yb 3+ doped glass fiber pumped by a laser diode array at 976nm with signal at 1064nm. Single frequency amplification has been proved by a Fabri-Parrot interferometer. It is shown from the experiments that the signal input has not been saturated. By increasing the input signal, amplification can be increased further under the same pumping power. Experimental results meet well with theoretical calculation.

  4. InstanceCollage: A Tool for the Particularization of Collaborative IMS-LD Scripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villasclaras-Fernandez, Eloy D.; Hernandez-Gonzalo, Julio A.; Hernandez-Leo, Davinia; Asensio-Perez, Juan I.; Dimitriadis, Yannis; Martinez-Mones, Alejandra

    2009-01-01

    Current research work in e-learning and more specifically in the field of CSCL (Computer Supported Collaborative Learning) deals with design of collaborative activities, according to computer-interpretable specifications, such as IMS Learning Design, and their posterior enactment using LMSs (Learning Management Systems). A script that describes…

  5. Process and Product Explanations for What Works for LD and Why

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Sid T.; Hanna, Shellie L.; Woodall, Peggy; Callaway, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    In the history of learning disabilities education, practitioners and researchers alike have been mired in controversies about product and process approaches. This review of literature attempts to identify the most useful research about product and process approaches and to suggest situations in which each may be most appropriate. Some literature…

  6. An LD-pumped Raman fiber laser operating below 1 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kablukov, S. I.; Dontsova, E. I.; Zlobina, E. A.; Nemov, I. N.; Vlasov, A. A.; Babin, S. A.

    2013-08-01

    A CW Raman fiber laser (RFL) operating below 1 μm with direct pumping by a high-power multimode laser diode at 938 nm has been demonstrated for the first time. The laser cavity is formed by a normally cleaved fiber end and a highly reflective fiber Bragg grating (FBG) inscribed at the opposite end of a 4.5 km long multimode graded-index fiber. Low-index transverse modes are generated at the first Stokes wavelength of ˜980 nm with an output power of ˜3 W, while the second Stokes wave at 1025 nm also starts to be generated, thus limiting the 980 nm output.

  7. Individualized Education Programs: A Comparison of Students with BD, LD, and MMR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickles, James L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the categories of objectives in the Individualized Education Programs of children with behavior disorders, learning disabilities, or mild mental retardation in five states. The study found differences among disability groups in objective categories (academic, career/vocational, behavior, and basic living skills) but less…

  8. LD/ESL Assessments. NetNews. Volume 6, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LDA of Minnesota, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The population of most Minnesota communities has dramatically changed over the past ten years. The Minnesota State Demographic Center reports the Twin Cities area has the largest Hmong, Somali, and Liberian communities in the United States. In some communities where both jobs and affordable housing are available, the percentage of English as a…

  9. Using Evidence-Based Multimedia to Improve Vocabulary Performance of Adolescents With LD: A UDL Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Michael J.; Thomas, Cathy Newman; Meyer, J. Patrick; Alves, Kat D.; Lloyd, John Wills

    2014-01-01

    Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework that is commonly used for guiding the construction and delivery of instruction intended to support all students. In this study, we used a related model to guide creation of a multimedia-based instructional tool called content acquisition podcasts (CAPs). CAPs delivered vocabulary instruction…

  10. Learning Disabilities in New Zealand: Where Kiwis and Kids with LD Can't Fly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, James W.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses reasons for rejection of the learning disability category in New Zealand and describes the general education and special education systems in New Zealand. It is suggested that the needs of such students may potentially be met by new policies for "high incidence" special needs. Teacher training needs are also addressed. (DB)

  11. Four Supportive Pillars in Career Exploration and Development for Adolescents with LD and EBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Audrey A.; Smith, Shane Anthony; Kim, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    In addition to typical career development and vocational programs in general education, providing school-based programs that are directly linked to employment and career development for youth with learning and emotional and behavioral disabilities is a legally mandated service in special education. Several broad research-based strategies are…

  12. An Update on NCAA College Freshman Academic Requirements: The Impact on Students with LD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hishinuma, Earl S.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the consent decree settling the dispute between the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the Department of Justice relating to the eligibility of students with learning disabilities for participation in college freshman athletics. Potential problems in the settlement are identified, as are such issues as NCAA's denial that it is…

  13. Computer-Based Graphic Organizers for Students with LD: A Systematic Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciullo, Stephen; Reutebuch, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of the literature for studies that utilized computer-based graphic organizers for students with learning disabilities. A comprehensive search yielded 12 studies that were coded and analyzed. The authors investigated the effectiveness of the treatments on academic outcomes, and selected integral…

  14. Nicotiana attenuata MPK4 suppresses a novel JA signaling-independent defense pathway against the specialist insect Manduca sexta but is not required for the resistance to the generalist Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Hettenhausen, Christian; Baldwin, Ian T.; Wu, Jianqiang

    2014-01-01

    Summary How plants tailor their defense responses to attack from different insects remains largely unknown. Here we studied the role of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), MPK4, in the resistance of a wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata to two herbivores, the specialist Manduca sexta and the generalist Spodoptera littoralis. Stably transformed N. attenuata plants silenced in MPK4 (irMPK4) were generated and characterized for traits important for defense against herbivores. Only the oral secretions (OS) from M. sexta, but not the OS from S. littoralis or mechanical wounding, induced elevated levels of jasmonic acid (JA) in irMPK4 plants compared to the wild-type plants. Moreover, silencing MPK4 highly increased the resistance of N. attenuata to M. sexta in a fashion that was independent of COI1 (CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1)-mediated JA signaling. Untargeted metabolomic screening identified several new MPK4-dependent putative defensive compounds against M. sexta. In contrast, silencing MPK4 did not affect the growth of the generalist insect S. littoralis, and we propose that this was due to the very low levels of fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in S. littoralis OS. Thus, MPK4 is likely to be a key signaling element that enables plants to tailor defense responses to different attackers. PMID:23672856

  15. Computer Supported Indexing: A History and Evaluation of NASA's MAI System. Supplement 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.

    1997-01-01

    Computer supported indexing systems may be categorized in several ways. One classification scheme refers to them as statistical, syntactic, semantic or knowledge-based. While a system may emphasize one of these aspects, most systems actually combine two or more of these mechanisms to maximize system efficiency. Statistical systems can be based on counts of words or word stems, statistical association, and correlation techniques that assign weights to word locations or provide lexical disambiguation, calculations regarding the likelihood of word co-occurrences, clustering of word stems and transformations, or any other computational method used to identify pertinent terms. If words are counted, the ones of median frequency become candidate index terms. Syntactical systems stress grammar and identify parts of speech. Concepts found in designated grammatical combinations, such as noun phrases, generate the suggested terms. Semantic systems are concerned with the context sensitivity of words in text. The primary goal of this type of indexing is to identify without regard to syntax the subject matter and the context-bearing words in the text being indexed. Knowledge-based systems provide a conceptual network that goes past thesaurus or equivalent relationships to knowing (e.g., in the National Library of Medicine (NLM) system) that because the tibia is part of the leg, a document relating to injuries to the tibia should he indexed to LEG INJURIES, not the broader MeSH term INJURIES, or knowing that the term FEMALE should automatically be added when the term PREGNANCY is assigned, and also that the indexer should be prompted to add either HUMAN or ANIMAL. Another way of categorizing indexing systems is to identify them as producing either assigned- or derived-term indexes.

  16. E Lauhoe Mai Na Wa'a: Toward a Hawaiian Indigenous Education Teaching Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kana'iaupuni, Shawn Malia; Kawai'ae'a, Keiki K. C.

    2008-01-01

    The desire to improve educational delivery and outcomes has prompted significant advancements in culture-based education as a foundation for community-driven, place-based, relevant educational approaches that more effectively engage children and their families in lifelong learning and leadership. This article shares the early process and tools of…

  17. Huakina Mai: A Kaupapa Maori Approach to Relationship and Behaviour Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Catherine; Macfarlane, Sonja; Macfarlane, Angus; Fickel, Letitia; Hemi, Hemi Te

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the developmental stages of a nationwide whole-school strengths-based behavioural intervention by Maori and centring on Maori interests; an initiative that has the potential to transform educational success and opportunities. The initial phase involved a cycle of data collection. This was conducted via a series of focus…

  18. A 3D-DNA Molecule Made of PlayMais

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caine, Massimo; Horié, Ninon; Zuchuat, Sandrine; Weber, Aurélia; Ducret, Verena; Linder, Patrick; Perron, Karl

    2015-01-01

    More than 60 years have passed since the work of Rosalind Franklin, James Watson, and Francis Crick led to the discovery of the 3D-DNA double-helix structure. Nowadays, due to the simple and elegant architecture of its double helix, the structure of DNA is widely known. The biological role of the DNA molecule (e.g., genetic information), however,…

  19. Sirenomelia type VI (sympus apus) in one of dizygotic twins at Chiang Mai University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Nokeaingtong, Kwannapas; Kaewchai, Sirirat; Visrutaratna, Pannee; Khuwuthyakorn, Varangthip

    2015-01-01

    Those born with sirenomelia, a rare congenital anomaly, have features resembling a mermaid. Characteristics of sirenomelia are a single lower limb, sacral and pelvic bone defects, and anorectal and urogenital malformations. There is an increased incidence of sirenomelia in males and twins. This case was a preterm male, dizygotic twin and product of in vitro fertilisation. The baby was born by caesarean section due to breech presentation. He was found to have a fused lower extremity and absent external genitalia and anus. The baby passed away shortly after birth due to severe respiratory failure. Radiographic findings showed small lung volume and pneumothoraces. There were multiple segmental fusions of the vertebrae. Single femur and single tibia were presented in a fused lower limb. Autopsy demonstrated large intestinal atresia, intra-abdominal testes, absence of kidney, ureter and bladder, single umbilical artery, agenesis of blood vessels at lower extremity and agenesis of sacrum and coccyx. PMID:25976191

  20. NGA Tukitanga Mai Koka Ki Tona Ira: Maori mothers and child to mother violence.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Ripekapaia Gloria; Wilson, Denise

    2010-11-01

    In common with other indigenous women Māori mothers risk illness, harm, and possible death when abused and intimidated by their children. Yet women suffering child to mother violence are silenced by their fear and shame, and endeavour to minimise the effects of this form of abuse. A qualitative descriptive research design using kaupapa Māori methodology was adopted to explore the experiences of Māori mothers who had been abused by a son or daughter. During semi-structured interviews with five Māori women experiences of abuse by a child, and its impact on the whānau/family were recorded. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically, and three key themes emerged: behind closed doors, my child and a new journey. These Māri mothers carried the secret of the violence alone; keeping it behind closed doors while paradoxically protecting their abusive child. Nonetheless, these mothers reached a point where they chose to undertake a new journey, one that involved telling their story, reconnecting with their indigenous roots, and engaging in healing activities. The mothers' experiences highlight a lack of support and responsiveness by support and health agencies. Regardless of these negative experiences with support agencies, we highlight the important role nurses have in facilitating whānau ora (family wellbeing) for these women. This research contributes an indigenous perspective to the growing literature on child to mother violence, and provides direction for future research. PMID:21188914

  1. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. Summary of pre-validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Burlinson, Brian; Escobar, Patricia A; Kraynak, Andrew R; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Nakajima, Madoka; Pant, Kamala; Asano, Norihide; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this validation effort was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The purpose of the pre-validation studies (i.e., Phase 1 through 3), conducted in four or five laboratories with extensive comet assay experience, was to optimize the protocol to be used during the definitive validation study. PMID:26212293

  2. Assessing Metacognition as a Learning Outcome in a Postsecondary Strategic Learning Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mytkowicz, Patricia; Goss, Diane; Steinberg, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    While metacognition is an important component of the learning process for college students, development of metacognitive knowledge and regulation is particularly important for students with LD and/or ADHD. The researchers used Schraw and Dennison's (1994) "Metacognitive Awareness Inventory" (MAI) to assess first year college…

  3. Regulative influence of o-aminobenzoic acid on the biosynthesis of nourseothricin in cultures of Streptomyces noursei JA 3890b. IV. Bistability of metabolism and the mechanism of action of aminobenzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Gräfe, U; Bocker, H; Thrum, H

    1979-01-01

    Using the semi-continuous cultivation technique we could establish that specifically in Streptomyces noursei JA 3890b during growth on a medium supplied with D,L-alanine, NH4+, and maize starch there are two different phenotypes of the organism and stationary states of metabolism, respectively. The expression of either the metabolic state I with an enhanced capacity to oxidative deamination of alanine via the NAD+-dependent alanaine dehydrogenase or the metabolic state 2 which may be characterized by the preferred use of ammonium ions via the NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase was shown to depend strongly on the conditions of inoculum cultivation. When the amino acid permeases were derepressed by cultivating the inoculum cells on amino acid media, probably due to the defective mechanism of negative feedback control of amino acid influx in this strain an abnormously high uptake of alanine was observed that, consequently, was correlated to the enhanced oxidation of this amino acid as well as to the intensive production of ammonia within the cell. This overproduction of cellular NH4+ seems to bring about the subsequent repression of biosynthetic glutamate dehydrogenase and so on the accumulation of ammonia autocatalytically may rise up (metabolic state I). On the other hand, if the influx of alanine was kept low and the NADH oxidation was less efficient, respectively, or when there was high cellular activity of glutamate dehydrogenase the level of ammonia never did exceed the respressory limit and, accordingly, the expression of the metabolic state 2 was observed. Switching-over of metabolic flux from the state 2 towards the state 1 can be brought about either by increasing the level of nitrogen sources in the medium or by adding buffers pH greater than 7.5. In contrast, decrease of cellular level of NH4+ was shown to induce the transition of metabolic state 1 into the state 2. This can be achieved not only by limitation of nitrogen source but also by adding

  4. 75 FR 5071 - Mississippi L&D 21, LLC, Mississippi River No. 21 Hydropower Company Lock + TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... + \\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XXXII, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Applications Accepted for Filing and... proposed Mississippi River No. 21 Hydropower Project No. 13637. On January 8, 2010, Lock + TM Hydro...

  5. The School Resource Progam: Alternative Tutoring Models for Delivering Supportive Services to L.D. Children in Mainstream Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Carole K.

    Described and evaluated are four alternative tutoring models for delivering supportive educational services to elementary grade learning disabled children in regular classes. Discussed are problems of individual programing and models such as the "Cascade of Services" to provide for differing educational needs. It is explained that the alternative…

  6. Exploring the Diagnosis of "Gifted/LD": Characterizing Postsecondary Students with Learning Disability Diagnoses at Different IQ Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Benjamin J.; Sparks, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students are being diagnosed as simultaneously gifted and having a learning disability, although the identification procedures and characteristics of these students are matters of continuing debate. In the present study, postsecondary students with learning disability diagnoses (N = 357) were grouped according to their IQ…

  7. Students Classified as LD Who Received Course Substitutions for the College Foreign Language Requirement: A Replication Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Philips, Lois G.; Javorsky, James

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 158 college students with learning disabilities who were granted foreign language course substitutions found there were few cognitive and academic achievement differences among students with differing levels of IQ-achievement or achievement-achievement discrepancy on Modern Language Aptitude Test and American College Testing…

  8. A Cognitive Strategy Instruction to Improve Math Calculation for Children with ADHD and LD: A Randomized Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iseman, Jackie S.; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the effectiveness of cognitive strategy instruction based on PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive) given by special education teachers to students with ADHD randomly assigned by classroom. Students in the experimental group were exposed to a brief cognitive strategy instruction for 10 days, which was designed to…

  9. Math Learning Disability and Math LD Subtypes: Evidence from Studies of Turner Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, and Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined whether indicators of math learning disability were observed in 35 5- and 6-year-olds with either neurofibromatosis, Turner Syndrome, or fragile X syndrome and compared to controls. Findings indicate that girls with fragile X or Turner syndrome but not neurofibromatosis are significantly more likely to have specific math…

  10. Modern Languages and Specific Learning Difficulties (SpLD): Implications of Teaching Adult Learners with Dyslexia in Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallardo, Matilde; Heiser, Sarah; Arias McLaughlin, Ximena

    2015-01-01

    In modern language (ML) distance learning programmes, teachers and students use online tools to facilitate, reinforce and support independent learning. This makes it essential for teachers to develop pedagogical expertise in using online communication tools to perform their role. Teachers frequently raise questions of how best to support the needs…

  11. QSAR modeling of acute toxicity on mammals caused by aromatic compounds: the case study using oral LD50 for rats.

    PubMed

    Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Kusić, Hrvoje; Leszczynska, Danuta; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Koprivanac, Natalija

    2010-05-01

    The goal of the study was to predict toxicity in vivo caused by aromatic compounds structured with a single benzene ring and the presence or absence of different substituent groups such as hydroxyl-, nitro-, amino-, methyl-, methoxy-, etc., by using QSAR/QSPR tools. A Genetic Algorithm and multiple regression analysis were applied to select the descriptors and to generate the correlation models. The most predictive model is shown to be the 3-variable model which also has a good ratio of the number of descriptors and their predictive ability to avoid overfitting. The main contributions to the toxicity were shown to be the polarizability weighted MATS2p and the number of certain groups C-026 descriptors. The GA-MLRA approach showed good results in this study, which allows the building of a simple, interpretable and transparent model that can be used for future studies of predicting toxicity of organic compounds to mammals. PMID:21491673

  12. Historical Relevance: NCLB in Relation to Exclusion of Prince George's County ADHD and LD Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The implications of No Child Left Behind made comparisons of all students in the American education system with students in other countries. NCLB also made historical comparisons with students from previous generations. The purpose of this study was to point out the impropriety of making these comparisons. Students who attended school prior to the…

  13. High-peak-power, high-repetition-rate LD end-pumped Nd:YVO4 burst mode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hu; Yan, Renpeng; Fa, Xin; Yu, Xin; Ma, Yufei; Fan, Rongwei; Li, Xudong; Chen, Deying; Zhou, Zhongxiang

    2016-06-01

    A compact high-peak-power, high-repetition-rate burst mode laser is achieved by an acousto-optical Q-switched Nd:YVO4 1064 nm laser directly pumped at 878.6 nm. Pulse trains with 10-100 pulses are obtained using acousto-optical Q-switch at repetition rates of 10-100 kHz under a pulsed pumping with a 1 ms duration. At the maximum pump energy of 108.5 mJ, the pulse energy of 10 kHz burst mode laser reaches 44 mJ corresponding to a single pulse energy of 4.4 mJ and an optical-to-optical efficiency of 40.5 %.The maximum peak power of ~468.1 kW at 10 kHz is obtained with a pulse width of 9.4 ns. The beam quality factor is measured to be M 2 ~1.5 and the pulse jitter is estimated to be less than 1 % in both amplitude and time region.

  14. Mis-Diagnosis and Dual Diagnosis of Gifted Children: Gifted and LD, ADHD, OCD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, James T.

    Many gifted and talented children are often misdiagnosed by psychologists and other health professionals as having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Disorder (OD), Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), or another of the mood disorders. The misdiagnosis can stem from mistaken assumptions being made about the social and…

  15. Identification of putative candidate genes for red rot resistance in sugarcane (Saccharum species hybrid) using LD-based association mapping.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram K; Banerjee, Nandita; Khan, M S; Yadav, Sonia; Kumar, Sanjeev; Duttamajumder, S K; Lal, Ram Ji; Patel, Jinesh D; Guo, H; Zhang, Dong; Paterson, Andrew H

    2016-06-01

    Red rot is a serious disease of sugarcane caused by the fungus Colletotrichum falcatum that has a colossal damage potential. The fungus, prevalent mainly in the Indian sub-continent, keeps on producing new pathogenic strains leading to breakdown of resistance in newly released varieties and hence the deployment of linked markers for marker-assisted selection for resistance to this disease can fine tune the breeding programme. This study based on a panel of 119 sugarcane genotypes fingerprinted for 944 SSR alleles was undertaken with an aim to identify marker-trait associations (MTAs) for resistance to red rot. Mixed linear model containing population structure and kinship as co-factor detected four MTAs that were able to explain 10-16 % of the trait variation, individually. Among the four MTAs, EST sequences diagnostic of three could be BLAST searched to the sorghum genome with significant sequence homology. Several genes encoding important plant defence related proteins, viz., cytochrome P450, Glycerol-3-phosphate transporter-1, MAP Kinase-4, Serine/threonine-protein kinase, Ring finger domain protein and others were localized to the vicinity of these MTAs. These positional candidate genes are worth of further investigation and possibly these could contribute directly to red rot resistance, and may find a potential application in marker-assisted sugarcane breeding. PMID:26961118

  16. A functional dual-coated (FDC) microtiter plate method to replace the botulinum toxin LD50 test.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yvonne Y B; Rigsby, Peter; Sesardic, Dorothea; Marks, James D; Jones, Russell G A

    2012-06-01

    Conventional capture ("Sandwich") ELISAs equally detect denatured inactive and native active botulinum type A toxin. Light chain endoprotease activity assays also fail to distinguish between various inactive molecules including partially denatured and fragmented material still retaining this protease activity. By co-coating microtiter plates with SNAP25 substrate and a monoclonal antibody specific for a conformational epitope of the toxin's Hc domain, it was possible to develop a highly sensitive (130 aM LoD), precise (1.4% GCV) new assay specific for the biologically active toxin molecule. Capture was performed in phosphate buffer with a fixed optimal concentration of chaotropic agent (e.g., 1.2 M urea) to differentially isolate functional toxin molecules. Addition of enzymatically favorable buffer containing zinc and DTT reduced the interchain disulfide bond releasing and activating the captured L-chain with subsequent specific cleavage of the SNAP25(1-206) substrate. A neoepitope antibody specific for the newly exposed Q(197) epitope was used to quantify the cleaved SNAP25(1-197). The assay's requirement for the intact toxin molecule was demonstrated with pre-reduced toxin (heavy and light chains), recombinant LHn fragments, and stressed samples containing partially or fully denatured material. This is the first known immunobiochemical assay that correlates with in vivo potency and provides a realistic alternative. PMID:22406430

  17. High overlap of CNVs and selection signatures revealed by varLD analyses of taurine and zebu cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection Signatures (SS) assessed through analysis of genomic data are being widely studied to discover population specific regions selected via artificial or natural selection. Different methodologies have been proposed for these analyses, each having specific limitations as to the age of the sele...

  18. The neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid, affects Bombus impatiens (bumblebee) sonication behavior when consumed at doses below the LD50.

    PubMed

    Switzer, Callin M; Combes, Stacey A

    2016-08-01

    We investigated changes in sonication (or buzz-pollination) behavior of Bombus impatiens bumblebees, after consumption of the neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid. We measured sonication frequency, sonication length, and flight (wing beat) frequency of marked bees collecting pollen from Solanum lycopsersicum (tomato), and then randomly assigned bees to consume 0, 0.0515, 0.515, or 5.15 ng of imidacloprid. We recorded the number of bees in each treatment group that resumed sonication behavior after consuming imidacloprid, and re-measured sonication and flight behavior for these bees. We did not find evidence that consuming 0.0515 ng imidacloprid affected the sonication length, sonication frequency, or flight frequency for bees that sonicated after consuming imidacloprid; we were unable to test changes in these variables for bees that consumed 0.515 or 5.15 ng because we did not observe enough of these bees sonicating after treatment. We performed Cox proportional hazard regression to determine whether consuming imidacloprid affected the probability of engaging in further sonication behavior on S. lycopersicum and found that bumblebees who consumed 0.515 or 5.15 ng of imidacloprid were significantly less likely to sonicate after treatment than bees who consumed no imidacloprid. At the end of the experiment, we classified bees as dead or alive; our data suggest a trend of increasing mortality with higher doses of imidacloprid. Our results show that even modest doses of imidacloprid can significantly affect the likelihood of bumblebees engaging in sonication, a behavior critical for the pollination of a variety of crops and other plants. PMID:27189613

  19. Highly efficient TEM00 mode LD-pumping 1063nm Nd:GdVO4 laser with short cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaojuan; Fu, Shenggui; Ge, Xiaolu; Yuan, Changkun

    2011-11-01

    A highly efficient TEM00 mode 1063 nm Nd:GdVO4 laser is accomplished with a simple plano-plano resonator. The laser threshold pump power is 856 mW. The maximum laser power of 2.05W is achieved when the pump power is 3.76 W, corresponding to a slope-efficiency of 70% to absorbed pump power. The quality of the output beam is analyzed with a laser beam quality analyzer. The perfect laser beam quality is partially attributed to the short cavity length of 11 mm and the precise temperature control to the Nd:GdVO4 crystal. The output laser central wavelength is 1063.1 nm with a laser linewidth of 0.06 nm.

  20. High-peak-power, high-repetition-rate LD end-pumped Nd:YVO4 burst mode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hu; Yan, Renpeng; Fa, Xin; Yu, Xin; Ma, Yufei; Fan, Rongwei; Li, Xudong; Chen, Deying; Zhou, Zhongxiang

    2016-04-01

    A compact high-peak-power, high-repetition-rate burst mode laser is achieved by an acousto-optical Q-switched Nd:YVO4 1064 nm laser directly pumped at 878.6 nm. Pulse trains with 10-100 pulses are obtained using acousto-optical Q-switch at repetition rates of 10-100 kHz under a pulsed pumping with a 1 ms duration. At the maximum pump energy of 108.5 mJ, the pulse energy of 10 kHz burst mode laser reaches 44 mJ corresponding to a single pulse energy of 4.4 mJ and an optical-to-optical efficiency of 40.5 %.The maximum peak power of ~468.1 kW at 10 kHz is obtained with a pulse width of 9.4 ns. The beam quality factor is measured to be M 2 ~1.5 and the pulse jitter is estimated to be less than 1 % in both amplitude and time region.

  1. LD-side-pumped Nd:YAG/BaWO4 intracavity Raman laser for anti-Stokes generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cong; Cong, Zhenhua; Qin, Zengguang; Zhang, Xingyu; Wei, Wei; Wang, Weitao; Zhang, Yuangeng; Zhang, Huaijin; Yu, Haohai

    2014-07-01

    A diode-side-pumped actively Q-switched Nd:YAG/BaWO4 intracavity anti-Stokes Raman laser is demonstrated for the first time. The oscillation directions of the fundamental and the Stokes beams are separated at a phase-matching angle by introducing an additional coupled Raman cavity in the fundamental resonator. The highest 968 nm anti-Stokes output power of 0.94 mW is obtained with a 170 W 808 nm pumping power and a 7.5 kHz pulse repetition frequency. Meanwhile, the Stokes power obtained is 4.2 W.

  2. Epidemic Clones, Oceanic Gene Pools, and Eco-LD in the Free Living Marine Pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yujun; Yang, Xianwei; Didelot, Xavier; Guo, Chenyi; Li, Dongfang; Yan, Yanfeng; Zhang, Yiquan; Yuan, Yanting; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Song, Yajun; Zhou, Dongsheng; Falush, Daniel; Yang, Ruifu

    2015-06-01

    We investigated global patterns of variation in 157 whole-genome sequences of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a free-living and seafood associated marine bacterium. Pandemic clones, responsible for recent outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans, have spread globally. However, there are oceanic gene pools, one located in the oceans surrounding Asia and another in the Mexican Gulf. Frequent recombination means that most isolates have acquired the genetic profile of their current location. We investigated the genetic structure in the Asian gene pool by calculating the effective population size in two different ways. Under standard neutral models, the two estimates should give similar answers but we found a 27-fold difference. We propose that this discrepancy is caused by the subdivision of the species into a hundred or more ecotypes which are maintained stably in the population. To investigate the genetic factors involved, we used 51 unrelated isolates to conduct a genome-wide scan for epistatically interacting loci. We found a single example of strong epistasis between distant genome regions. A majority of strains had a type VI secretion system associated with bacterial killing. The remaining strains had genes associated with biofilm formation and regulated by cyclic dimeric GMP signaling. All strains had one or other of the two systems and none of isolate had complete complements of both systems, although several strains had remnants. Further "top down" analysis of patterns of linkage disequilibrium within frequently recombining species will allow a detailed understanding of how selection acts to structure the pattern of variation within natural bacterial populations. PMID:25605790

  3. Personnel Management: A J/A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasca, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Recently, personnel executives and their staffs are being asked to help management solve an increasing number of human resource and business problems. Personnel management must undergo some changes if it is to achieve its full potential. (Author/AJ)

  4. Design of Current Source Dc/Dc Converter for Interfacing a 5 Kw Pem Fuel Cell / Paaugstinošā Strāvas Avota Līdzsprieguma Pārveidotāja Izstrāde 5 Kw Ūdeņraža Degvielas Elementam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreičiks, A.; Steiks, I.; Krievs, O.

    2013-08-01

    In domestic applications the low DC output voltage of a hydrogen fuel cell used as the main power supply or a backup power source has to be matched to the level and frequency of the AC voltage of utility grid. The interfacing power converter system usually consists of a DC/DC converter and an inverter. In this work, a DC/DC step-up converter stage is designed for interfacing a 5kW proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The losses of DC/DC conversion are estimated and, basing on the relevant analysis, the most appropriate configuration of converter modules is selected for a DC/DC converter stage of increased efficiency. The authors present the results of experimental analysis and simulation for the selected configuration of four double inductor step-up push-pull converter modules Ūdeņraža degvielas elementa invertoru sistēmas mājsaimniecības pielietojumiem parasti sastāv no līdzsprieguma paaugstināšanas un invertēšanas mezgliem. Šis raksts ir veltīts paaugstinošā līdzsprieguma pārveidotāja izstrādei 5 kW protonu apmaiņas membrānas degvielas elementam. Rakstā izpētīts divu induktoru divtaktu strāvas avota paaugstinošais līdzsprieguma pārveidotājs, aplūkojot gan datormodelēšanas, gan eksperimentālos rezultātus. Lai palielinātu DC/DC pārveidotāja efektivitāti var izmantot vairākus pārveidotāja moduļus, kam ieejas savienotas paralēli un izejās - virkne. Analīze Šajā raksta ir veikta analīze, balstoties uz kuras var izvēlieties skaitu pārveidotāj moduļu skaitu, kuri nodrošina vislabāko efektivitāti DC/DC pārveidotāja posmā. Kopējais eksperimentāli noteiktais izstrādātās degvielas elementa pārveidotāju sistēmas fizikālā modeļa lietderības koeficients ir 93%

  5. Prediction des rendements agricoles du mais et du soya, et du deficit en azote du mais a l'aide d'images aeroportees et d'un reseau de neurones a retropropagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serele, Zogbo Charles

    2002-01-01

    This thesis explores the suitability of the multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network for prediction of corn and soybean yield and for classification of nitrogen corn stressed vegetation. The results show while using a combination of vegetation and texture indices, and topographic data, we can successfully predict corn yield with MLP. The regression coefficient between observed and predicted yield for corn and soybean were respectively 92% and 43% for the middle season image only. This research also indicates that the information from an image is more important when it is acquired during the period of maximum crop biological activity. Thus, MLP developed on the middle season predicts the corn and soybean yield with respective R2 of 89% and 40%. The degree of relationship between the inputs and the outputs and the quality of the data are very important, because they determine the capabilities of the MLP. When the generalization capabilities of the MLP models were tested on a non-corrected crop yield dataset, the results drop to 45% and 36% for corn and soybean respectively. The MLP demonstrated also its capability to discriminate corn nitrogen status during the growing season. MLP models based on image spectral and textural indices reach a Kappa coefficient of 72% for middle season image and 81% for the combined multidate images. Image texture features also provide useful complementary information for the discrimination of different nitrogen stress levels. The best MLP for predicting corn nitrogen status was the one that integrates image features and topographic parameters. It outperforms the first one with an accuracy of 90% for middle season image and 95% for all two images. Evidence that topographic data are a critical discriminatory information source is both obvious and strong. In consequence, crop physiological status monitoring systems require taking into account the combined effects of soil background and canopy architecture. This thesis have highlighted that MLP has a strong potential for detecting corn nitrogen stressed vegetation and that they would help farmers to better manage crop status during the growing season, when there is still time to respond to problems. The other contributions of this study are the development of crop yield data correction and filtering algorithm and the identification of discriminant analysis as the best method for the MLP inputs selection. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  6. Impact of the MAI and beat noise on the performance of OCDM/WDM Optical Packet Switches using Gold codes.

    PubMed

    Eramo, V

    2010-08-16

    Recent advances in optical devices greatly enhance the feasibility of Optical Code Division Multiplexing/Wavelength Division Multiplexing (OCDM/WDM) Optical Packet Switch. In this paper, the performance of an OCDM/WDM switch is investigated when impairment due to both Multiple Access Interference and Beat noise are taken into account. Analytical models are proposed to dimension the switch resources as the number of optical codes carried on each wavelength and the number of needed optical converters. The Packet Loss Probability due to output packet contentions is evaluated as a function of the main switch and traffic parameters when Gold coherent optical codes are adopted. When the available bandwidth is fixed for the WDM/OCDM signal, due to a statistical multiplexing effect, we show that the use of more length codes and fewer wavelengths lead to lower packet loss probability, especially for low offered traffic. PMID:20721176

  7. Holocene malacofauna in calcareous deposits of Dūkšta site near Maišiagala in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanko, Aleksander; Gaigalas, Algirdas; Rudnickaitė, Eugenija; Melešytė, Monika

    2008-01-01

    The paper contains results of new investigations in Lithuania of the first occurrences of terrestrial molluscs in calcareous tufa (travertine), carbonate content and radiocarbon dating. Terrestrial fossil molluscs (35 taxa) prevail in the mollusc fauna, while freshwater species are much more rare (6 taxa). The Dūkšta terrestrial mollusc fauna embraces a complex of thermophiles including such forest species as Acicula polita (Hartmann), Acanthinula aculeata (Müller), Aegopinella cf. pura (Alder), Bulgaria cana (Held) and Discus cf. rotundatus (Müller), as well as mainly South European Carychium tridentatum (Risso) and mainly West European Vertigo moulinsiana (Dupuy). The radiocarbon age of the sediments was found to correspond to the end of the Atlantic climatic period and the beginning of the Subboreal.

  8. Laboratory Study of Quaternary Sediment Resistivity Related to Groundwater Contamination at Mae-Hia Landfill, Mueang District, Chiang Mai Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sichan, N.

    2007-12-01

    This study was aimed to understand the nature of the resistivity value of the sediment when it is contaminated, in order to use the information solving the obscure interpretation in the field. The pilot laboratory experiments were designed to simulate various degree of contamination and degree of saturation then observe the resulting changes in resistivity. The study was expected to get a better understanding of how various physical parameters effect the resistivity values in term of mathematic function. And also expected to apply those obtained function to a practical quantitatively interpretation. The sediment underlying the Mae-Hia Landfill consists of clay-rich material, with interfingerings of colluvium and sandy alluvium. A systematic study identified four kinds of sediment, sand, clayey sand, sandy clay, and clay. Representative sediment and leachate samples were taken from the field and returned to the laboratory. Both the physical and chemical properties of the sediments and leachate were analyzed to delineate the necessary parameters that could be used in Archie's equation. Sediment samples were mixed with various concentration of leachate solutions. Then the resistivity values were measured at various controlled steps in the saturation degree in a well- calibrated six-electrode model resistivity box. The measured resistivity values for sand, clayey sand, sandy clay when fully and partly saturated were collected, then plotted and fitted to Archie's equation, to obtain a mathematical relationship between bulk resistivity, porosity, saturation degree and resistivity of pore fluid. The results fit well to Archie's equation, and it was possible to determine all the unknown parameters representative of the sediment samples. For sand, clayey sand, sandy clay, and clay, the formation resistivity factors (F) are 2.90, 5.77, 7.85, and 7.85 with the products of cementation factor (m) and the pore geometry factors (a) (in term of -am) are 1.49, -1.63, -1.92, -2.24 and the saturation exponents (n) are 2.06, 2.58, 3.52, and 2.46, respectively. These results were used to reinterpret the existing resistivity data of this area. The result of this reinterpretation is a map showing the quantitative distribution of the contaminant plume in the vicinity of the Mae-Hia Landfill.

  9. High Sensitivity Analysis of Nanoliter Volumes of Volatile and Nonvolatile Compounds using Matrix Assisted Ionization (MAI) Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoopmann, Michael R.; Mendoza, Luis; Deutsch, Eric W.; Shteynberg, David; Moritz, Robert L.

    2016-06-01

    Protein-protein interactions are an important element in the understanding of protein function, and chemical cross-linking shotgun mass spectrometry is rapidly becoming a routine approach to identify these specific interfaces and topographical interactions. Protein cross-link data analysis is aided by dozens of algorithm choices, but hindered by a lack of a common format for representing results. Consequently, interoperability between algorithms and pipelines utilizing chemical cross-linking remains a challenge. pepXML is an open, widely-used format for representing spectral search algorithm results that has facilitated information exchange and pipeline development for typical shotgun mass spectrometry analyses. We describe an extension of this format to incorporate cross-linking spectral search results. We demonstrate application of the extension by representing results of multiple cross-linking search algorithms. In addition, we demonstrate adapting existing pepXML-supporting software pipelines to analyze protein cross-linking results formatted in pepXML.

  10. The Influence of Friendships and Friendship-Making Ability in Physical Activity Participation in Chiang Mai, Thailand High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Taylor, Jerry; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Novilla, Lelinneth M.

    2005-01-01

    Unfortunately, the influence of friendships is a neglected area of investigation in studies of youth physical activity. This study investigated the degree to which three friendship variables (ability to make friends, level of involvement with friends, perceived friends' involvement in exercise/physical activity) was associated with physical…

  11. High Sensitivity Analysis of Nanoliter Volumes of Volatile and Nonvolatile Compounds using Matrix Assisted Ionization (MAI) Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoopmann, Michael R.; Mendoza, Luis; Deutsch, Eric W.; Shteynberg, David; Moritz, Robert L.

    2016-07-01

    Protein-protein interactions are an important element in the understanding of protein function, and chemical cross-linking shotgun mass spectrometry is rapidly becoming a routine approach to identify these specific interfaces and topographical interactions. Protein cross-link data analysis is aided by dozens of algorithm choices, but hindered by a lack of a common format for representing results. Consequently, interoperability between algorithms and pipelines utilizing chemical cross-linking remains a challenge. pepXML is an open, widely-used format for representing spectral search algorithm results that has facilitated information exchange and pipeline development for typical shotgun mass spectrometry analyses. We describe an extension of this format to incorporate cross-linking spectral search results. We demonstrate application of the extension by representing results of multiple cross-linking search algorithms. In addition, we demonstrate adapting existing pepXML-supporting software pipelines to analyze protein cross-linking results formatted in pepXML.

  12. ANALYSIS OF BENZO(A)PYRENE-INDUCED DNA ADDUCTS IN MCF-7 BREAST CANCER CELLS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF HSP70 EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA adducts in MCF-7 breast cancer cells with
    different levels of HSP7O expression.
    L.C. King1, L.D. Adams1, E.Winkfield1, J.A. Barnes2, S.D. Hester1 and J.W. Allen1. 1US
    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 2771...

  13. Room temperature operation of 2.67 mJ pulse LD end pumped Q-switched Tm:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xuedi; Wu, Chunting; Chen, Xinyu; Yu, Kai; Jin, Guangyong

    2014-12-01

    Due to 2 μm band in the absorption of water and CO2, the diode pumped solid state lasers with wavelength around 2 μm have important applications in laser medicine and remote sensing, such as it can be used as a scalpe or a light source of Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar and Differential Absorption Lidar. In the recently years, scientists have done much work on the development of such lasers. There're many reports on continuous Tm:YAG laser. However, the study on Q-switched Tm:YAG laser, which is more useful in applications, was very rare. As the light source of Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar, large energy and wide pulse width is desired. Current reports mostly adopted CW pumped source, but it would make a mount of heat. Pulse pumping method could reduce the heat accumulation and improve the heat stability of the laser. How to improve the single pulse energy was the focus of current study. In this paper, a single end bonding Tm:YAG crystal with Tm3+ doping concentration of 3.5at.% was used. Acousto-optic (AO) Q-switched (GOOCH and HOUSEGO QS041-10M-HI8) operation was adopted in our experiment. In the repetition frequency of 100Hz, a maximum single energy of 2.67 mJ (measured by Ophir 30A-BB) and the narrowest pulse width of 149 ns (measured by Vigo PCI-3TE-12 detector) were achieved at room temperature. The M2x was 1.31 and the M2y was 1.35 (measured by Spiricon Pyrocam-III). Tm:YAG laser was developed by using a pulse diode pumped L shape resonant cavity. The transmittance of the curve output mirror was 4% and the curvature radius of which was 300 mm. The output center wavelength of the laser was measured to be 2013.5 nm (measured by YOKOGAWA AQ6375).

  14. Stimulus Gender and Emotional Difficulty Level: Their Effect on Recognition of Facial Expressions of Affect in Children with and without LD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrovsky, Lilly; Spector, Hedva; Levy-Shiff, Rache

    2000-01-01

    The ability to recognize emotions that were easily identifiable and those that were more difficult to identify was studied in 48 children and 76 children with learning disabilities (ages 9-12). Children of both genders and ability levels were more accurate in identifying expressions of affect from female faces. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  15. A luciferase reporter gene assay and aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 genotype predict the LD{sub 50} of polychlorinated biphenyls in avian species

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, Gillian E.; Farmahin, Reza; Crump, Doug; Jones, Stephanie P.; Klein, Jeff; Konstantinov, Alex; Potter, Dave; Kennedy, Sean W.

    2012-09-15

    Birds differ in sensitivity to the embryotoxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which complicates environmental risk assessments for these chemicals. Recent research has shown that the identities of amino acid residues 324 and 380 in the avian aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) ligand binding domain (LBD) are primarily responsible for differences in avian species sensitivity to selected dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans. A luciferase reporter gene (LRG) assay was developed in our laboratory to measure AHR1-mediated induction of a cytochrome P450 1A5 reporter gene in COS-7 cells transfected with different avian AHR1 constructs. In the present study, the LRG assay was used to measure the concentration-dependent effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and PCBs 126, 77, 105 and 118 on luciferase activity in COS-7 cells transfected with AHR1 constructs representative of 86 avian species in order to predict their sensitivity to PCB-induced embryolethality and the relative potency of PCBs in these species. The results of the LRG assay indicate that the identity of amino acid residues 324 and 380 in the AHR1 LBD are the major determinants of avian species sensitivity to PCBs. The relative potency of PCBs did not differ greatly among AHR1 constructs. Luciferase activity was significantly correlated with embryolethality data obtained from the literature (R{sup 2} ≥ 0.87, p < 0.0001). Thus, the LRG assay in combination with the knowledge of a species' AHR1 LBD sequence can be used to predict PCB-induced embryolethality in potentially any avian species of interest without the use of lethal methods on a large number of individuals. -- Highlights: ► PCB embryolethality in birds can be predicted from a species' AHR1 genotype. ► The reporter gene assay is useful for predicting species sensitivity to PCBs. ► The relative potency of PCBs does not appear to differ between AHR1 genotypes. ► Contamination of PCB 105 and PCB 118 did not affect their relative potency values.

  16. Mutation spectrum of 122 hemophilia A families from Taiwanese population by LD-PCR, DHPLC, multiplex PCR and evaluating the clinical application of HRM

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shin-Yu; Su, Yi-Ning; Hung, Chia-Cheng; Tsay, Woei; Chiou, Shyh-Shin; Chang, Chieh-Ting; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Lee, Chien-Nan

    2008-01-01

    Background Hemophilia A represents the most common and severe inherited hemorrhagic disorder. It is caused by mutations in the F8 gene, which leads to a deficiency or dysfunctional factor VIII protein, an essential cofactor in the factor X activation complex. Methods We used long-distance polymerase chain reaction and denaturing high performance liquid chromatography for mutation scanning of the F8 gene. We designed the competitive multiplex PCR to identify the carrier with exonal deletions. In order to facilitate throughput and minimize the cost of mutation scanning, we also evaluated a new mutation scanning technique, high resolution melting analysis (HRM), as an alternative screening method. Results We presented the results of detailed screening of 122 Taiwanese families with hemophilia A and reported twenty-nine novel mutations. There was one family identified with whole exons deletion, and the carriers were successfully recognized by multiplex PCR. By HRM, the different melting curve patterns were easily identified in 25 out of 28 cases (89%) and 15 out of 15 (100%) carriers. The sensitivity was 93 % (40/43). The overall mutation detection rate of hemophilia A was 100% in this study. Conclusion We proposed a diagnostic strategy for hemophilia A genetic diagnosis. We consider HRM as a powerful screening tool that would provide us with a more cost-effective protocol for hemophilia A mutation identification. PMID:18565236

  17. "With an LD You're always Mediocre and Expect to be Mediocre": Perceptions of Adults Recently Diagnosed with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Cheryll; Fullarton, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the educational and employment experiences of 10 adults who had recently been diagnosed as having a learning disability. Seven of the participants eventually obtained a high school diploma or the equivalent and they all had held a variety of entry-level jobs. The participants felt that having an…

  18. Mass changes of outlet glaciers along the Nordensjköld Coast, northern Antarctic Peninsula, based on TanDEM-X satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rott, Helmut; Floricioiu, Dana; Wuite, Jan; Scheiblauer, Stefan; Nagler, Thomas; Kern, Michael

    2014-11-01

    We analyzed volume change and mass balance of outlet glaciers of the northern Antarctic Peninsula over the period 2011 to 2013, using topographic data of high vertical accuracy and great spatial detail, acquired by bistatic radar interferometry of the TanDEM-X/TerraSAR-X satellite formation. The study area includes glaciers draining into the Larsen-A, Larsen Inlet, and Prince-Gustav-Channel embayments. After collapse of buttressing ice shelves in 1995 the glaciers became tidewater calving glaciers and accelerated, resulting in increased ice export. Downwasting of most glaciers is going on, but at reduced rates compared to previous years in accordance with deceleration of ice flow. The rate of mass depletion is 4.2 ± 0.4 Gt a-1, with the largest contribution by Drygalski Glacier amounting to 2.2 ± 0.2 Gt a-1. On the technological side, the investigations demonstrate the capability of satellite-borne single-pass radar interferometry as a new tool for accurate and detailed monitoring of glacier volume change.

  19. High-peak-power, short-pulse-width, LD end-pumped, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG 946 nm laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Renpeng; Yu, Xin; Ma, Yufei; Li, Xudong; Chen, Deying; Yu, Junhua

    2012-10-01

    High-peak-power, short-pulse-width diode pumped 946 nm Nd:YAG laser in passively Q-switching operation with Cr4+:YAG is reported. The highest average output power reaches 3.4 W using the Cr4+:YAG with initial transmissivity T0=95%. When the T0=90% Cr4+:YAG is employed, the maximum peak power of 31.4 kW with a pulse width of 8.3 ns at 946 nm is generated.

  20. Reading Comprehension Interventions That Enhance Outcomes for English Language Learners with LD, 10/01/98-09/30/02. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty

    This final report discusses the activities and outcomes of a project that explored the effectiveness of strategies for teaching reading comprehension to English language learners with learning disabilities who are failing to acquire the comprehension skills to learn from print. A series of studies was conducted over a 3-year period that…

  1. Large-scale East-Asian eQTL mapping reveals novel candidate genes for LD mapping and the genomic landscape of transcriptional effects of sequence variants.

    PubMed

    Narahara, Maiko; Higasa, Koichiro; Nakamura, Seiji; Tabara, Yasuharu; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Ishii, Miho; Matsubara, Kenichi; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamada, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Profiles of sequence variants that influence gene transcription are very important for understanding mechanisms that affect phenotypic variation and disease susceptibility. Using genotypes at 1.4 million SNPs and a comprehensive transcriptional profile of 15,454 coding genes and 6,113 lincRNA genes obtained from peripheral blood cells of 298 Japanese individuals, we mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). We identified 3,804 cis-eQTLs (within 500 kb from target genes) and 165 trans-eQTLs (>500 kb away or on different chromosomes). Cis-eQTLs were often located in transcribed or adjacent regions of genes; among these regions, 5' untranslated regions and 5' flanking regions had the largest effects. Epigenetic evidence for regulatory potential accumulated in public databases explained the magnitude of the effects of our eQTLs. Cis-eQTLs were often located near the respective target genes, if not within genes. Large effect sizes were observed with eQTLs near target genes, and effect sizes were obviously attenuated as the eQTL distance from the gene increased. Using a very stringent significance threshold, we identified 165 large-effect trans-eQTLs. We used our eQTL map to assess 8,069 disease-associated SNPs identified in 1,436 genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We identified genes that might be truly causative, but GWAS might have failed to identify for 148 out of the GWAS-identified SNPs; for example, TUFM (P = 3.3E-48) was identified for inflammatory bowel disease (early onset); ZFP90 (P = 4.4E-34) for ulcerative colitis; and IDUA (P = 2.2E-11) for Parkinson's disease. We identified four genes (P<2.0E-14) that might be related to three diseases and two hematological traits; each expression is regulated by trans-eQTLs on a different chromosome than the gene. PMID:24956270

  2. "But How Can Those Students Make It Here?": Examining the Institutional Discourse about What It Means to Be "LD" at an Ivy League University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I examine and critique the construction of "learning disabilities" at an Ivy League university in the USA. Drawn from a study of the experiences of learning disabled labelled Ivy undergraduates, this paper focuses on the language practices, assumptions, and power relationships that characterize the University discourse within and…

  3. Anthocephaline, a new indole alkaloid and cadambine, a potent inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase IB of Leishmania donovani (LdTOP1LS), isolated from Anthocephalus cadamba.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashish; Chowdhury, Somenath Roy; Jatte, Kumar Kalyan; Chakrabarti, Tulika; Majumder, Hemanta K; Jha, Tarun; Mukhopadhyay, Sibabrata

    2015-02-01

    Chemical investigation of the stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba has resulted in the isolation of anthocephaline (1), a new indole alkaloid, along with strictosamide (2), vincosamide (3) and cadambine (4). The structures of the isolated alkaloids (1-4) were established by detailed 2D NMR spectral analysis. Cadambine (4) exhibited potent DNA topoisomerase IB inhibitory activity. PMID:25920266

  4. Ho3+/Er3+ doped fluoride glass sensitized by Ce3+ pumped by 1550 nm LD for efficient 2.0 μm laser applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feifei; Cheng, Jimeng; Liu, Xueqiang; Hu, Lili; Chen, Danping

    2014-08-25

    We present a detailed characterization of enhanced 2.0 μm emission and energy transfer processes by codoping Ce3+ in ZBYA: Ho3+/Er3+ glasses under 1550 nm excitation. The measured absorption and emission spectra show that Er3+ ions are efficiently excited by pumping and energy transfer from Er3+: 4I13/2 to Ho3+: 5I7 level. The 2.0 μm emission from the Ho3+: 5I7→5I8 transition is enhanced by codoping Ce3+ (< 0.5 mol %) ions in the Ho3+/Er3+ doped glasses. However, excess Ce3+ ions in the glass network negatively affect the mid-infrared emission. The upconversion luminescence is dominated by Er3+ (667 nm) red emission in the Ho3+/Er3+ doped sample, which is suppressed after introducing Ce3+ ions. The red emission is abnormally dominated by the Ho3+ (650 nm) emission when the ratio of the three ions (Ho3+/Er3+: Ce3+) is 1:1:0.5. These results indicate that Ce3+ ions can enhance Ho3+: 2.0 μm emission by suppressing the upconversion processes. The Ho3+/Er3+/Ce3+ triply-doped ZBYA glass is a promising material for 2.0 μm fiber laser applications. PMID:25321293

  5. Large-Scale East-Asian eQTL Mapping Reveals Novel Candidate Genes for LD Mapping and the Genomic Landscape of Transcriptional Effects of Sequence Variants

    PubMed Central

    Narahara, Maiko; Higasa, Koichiro; Nakamura, Seiji; Tabara, Yasuharu; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Ishii, Miho; Matsubara, Kenichi; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamada, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Profiles of sequence variants that influence gene transcription are very important for understanding mechanisms that affect phenotypic variation and disease susceptibility. Using genotypes at 1.4 million SNPs and a comprehensive transcriptional profile of 15,454 coding genes and 6,113 lincRNA genes obtained from peripheral blood cells of 298 Japanese individuals, we mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). We identified 3,804 cis-eQTLs (within 500 kb from target genes) and 165 trans-eQTLs (>500 kb away or on different chromosomes). Cis-eQTLs were often located in transcribed or adjacent regions of genes; among these regions, 5′ untranslated regions and 5′ flanking regions had the largest effects. Epigenetic evidence for regulatory potential accumulated in public databases explained the magnitude of the effects of our eQTLs. Cis-eQTLs were often located near the respective target genes, if not within genes. Large effect sizes were observed with eQTLs near target genes, and effect sizes were obviously attenuated as the eQTL distance from the gene increased. Using a very stringent significance threshold, we identified 165 large-effect trans-eQTLs. We used our eQTL map to assess 8,069 disease-associated SNPs identified in 1,436 genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We identified genes that might be truly causative, but GWAS might have failed to identify for 148 out of the GWAS-identified SNPs; for example, TUFM (P = 3.3E-48) was identified for inflammatory bowel disease (early onset); ZFP90 (P = 4.4E-34) for ulcerative colitis; and IDUA (P = 2.2E-11) for Parkinson's disease. We identified four genes (P<2.0E-14) that might be related to three diseases and two hematological traits; each expression is regulated by trans-eQTLs on a different chromosome than the gene. PMID:24956270

  6. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) OF TWO CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS (CEMS) FOR MEASURING AMMONIA EMISSIONS: SIEMENS AG LDS 3000, AND OPSIS AB LD500

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, beginning as an initiative of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1995, verifies the performance of commercially available, innovative technologies that can be used to measure environmental quality. The ETV ...

  7. Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype B at Sub Mouse LD50 Levels by a Sandwich Immunoassay and its Application to Toxin Detection in Milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant peptide fragments of the light chain, the transmembrane and receptor-binding domains of the heavy chain of BoNT/B were expressed in Escherichia coli as GST-fusion proteins and purified. These proteins were used to immunize BALB/c mice for the generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). A...

  8. LD-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser at 1062 nm with a GaAs saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. N.; Li, P.; Wang, Q. P.; Chen, X. H.

    2011-11-01

    we have experimentally studied the passively Q-switched performance of a diode-pumped Nd:GGG laser at 1062 nm with a GaAs saturable absorber, in the experiment when the pumped power was 9.8 W, the maximum CW output power of 5.1 W was obtained. The optical conversion efficiency and the slop efficiency were 52 and 53%, respectively. The threshold was 0.9 W. In the passively Q-switched regime, we get the average output power of 0.93 W. The shortest pulse width and pulse repetition rate were 7 ns and 188 kHz, respectively.

  9. Results of the International Validation of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: Individual data for 1,2-dibromoethane, p-anisidine, and o-anthranilic acid in the 2nd step of the 4th phase Validation Study under the JaCVAM initiative.

    PubMed

    Takasawa, Hironao; Takashima, Rie; Narumi, Kazunori; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Hattori, Akiko; Kawabata, Masayoshi; Hamada, Shuichi

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative International Validation Study of an in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, we examined 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE), p-anisidine (ASD), and o-anthranilic acid (ANT) to investigate the effectiveness of the comet assay in detecting genotoxic carcinogens. Each of the three test chemicals was administered to 5 male Sprague-Dawley rats per group by oral gavage at 48, 24, and 3h before specimen preparation. Single cells were collected from the liver and glandular stomach at 3h after the final dosing, and the specimens prepared from these two organs were subjected to electrophoresis under alkaline conditions (pH>13). The percentage of DNA intensity in the comet tail was then assessed using an image analysis system. A micronucleus (MN) assay was also conducted using these three test chemicals with the bone marrow (BM) cells collected from the same animals simultaneously used in the comet assay, i.e., combination study of the comet assay and BM MN assay. A genotoxic (Ames positive) rodent carcinogen, DBE gave a positive result in the comet assay in the present study, while a genotoxic (Ames positive) non-carcinogen, ASD and a non-genotoxic (Ames negative) non-carcinogen, ANT showed negative results in the comet assay. All three chemicals produced negative results in the BM MN assay. While the comet assay findings in the present study were consistent with those obtained from the rodent carcinogenicity studies for the three test chemicals, we consider the positive result in the comet assay for DBE to be particularly meaningful, given that this chemical produced a negative result in the BM MN assay. Therefore, the combination study of the comet assay and BM MN assay is a useful method to detect genotoxic carcinogens that are undetectable with the BM MN assay alone. PMID:26212305

  10. [UNESCO] Regional Consultation Meeting on the Asia and Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) (12th, Chaing Mai, Thailand, August 20-27, 1990). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This document is the final report of a Regional Consultation Meeting (RCM) on the Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID), a mechanism developed by UNESCO to bring about regional cooperation in education in Asia and the Pacific. This RCM was attended by 55 participants, resource persons, and observers from…

  11. Work Plan of APEID for the Fifth Programming Cycle, 1992-1996. A Report of the APEID Programme Development Meeting (Chiang Mai, Thailand, August 28-31, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This document is a work plan for the UNESCO Asia and the Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) for the period 1992 through 1996. The plan provides a general framework for APEID, including a formulation of annual schedules of activities with due regard to available resources and funding. The document discusses three…

  12. La negociation de la forme: La suite...mais pas la fin (The Negotiation of Form: The Next Stage...But Not the End).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyster, Roy

    1999-01-01

    Descriptive studies in four elementary school French immersion classrooms investigated the negotiation of form in classroom discourse. Four interactional moves that encourage peer- and self-repair and draw attention to non-target output were examined. Found that recasts, the most common form of corrective feedback, can not lead to peer- or…

  13. Continuing Education for Early Primary School Leavers. Report of a Technical Working Group Meeting (Chiang Mai, Thailand, October 4-11, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report summarizes discussions of a working group meeting on the continuing education needs of early primary school leavers in Asia and the Pacific. An introduction summarizes the welcoming addresses. Chapter 1 presents highlights of experiences of these countries in providing continuing education to school leavers: Bangladesh, China, India,…

  14. Treatment Plan Adherence for Your Child With JA

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the medication which controls the inflammation,” says Carol Lindsley, MD, chief of pediatric rheumatology at the ... with the medication which controls the inflammation,” says Carol Lindsley, MD, chief of pediatric rheumatology at the ...

  15. "Oya?"--O, Ja! Reading "Jugendliteratur" in the German Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffit, Gisela

    1998-01-01

    Makes a plea for reading authentic "Jugendliteratur" in the foreign-language classroom. Focuses on the reasons for inclusions of this literature, discusses some of the reasons for its omission, and offers solutions to the problems perceived. Strategies for reading whole texts are shared and applied to the reading of "Oya" by Karin Konig, Hanne…

  16. Nursing Students with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selekman, Janice

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the following topics: identification and classification of learning disabilities (LD), effects of LD on nursing students, teaching and learning, LD legislation, and academic interventions for nursing students with LD. (SK)

  17. A high-power LD-pumped linearly polarized Yb-doped fiber laser operating at 1152 nm with 42 GHz narrow linewidth and 18 dB PER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Long; Zhang, Hanwei; Wang, Xiaolin; Su, Rongtao; Zhou, Pu

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate a high-power 1152 nm narrow-linewidth linearly polarized fiber laser based on a commercial polarization-maintaining double cladding Yb-doped fiber and cladding-pump regime at 976 nm. By carefully selecting the parameters of the cavity and heating the gain fiber, a maximum output power of 13 W with a slope efficiency of ~45% is obtained, with the amplified spontaneous emission suppressed more than 35 dB lower than the signal wavelength. The polarization extinction ratio and 3 dB linewidth at the maximum output power are 18 dB and 0.14 nm (~42 GHz) respectively, while no spectral broadening and polarization degradation are observed in the process of power scaling, which is an attractive result for some special applications, such as frequency doubling.

  18. The Effects of Repeated Reading on the Fluency and Comprehension Skills of Elementary-Age Students with Learning Disabilities (LD), 2001-2011: A Review of Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Whitney D.; Boon, Richard T.; Spencer, Vicky G.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an extensive review of the literature on the use of repeated reading to improve the reading fluency and comprehension skills of elementary-age students with learning disabilities. A systematic review of the published literature from 2001 to 2011 was conducted and nineteen (N = 19) research-based repeated reading studies were…

  19. Sensitivity of species to chemicals: dose-response characteristics for various test types (coldbloodedLC50, cold-blooded LR50 and warm-blooded LD50) and modes of action

    EPA Science Inventory

    While sensitivity of model species to common toxicants has been addressed, a systematic analysis of inter-species variability for different test types, modes of action and species is as yet lacking. Hence, the aim of the present study was to identify similarities and differences ...

  20. Aerodynamic investigations into various low speed L/D improvement devices on the 140A/B space shuttle orbiter configuration in the Rockwell International low speed wind tunnel (OA86)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennell, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to investigate various base drag reduction techniques in an attempt to improve Orbiter lift-to-drag ratios and to calculate sting interference effects on the Orbiter aerodynamic characteristics. Test conditions and facilites, and model dimensional data are presented along with the data reduction guidelines and data set/run number collation used for the studies. Aerodynamic force and moment data and the results of stability and control tests are also given.